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Sample records for seed coat development

  1. Seed coat development in Velloziaceae: primary homology assessment and insights on seed coat evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Baena, Mariane S; de Menezes, Nanuza L

    2014-09-01

    Seed coat characteristics have historically been used to infer taxonomic relationships and are a potential source of characters for phylogenetic reconstruction. In particular, seed coat morphoanatomy has never been studied in detail in Velloziaceae. One character based on seed surface microsculpture has been used in phylogenies, but was excluded from recent studies owing to problems in primary homology. This work aimed to clarify the origin and general composition of seed coat cell layers in Velloziaceae and to propose hypotheses of primary homology among seed characters.• Seed coat development of 24 Velloziaceae species, comprising nine genera, and one species of Pandanaceae (outgroup) was studied using standard anatomical methods. Developmental data were interpreted in the light of a recently published phylogeny.• Eight types of seed coat were identified. Whereas the most common type has four distinct cell layers (two-layered tegmen and testa), we encountered much more variation in seed coat composition than previously reported, the analysis of which revealed some potential synapomorphies. For instance, an exotesta with spiral thickenings may be a synapomorphy of Barbacenia.• Our results showed that the character states previously used in phylogenies are not based on homologous layers and that the same state was misattributed to species exhibiting quite different seed coats. This study is a first step toward a better understanding of seed coat structure evolution in Velloziaceae. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  2. PHO1 Exports Phosphate from the Chalazal Seed Coat to the Embryo in Developing Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzaki, Evangelia; Baroux, Célia; Jung, Ji-Yul; Poirier, Yves

    2017-10-09

    Seed production requires the transfer of nutrients from the maternal seed coat to the filial endosperm and embryo. Because seed coat and filial tissues are symplasmically isolated, nutrients arriving in the seed coat via the phloem must be exported to the apoplast before reaching the embryo. Proteins implicated in the transfer of inorganic phosphate (Pi) from the seed coat to the embryo are unknown despite seed P content being an important agronomic trait. Here we show that the Arabidopsis Pi exporters PHO1 and PHOH1 are expressed in the chalazal seed coat (CZSC) of developing seeds. PHO1 is additionally expressed in developing ovules. Phosphorus (P) content and Pi flux between the seed coat and embryo were analyzed in seeds from grafts between WT roots and scions from either pho1, phoh1, or the pho1 phoh1 double mutant. Whereas P content and distribution between the seed coat and embryo in fully mature dry seeds of these mutants are similar to the WT, at the mature green stage of seed development the seed coat of the pho1 and pho1 phoh1 mutants, but not of the phoh1 mutant, retains approximately 2-fold more P than its WT control. Expression of PHO1 under a CZSC-specific promoter complemented the seed P distribution phenotype of the pho1 phoh1 double mutant. CZSC-specific down-expression of PHO1 also recapitulated the seed P distribution phenotype of pho1. Together, these experiments show that PHO1 expression in the CZSC is important for the transfer of P from the seed coat to the embryo in developing seeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Programmed cell death during development of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seed coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Nathália Bastos; Trindade, Fernanda Gomes; da Cunha, Maura; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Topping, Jennifer; Lindsey, Keith; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales

    2015-04-01

    The seed coat develops primarily from maternal tissues and comprises multiple cell layers at maturity, providing a metabolically dynamic interface between the developing embryo and the environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination of seeds. Seed coat development involves dramatic cellular changes, and the aim of this research was to investigate the role of programmed cell death (PCD) events during the development of seed coats of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. We demonstrate that cells of the developing cowpea seed coats undergo a programme of autolytic cell death, detected as cellular morphological changes in nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts and vacuoles, DNA fragmentation and oligonucleosome accumulation in the cytoplasm, and loss of membrane viability. We show for the first time that classes 6 and 8 caspase-like enzymes are active during seed coat development, and that these activities may be compartmentalized by translocation between vacuoles and cytoplasm during PCD events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effect of seed coat on the seed germination and seedling development of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae

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    Valquíria Aparecida Mendes de Jesus

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the effect of the Calophyllum brasiliense seed coat on the seed germination process. To this end, three experiments were conducted in laboratory, greenhouse and screenhouse. From a total of six treatments, five are related to the seed coat (mechanical scarification; mechanical scarification followed by 2 hours in water, chemical scarification, hot water immersion and complete seed coat removal and one control. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design (CRD. Screenhouse experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design (RBD. We evaluated the total percentage, the speed index and the average time of germination or emergence. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by LSD test, at 5%. Under the conditions of this work, it was possible to infer that, in laboratory, mechanical scarification followed by 2 hours in water increases the proportion and germination speed index (GSI, in the greenhouse, the complete seed coat removal increases the percentage and emergence speed index (ESI, and in the screenhouse, mechanical scarification followed by 2 hours in water and chemical scarification presented the best results. The average germination time was not significantly different in the three experiments evaluated.

  5. Auxin production in the endosperm drives seed coat development in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Duarte D; Batista, Rita A; Roszak, Pawel J; Hennig, Lars; Köhler, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    In flowering plants, seed development is initiated by the fusion of the maternal egg and central cells with two paternal sperm cells, leading to the formation of embryo and endosperm, respectively. The fertilization products are surrounded by the maternally derived seed coat, whose development prior to fertilization is blocked by epigenetic regulators belonging to the Polycomb Group (PcG) protein family. Here we show that fertilization of the central cell results in the production of auxin and most likely its export to the maternal tissues, which drives seed coat development by removing PcG function. We furthermore show that mutants for the MADS-box transcription factor AGL62 have an impaired transport of auxin from the endosperm to the integuments, which results in seed abortion. We propose that AGL62 regulates auxin transport from the endosperm to the integuments, leading to the removal of the PcG block on seed coat development. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20542.001 PMID:27848912

  6. Characteristics of Color Development in Seeds of Brown- and Yellow-Seeded Heading Chinese Cabbage and Molecular Analysis of Brsc, the Candidate Gene Controlling Seed Coat Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanjing; He, Qiong; Ma, Xiaomin; Zhang, Lugang

    2017-01-01

    The proanthocyanidin (PA) is the main flavonoids which affect the seed coat color in Brassica species. In this paper, characteristics of color development and accumulation of flavonoids were analyzed in the seeds of brown-seeded (B147) and yellow-seeded (B80) heading Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis ). It is found that the content of phenolic compounds in B147 were significantly more than that of B80 by using dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA) staining and toluidine blue O (TBO) staining. In previous studies, the locus associated with seed coat color has been mapped. The results of whole genome re-sequencing showed that there are large fragment deletions variation in the mapping region between the brown-seeded parent '92S105' and the yellow-seeded parent '91-125.' Based on the B. rapa genome annotation information, the TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 ( TTG1 ), is likely to be the candidate gene controlling seed coat color. A 94-base deletion was found in the 96th base downstream of the initiation codon in the TTG1 of yellow seed, thus, the termination codon TGA was occurred in the 297th base which makes the full length of TTG1 of yellow seed is 300 bp. Based on the differential sequences of TTG1 of brown and yellow seed, a functional marker, Brsc-yettg1, was developed to detect the variation of TTG1 . Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of BrTTG1 in different tissues showed that expression levels of BrTTG1 was not tissue-specific. During the whole seed development period, the expression of BrTTG1 in B147 was higher than that of B80. The expression levels of four structural genes, BrDFR, BrANS, BrANR1 , and BrANR2 in B147 were also higher than those in B80. The co-segregation molecular markers obtained in this report and TTG1 related information provide a basis for further understanding of the molecular mechanism of seed coat color in heading Chinese cabbage.

  7. Transport processes in pea seed coats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, Joost Thomas van

    2001-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns transport processes in coats of developing pea seeds. The scope of the investigation ranges from seed coat anatomy, via transport studies to the cloning of cDNA encoding proteinaceous membrane pores, and the heterologous expression of these

  8. SEEDSTICK is a master regulator of development and metabolism in the Arabidopsis seed coat.

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    Chiara Mizzotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of secondary metabolites in the determination of cell identity has been an area of particular interest over recent years, and studies strongly indicate a connection between cell fate and the regulation of enzymes involved in secondary metabolism. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the maternally derived seed coat plays pivotal roles in both the protection of the developing embryo and the first steps of germination. In this regard, a characteristic feature of seed coat development is the accumulation of proanthocyanidins (PAs - a class of phenylpropanoid metabolites in the innermost layer of the seed coat. Our genome-wide transcriptomic analysis suggests that the ovule identity factor SEEDSTICK (STK is involved in the regulation of several metabolic processes, providing a strong basis for a connection between cell fate determination, development and metabolism. Using phenotypic, genetic, biochemical and transcriptomic approaches, we have focused specifically on the role of STK in PA biosynthesis. Our results indicate that STK exerts its effect by direct regulation of the gene encoding BANYULS/ANTHOCYANIDIN REDUCTASE (BAN/ANR, which converts anthocyanidins into their corresponding 2,3-cis-flavan-3-ols. Our study also demonstrates that the levels of H3K9ac chromatin modification directly correlate with the active state of BAN in an STK-dependent way. This is consistent with the idea that MADS-domain proteins control the expression of their target genes through the modification of chromatin states. STK might thus recruit or regulate histone modifying factors to control their activity. In addition, we show that STK is able to regulate other BAN regulators. Our study demonstrates for the first time how a floral homeotic gene controls tissue identity through the regulation of a wide range of processes including the accumulation of secondary metabolites.

  9. The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

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    Silva Luciana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F., a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin, detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants.

  10. Development of an air knife to remove seed coat fragments during lint cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    An air knife is a tool commonly used to blow off debris in a manufacturing line. The knife may also be used to break the attachment force between a lint cleaner saw and a seed coat fragment (SCF) with attached fiber, and remove them. Work continued on evaluating an auxiliary air knife mounted on t...

  11. Genetics of seed coat color in sesame ( Sesamum indicum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed coat colour of sesame is commercially an important trait. Developing white seeded varieties with long lasting luster has received momentous attention in most of the major sesame producing countries including India. The present investigation centered on the genetic control of seed coat colour in sesame. No genetic ...

  12. Development of C-lignin with G/S-lignin and lipids in orchid seed coats – an unexpected diversity exposed by ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barsberg, Søren Talbro; Lee, Y.-I.; Rasmussen, Hanne Nina

    2018-01-01

    Cite this article: Barsberg ST, Lee Y-I, Rasmussen HN. Development of C-lignin with G/S-lignin and lipids in orchid seed coats – an unexpected diversity exposed by ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy. Seed Science Research https:// doi.org/10.1017/S0960258517000344......Cite this article: Barsberg ST, Lee Y-I, Rasmussen HN. Development of C-lignin with G/S-lignin and lipids in orchid seed coats – an unexpected diversity exposed by ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy. Seed Science Research https:// doi.org/10.1017/S0960258517000344...

  13. A combined histology and transcriptome analysis unravels novel questions on Medicago truncatula seed coat

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    Abirached-Darmency, Mona

    2013-01-01

    The seed coat is involved in the determination of seed quality traits such as seed size, seed composition, seed permeability, and hormonal regulation. Understanding seed coat structure is therefore a prerequisite to deciphering the genetic mechanisms that govern seed coat functions. By combining histological and transcriptomic data analyses, cellular and molecular events occurring during Medicago truncatula seed coat development were dissected in order to relate structure to function and pinpoint target genes potentially involved in seed coat traits controlling final seed quality traits. The analyses revealed the complexity of the seed coat transcriptome, which contains >30 000 genes. In parallel, a set of genes showing a preferential expression in seed coat that may be involved in more specific functions was identified. The study describes how seed coat anatomy and morphological changes affect final seed quality such as seed size, seed composition, seed permeability, and hormonal regulation. Putative regulator genes of different processes have been identified as potential candidates for further functional genomic studies to improve agronomical seed traits. The study also raises new questions concerning the implication of seed coat endopolyploidy in cell expansion and the participation of the seed coat in de novo abscisic acid biosynthesis at early seed filling. PMID:23125357

  14. Phenolics in the seed coat of wild soybean (Glycine soja) and their significance for seed hardness and seed germination.

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    Zhou, San; Sekizaki, Haruo; Yang, Zhihong; Sawa, Satoko; Pan, Jun

    2010-10-27

    Hardseededness in annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. Et Zucc.) is a valuable trait that affects the germination, viability, and quality of stored seeds. Two G. soja ecotypes native to Shandong Province of China have been used to identify the phenolics in the seed coat that correlate with the seed hardness and seed germination. Three major phenolics from the seed coat were isolated and identified as epicatechin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside. Of the three phenolics, only the change of epicatechin exhibited a significant positive correlation with the change of hard seed percentages both under different water conditions during seed development and under different gas conditions during seed storage. Epicatechin also reveals a hormesis-like effect on the seed germination of G. soja. Epicatechin is suggested to be functionally related to coat-imposed hardseededness in G. soja.

  15. Physical, metabolic and developmental functions of the seed coat

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    Radchuk, Volodymyr; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla

    2014-01-01

    The conventional understanding of the role of the seed coat is that it provides a protective layer for the developing zygote. Recent data show that the picture is more nuanced. The seed coat certainly represents a first line of defense against adverse external factors, but it also acts as channel for transmitting environmental cues to the interior of the seed. The latter function primes the seed to adjust its metabolism in response to changes in its external environment. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with a comprehensive view of the structure and functionality of the seed coat, and to expose its hidden interaction with both the endosperm and embryo. Any breeding and/or biotechnology intervention seeking to increase seed size or modify seed features will have to consider the implications on this tripartite interaction. PMID:25346737

  16. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

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    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  17. Seed development and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be

  18. Seed Nutrition and Quality, Seed Coat Boron and Lignin Are Influenced by Delayed Harvest in Exotically-Derived Soybean Breeding Lines under High Heat.

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    Bellaloui, Nacer; Smith, James R; Mengistu, Alemu

    2017-01-01

    The timing of harvest is a major factor affecting seed quality in soybean, particularly in Midsouthern USA, when rain during harvest period is not uncommon. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of time of harvest on soybean seed quality (seed composition, germination, seed coat boron, and lignin) in high germinability (HG) breeding lines (50% exotic) developed under high heat. The hypothesis was that seeds of HG lines possess physiological and genetic traits for a better seed quality at harvest maturity and delayed harvest. A 2-year field experiment was conducted under irrigated conditions. Results showed that, at harvest maturity, the exotic HG lines had higher seed protein, oleic acid, sugars, seed coat boron, and seed coat lignin, but lower seed oil compared with the non-exotic checks (Control), confirming our hypothesis. At 28 days after harvest maturity (delayed harvest), the content of seed protein, oleic acid, sugars, seed coat boron, and seed coat lignin were higher in some of the HG lines compared with the checks, indicating a possible involvement of these seed constituents, especially seed coat boron and seed coat lignin, in maintaining seed coat integrity and protecting seed coat against physical damage. Highly significant positive correlations were found between germination and seed protein, oleic acid, sugars, and seed coat boron and seed coat lignin. Highly significant negative correlation was found between germination and oil, linoleic acid, seed coat wrinkling, shattering, and hard seed. Yields of some HG lines were competitive with checks. This research demonstrated that time of harvesting is an important factor influencing seed protein and oil production. Also, since high oleic acid is desirable for oxidative stability, shelf-life and biodiesel properties, using HG lines could positively influence these important traits. This result should suggest to breeders of some of the advantages of selecting for high seed coat boron and

  19. Inheritance of seed coat color in sesame

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    Hernán Laurentin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the inheritance mode of seed coat color in sesame. Two crosses and their reciprocals were performed: UCLA37 x UCV3 and UCLA90 x UCV3, of which UCLA37 and UCLA90 are white seed, and UCV3 is brown seed. Results of reciprocal crosses within each cross were identical: F1 seeds had the same phenotype as the maternal parent, and F2 resulted in the phenotype brown color. These results are consistent only with the model in which the maternal effect is the responsible for this trait. This model was validated by recording the seed coat color of 100 F2 plants (F3 seeds from each cross with its reciprocal, in which the 3:1 expected ratio for plants producing brown and white seeds was tested with the chi-square test. Sesame seed color is determined by the maternal genotype. Proposed names for the alleles participating in sesame seed coat color are: Sc1, for brown color; and Sc2, for white color; Sc1 is dominant over Sc2.

  20. MYB52 Negatively Regulates Pectin Demethylesterification in Seed Coat Mucilage.

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    Shi, Dachuan; Ren, Angyan; Tang, Xianfeng; Qi, Guang; Xu, Zongchang; Chai, Guohua; Hu, Ruibo; Zhou, Gongke; Kong, Yingzhen

    2018-04-01

    Pectin, which is a major component of the plant primary cell walls, is synthesized and methyl-esterified in the Golgi apparatus and then demethylesterified by pectin methylesterases (PMEs) located in the cell wall. The degree of methylesterification affects the functional properties of pectin, and thereby influences plant growth, development and defense. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate pectin demethylesterification. Here, we show that in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) seed coat mucilage, the absence of the MYB52 transcription factor is correlated with an increase in PME activity and a decrease in the degree of pectin methylesterification. Decreased methylesterification in the myb52 mutant is also correlated with an increase in the calcium content of the seed mucilage. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis and molecular genetic studies suggest that MYB52 transcriptionally activates PECTIN METHYLESTERASE INHIBITOR6 ( PMEI6 ), PMEI14 , and SUBTILISIN-LIKE SER PROTEASE1.7 ( SBT1.7 ) by binding to their promoters. PMEI6 and SBT1.7 have previously been shown to be involved in seed coat mucilage demethylesterification. Our characterization of two PMEI14 mutants suggests that PMEI14 has a role in seed coat mucilage demethylesterification, although its activity may be confined to the seed coat in contrast to PMEI6, which functions in the whole seed. Our demonstration that MYB52 negatively regulates pectin demethylesterification in seed coat mucilage, and the identification of components of the molecular network involved, provides new insight into the regulatory mechanism controlling pectin demethylesterification and increases our understanding of the transcriptional regulation network involved in seed coat mucilage formation. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Identification of a single gene for seed coat impermeability in soybean PI 594619.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Hirut; Smith, James R; Ray, Jeffery D

    2014-09-01

    Inheritance studies and molecular mapping identified a single dominant gene that conditions seed coat impermeability in soybean PI 594619. High temperatures during seed fill increase the occurrence of soybeans with impermeable seed coat, which is associated with non-uniform and delayed germination and emergence. This can be an issue in soybean production areas with excessively high-temperature environments. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the inheritance of impermeable seed coat under a high-temperature environment in the midsouthern United States and to map the gene(s) that affect this trait in a germplasm line with impermeable seed coat (PI 594619). Crosses were made between PI 594619 and an accession with permeable seed coat at Stoneville, MS in 2008. The parental lines and the segregating populations from reciprocal crosses were grown in Stoneville in 2009. Ninety-nine F2:3 families and parents were also grown at Stoneville, MS in 2011. Seeds were assayed for percent impermeable seed coat using the standard germination test. Genetic analysis of the F2 populations and F2:3 families indicated that seed coat impermeability in PI 594619 is controlled by a single major gene, with impermeable seed coat being dominant to permeable seed coat. Molecular mapping positioned this gene on CHR 2 between markers Sat_202 and Satt459. The designation of Isc (impermeable seed coat) for this single gene has been approved by the Soybean Genetics Committee. Selection of the recessive form (isc) may be important in developing cultivars with permeable seed coat for high-heat production environments. The single-gene nature of impermeable seed coat may also have potential for being utilized in reducing seed damage caused by weathering and mold.

  2. Role of nano-range amphiphilic polymers in seed quality enhancement of soybean and imidacloprid retention capacity on seed coatings.

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    Adak, Totan; Kumar, Jitendra; Shakil, Najam A; Pandey, Sushil

    2016-10-01

    Nano-size and wide-range solubility of amphiphilic polymers (having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic blocks) can improve uniformity in seed coatings. An investigation was carried out to assess the positive effect of amphiphilic polymers over hydrophilic or hydrophobic polymers as seed coating agents and pesticide carriers. Amphiphilic polymers with 127.5-354 nm micelle size were synthesized in the laboratory using polyethylene glycols and aliphatic di-acids. After 6 months of storage, germination of uncoated soybean seeds decreased drastically from 97.80 to 81.55%, while polymer-coated seeds showed 89.44-95.92% germination. Similarly, vigour index-1 was reduced from 3841.10 to 2813.06 for control seeds but ranged from 3375.59 to 3844.60 for polymer-coated seeds after 6 months. The developed imidacloprid formulations retained more pesticide on soybean seed coatings than did a commercial formulation (Gaucho(®) 600 FS). The time taken for 50% release of imidacloprid from seed coatings in water was 7.12-9.11 h for the developed formulations and 0.41 h for the commercial formulation. Nano-range amphiphilic polymers can be used to protect soybean seeds from ageing. Formulations as seed treatments may produce improved and sustained efficacy with minimum environmental contamination. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of a New Peanut Seed Coat Mutant for the Physiological Regulatory Mechanism Involved in Seed Coat Cracking and Pigmentation.

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    Wan, Liyun; Li, Bei; Pandey, Manish K; Wu, Yanshan; Lei, Yong; Yan, Liying; Dai, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Huifang; Zhang, Juncheng; Wei, Guo; Varshney, Rajeev K; Liao, Boshou

    2016-01-01

    Seed-coat cracking and undesirable color of seed coat highly affects external appearance and commercial value of peanuts ( Arachis hypogaea L.). With an objective to find genetic solution to the above problems, a peanut mutant with cracking and brown colored seed coat (testa) was identified from an EMS treated mutant population and designated as "peanut seed coat crack and brown color mutant line ( pscb )." The seed coat weight of the mutant was almost twice of the wild type, and the germination time was significantly shorter than wild type. Further, the mutant had lower level of lignin, anthocyanin, proanthocyanidin content, and highly increased level of melanin content as compared to wild type. Using RNA-Seq, we examined the seed coat transcriptome in three stages of seed development in the wild type and the pscb mutant. The RNA-Seq analysis revealed presence of highly differentially expressed phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathway genes in all the three seed development stages, especially at 40 days after flowering (DAF40). Also, the expression of polyphenol oxidases and peroxidase were found to be activated significantly especially in the late seed developmental stage. The genome-wide comparative study of the expression profiles revealed 62 differentially expressed genes common across all the three stages. By analyzing the expression patterns and the sequences of the common differentially expressed genes of the three stages, three candidate genes namely c36498_g1 (CCoAOMT1), c40902_g2 (kinesin) , and c33560_g1 (MYB3) were identified responsible for seed-coat cracking and brown color phenotype. Therefore, this study not only provided candidate genes but also provided greater insights and molecular genetic control of peanut seed-coat cracking and color variation. The information generated in this study will facilitate further identification of causal gene and diagnostic markers for breeding improved peanut varieties with smooth and desirable seed coat color.

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of a New Peanut Seed Coat Mutant for the Physiological Regulatory Mechanism Involved in Seed Coat Cracking and Pigmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Liyun; Li, Bei; Pandey, Manish K.; Wu, Yanshan; Lei, Yong; Yan, Liying; Dai, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Huifang; Zhang, Juncheng; Wei, Guo; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Liao, Boshou

    2016-01-01

    Seed-coat cracking and undesirable color of seed coat highly affects external appearance and commercial value of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). With an objective to find genetic solution to the above problems, a peanut mutant with cracking and brown colored seed coat (testa) was identified from an EMS treated mutant population and designated as “peanut seed coat crack and brown color mutant line (pscb).” The seed coat weight of the mutant was almost twice of the wild type, and the germination time was significantly shorter than wild type. Further, the mutant had lower level of lignin, anthocyanin, proanthocyanidin content, and highly increased level of melanin content as compared to wild type. Using RNA-Seq, we examined the seed coat transcriptome in three stages of seed development in the wild type and the pscb mutant. The RNA-Seq analysis revealed presence of highly differentially expressed phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathway genes in all the three seed development stages, especially at 40 days after flowering (DAF40). Also, the expression of polyphenol oxidases and peroxidase were found to be activated significantly especially in the late seed developmental stage. The genome-wide comparative study of the expression profiles revealed 62 differentially expressed genes common across all the three stages. By analyzing the expression patterns and the sequences of the common differentially expressed genes of the three stages, three candidate genes namely c36498_g1 (CCoAOMT1), c40902_g2 (kinesin), and c33560_g1 (MYB3) were identified responsible for seed-coat cracking and brown color phenotype. Therefore, this study not only provided candidate genes but also provided greater insights and molecular genetic control of peanut seed-coat cracking and color variation. The information generated in this study will facilitate further identification of causal gene and diagnostic markers for breeding improved peanut varieties with smooth and desirable seed coat color. PMID

  5. Nutrient composition of Dacryodes edulis seed and seed coat mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.U. OGUNKA-NNOKA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the nutrient composition of D. edulis seed and seed coat mixture. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals, proximate, and vitamin compositions were evaluated using standard methods. Saponins were very high, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins were high, while terpenoids were low, and glycosides, aldehydes, and steroids were absent. The quantitative phytochemical determination followed the order; saponin > kaempferol > rutin > catechin > tannin > sapogenin > lunamarine > phenol > ribalinidine > anthocyanin > oxalate > phytate. For the proximate composition, carbohydrates had the highest concentration, followed by lipids and fibre, while, protein concentration was the lowest. Vitamin E (5.42 mg/100g, vitamin C (3.24 mg/100g, and vitamin A (2.84 mg/100g were the highest occurring constituent vitamins while vitamin B12 (0.035 mg/100g and vitamin B2 (0.075 mg/100g were the least occurring vitamins. This study has shown the rich phytochemical composition of D. edulis seed and seed coat mixture while showing deficiencies in proteins, distinct vitamins, and ash contents.

  6. Surface coating for prevention of metallic seed migration in tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyunseok; Park, Jong In [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Seok; Park, Min [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioengineering, Seoul National University College of Engineering, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Kwang-Jae [Hanaro Applications Research, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Young-bong [Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Choy, Young Bin, E-mail: ybchoy@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioengineering, Seoul National University College of Engineering, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Sung-Joon, E-mail: ybchoy@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy, metallic implants often detach from their deposited sites and migrate to other locations. This undesirable migration could cause inadequate dose coverage for permanent brachytherapy and difficulties in image-guided radiation delivery for patients. To prevent migration of implanted seeds, the authors propose a potential strategy to use a biocompatible and tissue-adhesive material called polydopamine. Methods: In this study, nonradioactive dummy seeds that have the same geometry and composition as commercial I-125 seeds were coated in polydopamine. Using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the surface of the polydopamine-coated and noncoated seeds was characterized. The detachment stress between the two types of seeds and the tissue was measured. The efficacy of polydopamine-coated seed was investigated through in vitro migration tests by tracing the seed location after tissue implantation and shaking for given times. The cytotoxicity of the polydopamine coating was also evaluated. Results: The results of the coating characterization have shown that polydopamine was successfully coated on the surface of the seeds. In the adhesion test, the polydopamine-coated seeds had 2.1-fold greater detachment stress than noncoated seeds. From the in vitro test, it was determined that the polydopamine-coated seed migrated shorter distances than the noncoated seed. This difference was increased with a greater length of time after implantation. Conclusions: The authors suggest that polydopamine coating is an effective technique to prevent migration of implanted seeds, especially for permanent prostate brachytherapy.

  7. Isolation of nuclear proteins from flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seed coats for gene expression regulation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renouard Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While seed biology is well characterized and numerous studies have focused on this subject over the past years, the regulation of seed coat development and metabolism is for the most part still non-elucidated. It is well known that the seed coat has an essential role in seed development and its features are associated with important agronomical traits. It also constitutes a rich source of valuable compounds such as pharmaceuticals. Most of the cell genetic material is contained in the nucleus; therefore nuclear proteins constitute a major actor for gene expression regulation. Isolation of nuclear proteins responsible for specific seed coat expression is an important prerequisite for understanding seed coat metabolism and development. The extraction of nuclear proteins may be problematic due to the presence of specific components that can interfere with the extraction process. The seed coat is a rich source of mucilage and phenolics, which are good examples of these hindering compounds. Findings In the present study, we propose an optimized nuclear protein extraction protocol able to provide nuclear proteins from flax seed coat without contaminants and sufficient yield and quality for their use in transcriptional gene expression regulation by gel shift experiments. Conclusions Routinely, around 250 μg of nuclear proteins per gram of fresh weight were extracted from immature flax seed coats. The isolation protocol described hereafter may serve as an effective tool for gene expression regulation and seed coat-focused proteomics studies.

  8. The MADS Box Genes ABS, SHP1, and SHP2 Are Essential for the Coordination of Cell Divisions in Ovule and Seed Coat Development and for Endosperm Formation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Katrin; Bhide, Amey S; Tekleyohans, Dawit G; Wittkop, Benjamin; Snowdon, Rod J; Becker, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Seed formation is a pivotal process in plant reproduction and dispersal. It begins with megagametophyte development in the ovule, followed by fertilization and subsequently coordinated development of embryo, endosperm, and maternal seed coat. Two closely related MADS-box genes, SHATTERPROOF 1 and 2 (SHP1 and SHP2) are involved in specifying ovule integument identity in Arabidopsis thaliana. The MADS box gene ARABIDOPSIS BSISTER (ABS or TT16) is required, together with SEEDSTICK (STK) for the formation of endothelium, part of the seed coat and innermost tissue layer formed by the maternal plant. Little is known about the genetic interaction of SHP1 and SHP2 with ABS and the coordination of endosperm and seed coat development. In this work, mutant and expression analysis shed light on this aspect of concerted development. Triple tt16 shp1 shp2 mutants produce malformed seedlings, seed coat formation defects, fewer seeds, and mucilage reduction. While shp1 shp2 mutants fail to coordinate the timely development of ovules, tt16 mutants show less peripheral endosperm after fertilization. Failure in coordinated division of the innermost integument layer in early ovule stages leads to inner seed coat defects in tt16 and tt16 shp1 shp2 triple mutant seeds. An antagonistic action of ABS and SHP1/SHP2 is observed in inner seed coat layer formation. Expression analysis also indicates that ABS represses SHP1, SHP2, and FRUITFUL expression. Our work shows that the evolutionary conserved Bsister genes are required not only for endothelium but also for endosperm development and genetically interact with SHP1 and SHP2 in a partially antagonistic manner.

  9. The MADS Box Genes ABS, SHP1, and SHP2 Are Essential for the Coordination of Cell Divisions in Ovule and Seed Coat Development and for Endosperm Formation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Ehlers

    Full Text Available Seed formation is a pivotal process in plant reproduction and dispersal. It begins with megagametophyte development in the ovule, followed by fertilization and subsequently coordinated development of embryo, endosperm, and maternal seed coat. Two closely related MADS-box genes, SHATTERPROOF 1 and 2 (SHP1 and SHP2 are involved in specifying ovule integument identity in Arabidopsis thaliana. The MADS box gene ARABIDOPSIS BSISTER (ABS or TT16 is required, together with SEEDSTICK (STK for the formation of endothelium, part of the seed coat and innermost tissue layer formed by the maternal plant. Little is known about the genetic interaction of SHP1 and SHP2 with ABS and the coordination of endosperm and seed coat development. In this work, mutant and expression analysis shed light on this aspect of concerted development. Triple tt16 shp1 shp2 mutants produce malformed seedlings, seed coat formation defects, fewer seeds, and mucilage reduction. While shp1 shp2 mutants fail to coordinate the timely development of ovules, tt16 mutants show less peripheral endosperm after fertilization. Failure in coordinated division of the innermost integument layer in early ovule stages leads to inner seed coat defects in tt16 and tt16 shp1 shp2 triple mutant seeds. An antagonistic action of ABS and SHP1/SHP2 is observed in inner seed coat layer formation. Expression analysis also indicates that ABS represses SHP1, SHP2, and FRUITFUL expression. Our work shows that the evolutionary conserved Bsister genes are required not only for endothelium but also for endosperm development and genetically interact with SHP1 and SHP2 in a partially antagonistic manner.

  10. The Effect of Tempering on Strength Properties and Seed Coat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of tempering on seed coat adhesion strength and mechanical strength of sorghum and millet grain kernels was investigated at different tempering durations. Tempering reduced the kernel breaking strength and had significant effect on seed coat adhesion strength. Tempering the grain for 60 minutes at ambient ...

  11. Pesticidal seed coats based on azadirachtin-A: release kinetics, storage life and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Keyath; Kumar, Jitendra; Arun Kumar, M B; Walia, Suresh; Shakil, Najam A; Parsad, Rajender; Parmar, Balraj S

    2009-02-01

    Infestation of seeds by pests during storage leads to deterioration in quality. Seed coating is an effective option to overcome the menace. Unlike synthetic fungicidal seed coats, little is known of those based on botanicals. This study aims at developing azadirachtin-A-based pesticidal seed coats to maintain seed quality during storage. Polymer- and clay-based coats containing azadirachtin-A were prepared and evaluated for quality maintenance of soybean seed during storage. Gum acacia, gum tragacanth, rosin, ethyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, polyethyl methacrylate, methyl cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and Agrimer VA 6 polymers and the clay bentonite were used as carriers. The time for 50% release (t(1/2)) of azadirachtin-A into water from the seeds coated with the different coats ranged from 8.02 to 21.36 h. The half-life (T(1/2)) of azadirachtin-A in the coats on seed ranged from 4.37 to 11.22 months, as compared with 3.45 months in azadirachtin-A WP, showing an increase by a factor of nearly 1.3-3.3 over the latter. The coats apparently acted as a barrier to moisture to reduce azadirachtin-A degradation and prevented proliferation of storage fungi. Polyethyl methacrylate, polyvinyl acetate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone were significantly superior to the other polymers. Azadirachtin-A showed a significant positive correlation with seed germination and vigour, and negative correlation with moisture content. Effective polymeric carriers for seed coats based on azadirachtin-A are reported. These checked seed deterioration during storage by acting as a barrier to moisture and reduced the degradation of azadirachtin-A.

  12. Proanthocyanidins in seed coat tegmen and endospermic cap inhibit seed germination in Sapium sebiferum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faheem Afzal; Ni, Jun; Chen, Jing; Wang, Qiaojian; Liu, Wenbo; Chen, Xue; Tang, Caiguo; Fu, Songling; Wu, Lifang

    2018-01-01

    Sapium sebiferum , an ornamental and bio-energetic plant, is propagated by seed. Its seed coat contains germination inhibitors and takes a long time to stratify for germination. In this study, we discovered that the S. sebiferum seed coat (especially the tegmen) and endospermic cap (ESC) contained high levels of proanthocyanidins (PAs). Seed coat and ESC removal induced seed germination, whereas exogenous application with seed coat extract (SCE) or PAs significantly inhibited this process, suggesting that PAs in the seed coat played a major role in regulating seed germination in S. sebiferum . We further investigated how SCE affected the expression of the seed-germination-related genes. The results showed that treatment with SCE upregulated the transcription level of the dormancy-related gene, gibberellins (GAs) suppressing genes, abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and signalling genes. SCE decreased the transcript levels of ABA catabolic genes, GAs biosynthesis genes, reactive oxygen species genes and nitrates-signalling genes. Exogenous application of nordihydroguaiaretic acid, gibberellic acid, hydrogen peroxide and potassium nitrate recovered seed germination in seed-coat-extract supplemented medium. In this study, we highlighted the role of PAs, and their interactions with the other germination regulators, in the regulation of seed dormancy in S. sebiferum .

  13. Proanthocyanidins in seed coat tegmen and endospermic cap inhibit seed germination in Sapium sebiferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faheem Afzal Shah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sapium sebiferum, an ornamental and bio-energetic plant, is propagated by seed. Its seed coat contains germination inhibitors and takes a long time to stratify for germination. In this study, we discovered that the S. sebiferum seed coat (especially the tegmen and endospermic cap (ESC contained high levels of proanthocyanidins (PAs. Seed coat and ESC removal induced seed germination, whereas exogenous application with seed coat extract (SCE or PAs significantly inhibited this process, suggesting that PAs in the seed coat played a major role in regulating seed germination in S. sebiferum. We further investigated how SCE affected the expression of the seed-germination-related genes. The results showed that treatment with SCE upregulated the transcription level of the dormancy-related gene, gibberellins (GAs suppressing genes, abscisic acid (ABA biosynthesis and signalling genes. SCE decreased the transcript levels of ABA catabolic genes, GAs biosynthesis genes, reactive oxygen species genes and nitrates-signalling genes. Exogenous application of nordihydroguaiaretic acid, gibberellic acid, hydrogen peroxide and potassium nitrate recovered seed germination in seed-coat-extract supplemented medium. In this study, we highlighted the role of PAs, and their interactions with the other germination regulators, in the regulation of seed dormancy in S. sebiferum.

  14. A bioplastic-based seed coating improves seedling growth and reduces production of coated seed dust. Journal of Crop Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although recently introduced, film-coating of agronomic seeds is now widely accepted in modern agriculture as an effective technology for protecting germinating seeds and seedlings. These experiments explored the possibility of using a bioplastic-based formulation to film-coat corn (maize) and cano...

  15. A Genome-wide Combinatorial Strategy Dissects Complex Genetic Architecture of Seed Coat Color in Chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Deepak; Das, Shouvik; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Ranjan, Rajeev; Badoni, Saurabh; Kumar, Vinod; Tripathi, Shailesh; Gowda, C L Laxmipathi; Sharma, Shivali; Singh, Sube; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

    2015-01-01

    The study identified 9045 high-quality SNPs employing both genome-wide GBS- and candidate gene-based SNP genotyping assays in 172, including 93 cultivated (desi and kabuli) and 79 wild chickpea accessions. The GWAS in a structured population of 93 sequenced accessions detected 15 major genomic loci exhibiting significant association with seed coat color. Five seed color-associated major genomic loci underlying robust QTLs mapped on a high-density intra-specific genetic linkage map were validated by QTL mapping. The integration of association and QTL mapping with gene haplotype-specific LD mapping and transcript profiling identified novel allelic variants (non-synonymous SNPs) and haplotypes in a MATE secondary transporter gene regulating light/yellow brown and beige seed coat color differentiation in chickpea. The down-regulation and decreased transcript expression of beige seed coat color-associated MATE gene haplotype was correlated with reduced proanthocyanidins accumulation in the mature seed coats of beige than light/yellow brown seed colored desi and kabuli accessions for their coloration/pigmentation. This seed color-regulating MATE gene revealed strong purifying selection pressure primarily in LB/YB seed colored desi and wild Cicer reticulatum accessions compared with the BE seed colored kabuli accessions. The functionally relevant molecular tags identified have potential to decipher the complex transcriptional regulatory gene function of seed coat coloration and for understanding the selective sweep-based seed color trait evolutionary pattern in cultivated and wild accessions during chickpea domestication. The genome-wide integrated approach employed will expedite marker-assisted genetic enhancement for developing cultivars with desirable seed coat color types in chickpea.

  16. Perennial soybean seeds coated with high doses of boron and zinc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to study combinations of high doses of boron (B) and zinc (Zn) in the recoating of perennial soybean seeds, in order to provide these nutrients to the future plants. The physical, physiological and nutritional characteristics of the coated seeds and initial development of plants in a greenhouse ...

  17. The perspective effects of various seed coating substances on rice seed variety Khao DAWK Mali 105 storability I: the case study of physiological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobunluepop, P; Pawelzik, E; Vearasilp, S

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the perspective changes of several physiological performances of rice seeds cv. KDML 105 which were coated with various seed coating substances [chemical fungicide, captan (CA) and biological coating polymers; chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL) and eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E + CL)] during storage (12 months). CA significantly increased seed moisture content and seed water activity through out the storage period. The qualities and viability of the seeds were seriously declined by this treatment. Moreover, CA inhibited the shoot and root development, seedling dry weight accumulation, delayed the seed germination and seedling growth rate. CA treated seeds were susceptible to stress conditions that declined the seed germination potential under cold, high moisture and temperature stress conditions. Nevertheless, CL and E + CL coating polymer could maintain seed storability, which significantly improved seed germination and seedling performances. These improvements were attributed to maintain the nutritive reserve and dehydrogenase activity in seeds. Moreover, the biological seed treatment stimulated the embryo growth and so speeding up the seedling emergence when compared untreated seeds.

  18. Assessment of inhibitory substances in the seed coat of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Imo State University, Nigeria to assess the inhibitory substances in the seed coat of 15 cowpea cultivars for resistance against Callosobruchus maculatus. Fifty (50) seeds of the cowpea cultivars were collected from the International ...

  19. Inheritanceof seed coat colour pattern in cowpea [ Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybridization experiments were conducted in the screen house to study the inheritance of seed colour pattern in cowpea. Cowpea varieties of varying seed coat colour were used as parents for the investigation. Parental, F1 and segregating F2 populations were raised in the field and the study revealed that self colour ...

  20. Studies on the Vigour of Soybean Seeds : II. Varietal Differences in Seed Coat Quality and Swelling Components of Seed during Moisture Imbibition

    OpenAIRE

    Mugnisjah, Wahju Qamara; Shimano, Itaru; Matsumoto, Shigeo; 島野, 至; 松本, 重男

    1987-01-01

    Laboratory experiment was conducted to elucidate the physiological factor determining the association of seed size and seed coat quality with varietal differences in seed vigour, and to pursue an alternative on the mechanism of varietal differences in seed resistance to field weathering. Results of this study revealed that seed polymer change (seed volume change minus seed weight change during moisture imbibition) was the physiological factor determining the association of seed size and seed ...

  1. Anatomical and micromorphological characteristics of the seed coat of field pea (Pisum sativum L. genotypes in relation to cracks and damage of seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Jelena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the morphological characteristics of the seed and micromorphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics of the seed coat of pea (Pisum sativum L. genotypes, Jezero, Javor and NS Junior. Our aim was to investigate whether these genotypes can be differentiated based on seed coat morphoanatomical characteristics, depending on the harvest treatment. The observations and measurements of seed coat cross-sections were performed using light microscopy. The seed coat surface was observed using SEM. A tuberculate seed coat surface characterized all examined pea genotypes, and the average diameter of the tubercle was about 12 μm. Statistical and laboratory analyses revealed that major damage was the most frequent defect type as the result of mechanized harvest in all the examined genotypes. Genotype NS Junior had the shortest seed length (6.1 mm. Micromorphological analysis revealed that the seed surface was tuberculate in all genotypes. The genotype Jezero had the highest number of tubercle ribs (11.0 and a significantly higher proportion of parenchyma tissue (50.6%, while NS Junior was characterized by the greatest share of macrosclereids (49.8%. The highest number of osteosclereids (832/mm2 was counted in genotype Javor. In addition, genotype NS Junior stands out due to the highest percentage of crude fiber (62.75 g/100g in the seed coat. There was a marked difference among the studied genotypes with regard to the seed coat morphoanatomical characteristics, which is confirmed by the results of multivariate discriminant analysis (MDA. These results suggested that the morphological, micromorphological and anatomical characteristics of the seed might have an impact on the seed coat damage level at harvest. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 31024 and Grant no. 173002

  2. Colonization of citrus seed coats by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus': implications for seed transmission of the bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilf, Mark E

    2011-10-01

    Huanglongbing is an economically damaging disease of citrus associated with infection by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. Transmission of the organism via infection of seeds has not been demonstrated but is a concern since some citrus varieties, particularly those used as rootstocks in commercial plantings are propagated from seed. We compared the incidence of detection of 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' DNA in individual fruit peduncles, seed coats, seeds, and in germinated seedlings from 'Sanguenelli' sweet orange and 'Conners' grapefruit fruits sampled from infected trees. Using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) we detected pathogen DNA in nucleic acid extracts of 36 and 100% of peduncles from 'Sanguenelli' and from 'Conners' fruits, respectively. We also detected pathogen DNA in extracts of 37 and 98% of seed coats and in 1.6 and 4% of extracts from the corresponding seeds of 'Sanguenelli' and 'Conners', respectively. Small amounts of pathogen DNA were detected in 10% of 'Sanguenelli' seedlings grown in the greenhouse, but in none of 204 extracts from 'Conners' seedlings. Pathogen DNA was detected in 4.9% and in 89% of seed coats peeled from seeds of 'Sanguenelli' and 'Conners' which were germinated on agar, and in 5% of 'Sanguenelli' but in none of 164 'Conners' seedlings which grew from these seeds on agar. No pathogen DNA was detected in 'Ridge Pineapple' tissue at 3 months post-grafting onto 'Sanguenelli' seedlings, even when pathogen DNA had been detected initially in the 'Sanguenelli' seedling. Though the apparent colonization of 'Conners' seeds was more extensive and nearly uniform compared with 'Sanguenelli' seeds, no pathogen DNA was detected in 'Conners' seedlings grown from these seeds. For either variety, no association was established between the presence of pathogen DNA in fruit peduncles and seed coats and in seedlings.

  3. Faba Bean: Transcriptome Analysis from Etiolated Seedling and Developing Seed Coat of Key Cultivars for Synthesis of Proanthocyanidins, Phytate, Raffinose Family Oligosaccharides, Vicine, and Convicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Ray

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean ( L. has been little examined from a genetic or genomic perspective despite its status as an established food and forage crop with some key pharmaceutical factors such as vicine and convicine (VC, which provoke severe haemolysis in genetically susceptible humans. We developed next-generation sequencing libraries to maximize information to elucidate the VC pathway or relevant markers as well as other genes of interest for the species. One selected cultivar, A01155, lacks synthesis of the favism-provoking factors, VC, and is low in tannin, while two cultivars, SSNS-1 and CDC Fatima, are wild-type for these factors. Tissues (5- to 6-d-old root and etiolated shoot and developing seed coat were selected to maximize the utility and breadth of the gene expression profile. Approximately 1.2 × 10 expressed transcripts were sequenced and assembled into contigs. The synthetic pathways for phosphatidylinositol or phytate, the raffinose family oligosaccharides, and proanthocyanidin were examined and found to contain nearly a full complement of the synthetic genes for these pathways. A severe deficiency in anthocyanidin reductase expression was found in the low-tannin cultivar A01155. Approximately 5300 variants, including 234 variants specific to one of the three cultivars, were identified. Differences in expression and variants potentially related to VC synthesis were analyzed using strategies exploiting differences in expression between cultivars and tissues. These sequences should be of high utility for marker-assisted selection for the key traits vicine, convicine, and proanthocyanidin, and should contribute to the scant genetic maps available for this species.

  4. (Heckel) seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UTILISATEUR

    Garcinia kola seeds to six different hormonal pre-germination treatments. This consisted of ... Thus, seed dormancy in this case is not a coat- imposed .... development of the cultivation of the species. The cause .... Hormonal regulation of seed ...

  5. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. Results We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages) seed coats (globular and torpedo stages) and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages) and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST) (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011) were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152) had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. Conclusions We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid clones that comprise

  6. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharpe Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. Results We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages seed coats (globular and torpedo stages and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011 were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152 had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. Conclusions We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid

  7. Effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizandro Ciciliano Tavares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flooded rice cultivation promotes anaerobic conditions, favoring the formation of short chain organic acids such as acetic acid, which may be toxic to the crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 5 x 5 factorial randomized design, with two cultivars (IRGA 424 and BRS Querência, five doses of coating material (0, 2, 3,4 e 5 g kg-1 seed and five concentrations of acetic acid (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mM, with 4 replications, totaling 50 treatments. The variables first count of germination, germination, shoot and root length, dry weight of shoots and roots were recorded. The results showed that coating rice seeds with rice husk ash up to 5 g kg-1 seed does not influence the performance of rice seeds of cultivars IRGA 424 and BRS Querência when exposed to concentrations of 12 mM acetic acid. The presence of acetic acid in the substrates used for seed germination reduced the vigor and viability of seeds of cultivars IRGA 424 and BRS Querência, as well as seedling development, affecting mainly the roots of BRS Querência.

  8. Assessment of pesticide coating on cereal seeds by near infrared hyperspectral imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. Vermeulen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical chromatographic methods, such as ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC, are used as reference methods to assess seed quality and homogeneous pesticide coating of seeds. These methods have some important drawbacks since they are time consuming, expensive, destructive and require a substantial amount of solvent, among others. Near infrared (NIR spectroscopy seems to be an interesting alternative technique for the determination of the quality of seed treatment and avoids most of these drawbacks. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of pesticide coating treatment by near infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI by analysing, on a seed-by-seed basis, several seeds simultaneously in comparison to NIR spectroscopy and UPLC as the reference method. To achieve this goal, discrimination—partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA—models and regression—partial least squares (PLS—models were developed. The results obtained by NIR-HSI are compared to the results obtained with NIR spectroscopy and UPLC instruments. This study has shown the potential of NIR hyperspectral imaging to assess the quality/homogeneity of the pesticide coating on seeds.

  9. The effects of seed coating treatment on yield and yield components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, coating fuzzy cotton seeds is proposed as an alternative to delintation. Coating makes fuzzy cotton seeds more suitable for the pneumatic spacing planter. Also, unlike delintation, sulphuric acid is not used for coating and this eliminates the problems associated with its usage such as seed loss, pollution and ...

  10. Cold perception and gene expression differ in Olea europaea seed coat and embryo during drupe cold acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, S; Falasca, G; Matteucci, M; Altamura, M M

    2013-01-01

    FAD2 and FAD7 desaturases are involved in cold acclimation of olive (Olea europaea) mesocarp. There is no research information available on cold acclimation of seeds during mesocarp cold acclimation or on differences in the cold response of the seed coat and embryo. How FAD2 and FAD7 affect seed coat and embryo cold responses is unknown. Osmotin positively affects cold acclimation in olive tree vegetative organs, but its role in the seeds requires investigation. OeFAD2.1, OeFAD2.2, OeFAD7 and Oeosmotin were investigated before and after mesocarp acclimation by transcriptomic, lipidomic and immunolabelling analyses, and cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](cyt)) signalling, F-actin changes and seed development were investigated by epifluorescence/histological analyses. Transient [Ca(2+)](cyt) rises and F-actin disassembly were found in cold-shocked protoplasts from the seed coat, but not from the embryo. The thickness of the outer endosperm cuticle increased during drupe exposure to lowering of temperature, whereas the embryo protoderm always lacked cuticle. OeFAD2 transcription increased in both the embryo and seed coat in the cold-acclimated drupe, but linoleic acid (i.e. the product of FAD2 activity) increased solely in the seed coat. Osmotin was immunodetected in the seed coat and endosperm of the cold-acclimated drupe, and not in the embryo. The results show cold responsiveness in the seed coat and cold tolerance in the embryo. We propose a role for the seed coat in maintaining embryo cold tolerance by increasing endosperm cutinization through FAD2 and osmotin activities. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Seed coating with a neonicotinoid insecticide negatively affects wild bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundlöf, Maj; Andersson, Georg K S; Bommarco, Riccardo; Fries, Ingemar; Hederström, Veronica; Herbertsson, Lina; Jonsson, Ove; Klatt, Björn K; Pedersen, Thorsten R; Yourstone, Johanna; Smith, Henrik G

    2015-05-07

    Understanding the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on bees is vital because of reported declines in bee diversity and distribution and the crucial role bees have as pollinators in ecosystems and agriculture. Neonicotinoids are suspected to pose an unacceptable risk to bees, partly because of their systemic uptake in plants, and the European Union has therefore introduced a moratorium on three neonicotinoids as seed coatings in flowering crops that attract bees. The moratorium has been criticized for being based on weak evidence, particularly because effects have mostly been measured on bees that have been artificially fed neonicotinoids. Thus, the key question is how neonicotinoids influence bees, and wild bees in particular, in real-world agricultural landscapes. Here we show that a commonly used insecticide seed coating in a flowering crop can have serious consequences for wild bees. In a study with replicated and matched landscapes, we found that seed coating with Elado, an insecticide containing a combination of the neonicotinoid clothianidin and the non-systemic pyrethroid β-cyfluthrin, applied to oilseed rape seeds, reduced wild bee density, solitary bee nesting, and bumblebee colony growth and reproduction under field conditions. Hence, such insecticidal use can pose a substantial risk to wild bees in agricultural landscapes, and the contribution of pesticides to the global decline of wild bees may have been underestimated. The lack of a significant response in honeybee colonies suggests that reported pesticide effects on honeybees cannot always be extrapolated to wild bees.

  12. Removing seed coat fragments with a lint cleaner grid bar air knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat fragments (SCF) in ginned lint cause spinning problems at the textile mill and undesirable defects in finished goods. Work continued on developing an air knife that may help remove SCF from ginned lint. The air knife is mounted on the 1st lint cleaner grid bar of a saw-type lint cleaner,...

  13. Expression of genes SBP and leginsulin in contrasting soybean seed coats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos André Bahry

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Evaluation of differential candidate gene expression in contrasting soybean seeds is an auxiliary tool in the partial elucidation of processes involved in seeds formation, as well as it contributes to the generation of new information that can be used in future research or in the development of r genetic superior constitutions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of two candidate genes, SBP and leginsulin genes, possibly involved in seed quality, in contrasting coats of four soybean genotypes. Two cultivars of yellow soybeans were used, BMX Potência RR and CD 202, and two lines of black soybean, TP and IAC. Gene expression was evaluated using qPCR in seven stages of development from seed coats for four genotypes, at 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, and 55 days after anthesis. The design was completely randomized, with three replications. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey's test at 5% probability. SBP and leginsulin gene have higher expression in the early phases of development from seed coats of BMX Potência RR cultivar, followed by the IAC line. These genotypes are therefore of interest for further research involving these genes.

  14. Preparation and mechanism analysis of an environment-friendly maize seed coating agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Defang; Fan, Zhao; Tian, Xu; Wang, Wenjin; Zhou, Mingchun; Li, Haochuan

    2018-06-01

    Traditional seed coating agents often contain toxic ingredients, which contaminate the environment and threaten human health. This paper expounds a method of preparing a novel environment-friendly seed coating agent for maize and researches its mechanism of action. The natural polysaccharide polymer, which is the main active ingredient of this environment-friendly seed coating agent, has the characteristics of innocuity and harmlessness, and it can replace the toxic ingredients used in traditional seed coating agents. This environment-friendly seed coating agent for maize was mainly made up of the natural polysaccharide polymer and other additives. The field trials results showed that the control efficacy of Helminthosporium maydis came to 93.72%, the anti-feeding rate of cutworms came to 81.29%, and the maize yield was increased by 17.75%. Besides, the LD 50 value (half the lethal dose in rats) of this seed coating agent was 10 times higher than that of the traditional seed coating agents. This seed coating agent could improve the activity of plant protective enzymes (peroxidase, catalase and superoxidase dismutase) and increase the chlorophyll content. This seed coating agent has four characteristics of disease prevention, desinsectization, increasing yield and safety. Results of mechanism analyses showed that this seed coating agent could enhance disease control effectiveness by improving plant protective enzymes activity and increase maize yield by improving chlorophyll content. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Morphological and anatomical analyses of the seed coats of sweet granadilla (Passiflora ligularis Juss. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas Hernández Julián

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The study of histology and morphology of seeds of genus Passiflora has been of high utility for the classification of species. In seeds of sweet granadilla, the histological characteristics and methodologies for their study are unknown. This study was aimed to know the tissue and morphological characteristics of the seed coats of seeds of sweet granadilla and to be able to determine its value in the differentiation of accessions. Five accessions collected in producing zones of the Province of Huila, Colombia, were analyzed. In morphological analysis, all accessions presented falsifoveate ornamentation and entire margin. The seeds presented high change in weight and size for every accession; there stood out the seeds of the accession PmN for presenting major size (7.42 mm long, weight (35.62 mg, homogeneity in these variables and a typical orange color. For the histological analysis, a protocol was adapted to realize sections of seed coats in parafin, by means of which one managed to obtain sections (7 μ that in the optical microscope show clearly three well differentiated layers, belonging, possibly, to exotegmen (internal layer, mesotesta (medium layer and exotesta (external layer. Every layer presented differences in the form of the cells, color and thickness, between the sections of the basal and medium parts of the seeds, but the differences between the analyzed accessions

  16. Coated particle waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes

  17. Brassica rapa L. seed development in hypergravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musgrave, M.E.; Kuang, A.; Allen, J.; Blasiak, J.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous experiments had shown that microgravity adversely affected seed development in Brassica rapa L. We tested the hypothesis that gravity controls seed development via modulation of gases around the developing seeds, by studying how hypergravity affects the silique microenvironment and seed

  18. The effects of seed coating treatment on yield and yield components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... 2University of Adnan Menderes, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Mechanization, ... Key words: Fuzzy cotton seed, seed coating, yield components. .... gin turnout (%) characteristics are statistically important.

  19. Multiple loci condition seed transmission of soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and SMV-induced seed coat mottling in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domier, Leslie L; Hobbs, Houston A; McCoppin, Nancy K; Bowen, Charles R; Steinlage, Todd A; Chang, Sungyul; Wang, Yi; Hartman, Glen L

    2011-06-01

    Infection of soybean plants with Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), which is transmitted by aphids and through seed, can cause significant reductions in seed production and quality. Because seedborne infections are the primary sources of inoculum for SMV infections in North America, host-plant resistance to seed transmission can limit the pool of plants that can serve as sources of inoculum. To examine the inheritance of SMV seed transmission in soybean, crosses were made between plant introductions (PIs) with high (PI88799), moderate (PI60279), and low (PI548391) rates of transmission of SMV through seed. In four F(2) populations, SMV seed transmission segregated as if conditioned by two or more genes. Consequently, a recombinant inbred line population was derived from a cross between PIs 88799 and 548391 and evaluated for segregation of SMV seed transmission, seed coat mottling, and simple sequence repeat markers. Chromosomal regions on linkage groups C1 and C2 were significantly associated with both transmission of isolate SMV 413 through seed and SMV-induced seed coat mottling, and explained ≈42.8 and 46.4% of the variability in these two traits, respectively. Chromosomal regions associated with seed transmission and seed coat mottling contained homologues of Arabidopsis genes DCL3 and RDR6, which encode enzymes involved in RNA-mediated transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene silencing.

  20. A legume biofortification quandary: variability and genetic control of seed coat micronutrient accumulation in common beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W.; Izquierdo, Paulo; Astudillo, Carolina; Grusak, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), like many legumes, are rich in iron, zinc, and certain other microelements that are generally found to be in low concentrations in cereals, other seed crops, and root or tubers and therefore are good candidates for biofortification. But a quandary exists in common bean biofortification: namely that the distribution of iron has been found to be variable between the principal parts of seed; namely the cotyledonary tissue, embryo axis and seed coat. The seed coat represents ten or more percent of the seed weight and must be considered specifically as it accumulates much of the anti-nutrients such as tannins that effect mineral bioavailability. Meanwhile the cotyledons accumulate starch and phosphorus in the form of phytates. The goal of this study was to evaluate a population of progeny derived from an advanced backcross of a wild bean and a cultivated Andean bean for seed coat versus cotyledonary minerals to identify variability and predict inheritance of the minerals. We used wild common beans because of their higher seed mineral concentration compared to cultivars and greater proportion of seed coat to total seed weight. Results showed the most important gene for seed coat iron was on linkage group B04 but also identified other QTL for seed coat and cotyledonary iron and zinc on other linkage groups, including B11 which has been important in studies of whole seed. The importance of these results in terms of physiology, candidate genes and plant breeding are discussed. PMID:23908660

  1. Differences in glycosyltransferase family 61 accompany variation in seed coat mucilage composition in Plantago spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Jana L.; Tucker, Matthew R.; Khor, Shi Fang; Shirley, Neil; Lahnstein, Jelle; Beahan, Cherie; Bacic, Antony; Burton, Rachel A.

    2016-01-01

    Xylans are the most abundant non-cellulosic polysaccharide found in plant cell walls. A diverse range of xylan structures influence tissue function during growth and development. Despite the abundance of xylans in nature, details of the genes and biochemical pathways controlling their biosynthesis are lacking. In this study we have utilized natural variation within the Plantago genus to examine variation in heteroxylan composition and structure in seed coat mucilage. Compositional assays were combined with analysis of the glycosyltransferase family 61 (GT61) family during seed coat development, with the aim of identifying GT61 sequences participating in xylan backbone substitution. The results reveal natural variation in heteroxylan content and structure, particularly in P. ovata and P. cunninghamii, species which show a similar amount of heteroxylan but different backbone substitution profiles. Analysis of the GT61 family identified specific sequences co-expressed with IRREGULAR XYLEM 10 genes, which encode putative xylan synthases, revealing a close temporal association between xylan synthesis and substitution. Moreover, in P. ovata, several abundant GT61 sequences appear to lack orthologues in P. cunninghamii. Our results indicate that natural variation in Plantago species can be exploited to reveal novel details of seed coat development and polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways. PMID:27856710

  2. Asymbiotic seed germination and in vitro seedling development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within two weeks of culture, spherules emerged out due to cracking of the seed coat. The spherules developed into protocorms with a leaf primordium at apical portion after 3 to 4 weeks and gradually produced complete seedlings. Strong and stout root system was induced in in vitro seedlings on transferring in half strength ...

  3. Maternal synthesis of abscisic acid controls seed development and yield in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Anne; Godin, Béatrice; Bonnet, Magda; Sotta, Bruno; Marion-Poll, Annie

    2004-04-01

    The role of maternally derived abscisic acid (ABA) during seed development has been studied using ABA-deficient mutants of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viviani. ABA deficiency induced seed abortion, resulting in reduced seed yield, and delayed growth of the remaining embryos. Mutant grafting onto wild-type stocks and reciprocal crosses indicated that maternal ABA, synthesized in maternal vegetative tissues and translocated to the seed, promoted early seed development and growth. Moreover ABA deficiency delayed both seed coat pigmentation and capsule dehiscence. Mutant grafting did not restore these phenotypes, indicating that ABA synthesized in the seed coat and capsule envelope may have a positive effect on capsule and testa maturation. Together these results shed light on the positive role of maternal ABA during N. plumbaginifolia seed development.

  4. Physiological and transcriptomic responses in the seed coat of field-grown soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) to abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, Courtney P; Yendrek, Craig R; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2017-12-12

    Understanding how intensification of abiotic stress due to global climate change affects crop yields is important for continued agricultural productivity. Coupling genomic technologies with physiological crop responses in a dynamic field environment is an effective approach to dissect the mechanisms underpinning crop responses to abiotic stress. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv. Pioneer 93B15) was grown in natural production environments with projected changes to environmental conditions predicted for the end of the century, including decreased precipitation, increased tropospheric ozone concentrations ([O 3 ]), or increased temperature. All three environmental stresses significantly decreased leaf-level photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, leading to significant losses in seed yield. This was driven by a significant decrease in the number of pods per node for all abiotic stress treatments. To understand the underlying transcriptomic response involved in the yield response to environmental stress, RNA-Sequencing analysis was performed on the soybean seed coat, a tissue that plays an essential role in regulating carbon and nitrogen transport to developing seeds. Gene expression analysis revealed 49, 148 and 1,576 differentially expressed genes in the soybean seed coat in response to drought, elevated [O 3 ] and elevated temperature, respectively. Elevated [O 3 ] and drought did not elicit substantive transcriptional changes in the soybean seed coat. However, this may be due to the timing of sampling and does not preclude impacts of those stresses on different tissues or different stages in seed coat development. Expression of genes involved in DNA replication and metabolic processes were enriched in the seed coat under high temperate stress, suggesting that the timing of events that are important for cell division and proper seed development were altered in a stressful growth environment.

  5. Perennial soybean seeds coated with high doses of boron and zinc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucas

    2016-09-14

    Sep 14, 2016 ... hot-air blower was switched on at the temperature of 40ºC for 2 min. As stuffing .... not a significant difference in this variable (p<0.05) between ... water content of the seeds after they are coated, and in. Figure 3 it is .... Germ ination / Em ergence (%. ) Germination. Dead seeds. Soaked seeds. Emergence a b.

  6. Increasing Maize Tolerance to Drought and Flood with Seed Coating Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Jacob E; Sanghi, Achint; Kingsly Ambrose, R. P.

    2016-01-01

    The lack of irrigation in regions prone to drought, and flooding due to high rainfall or lack of drainage affects seed viability and the subsequent germination and crop establishment. Seed treatment in the form of coatings shows promise as an effective method to preserve the viability of corn (Zea mays) seeds in drought and flood conditions. Chemical formulations may help improve the seed corn vigor under these stressed conditions. This study examined the efficacy of β-aminobutyric acid [BABA...

  7. HIGHLY METHYL ESTERIFIED SEEDS is a pectin methyl esterase involved in embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque-Tremblay, Gabriel; Müller, Kerstin; Mansfield, Shawn D; Haughn, George W

    2015-03-01

    Homogalacturonan pectin domains are synthesized in a highly methyl-esterified form that later can be differentially demethyl esterified by pectin methyl esterase (PME) to strengthen or loosen plant cell walls that contain pectin, including seed coat mucilage, a specialized secondary cell wall of seed coat epidermal cells. As a means to identify the active PMEs in seed coat mucilage, we identified seven PMEs expressed during seed coat development. One of these, HIGHLY METHYL ESTERIFIED SEEDS (HMS), is abundant during mucilage secretion, peaking at 7 d postanthesis in both the seed coat and the embryo. We have determined that this gene is required for normal levels of PME activity and homogalacturonan methyl esterification in the seed. The hms-1 mutant displays altered embryo morphology and mucilage extrusion, both of which are a consequence of defects in embryo development. A significant decrease in the size of cells in the embryo suggests that the changes in embryo morphology are a consequence of lack of cell expansion. Progeny from a cross between hms-1 and the previously characterized PME inhibitor5 overexpression line suggest that HMS acts independently from other cell wall-modifying enzymes in the embryo. We propose that HMS is required for cell wall loosening in the embryo to facilitate cell expansion during the accumulation of storage reserves and that its role in the seed coat is masked by redundancy. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Leaching and sorption of neonicotinoid insecticides and fungicides from seed coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly; Hladik, Michelle; Sanders, Corey; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2018-01-01

    Seed coatings are a treatment used on a variety of crops to improve production and offer protection against pests and fungal outbreaks. The leaching of the active ingredients associated with the seed coatings and the sorption to soil was evaluated under laboratory conditions using commercially available corn and soybean seeds to study the fate and transport of these pesticides under controlled conditions. The active ingredients (AI) included one neonicotinoid insecticide (thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (azoxystrobin, fludioxonil, metalaxyl, sedaxane thiabendazole). An aqueous leaching experiment was conducted with treated corn and soybean seeds. Leaching potential was a function of solubility and seed type. The leaching of fludioxonil, was dependent on seed type with a shorter time to equilibrium on the corn compared to the soybean seeds. Sorption experiments with the treated seeds and a solution of the AIs were conducted using three different soil types. Sorption behavior was a function of soil organic matter as well as seed type. For most AIs, a negative relationship was observed between the aqueous concentration and the log Koc. Sorption to all soils tested was limited for the hydrophilic pesticides thiamethoxam and metalaxyl. However, partitioning for the more hydrophobic fungicides was dependent on both seed type and soil properties. The mobility of fludioxonil in the sorption experiment varied by seed type indicating that the adjuvants associated with the seed coating could potentially play a role in the environmental fate of fludioxonil. This is the first study to assess, under laboratory conditions, the fate of pesticides associated with seed coatings using commercially available treated seeds. This information can be used to understand how alterations in agricultural practices (e.g., increasing use of seed treatments) can impact the exposure (concentration and duration) and potential effects of these chemicals to aquatic and terrestrial organisms.

  9. Understanding particulate coating microstructure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christine Cardinal

    How a dispersion of particulates suspended in a solvent dries into a solid coating often is more important to the final coating quality than even its composition. Essential properties like porosity, strength, gloss, particulate order, and concentration gradients are all determined by the way the particles come together as the coating dries. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryoSEM) is one of the most effective methods to directly visualize a drying coating during film formation. Using this method, the coating is frozen, arresting particulate motion and solidifying the sample so that it be imaged in an SEM. In this thesis, the microstructure development of particulate coatings was explored with several case studies. First, the effect of drying conditions was determined on the collapse of hollow latex particles, which are inexpensive whiteners for paint. Using cryoSEM, it was found that collapse occurs during the last stages of drying and is most likely to occur at high drying temperatures, humidity, and with low binder concentration. From these results, a theoretical model was proposed for the collapse of a hollow latex particle. CryoSEM was also used to verify a theoretical model for the particulate concentration gradients that may develop in a coating during drying for various evaporation, sedimentation and particulate diffusion rates. This work created a simple drying map that will allow others to predict the character of a drying coating based on easily calculable parameters. Finally, the effect of temperature on the coalescence and cracking of latex coatings was explored. A new drying regime for latex coatings was identified, where partial coalescence of particles does not prevent cracking. Silica was shown to be an environmentally friendly additive for preventing crack formation in this regime.

  10. 7 CFR 201.51b - Purity procedures for coated seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.51b Purity...). Use of fine mesh sieves is recommended for this procedure, and stirring or shaking the coated units...

  11. Edible Coating Using a Chitosan-Based Colloid Incorporating Grapefruit Seed Extract for Cherry Tomato Safety and Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jin Sung; Lee, Seung Jo; Park, Hyeon Hwa; Song, Kyung Bin; Min, Sea C

    2018-01-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE)-containing chitosan-based coating was developed and applied to cherry tomatoes to protect them from Salmonella invasion and improve their storability. The coating colloids were produced by mixing a chitosan colloid (1% [w/w] chitosan) with GSE at various concentrations (0.5%, 0.7%, 1.0%, and 1.2% [w/w]) using high-shear mixing (10000 rpm, 2 min). Coatings with chitosan colloids containing GSE at 0.0%, 0.5%, 0.7%, and 1.0% (w/w) inactivated Salmonella on cherry tomatoes by 1.0 ± 0.3, 1.2 ± 0.3, 1.6 ± 0.1, and 2.0 ± 0.3 log CFU/cherry tomato, respectively. Coatings both with and without GSE (1.0%) effectively inhibited the growth of Salmonella and total mesophilic aerobes, reduced CO 2 generation, and retarded titratable acidity decrease during storage at 10 and 25 °C. The advantage of incorporating GSE in the formulation was demonstrated by delayed microorganism growth and reduced weight loss at 25 °C. The chitosan-GSE coating did not affect lycopene concentration, color, and sensory properties (P > 0.05). Chitosan-GSE coating shows potential for improving the microbiological safety and storability of cherry tomatoes, with stronger efficacy at 25 °C than that of chitosan coating without GSE. A novel chitosan coating containing grape fruit seed extract (GSE) improved the microbiological safety against Salmonella and storability of cherry tomatoes without altering their flavor, demonstrating its strong potential as an effective postharvest technology. Chitosan coating containing GSE might be preferable over chitosan coating without GSE for application to tomatoes that are stored at room temperature in that it more effectively inhibits microbial growth and weight loss than the coating without GSE at 25 °C. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. The effect of seed coat on the susceptibility of Faba bean to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve faba bean (Vicia faba L.) varieties were tested for their resistance to Kenyan and Indonesian strains of Callosobruchus chinensis under conditions of whole and decorticated seeds. It was evident that the seed coat acts as a barrier both to the penetration of the newly hatched larvae into the cotyledon and emergence ...

  13. Improved endothelial cell seeding with cultured cells and fibronectin-coated grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, J.M.; Klingman, N.

    1985-01-01

    A possible approach to the low seeding efficiency of endothelial cells into prosthetic grafts is to increase the number of cells to be seeded in cell culture and improve seeding efficiency by graft precoating with fibronectin. The effect of cell culture on cell adhesion is unknown, however, and fibronectin also binds fibrin, which may increase the thrombogenicity of the graft luminal surface. To investigate these questions, freshly harvested canine jugular vein endothelial cells from six animals and similar cells harvested from six primary and eight secondary cell cultures were labeled with 111 Indium and seeded into 5 cm, 4 mm PTFE grafts coated with fibronectin, using similar uncoated PTFE grafts as controls. Platelet accumulation and distribution on six similar coated and uncoated grafts placed in canine carotid, external jugular arterial venous shunts for 2 hr were also determined using autogenous 111 Indium-labeled platelets. Significant differences between group means were determined using the paired Student's t test. Results reveal that seeding efficiency is significantly better in all groups of coated grafts compared to uncoated grafts (P less than 0.01). Cells derived from cell culture also had significantly higher seeding efficiencies than freshly harvested cells when seeded into coated grafts (P less than 0.05) and tended to have higher seeding efficiencies than harvested cells when seeded into uncoated grafts (P = 0.53). Fibronectin coating increased mean platelet accumulation on the entire graft luminal surface, but not to a statistically significant degree (P greater than 0.1). Whether this increased seeding efficiency will improve graft endothelialization remains to be investigated

  14. Development and Performance Evaluation of Fluted Pumpkin Seed Dehulling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Odewole

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A machine for dehulling fluted pumpkin seed (Telfairia occidentalis was developed. The main objective of developing the machine was to provide a better substitute to traditional methods of dehulling the seed which contains edible oil of high medicinal and nutritional values. Traditional methods are full of drudgery, slow, injury prone and would lead to low and poor outputs in terms of quantity and quality of dehulled products. The machine is made of five major parts: the feed hopper (for holding the seeds to be dehulled before getting into the dehulling chamber, dehulling chamber (the part of the machine that impacts forces on seeds thereby causing fractures and opening of seeds coats for the delivery of the oily kernels, discharge unit (exit for oily kernels and seed coats after dehulling, the frame (for structural support and stability of all parts of the machine and electric motor (power source of the machine.The development process involved design of major components (shaft diameter (20 mm, machine velocity (7.59 m/s, power requirement (3hp single phase electric motor and structural support of mild steel angle iron, selection of construction materials and fabrication. ANSYS R14.5 machine design computer software was used to design the shaft and structural support; while other components were designed with conventional design method of using design equations. The machine works on the principle of centrifugal and impact forces. Performance evaluation was carried out after fabrication and 87.26%, 2.83g/s, 8.9% and 3.84%were obtained for dehulling efficiency, throughput capacity, percentage partially dehulled and percentage undehulled respectively.

  15. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Seed Coat Color in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Xian, Xiaohua; Xu, Xinfu; Qu, Cunmin; Lu, Kun; Li, Jiana; Liu, Liezhao

    2017-07-05

    Seed coat color is an extremely important breeding characteristic of Brassica napus. To elucidate the factors affecting the genetic architecture of seed coat color, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of seed coat color was conducted with a diversity panel comprising 520 B. napus cultivars and inbred lines. In total, 22 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed on 7 chromosomes were found to be associated with seed coat color. The most significant SNPs were found in 2014 near Bn-scaff_15763_1-p233999, only 43.42 kb away from BnaC06g17050D, which is orthologous to Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA 12 (TT12), an important gene involved in the transportation of proanthocyanidin precursors into the vacuole. Two of eight repeatedly detected SNPs can be identified and digested by restriction enzymes. Candidate gene mining revealed that the relevant regions of significant SNP loci on the A09 and C08 chromosomes are highly homologous. Moreover, a comparison of the GWAS results to those of previous quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies showed that 11 SNPs were located in the confidence intervals of the QTLs identified in previous studies based on linkage analyses or association mapping. Our results provide insights into the genetic basis of seed coat color in B. napus, and the beneficial allele, SNP information, and candidate genes should be useful for selecting yellow seeds in B. napus breeding.

  16. Embryonal Control of Yellow Seed Coat Locus ECY1 Is Related to Alanine and Phenylalanine Metabolism in the Seed Embryo of Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fulin; He, Jiewang; Shi, Jianghua; Zheng, Tao; Xu, Fei; Wu, Guanting; Liu, Renhu; Liu, Shengyi

    2016-04-07

    Seed coat color is determined by the type of pigment deposited in the seed coat cells. It is related to important agronomic traits of seeds such as seed dormancy, longevity, oil content, protein content and fiber content. In Brassica napus, inheritance of seed coat color is related to maternal effects and pollen effects (xenia effects). In this research we isolated a mutation of yellow seeded B. napus controlled by a single Mendelian locus, which is named Embryonal Control of Yellow seed coat 1 (Ecy1). Microscopy of transverse sections of the mature seed show that pigment is deposited only in the outer layer of the seed coat. Using Illumina Hisequation 2000 sequencing technology, a total of 12 GB clean data, 116× coverage of coding sequences of B. napus, was achieved from seeds 26 d after pollination (DAP). It was assembled into 172,238 independent transcripts, and 55,637 unigenes. A total of 139 orthologous genes of Arabidopsis transparent testa (TT) genes were mapped in silico to 19 chromosomes of B. napus Only 49 of the TT orthologous genes are transcribed in seeds. However transcription of all orthologs was independent of embryonal control of seed coat color. Only 55 genes were found to be differentially expressed between brown seeds and the yellow mutant. Of these 55, 50 were upregulated and five were downregulated in yellow seeds as compared to their brown counterparts. By KEGG classification, 14 metabolic pathways were significantly enriched. Of these, five pathways: phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, cyanoamino acid metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, metabolic pathways, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, were related with seed coat pigmentation. Free amino acid quantification showed that Ala and Phe were present at higher levels in the embryos of yellow seeds as compared to those of brown seeds. This increase was not observed in the seed coat. Moreover, the excess amount of free Ala was exactly twice that of Phe in the embryo. The pigment

  17. Embryonal Control of Yellow Seed Coat Locus ECY1 Is Related to Alanine and Phenylalanine Metabolism in the Seed Embryo of Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulin Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Seed coat color is determined by the type of pigment deposited in the seed coat cells. It is related to important agronomic traits of seeds such as seed dormancy, longevity, oil content, protein content and fiber content. In Brassica napus, inheritance of seed coat color is related to maternal effects and pollen effects (xenia effects. In this research we isolated a mutation of yellow seeded B. napus controlled by a single Mendelian locus, which is named Embryonal Control of Yellow seed coat 1 (Ecy1. Microscopy of transverse sections of the mature seed show that pigment is deposited only in the outer layer of the seed coat. Using Illumina Hisequation 2000 sequencing technology, a total of 12 GB clean data, 116× coverage of coding sequences of B. napus, was achieved from seeds 26 d after pollination (DAP. It was assembled into 172,238 independent transcripts, and 55,637 unigenes. A total of 139 orthologous genes of Arabidopsis transparent testa (TT genes were mapped in silico to 19 chromosomes of B. napus. Only 49 of the TT orthologous genes are transcribed in seeds. However transcription of all orthologs was independent of embryonal control of seed coat color. Only 55 genes were found to be differentially expressed between brown seeds and the yellow mutant. Of these 55, 50 were upregulated and five were downregulated in yellow seeds as compared to their brown counterparts. By KEGG classification, 14 metabolic pathways were significantly enriched. Of these, five pathways: phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, cyanoamino acid metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, metabolic pathways, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, were related with seed coat pigmentation. Free amino acid quantification showed that Ala and Phe were present at higher levels in the embryos of yellow seeds as compared to those of brown seeds. This increase was not observed in the seed coat. Moreover, the excess amount of free Ala was exactly twice that of Phe in the

  18. Evaluation of seed coating formulations of Trichoderma harzianum on cucumber seeds against pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coating formulations of Trichoderma harzianum were evaluated on cucumber seeds to control pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum in greenhouse studies. Results showed that coating formulation H reduced the disease incidence significantly, and had the potential for commer...

  19. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Uncoated and Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Containing Grape Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Weiss

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w% was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%. Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%, whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%. The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan.

  20. The Proteome of Seed Development in the Model Legume Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Svend; Laursen, Brian S.; Ornfelt, Jane H.

    2009-01-01

    three developmental phases of legume seeds and the presence of embryo, endosperm, and seed coat in desiccated seeds. Furthermore, protein, oil, starch, phytic acid, and ash contents were determined, and this indicates that the composition of mature Lotus seed is more similar to soybean than to pea......We have characterized the development of seeds in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Like soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum), Lotus develops straight seed pods and each pod contains approximately 20 seeds that reach maturity within 40 days. Histological sections show the characteristic...... proteins corresponding to gene accession numbers were identified for the two phases, respectively. All of the proteome data, including the experimental data and mass spectrometry spectra peaks, were collected in a database that is available to the scientific community via a Web interface (http...

  1. Collagen-coated polylactic-glycolic acid (PLGA) seeded with neural-differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells as a potential nerve conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulong, Ahmad Fadzli; Hassan, Nur Hidayah; Hwei, Ng Min; Lokanathan, Yogeswaran; Naicker, Amaramalar Selvi; Abdullah, Shalimar; Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Htwe, Ohnmar; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj; Haflah, Nor Hazla Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Autologous nerve grafts to bridge nerve gaps pose various drawbacks. Nerve tissue engineering to promote nerve regeneration using artificial neural conduits has emerged as a promising alternative. To develop an artificial nerve conduit using collagen-coated polylactic-glycolic acid (PLGA) and to analyse the survivability and propagating ability of the neuro-differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells in this conduit. The PLGA conduit was constructed by dip-molding method and coated with collagen by immersing the conduit in collagen bath. The ultra structure of the conduits were examined before they were seeded with neural-differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells (nMSC) and implanted sub-muscularly on nude mice thighs. The non-collagen-coated PLGA conduit seeded with nMSC and non-seeded non-collagen-coated PLGA conduit were also implanted for comparison purposes. The survivability and propagation ability of nMSC was studied by histological and immunohistochemical analysis. The collagen-coated conduits had a smooth inner wall and a highly porous outer wall. Conduits coated with collagen and seeded with nMSCs produced the most number of cells after 3 weeks. The best conduit based on the number of cells contained within it after 3 weeks was the collagen-coated PLGA conduit seeded with neuro-transdifferentiated cells. The collagen-coated PLGA conduit found to be suitable for attachment, survival and proliferation of the nMSC. Minimal cell infiltration was found in the implanted conduits where nearly all of the cells found in the cell seeded conduits are non-mouse origin and have neural cell markers, which exhibit the biocompatibility of the conduits. The collagen-coated PLGA conduit is biocompatible, non-cytotoxic and suitable for use as artificial nerve conduits.

  2. Evaluation of seed priming and coating on emergence, yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bread wheat production is constrained by climate change impacts and diseases in Amhara region. Pre-farming seed treatments are practiced worldwide to avert their effects on wheat. A field experiment was conducted at Adet and Finoteselam research stations in 2014 main cropping season to evaluate the effects of seed ...

  3. Profiling the Phenolic Compounds of the Four Major Seed Coat Types and Their Relation to Color Genes in Lentil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirali, Mahla; Purves, Randy W; Vandenberg, Albert

    2017-05-26

    Phenolic compounds can provide antioxidant health benefits for humans, and foods such as lentils can be valuable dietary sources of different subclasses of these secondary metabolites. This study used LC-MS analyses to compare the phenolic profiles of lentil genotypes with four seed coat background colors (green, gray, tan, and brown) and two cotyledon colors (red and yellow) grown at two locations. The mean area ratio per mg sample (MARS) values of various phenolic compounds in lentil seeds varied with the different seed coat colors conferred by specific genotypes. Seed coats of lentil genotypes with the homozygous recessive tgc allele (green and gray seed coats) had higher MARS values of flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, and some flavonols. This suggests lentils featuring green and gray seed coats might be more promising as health-promoting foods.

  4. Albizia lebbeck Seed Coat Proteins Bind to Chitin and Act as a Defense against Cowpea Weevil Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nadia C M; De Sá, Leonardo F R; Oliveira, Eduardo A G; Costa, Monique N; Ferreira, Andre T S; Perales, Jonas; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Xavier-Filho, Jose; Oliveira, Antonia E A

    2016-05-11

    The seed coat is an external tissue that participates in defense against insects. In some nonhost seeds, including Albizia lebbeck, the insect Callosobruchus maculatus dies during seed coat penetration. We investigated the toxicity of A. lebbeck seed coat proteins to C. maculatus. A chitin-binding protein fraction was isolated from seed coat, and mass spectrometry showed similarity to a C1 cysteine protease. By ELM program an N-glycosylation interaction motif was identified in this protein, and by molecular docking the potential to interact with N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) was shown. The chitin-binding protein fraction was toxic to C. maculatus and was present in larval midgut and feces but not able to hydrolyze larval gut proteins. It did not interfere, though, with the intestinal cell permeability. These results indicate that the toxicity mechanism of this seed coat fraction may be related to its binding to chitin, present in the larvae gut, disturbing nutrient absorption.

  5. A Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in an Endo-1,4-β-Glucanase Gene Controls Seed Coat Permeability in Soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Jin Jang

    Full Text Available Physical dormancy, a structural feature of the seed coat known as hard seededness, is an important characteristic for adaptation of plants against unstable and unpredictable environments. To dissect the molecular basis of qHS1, a quantitative trait locus for hard seededness in soybean (Glycine max (L Merr., we developed a near-isogenic line (NIL of a permeable (soft-seeded cultivar, Tachinagaha, containing a hard-seed allele from wild soybean (G. soja introduced by successive backcrossings. The hard-seed allele made the seed coat of Tachinagaha more rigid by increasing the amount of β-1,4-glucans in the outer layer of palisade cells of the seed coat on the dorsal side of seeds, known to be a point of entrance of water. Fine-mapping and subsequent expression and sequencing analyses revealed that qHS1 encodes an endo-1,4-β-glucanase. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP introduced an amino acid substitution in a substrate-binding cleft of the enzyme, possibly reducing or eliminating its affinity for substrates in permeable cultivars. Introduction of the genomic region of qHS1 from the impermeable (hard-seeded NIL into the permeable cultivar Kariyutaka resulted in accumulation of β-1,4-glucan in the outer layer of palisade cells and production of hard seeds. The SNP allele found in the NIL was further associated with the occurrence of hard seeds in soybean cultivars of various origins. The findings of this and previous studies may indicate that qHS1 is involved in the accumulation of β-1,4-glucan derivatives such as xyloglucan and/or β-(1,3(1,4-glucan that reinforce the impermeability of seed coats in soybean.

  6. Seed coating with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as an ecotechnologicalapproach for sustainable agricultural production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui S; Rocha, Inês; Ma, Ying; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has become of great interest in agriculture due to their potential roles in reducing the need for agrochemicals, while improving plant growth and nutrition. Nevertheless, the application of AM fungi by dispersing inocula in granular form to open agricultural fields is not feasible because nontargeted spreading of inocula over large surface areas results in high cost per plant. Seed coating has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of inoculum needed, resulting in cost reduction and increased efficiency. The aim of this study was to assess whether seed coating with AM fungal inoculum is a feasible delivery system for production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat seeds were coated with inoculum of Rhizophagus irregularis BEG140 and grown under different fertilization conditions: (1) none, (2) partial, or (3) complete. Data indicated that mycorrhizal inoculation via seed coating significantly increased the dry weight of shoot and seed spikes of wheat associated with reduced fertilization. Assessment of nutritional status of wheat showed that plants inoculated with R. irregularis via seed coating displayed enhanced stem concentrations of potassium (K), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn). There were no significant differences in root colonization between plants conventionally inoculated with R. irregularis in soil and those inoculated via seed coating. Seed coating with AM fungi may be as effective as conventional soil inoculation and may contribute to reduce the utilization of chemical fertilizers. The application of AM via seed coating is proposed as an ecotechnological approach for sustainable agricultural wheat production.

  7. Changes in polyphenols of the seed coat during the after-darkening process in pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beninger, Clifford W; Gu, Liwei; Prior, Ronald L; Junk, Donna C; Vandenberg, Albert; Bett, Kirstin E

    2005-10-05

    Proanthocyanidins and flavonoids were isolated and identified from seed coats of two aged and nonaged pinto bean lines: 1533-15 and CDC Pintium. The seed coat of 1533-15 darkens slowly and never darkens to the same extent as CDC Pintium. Analysis of the overall level of proanthocyanidins using a vanillin assay demonstrated that aged and nonaged seed coats of CDC Pintium had significantly higher levels of proanthocyanidins than aged and nonaged 1533-15 seed coats. Aged and nonaged seed coats of both lines were found to contain one main flavonol monomer, kaempferol, and three minor flavonols, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-glucosylxylose, and kaempferol 3-O-acetylglucoside. These compounds were identified by NMR and ESI-MS analysis (except for kaempferol 3-O-acetylglucoside, which was tentatively identified only by ESI-MS analysis) and quantified using HPLC-DAD. The combined concentrations of all the kaempferol compounds in seed coats of CDC Pintium were significantly higher than in seed coats of 1533-15, and the combined contents did not change after aging. The content of kaempferol decreased nearly by half in the seed coats of CDC Pintium after aging, whereas no significant change was observed in the seed coats of 1533-15. Proanthocyanidin fractions from both lines, aged and nonaged, were subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis and found to be composed primarily of procyanidins. Procyanidins in the seed coats were predominantly polymers with the degree of polymers higher than 10. The proportion of these polymers decreased after aging, while that of the low-molecular-weight procyanidins increased. A catechin-kaempferol adduct was tentatively identified in both lines by LC-MS/MS, and the concentration increased in the seed coats after aging.

  8. Seed coat color, weight and eye pattern inheritance in gamma-rays induced cowpea M2-mutant line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda M. Gaafar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gamma radiation is a very effective tool for inducing genetic variation in characters of many plants. Black seeds of M2 mutant were obtained after exposure of an Egyptian cowpea cultivar (Kaha 1 to a low dose of gamma rays. Segregation of seed coat color, weight of 100 seeds and seed eye pattern of the black seeds of this mutant line were further examined in this study. Four colors were observed for seed coat in the M3 plants ranging from cream to reddish brown and three eye patterns were distinguished from each other. SDS–PAGE of the seed storage proteins showed 18 protein bands; five of these bands disappeared in the seeds of M3 plants compared to M2 and M0 controls while other 5 protein bands were specifically observed in seeds of M3 plants. PCR analysis using twelve ISSR primers showed 47 polymorphic and 8 unique amplicons. The eight unique amplicons were characteristic of the cream coat color and brown wide eye pattern (M03-G10 while the polymorphic bands were shared by 6 coat-color groups. A PCR fragment of 850 bp was amplified, using primer HB-12, in M3-G04 which showed high-100 seed weight. These results demonstrated the mutagenic effects of gamma rays on seed coat color, weight of 100 seeds and eye pattern of cowpea M3 mutant plants.

  9. Distribution of nutrients and antinutrients in milled fractions of chickpea and horse gram: seed coat phenolics and their distinct modes of enzyme inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreerama, Yadahally N; Neelam, Dennis A; Sashikala, Vadakkoot B; Pratape, Vishwas M

    2010-04-14

    Milled fractions of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) and horse gram ( Macrotyloma uniflorum L. Verdc.) were evaluated for their nutritional and antinutritional characteristics. Crude protein content of these fractions ranged from 22.6-23.8 g 100(-1) g in cotyledon to 7.3-9.1 g 100(-1) g in seed coat fractions. The fat content of chickpea fractions (1.6-7.8 g 100(-1) g) was higher than that of horse gram fractions (0.6-2.6 g 100(-1) g). Crude fiber content was higher in seed coat fractions of both legumes than embryonic axe and cotyledon fractions. Seed coat fractions had high dietary fiber content (28.2-36.4 g 100(-1) g), made up of mainly insoluble dietary fiber. Most of the phytic acid and oligosaccharides were located in the cotyledon fractions, whereas phenolic compounds in higher concentrations were found in seed coats. Significantly higher concentrations of proteinaceous and phenolic inhibitors of digestive enzymes were found in cotyledon and seed coat fractions, respectively. The kinetic studies, using Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk derivations, revealed that seed coat phenolics inhibit alpha-amylase activity by mixed noncompetitive (chickpea) and noncompetitive (horse gram) inhibition mechanisms. In the case of trypsin, chickpea and horse gram seed coat phenolics showed noncompetitive and uncompetitive modes of inhibition, respectively. These results suggest the wide variability in the nutrient and antinutrient composition in different milled fractions of legumes and potential utility of these fractions as ingredients in functional food product development.

  10. Separation of Protochlorophylls Esterified with Different Alcohols from Inner Seed Coats of Three Cucurbitaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Yuzo, Shioi; Tsutomu, Sasa; Division of Biology, Miyazaki Medical College; Division of Biology, Miyazaki Medical College

    1982-01-01

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was used to separate protochlorophyllide esters isolated from inner seed coats of three Cucurbitaceae. At least 17 protochlorophylls esterified with different alcohols were separated on an octadecyl silica (ODS) column from purified pigments of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) and balsam pear (Momordica charantica) seeds with a single elution using 100% methanol within 22 min. The separation was done according to the numbers of carbon atoms in...

  11. Titania seed layers for PZT thin film growth on copper-coated Kapton films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchaneck, G.; Volkonskiy, O.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Dejneka, Alexandr; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Adolphi, B.; Bertram, M.; Gerlach, G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2009), s. 57-66 ISSN 1058-4587 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/09/J017; GA AV ČR KJB100100703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : copper coated Kapton * seed layer * seed layer * plasma deposition * XPS Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.329, year: 2009

  12. Visualizing tissue molecular structure of a black type of canola (Brassica) seed with a thick seed coat after heat-related processing in a chemical way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-02-20

    Heat-related processing of cereal grains, legume seeds, and oil seeds could be used to improve nutrient availability in ruminants. However, different types of processing may have a different impact on intrinsic structure of tissues. To date, there is little research on structure changes after processing within intact tissues. The synchrotron-based molecular imaging technique enables us to detect inherent structure change on a molecular level. The objective of this study was to visualize tissue of black-type canola (Brassica) seed with a thick seed coat after heat-related processing in a chemical way using the synchrotron imaging technique. The results showed that the chemical images of protein amides were obtained through the imaging technique for the raw, wet, and dry heated black type of canola seed tissues. It seems that different types of processing have a different impact on the protein spectral profile in the black type of canola tissues. Wet heating had a greater impact on the protein α-helix to β-sheet ratio than dry heating. Both dry and wet heating resulted in different patterns in amide I, the second derivative, and FSD spectra. However, the exact differences in the tissue images are relatively difficult to be obtained through visual comparison. Future studies should focus on (1) comparing the response and sensitivity of canola seeds to various processing methods between the yellow-type and black-type of canola seeds; (2) developing a sensitive method to compare the image difference between tissues and between treatments; (3) developing a method to link images to nutrient digestion, and (4) revealing how structure changes affect nutrient absorption in humans and animals.

  13. Identification of a seed coat-specific promoter fragment from the Arabidopsis MUCILAGE-MODIFIED4 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Gillian H; Jin, Zhaoqing; Shi, Lin; Esfandiari, Elahe; McGee, Robert; Nabata, Kylie; Lee, Tiffany; Kunst, Ljerka; Western, Tamara L; Haughn, George W

    2017-09-01

    The Arabidopsis seed coat-specific promoter fragment described is an important tool for basic and applied research in Brassicaceae species. During differentiation, the epidermal cells of the Arabidopsis seed coat produce and secrete large quantities of mucilage. On hydration of mature seeds, this mucilage becomes easily accessible as it is extruded to form a tightly attached halo at the seed surface. Mucilage is composed mainly of pectin, and also contains the key cell wall components cellulose, hemicellulose, and proteins, making it a valuable model for studying numerous aspects of cell wall biology. Seed coat-specific promoters are an important tool that can be used to assess the effects of expressing biosynthetic enzymes and diverse cell wall-modifying proteins on mucilage structure and function. Additionally, they can be used for production of easily accessible recombinant proteins of commercial interest. The MUCILAGE-MODIFIED4 (MUM4) gene is expressed in a wide variety of plant tissues and is strongly up-regulated in the seed coat during mucilage synthesis, implying the presence of a seed coat-specific region in its promoter. Promoter deletion analysis facilitated isolation of a 308 base pair sequence (MUM4 0.3Pro ) that directs reporter gene expression in the seed coat cells of both Arabidopsis and Camelina sativa, and is regulated by the same transcription factor cascade as endogenous MUM4. Therefore, MUM4 0.3Pro is a promoter fragment that serves as a new tool for seed coat biology research.

  14. Coating of calcia-doped ceria with amorphous silica shell by seeded polymerization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Toni, Ahmed Mohamed; Yin, Shu; Yabe, Shinryo; Sato, Tsugio

    2005-01-01

    Calcia-doped ceria is of potential interest as an ultraviolet (UV) radiation blocking material in personal care products. However, its high catalytic ability for oxidation of organic materials makes it difficult to use as a sunscreen material. Therefore, calcia-doped ceria was coated with amorphous silica by means of seeded polymerization technique in order to depress its oxidation catalytic ability. The catalytic ability as well as UV-shielding ability was investigated for coated particles

  15. COBRA-LIKE2, a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored COBRA-LIKE family, plays a role in cellulose deposition in arabidopsis seed coat mucilage secretory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Tov, Daniela; Abraham, Yael; Stav, Shira; Thompson, Kevin; Loraine, Ann; Elbaum, Rivka; de Souza, Amancio; Pauly, Markus; Kieber, Joseph J; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar

    2015-03-01

    Differentiation of the maternally derived seed coat epidermal cells into mucilage secretory cells is a common adaptation in angiosperms. Recent studies identified cellulose as an important component of seed mucilage in various species. Cellulose is deposited as a set of rays that radiate from the seed upon mucilage extrusion, serving to anchor the pectic component of seed mucilage to the seed surface. Using transcriptome data encompassing the course of seed development, we identified COBRA-LIKE2 (COBL2), a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored COBRA-LIKE gene family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), as coexpressed with other genes involved in cellulose deposition in mucilage secretory cells. Disruption of the COBL2 gene results in substantial reduction in the rays of cellulose present in seed mucilage, along with an increased solubility of the pectic component of the mucilage. Light birefringence demonstrates a substantial decrease in crystalline cellulose deposition into the cellulosic rays of the cobl2 mutants. Moreover, crystalline cellulose deposition into the radial cell walls and the columella appears substantially compromised, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and in situ quantification of light birefringence. Overall, the cobl2 mutants display about 40% reduction in whole-seed crystalline cellulose content compared with the wild type. These data establish that COBL2 plays a role in the deposition of crystalline cellulose into various secondary cell wall structures during seed coat epidermal cell differentiation. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. The inhibitory effect of the various seed coating substances against rice seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobunluepop, Pitipong

    2009-08-15

    Presently, chemical seed treatments are in discussion due to their directly or indirectly impacts on human health or other living organisms. They may also negatively affect the ecosystem and the food chain. In rice seeds, chemicals may cause phytotoxic effects including seed degradation. Eugenol is the main component of clove (Eugenia caryophillis) oil, which was proved to act simultaneously as bactericide, virocide and especially fungicide. The in vitro study was aimed to compare the inhibitory effect of the following seed treatment substances against seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during 12 months of storage; conventional captan (CA), chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL), eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E+CL) and control (CO). The obtained results of fungi inhibition were classified in three groups, which showed at first that CA treatment led to a better, i.e., longer, inhibitory effect on Alternaria padwickii, Rhizoctonia solani, Curvularia sp., Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger than E+CL. Secondly, E+CL coating polymer showed the longest inhibitory effect against Bipolaris oryzae and Nigrospora oryzae compared to CA and CL coating polymer. Finally, both CA and E+CL coating polymer had non-significant difference inhibitory effect on Fusarium moniliforme. The variant of CL coating polymer for seed coating was only during the first 6 months of storage able to inhibit all species of the observed seed borne fungi, whereas CA and E+CL coating polymer were capable to inhibit most of the fungi until 9 months of storage.

  17. Advanced fiber information systems seed coat neps baseline response from diverse mediums

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extensive literature search has revealed that no papers have been published regarding selectivity calculation of the AFIS seed coat neps (SCN) determination over interfering material in cotton. A prerequisite to selectivity measurements is to identify suitable fiber medium(s) that give baseline ...

  18. Accumulation of proanthocyanidins and/or lignin deposition in buff-pigmented soybean seed coats may lead to frequent defective cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Mineo; Yamaguchi, Naoya; Hiraoka, Miho; Kawada, So; Iiyoshi, Ryota; Yamashita, Kazuki; Sonoki, Tomonori; Maeda, Hayato; Kawasaki, Michio

    2017-03-01

    Defective cracking frequently occurs in buff-pigmented soybean seed coats, where proanthocyanidins accumulate and lignin is deposited, suggesting that proanthocyanidins and/or lignin may change physical properties and lead to defective cracking. In the seed production of many yellow soybean (Glycine max) cultivars, very low percentages of self-pigmented seeds are commonly found. This phenomenon is derived from a recessive mutation of the I gene inhibiting seed coat pigmentation. In Japan, most of these self-pigmented seeds are buff-colored, and frequently show multiple defective cracks in the seed coat. However, it is not known why cracking occurs specifically in buff seed coats. In this study, quantitative analysis was performed between yellow and buff soybean seed coats. Compared with yellow soybeans, in which defective cracking rarely occurs, contents of proanthocyanidins (PAs) and lignin were significantly higher in buff seed coats. Histochemical data of PAs and lignin in the seed coats strongly supported this result. Measurements of the physical properties of seed coats using a texture analyzer showed that a hardness value was significantly decreased in the buff seed coats. These results suggest that PA accumulation and/or lignin deposition may affect the physical properties of buff seed coats and lead to the defective cracking. This work contributes to understanding of the mechanism of defective cracking, which decreases the seed quality of soybean and related legumes.

  19. Latest Developments in PVD Coatings for Tooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Strnad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the recent developments in the field of PVD coating for manufacturing tools. A review of monoblock, multilayer, nanocomposite, DLC and oxinitride coatings is discussed, with the emphasis on coatings which enables the manufacturers to implement high productivity processes such as high speed cutting and dry speed machining.

  20. The perspective effects of various seed coating substances on rice seed variety Khao Dawk Mali 105 storability II: the case study of chemical and biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobunluepop, P; Pan-in, W; Pawelzik, E; Vearasilp, S

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of seed coating substances; chemical fungicide (CA) and biological fungicide polymers [chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL) and eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E+CL)] on chemical and biochemical changes of rice seeds cv. KDML 105, which have been studied during storage for 12 months. CA significantly affected the rice seed chemical properties and the associated seed deterioration. After 12 months storage, protein content decreased accompanied by declined of lipid content, increased free fatty acids and activated lipoxygenase enzyme. In the case of biological fungicide coated seeds, the antioxidative scavenging enzymes were ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and a high antioxidant activity protected them. Moreover, the sugar content was positive correlated with seed germination and vigor. The biological coated seeds were found to maintain high sugar contents inside the seeds, which resulted high seed storability significantly. In contrast, under fungicide stress (CA), those compounds were lost that directly affected seed vigor during storage.

  1. Regulation of fertilization and early seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Doughty, James

    2014-04-01

    Plant reproduction meetings often deal either with pre-fertilization processes such as flowering and pollen biology or post-fertilization processes such as embryogenesis and seed development. The Biochemical Society Focused Meeting entitled 'Regulation of Fertilization and Early Seed Development' was organized to close this gap and to discuss mechanistic similarities and future research directions in the reproductive processes shortly before, during and after fertilization. As an outcome of the workshop, invited speakers and a few selected oral communication presenters contributed focused reviews and technical articles for this issue of Biochemical Society Transactions. We provide here a short overview of the contents and highlights of the various articles.

  2. Comprehensive characterization of phenolic and other polar compounds in the seed and seed coat of avocado by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Jorge G; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    Avocado seed and seed coat are important by-products from avocado industrialization, with important functional properties. The aim of the present study was to determine the phenolic profile and other polar compounds of avocado seed and seed coat using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and liquid chromatography coupled to Ultra-High-Definition Accurate-Mass Q-TOF. In this research 84 compounds were identified, within eight subclass group, among these 45 phenolic compounds were identified for first time in avocado seed. Condensed tannins, phenolic acids and flavonoids were the most representative groups in both samples. As far as we are concerned, this is the first time that avocado seed coat has been studied regarding its phenolic compounds using such a powerful instrumental technique. In addition, the radical-scavenging activities were analysed in order to estimate the antioxidant potential of extracts. These results point out that avocado seed and seed coat constitute a source of bioactive ingredients for its use in the food, cosmetic or pharmaceutical sector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Proanthocyanidin accumulation and transcriptional responses in the seed coat of cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with different susceptibility to postharvest darkening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixas Coutin, José A; Munholland, Seth; Silva, Anjali; Subedi, Sanjeena; Lukens, Lewis; Crosby, William L; Pauls, K Peter; Bozzo, Gale G

    2017-05-25

    Edible dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that darken during postharvest storage are graded lower and are less marketable than their non-darkened counterparts. Seed coat darkening in susceptible genotypes is dependent upon the availability of proanthocyanidins, and their subsequent oxidation to reactive quinones. Mature cranberry beans lacking this postharvest darkening trait tend to be proanthocyanidin-deficient, although the underlying molecular and biochemical determinants for this metabolic phenomenon are unknown. Seed coat proanthocyanidin levels increased with plant maturation in a darkening-susceptible cranberry bean recombinant inbred line (RIL), whereas these metabolites were absent in seeds of the non-darkening RIL plants. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis was used to monitor changes in the seed coat transcriptome as a function of bean development, where transcript levels were measured as fragments per kilobase of exon per million fragments mapped. A total of 1336 genes were differentially expressed between darkening and non-darkening cranberry bean RILs. Structural and regulatory genes of the proanthocyanidin biosynthesis pathway were upregulated in seed coats of the darkening RIL. A principal component analysis determined that changes in transcript levels for two genes of unknown function and three proanthocyanidin biosynthesis genes, FLAVANONE 3-HYDROXYLASE 1, DIHYDROFLAVONOL 4-REDUCTASE 1 and ANTHOCYANIDIN REDUCTASE 1 (PvANR1) were highly correlated with proanthocyanidin accumulation in seed coats of the darkening-susceptible cranberry bean RIL. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that in vitro activity of a recombinant PvANR1 was NADPH-dependent and assays containing cyanidin yielded epicatechin and catechin; high cyanidin substrate levels inhibited the formation of both of these products. Proanthocyanidin oxidation is a pre-requisite for postharvest-related seed coat darkening in dicotyledonous seeds. In model plant species, the accumulation of

  4. The calmodulin-like protein, CML39, is involved in regulating seed development, germination, and fruit development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midhat, Ubaid; Ting, Michael K Y; Teresinski, Howard J; Snedden, Wayne A

    2018-03-01

    We show that the calcium sensor, CML39, is important in various developmental processes from seeds to mature plants. This study bridges previous work on CML39 as a stress-induced gene and highlights the importance of calcium signalling in plant development. In addition to the evolutionarily-conserved Ca 2+ sensor, calmodulin (CaM), plants possess a large family of CaM-related proteins (CMLs). Using a cml39 loss-of-function mutant, we investigated the roles of CML39 in Arabidopsis and discovered a range of phenotypes across developmental stages and in different tissues. In mature plants, loss of CML39 results in shorter siliques, reduced seed number per silique, and reduced number of ovules per pistil. We also observed changes in seed development, germination, and seed coat properties in cml39 mutants in comparison to wild-type plants. Using radicle emergence as a measure of germination, cml39 mutants showed more rapid germination than wild-type plants. In marked contrast to wild-type seeds, the germination of developing, immature cml39 seeds was not sensitive to cold-stratification. In addition, germination of cml39 seeds was less sensitive than wild-type to inhibition by ABA or by treatments that impaired gibberellic acid biosynthesis. Tetrazolium red staining indicated that the seed-coat permeability of cml39 seeds is greater than that of wild-type seeds. RNA sequencing analysis of cml39 seedlings suggests that changes in chromatin modification may underlie some of the phenotypes associated with cml39 mutants, consistent with previous reports that orthologs of CML39 participate in gene silencing. Aberrant ectopic expression of transcripts for seed storage proteins in 7-day old cml39 seedlings was observed, suggesting mis-regulation of early developmental programs. Collectively, our data support a model where CML39 serves as an important Ca 2+ sensor during ovule and seed development, as well as during germination and seedling establishment.

  5. The role of seed coat phenolics on water uptake and early protein synthesis during germination of dimorphic seeds of halopyrum mucronatum (L.) staph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Z. S.; Khan, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Role of seed coat phenolics on water uptake and early protein synthesis of Halopyrum mucronatum dimorphic seeds during germination were tested. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) showed seed texture with differential deposition of secondary metabolites in both morphs. Ability of both seed morphs to retain secondary deposition was dependent on exposure to either saline or non-saline conditions. More phenols leached from the brown seed during the initial hours of soaking when compared to black seeds. Water uptake pattern was slightly different in both seed type particularly during initial hours when imbibition in black seeds showed little water uptake while in brown seeds absorption was quick in the first hour under both saline and non saline condition. Change in total protein was somewhat similar in both seeds morphs showing early increase (4 and 8 h), reaching to the maximum (12 h) and decreasing (24 and 48 h) afterward. The results are discussed in relation to seed coat phenolics, water uptake and early protein synthesis during germination. (author)

  6. Abscisic acid and assimilate partitioning during seed development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de S.M.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the influence of abscisic acid (ABA) on the transport of assimilates to seeds and the deposition of reserves in seeds. It is well-known from literature that ABA accumulates in seeds during development, and that ABA concentrations in seeds correlate rather well with

  7. Expression Studies of Gibberellin Oxidases in Developing Pumpkin Seeds1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisse, Andrea; Pimenta, Maria João; Lange, Theo

    2003-01-01

    Two cDNA clones, 3-ox and 2-ox, have been isolated from developing pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) embryos that show significant amino acid homology to gibberellin (GA) 3-oxidases and 2-oxidases, respectively. Recombinant fusion protein of clone 3-ox converted GA12-aldehyde, GA12, GA15, GA24, GA25, and GA9 to GA14-aldehyde, GA14, GA37, GA36, GA13, and GA4, respectively. Recombinant 2-ox protein oxidized GA9, GA4, and GA1 to GA51, GA34, and GA8, respectively. Previously cloned GA 7-oxidase revealed additional 3β-hydroxylation activity of GA12. Transcripts of this gene were identified in endosperm and embryo of the developing seed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and localized in protoderm, root apical meristem, and quiescent center by in situ hybridization. mRNA of the previously cloned GA 20-oxidase from pumpkin seeds was localized in endosperm and in tissues of protoderm, ground meristem, and cotyledons of the embryo. However, transcripts of the recently cloned GA 20-oxidase from pumpkin seedlings were found all over the embryo, and in tissues of the inner seed coat at the micropylar end. Previously cloned GA 2β,3β-hydroxylase mRNA molecules were specifically identified in endosperm tissue. Finally, mRNA molecules of the 3-ox and 2-ox genes were found in the embryo only. 3-ox transcripts were localized in tissues of cotyledons, protoderm, and inner cell layers of the root apical meristem, and 2-ox transcripts were found in all tissues of the embryo except the root tips. These results indicate tissue-specific GA-biosynthetic pathways operating within the developing seed. PMID:12644672

  8. Recobrimento de sementes de brócolos e salsa com coberturas e filmes biodegradáveis Covering broccoli and parsley seeds with biodegradable films and coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Sayuri Tanada-Palmu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi a comparação do desempenho de sementes de brócolos e de salsa cobertas ou aderidas a filmes biodegradáveis de quitosana e gelatina. Inicialmente, determinou-se o número ótimo de camadas de cobertura e a espessura do filme, para não comprometer a germinação das sementes. O desempenho foi avaliado por meio da capacidade de germinação e do vigor, e pelas massas de material fresco e seco de plantas com cerca de 30 dias. Observou-se germinação inferior ao controle nas sementes inseridas às fitas. O recobrimento de sementes obteve bons resultados em termos de vigor e desenvolvimento das plantas. Pelos resultados indicados, verificou-se que o recobrimento de sementes, com coberturas biodegradáveis, pode ser promissor, devido à melhoria na germinação das sementes recobertas e também no desenvolvimento das plantas quando comparadas às sementes sem tratamento.The objective of this work was to compare the performance of broccoli and parsley seeds coated or adhered to biodegradable films of gelatin and chitosan. Initially, the optimum number of coating layers and the thickness of the film were determined in order not to affect the germination of seeds. The performance was evaluated by germination capacity and vigor, and by fresh and dry weight of plants with 30 days. The seeds inserted into the films of gelatin and chitosan showed lower germination results than the control seeds. The coating of the seeds with gelatin and chitosan coatings of had good results in terms of vigor and development of plants. The results indicated that coating the seeds with biodegradable coatings can be promising due to the improvement of the germination of the coated seeds and the development of the plants when compared to the seeds with not treated.

  9. Local Seed Business in the Context of Integrated Seed Sector Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, M.H.; Borman, G.D.; Verhoosel, K.S.; Mastenbroek, A.; Heemskerk, Willem

    2015-01-01

    Quality seed is a key input for agriculture, with a direct impact on agricultural production and productivity. Integrated seed sector development (ISSD) is an inclusive approach that recognizes and builds upon a diversity of seed systems in the sector. We use the ISSD approach to guide us in the

  10. In situ functionalization and PEO coating of iron oxide nanocrystals using seeded emulsion polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloust, Hauke; Schmidtke, Christian; Feld, Artur; Schotten, Theo; Eggers, Robin; Fittschen, Ursula E A; Schulz, Florian; Pöselt, Elmar; Ostermann, Johannes; Bastús, Neus G; Weller, Horst

    2013-04-16

    Herein we demonstrate that seeded emulsion polymerization is a powerful tool to produce multiply functionalized PEO coated iron oxide nanocrystals. Advantageously, by simple addition of functional surfactants, functional monomers, or functional polymerizable linkers-solely or in combinations thereof-during the seeded emulsion polymerization process, a broad range of in situ functionalized polymer-coated iron oxide nanocrystals were obtained. This was demonstrated by purposeful modulation of the zeta potential of encapsulated iron oxide nanocrystals and conjugation of a dyestuff. Successful functionalization was unequivocally proven by TXRF. Furthermore, the spatial position of the functional groups can be controlled by choosing the appropriate spacers. In conclusion, this methodology is highly amenable for combinatorial strategies and will spur rapid expedited synthesis and purposeful optimization of a broad scope of nanocrystals.

  11. Quinoa seed coats as an expanding and sustainable source of bioactive compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Karina B.; Khakimov, Bekzod; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2017-01-01

    Saponins (SAPs) are a diverse family of plant secondary metabolites and due to their biological activities, SAPs can be utilised as biopesticides and as therapeutic compounds. Given their widespread industrial use, a search for alternative sources of SAPs is a priority. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa...... Willd) is a valuable food source that is gaining importance worldwide for its nutritional and nutraceutical properties. SAPs from quinoa seed coats could represent a new sustainable source to obtain these compounds in high quantities due to the increasing production and worldwide expansion of the crop....... This research aims to characterise saponins of seed coat waste products from six different quinoa varieties for their potential use as a saponin source. Gas chromatography (GC)- and Liquid chromatography (LC)- with mass spectrometry (MS) were applied for qualitative and relative quantitative analysis...

  12. Seed Coat Microsculpturing Is Related to Genomic Components in Wild Brassica juncea and Sinapis arvensis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying-hao; Wei, Wei; Kang, Ding-ming; Ma, Ke-ping

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that wild Brassica and related species are widely distributed across Xinjiang, China, and there has been an argument for species identification. Seed coat microsculpturing (SCM) is known to be an excellent character for taxonomic and evolutionary studies. By identifying collections from Xinjiang, China, and combining SCM pattern, flow cytometry, and genome-specific DNA markers as well as sexual compatibility with known species, this study aimed to detect potential relatio...

  13. Can biochar be used as a seed coating to improve native plant germination and growth in arid conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary I. Williams; R. Kasten Dumroese; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Stuart P. Hardegree

    2016-01-01

    Direct seeding is a common large-scale restoration practice for revegetating arid and semi-arid lands, but success can be limited by moisture and temperature. Seed coating technologies that use biochar may have the potential to overcome moisture and temperature limitations on native plant germination and growth. Biochar is a popular agronomic tool for improving soil...

  14. Project Development Specification for Special Protective Coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Establishes the performance, design development, and test requirements for the Special Protective Coating. The system engineering approach was used to develop this document in accordance with the guidelines laid out in the Systems Engineering Management Plan for Project W-314

  15. Fungicidal seed coatings exert minor effects on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Determine if contemporary, seed-applied fungicidal formulations inhibit colonization of plant roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, plant development, or plant nutrient content during early vegetative stages of several commodity crops. Methods: We evaluated seed-applied commercial fungic...

  16. Liquid sorting and film coating : techniques for improving tree seed performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkx, M.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Tree seed performance has benefited considerably from the development of controlled methods to overcome dormancy. Traditionally tree seeds have often been stratified outdoors. Depending on the types of dormancy, stratification starts before or during summer and continues during winter, or it starts

  17. Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins) with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, A.J. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, A.T.S.; Perales, J.; Beghini, D.G. [Laboratório de Toxinologia, Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacodinâmica, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, K.V.S.; Xavier-Filho, J.; Venancio, T.M.; Oliveira, A.E.A. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-01-27

    Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitinbinding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae) to 1.8 ± 0.5 mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation.

  18. Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins) with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, A.J.; Ferreira, A.T.S.; Perales, J.; Beghini, D.G.; Fernandes, K.V.S.; Xavier-Filho, J.; Venancio, T.M.; Oliveira, A.E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitinbinding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae) to 1.8 ± 0.5 mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation

  19. Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins) with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A J; Ferreira, A T S; Perales, J; Beghini, D G; Fernandes, K V S; Xavier-Filho, J; Venancio, T M; Oliveira, A E A

    2012-02-01

    Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitin-binding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae) to 1.8 ± 0.5 mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation.

  20. Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Souza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitin-binding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae to 1.8 ± 0.5 mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation.

  1. Development of Coated Particle Fuel Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Moon Sung; Kim, B. G.; Kim, Y. K.

    2009-04-01

    UO 2 kernel fabrication technology was developed at the lab sacle(20∼30g-UO 2 /batch). The GSP technique, modified method of sol-gel process, was used in the preparation of spherical ADU gel particle and these particles were converted to UO 3 and UO 2 phases in calcination furnace and sintering furnace respectively. Based on the process variables optimized using simulant kernels in 1-2 inch beds, SiC TRISO-coated particles were fabricated using UO 2 kernel. Power densities of TRISO coated particle fuels and gamma heat of the tubes are calculated as functions of vertical location of the fuel specimen in the irradiation holes by using core physics codes, MCNP and Helios. A finite model was developed for the calculations of temperatures and stresses of the specimen and the irradiation tubes. Dimensions of the test tubes are determined based on the temperatures and stresses as well as the gamma heat generated at the given condition. 9 modules of the COPA code (MECH, FAIL, TEMTR, TEMBL, TEMPEB, FPREL, MPRO, BURN, ABAQ), the MECH, FAIL, TEMTR, TEMBL, TEMPEB, and FPREL were developed. The COPA-FPREL was verified through IAEA CRP-6 accident benchmarking problems. KAERI participated in the round robin test of IAEA CRP-6 program to characterize the diameter, sphericity, coating thickness, density and anisotropy of coated particles provided by Korea, USA and South Africa. The inspection and test plan describing specifications and inspection method of coated particles was developed to confirm the quality standard of coated particles. The quality inspection instructions were developed for the inspection of coated particles by particle size analyzer, density inspection of coating layers by density gradient column, coating thickness inspection by X-ray, and inspection of optical anistropy factor of PyC layer. The quality control system for the TRISO-coated particle fuel was derived based on the status of quality control systems of other countries

  2. Programme on Integrated Seed Sector Development in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, Stephen; Thijssen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    The programme on Integrated Seed Sector Development in Ethiopia aims to strengthen the development of a vibrant, market-oriented and pluralistic seed sector in the country, where quality seed of superior varieties is available and affordable for a larger number of farmers, thereby contributing to

  3. Corrosion-resistant coating development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, D.P.; Kupp, D.M.; Martin, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    SiC-based heat exchangers have been identified as the prime candidate material for use as heat exchangers in advanced combined cycle power plants. Unfortunately, hot corrosion of the SiC-based materials created by alkali metal salts present in the combustion gases dictates the need for corrosion-resistant coatings. The well-documented corrosion resistance of CS-50 combined with its low (and tailorable) coefficient of thermal expansion and low modulus makes CS-50 an ideal candidate for this application. Coatings produced by gelcasting and traditional particulate processing have been evaluated.

  4. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alburaki

    Full Text Available Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads.

  5. Fertilization-independent seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhury, Abdul M.; Ming, Luo; Miller, Celia; Craig, Stuart; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    1997-01-01

    We report mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana (fertilization-independent seed: fis) in which certain processes of seed development are uncoupled from the double fertilization event that occurs after pollination. These mutants were isolated as ethyl methanesulfonate-induced pseudo-revertants of the pistillata phenotype. Although the pistillata (pi) mutant has short siliques devoid of seed, the fis mutants in the pi background have long siliques containing developing seeds, even though the flowers ...

  6. Preliminary coating design and coating developments for ATHENA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2011-01-01

    We present initial novel coating design for ATHENA. We make use of both simple bilayer coatings of Ir and B4C and more complex constant period multilayer coatings to enhance the effective area and cover the energy range from 0.1 to 10 keV. We also present the coating technology used...... for these designs and present test results from coatings....

  7. Development of Coated Particle Fuel Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Woo; Kim, B. G.; Kim, S. H.

    2007-06-01

    Uranium kernel fabrication technology using a wet chemical so-gel method, a key technology in the coated particle fuel area, is established up to the calcination step and the first sintering of UO2 kernel was attempted. Experiments on the parametric study of the coating process using the surrogate ZrO2 kernel give the optimum conditions for the PyC and SiC coating layer and ZrC coating conditions were obtained for the vaporization of the ZrCl4 precursor and coating condition from ZrC coating experiments using plate-type graphite substrate. In addition, by development of fuel performance analysis code a part of the code system is completed which enables the participation to the benchmark calculation and comparison in the IAEA collaborated research program. The technologies for irradiation and post irradiation examination, which are important in developing the HTGR fuel technology of its first kind in Korea was started to develop and, through a feasibility study and preliminary analysis, the technologies required to be developed are identified for further development as well as the QC-related basic technologies are reviewed, analyzed and identified for the own technology development. Development of kernel fabrication technology can be enhanced for the remaining sintering technology and completed based on the technologies developed in this phase. In the coating technology, the optimum conditions obtained using a surrogate ZrO2 kernel material can be applied for the uranium kernel coating process development. Also, after completion of the code development in the next phase, more extended participation to the international collaboration for benchmark calculation can be anticipated which will enable an improvement of the whole code system. Technology development started in this phase will be more extended and further focused on the detailed technology development to be required for the related technology establishment

  8. Novel seed coat lignins in the Cactaceae: structure, distribution and implications for the evolution of lignin diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Jackson, Lisa; Nakashima, Jin; Ralph, John; Dixon, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    We have recently described a hitherto unsuspected catechyl lignin polymer (C-lignin) in the seed coats of Vanilla orchid and in cacti of one genus, Melocactus (Chen et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2012, 109, 1772-1777.). We have now determined the lignin types in the seed coats of 130 different cactus species. Lignin in the vegetative tissues of cacti is of the normal guaiacyl/syringyl (G/S) type, but members of most genera within the subfamily Cactoidae possess seed coat lignin of the novel C-type only, which we show is a homopolymer formed by endwise β-O-4-coupling of caffeyl alcohol monomers onto the growing polymer resulting in benzodioxane units. However, the species examined within the genera Coryphantha, Cumarinia, Escobaria and Mammillaria (Cactoideae) mostly had normal G/S lignin in their seeds, as did all six species in the subfamily Opuntioidae that were examined. Seed coat lignin composition is still evolving in the Cactaceae, as seeds of one Mammillaria species (M. lasiacantha) possess only C-lignin, three Escobaria species (E. dasyacantha, E. lloydii and E. zilziana) contain an unusual lignin composed of 5-hydroxyguaiacyl units, the first report of such a polymer that occurs naturally in plants, and seeds of some species contain no lignin at all. We discuss the implications of these findings for the mechanisms that underlie the biosynthesis of these newly discovered lignin types. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Neonicotinoid insecticide removal by prairie strips in row-cropped watersheds with historical seed coating use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle L.; Bradbury, Steven; Schulte, Lisa A.; Helmers, Matthew; Witte, Christopher; Kolpin, Dana W.; Garrett, Jessica D.; Harris, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Neonicotinoids are a widely used class of insecticides that are commonly applied as seed coatings for agricultural crops. Such neonicotinoid use may pose a risk to non-target insects, including pollinators and natural enemies of crop pests, and ecosystems. This study assessed neonicotinoid residues in groundwater, surface runoff water, soil, and native plants adjacent to corn and soybean crop fields with a history of being planted with neonicotinoid-treated seeds from 2008-2013. Data from six sites with the same crop management history, three with and three without in-field prairie strips, were collected in 2015-2016, 2-3 years after neonicotinoid (clothianidin and imidacloprid) seed treatments were last used. Three of the six neonicotinoids analyzed were detected in at least one environmental matrix: the two applied as seed coatings on the fields (clothianidin and imidacloprid) and another widely used neonicotinoid (thiamethoxam). Sites with prairie strips generally had lower concentrations of neonicotinoids: groundwater and footslope soil neonicotinoid concentrations were significantly lower in the sites with prairie strips than those without; mean concentrations for groundwater were 11 and 20 ng/L (p = 0.048) and <1 and 6 ng/g (p = 0.0004) for soil, respectively. Surface runoff water concentrations were not significantly (p = 0.38) different for control sites (44 ng/L) or sites with prairie strips (140 ng/L). Consistent with the decreased inputs of neonicotinoids, concentrations tended to decrease over the sampling timeframe. Two sites recorded concentration increases, however, potentially due to disturbance of previous applications or influence from nearby fields where use of seed treatments continued. There were no detections (limit of detection: 1 ng/g) of neonicotinoids in the foliage or roots of plants comprising prairie strips, indicating a low likelihood of exposure to pollinators and other insects visiting these plants following the cessation of seed

  10. Abscisic acid regulates pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase gene expression and secoisolariciresinol accumulation in developing flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouard, Sullivan; Corbin, Cyrielle; Lopez, Tatiana; Montguillon, Josiane; Gutierrez, Laurent; Lamblin, Frédéric; Lainé, Eric; Hano, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the main phytoestrogenic lignan of Linum usitatissimum, is accumulated in the seed coat of flax during its development and pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR) is a key enzyme in flax for its synthesis. The promoter of LuPLR1, a flax gene encoding a pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase, contains putative regulatory boxes related to transcription activation by abscisic acid (ABA). Gel mobility shift experiments evidenced an interaction of nuclear proteins extracted from immature flax seed coat with a putative cis-acting element involved in ABA response. As ABA regulates a number of physiological events during seed development and maturation we have investigated its involvement in the regulation of this lignan synthesis by different means. ABA and SDG accumulation time courses in the seed as well as LuPLR1 expression were first determined in natural conditions. These results showed that ABA timing and localization of accumulation in the flax seed coat could be correlated with the LuPLR1 gene expression and SDG biosynthesis. Experimental modulations of ABA levels were performed by exogenous application of ABA or fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA synthesis. When submitted to exogenous ABA, immature seeds synthesized 3-times more SDG, whereas synthesis of SDG was reduced in immature seeds treated with fluridone. Similarly, the expression of LuPLR1 gene in the seed coat was up-regulated by exogenous ABA and down-regulated when fluridone was applied. These results demonstrate that SDG biosynthesis in the flax seed coat is positively controlled by ABA through the transcriptional regulation of LuPLR1 gene.

  11. Fertilization-independent seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Abdul M.; Ming, Luo; Miller, Celia; Craig, Stuart; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    1997-01-01

    We report mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana (fertilization-independent seed: fis) in which certain processes of seed development are uncoupled from the double fertilization event that occurs after pollination. These mutants were isolated as ethyl methanesulfonate-induced pseudo-revertants of the pistillata phenotype. Although the pistillata (pi) mutant has short siliques devoid of seed, the fis mutants in the pi background have long siliques containing developing seeds, even though the flowers remain free of pollen. The three fis mutations map to loci on three different chromosomes. In fis1 and fis2 seeds, the autonomous endosperm nuclei are diploid and the endosperm develops to the point of cellularization; the partially developed seeds then atrophy. In these two mutants, proembryos are formed in a low proportion of seeds and do not develop beyond the globular stage. When FIS/fis plants are pollinated by pollen from FIS/FIS plants, ≈50% of the resulting seeds contain fully developed embryos; these seeds germinate and form viable seedlings (FIS/FIS). The other 50% of seeds shrivel and do not germinate; they contain embryos arrested at the torpedo stage (FIS/fis). In normal sexual reproduction, the products of the FIS genes are likely to play important regulatory roles in the development of seed after fertilization. PMID:9108133

  12. Fertilization-independent seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, A M; Ming, L; Miller, C; Craig, S; Dennis, E S; Peacock, W J

    1997-04-15

    We report mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana (fertilization-independent seed:fis) in which certain processes of seed development are uncoupled from the double fertilization event that occurs after pollination. These mutants were isolated as ethyl methanesulfonate-induced pseudo-revertants of the pistillata phenotype. Although the pistillata (pi) mutant has short siliques devoid of seed, the fis mutants in the pi background have long siliques containing developing seeds, even though the flowers remain free of pollen. The three fis mutations map to loci on three different chromosomes. In fis1 and fis2 seeds, the autonomous endosperm nuclei are diploid and the endosperm develops to the point of cellularization; the partially developed seeds then atrophy. In these two mutants, proembryos are formed in a low proportion of seeds and do not develop beyond the globular stage. When FIS/fis plants are pollinated by pollen from FIS/FIS plants, approximately 50% of the resulting seeds contain fully developed embryos; these seeds germinate and form viable seedlings (FIS/FIS). The other 50% of seeds shrivel and do not germinate; they contain embryos arrested at the torpedo stage (FIS/fis). In normal sexual reproduction, the products of the FIS genes are likely to play important regulatory roles in the development of seed after fertilization.

  13. An investigation into the potential use and sustainability of surfactant coated turfgrass seed for the green industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidanza, Michael; McMillan, Mica; Kostka, Stan; Madsen, Matthew D.

    2014-05-01

    Turfgrass seed germination and emergence is influenced mostly by water and oxygen availability, temperature, nutrition and biological activity in the rootzone. In many areas globally, seed germination and subsequent turfgrass establishment is greatly diminished due to inadequate irrigation water amount and quality, and the problem is further compound due to water repellent soils. Successful turfgrass seed germination is critical when attempting to establish a more sustainable turfgrass species in place of an existing, high-input required turf stand. Greenhouse research investigations were conducted in 2013 in Pennsylvania (USA), to evaluate surfactant coated perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) seed for germination and emergence, seedling vigor and overall turfgrass quality. Both turfgrasses tested are cool-season or C3 grasses, and perennial ryegrass has a bunch-type growth habit while Kentucky bluegrass is rhizomatous. Perennial ryegrass is used world-wide as a principal component in sports turf mixes and in overseeding programs, and typically germinates rapidly in 3 to 10 days after seeding. Kentucky bluegrass also is used world-wide for sports turf as well as lawns and landscapes, and germinates slowly in 7 to 28 days. Research results indicate that surfactant coated seed of both species germinated one to three days faster compared to uncoated seed, and that seedling vigor and overall turfgrass quality was better with surfactant coated seed compared to uncoated seed. In a study with only perennial ryegrass, surfactant-coated seed without fertilizer (i.e., N and Ca) applied at time of sowing resulted in seedling vigor and quality considered to be similar or better than uncoated seed with fertilizer applied at time of sowing. Therefore, the potential benefits with seed germination and emergence, and seedling vigor and turfgrass quality also may be attributed to the surfactant coating and not only a fertilizer response. The

  14. MUM ENHANCERS are important for seed coat mucilage production and mucilage secretory cell differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsovski, Andrej A; Villota, Maria M; Rowland, Owen; Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Western, Tamara L

    2009-01-01

    Pollination triggers not only embryo development but also the differentiation of the ovule integuments to form a specialized seed coat. The mucilage secretory cells of the Arabidopsis thaliana seed coat undergo a complex differentiation process in which cell growth is followed by the synthesis and secretion of pectinaceous mucilage. A number of genes have been identified affecting mucilage secretory cell differentiation, including MUCILAGE-MODIFIED4 (MUM4). mum4 mutants produce a reduced amount of mucilage and cloning of MUM4 revealed that it encodes a UDP-L-rhamnose synthase that is developmentally up-regulated to provide rhamnose for mucilage pectin synthesis. To identify additional genes acting in mucilage synthesis and secretion, a screen for enhancers of the mum4 phenotype was performed. Eight mum enhancers (men) have been identified, two of which result from defects in known mucilage secretory cell genes (MUM2 and MYB61). Our results show that, in a mum4 background, mutations in MEN1, MEN4, and MEN5 lead to further reductions in mucilage compared to mum4 single mutants, suggesting that they are involved in mucilage synthesis or secretion. Conversely, mutations in MEN2 and MEN6 appear to affect mucilage release rather than quantity. With the exception of men4, whose single mutant exhibits reduced mucilage, none of these genes have a single mutant phenotype, suggesting that they would not have been identified outside the compromised mum4 background.

  15. Impact of heat stress during seed development on soybean seed metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed development is a temperature-sensitive process that is much more vulnerable than vegetative tissues to abiotic stresses. Climate change is expected to increase the incidence and severity of summer heatwaves, and the impact of heat stress on seed development is expected to become more widespread...

  16. Seed defective reduction in automotive Electro-Deposition Coating Process of truck cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonthilug, Aekkalag; Chutima, Parames

    2018-02-01

    The case study company is one of players in Thailand’s Automotive Industry who manufacturing truck and bus for both domestic and international market. This research focuses on a product quality problem about seed defects occurred in the Electro-Deposition Coating Process of truck cabin. The 5-phase of Six Sigma methodology including D-Define, M-Measure, A-Analyze, I-Improve, and C-Control is applied to this research to identify root causes of problem for setting new parameters of each significant factor. After the improvement, seed defects in this process is reduced from 9,178 defects per unit to 876 defects per unit (90% improvement)

  17. The role of the testa during development and in establishment of dormancy of the legume seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smýkal, Petr; Vernoud, Vanessa; Blair, Matthew W.; Soukup, Aleš; Thompson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Timing of seed germination is one of the key steps in plant life cycles. It determines the beginning of plant growth in natural or agricultural ecosystems. In the wild, many seeds exhibit dormancy and will only germinate after exposure to certain environmental conditions. In contrast, crop seeds germinate as soon as they are imbibed usually at planting time. These domestication-triggered changes represent adaptations to cultivation and human harvesting. Germination is one of the common sets of traits recorded in different crops and termed the “domestication syndrome.” Moreover, legume seed imbibition has a crucial role in cooking properties. Different seed dormancy classes exist among plant species. Physical dormancy (often called hardseededness), as found in legumes, involves the development of a water-impermeable seed coat, caused by the presence of phenolics- and suberin-impregnated layers of palisade cells. The dormancy release mechanism primarily involves seed responses to temperature changes in the habitat, resulting in testa permeability to water. The underlying genetic controls in legumes have not been identified yet. However, positive correlation was shown between phenolics content (e.g., pigmentation), the requirement for oxidation and the activity of catechol oxidase in relation to pea seed dormancy, while epicatechin levels showed a significant positive correlation with soybean hardseededness. myeloblastosis family of transcription factors, WD40 proteins and enzymes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were involved in seed testa color in soybean, pea and Medicago, but were not tested directly in relation to seed dormancy. These phenolic compounds play important roles in defense against pathogens, as well as affecting the nutritional quality of products, and because of their health benefits, they are of industrial and medicinal interest. In this review, we discuss the role of the testa in mediating legume seed germination, with a focus on

  18. Effect of GA3 treatment on seed development and seed-related gene expression in grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxia Cheng

    Full Text Available The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA3 is widely used in the table grape industry to induce seedlessness in seeded varieties. However, there is a paucity of information concerning the mechanisms by which GAs induce seedlessness in grapes.In an effort to systematically analyze the cause of this GA3-induced seed abortion, we conducted an in depth characterization of two seeded grape cultivars ('Kyoho' and 'Red Globe', along with a seedless cultivar ('Thompson Seedless', following treatment with GA3. In a similar fashion to the seedless control, which exhibited GA3-induced abortion of the seeds 9 days after full bloom (DAF, both 'Kyoho' and 'Red Globe' seeded varieties exhibited complete abortion of the seeds 15 DAF when treated with GA3. Morphological analyses indicated that while fertilization appeared to occur normally following GA3 treatment, as well as in the untreated seedless control cultivar, seed growth eventually ceased. In addition, we found that GA3 application had an effect on redox homeostasis, which could potentially cause cell damage and subsequent seed abortion. Furthermore, we carried out an analysis of antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as transcript levels from various genes believed to be involved in seed development, and found several differences between GA3-treated and untreated controls.Therefore, it seems that the mechanisms driving GA3-induced seedlessness are similar in both seeded and seedless cultivars, and that the observed abortion of seeds may result at least in part from a GA3-induced increase in cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species, a decrease in antioxidant enzymatic activities, and an alteration of the expression of genes related to seed development.

  19. Adsorptive removal of nickel from aqueous solutions by activated carbons from doum seed (Hyphaenethebaica coat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal El-Sadaawy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the possibility of using low cost agriculture waste as doum-palm seed coat for the removal of nickel ions from aqueous solutions. Two activated carbons had been prepared from raw doum-palm seed coat (DACI and DACII; as well, the raw material was used as an adsorbent (RD. Batch adsorption experiments were performed as a function of pH of solution, initial nickel ions concentration, dose of adsorbent and contact time. Adsorption data were modeled using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and D–R Models. Different error analysis conforms that the isotherm data followed Freundlich models for all adsorbents. Adsorption kinetic data were tested using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Elovich model. Adsorption mechanism was investigated using the intra-particle diffusion model. Diffusion coefficients were calculated using the film and intraparticle diffusion models. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption of Ni2+ ions onto RD, DACI and DACII followed pseudo-second order kinetic model, and indicates that the intra-particle diffusion controls the rate of adsorption but it is not the rate limiting step.

  20. Evidence for pollinator cost and farming benefits of neonicotinoid seed coatings on oilseed rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, G. E.; Garthwaite, D.; Crowe, A.; Boatman, N. D.; Delaplane, K. S.; Brown, M. A.; Thygesen, H. H.; Pietravalle, S.

    2015-08-01

    Chronic exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides has been linked to reduced survival of pollinating insects at both the individual and colony level, but so far only experimentally. Analyses of large-scale datasets to investigate the real-world links between the use of neonicotinoids and pollinator mortality are lacking. Moreover, the impacts of neonicotinoid seed coatings in reducing subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and increasing crop yield are not known, despite the supposed benefits of this practice driving widespread use. Here, we combine large-scale pesticide usage and yield observations from oilseed rape with those detailing honey bee colony losses over an 11 year period, and reveal a correlation between honey bee colony losses and national-scale imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid) usage patterns across England and Wales. We also provide the first evidence that farmers who use neonicotinoid seed coatings reduce the number of subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and may derive an economic return. Our results inform the societal discussion on the pollinator costs and farming benefits of prophylactic neonicotinoid usage on a mass flowering crop.

  1. Proteome profiling of flax (Linum usitatissimum) seed: characterization of functional metabolic pathways operating during seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barvkar, Vitthal T; Pardeshi, Varsha C; Kale, Sandip M; Kadoo, Narendra Y; Giri, Ashok P; Gupta, Vidya S

    2012-12-07

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds are an important source of food and feed due to the presence of various health promoting compounds, making it a nutritionally and economically important plant. An in-depth analysis of the proteome of developing flax seed is expected to provide significant information with respect to the regulation and accumulation of such storage compounds. Therefore, a proteomic analysis of seven seed developmental stages (4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 30, and 48 days after anthesis) in a flax variety, NL-97 was carried out using a combination of 1D-SDS-PAGE and LC-MSE methods. A total 1716 proteins were identified and their functional annotation revealed that a majority of them were involved in primary metabolism, protein destination, storage and energy. Three carbon assimilatory pathways appeared to operate in flax seeds. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR of selected 19 genes was carried out to understand their roles during seed development. Besides storage proteins, methionine synthase, RuBisCO and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase were highly expressed transcripts, highlighting their importance in flax seed development. Further, the identified proteins were mapped onto developmental seed specific expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries of flax to obtain transcriptional evidence and 81% of them had detectable expression at the mRNA level. This study provides new insights into the complex seed developmental processes operating in flax.

  2. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, P.; Singh, Ravender; Verma, A.P.S.; Joshi, D.K.; Singh, Sheoraj

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In developing soybean seeds, moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state. • These changes are further corroborated by concomitant changes in seed metabolites. • Thus there exists a moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status. - Abstract: Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin–spin relaxation time (T 2 ). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin–spin relaxation (T 2 ) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40–50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30–40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds

  3. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, P., E-mail: pkrishnan@iari.res.in; Singh, Ravender; Verma, A.P.S.; Joshi, D.K.; Singh, Sheoraj

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • In developing soybean seeds, moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state. • These changes are further corroborated by concomitant changes in seed metabolites. • Thus there exists a moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status. - Abstract: Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin–spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin–spin relaxation (T{sub 2}) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40–50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30–40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds.

  4. High-temperature LDV seed particle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frish, Michael B.; Pierce, Vicky G.

    1989-05-01

    The feasibility of developing a method for making monodisperse, unagglomerated spherical particles greater than 50 nm in diameter was demonstrated. Carbonaceous particles were made by pyrolyzing ethylene with a pulsed CO2 laser, thereby creating a non-equilibrium mixture of carbon, hydrogen, hydrocarbon vapors, and unpyrolyzed ethylene. Via a complex series of reactions, the carbon and hydrocarbon vapors quickly condensed into the spherical particles. By cooling and dispersing them in a supersonic expansion immediately after their creation, the hot newly-formed spheres were prevented from colliding and coalescing, thus preventing the problem of agglomeration which as plagued other investigators studying laser-simulated particle formation. The cold particles could be left suspended in the residual gases indefinitely without agglomerating. Their uniform sizes and unagglomerated nature were visualized by collecting the particles on filters that were subsequently examined using electron microscopy. It was found the mean particle size can be coarsely controlled by varying the initial ethylene pressure, and can be finely controlled by varying the fluence (energy/unit area) with which the laser irradiates the gas. The motivating application for this research was to manufacture particles that could be used as laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) seeds in high-temperature high-speed flows. Though the particles made in this program will not evaporate until heated to about 3000 K, and thus could serve as LDV seeds in some applications, they are not ideal when the hot atmosphere is also oxidizing. In that situation, ceramic materials would be preferable. Research performed elsewhere has demonstrated that selected ceramic materials can be manufactured by laser pyrolysis of appropriate supply gases. It is anticipated that, when the same gases are used in conjunction with the rapid cooling technique, unagglomerated spherical ceramic particles can be made with little difficulty. Such

  5. Preparation of Microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13 Seed Coating Agents and Their Effects on the Growth of Cotton Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inoculation of the bacterial cells of microbial seed coating agents (SCAs into the environment may result in limited survival and colonization. Therefore, the application efficacy of an encapsulated microbial seed coating agent (ESCA was investigated on potted cotton plants; the agent was prepared with polyvinyl alcohol, sodium dodecyl sulfate, bentonite, and microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13. Scanning electron micrography revealed that the microcapsules were attached to ESCA membranes. The ESCA film was uniform, bubble-free, and easy to peel. The bacterial contents of seeds coated with each ESCA treatment reached 106 cfu/seed. Results indicated that the germination rate of cotton seeds treated with ESCA4 (1.0% (w/v sodium alginate, 4.0% polyvinyl alcohol, 1.0% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 0.6% acacia, 0.5% bentonite, and 10% (v/v microcapsules increased by 28.74%. Other growth factors of the cotton seedlings, such as plant height, root length, whole plant fresh weight, and whole plant dry weight, increased by 52.70%, 25.13%, 46.47%, and 33.21%, respectively. Further analysis demonstrated that the peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities of cotton seedlings improved, whereas their malondialdehyde contents decreased. Therefore, the ESCA can efficiently improve seed germination, root length, and growth. The proposed ESCA exhibits great potential as an alternative to traditional SCA in future agricultural applications.

  6. Tokamak first-wall coating program development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.J.; Langley, R.A.; Prevender, T.S.

    1977-08-01

    The development of a research program to study coatings for control of impurities originating from the first wall of a Tokamak reactor is extensively discussed. The first wall environment and sputtering, temperature, surface chemical, and bulk radiation damage effects are reviewed. Candidate materials and application techniques are discussed. The philosophy and flow chart of a recommended coating development plan are presented and discussed. Projected impacts of the proposed plan include benefits to other aspects of confinement experiments. A list of 45 references is appended

  7. A WD40-repeat protein controls proanthocyanidin and phytomelanin pigmentation in the seed coats of the Japanese morning glory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyeung-Il; Hoshino, Atsushi

    2012-03-15

    The protein complex composed of the transcriptional regulators containing R2R3-MYB domains, bHLH domains, and WDR in plants controls various epidermal traits, including anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin pigmentation, trichome and root hair formation, and vacuolar pH. In the Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil), InMYB1 having R2R3-MYB domains and InWDR1 containing WDR were shown to regulate anthocyanin pigmentation in flowers, and InWDR1 was reported to control dark-brown pigmentation and trichome formation on seed coats. Here, we report that the seed pigments of I. nil mainly comprise proanthocyanidins and phytomelanins and that these pigments are drastically reduced in the ivory seed coats of an InWDR1 mutant. In addition, a transgenic plant of the InWDR1 mutant carrying the active InWDR1 gene produced dark-brown seeds, further confirming that InWDR1 regulates seed pigmentation. Early steps in anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthetic pathways are thought to be common. In the InWDR1 mutant, none of the structural genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis that showed reduced expression in the white flowers were down-regulated in the ivory seeds, which suggests that InWDR1 may activate different sets of the structural genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis in flowers and proanthocyanidin production in seeds. As in the flowers, however, we noticed that the expression of InbHLH2 encoding a bHLH regulator was down-regulated in the seeds of the InWDR1 mutant. We discuss the implications of these results with respect to the proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in the seed coats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Lack of Globulin Synthesis during Seed Development Alters Accumulation of Seed Storage Proteins in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The major seed storage proteins (SSPs in rice seeds have been classified into three types, glutelins, prolamins, and globulin, and the proportion of each SSP varies. It has been shown in rice mutants that when either glutelins or prolamins are defective, the expression of another type of SSP is promoted to counterbalance the deficit. However, we observed reduced abundances of glutelins and prolamins in dry seeds of a globulin-deficient rice mutant (Glb-RNAi, which was generated with RNA interference (RNAi-induced suppression of globulin expression. The expression of the prolamin and glutelin subfamily genes was reduced in the immature seeds of Glb-RNAi lines compared with those in wild type. A proteomic analysis of Glb-RNAi seeds showed that the reductions in glutelin and prolamin were conserved at the protein level. The decreased pattern in glutelin was also significant in the presence of a reductant, suggesting that the polymerization of the glutelin proteins via intramolecular disulfide bonds could be interrupted in Glb-RNAi seeds. We also observed aberrant and loosely packed structures in the storage organelles of Glb-RNAi seeds, which may be attributable to the reductions in SSPs. In this study, we evaluated the role of rice globulin in seed development, showing that a deficiency in globulin could comprehensively reduce the expression of other SSPs.

  9. Development of coated particle fuel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Moonsung; Kim, B. G.; Kim, D. J.

    2011-06-01

    Ammonia contacting method for prehardenning the surfaces of ADU liquid droplets and the ageing/washing/drying method and equipment for spherical dried-ADU particles were improved and tested with laboratory sacle. After the improvement of fabrication process, the sphericity of UO 2 kernel obtained to 1.1, and the sintered density and O/U ratio of final UO 2 kernel were above 10.60g/cm 3 . 2.01 respectively. Defects of SiC coating layer could be minimized by optimization of gas flow rate. The fracture strength of SiC layer increased from 450 MPa to 530 MPa by controlling the coating defects. An effort was made to develop the fundamental technology for the fuel element compact for use in High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor(HTGR) through an establishment of fabrication process, required materials and process equipment as well as performing experiments to identify the basic process conditions and optimize them. Thermal load simulation and verification experiments were carried out for an assesment of the design feasibility of the irradiation rod. Out-of-pile testing of irradiation device such as measurement of pressure drop and vibration, endurance test was performed and the validity of its design was confirmed. A fuel performance analysis code, COPA has been developed to calculate the fuel temperature, the failure fractions of coated fuel particles, the release of fission products. The COPA code can be used to evaluate the performance of the high temperature reactor fuel under the reactor operation, irradiation, heating conditions. KAERI participated in the round robin test of IAEA CRP-6 program to characterize the diameter, sphericity, coating thickness, density and anisotropy of coated particles provided by Korea, USA and South Africa. QC technology was established for TRISO-coated fuel particle. A method for accurate measurement of the optical anisotropy factor for PyC layers of coated particles was developed. Technology and inspection procedures for density

  10. COBRA-LIKE2, a Member of the Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored COBRA-LIKE Family, Plays a Role in Cellulose Deposition in Arabidopsis Seed Coat Mucilage Secretory Cells1,2[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Tov, Daniela; Abraham, Yael; Stav, Shira; Thompson, Kevin; Loraine, Ann; Elbaum, Rivka; de Souza, Amancio; Pauly, Markus; Kieber, Joseph J.; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation of the maternally derived seed coat epidermal cells into mucilage secretory cells is a common adaptation in angiosperms. Recent studies identified cellulose as an important component of seed mucilage in various species. Cellulose is deposited as a set of rays that radiate from the seed upon mucilage extrusion, serving to anchor the pectic component of seed mucilage to the seed surface. Using transcriptome data encompassing the course of seed development, we identified COBRA-LIKE2 (COBL2), a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored COBRA-LIKE gene family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), as coexpressed with other genes involved in cellulose deposition in mucilage secretory cells. Disruption of the COBL2 gene results in substantial reduction in the rays of cellulose present in seed mucilage, along with an increased solubility of the pectic component of the mucilage. Light birefringence demonstrates a substantial decrease in crystalline cellulose deposition into the cellulosic rays of the cobl2 mutants. Moreover, crystalline cellulose deposition into the radial cell walls and the columella appears substantially compromised, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and in situ quantification of light birefringence. Overall, the cobl2 mutants display about 40% reduction in whole-seed crystalline cellulose content compared with the wild type. These data establish that COBL2 plays a role in the deposition of crystalline cellulose into various secondary cell wall structures during seed coat epidermal cell differentiation. PMID:25583925

  11. Synthesis of Ag-coated polystyrene colloids by an improved surface seeding and shell growth technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Chungui; Wang Enbo; Kang Zhenhui; Mao Baodong; Zhang Chao; Lan Yang; Wang Chunlei; Song Yanli

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an improved surface seeding and shell growth technique was developed to prepare Ag-polystyrene core shell composite. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) could act as the linker between Ag ions (Ag nanoparticles) and polystyrene (PS) colloids and the reducing agent in the formation of Ag nanoparticles. Due to the multi-functional characteristic of PEI, Ag seeds formed in-situ and were immobilized on the surface of PEI-modified PS colloids and no free Ag clusters coexist with the Ag 'seeding' PS colloids in the system. Then, the additional agents could be added into the resulting dispersions straightly to produce a thick Ag nanoshell. The Ag nanoshell with controllable thickness was formed on the surface of PS by the 'one-pot' surface seeding and shell growth method. The Ag-coverage increased gradually with the increasing of mass ratio of AgNO 3 /PS. The optical properties of the Ag-PS colloids could be tailored by changing the coverage of Ag. - Graphical abstract: An improved surface seeding and shell growth technique was developed to prepare Ag-polystyrene core shell composite. The optical properties of the Ag-PS colloids could be tailored by changing the coverage of Ag. Display Omitted

  12. Activation of Arabidopsis seed hair development by cotton fiber-related genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Guan

    Full Text Available Each cotton fiber is a single-celled seed trichome or hair, and over 20,000 fibers may develop semi-synchronously on each seed. The molecular basis for seed hair development is unknown but is likely to share many similarities with leaf trichome development in Arabidopsis. Leaf trichome initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana is activated by GLABROUS1 (GL1 that is negatively regulated by TRIPTYCHON (TRY. Using laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis, we found that many putative MYB transcription factor and structural protein genes were differentially expressed in fiber and non-fiber tissues. Gossypium hirsutum MYB2 (GhMYB2, a putative GL1 homolog, and its downstream gene, GhRDL1, were highly expressed during fiber cell initiation. GhRDL1, a fiber-related gene with unknown function, was predominately localized around cell walls in stems, sepals, seed coats, and pollen grains. GFP:GhRDL1 and GhMYB2:YFP were co-localized in the nuclei of ectopic trichomes in siliques. Overexpressing GhRDL1 or GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0 activated fiber-like hair production in 4-6% of seeds and had on obvious effects on trichome development in leaves or siliques. Co-overexpressing GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 plants increased hair formation in ∼8% of seeds. Overexpressing both GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 try mutant plants produced seed hair in ∼10% of seeds as well as dense trichomes inside and outside siliques, suggesting synergistic effects of GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 with try on development of trichomes inside and outside of siliques and seed hair in A. thaliana. These data suggest that a different combination of factors is required for the full development of trichomes (hairs in leaves, siliques, and seeds. A. thaliana can be developed as a model a system for discovering additional genes that control seed hair development in general and cotton fiber in particular.

  13. Effect of abscisic acid on amino acid uptake and efflux in developing soybean seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guldan, S.J.; Brun, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    The role of abscisic acid (ABA) in regulating growth of developing soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seeds is not fully understood. The objectives of this study were to characterize the effect of ABA on the in vitro uptake of asparagine and glutamine by isolated immature cotyledons in three soybean plant introduction (PI) lines with genotypic differences in seed growth rate and final seed weight. Cotyledons were incubated in uptake buffer solutions plus 14 C-asparagine or 14 C-glutamine and treatment concentrations of ABA. The ABA levels in the uptake solutions were 0, 10 -7 , 10 -6 , and 10 -5 M. The uptake rate of glutamine was approximately three times that of asparagine. Among PI lines, the heavy seeded line had a greater rate of asparagine uptake while the light seeded line had a greater rate of glutamine uptake. For asparagine, 10 -6 M ABA depressed uptake compared to the control. For glutamine, ABA enhanced uptake compared to the control at both 10 -6 and 10 -5 M. In an additional experiment, the authors observed no effect of ABA and K on the release of labeled asparagine from excised soybean seed coats. These data indicate that amino acid uptake rates are genotypically dependent and may be influenced by ABA concentration

  14. Asymbiotic seed germination and in vitro seedling development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... (M) and Knudson 'C' (KC) were evaluated for seed germination and early ... running tap water and Teepol. ... blade. The powdery seeds were inoculated on the surface of agar ... an interval of one week to trace different stages of development of .... round in shape and radially symmetrical that turned to.

  15. Aspects of the barley seed proteome during development and germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Maeda, K.; Østergaard, O.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of the water-soluble barley seed proteome has led to the identification of proteins by MS in the major spots on two-dimensional gels covering the pi ranges 4-7 and 6-11. This provides the basis for in-depth studies of proteome changes during seed development and germination, tissue...

  16. Development of nutritious snacks by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Virginia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objectives to find out the sensory acceptability, the nutrient content and cost of prepared products. The products prepared were “Biscuits”, “Mathri” and “Laddoo” by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour in different proportions (10:10, 20:10, and 30:10 served as treatments T1, T2 and T3 respectively T0, without incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour served as control. The products were organoleptically evaluated by using Nine point Hedonic scale. The data obtained during study were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and C.D techniques. The prepared products were analyzed for nutrient content using the standard method of AOAC (2005.It was concluded that in case of “Biscuits” and “Mathri” with incorporation level 20 percent amaranth seeds flour and 10 percent watermelon seeds flour scored highest while in case of “Laddoo” with incorporation level 20 percent amaranth seeds and 10 percent watermelon seeds scored highest, with regard to colour and appearance, body and texture, taste and flavour and over all acceptability, However all the treatments were found to be acceptable. It is therefore concluded that amaranth seeds and watermelon seeds can be suitably incorporated in various developed products. “Laddoo” had maximum carbohydrate (64.49g/100g, protein (13.59g/100g calcium (100.1mg/100g and iron (3.33mg/100g content. The content of Protein (14.46g/100g, carbohydrate (59.90 Calcium (59.90mg/100g, were increased as compared to control in “Biscuits”. “Mathri” was rich in Protein, Fat, carbohydrate and calcium content (11.10g/100g, 38.56g/100g, 38.83g/100g, and 53.95mg/100g. Cost of products on the basis raw ingredients per 100g ranged between Rs 6.33-12.45 for “Biscuits”, Rs 16.06-30.07, Rs 12.27-18.19 for “Mathri” and Rs.6.42-12.26 for “Laddoo”. On the basis of findings it is concluded

  17. Maize seed coatings and seedling sprayings with chitosan and hydrogen peroxide:their influence on some phenological and biochemical behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva-Guadalupe LIZ(A)RRAGA-PAUL(I)N; Susana-Patricia MIRANDA-CASTRO; Ernesto MORENO-MART(I)NEZ; Alma-Virginia LARA-SAGAH(O)N; Irineo TORRES-PACHECO

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of chitosan(CH)and hydrogen peroxide(H2O2)seed coatings and seedling sprinklings on two different maize varieties by measuring their phenology,the H2O2 presence,the catalase (CAT)activity,and the protein quantity.Methods:Seven groups of ten seeds for each maize variety were treated with CH(2%(20 g/L)and 0.2%(2 g/L))or H2O2(8 mmol/L)by coating,sprinkling,or both.Germination and seedling growth were measured.One month after germination,the presence of H2O2 in seedlings in the coated seed treatments was evaluated.Protein content and CAT activity were determined under all treatments.Results:H2O2 seed coating enhanced the germination rate and increased seedling and stem length in the quality protein maize(QPM)variety.Seedlings had a higher emergence velocity under this treatment in both varieties.CH and H2O2 sprinklings did not have an effect on seedling phenology.Exogenous application of H2O2 promoted an increase of endogenous H2O2.CH and H2O2 seedling sprinkling increased the protein content in both maize varieties,while there was no significant effect on the CAT activity of treated seeds and seedlings.Conclusions:CH and H2O2 enhance some phenological and biochemical features of maize depending on their method of application.

  18. Development and characterization of superparamagnetic coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuschnerus I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005, Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI is handled as a key technology with great potential in medical applications as an imaging method [1]. The superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs which are already used as a tracer in MPI, combined with various polymers, are being investigated in order to enhance this potential. A combination of polymers such as polyethylene (PE and polyurethane (PU and SPIONs could be used as a coating for medical devices, or added to semi-rigid polyurethane for the production of surgical instruments [2]. This would be of great interest, since the method provides high sensitivity with simultaneous high spatial resolution and three-dimensional imaging in real time. Therefore various superparamagnetic coatings were developed, tested and characterized. Finally SPIONs and various polymers were combined directly and used for MPI-compatible models.

  19. Aqueous pathways dominate permeation of solutes across Pisum sativum seed coats and mediate solute transport via diffusion and bulk flow of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Sylvia; Burghardt, Markus; Popp, Christian; Riederer, Markus

    2013-05-01

    The permeability of seed coats to solutes either of biological or anthropogenic origin plays a major role in germination, seedling growth and seed treatment by pesticides. An experimental set-up was designed for investigating the mechanisms of seed coat permeation, which allows steady-state experiments with isolated seed coats of Pisum sativum. Permeances were measured for a set of organic model compounds with different physicochemical properties and sizes. The results show that narrow aqueous pathways dominate the diffusion of solutes across pea seed coats, as indicated by a correlation of permeances with the molecular sizes of the compounds instead of their lipophilicity. Further indicators for an aqueous pathway are small size selectivity and a small effect of temperature on permeation. The application of an osmotic water potential gradient across isolated seed coats leads to an increase in solute transfer, indicating that the aqueous pathways form a water-filled continuum across the seed coat allowing the bulk flow of water. Thus, the uptake of organic solutes across pea testae has two components: (1) by diffusion and (2) by bulk water inflow, which, however, is relevant only during imbibition. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Development of Charge Drain Coatings: Final CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Jeffrey W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-01-17

    The primary goal of this CRADA project was to develop and optimize tunable resistive coatings prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) for use as charge-drain coatings on the KLA-Tencor digital pattern generators (DPGs).

  1. Germination and development of pecan cultivar seedlings by seed stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Poletto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of seed stratification on germination rate, germination speed, and initial development of seedlings of six pecan (Carya illinoinensis cultivars under subtropical climatic conditions in southern Brazil. For stratification, the seeds were placed in boxes with moist sand, in a cold chamber at 4°C, for 90 days. In the fourteenth week after sowing, the emergence speed index, total emergence, plant height, stem diameter, and number of leaves were evaluated. Seed stratification significantly improves the germination potential and morphological traits of the evaluated cultivars.

  2. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism...... give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP......, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748...

  3. A proteomic analysis of seed development in Brassica campestri L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlan Li

    Full Text Available To gain insights into the protein dynamics during seed development, a proteomic study on the developing Brassica campestri L. seeds with embryos in different embryogenesis stages was carried out. The seed proteins at 10, 16, 20, 25 and 35 DAP (days after pollination, respectively, were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identities of 209 spots with altered abundance were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These proteins were classified into 16 groups according to their functions. The most abundant proteins were related to primary metabolism, indicating the heavy demand of materials for rapid embryo growth. Besides, the high amount of proteins involved in protein processing and destination indicated importance of protein renewal during seed development. The remaining were those participated in oxidation/detoxification, energy, defense, transcription, protein synthesis, transporter, cell structure, signal transduction, secondary metabolism, transposition, DNA repair, storage and so on. Protein abundance profiles of each functional class were generated and hierarchical cluster analysis established 8 groups of dynamic patterns. Our results revealed novel characters of protein dynamics in seed development in Brassica campestri L. and provided valuable information about the complex process of seed development in plants.

  4. Control of seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana by atmospheric oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, A.; Crispi, M.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Seed development is known to be inhibited completely when plants are grown in oxygen concentrations below 5.1 kPa, but apart from reports of decreased seed weight little is known about embryogenesis at subambient oxygen concentrations above this critical level. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants were grown full term under continuous light in premixed atmospheres with oxygen partial pressures of 2.5, 5.1, 10.1, 16.2 and 21.3 kPa O2, 0.035 kPa CO2 and the balance nitrogen. Seeds were harvested for germination tests and microscopy when siliques had yellowed. Seed germination was depressed in O2 treatments below 16.2 kPa, and seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2 did not germinate at all. Fewer than 25% of the seeds from plants grown in 5.1 kPa oxygen germinated and most of the seedlings appeared abnormal. Light and scanning electron microscopic observation of non-germinated seeds showed that these embryos had stopped growing at different developmental stages depending upon the prevailing oxygen level. Embryos stopped growing at the heart-shaped to linear cotyledon stage in 5.1 kPa O2, at around the curled cotyledon stage in 10.1 kPa O2, and at the premature stage in 16.2 kPa O2. Globular and heart-shaped embryos were observed in sectioned seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2. Tissue degeneration caused by cell autolysis and changes in cell structure were observed in cotyledons and radicles. Transmission electron microscopy of mature seeds showed that storage substances, such as protein bodies, were reduced in subambient oxygen treatments. The results demonstrate control of embryo development by oxygen in Arabidopsis.

  5. Global transcriptome analysis of developing chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Seema; Bandhiwal, Nitesh; Shah, Niraj; Kant, Chandra; Gaur, Rashmi; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2014-01-01

    Understanding developmental processes, especially in non-model crop plants, is extremely important in order to unravel unique mechanisms regulating development. Chickpea (C. arietinum L.) seeds are especially valued for their high carbohydrate and protein content. Therefore, in order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying seed development in chickpea, deep sequencing of transcriptomes from four developmental stages was undertaken. In this study, next generation sequencing platform was utilized to sequence the transcriptome of four distinct stages of seed development in chickpea. About 1.3 million reads were generated which were assembled into 51,099 unigenes by merging the de novo and reference assemblies. Functional annotation of the unigenes was carried out using the Uniprot, COG and KEGG databases. RPKM based digital expression analysis revealed specific gene activities at different stages of development which was validated using Real time PCR analysis. More than 90% of the unigenes were found to be expressed in at least one of the four seed tissues. DEGseq was used to determine differentially expressing genes which revealed that only 6.75% of the unigenes were differentially expressed at various stages. Homology based comparison revealed 17.5% of the unigenes to be putatively seed specific. Transcription factors were predicted based on HMM profiles built using TF sequences from five legume plants and analyzed for their differential expression during progression of seed development. Expression analysis of genes involved in biosynthesis of important secondary metabolites suggested that chickpea seeds can serve as a good source of antioxidants. Since transcriptomes are a valuable source of molecular markers like simple sequence repeats (SSRs), about 12,000 SSRs were mined in chickpea seed transcriptome and few of them were validated. In conclusion, this study will serve as a valuable resource for improved chickpea breeding.

  6. Global transcriptome analysis of developing chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema ePradhan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding developmental processes, especially in non-model crop plants, is extremely important in order to unravel unique mechanisms regulating development. Chickpea (C. arietinum L. seeds are especially valued for their high carbohydrate and protein content. Therefore, in order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying seed development in chickpea, deep sequencing of transcriptomes from four developmental stages was undertaken. In this study, next generation sequencing platform was utilised to sequence the transcriptome of four distinct stages of seed development in chickpea. About 1.3 million reads were generated which were assembled into 51,099 unigenes by merging the de novo and reference assemblies. Functional annotation of the unigenes was carried out using the Uniprot, COG and KEGG databases. RPKM based digital expression analysis revealed specific gene activities at different stages of development which was validated using Real time PCR analysis. More than 90% of the unigenes were found to be expressed in at least one of the four seed tissues. DEGseq was used to determine differentially expressing genes which revealed that only 6.75% of the unigenes were differentially expressed at various stages. Homology based comparison revealed 17.5% of the unigenes to be putatively seed specific. Transcription factors were predicted based on HMM profiles built using TF sequences from five legume plants and analysed for their differential expression during progression of seed development. Expression analysis of genes involved in biosynthesis of important secondary metabolites suggested that chickpea seeds can serve as a good source of antioxidants. Since transcriptomes are a valuable source of molecular markers like simple sequence repeats (SSRs, about 12,000 SSRs were mined in chickpea seed transcriptome and few of them were validated. In conclusion, this study will serve as a valuable resource for improved chickpea breeding.

  7. Effect of thermal barrier coating with various blends of pumpkin seed oil methyl ester in DI diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthickeyan, V.; Balamurugan, P.

    2017-10-01

    The rise in oil prices, dependency on fossil fuels, degradation of non-renewable energy resources and global warming strives to find a low-carbon content alternative fuel to the conventional fuel. In the present work, Partially Stabilized Zirconia (PSZ) was used as a thermal barrier coating in piston head, cylinder head and intake and exhaust valves using plasma spray technique, which provided a rise in combustion chamber temperature. With the present study, the effects of thermal barrier coating on the blends of Pumpkin Seed Oil Methyl Ester (PSOME) were observed in both the coated and uncoated engine. Performance and emission characteristics of the PSOME in coated and uncoated engines were observed and compared. Increased thermal efficiency and reduced fuel consumption were observed for B25 and diesel in coated and uncoated engine. On comparing with the other biodiesel samples, B25 exhibited lower HC, NOx and smoke emissions in thermally coated engine than uncoated engine. After 100 h of operation, no anamolies were found in the thermally coated components except minor cracks were identified in the edges of the piston head.

  8. Impact of accelerated plant growth on seed variety development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Eric

    1998-01-01

    The commercial lives of agricultural seed products have steadily declined in recent years. The introduction of genetically engineered crop seeds in 1966 has accentuated that trend. Widespread grower demand for genetically engineered seed requires competitive response by industry followers in order to avert market share losses to the industry leaders. Limitations on plant transformation technology, regulatory requirements and patent impediments require companies to rapidly convert transformed lines into elite commercial products. Massive multigenerational backcrossing efforts are required to distribute genetically engineered traits into a broad product mix. Significant incidents of expression failures, or ``gene silencing,'' have occurred unexpectedly, requiring product substitution strategies. First-to-market strategies, competitive response, broad germplasm conversion and rescue of product failures all share the element of urgency. Technologies which reliably accelerate product development rates can expect favorable reception by commercial seed developers. A growth chamber which dramatically accelerates the rate of plant growth is described.

  9. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the polyphenolic fractions isolated from the seed coat of Abrus precatorius and Caesalpinia crista.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobin, Lubna; Saeed, Syed Asad; Ali, Rashida; Saeed, Syed Ghufran; Ahmed, Rahil

    2017-09-26

    Crude seed coat extracts from Abrus precatorius and Caesalpinia crista were purified into four different fractions namely phenolic acids, flavonols, flavanols and anthocyanin which were then examined for their polyphenol contents and antimicrobial potentials. The fractions derived from seed coat of A. precatorius were found more potent with high phenolic and flavonoid contents as compared to C. crista fractions. The significant antibacterial activity was observed against all strain tested by the fractions of both samples apart from anthocyanin fraction. It was interesting to note that the phenolic acid fractions of both samples was found more active against gram-negative bacteria, while gram-positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive towards flavonol fractions. The phenolic acid and flavonol fractions being potent antibacterial were selected to demonstrate the antifungal capacity of two samples. Among them, phenolic acid fraction of both samples was found active towards all the fungal strain.

  10. Disruptions in valine degradation affect seed development and germination in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Andrew B; Morton, Kyla J; Rhee, Rachel J; Simo, Szabolcs; Clayton, Jack A; Perrett, Morgan E; Binkley, Christiana G; Jensen, Erika L; Oakes, Dana L; Rouhier, Matthew F; Rouhier, Kerry A

    2017-06-01

    We have functionally characterized the role of two putative mitochondrial enzymes in valine degradation using insertional mutants. Prior to this study, the relationship between branched-chain amino acid degradation (named for leucine, valine and isoleucine) and seed development was limited to leucine catabolism. Using a reverse genetics approach, we show that disruptions in the mitochondrial valine degradation pathway affect seed development and germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. A null mutant of 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (CHY4, At4g31810) resulted in an embryo lethal phenotype, while a null mutant of methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (MMSD, At2g14170) resulted in seeds with wrinkled coats, decreased storage reserves, elevated valine and leucine, and reduced germination rates. These data highlight the unique contributions CHY4 and MMSD make to the overall growth and viability of plants. It also increases our knowledge of the role branched-chain amino acid catabolism plays in seed development and amino acid homeostasis. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Antibiofilm potential of flavonoids extracted from Moringa oleifera seed coat against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsare, J G; Arora, D S

    2015-02-01

    The increased microbial drug resistance due to biofilms and the side effects associated with the use of conventional drugs is still a major concern in the medical fraternity. This work evaluates the antibiofilm potential of flavonoids extracted from Moringa oleifera seed coat (SC) in search for green and effective alternatives for overcoming menace of biofilms. The study evaluated the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of flavonoids against respective test organisms, inhibition of initial cell attachment as well as disruption of preformed biofilms and metabolic activity of treated biofilms. Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity as well as characterization of the active component were also carried out. Although Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed the lowest MIC of 0.05 mg ml(-1), the action of flavonoids and gentamicin on initial cell attachment revealed a comparable effect against bacterial biofilms, i.e. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with approx. 80% inhibition compared to Candida albicans. Disruption of the preformed biofilms revealed that susceptibility of P. aeruginosa began as early as 4 h of exposure to flavonoids with 88% growth inhibition at the end of 24-h incubation. Encouragingly, t-test analysis on the effect of the extract and the standard antibiotic against each organism indicated no significant variance at P < 0.05. A drastic low metabolic activity exhibited by the treated biofilms as compared to the untreated ones was further supportive of the antibiofilm potential of seed coat flavonoids. The bioactive component from M. oleifera seed coat has exhibited antibiofilm potential against the test organisms belonging to Gram positive, Gram negative and yeast. Antibiofilm potential and biosafety of plant-based flavonoids from M. oleifera seed coat reveal a prospective active principle that could be of use in biofilm-associated menace. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Eco-dyeing using Tamarindus indica L. seed coat tannin as a natural mordant for textiles with antibacterial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu, K.H.; Teli, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    Tamarind seed coat tannin was extracted and its tannin class was determined. The extracted tannin was employed as a natural mordant alone and in combination with metal mordant namely copper sulphate for cotton, wool and silk fabrics and dyed using natural dyes namely turmeric and pomegranate rind. The colour strength, colour coordinates, wash and light fastness were evaluated and compared for all the three fabrics with and without mordanting. The pre-mordanted fabrics on dyeing gave better co...

  13. The Circadian Clock-controlled Transcriptome of Developing Soybean Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Hudson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of metabolic and physiological processes in plants are controlled by the circadian clock, which enables a plant to anticipate daily changes in the environment. Relatively little is known about circadian rhythms in developing seeds, which may be important for determining the extent and timing of nutrient storage in grain. Microarray expression profiling was used to identify genes expressed in developing soybean ( seeds that are controlled by the circadian clock. Genes with predicted functions in protein synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and photosynthesis totaling 1.8% of the mRNAs detected in seed were found to be expressed in a circadian rhythm. Known circadian and light-controlled promoter elements were identified as over-represented in the promoters of clock-controlled seed genes, with the over-represented elements varying according to the phase of circadian expression. A subset of circadian-regulated genes were found to be expressed in different phases in developing seeds with respect to leaves from the same plants, many of which have roles in photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. These results help to characterize the genes and processes in seeds that may be regulated by the circadian clock, and provide some insight into organ-specific phasing of clock controlled gene expression.

  14. Development and efficacy assessments of tea seed oil makeup remover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnsamut, N; Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N

    2017-05-01

    The efficacy of tea seed oil to clean foundation and eyeliner was evaluated. The safe and efficient tea seed oil makeup remover was developed. In vitro cleansing efficacy of makeup remover was UV-spectrophotometric validated. The stability evaluation by means of accelerated stability test was conducted. In vitro and in vivo cleansing efficacy of the removers was conducted in a comparison with benchmark majorly containing olive oil. Tea seed oil cleaned 90.64±4.56% of foundation and 87.62±8.35% of eyeliner. The stable with most appropriate textures base was incorporated with tea seed oil. Three tea seed oil removers (50, 55 and 60%) were stabled. The 60% tea seed oil remover significantly removed foundation better than others (94.48±3.37%; Pmakeup removers had been developed. The consumers' choices towards the makeup remover containing the bio-oils are widen. In vitro cleansing efficacy during the course of makeup remover development using UV-spectrophotometric method feasible for pharmaceutic industries is encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduced bioavailability of cyclosporine A in rats by mung bean seed coat extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiping Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mung bean seed coat (MBSC is a healthcare product in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an MBSC ethanol extract on the bioavailability of cyclosporine A (CsA in rats. Rats were orally dosed with CsA alone or in combination with MBSC ethanol extracts (500 mg/kg, p.o.. The blood levels of CsA were assayed by liquid chromatography with an electrospray ionization source and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The everted rat intestinal sac technique was used to determine the influence of MBSC on the absorption of CsA. The results reveal that combined CsA intake with MBSC decreased the Cmax, AUC0-t, t1/2z and MRT0-t values of CsA by 24.96%, 47.28%, 34.73% and 23.58%, respectively (P<0.05, and significantly raised the CL/F by 51.97% (P<0.01. The in vitro results demonstrated that significantly less CsA was absorbed (P<0.05. The overall results indicate that after being concomitantly ingested, MBSC reduced the bioavailability of CsA, at least partially, in the absorption phase.

  16. Seed coat microsculpturing is related to genomic components in wild Brassica juncea and Sinapis arvensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-hao; Wei, Wei; Kang, Ding-ming; Ma, Ke-ping

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that wild Brassica and related species are widely distributed across Xinjiang, China, and there has been an argument for species identification. Seed coat microsculpturing (SCM) is known to be an excellent character for taxonomic and evolutionary studies. By identifying collections from Xinjiang, China, and combining SCM pattern, flow cytometry, and genome-specific DNA markers as well as sexual compatibility with known species, this study aimed to detect potential relationships between SCM and genomic types in wild Brassica and related species. Three wild collections were found to be tetraploid with a SCM reticulate pattern similar to B. juncea, and containing A and B genome-specific loci, indicating relatively high sexual compatibility with B. juncea. The others were diploid, carrying S-genome-specific DNA markers, and having relatively high sexual compatibility with Sinapis arvensis. Moreover, their SCM was in a rugose pattern similar to that of S. arvensis. It was suggested that SCM, as a morphological characteristic, can reflect genomic type, and be used to distinguish B-genome species such as B. juncea from the related S. arvensis. The relationship between SCM and genomic type can support taxonomic studies of the wild Brassica species and related species.

  17. Seed coat microsculpturing is related to genomic components in wild Brassica juncea and Sinapis arvensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-hao Wang

    Full Text Available It has been reported that wild Brassica and related species are widely distributed across Xinjiang, China, and there has been an argument for species identification. Seed coat microsculpturing (SCM is known to be an excellent character for taxonomic and evolutionary studies. By identifying collections from Xinjiang, China, and combining SCM pattern, flow cytometry, and genome-specific DNA markers as well as sexual compatibility with known species, this study aimed to detect potential relationships between SCM and genomic types in wild Brassica and related species. Three wild collections were found to be tetraploid with a SCM reticulate pattern similar to B. juncea, and containing A and B genome-specific loci, indicating relatively high sexual compatibility with B. juncea. The others were diploid, carrying S-genome-specific DNA markers, and having relatively high sexual compatibility with Sinapis arvensis. Moreover, their SCM was in a rugose pattern similar to that of S. arvensis. It was suggested that SCM, as a morphological characteristic, can reflect genomic type, and be used to distinguish B-genome species such as B. juncea from the related S. arvensis. The relationship between SCM and genomic type can support taxonomic studies of the wild Brassica species and related species.

  18. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A.; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A.; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O.; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A.

    2016-01-01

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05). PMID:26901186

  19. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio A. Chávez-Santoscoy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29 was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05.

  20. Experimental study and simulation of mass distribution of the covering layer of soybean seeds coated in a spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte C. R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous work, it was observed that the covering of soybean seeds with bacteria and micronutrients enhances vigorous growth of the plant thereby avoiding use of ammoniacal fertilizers. In the spouted bed covering can be done by pulverization of the coater slurry on the soybean seeds using a pneumatic atomizer. The optimum thickness of the cover allows the fundamental gaseous interchanges for germination and provides the ideal conditions for bacterium activity. The objective of this work was to study the influence of the process variables on thickness of the cover. A simulation of the mass distribution of seeds was obtained using a population balance model. Through the results obtained the operational conditions under which the coating layer distribution were determined has the greatest uniformity.

  1. Taxonomic evaluation using pollen grain sculpture and seed coat characters of 11 taxa of genus Hibiscus (Malvaceae in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. El-Kholy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grain morphology and seed coat characters of 11 cultivars belonging to two species of genus Hibiscus (Family Malvaceae namely H. esculentus, H. abelmoschus and H. sabdariffa were investigated. This study was carried out using light microscope (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Pollen morphology of this genus is fairly uniform. Generally radially symmetrical apolar, mostly spheroidal, pantoporate. Seed exomorphic characters revealed four types of ornamentations; reticulate, ocealate, foveolate and ruminate. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE was employed to characterize those taxa. Thirty-one bands of seed protein profiles have been constructed from the gel. The produced dendrograms that were analyzed by STATISCA program using UPGMA clustering method showed a close affinity among the seven H. esculentus cultivars and the four H. sabdariffa cultivars.

  2. RNAi-mediated pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase gene silencing in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed coat: consequences on lignans and neolignans accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouard, Sullivan; Tribalatc, Marie-Aude; Lamblin, Frederic; Mongelard, Gaëlle; Fliniaux, Ophélie; Corbin, Cyrielle; Marosevic, Djurdjica; Pilard, Serge; Demailly, Hervé; Gutierrez, Laurent; Hano, Christophe; Mesnard, François; Lainé, Eric

    2014-09-15

    RNAi technology was applied to down regulate LuPLR1 gene expression in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds. This gene encodes a pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase responsible for the synthesis of (+)-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the major lignan accumulated in the seed coat. If flax lignans biological properties and health benefits are well documented their roles in planta remain unclear. This loss of function strategy was developed to better understand the implication of the PLR1 enzyme in the lignan biosynthetic pathway and to provide new insights on the functions of these compounds. RNAi plants generated exhibited LuPLR1 gene silencing as demonstrated by quantitative RT-PCR experiments and the failed to accumulate SDG. The accumulation of pinoresinol the substrate of the PLR1 enzyme under its diglucosylated form (PDG) was increased in transgenic seeds but did not compensate the overall loss of SDG. The monolignol flux was also deviated through the synthesis of 8-5' linked neolignans dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucoside (DCG) and dihydro-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucoside (DDCG) which were observed for the first time in flax seeds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. A Novel Seeding Method of Interfacial Polymerization-Assisted Dip Coating for the Preparation of Zeolite NaA Membranes on Ceramic Hollow Fiber Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yue; Wang, Ming; Xu, Zhen-Liang; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Xue, Shuang-Mei

    2016-09-28

    A novel seeding method combining interfacial polymerization (IP) technique with dip-coating operation was designed for directly coating nanosized NaA seed crystals (150 nm) onto the micrometer-sized α-Al2O3 hollow fiber support, in which the polyamide (PA) produced by IP acted as an effective medium to freeze and fix seed crystals at the proper position so that the controlled seed layer could be accomplished. While a coating suspension with only 0.5 wt % seed content was used, a very thin seed layer with high quality and good adhesion was achieved through dip coating twice without drying between, and the whole seeding process was operated at ambient conditions. The resulting zeolite NaA membranes not only exhibited high pervaporation (PV) performance with an average separation factor above 10000 and flux nearly 9.0 kg/m(2)·h in dehydration of 90 wt % ethanol aqueous solution at 348 K but also demonstrated great reproducibility by testing more than eight batches of zeolite membranes. In addition, this seeding strategy could be readily extended to the preparation of other supported zeolite membranes for a wide range of separation applications.

  4. Seeding Event: Creating and Developing Spaces of Entrepreneurial Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëtan Mourmant

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of initiating, fostering and growing a vibrant economy by developing Spaces of Entrepreneurial Freedom (SoEF. Establishing and developing the SoEF is explained by a seeding event which is the core category of this grounded theory. In short, a seeding event leads to the patching of a potential, structural “hole”, which may prove valuable to an entrepreneurial network. Seeding events are started by an initiator who will recognize a network opportunity and exploit it. After event designing, the initiators implement the event through bold experimentation and using an adaptive structure. If the event is considered successful, the next stages are refining, growing, templating and finally replicating; these stages may occur one after the other or simultaneously. Through the development of SoEF, we suggest that entrepreneurs, governments, universities, large companies, and other players in the business world can improve the development of entrepreneurship at their respective levels.

  5. Alternative waste form development - low-temperature pyrolytic carbon coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Rusin, J.M.; Kidd, R.W.; Browning, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Although several chemical vapor deposition (CVD) - coated waste forms have been successfully produced, some major disadvantages associated with the high-temperature fluidized-bed CVD coating process exist. To overcome these disadvantages, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory has initiated the development of a pyrolytic carbon CVD coating system to coat large waste-form particles at temperatures ranging from 400 to 500/degree/C. This relatively simple system has been used to coat kilogram quantities of simulated waste-glass marbles. Further development of this system could result in a viable process to coat bulk quantities of both glass and ceramic waste forms. This paper discusses various aspects of the development work, including coating techniques, parametric study, and coater equipment. 10 refs

  6. Effects of quince seed, almond, and tragacanth gum coating on the banana slices properties during the process of hot air drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandfar, Reza; Mohseni, Maedeh; Asnaashari, Maryam

    2017-11-01

    Due to early deterioration of banana in drying process, almond, quince seed, and tragacanth gums as edible coatings were determined. For this purpose, banana slices were coated in 0.7% solution of each gum and one group remained uncoated as the control. The samples were examined at specific times considering the weight loss, color analyzing (a*, b*, and L*) through the method computer vision, color difference index, browning index, and rehydration after the samples being dried. The results showed that the weight loss of the coated samples was significantly ( p  < .05) higher than the uncoated samples which can be due to the alteration or destruction of the cell membrane. The almond gum-coated samples had significantly a lower ultimate browning index and quince seed gum-coated samples showed the highest rehydration. So, the gums coating is an effective way to preserve the quality characteristics of the banana slices.

  7. Soybean roots retain the seed urease isozyme synthesized during embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torisky, R.S.; Polacco, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Roots of young soybean plants contain two urease isozymes which are separable by hydroxyapatite chromatography. These two urease species (HAP1 and HAP2) differ in: (1) native gel electrophoretic mobility, (2) pH optima, and (3) recognition by a monoclonal antibody specific for the embryo-specific urease. By these parameters HAP1 is similar to the abundant embryo-specific urease isozyme while HAP2 resembles the ubiquitous urease, found in all soybean tissues previously examined (embryo, seed coat, cultured cells). Roots of mutant soybean plants lacking the seed urease contain no HAP1 urease activity, whereas roots of mutants lacking the ubiquitous urease contain no HAP2 urease activity. However, adventitious roots generated from cuttings of any urease genotype lack HAP1 urease activity. Furthermore, [ 35 S] methionine labelling shows no de novo synthesis of the HAP1 urease in the root, and total root HAP1 urease activity decreases sharply following germination. We conclude: (1) HAP1 is a remnant of the seed urease accumulated in the embryonic root axis during seed development, and (2) HAP2 is ubiquitous urease synthesized de novo in the root

  8. Seed-vectored endophytic bacteria modulate development of rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S K; Kingsley, K; Irizarry, I; Bergen, M; Kharwar, R N; White, J F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the removal of indigenous bacteria from rice seeds on seedling growth and development. Here we report the presence of three indigenous endophytic bacteria in rice seeds that play important roles in modulating seedling development (shoot and root lengths, and formation of root hairs and secondary roots) and defence against pathogens. Seed-associated bacteria were removed using surface sterilization with NaOCl (bleach) followed by antibiotic treatment. When bacteria were absent, growth of seedlings in terms of root hair development and overall seedling size was less than that of seedlings that contained bacteria. Reactive oxygen staining of seedlings showed that endophytic bacteria became intracellular in root parenchyma cells and root hairs. Roots containing endophytic bacteria were seen to stain densely for reactive oxygen, while roots free of bacteria stained lightly for reactive oxygen. Bacteria were isolated and identified as Enterobacter asburiae (VWB1), Pantoea dispersa (VWB2) and Pseudomonas putida (VWB3) by 16S rDNA sequencing. Bacteria were found to produce indole acetic acid (auxins), inhibited the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum and solubilized phosphate. Reinoculation of bacteria onto seedlings derived from surface-disinfected rice and Bermuda grass seeds significantly restored seedling growth and development. Rice seeds harbour indigenous bacterial endophytes that greatly influence seedling growth and development, including root and shoot lengths, root hair formation and disease susceptibility of rice seedlings. This study shows that seeds of rice naturally harbour bacterial endophytes that play key roles in modulation of seedling development. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Fruit, seed and embryo development of different cassava (Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruit, seed and embryo developments of different cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) genotypes, as well as embryo rescue, were investigated. The fruits of three genotypes after uncontrolled open pollination presented the same progressive development with similar sizes at different stages. There are large differences in ...

  10. Soy bean seed-coat, potential renewable raw-material for alcohol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Chandra Srivastava

    1984-11-01

    Full Text Available The seed coat was shaken for different periods of time, from 12 hr to 96 hr in sterile distilled water pre-adjusted to pH 8. The contents of the flask filtered and pH adjusted to 4.6. Next the solution was heated for 20 min at 90° C in a water bath, filtered and media prepared from the filtrate. These media were inoculated with 10% volume of a strain of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. The suspension shaken on a rotary shaker at 250 rpm and 30°C ± 1°C for 48 hr after which the culture filtrate was distilled and the amount of alcohol measured according to the alcoholometry tables of the U.S. Pharmacopeias. Thus up to 1.3% of alcohol could be obtained.Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados sobre obtenção de álcool a partir de casca de soja. A casca foi agitada por diferentes períodos de tempo de 12h a 96h em água destilada esterilizada, pré-ajustada para pH 8. Os conteúdos do frasco foram filtrados, o pH ajustado para 4,6; os conteúdos cozidos, esfriados e filtrados. Os filtrados com ou sem suplementação com extrato de levedura, peptona e glicose em conjunto ou separadamente foram usados como mosto para fermentação por S. cerevisiae. As suspensões foram agitadas a 250 rpm e 30° C ± l°C48h, e após este período, a quantidade de álcool calcula­da de acordo com a tabela alcoolométrica da Farmacopia dos Estados Unidos, foi de até 1.3%.

  11. Optical properties of Lactuca and Taraxacum seed and fruit coats: Their role as light filters [phytochrome, photoblasty, fiber optics, transmission, spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widell, K.-O.; Vogelmann, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    The optical properties of seed and fruit coats were examined from several varieties of light-sensitive achenes. Taraxacum vulgare L. and Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids achenes with dark fruit coats and L. sativa cvs Huvudsallat and Issallat with white fruit coats were examined. Transmission spectra varied among the different achenes: white fruit coats of Lactuca acted as neutral density filters between 450 and 780 nm, whereas Taraxacum transmitted 2–36% in this region. The ribbed fruit coat structure greatly affected transmission so that at different locations in the same coat, transmission varied between 20 to 80% at 660 and 730 nm. Fruit coats of Grand Rapids lettuce and Taraxacum transmitted more far-red than red light with T 660 /T 730 ratios of 0.8 and 0.4, respectively. The relationship between the optical properties of fruit coats and light-stimulated germination is discussed. (author)

  12. Embryo development and corresponding factors affecting in vitro germination of Cymbidium faberi × C. sinense hybrid seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fengtong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of embryo development would provide insights into seed quality and subsequent germination events in the interspecific hybridization of Cymbidium faberi ‘Jiepeimei’ × C. sinense ‘Qijianheimo’. At the mature stage, 26.1% of the ovules were abnormal. Most of the hybrid embryos could develop normally. Abortions mainly occurred at the zygote (9.5% and 2-4-celled embryo (15.1% stages. No germination was observed at 90 and 105 days after pollination (DAP, when the embryo was at the early globular stage, with abundant organelles but no storage materials. During 110-130 DAP, the globular embryo was formed and the starch grains began to accumulate in plastids. The hybrid seeds collected at 120 DAP showed initiation of germination. Germination significantly increased at 135 DAP and was maximal at 150 DAP, during which period the hybrid embryos developed into the late globular stage. The storage materials, i.e. lipid and protein bodies, began to accumulate and the filamentary structures derived from suspensor cells still persisted. After the seeds matured (160 DAP, the germination percentage declined sharply. Safranin staining revealed that the outer seed coat was totally cuticularized and the inner seed coat appeared as a cuticle layer enclosing the embryo proper tightly, which may be the main factor inhibiting the subsequent germination of hybrid seeds. In conclusion, 150 DAP should be the opportune time for the in vitro germination of C. faberi ‘Jiepeimei’ × C. sinense ‘Qijianheimo’ hybrid seeds.

  13. Development of High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhattacharya, Rabi

    1999-01-01

    ... environment. To test this approach, UES and Cleveland State University have conducted experiments to form cesium oxythiotungstate, a high temperature lubricant, on Inconel 718 surface from composite coatings...

  14. seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    peptidohydrolase (8.0%) from mung bean seedlings. (Baumgartner and Chrispeels, 1977), EP-HG (4.5%) from horse gram seedlings ( Rajeswari, 1997), acidic protease (15%) from germinating winged-bean seeds. (Usha and Singh, 1996) and EP-1 (1.6%) from barley seedlings and GA3-induced cysteine protease (3.38%).

  15. Pulsed laser deposition of YBCO coated conductor using Y2O3 as the seed and cap layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, P N; Nekkanti, R M; Haugan, T J; Campbell, T A; Yust, N A; Evans, J M

    2004-01-01

    Although a variety of buffer layers have been routinely reported, a standard architecture commonly used for the Y Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) coated conductor is Y BCO/CeO 2 /Y SZ/CeO 2 /substrate or Y BCO/CeO 2 /Y SZ/Y 2 O 3 /substrate where ceria is typically the cap layer. CeO 2 is generally used as only a seed (or cap layer) since cracking within the film occurs in thicker CeO 2 layers due to the stress of lattice mismatching. Y 2 O 3 has been proposed as a seed and as a cap layer but usually not for both in a given architecture, especially with all layers deposited in situ. Yttrium oxide films grown on nickel by electron beam evaporation processes were found to be dense and crack free with good epitaxy. In this report, pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of Y 2 O 3 is given where Y 2 O 3 serves as both the seed and cap layer in the YBCO architecture. A comparison to PLD CeO 2 is provided. Deposited layers of the YBCO coated conductor are also grown by laser ablation. Initial deposition resulted in specimens on textured Ni substrates with current densities of more than 1 MA cm -2 at 77 K, self-field

  16. In vitro evaluation of whole faba bean and its seed coat as a potential source of functional food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkantürk Karataş, Selen; Günay, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2017-09-01

    In vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the particular nutritional benefits of whole faba bean seed (WFB) and fava bean seed coat (FBSC). Total dietary fiber contents of WFB and FBSC were 27.5% and 82.3%, respectively. FBSC were contained much higher total phenolic substances, condensed tannins, and total antioxidant activity than WFB. Bile acid (BA)-binding capacities of in vitro digested samples and nutritionally important products produced by in vitro fermentation of digestion residues were also studied. The BA-binding capacities of WFB and FBSC were 1.94 and 37.50μmol/100mg, respectively. Total BA bound by FBSC was even higher than the positive standard cholestyramine. Lignin and other constituents of the Klason residue were found to influence BA-binding properties. Moreover, the extent of the in vitro fermentation process showed that, fermentability of FBSC residue was significantly lower than that of WFB residue. Overall, faba bean, especially its seed coat, has great potential as a functional food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development and sensory evaluation of yogurt with chia seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Vilela dos Santos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the sensory acceptance of yogurt formulations with chia seeds. After preparation of the formulations (A - Control, B - yogurt added of 2% of chia seeds, C - yoghurt added of 3% of chia seeds, microbiological and physicochemical analyzes were performed. Hedonic scales were used to verify the acceptance and the intention to purchase the elaborated formulations, as well as the Acceptability Index. The data of the acceptance and purchase intention tests were evaluated through Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, and later, Tukey’s Test was applied at a 5% probability. Yogurt formulations were within the standards required by Brazilian Legislation for microbiological and physicochemical analyzes. There was no significant difference (p > 0,05 between the 3 yoghurt formulations for the attributes of flavor, texture and overall impression. However, regarding the appearance attribute, the formulation with 3% chia (C seeds was less appreciated (p 0,05 regarding the average of the purchase intention notes for the 3 yogurt formulations. It was concluded that the yogurt formulations with chia seeds were adequate for the microbiological and physicochemical parameters during the storage period, besides obtaining a good sensorial acceptance, presenting itself as a healthier milk alternative for the consumers.

  18. Molecular characterization of a GA-inducible gene, Cvsus1, in developing watermelon seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonyul; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Kang, Hong-Gyu; Lee, Jinwon; An, Gynheung

    2002-10-31

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that control seed development, we isolated a seed-preferential gene from ESTs of developing watermelon seeds. The gene Cvsus1 encodes a protein that is 86% identical to the Vicia faba sucrose synthase expressed in developing seeds. RNA blot analysis showed that Cvsus1 was preferentially expressed in watermelon seeds. We also investigated gene expression levels both in pollinated seeds and in parthenocarpic seeds, which lack zygotic tissues. Whereas the transcript level of Cvsus1 was rapidly increased during normal seed development, the expression was not significantly increased in the parthenocarpic seeds. However, treating the parthenocarpic fruits with GA3 strongly induced Cvsus1 expression, up to the level accumulated in pollinated seeds. These results suggest that Cvsus1 is induced in maternal tissues via signals from the zygotic tissues, and that GA may be one of those signals.

  19. Acid phosphatases in seeds and developing of squash (Cucurbita ficifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Lorenc-Kubis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in protein content and acid phosphatase activity were followed during germination (imbition through seedlings development in extracts from cotyledons of squash (Cucurbita ficifolia. It has been shown that the activity of acid phosphatase was initially low and than increased to a maximum after 6 days of imbition. Acid phosphates were isolated from cotyledons of seeds and from 6-, 10- and 22-days old seedlings by extraction the proteins with 0.1 M acetate buffer pH 5.1, precipitation with ethanol and by affinity chromatography on con A-Sepharose. Two glycoprotein enzymes AcPase Ba and AcPase Bb which differ in their affinity to immobilized con A were obtained. Both acid phosphatates retained the enzyme activity after binding to free con A. Rocket affinity electrophoresis of AcPase Ba and AcPase Bb, isolated from cotyledons of seeds and seedlings, revealed differences in their ability to bind to con A during seeds germination and seedling develop-ment indicating changes in their sugar component. Con A was found to activate both enzymes. The enzymes cross-reacted with monospecific antibodies raised against grass seed acid phosphatate Ba indicating an antigenic relationship between squash and grass acid phosphatases.

  20. Influence of laser radiation on the growth and development of seeds of agricultural plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishkanich, Alexander; Zhevlakov, Alexander; Polyakov, Vadim; Kascheev, Sergey; Sidorov, Igor; Ruzankina, Julia; Yakovlev, Alexey; Mak, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    The experimental results presented in this study focused on the study of biological processes caused by exposure to the coating layers of the laser green light seed (λ = 532 nm) range for the larch, violet (λ = 405 nm) and red (λ = 640 nm) for spruce. Spend a series of experiments to study the dependence of crop seed quality (spruce and larch from the pine family) from exposure to laser radiation under different conditions. In all the analyzed groups studied seed germination and growth of seedlings exposed to laser exposure, compared with the control group. The results showed that the higher percentage of germination than seeds of the control group.

  1. Present status of low-Z coating development in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, K.; Abe, T.; Obara, K.; Murakami, Y.

    1986-01-01

    In the JT-60 at JAERI, TiC-coated molybdenum and TiC-coated Inconel tiles are currently used as plasma interactive components. They have already been subjected to initial ohmic heating experiments and exhibited good adhesion characteristics under high heat flux conditions. The present article reviews a JAERI's coating development program for JT-60 experiments currently under way and for the next-step experiments. The program includes development and performance tests of the TiC-coated tiles, development of an in-situ coating technique for the repair of damaged surface of the tiles, and research on carbonization. Stress is laid on thermal shock and thermal fatigue tests of these coatings. In the thermal tests, adhesion between low-Z coatings and bulk materials have been investigated under high heat irradiation. TiC and TiN are used as coating material while Mo and Inconel 625 are employed as bulk material. Results are shown in this report concerning calculated temperature elavation of TiC/TiN/Mo due to hydrogen beam irradiation. As regards the irradiation time required for the melting of the substrate, experimental results mostly agree with calculations. Almost all coatings investigated are not exfoliated from the substrate until the melting of the substrate. (Nogami, K.)

  2. Physiology and postharvest conservation of ‘Paluma’ guava under coatings using Jack fruit seed-based starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto Marques Rodrigues

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of jackfruit seed starch-based (S coatings, added to chitosan and alginate on the physiology and maintenance of quality of cold stored ‘Paluma’ guavas, followed by transfer to the room condition. The design was the completely randomized, in a 4x2 factorial scheme, in 4 replications, with 4 coatings (dispersion of S - 4%; S 2% + chitosan - 2% (SC; S - 2% + alginate - 2% (SA; and the uncoated control, in 2 environments (refrigerated (10±2 °C e 80±2% RH with transfer to room condition (25±3 °C e 75±4% HR, on the 16th and 20th day of cold storage. The SC and SA coatings were efficient in reducing the respiratory rate in fruits during 10 days at room condition. The SC coating delayed fruit ripening, and maintained firmness and color, with intention of purchasing and appearance higher than the limit of acceptance for another 6 days, following transferring to room condition, at the 16th day of refrigeration.

  3. Bioactive Coatings for Orthopaedic Implants—Recent Trends in Development of Implant Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill G. X. Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Joint replacement is a major orthopaedic procedure used to treat joint osteoarthritis. Aseptic loosening and infection are the two most significant causes of prosthetic implant failure. The ideal implant should be able to promote osteointegration, deter bacterial adhesion and minimize prosthetic infection. Recent developments in material science and cell biology have seen the development of new orthopaedic implant coatings to address these issues. Coatings consisting of bioceramics, extracellular matrix proteins, biological peptides or growth factors impart bioactivity and biocompatibility to the metallic surface of conventional orthopaedic prosthesis that promote bone ingrowth and differentiation of stem cells into osteoblasts leading to enhanced osteointegration of the implant. Furthermore, coatings such as silver, nitric oxide, antibiotics, antiseptics and antimicrobial peptides with anti-microbial properties have also been developed, which show promise in reducing bacterial adhesion and prosthetic infections. This review summarizes some of the recent developments in coatings for orthopaedic implants.

  4. Insulating Coating Development for Vanadium Alloys. Phase I Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunda, N.; Sastri, S.; Jayaraman, M.; Karandikar, P.

    2000-01-01

    Self-cooled liquid-lithium/vanadium blanket offers many advantages for fusion power systems. Liquid metals moving through a magnetic field are subjected to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects that can increase the pressure drop and affect the flow profiles and heat transfer. Insulating coatings are required to eliminate this effect. Based on the thermodynamic stability data five different coatings were selected PVD and CVD processes were developed to deposit these coatings. All coatings have resistivities much higher than the minimum required. Liquid lithium testing at Argonne National Laboratory indicates that one of the coatings showed only partial spalling. Thus, further refinement of this coating has significant potential to satisfy the requirements for Li/V blanket technology

  5. Recent developments, new trends in seed crushing and oil refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kővári Katalin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil processing was considered as slowly changing “traditional” industry but the recent decades’ developments and trends resulted in a lot of changes initiated by market, industry, environment protection and consumer needs. Driving force of the developments were centralization of the industry, more and more concerns on environmental impact, increased importance of food-feed safety, and last but not least research and development activity together with improved analytical capabilities. The presentation gives an overview on the results achieved on the field of the following areas: the criteria of applicability of physical refining of seed oils, solutions for proper degumming, the effect of seed pretreatment and crushing conditions on the crude oil quality, the importance and role of bleaching and active carbon treatment, the proper practice of deacidification/deodorization.

  6. Characterization of Anti-bacterial Compounds from the Seed Coat of Chinese Windmill Palm Tree (Trachycarpus fortunei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing of multidrug resistance in bacterial associated infections has impaired the current antimicrobial therapy and it forces the search for other alternatives. In this study, we aimed to find the in vitro antibacterial activity of seed coat of Trachycarpus fortunei against a panel of clinically important bacterial species. Ethanolic extracts of target tissues were fractionated through macro porous resin by column chromatography, using ethanol as an organic solvent with a concentration gradient of 0–100%, each along with 20% concentration increment. The minimum inhibitory (MIC concentrations of all fractions were measured. It is found that 20% ethanolic fraction showed the most significant inhibition against tested bacterial species. All fractions were analyzed by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography/mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS and compounds were identified by comparing mass spectra with standard libraries. By pairing the identified compounds from different fractions with the antibacterial activity of each fraction, it was shown that compounds stearamide (7, 1-(4-Fluorophenyl-2-(methylthio-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylic acid (9 and 2,4,5 triacetoxybiphenyl (10 topped in the list for anti-bacterial activity. Further experiment with pure chemicals verified that compounds 9 and 10 have antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Whereas, the lowest MIC value (39.06 μg/mL was obtained by compound 10 against Staphylococcus epidermidis. Hence, the seed coat of T. fortunei with its antimicrobial spectrum could be a good candidate for further bactericidal research.

  7. Comparison of sorption capacity and surface area of activated carbon prepared from Jatropha curcas fruit pericarp and seed coat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Ameen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons were prepared from fruit pericarp and seed coat of Jatropha curcas using KOH and NaCl as activating agents leading to the production of four samples of activated carbons JPS, JPP, JCS and JCP. The adsorption capacity based on adsorption of methylene blue was determined for each sample. A further study of adsorptive properties of the most efficient activated carbon (JPS was made by contacting it with standard solutions of methylene blue, acetic acid and potassium permanganate. The effects of mass of active carbon used, initial concentration of the solute and the pH of the solution on adsorption performance were investigated. Ash content and percentage fixed carbon were determined for two of the activated carbons (JPS and JCS with the highest adsorptive capacity. Equilibrium study on adsorption was carried out and the adsorption data were analyzed using the Langmuir isotherm. The results obtained indicate that activated carbons from the fruit pericarp and the seed coat of J. curcas can be used as high performance adsorbents with the fruit pericarp activated carbon showing the higher adsorption capacity. The adsorption data fitted well to the Langmuir model and adsorptive area of 824–910 m2/g was obtained for the activated carbon.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i2.2

  8. Characterization of Anti-bacterial Compounds from the Seed Coat of Chinese Windmill Palm Tree (Trachycarpus fortunei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shakeel; Liu, Huimin; Ahmad, Aqeel; Akram, Waheed; Abdelrahman, Eman K N; Ran, Fengming; Ou, Wuling; Dong, Shuang; Cai, Qian; Zhang, Qiyun; Li, Xiaohua; Hu, Sheng; Hu, Xuebo

    2017-01-01

    The increasing of multidrug resistance in bacterial associated infections has impaired the current antimicrobial therapy and it forces the search for other alternatives. In this study, we aimed to find the in vitro antibacterial activity of seed coat of Trachycarpus fortunei against a panel of clinically important bacterial species. Ethanolic extracts of target tissues were fractionated through macro porous resin by column chromatography, using ethanol as an organic solvent with a concentration gradient of 0-100%, each along with 20% concentration increment. The minimum inhibitory (MIC) concentrations of all fractions were measured. It is found that 20% ethanolic fraction showed the most significant inhibition against tested bacterial species. All fractions were analyzed by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography/mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS) and compounds were identified by comparing mass spectra with standard libraries. By pairing the identified compounds from different fractions with the antibacterial activity of each fraction, it was shown that compounds stearamide (7), 1-(4-Fluorophenyl)-2-(methylthio)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylic acid (9) and 2,4,5 triacetoxybiphenyl (10) topped in the list for anti-bacterial activity. Further experiment with pure chemicals verified that compounds 9 and 10 have antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Whereas, the lowest MIC value (39.06 μg/mL) was obtained by compound 10 against Staphylococcus epidermidis . Hence, the seed coat of T. fortunei with its antimicrobial spectrum could be a good candidate for further bactericidal research.

  9. Sticking to cellulose: exploiting Arabidopsis seed coat mucilage to understand cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall polysaccharide interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jonathan S; North, Helen M

    2017-05-01

    The cell wall defines the shape of cells and ultimately plant architecture. It provides mechanical resistance to osmotic pressure while still being malleable and allowing cells to grow and divide. These properties are determined by the different components of the wall and the interactions between them. The major components of the cell wall are the polysaccharides cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. Cellulose biosynthesis has been extensively studied in Arabidopsis hypocotyls, and more recently in the mucilage-producing epidermal cells of the seed coat. The latter has emerged as an excellent system to study cellulose biosynthesis and the interactions between cellulose and other cell wall polymers. Here we review some of the major advances in our understanding of cellulose biosynthesis in the seed coat, and how mucilage has aided our understanding of the interactions between cellulose and other cell wall components required for wall cohesion. Recently, 10 genes involved in cellulose or hemicellulose biosynthesis in mucilage have been identified. These discoveries have helped to demonstrate that xylan side-chains on rhamnogalacturonan I act to link this pectin directly to cellulose. We also examine other factors that, either directly or indirectly, influence cellulose organization or crystallization in mucilage. © 2017 INRA. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Development & characterization of alumina coating by atmospheric plasma spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Jobin; Scaria, Abyson; Kurian, Don George

    2018-03-01

    Ceramic coatings are applied on metals to prevent them from oxidation and corrosion at room as well as elevated temperatures. The service environment, mechanisms of protection, chemical and mechanical compatibility, application method, control of coating quality and ability of the coating to be repaired are the factors that need to be considered while selecting the required coating. The coatings based on oxide materials provides high degree of thermal insulation and protection against oxidation at high temperatures for the underlying substrate materials. These coatings are usually applied by the flame or plasma spraying methods. The surface cleanliness needs to be ensured before spraying. Abrasive blasting can be used to provide the required surface roughness for good adhesion between the substrate and the coating. A pre bond coat like Nickel Chromium can be applied on to the substrate material before spraying the oxide coating to avoid chances of poor adhesion between the oxide coating and the metallic substrate. Plasma spraying produces oxide coatings of greater density, higher hardness, and smooth surface finish than that of the flame spraying process Inert gas is often used for generation of plasma gas so as to avoid the oxidation of the substrate material. The work focuses to develop, characterize and optimize the parameters used in Al2O3 coating on transition stainless steel substrate material for minimizing the wear rate and maximizing the leak tightness using plasma spray process. The experiment is designed using Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array. The parameters that are to be optimized are plasma voltage, spraying distance and the cooling jet pressure. The characterization techniques includes micro-hardness and porosity tests followed by Grey relational analysis of the results.

  11. Stress development in particulate, nano-composite and polymeric coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Karan

    2009-12-01

    The main goal of this research is to study the stress, structural and mechanical property development during the drying of particulate coatings, nano-composite coatings and VOC compliant refinish clearcoats. The results obtained during this research establish the mechanism for the stress development during drying in various coating systems. Coating stress was measured using a controlled environment stress apparatus based on cantilever deflection principle. The stress evolution in alumina coatings made of 0.4 mum size alumina particles was studied and the effect of a lateral drying was investigated. The stress does not develop until the later stages of drying. A peak stress was observed during drying and the peak stress originates due to the formation of pendular rings between the particles. Silica nanocomposite coatings were fabricated from suspension of nano sized silicon dioxide particles (20 nm) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer. The stress in silica nano-composite goes through maximum as the amount of polymer in the coating increases. The highest final stress was found to be ˜ 110MPa at a PVA content of 60 wt%. Observations from SEM, nitrogen gas adsorption, camera imaging, and nano-indentation were also studied to correlate the coatings properties during drying to measured stress. A model VOC compliant two component (2K) acrylic-polyol refinish clearcoat was prepared to study the effects of a new additive on drying, curing, rheology and stress development at room temperature. Most of the drying of the low VOC coatings occurred before appreciable (20%) crosslinking. Tensile stress developed in the same timeframe as drying and then relaxed over a longer time scale. Model low VOC coatings prepared with the additive had higher peak stresses than those without the additive. In addition, rheological data showed that the additive resulted in greater viscosity buildup during drying.

  12. Determination of the Elemental Composition of the Pulp, Seed and Fruit Coat of Black Velvet Tamarind (Dialium guineense) using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    D.O. Ofosu; N.S. Opata; O. Gyampo; G.T. Odamtten

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to provide data on the mineral composition of the fruit pulp, outer coat and seed of Dialiu guineense in an attempt to widen the sources of minerals for the rural population of sub-Saharan Africa. The elemental composition of the pulp, seed and fruit coat of black velvet tamarind (Dialiu guineense) was determined using Neutron Activation Analysis. The fruit pulp contained manganese (23.40±1.57µg/g), chlorine (205.40±37.59 &mu g/g), calcium (5671.00±2132.30 &mug/g), sodium (3...

  13. Precursor-controlled synthesis of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures, using oligoaniline-coated Au nanoparticle seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Deepti; Pradeep, T.

    2009-07-01

    Shape-selected synthesis of a large number of zinc oxide (ZnO) nano- and microstructures was achieved by the seed-mediated growth of oligoaniline-coated gold nanoparticle precursors. Distinctive ZnO structures such as nanoplates, nanospheres, microstars, microflowers, microthorns and micromultipods were synthesized by this method. Slightly different shapes were obtained in the absence of the seed solution. This is a fast, low temperature (60 °C) and biomimetic route to make a wide variety of structures. The structure and morphology of the nanostructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were utilized for the characterization of the nanostructures. A growth mechanism for these nanostructures was proposed based on these results. The concentrations of the reacting species were the main parameter causing the changes in the morphologies. The variation in morphologies of these structures is believed to be due to the ability of the seed solution as well as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to selectively suppress/depress the growth of certain planes, allowing growth to occur only in certain specific directions. Changes in the amount of growth nuclei with varying sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration is also seen to affect the morphology of these structures.

  14. Systems Engineering Education Development(SEED)Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagg, Thomas C., III; Brumfield, Mark D.; Jamison, Donald E.; Granata, Raymond L.; Casey, Carolyn A.

    2003-01-01

    The Systems Engineering Development Program (SEED) was initiated to help Goddard resolve a Systems Engineering skill shortage. The chronology of events and the experiences of the pilot program are outlined to describe the development of the present program. The program goals are included in order to give a focus on what the developers saw as the program drivers. Lessons learned from a pilot program were incorporated into the present program. This program is constantly learning from its past efforts and looks for continuous improvement. We list several future ideas for improvement and change.

  15. Development and characterization of multi-element doped hydroxyapatite bioceramic coatings on metallic implants for orthopedic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furko, M.; Havasi, V.; Kónya, Z.; Grünewald, D.; Detsch, R.; Boccaccini, A.R.; Balázsi, C.

    2018-01-01

    Multi-element modified bioactive hydroxyapatite bioceramic (mHAp) coatings were successfully developed onto surgical grade titanium alloy material (Ti6Al4V). The coatings were prepared by pulse current deposition from electrolyte containing adequate amounts of calcium nitrate and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate at 70C. The pure HAp layer was doped and co-deposited with Ag, Zn, Mg, Sr ions. The biocompatible properties of layers were investigated by seeding osteoblast-like MG-63 cells onto the samples’ surface. The biocompatible measurements revealed enhanced bioactivity of modified HAp compared to uncoated implant materials and pure bioceramic coating. The morphology and structure of coatings and cells were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) as well as FT-IR and XRD measurements. The biodegradable properties of samples were investigated by electrochemical potentiodynamic measurements. [es

  16. The development of CVR coatings for PBR fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, R. E.; Vanier, P. E.; Dowell, M. B.; Lennartz, J. A.

    Particle bed reactors (PBR's) are being developed for both space power and propulsion applications. These reactors operate with exhaust gas temperatures of 2500 to 3000 K and fuel temperatures hundreds of degrees higher. One fuel design for these reactors consists of uranium carbide encapsulated in either carbon or graphite. This fuel kernel must be protected from the coolant gas, usually H2, both to prevent attack of the kernel and to limit fission product release. Refractory carbide coatings have been proposed for this purpose. The typical coating process used for this is a chemical vapor deposition. Testing of other components have indicated the superiority of refractory carbide coatings applied using a chemical vapor reaction (CVR) process, however technology to apply these coatings to large numbers of fuel particles with diameters on the order of 500 pm were not readily available. A process to deposit these CVR coatings on surrogate fuel consisting of graphite particles is described. Several types of coatings have been applied to the graphite substrate: NbC in various thicknesses and a bilayer coating consisting of NbC and TaC with a intermediate layer of pyrolytic graphite. These coated particles have been characterized prior to test; results are presented.

  17. Genetic analysis of seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana = [Genetische analyse van de zaadontwikkeling in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon - Kloosterziel, K.

    1997-01-01


    This thesis deals with the genetic aspects of seed development in Arabidopsisthaliana. Mutants affected in several aspects of seed development and, more specifically, in seed maturation have been isolated by various selection

  18. Vigor de sementes de brócolos submetidas a coberturas biodegradáveis e micronutrientes Vigor of broccoli seeds submitted to biodegradable coatings and micronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana A. Batista

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento e a aplicação de filmes ou coberturas biodegradáveis na horticultura são técnicas praticadas há vários anos, que visam promover melhoria na qualidade do produto. no presente trabalho desenvolveu-se e caracterizou-se biofilmes de pectina, gelatina e ácidos graxos e verificou-se sua eficiência como cobertura para sementes de brócolos (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica. Os filmes foram caracterizados quanto à solubilidade em água. A contagem e a observação de plantas de brócolos, a partir da germinação de sementes cobertas e não cobertas foi realizada em média a cada três dias, aos 27 dias fêz-se a quantificação da matéria fresca e seca. Os filmes de pectina e ácido esteárico foram 100% solúveis em água, enquanto os elaborados com pectina e gelatina (1/1 foram apenas 18%. A aplicação das coberturas filmogênicas nas sementes de brócolos não afetou a emergência das plantas, demonstrando assim sua potencialidade para uso comercial. Os fertilizantes molibdato de sódio (0,2 mg L-1 e ácido bórico (1mg L-1, aplicados juntamente com os biofilmes, também não afetaram a emergência e o desenvolvimento das plantas.The development and application of biodegradable coatings and films have been used for many years in order to improve quality of the coated or packed product. The development and characterization of pectin and pectin/gelatin-based biofilms with fatty acids was evaluated and verified their efficiency as coatings to broccoli seeds (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica. The solubility in water of the films was determined. The counting and visual observations of the germinated broccoli seeds were done each three days and fresh and dried weight of the plants were determined at the end of the experiment. Pectin-based films with stearic acid were 100% soluble in water and composite films of pectin and gelatin were 18%. The application of the biodegradable coatings on broccoli seeds had no effect on the

  19. Development and characterization of superparamagnetic coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Kuschnerus I.; Lüdtke-Buzug K.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2005, Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is handled as a key technology with great potential in medical applications as an imaging method [1]. The superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) which are already used as a tracer in MPI, combined with various polymers, are being investigated in order to enhance this potential. A combination of polymers such as polyethylene (PE) and polyurethane (PU) and SPIONs could be used as a coating for medical devices, or added to semi-rigid polyu...

  20. Development and Application of Coating Weight Control Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Hyoung [Dongbu Steel, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Precise coating weight control is very important issue on quality and minimizing operating costs on continuous galvanizing line. These days, many steel making companies are having a new understanding of cost importance by rise raw material prices and customers requirement for cost reduction. Dongbu steel also meets these situations and decided to develop the technologies. Dongbu Steel developed Integrated coating weight control system jointly with Objective Control Ltd. and installed 2CGL and 4CGL. Several technological functions were developed and realized to achieve true hands-off operation and maximum cost benefit by combining model-based preset and dynamic prediction models. We also installed it on 1 CGL on April, 2008. This paper will present the interface, functions and application result of the integrated coating weight control system including Zn saving and coating weight uniformity.

  1. Development of nutritious snacks by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Virginia; Ruchi .; Paul Ajit

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out with the objectives to find out the sensory acceptability, the nutrient content and cost of prepared products. The products prepared were “Biscuits”, “Mathri” and “Laddoo” by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour in different proportions (10:10, 20:10, and 30:10) served as treatments T1, T2 and T3 respectively T0, without incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour served as control. The products were organole...

  2. Progress report on understanding AFIS seed coat nep levels in pre-opened slivers on the Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS) is utilized in this segment of the research project to study how seed coat neps are measured. A patent search was conducted, and studied to assist with the understanding of the AFIS measurement of this impurity in raw cotton. The older AFIS 2 is primari...

  3. Seed coat removal improves Fe bioavailability in cooked lentils: studies using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the range of Fe concentration and relative Fe bioavailability of 24 varieties of cooked lentils, as well as the impact of seed coat removal on lentil Fe nutritional quality. Relative Fe bioavailability was assessed by the in vitro/Caco-2 cell culture method. While Fe concentrat...

  4. Development and synthesis nanocompositions DLC coatings with orientation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levchenko, V.A.; Novoselova, N.V.; Matveenko, V.N.

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of volume modelling and a detailed experimental research of physical and chemical properties nanocompositions DLC with one-dimensional highly orientationally the carbon structure on interphase border of section with lubricant as models tribological knot, proves typical models of synthesis new nanocompositions the DLC possessing high tribological properties (by high wear resistance, low of a friction, etc.). The influence mechanism orientation properties of a surface of the synthesized coatings on molecular in a boundary lubricant layer is investigated. On basis tribological experimental batch tests nanocompositions the carbon coatings possessing orientation effect, the synthesis mechanism highly orientationally DLC coatings with optimum tribological properties is developed.

  5. Sorption study of methylene blue on activated carbon prepared from Jatropha curcas and Terminalia catappa seed coats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila Olalekan Saheed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work targets the effectiveness of the prepared activated carbon from Jatropha curcas and Terminalia catappa seed coats for the sorption of methylene blue (MB from aqueous solution. The prepared Jatropha activated carbon (JAC and Terminalia activated carbon (TAC were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Branauer- Emmett-Teller (BET surface area analysis. Effect of initial concentration, pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature on the sorption experiments were studied and the adsorption capacity of these adsorbents were found to be 37.84 mg/g and 17.44 mg/g for methylene blue uptake by JAC and TAC respectively. The experimental data were analysed using Langmuir, Fruendlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The data fitted best into Langmuir isotherm for Methylene blue-JAC and Methylene blue-TAC systems. The kinetic studies fitted into pseudo second order kinetics model. The process chemistry was exothermic.

  6. Eco-dyeing using Tamarindus indica L. seed coat tannin as a natural mordant for textiles with antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind seed coat tannin was extracted and its tannin class was determined. The extracted tannin was employed as a natural mordant alone and in combination with metal mordant namely copper sulphate for cotton, wool and silk fabrics and dyed using natural dyes namely turmeric and pomegranate rind. The colour strength, colour coordinates, wash and light fastness were evaluated and compared for all the three fabrics with and without mordanting. The pre-mordanted fabrics on dyeing gave better colour strength, wash and light fastness than those dyeing obtained without mordanting. The total phenolic content of the extract was calculated and minimum inhibition concentration was 1% against both the Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria. The mordanted and dyed fabrics resulted in good antibacterial activity up to 20 washes, when natural mordant was used along with 0.5% and 1% copper sulphate mordant and dyed with natural dyes.

  7. Structure of soybean seed coat peroxidase: a plant peroxidase with unusual stability and haem-apoprotein interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, A; Mirza, O; Indiani, C

    2001-01-01

    Soybean seed coat peroxidase (SBP) is a peroxidase with extraordinary stability and catalytic properties. It belongs to the family of class III plant peroxidases that can oxidize a wide variety of organic and inorganic substrates using hydrogen peroxide. Because the plant enzyme is a heterogeneous...... glycoprotein, SBP was produced recombinant in Escherichia coli for the present crystallographic study. The three-dimensional structure of SBP shows a bound tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane molecule (TRIS). This TRIS molecule has hydrogen bonds to active site residues corresponding to the residues that interact...... with the small phenolic substrate ferulic acid in the horseradish peroxidase C (HRPC):ferulic acid complex. TRIS is positioned in what has been described as a secondary substrate-binding site in HRPC, and the structure of the SBP:TRIS complex indicates that this secondary substrate-binding site could...

  8. Removal of Reactive-dyes from Textile Plant Effluents Using Polyvinyl Alcohol-coated Active Carbon obtained from Sesame Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheida Moradi- Nasab

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption of active carbon derived from waste sesame seeds coated with polyvinyl alcohol (AC/PVA was investigated for removing red 198 and blue 19 reactive dyes from textile effluents. The batch process was carried out to identify such parameters as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and initial dye concentration involved in the dye removal adsorption capacity of AC/PVA. Also, batch kinetic and isotherm experiments were conducted. Results indicated that the maximum dye removal was obtained in an acidic pH over 90 min of contact time and that adsorption rates followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. Blue and red dye concentrations were determined using the spectrophotometric method at 590 and 517 nm, respectively. It may be concluded that AC/PVA is capable of removing blue and red reactive dyes and can be used as an efficient, cheap, and accessible adsorbent for treating textile effluents.

  9. Recent RHIC in-situ coating technology developments

    CERN Document Server

    Hershcovitch, A.; Brennan, J.M.; Chawla, A.; Fischer, W.; Liaw, C-J; Meng, W.; Todd, R.; Custer, A.; Erickson, M.; Jamshidi, N.; Kobrin, P.; Laping, R.; Poole, H.J.; Jimenez, J.M.; Neupert, H.; Taborelli, M.; Yin-Vallgren, C.; Sochugov, N.

    2013-04-22

    To rectify the problems of electron clouds observed in RHIC and unacceptable ohmic heating for superconducting magnets that can limit future machine upgrades, we started developing a robotic plasma deposition technique for $in-situ$ coating of the RHIC 316LN stainless steel cold bore tubes based on staged magnetrons mounted on a mobile mole for deposition of Cu followed by amorphous carbon (a-C) coating. The Cu coating reduces wall resistivity, while a-C has low SEY that suppresses electron cloud formation. Recent RF resistivity computations indicate that 10 {\\mu}m of Cu coating thickness is needed. But, Cu coatings thicker than 2 {\\mu}m can have grain structures that might have lower SEY like gold black. A 15-cm Cu cathode magnetron was designed and fabricated, after which, 30 cm long samples of RHIC cold bore tubes were coated with various OFHC copper thicknesses; room temperature RF resistivity measured. Rectangular stainless steel and SS discs were Cu coated. SEY of rectangular samples were measured at ro...

  10. Development and application of a process window for achieving high-quality coating in a fluidized bed coating process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laksmana, F.L.; Hartman Kok, P.J.A.; Vromans, H.; Frijlink, H.W.; Van Der Voort Maarschalk, K.

    Next to the coating formulation, process conditions play important roles in determining coating quality. This study aims to develop an operational window that separates layering from agglomeration regimes and, furthermore, the one that leads to the best coating quality in a fluidized bed coater. The

  11. A Comparative Study on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Micro-Nanorod Arrays Grown on Seed Layers Using Chemical Bath Deposition and Spin Coating Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel MORKOÇ KARADENİZ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Zinc Oxide (ZnO seed layers were prepared on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO substrates by using Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD method and Sol-gel Spin Coating (SC method. ZnO micro-nanorod arrays were grown on ZnO seed layers by using Hydrothermal Synthesis method. Seed layer effects of structural and optical properties of ZnO arrays were characterized. X-ray diffractometer (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Ultraviolet Visible (UV-Vis Spectrometer were used for analyses. ZnO micro-nanorod arrays consisted of a single crystalline wurtzite ZnO structure for each seed layer. Besides, ZnO rod arrays were grown smoothly and vertically on SC seed layer, while ZnO rod arrays were grown randomly and flower like structures on CBD seed layer. The optical absorbance peaks found at 422 nm wavelength in the visible region for both ZnO arrays. Optical bandgap values were determined by using UV-Vis measurements at 3.12 and 3.15 eV for ZnO micro-nanorod arrays on CBD seed layer and for ZnO micro-nanorod arrays on SC-seed layer respectively.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.13443

  12. Identification of candidate genes and molecular markers for heat-induced brown discoloration of seed coats in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottorff, Marti; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J; Lonardi, Stefano; Wanamaker, Steve; Ehlers, Jeffrey D

    2014-05-01

    Heat-induced browning (Hbs) of seed coats is caused by high temperatures which discolors the seed coats of many legumes, affecting the visual appearance and quality of seeds. The genetic determinants underlying Hbs in cowpea are unknown. We identified three QTL associated with the heat-induced browning of seed coats trait, Hbs-1, Hbs-2 and Hbs-3, using cowpea RIL populations IT93K-503-1 (Hbs positive) x CB46 (hbs negative) and IT84S-2246 (Hbs positive) x TVu14676 (hbs negative). Hbs-1 was identified in both populations, accounting for 28.3% -77.3% of the phenotypic variation. SNP markers 1_0032 and 1_1128 co-segregated with the trait. Within the syntenic regions of Hbs-1 in soybean, Medicago and common bean, several ethylene forming enzymes, ethylene responsive element binding factors and an ACC oxidase 2 were observed. Hbs-1 was identified in a BAC clone in contig 217 of the cowpea physical map, where ethylene forming enzymes were present. Hbs-2 was identified in the IT93K-503-1 x CB46 population and accounted for of 9.5 to 12.3% of the phenotypic variance. Hbs-3 was identified in the IT84S-2246 x TVu14676 population and accounted for 6.2 to 6.8% of the phenotypic variance. SNP marker 1_0640 co-segregated with the heat-induced browning phenotype. Hbs-3 was positioned on BAC clones in contig512 of the cowpea physical map, where several ACC synthase 1 genes were present. The identification of loci determining heat-induced browning of seed coats and co-segregating molecular markers will enable transfer of hbs alleles into cowpea varieties, contributing to higher quality seeds.

  13. The role of the seed coat in the light sensivity in Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante seeds O papel do tegumento na sensibilidade à luz em sementes de Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Lúcia Costa Gonçalves

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of the seed coat in the light sensitivity of seeds of Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante was analysed by germination tests of intact and naked seeds. Far-red light caused high inhibition of seed germination, while under white and red lights low inhibition was found. Naked seeds presented no light sensitivity with high percentage germination under light and darkness. However, incubation of naked seeds in -0.6MPa polyethylene glycol solution resulted in light inhibition as observed in intact seeds. The analysis of the seed coat transmitted light indicated that the filtered light presented the same photoequilibrium of phytochrome when compared to the white light, with a decrease of only 33% in the light irradiance which reaches the embryo.O papel do tegumento sobre a sensibilidade à luz em sementes de Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante foi analisado por testes de germinação de sementes intactas e nuas. A luz vermelho-extremo inibiu fortemente a germinação, enquanto as luzes branca e vermelha apresentaram baixa inibição. Por outro lado, sementes nuas não apresentaram sensibilidade à luz, com alta porcentagem de germinação tanto na luz como no escuro. Entretanto, a incubação das sementes nuas em condições de estresse em solução de polietilenoglicol a -0,6MPa, resultou em inibição na luz, como observadas em sementes intactas. A análise da luz transmitida pelo tegumento das sementes indicou que a luz filtrada apresenta o mesmo fotoequilíbrio teórico do fitocromo obtido na luz branca, com um decréscimo em apenas 33% da irradiância que atinge o embrião.

  14. The Design and Development of Test Platform for Wheat Precision Seeding Based on Image Processing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Li , Qing; Lin , Haibo; Xiu , Yu-Feng; Wang , Ruixue; Yi , Chuijie

    2009-01-01

    International audience; The test platform of wheat precision seeding based on image processing techniques is designed to develop the wheat precision seed metering device with high efficiency and precision. Using image processing techniques, this platform gathers images of seeds (wheat) on the conveyer belt which are falling from seed metering device. Then these data are processed and analyzed to calculate the qualified rate, reseeding rate and leakage sowing rate, etc. This paper introduces t...

  15. Adhesion, vitality and osteogenic differentiation capacity of adipose derived stem cells seeded on nitinol nanoparticle coatings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Strauss

    Full Text Available Autologous cells can be used for a bioactivation of osteoimplants to enhance osseointegration. In this regard, adipose derived stem cells (ASCs offer interesting perspectives in implantology because they are fast and easy to isolate. However, not all materials licensed for bone implants are equally suited for cell adhesion. Surface modifications are under investigation to promote cytocompatibility and cell growth. The presented study focused on influences of a Nitinol-nanoparticle coating on ASCs. Possible toxic effects as well as influences on the osteogenic differentiation potential of ASCs were evaluated by viability assays, scanning electron microscopy, immunofluorescence and alizarin red staining. It was previously shown that Nitinol-nanoparticles exert no cell toxic effects to ASCs either in soluble form or as surface coating. Here we could demonstrate that a Nitinol-nanoparticle surface coating enhances cell adherence and growth on Nitinol-surfaces. No negative influence on the osteogenic differentiation was observed. Nitinol-nanoparticle coatings offer new possibilities in implantology research regarding bioactivation by autologous ASCs, respectively enhancement of surface attraction to cells.

  16. Soybean roots retain the seed urease isozyme synthesized during embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torisky, R.S.; Polacco, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Roots of young soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) plants (up to 25 days old) contain two distinct urease isozymes, which are separable by hydroxyapatite chromatography. These two urease species (URE1 and URE2) differ in: (a) electrophoretic mobility in native gels, (b) pH dependence, and (c) recognition by a monoclonal antibody specific for the seed (embryo-specific) urease. By these parameters root URE1 urease is similar to the abundant embryo-specific urease isozyme, while root URE2 resembles the ubiquitous urease which has previously been found in all soybean tissues examined (leaf, embryo, seed coat, and cultured cells). The embryo-specific and ubiquitous urease isozymes are products of the Eu1 and Eu4 structural genes, respectively. Roots of the eu1-sun/eu1-sun genotype, which lacks the embryo-specific urease (i.e. seed urease-null), contain no URE1 urease activity. Roots of eu4/eu4, which lacks ubiquitous urease, lack the URE2 (leaflike) urease activity. From these genetic and biochemical criteria, then, we conclude that URE1 and URE2 are the embryo-specific and ubiquitous ureases, respectively. Adventitious roots generated from cuttings of any urease genotype lack URE1 activity. In seedling roots the seedlike (URE1) activity declines during development. Roots of 3-week-old plants contain 5% of the total URE1 activity of the radicle of 4-day-old seedlings, which, in turn, has approximately the same urease activity level as the dormant embryonic axis. The embryo-specific urease incorporates label from [ 35 S]methionine during embryo development but not during germination, indicating that there is no de novo synthesis of the embryo-specific (URE1) urease in the germinating root

  17. Changes in DNA methylation levels during seed development in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    User

    flowering and seeds were collected every week starting from 6thday after fertilization (DAP) till ... (Mitutoyo, Japan).Seeds for DNA isolation were lyophilized at -55 0C for 24 hours in a ... phase(stages 4, 5, 6 and7),seed length increased to 21.14 mm.During the .... Government of India, for providing fellowship for this work.

  18. Development of mirror coatings for gravitational-wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlechner, J.

    2018-05-01

    Gravitational waves are detected by measuring length changes between mirrors in the arms of kilometre-long Michelson interferometers. Brownian thermal noise arising from thermal vibrations of the mirrors can limit the sensitivity to distance changes between the mirrors, and, therefore, the ability to measure gravitational-wave signals. Thermal noise arising from the highly reflective mirror coatings will limit the sensitivity both of current detectors (when they reach design performance) and of planned future detectors. Therefore, the development of coatings with low thermal noise, which at the same time meet strict optical requirements, is of great importance. This article gives an overview of the current status of coatings and of the different approaches for coating improvement. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'.

  19. Development of NEG Coating for RHIC Experimental Beamtubes

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Daniel; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Todd, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    As RHIC beam intensity increases beyond original scope, pressure rises in some regions have been observed. The luminosity limiting pressure rises are associated with electron multi-pacting, electron stimulated desorption and beam induced desorption. Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) coated beampipes have been proven effective to suppress pressure rise in synchrotron radiation facilities. Standard beampipes have been NEG coated by a vendor and added to many RHIC UHV regions. BNL is developing a cylindrical magnetron sputtering system to NEG coat special beryllium beampipes installed in RHIC experimental regions. It features a hollow, liquid cooled cathode producing power density of 500W/m and deposition rate of 5000 Angstrom/hr on 7.5cm OD beampipe. The cathode, a titanium tube partially covered with zirconium and vanadium ribbons, is oriented for horizontal coating of 4m long chambers. Ribbons and magnets are arranged to provide uniform sputtering distribution and deposited NEG composition. Vacuum performance of NE...

  20. DEVELOPMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF COATINGS FOR FUTURE POWER GENERATION TURBINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvin, Maryanne; Klotz, K.; McMordie, B.; Gleeson, B.; Zhu, D.; Warnes, B.; Kang, B.; Tannenbaum, J.

    2012-01-01

    The NETL-Regional University Alliance (RUA) continues to advance technology development critical to turbine manufacturer efforts for achieving DOE Fossil Energy (FE's) Advanced Turbine Program Goals. In conjunction with NETL, Coatings for Industry (CFI), the University of Pittsburgh, NASA GRC, and Corrosion Control Inc., efforts have been focused on development of composite thermal barrier coating (TBC) architectures that consist of an extreme temperature coating, a commercially applied 7-8 YSZ TBC, a reduced cost bond coat, and a diffusion barrier coating that are applied to nickel-based superalloys or single crystal airfoil substrate materials for use at temperatures >1450 C (> 2640 F). Additionally, construction of a unique, high temperature ({approx}1100 C; {approx}2010 F), bench-scale, micro-indentation, nondestructive (NDE) test facility at West Virginia University (WVU) was completed to experimentally address in-situ changes in TBC stiffness during extended cyclic oxidation exposure of coated single crystal coupons in air or steam containing environments. The efforts and technical accomplishments in these areas are presented in the following sections of this paper.

  1. Planting of neonicotinoid-coated corn raises honey bee mortality and sets back colony development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Samson-Robert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide occurrences of honey bee colony losses have raised concerns about bee health and the sustainability of pollination-dependent crops. While multiple causal factors have been identified, seed coating with insecticides of the neonicotinoid family has been the focus of much discussion and research. Nonetheless, few studies have investigated the impacts of these insecticides under field conditions or in commercial beekeeping operations. Given that corn-seed coating constitutes the largest single use of neonicotinoid, our study compared honey bee mortality from commercial apiaries located in two different agricultural settings, i.e. corn-dominated areas and corn-free environments, during the corn planting season. Data was collected in 2012 and 2013 from 26 bee yards. Dead honey bees from five hives in each apiary were counted and collected, and samples were analyzed using a multi-residue LC-MS/MS method. Long-term effects on colony development were simulated based on a honey bee population dynamic model. Mortality survey showed that colonies located in a corn-dominated area had daily mortality counts 3.51 times those of colonies from corn crop-free sites. Chemical analyses revealed that honey bees were exposed to various agricultural pesticides during the corn planting season, but were primarily subjected to neonicotinoid compounds (54% of analysed samples contained clothianidin, and 31% contained both clothianidin and thiamethoxam. Performance development simulations performed on hive populations’ show that increased mortality during the corn planting season sets back colony development and bears contributions to collapse risk but, most of all, reduces the effectiveness and value of colonies for pollination services. Our results also have implications for the numerous large-scale and worldwide-cultivated crops that currently rely on pre-emptive use of neonicotinoid seed treatments.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPLEX EQUIPMENT FOR PLASMA SPRAY CERAMIC COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Okovity

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Develop a set equipment for plasma forming ceramic coatings. The article presents characteristics and parameters of the developed complex equipment for formation of plasma ceramic coatings as well as results of its testing. Methods of research is based on studies of structural elements composite plasma coatings system ZrO2 – Y2O3  obtained  using  developed complex equipment. One of the most effective ways to protect the components from high temperature corrosion and oxidation is formation on the surface of plasma thermal barrier coatings. For thermal barrier coating has very strict requirements: сharacterized by a smooth change of physico-mechanical properties (porosity, microhardness, elastic modulus in the cross section of the metal substrate to the outer ceramic layer; to withstand multiple cycles of thermal cycling from room temperature to the operating temperature; to maintain gastightness under operating conditions and thus ensure a sufficiently high level of adhesive strength. For realization of new technological schemes applying thermal barrier coatings with high operational characteristics was developed, patented and manufactured a range of new equipment. The experiments show that authors developed PBG-1 plasmatron and powder feeder PPBG-04 have at least 2–3 times the service life during the deposition of ceramic materials compared to the standard equipment of the company "Plasma-Technik", by changing the structure of the cathode-anode plasma torch assembly and construction of the delivery unit of the feeder to facilitate the uniform supply of the powder into the plasma jet and the best of his penetration. The result is better plasma coatings with improved operational characteristics: adhesion strength is increased to 1.3–2 times, material utilization in 1.5–1.6 times microhardness 1.2–1.4 times the porosity is reduced by 2–2.5 times.

  3. Development of irradiation support devices for production of brachytherapy seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Fabio R.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Souza, Carla D.; Moura, Joao A.; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Karan Junior, Dib; Feher, Anselmo; Oliveira, Tiago B.; Benega, Marcos A.G., E-mail: tiagooliveira298@gmail.com, E-mail: mattos.fr@gmail.com, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.br, E-mail: czeituni@ipen.br, E-mail: carladdsouza@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: jamoura@ipen.br, E-mail: ernandopeleias@gmail.com, E-mail: s, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.br, E-mail: afeher@ipen.br, E-mail: marcosagbenega@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Ophthalmic tumors treatment with brachytherapy sources has been widely used as a primary or secondary therapy for non-malignant or malignant tumors, for example, choroid melanoma, and retinoblastoma. Ruthenium-106, Iodine-125, Palladium -103, Gold-198 and Iridium-192, are some radionuclides that can be applied for treatment of ocular tumors. These sources are in small sizes (a few millimeters) and different shapes (rods, wires, disks). To ensure high accuracy during treatment, they are positioned in eye applicators, specially designed to fit on the surface of tumor. The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN) in a partnership with Paulista Medicine School (UNIFESP) created a project that aims to develop a prototype of Iridium-192 seeds for treatment of eye cancer. This seed consists in a core of Ir -Pt alloy (20%-80%) with a length of 3 mm, to be activated in IPEN's IEA-R1 Reactor, and a titanium capsule sealing the core. It was imperative to develop a sustainer device for irradiation. This piece is used to avoid overlapping of one cores and, therefore, avoiding the 'shadow effect' that does not allow full activation of each core due to the high density. (author)

  4. Development of irradiation support devices for production of brachytherapy seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Fabio R.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Souza, Carla D.; Moura, Joao A.; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Karan Junior, Dib; Feher, Anselmo; Oliveira, Tiago B.; Benega, Marcos A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Ophthalmic tumors treatment with brachytherapy sources has been widely used as a primary or secondary therapy for non-malignant or malignant tumors, for example, choroid melanoma, and retinoblastoma. Ruthenium-106, Iodine-125, Palladium -103, Gold-198 and Iridium-192, are some radionuclides that can be applied for treatment of ocular tumors. These sources are in small sizes (a few millimeters) and different shapes (rods, wires, disks). To ensure high accuracy during treatment, they are positioned in eye applicators, specially designed to fit on the surface of tumor. The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN) in a partnership with Paulista Medicine School (UNIFESP) created a project that aims to develop a prototype of Iridium-192 seeds for treatment of eye cancer. This seed consists in a core of Ir -Pt alloy (20%-80%) with a length of 3 mm, to be activated in IPEN's IEA-R1 Reactor, and a titanium capsule sealing the core. It was imperative to develop a sustainer device for irradiation. This piece is used to avoid overlapping of one cores and, therefore, avoiding the 'shadow effect' that does not allow full activation of each core due to the high density. (author)

  5. ABA signaling in stress-response and seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2013-07-01

    KEY MESSAGE : We review the recent progress on ABA signaling, especially ABA signaling for ABA-dependent gene expression, including the AREB/ABF regulon, SnRK2 protein kinase, 2C-type protein phosphatases and ABA receptors. Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops. Drought causes osmotic stress to organisms, and the osmotic stress causes dehydration in plant cells. Abscisic acid (ABA) is produced under osmotic stress conditions, and it plays an important role in the stress response and tolerance of plants. ABA regulates many genes under osmotic stress conditions. It also regulates gene expression during seed development and germination. The ABA-responsive element (ABRE) is the major cis-element for ABA-responsive gene expression. ABRE-binding protein (AREB)/ABRE-binding factor (ABF) transcription factors (TFs) regulate ABRE-dependent gene expression. Other TFs are also involved in ABA-responsive gene expression. SNF1-related protein kinases 2 are the key regulators of ABA signaling including the AREB/ABF regulon. Recently, ABA receptors and group A 2C-type protein phosphatases were shown to govern the ABA signaling pathway. Moreover, recent studies have suggested that there are interactions between the major ABA signaling pathway and other signaling factors in stress-response and seed development. The control of the expression of ABA signaling factors may improve tolerance to environmental stresses.

  6. Identification of SSR markers closely linked to the yellow seed coat color gene in heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanjing; Wu, Junqing; Zhao, Jing; Hao, Lingyu; Zhang, Lugang

    2017-02-15

    Research on the yellow-seeded variety of heading Chinese cabbage will aid in broadening its germplasm resources and lay a foundation for AA genome research in Brassica crops. Here, an F 2 segregating population of 1575 individuals was constructed from two inbred lines (brown-seeded '92S105' and yellow-seeded '91-125'). This population was used to identify the linkage molecular markers of the yellow seed coat trait using simple sequence repeat (SSR) techniques combined with a bulk segregant analysis (BSA). Of the 144 SSR primer pairs on the A01-A10 chromosomes from the Brassica database (http://brassicadb.org/brad/), two pairs located on the A06 chromosome showed polymorphic bands between the bulk DNA pools of eight brown-seeded and eight yellow-seeded F 2 progeny. Based on the genome sequence, 454 SSR markers were designed to A06 to detect these polymorphic bands and were synthesized. Six SSR markers linked to the seed coat color gene were successfully selected for fine linkage genetic map construction, in which the two closest flanking markers, SSR449a and SSR317, mapped the Brsc-ye gene to a 40.2 kb region with distances of 0.07 and 0.06 cM, respectively. The molecular markers obtained in this report will assist in the marker-assisted selection and breeding of yellow-seeded lines in Brassica rapa L. and other close species. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Proteomic analysis of the seed development in Jatropha curcas: from carbon flux to the lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Cuiping; Komatsu, Setsuko; He, Mingxia; Liu, Gongshe; Shen, Shihua

    2013-10-08

    To characterize the metabolic signatures of lipid accumulation in Jatropha curcas seeds, comparative proteomic technique was employed to profile protein changes during the seed development. Temporal changes in comparative proteome were examined using gels-based proteomic technique at six developmental stages for lipid accumulation. And 104 differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. These protein species were classified into 10 functional categories, and the results demonstrated that protein species related to energy and metabolism were notably accumulated and involved in the carbon flux to lipid accumulation that occurs primarily from early to late stage in seed development. Glycolysis and oxidative pentose phosphate pathways were the major pathways of producing carbon flux, and the glucose-6-phosphate and triose-phosphate are the major carbon source for fatty acid synthesis. Lipid analysis revealed that fatty acid accumulation initiated 25days after flowering at the late stage of seed development of J. curcas. Furthermore, C16:0 was initially synthesized as the precursor for the elongation to C18:1 and C18:2 in the developing seeds of J. curcas. Together, the metabolic signatures on protein changes in seed development provide profound knowledge and perspective insights into understanding lipid network in J. curcas. Due to the abundant oil content in seeds, Jatropha curcas seeds are being considered as the ideal materials for biodiesel. Although several studies had carried out the transcriptomic project to study the genes expression profiles in seed development of J. curcas, these ESTs hadn't been confirmed by qRT-PCR. Yet, the seed development of J. curcas had been described for a pool of developing seeds instead of being characterized systematically. Moreover, cellular metabolic events are also controlled by protein-protein interactions, posttranslational protein modifications, and enzymatic activities which

  8. Hormonal Regulation of Dormancy in Developing Sorghum Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, H. S.; Benech-Arnold, R. L.; Sanchez, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    The role of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) in determining the dormancy level of developing sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench.) seeds from varieties presenting contrasting preharvest sprouting behavior (Redland B2, susceptible; IS 9530, resistant) was investigated. Panicles from both varieties were sprayed soon after pollination with fluridone or paclobutrazol to inhibit ABA and GA synthesis, respectively. Fluridone application to the panicles increased germinability of Redland B2 immature caryopses, whereas early treatment with paclobutrazol completely inhibited germination of this variety during most of the developmental period. Incubating caryopses in the presence of 100 [mu]M GA4+7 overcame the inhibitory effect of paclobutrazol, but also stimulated germination of seeds from other treatments. IS 9530 caryopses presented germination indices close to zero until physiological maturity (44 d after pollination) in control and paclobutrazol-treated particles. However, fluridone-treated caryopses were released from dormancy earlier than control and paclobutrazol-treated caryopses. Incubation in the presence of GA4+7 stimulated germination of caryopses from all treatments. Our results support the proposition that a low dormancy level (which is related to a high preharvest sprouting susceptibility) is determined not only by a low embryonic sensitivity to ABA, but also by a high GA content or sensitivity.

  9. Morphological Characteristics of Flower and Seed Coat of the Endangered Species of Thismia taiwanensis (Burmanniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Zehn Yang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since insufficient materials of Thismia taiwanensis were collected in the past, the structural details of the annulus, stamens and other characters of this critically endangered species have not been examined. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of flowers and fruits, especially those of the perianth tube and stamens, using fresh material. Seed surfaces were photographed by using scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the flowers of T. taiwanensis were found either without a pedicel or with an elongated pedicel that becomes carnose in the fruit stage. The latter was more common. The perianth is not covered with glands; there are six stamens, which are separate and opposite the perianth lobes, with dilated, ribbon-like connectives, pendulous from annulus. The seeds are ellipsoid to fusiform, with somewhat tapering poles, 0.2-0.4 × 0.1-0.15 mm, and with epidermal cells that are raised, with distinctly longitudinal anticlinal walls and sunken anticlinal boundaries, forming a superficial network pattern.

  10. Development of intermetallic coatings for fusion power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Domenico, T.; Dragel, G.; Clark, R.

    1994-03-01

    In the design of liquid-metal cooling systems, corrosion resistance of structural materials and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force and its subsequent influence on thermal hydraulics and corrosion are major concerns. The objective of this study is to develop stable corrosion-resistant electrical insulator coatings at the liquid-metal/structural-material interface, with emphasis on electrically insulating coatings that prevent adverse MHD-generated currents from passing through the structural walls. Vanadium and V-base alloys are potential materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor. Insulator coatings inside the tubing are required when the system is cooled by liquid metals. Various intermetallic films were produced on V, V-t, and V-20 Ti, V-5Cr-t and V-15Cr-t, and Ti, and Types 304 and 316 stainless steel. The intermetallic layers were developed by exposure of the materials to liquid lithium of 3--5 at.% and containing dissolved metallic solutes at temperatures of 416--880 degrees C. Subsequently, electrical insulator coatings were produced by reaction of the reactive layers with dissolved nitrogen in liquid lithium or by air oxidation under controlled conditions at 600--1000 degrees C. These reactions converted the intermetallic layers to electrically insulating oxide/nitride or oxy-nitride layers. This coating method could be applied to a commercial product. The liquid metal can be used over and over because only the solutes are consumed within the liquid metal. The technique can be applied to various shapes because the coating is formed by liquid-phase reaction. This paper will discuss initial results on the nature of the coatings and their in-situ electrical resistivity characteristics in liquid lithium at high temperatures

  11. Development of electrical insulator coatings for fusion power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Domenico, T.; Dragel, G.; Clark, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the design of liquid-metal cooling systems for fusion blanket applications, the corrosion resistance of structural materials and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force and its subsequent influence on thermal hydraulics and corrosion are major concerns. The objective of this study was to develop stable corrosion-resistant electrical insulator coatings at the liquid-metal-structural-material interface, with emphasis on electrically insulating coatings that prevent adverse MHD-generated currents from passing through the structural walls. Vanadium and V-base alloys (V-Ti or V-Ti-Cr) are leading candidate materials for structural applications in fusion reactors. When the system is cooled by liquid metals, insulator coatings are required on piping surfaces in contact with the coolant. Various intermetallic films were produced on V, V-5Ti, and V-20Ti, V-5Cr-5Ti, and V-15Cr-5Ti, and Ti, and on types 304 and 316 stainless steel. The intermetallic layers were developed by exposure of the materials to liquid Li containing 3-5at.% dissolved metallic solute (e.g. Al, Be, Mg, Si, Ca, Pt, and Cr) at temperatures of 416-880 C. Subsequently, electrical insulator coatings were produced by reaction of the reactive layers with dissolved N in liquid Li or by air oxidation under controlled conditions at 600-1000 C. These reactions converted the intermetallic layers to electrically insulating oxide-nitride or oxynitride layers. This coating method is applicable to reactor components. The liquid metal can be used over and over because only the solutes are consumed within the liquid metal. The technique can be applied to various shapes (e.g. inside or outside of tubes, complex geometrical shapes) because the coating is formed by liquid-phase reaction. This paper discusses initial results on the nature of the coatings (composition, thickness, adhesion, surface coverage) and their in situ electrical resistivity characteristics in liquid Li at high temperatures. (orig.)

  12. The development of chemically vapor deposited mullite coatings for the corrosion protection of SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, M.; Hou, P.; Sengupta, A.; Basu, S.; Sarin, V. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Crystalline mullite coatings have been chemically vapor deposited onto SiC substrates to enhance the corrosion and oxidation resistance of the substrate. Current research has been divided into three distinct areas: (1) Development of the deposition processing conditions for increased control over coating`s growth rate, microstructure, and morphology; (2) Analysis of the coating`s crystal structure and stability; (3) The corrosion resistance of the CVD mullite coating on SiC.

  13. Seed degeneration in potato: the need for an integrated seed health strategy to mitigate the problem in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas-Sharma, S.; Abdurahman, A.A.; Ali, S.; Andrade-Piedra, J.L.; Bao, S.; Charkowski, A.O.; Crook, D.; Kadian, M.; Kromann, P.; Struik, P.C.; Torrance, L.; Garrett, K.A.; Forbes, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Seed potato degeneration, the reduction in yield or quality caused by an accumulation of pathogens and pests in planting material due to successive cycles of vegetative propagation, has been a long-standing production challenge for potato growers around the world. In developed countries this problem

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF TITANIUM NITRIDE COATING FOR SNS RING VACUUM CHAMBERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HE, P.; HSEUH, H.C.; MAPES, M.; TODD, R.; WEISS, D.

    2001-01-01

    The inner surface of the ring vacuum chambers of the US Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will be coated with ∼100 nm of Titanium Nitride (TiN). This is to minimize the secondary electron yield (SEY) from the chamber wall, and thus avoid the so-called e-p instability caused by electron multipacting as observed in a few high-intensity proton storage rings. Both DC sputtering and DC-magnetron sputtering were conducted in a test chamber of relevant geometry to SNS ring vacuum chambers. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) were used to analyze the coatings for thickness, stoichiometry and impurity. Excellent results were obtained with magnetron sputtering. The development of the parameters for the coating process and the surface analysis results are presented

  15. Preclinical renal chemo-protective potential of Prunus amygdalus Batsch seed coat via alteration of multiple molecular pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Preeti; Bhatt, Prakash Chandra; Rahman, Mahfoozur; Patel, Dinesh Kumar; Anwar, Firoz; Al-Abbasi, Fahad; Verma, Amita; Kumar, Vikas

    2018-02-01

    Prunus amygdalus Batsch (almond) is a classical nutritive traditional Indian medicine. Along with nutritive with anti-oxidant properties, it is, clinically, used in the treatment of various diseases with underlying anti-oxidant mechanism. This study is an effort to scrutinise the renal protective effect of P. amygdalus Batsch or green almond (GA) seed coat extract and its underlying mechanism in animal model of Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) induced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). RCC was induced in Swiss Albino Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of Fe-NTA. The rats were then treated with ethanolic extract of GA (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg per oral) for 22 weeks. Efficacy of GA administration was evaluated by change in biochemical, renal, macroscopical and histopathological parameters and alterations. Additionally, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and inflammatory mediator including prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2 ), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were also observed to explore the possible mechanisms. The oral administration of GA significantly (p Bowman capsules and inflammatory cells. Hence, it can be concluded that GA possesses observable chemo-protective action and effect on Fe-NTA induced RCC via dual inhibition mechanism one by inhibiting free radical generation and second by inhibiting inflammation.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF MELON F1 SEEDS BASED ON LINES WITH GENIC MALE STERILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Sokolov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The perspective technology of development of melon of F1hybrids seeds by use maternal lines with an original form of genic mail sterility and marker trait (lobed leaves was studied. Elements of technology allow developing hybrid seeds of melon with hybridity of 90-95%.

  17. Differential proteomics reveals the hallmarks of seed development in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parreira, J R; Bouraada, J; Fitzpatrick, M A; Silvestre, S; Bernardes da Silva, A; Marques da Silva, J; Almeida, A M; Fevereiro, P; Altelaar, A F M; Araújo, S S

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most consumed staple foods worldwide. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling seed development. This study aims to comprehensively describe proteome dynamics during seed development of common bean. A high-throughput gel-free

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR SINGLE CRYSTAL TURBINE BLADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarendra K. Rai

    2006-12-04

    Turbine blades in coal derived syngas systems are subject to oxidation and corrosion due to high steam temperature and pressure. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are developed to address these problems. The emphasis is on prime-reliant design and a better coating architecture, having high temperature and corrosion resistance properties for turbine blades. In Phase I, UES Inc. proposed to develop, characterize and optimize a prime reliant TBC system, having smooth and defect-free NiCoCrAlY bond layer and a defect free oxide sublayer, using a filtered arc technology. Phase I work demonstrated the deposition of highly dense, smooth and defect free NiCoCrAlY bond coat on a single crystal CMSX-4 substrate and the deposition of alpha-alumina and yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) sublayer on top of the bond coat. Isothermal and cyclic oxidation test and pre- and post-characterization of these layers, in Phase I work, (with and without top TBC layer of commercial EB PVD YSZ) revealed significant performance enhancement.

  19. Comparative analysis of adherence, viability, proliferation and morphology of umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells seeded on different titanium-coated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollweck, Trixi; Marschmann, Michaela; Hartmann, Isabel; Akra, Bassil; Meiser, Bruno; Reichart, Bruno; Eissner, Guenther; Eblenkamp, Markus; Wintermantel, Erich

    2010-01-01

    Umbilical cord tissue comprises an attractive new source for mesenchymal stem cells. Umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSC) exhibit self-renewal, multipotency and immunological naivity, and they can be obtained without medical intervention. The transfer of UCMSC to the ischemic region of the heart may have a favorable impact on tissue regeneration. Benefit from typical cell delivery by injection to the infarcted area is often limited due to poor cell retention and survival. Another route of administration is to use populated scaffolds implanted into the infarcted zone. In this paper, the seeding efficiency of UCMSC on uncoated and titanium-coated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) scaffolds with different surface structures was determined. Dualmesh (registered) (DM) offers a corduroy-like surface in contrast to the comparatively planar surface of cardiovascular patch (CVP). The investigation of adherence, viability and proliferation of UCMSC demonstrates that titanium-coated scaffolds are superior to uncoated scaffolds, independent of the surface structure. Microscopic images reveal spherical UCMSC seeded on uncoated scaffolds. In contrast, UCMSC on titanium-coated scaffolds display their characteristic spindle-shaped morphology and a homogeneous coverage of CVP. In summary, titanium coating of clinically approved CVP enhances the retention of UCMSC and thus offers a potential cell delivery system for the repair of the damaged myocardium.

  20. Comparative analysis of adherence, viability, proliferation and morphology of umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells seeded on different titanium-coated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollweck, Trixi; Marschmann, Michaela; Hartmann, Isabel; Akra, Bassil; Meiser, Bruno; Reichart, Bruno; Eissner, Guenther [Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Eblenkamp, Markus; Wintermantel, Erich, E-mail: Guenther.Eissner@med.uni-muenchen.d [Chair of Medical Engineering, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltzmannstrasse 15, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Umbilical cord tissue comprises an attractive new source for mesenchymal stem cells. Umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSC) exhibit self-renewal, multipotency and immunological naivity, and they can be obtained without medical intervention. The transfer of UCMSC to the ischemic region of the heart may have a favorable impact on tissue regeneration. Benefit from typical cell delivery by injection to the infarcted area is often limited due to poor cell retention and survival. Another route of administration is to use populated scaffolds implanted into the infarcted zone. In this paper, the seeding efficiency of UCMSC on uncoated and titanium-coated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) scaffolds with different surface structures was determined. Dualmesh (registered) (DM) offers a corduroy-like surface in contrast to the comparatively planar surface of cardiovascular patch (CVP). The investigation of adherence, viability and proliferation of UCMSC demonstrates that titanium-coated scaffolds are superior to uncoated scaffolds, independent of the surface structure. Microscopic images reveal spherical UCMSC seeded on uncoated scaffolds. In contrast, UCMSC on titanium-coated scaffolds display their characteristic spindle-shaped morphology and a homogeneous coverage of CVP. In summary, titanium coating of clinically approved CVP enhances the retention of UCMSC and thus offers a potential cell delivery system for the repair of the damaged myocardium.

  1. Development of nondestructive evaluation methods for ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, W. A.; Deemer, C.; Sun, J. G.; Erdman, S.; Muliere, D.; Wheeler, B.

    2002-01-01

    Various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are being developed to study the use of ceramic coatings on components in the hot-gas path of advanced low-emission gas-fired turbines. The types of ceramic coatings include thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and environmental barrier coatings (EBCs). TBCs are under development for vanes, blades, and combustor liners to allow hotter gas-path temperatures, and EBCs are under development to reduce environmental damage to high-temperature components made of ceramic matrix composites. The NDE methods will be used to (a) provide data to assess the reliability of new coating application processes, (b) identify defective components that could cause unscheduled outages, (c) track growth rates of defects during component use in engines, and (d) allow rational judgment for replace/repair/re-use decisions regarding components. Advances in TBC application, both electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and air plasma spraying (APS), are allowing higher temperatures in the hot-gas path. However, as TBCs become ''prime reliant,'' their condition at scheduled or unscheduled outages must be known. NDE methods are under development to assess the condition of the TBC for pre-spall conditions. EB-PVD test samples with up to 70 thermal cycles have been studied by a newly developed method involving polarized laser back-scatter NDE. Results suggest a correlation between the NDE laser data and the TBC/bond-coat topography. This finding is important because several theories directed toward understanding the pre-spall condition suggest that the topography in the thermally grown oxide layer changes significantly as a function of the number of thermal cycles. Tests have also been conducted with this NDE method on APS TBCs. Results suggest that the pre-spall condition is detected for these coatings. One-sided, high-speed thermal imaging also has shown promise for NDE of APS coatings. Testing of SiC/SiC composites for combustor liners

  2. Fruit, seed and embryo development of different cassava (Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-24

    Mar 24, 2014 ... Key words: Manihot esculenta Crantz, day after pollination (DAP), fruit set, seed size, .... (day/night) photoperiod with light supplied by white fluorescent tubes .... Science Foundation of China (31301378) and the projects.

  3. Seeds and Synergies: Innovating Rural Development in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-20

    Dec 20, 2010 ... Norman Uphoff, Cornell University Policy makers and plant breeders should read ... This has invigorated maize production, created new livelihoods, and ... between the seed systems of farmers and the Chinese Government.

  4. Effect of Pretreatments on Seed Viability During Fruit Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    and petri dishes on moist filter paper, gave 80% germination in variety gabonensis, 20 weeks after fruiting. .... Effect of pretreatments on seed germination of fruits of Irvingia gabonensis plucked from forest ...... A review of the tariff structure and.

  5. An analysis of the development of cauliflower seed as a model to improve the molecular mechanism of abiotic stress tolerance in cauliflower artificial seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihan, Hail Z; Al-Issawi, Mohammed; Fuller, Michael P

    2017-07-01

    The development stages of conventional cauliflower seeds were studied and the accumulation of dehydrin proteins through the maturation stages was investigated with the aim of identifying methods to improve the viability of artificial seeds of cauliflower. While carbohydrate, ash and lipids increased throughout the development of cauliflower traditional seeds, proteins increased with the development of seed and reached the maximum level after 75 days of pollination, however, the level of protein started to decrease after that. A significant increase in the accumulation of small size dehydrin proteins (12, 17, 26 KDa) was observed during the development of cauliflower seeds. Several experiments were conducted in order to increase the accumulation of important dehydrin proteins in cauliflower microshoots (artificial seeds). Mannitol and ABA (Absisic acid) increased the accumulation of dehydrins in cauliflower microshoots while cold acclimation did not have a significant impact on the accumulation of these proteins. Molybdenum treatments had a negative impact on dehydrin accumulation. Dehydrins have an important role in the drought tolerance of seeds and, therefore, the current research helps to improve the accumulation of these proteins in cauliflower artificial seeds. This in turns improves the quality of these artificial seeds. The current results suggest that dehydrins do not play an important role in cold tolerance of cauliflower artificial seeds. This study could have an important role in improving the understanding of the molecular mechanism of abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of Mirror Coatings for Gravitational Wave Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Reid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The first detections of gravitational waves, GW150914 and GW151226, were associated with the coalescence of stellar mass black holes, heralding the opening of an entirely new way to observe the Universe. Many decades of development were invested to achieve the sensitivities required to observe gravitational waves, with peak strains associated with GW150914 at the level of 10−21. Gravitational wave detectors currently operate as modified Michelson interferometers, where thermal noise associated with the highly reflective mirror coatings sets a critical limit to the sensitivity of current and future instruments. This article presents an overview of the mirror coating development relevant to gravitational wave detection and the prospective for future developments in the field.

  7. Development of seed separation techniques in magneto hydro dynamic power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagalakshmi, R; Balasubramanian, V [Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd., Tiruchirapalli (India); Pandey, S K [Regional Engineering College, Tiruchirapalli (India)

    1994-06-01

    Approximately 90% of potassium is recovered in the various magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) downstream components as spent-seed. In this work, countercurrent extraction process to recover water-soluble potassium from spent-seed is developed. Synthetic spent-seed solids were prepared at simulated MHD conditions. Different dissolution experiments at various process conditions to recover water-soluble/insoluble potassium from spent-seed are reported in this paper. Lime digestion and acid digestion options are suggested to recover water-insoluble potassium from spent-seed. 90% of potassium interacted with water-insoluble portion of the spent-seed. It was observed that 80% water-insoluble potassium could be recovered from acid leaching. (author). 4 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Systematic Analysis and Innovation for Development Policies of Beijing Seed Industry at Transformation Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing LIU; Fengjun LU; Guozhi ZHANG; Lijiao XIE

    2015-01-01

    At transformation stage,seed Industry is not only a fundamental and strategic industry during the construction of World City,but also part of urban and modern agriculture in Beijing. Based on the analysis of the theory of industrial economics and system theory,the article constructs the seed industry policy analysis model,systematically analyzes the support points of national level and the city of Beijing seed industry policy,and studies policy input,mechanism,output and effects by way of systematic analysis,as well as proposes polices and suggestions on promotion of development for Beijing seed industry and on construction of new seed industry from talent incentive,platform construction,seed trading and enterprise cultivation.

  9. Research and Development on Coatings for Retaining Fission Product Iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genco, J. M.; Berry, D. A.; Rosenberg, H. S.; Cremeans, G. E.; Morrison, D. L. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus Laboratories, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1968-12-15

    It is well known that elemental iodine has the propensity for forming charge-transfer complexes with amines. These complexes are stable at ambient temperatures and retain much of this stability at elevated temperatures. Amines also react with methyl iodide and hydrogen iodide to form the quaternary ammonium salts and amine salts, respectively. These chemical properties of amines provide the basis for the development of retentive coatings for fission product iodine. Various amine-containing polymers were studied in steam-air environments at elevated temperatures using dilute quantities of tagged iodine. Both non-condensing and condensing steam conditions were investigated. Several of the polymers showed sorption rates and capacities that would be adequate for the chemical removal of accident-released fission-product iodine and were several times more effective than commercial protective coatings currently being used. The removal capabilities for amine polymers also could be enhanced by impregnating the reactant on a matrix material such as asbestos mat, presumably because the impregnation technique leads to enhanced surface area and porosity. The two most promising coating systems found were 1:10-phenanthroline impregnated upon asbestos and a three component composite film of the co-polymer of Genamid 2000 and Epon 828 as a reactive binder with 1,10-phenanthroline as a reactive filler. The use of a reactive coating as a passive safety system should reduce appreciably the airborne iodine half-life and the hazards associated with iodine release during a nuclear reactor accident. (author)

  10. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of vegetable and grain pea (Pisum sativum L. seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating pea seed developmental process is extremely important for pea breeding. In this study, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analyses to examine the changes in gene expression during seed development in vegetable pea and grain pea, and compare the gene expression profiles of these two pea types. RNA-Seq generated 18.7 G of raw data, which were then de novo assembled into 77,273 unigenes with a mean length of 930 bp. Our results illustrate that transcriptional control during pea seed development is a highly coordinated process. There were 459 and 801 genes differentially expressed at early and late seed maturation stages between vegetable pea and grain pea, respectively. Soluble sugar and starch metabolism related genes were significantly activated during the development of pea seeds coinciding with the onset of accumulation of sugar and starch in the seeds. A comparative analysis of genes involved in sugar and starch biosynthesis in vegetable pea (high seed soluble sugar and low starch and grain pea (high seed starch and low soluble sugar revealed that differential expression of related genes at late development stages results in a negative correlation between soluble sugar and starch biosynthetic flux in vegetable and grain pea seeds. RNA-Seq data was validated by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 30 randomly selected genes. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report of seed development transcriptomics in pea. The obtained results provide a foundation to support future efforts to unravel the underlying mechanisms that control the developmental biology of pea seeds, and serve as a valuable resource for improving pea breeding.

  11. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  12. Global analysis of gene expression profiles in developing physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Pingzhi; Zhang, Sheng; Song, Chi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Jia, Yongxia; Fang, Xiaohua; Chen, Fan; Wu, Guojiang

    2012-01-01

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is an oilseed plant species with high potential utility as a biofuel. Furthermore, following recent sequencing of its genome and the availability of expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries, it is a valuable model plant for studying carbon assimilation in endosperms of oilseed plants. There have been several transcriptomic analyses of developing physic nut seeds using ESTs, but they have provided limited information on the accumulation of stored resources in the seeds. We applied next-generation Illumina sequencing technology to analyze global gene expression profiles of developing physic nut seeds 14, 19, 25, 29, 35, 41, and 45 days after pollination (DAP). The acquired profiles reveal the key genes, and their expression timeframes, involved in major metabolic processes including: carbon flow, starch metabolism, and synthesis of storage lipids and proteins in the developing seeds. The main period of storage reserves synthesis in the seeds appears to be 29-41 DAP, and the fatty acid composition of the developing seeds is consistent with relative expression levels of different isoforms of acyl-ACP thioesterase and fatty acid desaturase genes. Several transcription factor genes whose expression coincides with storage reserve deposition correspond to those known to regulate the process in Arabidopsis. The results will facilitate searches for genes that influence de novo lipid synthesis, accumulation and their regulatory networks in developing physic nut seeds, and other oil seeds. Thus, they will be helpful in attempts to modify these plants for efficient biofuel production.

  13. Development and electrochemical characterization of Ni‐P coated tungsten incorporated electroless nickel coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibli, S.M.A., E-mail: smashibli@yahoo.com; Chinchu, K.S.

    2016-08-01

    Ni‐P-W alloy and composite coatings were prepared by incorporation of sodium tungstate/tungsten and Ni‐P coated tungsten into electroless nickel bath respectively. Good inter-particle interactions among the depositing elements i.e. Ni and P with the incorporating tungsten particles were achieved by means of pre-coated tungsten particle by electroless nickel covering prior to its addition into the electroless bath. The pre-coated tungsten particles got incorporated uniformly into the Ni-P matrix of the coating. The particles and the coatings were characterized at different stages by different techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The electroless Ni-P coating incorporated with pre-coated tungsten exhibited considerably high hardness, thickness and deposition rate. The performance and corrosion resistance characteristics of the composite coating incorporated with the nickel coated tungsten were found to be superior over other conventional Ni-P-W ternary alloy coatings currently reported. - Highlights: • An amorphous Ni-P coating was effectively formed on tungsten particles. • Electroless ternary Ni-P-W composite coatings were successfully prepared. • Enhancement in the inter-particle interaction in the Ni-P composite matrix was achieved. • Efficient and uniform incorporation of the composite in the internal layer was evident. • The tungsten incorporated coating possessed effective barrier protection.

  14. Development of biodegradable magnesium alloy stents with coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Petrini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable stents are attracting the attention of many researchers in biomedical and materials research fields since they can absolve their specific function for the expected period of time and then gradually disappear. This feature allows avoiding the risk of long-term complications such as restenosis or mechanical instability of the device when the vessel grows in size in pediatric patients. Up to now biodegradable stents made of polymers or magnesium alloys have been proposed. However, both the solutions have limitations. The polymers have low mechanical properties, which lead to devices that cannot withstand the natural contraction of the blood vessel: the restenosis appears just after the implant, and can be ascribed to the compliance of the stent. The magnesium alloys have much higher mechanical properties, but they dissolve too fast in the human body. In this work we present some results of an ongoing study aiming to the development of biodegradable stents made of a magnesium alloy that is coated with a polymer having a high corrosion resistance. The mechanical action on the blood vessel is given by the magnesium stent for the desired period, being the stent protected against fast corrosion by the coating. The coating will dissolve in a longer term, thus delaying the exposition of the magnesium stent to the corrosive environment. We dealt with the problem exploiting the potentialities of a combined approach of experimental and computational methods (both standard and ad-hoc developed for designing magnesium alloy, coating and scaffold geometry from different points of views. Our study required the following steps: i selection of a Mg alloy suitable for stent production, having sufficient strength and elongation capability; ii computational optimization of the stent geometry to minimize stress and strain after stent deployment, improve scaffolding ability and corrosion resistance; iii development of a numerical model for studying stent

  15. Development of Recycling Compatible Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives and Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Severtson

    2010-02-15

    The objective of this project was the design of new water-based pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) products and coatings engineered for enhanced removal during the processing of recycled fiber. Research included the formulation, characterization, and performance measurements of new screenable coatings, testing of modified paper and board substrates and the design of test methods to characterize the inhibition of adhesive and coating fragmentation and relative removal efficiencies of developed formulations. This project was operated under the requirements that included commercially viable approaches be the focus, that findings be published in the open literature and that new strategies could not require changes in the methods and equipment used to produce PSA and PS labels or in the recycling process. The industrial partners benefited through the building of expertise in their company that they would not, and likely could not, have pursued if it had not been for the partnership. Results of research on water-based PSAs clearly identifies which PSA and paper facestock properties govern the fragmentation of the adhesive and provide multiple strategies for making (pressure-sensitive) PS labels for which the PSA is removed at very high efficiencies from recycling operations. The application of these results has led to the identification of several commercial products in Franklin International’s (industrial partner) product line that are recycling compatible. Several new formulations were also designed and are currently being scaled-up. Work on recycling compatible barrier coatings for corrugated containers examined the reinforcement of coatings using a small amount of exfoliated organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT). These OMMT/paraffin wax nanocomposites demonstrated significantly improved mechanical properties. Paraffin waxes containing clay were found to have significantly higher Young’s moduli and yield stress relative to the wax matrix, but the most

  16. A functional analysis of cell cycle events in developing and germinating tomato seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, de R.D.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds are complex biological structures and the primary dispersal units of higher plants. They consist of nutrient reserve storage tissue(s), an embryo and encapsulating structures designated for protection and that may also regulate germination. Seeds have developed mechanisms of

  17. Regulation of carotenoid and ABA accumulation during the development and germination of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Anne; Boutin, Jean-Pierre; Sotta, Bruno; Mercier, Raphaël; Marion-Poll, Annie

    2006-08-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is derived from epoxycarotenoid cleavage and regulates seed development and maturation. A detailed carotenoid analysis was undertaken to study the contribution of epoxycarotenoid synthesis to the regulation of ABA accumulation in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia developing seeds. Maximal accumulation of xanthophylls occurred at mid-development in wild type seeds, when total ABA levels also peaked. In contrast, in ABA-deficient mutants xanthophyll synthesis was delayed, in agreement with the retardation in seed maturation. Seed dormancy was restored in mutants impaired in the conversion of zeaxanthin into violaxanthin by zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP), by the introduction of the Arabidopsis AtZEP gene under the control of promoters inducing expression during later stages of seed development compared to wild type NpZEP, and in dry and imbibed seeds. Alterations in the timing and level of ZEP expression did not highly affect the temporal regulation of ABA accumulation in transgenic seeds, despite notable perturbations in xanthophyll accumulation. Therefore, major regulatory control of ABA accumulation might occur downstream of epoxycarotenoid synthesis.

  18. Mineral accumulation in vegetative and reproductive tissues during seed development in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina B. Garcia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing nutrient density in legume seeds is one of several strategies being explored to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply. In order to develop crop varieties with increased seed mineral concentration, a more detailed understanding of mineral translocation within the plant is required. By studying mineral accumulation in different organs within genetically diverse members of the same species, it may be possible to identify variable traits that modulate seed mineral concentration. We utilized two ecotypes (A17 and DZA315.16 of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, to study dry mass and mineral accumulation in the leaves, pod walls, and seeds during reproductive development. The pod wall dry mass was significantly different between the two ecotypes beginning at 12 days after pollination, whereas there was no significant difference in the average dry mass of individual seeds between the two ecotypes at any time point. There were also no significant differences in leaf dry mass between ecotypes; however, we observed expansion of A17 leaves during the first 21 days of pod development, while DZA315.16 leaves did not display a significant increase in leaf area. Mineral profiling of the leaves, pod walls, and seeds highlighted differences in accumulation patterns among minerals within each tissue as well as genotypic differences with respect to individual minerals. Because there were differences in the average seed number per pod, the total seed mineral content per pod was generally higher in A17 than DZA315.16. In addition, mineral partitioning to the seeds tended to be higher in A17 pods. These data revealed that mineral retention within leaves and/or pod walls might attenuate mineral accumulation within the seeds. As a result, strategies to increase seed mineral content should include approaches that will enhance export from these tissues.

  19. Anthocyanin contents in the seed coat of black soya bean and their anti-human tyrosinase activity and antioxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhan, J-K; Chung, Y-C; Chen, G-H; Chang, C-H; Lu, Y-C; Hsu, C-K

    2016-06-01

    The seed coat of black soya bean (SCBS) contains high amount of anthocyanins and shows antioxidant and anti-mushroom tyrosinase activities. The objectives of this study were to analyse the anthocyanins in SCBS with different solvents and to find the relationship between anthocyanin profile with anti-human and anti-mushroom tyrosinase activities. SCBS was extracted with hot water, 50 and 80% ethanol, 50 and 80% acetone and 50 and 80% acidified acetone. Total phenol and total flavonoid contents in the extracts were determined. Anthocyanins in the extracts were analysed using HPLC and LC/MS/MS. A genetically engineered human tyrosinase was used to evaluate the anti-tyrosinase potential of the extracts from SCBS. 80% acetone extract from SCBS obtained the highest total phenol, total flavonoid and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) contents among all the extracts, whereas the hot water extract showed the lowest antioxidant contents. Three anthocyanin compounds were found in all the extracts from SCBS, and the analysis of HPLC and LC/MS/MS indicated that they were C3G, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (D3G) and peonidin-3-O-glucoside (P3G). The ratios of C3G (2.84 mg g(-1) ), D3G (0.34 mg g(-1) ) and P3G (0.35 mg g(-1) ) in 80% acidified acetone extract were 76.6, 9.1 and 9.3%, respectively. All the extracts from SCBS possessed anti-human tyrosinase activity. Moreover, a good correlation was found between the anti-human tyrosinase activities and C3G contents in the extracts. Antioxidants in SCBS also possess anti-human and anti-mushroom tyrosinase activities. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. Effect of space flight factors on alfalfa seeds | Ren | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. To explore the effect of space flight factors on the early development of alfalfa seedling, dry seeds were placed onboard a satellite for a 15-day flight. After retrieval, the ultra structure of seed coat and the chemical content of seed were tested, followed by tests for germinate ability, seedling growth, and mitotic and ...

  1. Pollination with gamma-irradiated pollen and seed development in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musial, K.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The effects of pollen irradiation at 70 and 90 kr on seed set were studied in Actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa. Pollination with irradiated pollen affected seed development and contents. Rising irradiation doses increased the percentages of empty seeds and decreased the percentages of seeds containing embryos with endosperm. Moreover, pollination with heavily irradiated pollen led to the formation of seeds containing the endosperm only. Embryo and endosperm size was also strongly influenced by irradiated pollen. The length of endosperms was reduced at all levels of pollen irradiation compared to the non-irradiated controls; the embryo development was conspicuously retarded. Cells in endosperm resulting from the treatments differed in the presence and number of starch grains. (author)

  2. Tratamento fungicida e peliculização de sementes de soja submetidas ao armazenamento Fungicide treatment and film coating of soybean seeds submitted to storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pereira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento de sementes de soja com fungicidas vem sendo utilizado como importante ferramenta no controle de patógenos. Nesse trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o desempenho de sementes de soja tratadas com fungicidas e peliculizadas, antes e após o armazenamento. Foram utilizados cinco lotes de sementes, cultivar Monsoy 6101, submetidos aos tratamentos: thiabendazole+thiram sem polímero, carbendazin+thiram sem polímero, sem fungicida (testemunha sem polímero, além desses tratamentos realizados via peliculização (com polímero. A qualidade fisiológica e sanitária das sementes foi avaliada inicialmente e após seis meses de armazenamento em condições ambientais, pelas seguintes determinações: teor de água, teste de germinação, emergência em bandeja, teste de frio e de sanidade. Conclui-se que a peliculização, em associação com fungicidas, não afeta a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de soja e o tratamento de lotes de sementes de soja com os fungicidas thiabendazole+thiram e carbendazin+thiram melhora seu desempenho e qualidade sanitária.The treatment of soybean seeds by fungicides has been used as an important tool in pathogen control. The objective of this work was to verify the performance of soybean seeds treated with fungicide and film coating, prior and after storage. Five seed lots, cultivar Monsoy 6101, were treated with thiabendazole+thiram without polymer, carbendazin+thiram without polymer, without fungicide (control, without polymer, and treatments by film coating (with polymer. The physiological and sanitary quality of the seeds was evaluated initially and after six months storage, under environmental conditions, according to the following characteristics: water content, test of germination and emergence on tray, blotter test and cold test. The film coating associated with fungicides does not affect the physiological quality of soybean seeds and the soybean seed treatment with the fungicides thiabendazole

  3. Quality Assurance Procedure Development in Iodine-125 Seeds Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, J.A.; Moura, E.S.; Sprenger, F.E.

    2009-01-01

    Brachytherapy using Iodine-125 seeds has been used in prostate cancer treatment. In the quality control routine during seed production, leak tests are made to detect any leakage of radioactive material from inside the titanium shield. Leak tests are made according to the International Standard Organization- Radiation protection - sealed radioactive sources - ISO 9978 standard, and require liquid transfer between recipients. If any leakage happens, there will be contamination of the liquid and tubing. This study aims to establish decontamination routines for tubing, allowing its repeated use, in the automated assay process

  4. Development of control system of coating of rod hydraulic cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizhambaeva, S. Zh; Maximova, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    In this article, requirements to materials of hydraulic cylinders and methods of eliminating the main factors affecting the quality of the applied coatings rod hydraulic cylinders. The chromium plating process - one of ways of increase of anti-friction properties of coatings rods, stability to the wear and corrosion. The article gives description of differences of the stand-speed chromium plating process from other types of chromium plating that determines a conclusion about cutting time of chromium plating process. Conducting the analysis of technological equipment suggested addressing the modernization of high-speed chromium plating processes by automation and mechanization. Control system developed by design of schematic block diagram of a modernized and stand-speed chromium plating process.

  5. Desempenho de sementes de soja peliculizadas em solo com diferentes teores de água Performance of film coated soybean seeds in soil with different water contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Emiliorelli Evangelista

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso de polímeros hidrofóbicos, tem sido recomendado para tratamento de sementes de espécies que absorvem água rapidamente, causando danos por embebição, como é o caso da soja. Quando a semeadura é realizada em solos com baixa capacidade de infiltração, pode ocorrer redução significativa do estande caso a semeadura coincida com alto índice pluviométrico. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de sementes de soja peliculizadas em solos com diferentes teores de água. As sementes foram tratadas com o fungicida Tegram (thiabendazole + thiram na dosagem de 200 mL/100 kg de sementes associadas aos polímeros. Para peliculização das sementes foram utilizados os polímeros L201 e L204, os quais foram aplicados nas dosagens de 0 mL, 200 mL e 400 mL/100 kg de sementes. Após o tratamento as sementes foram semeadas em solos com 50, 70 e 90% da capacidade de campo para avaliações nos testes de emergência em bandeja e teste de frio. Foram feitas ainda avaliações por meio do teste de germinação, submersão, emergência em canteiro. Verificou-se que a peliculização promove um aumento no índice e no percentual de emergência quando em condições ideais, independente do polímero utilizado. Em condições de estresse a peliculização reduz o vigor das sementes.The use of polymers has been recommended for the treatment of seeds of those species that absorb water quickly, causing seed damage by imbibition, such as the soybean case. When the sowing is accomplished in soils with a low drainage capacity, a significant reduction in the seedling emergence may occur if sowing coincides with the high pluviometric index. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of film coated soybean seeds in soils with different water contents. Seeds were treated with the fungicide Tegram (thiabendazole + thiram at a dosage of 200mL/100kg of seeds associated to the polymers. For the film coating of the seeds the

  6. A Quantitative Acetylomic Analysis of Early Seed Development in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Hou, Yuxuan; Qiu, Jiehua; Li, Zhiyong; Zhao, Juan; Tong, Xiaohong; Zhang, Jian

    2017-06-27

    PKA (protein lysine acetylation) is a critical post-translational modification that regulates various developmental processes, including seed development. However, the acetylation events and dynamics on a proteomic scale in this process remain largely unknown, especially in rice early seed development. We report the first quantitative acetylproteomic study focused on rice early seed development by employing a mass spectral-based (MS-based), label-free approach. A total of 1817 acetylsites on 1688 acetylpeptides from 972 acetylproteins were identified in pistils and seeds at three and seven days after pollination, including 268 acetyproteins differentially acetylated among the three stages. Motif-X analysis revealed that six significantly enriched motifs, such as (DxkK), (kH) and (kY) around the acetylsites of the identified rice seed acetylproteins. Differentially acetylated proteins among the three stages, including adenosine diphosphate (ADP) -glucose pyrophosphorylases (AGPs), PDIL1-1 (protein disulfide isomerase like 1-1), hexokinases, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) and numerous other regulators that are extensively involved in the starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and photosynthesis pathways during early seed development. This study greatly expanded the rice acetylome dataset, and shed novel insight into the regulatory roles of PKA in rice early seed development.

  7. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno D Pires

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict.

  8. Armazenamento de sementes de braquiária peletizadas e tratadas com fungicida e inseticida Brachiaria coated seed storage treated with fungicide and insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade de sementes é fundamental para o sucesso da formação de pastagem, de forma que é importante viabilizar tecnologias para elas. Assim, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desempenho de sementes de Brachiaria decumbens peletizadas e tratadas com fungicida e inseticida, durante o armazenamento. As sementes foram tratadas com thiabendazol na dosagem de 200mL 100kg-1 de sementes, com fipronil na dosagem de 500mL 100kg-1 de sementes e com a mistura de ambos (nas mesmas dosagens e parte não foi submetida a esses tratamentos (testemunha. Posteriormente, as sementes foram peletizadas utilizando-se uma mistura de areia + microcelulose e cola Cascorex - PVA (20%, as quais em seguida foram armazenadas em condições ambientais em armazém convencional (temperatura e umidade relativa do ar média de 21,9°C e 68%, respectivamente, durante 12 meses. As sementes foram avaliadas inicialmente e a cada quatro meses com as seguintes avaliações: teor de água, teste de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação, teste de emergência e índice de velocidade de emergência. A peletização das sementes de Brachiaria decumbens com areia e microcelulose prejudica a porcentagem e velocidade de germinação, bem como a emergência de plântulas durante o armazenamento. Sementes de Brachiaria decumbens cv. 'Basilisk' tratadas com fipronil, thiabendazol, ou com ambos, não devem ser armazenadas por mais de oito meses.The quality of seed is crucial to the success of pasture formation. Thus the aim of this research was to evaluate the performance of Brachiaria decumbens seeds pelleted and treated with fungicides and insecticides during storage. The seeds were treated with thiabendazole at a dosage of 200mL 100kg-1 of seeds, with fipronil at a dosage of 500mL 100kg-1 of seeds and a mixture of both (in the same dosages and some was not subjected to such treatment (control. Subsequently the seeds were coated using a mixture of sand

  9. Effect of Pretreatments on Seed Viability During Fruit Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    picked from standing trees and/or forest floors, attain maximum viability and ... increase in germination potential (60%) of seeds treated with polyethylene .... Key: 60* = There was no germination 60 days after sowing; MC = Moisture content; Germ. ...... Paper presented at the pre-germplasm collection meeting on Irvingia.

  10. Planting time and mulching effect on onion development and seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of planting time and mulches on bulb growth and seed production of onion (Allium cepa L.) cv. Taherpuri. Planting time and mulches had significant influence on almost all parameters studied. Onion planted on 21 November had better agronomic traits contributing ...

  11. Identification of seed-related QTL in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bagheri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the genetic variation, and loci involved, for a range of seed-related traits, a new F2 mapping population was developed by crossing Brassica rapa ssp. parachinensis L58 (CaiXin with B. rapa ssp. trilocularis R-o-18 (spring oil seed, both rapid flowering and self-compatible. A linkage map was constructed using 97 AFLPs and 21 SSRs, covering a map distance of 757 cM with an average resolution of 6.4 cM, and 13 quantitative trait loci (QTL were detected for nine traits. A strong seed colour QTL (LOD 26 co-localized with QTL for seed size (LOD 7, seed weight (LOD 4.6, seed oil content (LOD 6.6, number of siliques (LOD 3 and number of seeds per silique (LOD 3. There was only a significant positive correlation between seed colour and seed oil content in the yellow coloured classes. Seed coat colour and seed size were controlled by the maternal plant genotype. Plants with more siliques tended to have more, but smaller, seeds and higher seed oil content. Seed colour and seed oil content appeared to be controlled by two closely linked loci in repulsion phase. Thus, it may not always be advantageous to select for yellow-seededness when breeding for high seed oil content in Brassicas.

  12. Developing High-Temperature Water-Soluble Coatings for Reconfigurable Tooling Materials-PREPRINT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calvert, George; Cao, Kevin J; Jacobson, Ted; Clements, Linda; Luo, Shen-Yi; Kim, Kwang J; O'Toole, Brendan

    2007-01-01

    .... This paper describes the development of such coatings, including the investigation of chemical modification and mechanical reinforcement as well as the suitability of the coatings in elevated-temperature use...

  13. Development of Zn-Al-Cu coatings by hot dip coated technology: preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes, J.; Barba, A.; Hernandez, M. A.; Salas, J.; Espinoza, J. L.; Denova, C.; Torres-Villasenor, G.; Conde, A.; Covelo, A.; Valdez, R.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, research concerning Zn-Al-Cu coatings on low carbon steels has been conducted in order to characterize different properties obtained by a hot-dip coated process. The results include preparation procedure as well as the processing parameters of the coatings. The obtained coatings were subjected to a cold rolling process followed by an anneal heat treatment at different temperatures and under different time conditions. The structural characteristics of coatings have been investigated by optical and electron microscopy. The mechanical properties were obtained by using micro-hardness testing, deep drawing and wear tests whereas chemical analyses were carried out using the SEM/EDAX microprobe. The corrosion properties were achieved by using a salt spray fog chamber and potentiodynamic tests in a saline solution. The coatings are resistant to corrosion and wear in the presence of sodium chloride, therefore, the coatings could be an attractive alternative for application in coastal areas, and adequate wear adhesive resistance. (Author)

  14. Development of sustainable paper coatings using nanoscale industrial surface processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Breedveld, Leo; Lahti, Johanna

    in the PlasmaNice project, as environmental and social aspects are addressed using methods like life cycle check (LCC), life cycle assessment (LCA), and industrial risk assessment (RA) within the boundary of an economical production for different market segments. The results are intended to be used partly...... products, and the process and material developers providing new coatings with specific properties. The combination of RA and LCA/LCC within the early stages of product development provide a more holistic approach, It is commonly believed to be also economical beneficial as changes are easier to implement...

  15. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of early seed development in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiehua; Hou, Yuxuan; Tong, Xiaohong; Wang, Yifeng; Lin, Haiyan; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Zhiyong; Nallamilli, Babi R; Zhang, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed serves as a major food source for over half of the global population. Though it has been long recognized that phosphorylation plays an essential role in rice seed development, the phosphorylation events and dynamics in this process remain largely unknown so far. Here, we report the first large scale identification of rice seed phosphoproteins and phosphosites by using a quantitative phosphoproteomic approach. Thorough proteomic studies in pistils and seeds at 3, 7 days after pollination resulted in the successful identification of 3885, 4313 and 4135 phosphopeptides respectively. A total of 2487 proteins were differentially phosphorylated among the three stages, including Kip related protein 1, Rice basic leucine zipper factor 1, Rice prolamin box binding factor and numerous other master regulators of rice seed development. Moreover, differentially phosphorylated proteins may be extensively involved in the biosynthesis and signaling pathways of phytohormones such as auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and brassinosteroid. Our results strongly indicated that protein phosphorylation is a key mechanism regulating cell proliferation and enlargement, phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling, grain filling and grain quality during rice seed development. Overall, the current study enhanced our understanding of the rice phosphoproteome and shed novel insight into the regulatory mechanism of rice seed development.

  16. Functional foam coatings inside tubing and custom developed diamond ignition targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawedeit, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The development of inertial confinement fusion targets requires new efficient ablator materials and characteristic temperature measurements during confinement. Here, an aerogel coating process is developed to coat inside spheres and cylinders. The characteristic emission spectrum of doped aerogel inside diamond targets is used as temperature gauge during confinement. Coatings inside metal cylinders confirmed the generality of the coating procedure. In addition artificial diamond is characterized which represents an interesting ablator material.

  17. Germination and Seedling Development of Seeds from Different Parkia biglobosa (Jacq G. Don Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana O. ADEYEMI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of daylight, continuous illumination and acid scarification on the seed germination and seedling vegetative growth (epicotyl and hypocotyl lengths, and number of secondary roots of different Parkia biglobosawere investigated in the Plant Physiology Laboratory University of Ilorin, Ilorin Kwara State Nigeria. Seeds from two out of the twenty six Parkia tree samples (trees B and T germinated within 24 hours of planting in the daylight germination study while seeds from another tree (Q did not germinate until the third week after planting (3WAP. Some seeds have higher germination percentage both in the daylight (preliminary germination study and in the continuous light (illuminated study. The treatment with concentrated Sulphric acid (conc. H2SO4was effective in breaking the seed dormancy as seeds from eight (8 trees produced one hundred percent (100% germination. At p= 0.05 the length of epicotyl and hypocoty1 lengths were significantly different as seedling vegetative growth were long in the seedlings from the daylight experiment than the continuous light experiment. The vegetative growths of the seedlings from the scarified seed were longer at 15min of scarification in all except in trees F and Z. It was observed that the time of scarification affect the both seed germination and seedling development.

  18. 31P NMR study of phosphate metabolites in intact developing seeds of wheat, soybean and mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambhir, P.N.; Pande, P.C.; Ratcliffe, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The study of 31 P NMR spectra of intact developing seeds of wheat, soybean and mustard and its possible use for assessing the relative degree of hypoxia under in vivo conditions are reported. 7 refs., 2 figs

  19. Sugar - hormone crosstalk in seed development: Two redundant pathways of IAA biosynthesis are regulated differentially in the invertase-deficient miniature1 (mn1) seed mutant in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    The miniature1 (mn1) seed phenotype is a loss-of-function mutation at the Mn1 locus that encodes a cell wall invertase; its deficiency leads to pleiotropic changes including altered sugar levels and decreased levels of IAA throughout seed development. To understand the molecular details of such suga...

  20. An analysis of the development of cauliflower seed as a model to improve the molecular mechanism of abiotic stress tolerance in cauliflower artificial seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Rihan, HZ; Al-Issawi, M; Fuller, MP

    2017-01-01

    publisher: Elsevier articletitle: An analysis of the development of cauliflower seed as a model to improve the molecular mechanism of abiotic stress tolerance in cauliflower artificial seeds journaltitle: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry articlelink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.011 content_type: article copyright: © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Carbon partitioning among leaves, fruits, and seeds during development of Phaseolus vulgaris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, D.R.; Shieh, Wenjang; Saluke, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Development of vegetative and floral buds was found to be a key factor in establishing the way carbon is distributed among growing leaves and fruits in Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants. Leaves emerged principally during a period 14 to 32 days after planting while flowers were produced during a 10- to 12-day period near the end of leaf emergence. Timing of anthesis established the sigmoidal time course for dry weight accumulated by the composite of all fruits on the plant. During the first 12 days following anthesis, fruit growth mainly consisted of elongation and dry weight accumulation by the pod wall. Thereafter, seed dry weight increased for about 1 week, decreased markedly for several days, and then increased again over the next 2 weeks. Accumulation of imported carbon in individual seeds, measured by steady-state labeling, confirmed the time course for dry weight accumulation observed during seed development. Seed respiration rate initially increased rapidly along with dry weight and then remained nearly steady until seed maturation. A number of developmental events described in the literature coincided with the different phases of diauxic growth. The results demonstrated the feasibility of relating current rates of carbon import in individual seeds measured with tracer 14 C to the rates of conversion of imported sucrose and use of the products for specific developmental processes. The resulting data are useful for evaluating the roles of conversion and utilization of imported sucrose in regulating import by developing seeds

  2. Biogenesis of protein bodies during legumin accumulation in developing olive (Olea europaea L.) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Alché, Juan D; Rodríguez-García, Maria I

    2016-03-01

    Much of our current knowledge about seed development and differentiation regarding reserves synthesis and accumulation come from monocot (cereals) plants. Studies in dicotyledonous seeds differentiation are limited to a few species and in oleaginous species are even scarcer despite their agronomic and economic importance. We examined the changes accompanying the differentiation of olive endosperm and cotyledon with a focus on protein bodies (PBs) biogenesis during legumin protein synthesis and accumulation, with the aim of getting insights and a better understanding of the PBs' formation process. Cotyledon and endosperm undergo differentiation during seed development, where an asynchronous time-course of protein synthesis, accumulation, and differential PB formation patterns was found in both tissues. At the end of seed maturation, a broad population of PBs, particularly in cotyledon cells, was distinguishable in terms of number per cell and morphometric and cytochemical features. Olive seed development is a tissue-dependent process characterized by differential rates of legumin accumulation and PB formation in the main tissues integrating seed. One of the main features of the impressive differentiation process is the specific formation of a broad group of PBs, particularly in cotyledon cells, which might depend on selective accumulation and packaging of proteins and specific polypeptides into PBs. The nature and availability of the major components detected in the PBs of olive seed are key parameters in order to consider the potential use of this material as a suitable source of carbon and nitrogen for animal or even human use.

  3. A seed coat bedding assay shows that RGL2-dependent release of abscisic acid by the endosperm controls embryo growth in Arabidopsis dormant seeds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lee, K. P.; Piskurewicz, U.; Turečková, Veronika; Strnad, Miroslav; Lopez-Molina, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 44 (2010), s. 19108-19113 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : gibberellins * seed dormancy * DELLA Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 9.771, year: 2010

  4. Evolution of the Systems Engineering Education Development (SEED) Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagg, Thomas C., III; Brumfield, Mark D.; Jamison, Donald E.; Granata, Raymond L.; Casey, Carolyn A.; Heller, Stuart

    2003-01-01

    The Systems Engineering Education Development (SEED) Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center develops systems engineers from existing discipline engineers. The program has evolved significantly since the report to INCOSE in 2003. This paper describes the SEED Program as it is now, outlines the changes over the last year, discusses current status and results, and shows the value of human systems and leadership skills for practicing systems engineers.

  5. Development of Bioactive Ceramic Coating on Titanium Alloy substrate for Biomedical Application Using Dip Coating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmawi, R.; Ibrahim, M. H. I.; Amin, A. M.; Mustafa, N.; Noranai, Z.

    2017-08-01

    Bioactive apatite, such as hydroxyapatite ceramic (HA), [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] has been extensively investigated for biomedical applications due to its excellent biocompatibility and tissue bioactivity properties. Its bioactivity provides direct bonding to the bone tissue. Because of its similarity in chemical composition to the inorganic matrix of bone, HA is widely used as implant materials for bone. Unfortunately, because of its poor mechanical properties,. this bioactive material is not suitable for load bearing applications. In this study, by the assistance of dip-coating technique, HA coatings were deposited on titanium alloy substrates by employing hydrothermal derived HA powder. The produced coatings then were oven-dried at 130°C for 1 hour and calcined at various temperature over the range of 200-800°C for 1 hour. XRD measurement showed that HA was the only phase present in the coatings. However coatings calcined at 800°C comprised a mixture of HA and tri-calcium phosphate (TCP). FTIR measurement showed the existence of hydroxyl, phosphate, and carbonate bands. PO4 - band became sharper and narrower with the increased of calcination temperature. FESEM observation showed that the coating is polycrystalline with individual particles of nano to submicron size and has an average particle size of 35 nm. The thickness of the coating are direcly propotional with the viscosity of coating slurry. It was shown that the more viscous coating slurry would produce a thicker ceramic coating. Mechanical properties of the coating were measured in term of adhesion strength using a Micro Materials Nano Test microscratch testing machine. The result revealed that the coating had a good adhesion to the titanium alloy substrate.

  6. Safety Assessment of a New Pigmented Safflower Seed Coat (A82 by a Feeding Study on Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Karami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is an annual herbaceous plant, cultivated mainly for the seed which is used for edible oil extraction and bird feeding. This study was designed to evaluate the safety of a new pigmented variety of safflower (A82 seeds. The results showed that oral administration of A82 seeds significantly increased the body weight of male rats in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05. Biochemical tests showed that A82 seeds significantly increased the serum levels of AST (Aspartate aminotransferase (p<0.05, slightly reduced the serum levels of ALT (Alanine aminotransferase and significantly reduced ALP (p<0.05 levels in a dose dependent manner. BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen and Cr (Creatinine were not significantly changed in A82 seed treated groups. Also, testosterone levels were not significantly changed by administration of different doses of A82. However, Johnson scoring showed slightly decrease in experimental groups. No organ weight or histological changes were observed in liver, kidney, spleen, heart and brain of A82 seed treated animals. These results indicate that A82 seeds have not any toxic effects in Wistar rats. Future studies are required to clarify the exact mechanism by which A82 seeds alter AST levels and body weight in rat.

  7. Paint Removal from Composites and Protective Coating Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    WL-TR-91-4025 AD-A249 238 PAINT REMOVAL FROM COMPOSITES AND PROTECTIVE COATING DEVELOPMENT Peter W. Kopf Jay Cheney John Martin, et al. Arthur D...PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Peter Kopf, Jay Cheney, John Martin et al. 13a TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Mot, Day) I1S. PAGE COUNT...Adhesive -.............. "𔃺*/900 -.... .... .... -- - 450 - - - -------- - -- e nk~ T17 J 50 ,1 ZEC 9837 Experimental 350OF Surfacing Film DESCRIPTION XHC

  8. Proteome analysis of pod and seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nautrup-Pedersen, G.; Dam, S.; Laursen, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    Legume pods serve important functions during seed development and are themselves sources of food and feed. Compared to seeds, the metabolism and development of pods are not well-defined. The present characterization of pods from the model legume Lotus japonicus, together with the detailed analyses...... of the pod and seed proteomes in five developmental stages, paves the way for comparative pathway analysis and provides new metabolic information. Proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem-mass spectrometry. These analyses lead to the identification of 604 pod proteins and 965...... and photosynthesis. Proteins detected only in pods included three enzymes participating in the urea cycle and four in nitrogen and amino group metabolism, highlighting the importance of nitrogen metabolism during pod development. Additionally, five legume seed proteins previously unassigned in the glutamate...

  9. Development of non-destructive sorting technique for viability of watermelon seed by using hyperspectral image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hyun Jin; Seo, Young Wook; Lohumi, Santosh; Park, Eun Soo; Cho, Byoung Kwan [Biosystems Machinery Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong [Logistics institude, CJ Korea Express, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Seed viability is one of the most important parameters that is directly related with seed germination performance and seedling emergence. In this study, a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system having a range of 1000 –2500 nm was used to classify viable watermelon seeds from nonviable seeds. In order to obtain nonviable watermelon seeds, a total of 96 seeds were artificially aged by immersing the seeds in hot water (25°C) for 15 days. Further, hyperspectral images for 192 seeds (96 normal and 96 aged) were acquired using the developed HSI system. A germination test was performed for all the 192 seeds in order to confirm their viability. Spectral data from the hyperspectral images of the seeds were extracted by selecting pixels from the region of interest. Each seed spectrum was averaged and preprocessed to develop a classification model of partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The developed PLS-DA model showed a classification accuracy of 94.7% for the calibration set, and 84.2% for the validation set. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique can classify viable and nonviable watermelon seeds with a reasonable accuracy, and can be further converted into an online sorting system for rapid and nondestructive classification of watermelon seeds with regard to viability.

  10. Development of non-destructive sorting technique for viability of watermelon seed by using hyperspectral image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hyun Jin; Seo, Young Wook; Lohumi, Santosh; Park, Eun Soo; Cho, Byoung Kwan; Kim, Dae Yong

    2016-01-01

    Seed viability is one of the most important parameters that is directly related with seed germination performance and seedling emergence. In this study, a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system having a range of 1000 –2500 nm was used to classify viable watermelon seeds from nonviable seeds. In order to obtain nonviable watermelon seeds, a total of 96 seeds were artificially aged by immersing the seeds in hot water (25°C) for 15 days. Further, hyperspectral images for 192 seeds (96 normal and 96 aged) were acquired using the developed HSI system. A germination test was performed for all the 192 seeds in order to confirm their viability. Spectral data from the hyperspectral images of the seeds were extracted by selecting pixels from the region of interest. Each seed spectrum was averaged and preprocessed to develop a classification model of partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The developed PLS-DA model showed a classification accuracy of 94.7% for the calibration set, and 84.2% for the validation set. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique can classify viable and nonviable watermelon seeds with a reasonable accuracy, and can be further converted into an online sorting system for rapid and nondestructive classification of watermelon seeds with regard to viability

  11. Development of diamond coated tool and its performance in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India ... chemical inertness of diamond coating towards the work material, did not show any .... CVD diamond coated carbide tools, Ph D Thesis, Indian.

  12. Global analysis of gene expression profiles in developing physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawu Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. is an oilseed plant species with high potential utility as a biofuel. Furthermore, following recent sequencing of its genome and the availability of expressed sequence tag (EST libraries, it is a valuable model plant for studying carbon assimilation in endosperms of oilseed plants. There have been several transcriptomic analyses of developing physic nut seeds using ESTs, but they have provided limited information on the accumulation of stored resources in the seeds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied next-generation Illumina sequencing technology to analyze global gene expression profiles of developing physic nut seeds 14, 19, 25, 29, 35, 41, and 45 days after pollination (DAP. The acquired profiles reveal the key genes, and their expression timeframes, involved in major metabolic processes including: carbon flow, starch metabolism, and synthesis of storage lipids and proteins in the developing seeds. The main period of storage reserves synthesis in the seeds appears to be 29-41 DAP, and the fatty acid composition of the developing seeds is consistent with relative expression levels of different isoforms of acyl-ACP thioesterase and fatty acid desaturase genes. Several transcription factor genes whose expression coincides with storage reserve deposition correspond to those known to regulate the process in Arabidopsis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results will facilitate searches for genes that influence de novo lipid synthesis, accumulation and their regulatory networks in developing physic nut seeds, and other oil seeds. Thus, they will be helpful in attempts to modify these plants for efficient biofuel production.

  13. A method for seedling recovery in Jatropha curcas after cryogenic exposure of the seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rafael de C; Camillo, Julcéia; Scherwinski-Pereira, Jonny E

    2012-03-01

    Actually, the germplasm of Jatropha spp. is conserved as whole plants in field collections. Under this storage method, the genetic resources are exposed to disease, pest and natural hazards such as human error, drought and weather damage. Besides, field genebanks are costly to maintain and with important requirements of trained personnel. Thus, the development of efficient techniques to ensure its safe conservation and regeneration is therefore of paramount importance. In this work we describe a method for Jatropha curcas seeds cryoexposure and seedling recovery after thawed. In a first experiment, an efficient protocol for in vitro plant recovery was carried out using zygotic embryo or seeds with or without coat. In a second experiment, desiccated seeds with or without coat were exposed to liquid nitrogen and evaluated after cryoexposure. Germination percentages were variable among treatments, and seeds demonstrated tolerance to liquid nitrogen exposure under certain conditions. Seeds of J. curcas presented up to 99.6% germination after seed coat removal. Seeds with coat cultured in vitro did not germinate, and were 60% contaminated. The germination of the zygotic embryos was significantly higher in the 1/2 MS medium (93.1%) than in WPM medium (76.2%), but from zygotic embryo, abnormal seedlings reached up to 99%. Seeds with coat exposed to liquid nitrogen showed 60% germination in culture after coat removal with good plant growth, and seeds cryopreserved without coat presented 82% germination, but seedlings showed a reduced vigor and a significant increase in abnormal plants. Seeds cultured in vitro with coat did not germinate, independently of cryoexposure or not. This study reports the first successful in vitro seedling recovery methodology for Jatropha curcas seeds, after a cryopreservation treatment, and is recommended as an efficient procedure for in vitro plant recovery, when seeds are conserved in germplasm banks by low or cryotemperatures.

  14. A method for seedling recovery in Jatropha curcas after cryogenic exposure of the seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de C. Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Actually, the germplasm of Jatropha spp. is conserved as whole plants in field collections. Under this storage method, the genetic resources are exposed to disease, pest and natural hazards such as human error, drought and weather damage. Besides, field genebanks are costly to maintain and with important requirements of trained personnel. Thus, the development of efficient techniques to ensure its safe conservation and regeneration is therefore of paramount importance. In this work we describe a method for Jatropha curcas seeds cryoexposure and seedling recovery after thawed. In a first experiment, an efficient protocol for in vitro plant recovery was carried out using zygotic embryo or seeds with or without coat. In a second experiment, desiccated seeds with or without coat were exposed to liquid nitrogen and evaluated after cryoexposure. Germination percentages were variable among treatments, and seeds demonstrated tolerance to liquid nitrogen exposure under certain conditions. Seeds of J. curcas presented up to 99.6% germination after seed coat removal. Seeds with coat cultured in vitro did not germinate, and were 60% contaminated. The germination of the zygotic embryos was significantly higher in the ½ MS medium (93.1% than in WPM medium (76.2%, but from zygotic embryo, abnormal seedlings reached up to 99%. Seeds with coat exposed to liquid nitrogen showed 60% germination in culture after coat removal with good plant growth, and seeds cryopreserved without coat presented 82% germination, but seedlings showed a reduced vigor and a significant increase in abnormal plants. Seeds cultured in vitro with coat did not germinate, independently of cryoexposure or not. This study reports the first successful in vitro seedling recovery methodology for Jatropha curcas seeds, after a cryopreservation treatment, and is recommended as an efficient procedure for in vitro plant recovery, when seeds are conserved in germplasm banks by low or cryotemperatures.

  15. Development of wear resistant ceramic coatings for diesel engine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselkorn, M.H. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

    1992-04-01

    Improved fuel economy and a reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, insulating the combustion chamber components will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150{degree}C to over 300{degree}C. Existing ring/liner materials can not withstand these higher operating temperatures and for this reason, new materials need to be developed for this critical tribological interface. The overall goal of this program is the development of piston ring/cylinder liner material pairs which would be able to provide the required friction and wear properties at these more severe operating conditions. More specifically, this program first selected, and then evaluated, potential d/wear resistant coatings which could be applied to either piston rings an or cylinder liners and provide, at 350{degree}C under lubricated conditions, coefficients of friction below 0.1 and wear rates of less than 25 {times} lO{sup {minus}6} mm/hour. The processes selected for applying the candidate wear resistant coatings to piston rings and/or cylinder liners were plasma spraying, chemical vapor, physical vapor and low temperature arc vapor deposition techniques as well as enameling techniques.

  16. Development of Silicide Coating on Molybdenum Alloy Cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Woojin; Ryu, Ho Jin

    2015-01-01

    The molybdenum alloy is considered as one of the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding materials due to its high temperature mechanical properties. However, molybdenum has a weak oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. To modify the oxidation resistance of molybdenum cladding, silicide coating on the cladding is considered. Molybdenum silicide layers are oxidized to SiO 2 in an oxidation atmosphere. The SiO 2 protective layer isolates the substrate from the oxidizing atmosphere. Pack cementation deposition technique is widely adopted for silicide coating for molybdenum alloys due to its simple procedure, homogeneous coating quality and chemical compatibility. In this study, the pack cementation method was conducted to develop molybdenum silicide layers on molybdenum alloys. It was found that the Mo 3 Si layer was deposited on substrate instead of MoSi 2 because of short holding time. It means that through the extension of holding time, MoSi 2 layer can be formed on molybdenum substrate to enhance the oxidation resistance of molybdenum. The accident tolerant fuel (ATF) concept is to delay the process following an accident by reducing the oxidation rate at high temperatures and to delay swelling and rupture of fuel claddings. The current research for Atf can be categorized into three groups: First, modification of existing zirconium-based alloy cladding by improving the high temperature oxidation resistance and strength. Second, replacing Zirconium based alloys with alternative metallic materials such as refractory elements with high temperature oxidation resistance and strength. Third, designing alternative fuel structures using ceramic and composite systems

  17. Amelioration of hyperglycaemia and its associated complications by finger millet ( Eleusine coracana L.) seed coat matter in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobana, Shanmugam; Harsha, Mysore R; Platel, Kalpana; Srinivasan, Krishnapura; Malleshi, Nagappa G

    2010-12-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) is extensively cultivated and consumed in India and Africa. The millet seed coat is a rich source of dietary fibre and phenolic compounds. The effect of feeding a diet containing 20% finger millet seed coat matter (SCM) was examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats maintained on the millet SCM diet (diabetic experimental (DE) group) for 6 weeks exhibited a lesser degree of fasting hyperglycaemia and partial reversal of abnormalities in serum albumin, urea and creatinine compared with the diabetic control (DC) group. The DE group of rats excreted comparatively lesser amounts of glucose, protein, urea and creatinine and was accompanied by improved body weights compared with their corresponding controls. Hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriacylglycerolaemia associated with diabetes were also notably reversed in the DE group. Slit lamp examination of the eye lens revealed an immature subcapsular cataract with mild lenticular opacity in the DE group of rats compared to the mature cataract with significant lenticular opacity and corneal vascularisation in the DC group. Lower activity of lens aldose reductase, serum advanced glycation end products and blood glycosylated Hb levels were observed in the DE group. The millet SCM feeding showed pronounced ameliorating effects on kidney pathology as reflected by near normal glomerular and tubular structures and lower glomerular filtration rate compared with the shrunken glomerulus, tubular vacuolations in the DC group. Thus, the present animal study evidenced the hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolaemic, nephroprotective and anti-cataractogenic properties of finger millet SCM, suggesting its utility as a functional ingredient in diets for diabetics.

  18. Development of antimicrobial coating by later-by-layer dip coating of chlorhexidine-loaded micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambunlertchai, Supreeda; Srisang, Siriwan; Nasongkla, Norased

    2017-06-01

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) dip coating, accompanying with the use of micelle structure, allows hydrophobic molecules to be coated on medical devices' surface via hydrogen bonding interaction. In addition, micelle structure also allows control release of encapsulated compound. In this research, we investigated methods to coat and maximize the amount of chlorhexidine (CHX) on silicone surface through LbL dip coating method utilizing hydrogen bonding interaction between PEG on micelle corona and PAA. The number of coated cycles was varied in the process and 90 coating cycles provided the maximum amount of CHX loaded onto the surface. In addition, pre-coating the surface with PAA enhanced the amount of coated CHX by 20%. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to validate and characterize the coating. For control release aspect, the coated film tended to disrupt at physiological condition; hence chemical crosslinking was performed to minimize the disruption and maximize the release time. Chemical crosslinking at pH 2.5 and 4.5 were performed in the process. It was found that chemical crosslinking could help extend the release period up to 18 days. This was significantly longer when compared to the non-crosslinking silicone tube that could only prolong the release for 5 days. In addition, chemical crosslinking at pH 2.5 gave higher and better initial burst release, release period and antimicrobial properties than that of pH 4.5 or the normal used pH for chemical crosslinking process.

  19. Analysis of cDNA libraries from developing seeds of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L. Taub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixon Richard A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guar, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L. Taub, is a member of the Leguminosae (Fabaceae family and is economically the most important of the four species in the genus. The endosperm of guar seed is a rich source of mucilage or gum, which forms a viscous gel in cold water, and is used as an emulsifier, thickener and stabilizer in a wide range of foods and industrial applications. Guar gum is a galactomannan, consisting of a linear (1→4-β-linked D-mannan backbone with single-unit, (1→6-linked, α-D-galactopyranosyl side chains. To better understand regulation of guar seed development and galactomannan metabolism we created cDNA libraries and a resulting EST dataset from different developmental stages of guar seeds. Results A database of 16,476 guar seed ESTs was constructed, with 8,163 and 8,313 ESTs derived from cDNA libraries I and II, respectively. Library I was constructed from seeds at an early developmental stage (15–25 days after flowering, DAF, and library II from seeds at 30–40 DAF. Quite different sets of genes were represented in these two libraries. Approximately 27% of the clones were not similar to known sequences, suggesting that these ESTs represent novel genes or may represent non-coding RNA. The high flux of energy into carbohydrate and storage protein synthesis in guar seeds was reflected by a high representation of genes annotated as involved in signal transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, chaperone and proteolytic processes, and translation and ribosome structure. Guar unigenes involved in galactomannan metabolism were identified. Among the seed storage proteins, the most abundant contig represented a conglutin accounting for 3.7% of the total ESTs from both libraries. Conclusion The present EST collection and its annotation provide a resource for understanding guar seed biology and galactomannan metabolism.

  20. Unidirectional Movement of Cellulose Synthase Complexes in Arabidopsis Seed Coat Epidermal Cells Deposit Cellulose Involved in Mucilage Extrusion, Adherence, and Ray Formation1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Patricia; Young, Robin; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-01-01

    CELLULOSE SYNTHASE5 (CESA5) synthesizes cellulose necessary for seed mucilage adherence to seed coat epidermal cells of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The involvement of additional CESA proteins in this process and details concerning the manner in which cellulose is deposited in the mucilage pocket are unknown. Here, we show that both CESA3 and CESA10 are highly expressed in this cell type at the time of mucilage synthesis and localize to the plasma membrane adjacent to the mucilage pocket. The isoxaben resistant1-1 and isoxaben resistant1-2 mutants affecting CESA3 show defects consistent with altered mucilage cellulose biosynthesis. CESA3 can interact with CESA5 in vitro, and green fluorescent protein-tagged CESA5, CESA3, and CESA10 proteins move in a linear, unidirectional fashion around the cytoplasmic column of the cell, parallel with the surface of the seed, in a pattern similar to that of cortical microtubules. Consistent with this movement, cytological evidence suggests that the mucilage is coiled around the columella and unwinds during mucilage extrusion to form a linear ray. Mutations in CESA5 and CESA3 affect the speed of mucilage extrusion and mucilage adherence. These findings imply that cellulose fibrils are synthesized in an ordered helical array around the columella, providing a distinct structure to the mucilage that is important for both mucilage extrusion and adherence. PMID:25926481

  1. Silicon affects seed development and leaf macrohair formation in Brachypodium distachyon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Głazowska, Sylwia Emilia; Murozuka, Emiko; Persson, Daniel Olof

    2018-01-01

    Silicon (Si) has many beneficial effects in plants, especially for the survival from biotic and abiotic stresses. However, Si may negatively affect the quality of lignocellulosic biomass for bioenergy purposes. Despite many studies, the regulation of Si distribution and deposition in plants remains...... was similar to that in the wild-type. The Bdlsi1-1 plants supplied with Si had significantly lower seed weights, compared to the wild-type. In low-Si media, the seed weight of wild-type plants was similar to that of Bdlsi1-1 mutants supplied with Si, while the Bdlsi1-1 seed weight decreased further. We...... conclude that Si deficiency results in widespread alterations in leaf surface morphology and seed formation in Brachypodium, showing the importance of Si for successful development in grasses....

  2. Gene expression in the lignin biosynthesis pathway during soybean seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoni, A; Von Pinho, E V R; Fernandes, J S; Abreu, V M; Carvalho, M L M

    2013-02-28

    The study of gene expression in plants is fundamental, and understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in important biological processes, such as biochemical pathways or signaling that are used or manipulated in improvement programs, are key for the production of high-quality soybean seeds. Reports related to gene expression of lignin in seeds are scarce in the literature. We studied the expression of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, 4-hydroxycinnamate 3-hydroxylase, and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase genes involved in lignin biosynthesis during the development of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) seeds. As the endogenous control, the eukaryotic elongation factor 1-beta gene was used in two biological replicates performed in triplicate. Relative quantitative expression of these genes during the R4, R5, R6, and R7 development stages was analyzed. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for the gene expression study. The analyses were carried out in an ABI PRISM 7500 thermocycler using the comparative Ct method and SYBR Green to detect amplification. The seed samples at the R4 stage were chosen as calibrators. Increased expression of the cinnamate-4-hydroxylase and PAL genes occurred in soybean seeds at the R5 and R6 development stages. The cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene was expressed during the final development phases of soybean seeds. In low-lignin soybean cultivars, the higher expression of the PAL gene occurs at development stages R6 and R7. Activation of the genes involved in the lignin biosynthesis pathway occurs at the beginning of soybean seed development.

  3. Experimental evaluation of optimization method for developing ultraviolet barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonome, Hiroki; Okajima, Junnosuke; Komiya, Atsuki; Maruyama, Shigenao

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) barrier coatings can be used to protect many industrial products from UV attack. This study introduces a method of optimizing UV barrier coatings using pigment particles. The radiative properties of the pigment particles were evaluated theoretically, and the optimum particle size was decided from the absorption efficiency and the back-scattering efficiency. UV barrier coatings were prepared with zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2). The transmittance of the UV barrier coating was calculated theoretically. The radiative transfer in the UV barrier coating was modeled using the radiation element method by ray emission model (REM2). In order to validate the calculated results, the transmittances of these coatings were measured by a spectrophotometer. A UV barrier coating with a low UV transmittance and high VIS transmittance could be achieved. The calculated transmittance showed a similar spectral tendency with the measured one. The use of appropriate particles with optimum size, coating thickness and volume fraction will result in effective UV barrier coatings. UV barrier coatings can be achieved by the application of optical engineering.

  4. Development of a new solvent-free flow efficiency coating for natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogg, Graham A.; Morse, Jennifer [Bredero Shaw, Houston, TX (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Pipeline design engineers have traditionally considered external anti-corrosion coatings for the protection of gas transmission pipelines, with less consideration given to the benefits of internal flow efficiency coatings. This paper reviews the benefits of using a traditional solvent-based flow efficiency coating, and the relationship between the internal surface roughness of a pipe, the pressure drop across the pipeline, and the maximum flow rate of gas through the pipeline. To improve upon existing solvent-based flow efficiency coatings, a research program was undertaken to develop a solvent-free coating. The stages in the development of this coating are discussed, resulting in the plant application of the coating and final qualification to API RP 5L2. (author)

  5. Development of wear-resistant coatings for cobalt-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockeram, B.V.

    1999-01-01

    The costs and hazards resulting from nuclear plant radiation exposure with activated cobalt wear debris could potentially be reduced by covering the cobalt-base materials with a wear resistant coating. However, the hardnesses of many cobalt-base wear alloys are significantly lower than conventional PVD hard coatings, and mechanical support of the hard coating is a concern. Four approaches have been taken to minimize the hardness differences between the substrate and PVD hard coating: (1) use a thin Cr-nitride hard coating with layers that are graded with respect to hardness, (2) use a thicker, multilayered coating (Cr-nitride or Zr-nitride) with graded layers, (3) use nitriding to harden the alloy subsurface followed by application of a multilayered coating of Cr-nitride, and (4) use of nitriding alone. Since little work has been done on application of PVD hard coatings to cobalt-base alloys, some details on process development and characterization of the coatings is presented. Scratch testing was used to evaluate the adhesion of the different coatings. A bench-top rolling contact test was used to evaluate the wear resistance of the coatings. The test results are discussed, and the more desirable coating approaches are identified

  6. Development of Alloy Coating Process of Steel Pipe for Seawater service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jong Man; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Lee, Sang Hyeog [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd., Okpo (Korea)

    2001-02-01

    The new alloy coating process was developed to apply steel pipe for seawater service. This process consists of Zn-Al hot-dip coating treatment immediately following after normal galvanizing treatment. The alloy coating process formed double layer after surface treatment, and the surface layer was similar to that of Galfan steel and the intermetallic layer was also similar to that of aluminized steel. The alloy coating layer protect steel pipe galvanically and provide steel pipe with high resistance to general corrosion of seawater. This new alloy coated steel pipe had also good weldability and adhesion strength of paints compared to galvanized steel. 5 refs., 14 figs.

  7. Effect of seed treatment with milk powder and mustard flour in control of common bunt (Tilletia tritici) in wheat and stem smut (Urocystis occulta) in rye

    OpenAIRE

    Borgen, Anders; Kristensen, Lars

    2001-01-01

    In field trials mustard flour was able to control seed borne infection by common bunt (Tilletia tritici) in wheat without decreasing the germination vigour of the treated seeds. Full control of common bunt by coating the seeds with milk powder could only be achieved at doses which reduced germination vigour of the seeds. Mustard flour can be recommended as a seed treatment in organic agriculture while a treatment based on milk powder should be developed in combination with biological control....

  8. Seed Characteristics Diversity in Sponge Gourd (Luffa aegyptiaca Mill. Germplasms from Hatay Region in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazım MAVİ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate seed characteristics of sponge gourd, to establish a core collection of sponge gourd with the germplasm collected throughout the Hatay region. A mini-core collection was assessed for morphological performance and some seed traits. Substantial variations of seed characteristics: seed length, seed width, seed thickness (mm, seed index (length/width, seed size (length × width, mm2, seed colour, seed-coat surface, seed shape, seed wing, and 100-seed weight were investigated. Seed length, width and thickness were varied as 15.12-8.97 mm, 9.71-6.25 mm and 2.86-2.16 mm respectively. The seed sizes were determined from small (31 DÖ 06 to big (31 DE 04. Seed colours were ranged from black to white, even a brown colour like 07 MA 01. A hundred seed weights were observed as 16.43 g (31 AL 02 and 7.41 (31 DÖ 06. The results of dendrogram indicated that seed traits of the sponge gourd genotypes were separating in five groups. This collection of sponge gourds will be useful for the gene pools and a wide range of phenotypic variations to provide a good source of diversity for developing of sponge gourd cultivars in breeding programs.

  9. Expression of 9-cis-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE4 Is Essential for Thermoinhibition of Lettuce Seed Germination but Not for Seed Development or Stress Tolerance[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Heqiang; Dahal, Peetambar; Kunusoth, Keshavulu; McCallum, Claire M.; Bradford, Kent J.

    2013-01-01

    Thermoinhibition, or failure of seeds to germinate at warm temperatures, is common in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivars. Using a recombinant inbred line population developed from a lettuce cultivar (Salinas) and thermotolerant Lactuca serriola accession UC96US23 (UC), we previously mapped a quantitative trait locus associated with thermoinhibition of germination to a genomic region containing a gene encoding a key regulated enzyme in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, 9-cis-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE4 (NCED4). NCED4 from either Salinas or UC complements seeds of the Arabidopsis thaliana nced6-1 nced9-1 double mutant by restoring germination thermosensitivity, indicating that both NCED4 genes encode functional proteins. Transgenic expression of Salinas NCED4 in UC seeds resulted in thermoinhibition, whereas silencing of NCED4 in Salinas seeds led to loss of thermoinhibition. Mutations in NCED4 also alleviated thermoinhibition. NCED4 expression was elevated during late seed development but was not required for seed maturation. Heat but not water stress elevated NCED4 expression in leaves, while NCED2 and NCED3 exhibited the opposite responses. Silencing of NCED4 altered the expression of genes involved in ABA, gibberellin, and ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathways. Together, these data demonstrate that NCED4 expression is required for thermoinhibition of lettuce seeds and that it may play additional roles in plant responses to elevated temperature. PMID:23503626

  10. Development and characterization of nano structured hard coatings for high performance tools by using PVD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irfan, M.; Alam, S.; Hassan, Z.; Iftikhar, F.; Khadim, S.

    2006-01-01

    No doubt hard coatings nave major applications in high performance cutting tools in order to improve tribological and mechanical properties of these tools since last years. The actual top development in this regard is the development of PVD based AlTiN coatings and their supplementation with nano. layers. In present these nano coatings are replaced by nano composites along with an additional development of Multilayer Nano structured coatings. This PVD based nano structured coating development optimized by process parameters, crystalline structure and deposition in multilayer. These coating are definitely produced by combination of ARC and Sputtering with filtration of arc droplets. It is studied that the properties like oxidation resistance, wear resistance and resistance against chemical reaction may be obtained by alloying additions of different elements. This paper presents different development stages and Process parameters for- producing high performance Nanostructure coatings and including adhesion test by using Kalomax system for determination of adhesion strength of these coatings and coating thickness measurements by using image analyzer system. Results and conclusions are showing the optimum values for better coatings for different applications. (author)

  11. Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship Report: Development of Advanced Window Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, Ladena A.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.

    2014-08-05

    Advanced fenestration technologies for light and thermal management in building applications are of great recent research interest for improvements in energy efficiency. Of these technologies, there is specific interest in advanced window coating technologies that have tailored control over the visible and infrared (IR) scattering into a room for both static and dynamic applications. Recently, PNNL has investigated novel subwavelength nanostructured coatings for both daylighting, and IR thermal management applications. Such coatings rese still in the early stages and additional research is needed in terms of scalable manufacturing. This project investigates aspects of a potential new methodology for low-cost scalable manufacture of said subwavelength coatings.

  12. Seedling development and evaluation of genetic stability of cryopreserved Dendrobium hybrid mature seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdiano, Renato Fernandes; de Macedo Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes; de Faria, Ricardo Tadeu; Vendrame, Wagner Aparecido

    2014-03-01

    Vitrification, a simple, fast, and recommended cryopreservation method for orchid germplasm conservation, was evaluated for Dendrobium hybrid "Dong Yai" mature seeds. The genetic stability of regenerated seedlings was also evaluated using flow cytometry. Mature seeds from this hybrid were submitted to plant vitrification solution (PVS2) for 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 h at 0 °C. Subsequently, they were plunged into liquid nitrogen (LN) at -196 °C for 1 h and recovered in half-strength Murashige and Skoog culture medium (1/2 MS), and seed germination was evaluated after 30 days. Seeds directly submitted to LN did not germinate after cryopreservation. Seeds treated with PVS2 between 1 and 3 h presented the best germination (between 51 and 58%), although longer exposure to PVS2 returned moderated germination (39%). Germinated seeds were further subcultured in P-723 culture medium and developed whole seedlings in vitro after 180 days, with no abnormal characteristics, diseases, or nutritional deficiencies. Seedlings were successfully acclimatized under greenhouse conditions with over 80% survival. Flow cytometry analysis revealed no chromosomal changes on vitrified seedlings, as well as seedlings germinated from the control treatment (direct exposure to LN). These findings indicate that vitrification is a feasible and safe germplasm cryopreservation method for commercial Dendrobium orchid hybrid conservation.

  13. Development of hardwood seed zones for Tennessee using a geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, L.S.; Schlarbaum, S.E.; Van Manen, F.; Cecich, R.A.; Saxton, A.M.; Schneider, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    For species that have no or limited information on genetic variation and adaptability to nonnative sites, there is a need for seed collection guidelines based on biological, climatological, and/or geographical criteria. Twenty-eight hardwood species are currently grown for reforestation purposes at the East Tennessee State Nursery. The majority of these species have had no genetic testing to define guidelines for seed collection location and can be distributed to sites that have a very different environment than that of seed origin(s). Poor survival and/or growth may result if seedlings are not adapted to environmental conditions at the planting location. To address this problem, 30 yr of Tennessee county precipitation and minimum temperature data were analyzed and grouped using a centroid hierarchical cluster analysis. The weather data and elevational data were entered into a Geographic Information System (GIS) and separately layered over Bailey's Ecoregions to develop a seed zone system for Tennessee. The seed zones can be used as a practical guideline for collecting seeds to ensure that the resulting seedlings will be adapted to planting environments.

  14. Development and Life Prediction of Erosion Resistant Turbine Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    Future rotorcraft propulsion systems are required to operate under highly-loaded conditions and in harsh sand erosion environments, thereby imposing significant material design and durability issues. The incorporation of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBC) in high pressure turbine systems enables engine designs with higher inlet temperatures, thus improving the engine efficiency, power density and reliability. The impact and erosion resistance of turbine thermal barrier coating systems are crucial to the turbine coating technology application, because a robust turbine blade TBC system is a prerequisite for fully utilizing the potential coating technology benefit in the rotorcraft propulsion. This paper describes the turbine blade TBC development in addressing the coating impact and erosion resistance. Advanced thermal barrier coating systems with improved performance have also been validated in laboratory simulated engine erosion and/or thermal gradient environments. A preliminary life prediction modeling approach to emphasize the turbine blade coating erosion is also presented.

  15. Effects of chronic exposure of seeds and seeds and seedlings of Arabidopsis Thaliana by low doses of γ-radiation on plant growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinov, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    Article presents the results of research on the effect of chronic γ-irradiation in small doses on A. Thaliana seedlings and seeds growth and development. Exposure rate for the seeds was 0,45 mGy/h (total absorbed dose 30 cSv) and 0,18 mGy/h for seedlings (total absorbed dose 3 cSv). Statistically significant differences in the germination capacity, in the time of primary leaf rosette formation, in the hypocotyl length were revealed between irradiated and control seedlings. Plants from irradiated seeds differed by the higher growth rate of stem, they flowered and fruited earlier, but they also characterized on average shorter vegetative cycle in comparison with control plants. In our experiments it is shown significant impact of chronic low doses of γ-irradiation of seeds and seedlings on the ontogeny in A. Thaliana and on the parameters that reflect the growth and development of the irradiated plants

  16. Role of Heavy Metal Pumps in Transport of Zinc from Soil to Seeds of Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lene Irene

    . In Arabidopsis roots, the heavy metal ATPases AtHMA2 and AtHMA4 are localized to the pericycle cells and are important for the export of zinc, in order for zinc to enter the xylem and get to the shoot. I have identified a new novel role for AtHMA2 and AtHMA4 in the developing seed. The Arabidopsis seed consists...... at this location actively export zinc from the mother plant seed coat. Mutant plants that lack AtHMA2 and AtHMA4 accumulate zinc in the seed coat, and consequently have vastly reduced amounts of zinc inside the seed. The finding that AtHMA2 and AtHMA4 are involved in pumping zinc out of the mother plant seed coat...

  17. Study and development of an Iridium-192 seed for use in ophthalmic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Fabio Rodrigues de

    2013-01-01

    Even ocular tumors are not among the cases with a higher incidence, they affect the population, especially children. The Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP) in partnership with Escola Paulista de Medicina (UNIFESP), created a project to develop and implement a alternative treatment for ophthalmic cancer that use brachytherapy iridium-192 seeds. The project arose by reason of the Escola Paulista treat many cancer cases within the Unified Health System (SUS) and the research experience of sealed radioactive sources group at IPEN. The methodology was developed from the available infrastructure and the experience of researchers. The prototype seed presents with a core (192-iridium alloy of iridium-platinum) of 3.0 mm long sealed by a capsule of titanium of 0.8 mm outside diameter, 0.05 mm wall thickness and 4,5mm long. This work aims to study and develop a seed of iridium-192 from a platinum-iridium alloy. No study on the fabrication of these seeds was found in available literature. It was created a methodology that involved: characterization of the material used in the core, creation of device for neutron activation irradiation and and seed sealing tests. As a result, proved the feasibility of the method. As a suggestion for future work, studies regarding metrology and dosimetry of these sources and improvement of the methodology should be carried out, for future implementation in national scope. (author)

  18. Dynamic Subcellular Localization of Iron during Embryo Development in Brassicaceae Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Ibeas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential micronutrient for plants. Little is know about how iron is loaded in embryo during seed development. In this article we used Perls/DAB staining in order to reveal iron localization at the cellular and subcellular levels in different Brassicaceae seed species. In dry seeds of Brassica napus, Nasturtium officinale, Lepidium sativum, Camelina sativa, and Brassica oleracea iron localizes in vacuoles of cells surrounding provasculature in cotyledons and hypocotyl. Using B. napus and N. officinale as model plants we determined where iron localizes during seed development. Our results indicate that iron is not detectable by Perls/DAB staining in heart stage embryo cells. Interestingly, at torpedo development stage iron localizes in nuclei of different cells type, including integument, free cell endosperm and almost all embryo cells. Later, iron is detected in cytoplasmic structures in different embryo cell types. Our results indicate that iron accumulates in nuclei in specific stages of embryo maturation before to be localized in vacuoles of cells surrounding provasculature in mature seeds.

  19. Recent developments in high temperature coatings for gas turbine airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goward, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of coatings for hot section airfoils has increased with the drive for more cost-effective use of fuel in a wide variety of gas turbine engines. Minor additions of silicon have been found to appreciably increase the oxidation resistance of plasma-sprayed NiCoCrAlY coatings on a single crystal nickel-base superalloy. Increasing the chromium content of MCrAlY coatings substantially increases the resistance to acidic (Na2SO4-SO3) hot corrosion at temperatures of about 1300 F (704 C) but gives no significant improvement beyond contemporary coatings in the range of 1600 F (871 C). Surface enrichment of MCrAlY coatings with silicon also gives large increases in resistance to acidic hot corrosion in the 1300 F region. The resistance to the thermal stress-induced spalling of zirconia-based thermal barrier coatings has been improved by lowering coating stresses with segmented structures and by controlling the substrate temperature during coating fabrication.

  20. Development of Aloe vera based edible coating for tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmaselvi, K. A.; Sumitha, P.; Revathy, B.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of formulated Aloe vera based edible coating on mass loss, colour, firmness, pH, acidity, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid and lycopene on the coated tomato was investigated. The tomato in control showed a rapid deterioration with an estimated shelf life period of 19 days, based on the mass loss, colour changes, accelerated softening and ripening. On the contrary, the coating on tomatoes delayed the ripening and extended the shelf life up to 39 days. The physiological loss in weight was 7.6 and 15.1%, firmness was 36 and 46.2 N on 20th day for control and coated tomatoes, respectively. From the results, it was concluded that the use of Aloe vera based edible coating leads to increased tomato shelf-life.

  1. Germination of dimorphic seeds of the desert annual halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica (Chenopodiaceae), a C4 plant without Kranz anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Zhenying; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Dong, Ming

    2008-11-01

    Suaeda aralocaspica is a C4 summer annual halophyte without Kranz anatomy that is restricted to the deserts of central Asia. It produces two distinct types of seeds that differ in colour, shape and size. The primary aims of the present study were to compare the dormancy and germination characteristics of dimorphic seeds of S. aralocaspica and to develop a conceptual model of their dynamics. Temperatures simulating those in the natural habitat of S. aralocaspica were used to test for primary dormancy and germination behaviour of fresh brown and black seeds. The effects of cold stratification, gibberellic acid, seed coat scarification, seed coat removal and dry storage on dormancy breaking were tested in black seeds. Germination percentage and recovery responses of brown seeds, non-treated black seeds and 8-week cold-stratified black seeds to salt stress were tested. Brown seeds were non-dormant, whereas black seeds had non-deep Type 2 physiological dormancy (PD). Germination percentage and rate of germination of brown seeds and of variously pretreated black seeds were significantly higher than those of non-pretreated black seeds. Exposure of seeds to various salinities had significant effects on germination, germination recovery and induction into secondary dormancy. A conceptual model is presented that ties these results together and puts them into an ecological context. The two seed morphs of S. aralocaspica exhibit distinct differences in dormancy and germination characteristics. Suaeda aralocaspica is the first cold desert halophyte for which non-deep Type 2 PD has been documented.

  2. Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis of Seed Quality Characteristics in Lentil using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Fedoruk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed shape, color, and pattern of lentil ( Medik. subsp. are important quality traits as they determine market class and possible end uses. A recombinant inbred line population was phenotyped for seed dimensions over multiple site–years and classified according to cotyledon and seed coat color and pattern. The objectives were to determine the heritability of seed dimensions, identify genomic regions controlling these dimensions, and map seed coat and cotyledon color genes. A genetic linkage map consisting of 563 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 10 simple sequence repeats, and four seed color loci was developed for quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis. Loci for seed coat color and pattern mapped to linkage groups 2 (, 3 (, and 6 ( while the cotyledon color locus ( mapped to linkage group 1. The broad sense heritability estimates were high for seed diameter (broad-sense heritability [] = 0.92 and seed plumpness ( = 0.94 while seed thickness ( = 0.60 and days to flowering ( = 0.45 were more moderate. There were significant seed dimension QTL on six of the seven linkage groups. The most significant QTL for diameter and plumpness was found at the cotyledon color locus (. The markers identified in this study can be used to help enrich breeding populations for desired seed quality characteristics, thereby increasing efficiency in the lentil breeding program.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on lipoxygenases, trypsin inhibitor, raffinose family oligosaccharides and nutritional factors of different seed coat colored soybean (Glycine max L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Dixit, Amit [School of Biochemistry, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017 (India); Kumar, Vineet; Rani, Anita [National Research Centre for Soybean, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017 (India); Manjaya, J.G. [Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Bhatnagar, Deepak, E-mail: bhatnagarbio@yahoo.co [School of Biochemistry, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017 (India)

    2011-04-15

    Three soybean genotypes Kalitur, Hara soya and NRC37 with black, green and yellow seed coat color, respectively, were gamma irradiated at 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0 kGy and tested for antinutritional and nutritional factors. Gamma irradiation at all doses reduced the level of lipoxygenase isomers, trypsin inhibitor (TI) and ascorbic acid in all the 3 soybean genotypes as compared to the unirradiated control. However, irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy increased the sucrose content of the soybean genotypes. No significant change was observed in oil, protein fatty acids and total tocopherol content of the 3 genotypes at any irradiation dose. It is suggested that inhibition of lipoxygenase, reduction in TI and ascorbic acid may be due to the breakage or oxidation of protein structure by the gamma irradiation. Similarly, gamma irradiation at higher doses may break glycosidic linkages in oligosaccharides to produce more sucrose and decrease the content of flatulence causing oligosaccharides.

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on lipoxygenases, trypsin inhibitor, raffinose family oligosaccharides and nutritional factors of different seed coat colored soybean (Glycine max L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar Dixit, Amit; Kumar, Vineet; Rani, Anita; Manjaya, J.G.; Bhatnagar, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Three soybean genotypes Kalitur, Hara soya and NRC37 with black, green and yellow seed coat color, respectively, were gamma irradiated at 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0 kGy and tested for antinutritional and nutritional factors. Gamma irradiation at all doses reduced the level of lipoxygenase isomers, trypsin inhibitor (TI) and ascorbic acid in all the 3 soybean genotypes as compared to the unirradiated control. However, irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy increased the sucrose content of the soybean genotypes. No significant change was observed in oil, protein fatty acids and total tocopherol content of the 3 genotypes at any irradiation dose. It is suggested that inhibition of lipoxygenase, reduction in TI and ascorbic acid may be due to the breakage or oxidation of protein structure by the gamma irradiation. Similarly, gamma irradiation at higher doses may break glycosidic linkages in oligosaccharides to produce more sucrose and decrease the content of flatulence causing oligosaccharides.

  5. Development of process technologies for improvement of electroless nickel coatings properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barba-Pingarrón, A; Trujillo-Barragán, M; Hernandez-Gallegos, M A; Valdez-Navarro, R; Bolarín-Miró, A; Jesús, F Sánchez – de; Vargas-Mendoza, L; Molera-Sola, P

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes research and technology developments that enable to improve nickel electroless coating properties. This work deals with: (a) different methods in order to achieve Ni-P-Mo coatings. (b) Other development is related with coatings with addition of hard particles such as SiC, WC or Al 2 O 3 ,(c) Electroless nickel deposits on PBT and austempered ductile iron (ADI). (d) In addition, nickel coatings were deposited on powder metallic pieces and finally, electroless nickel coatings, in conjunction with layers from thermal spray process were formed. Characterization of all coatings by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, micro-hardness, wear and corrosion tests were carried out. Results indicate positive increment in both mechanical and electrochemical properties which enhance field applications in Mexican industry.

  6. Development of Ceramic Coating on Metal Substrate using Industrial Waste and Ore Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, S. K.; Thiyagarajan, T. K.; Mishra, S. C.

    2017-02-01

    The technological advancement in modern era has a boon for enlightening human life; but also is a bane to produce a huge amount of (industrial) wastes, which is of great concern for utilization and not to create environmental threats viz. polution etc. In the present piece of research work, attempts have been made to utilize fly ash (wastes of thermal power plants) and along with alumina bearing ore i.e. bauxite, for developing plasma spray ceramic coatings on metals. Fly ash and with 10 and 20% bauxite addition is used to deposit plasma spray coatings on a metal substrate. The surface morphology of the coatings deposited at different power levels of plasma spraying investigated through SEM and EDS analysis. The coating thickness is measured. The porosity levels of the coatings are evaluated. The coating hardness isalso measured. This piece of research work will be beneficial for future development and use of industrial waste and ore minerals for high-valued applications.

  7. Comparison of in Situ and in Vitro Regulation of Soybean Seed Growth and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Daniel J.; Cotterman, C. Daniel; Cotterman, Josephine C.

    1987-01-01

    The growth characteristics of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) embryos in culture and seeds in situ were found to be similar, but developmental differences were observed. Embryos placed in culture when very small (grow indefinitely, reaching dry weights far in excess of seeds matured in situ. Apparently, maternal factors were important in early and late development during the determination of maximum growth rate and the cessation of growth. Embryo growth rate was not affected by substituting glucose plus fructose for sucrose in the medium, nor by hormone treatments, including abscisic acid. Glutamine was found to give substantially better growth than glutamate, however. Contrary to prior reports, the response of soybean embryo growth rate to irradiance was found to be primarily an artifact of the effect of irradiance on media temperature. Across seven genotypes the correlation coefficient between seed growth rate in situ and embryo growth rate in vitro was 0.94, indicating essentially all of the variability of in situ seed growth rate between cultivars could be attributed to inherent growth rate differences associated with the embryos. The response to temperature was very similar for both embryos in culture and seeds in situ at temperatures below 30°C. Beyond that temperature, embryo growth rate continued to increase, while seed growth rate did not. The implication is that in situ seed growth rate is determined by the inherent growth potential of the embryo at low to moderate temperatures; however, at higher temperatures, the maternal plant is unable to support the rapid growth rates that the embryo is capable of attaining under conditions of unlimited assimilate supply. PMID:16665434

  8. Fate and transport of furrow-applied granular tefluthrin and seed-coated clothianidin insecticides: Comparison of field-scale observations and model estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff Hartz, Kara E; Edwards, Tracye M; Lydy, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    The transport of agricultural insecticides to water bodies may create risk of exposure to non-target organisms. Similarly, widespread use of furrow-applied and seed-coated insecticides may increase risk of exposure, yet accessible exposure models are not easily adapted for furrow application, and only a few examples of model validation of furrow-applied insecticides exist using actual field data. The goal of the current project was to apply an exposure model, the Pesticide in Water Calculator (PWC), to estimate the concentrations of two in-furrow insecticides applied to maize: the granular pyrethroid, tefluthrin, and the seed-coated neonicotinoid, clothianidin. The concentrations of tefluthrin and clothianidin in surface runoff water, sampled from a field in central Illinois (USA), were compared to the PWC modeled pesticide concentrations in surface runoff. The tefluthrin concentrations were used to optimize the application method in the PWC, and the addition of particulate matter and guttation droplets improved the models prediction of clothianidin concentrations. Next, the tefluthrin and clothianidin concentrations were calculated for a standard farm pond using both the optimized application method and the application methods provided in PWC. Estimated concentrations in a standard farm pond varied by a factor of 100 for tefluthrin and 50 for clothianidin depending on the application method used. The addition of guttation droplets and particulate matter to the model increased the annual clothianidin concentration in a standard farm pond by a factor of 1.5, which suggested that these transport routes should also be considered when assessing neonicotinoid exposure.

  9. Use of Plantago major seed mucilage as a novel edible coating incorporated with Anethum graveolens essential oil on shelf life extension of beef in refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Behrooz Alizadeh; Shahidi, Fakhri; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Plantago major seed mucilage (PMSM) was extracted from whole seeds using hot-water extraction (HWE). The dill (D) essential oil components were identified through gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and its antioxidant properties were examined through the methods of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and ß-carotene-linoleic acid assay (B-CL). Total phenolic content (TPC) was characterized through the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antimicrobial effect was evaluated on 10 pathogenic microorganisms. PMSM edible coating incorporated were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (w/w). The control and the coated beef samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi), chemical (thiobarbituric acid, peroxide value and pH), and sensory characteristics. The IC 50 , FRAP, B-CL and TPC of the dill essential oil were equal to 11.44μg/ml, 9.45mmol/g, 82.86 and 162.65μg/ml GAE, respectively. PMSM extended the microbial shelf life of beef by 3days, whereas the PMSM+0.5%D, PMSM+1%D and PMSM+1.5%D resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the beef by 6, 9 and 9days, respectively, as compared to the control samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tomato seeds maturity detection system based on chlorophyll fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Meng, Zhijun

    2016-10-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity can be used as seed maturity and quality evaluation indicator. Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity of seed coats is tested to judge the level of chlorophyll content in seeds, and further to judge the maturity and quality of seeds. This research developed a detection system of tomato seeds maturity based on chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology, the system included an excitation light source unit, a fluorescent signal acquisition unit and a data processing unit. The excitation light source unit consisted of two high power LEDs, two radiators and two constant current power supplies, and it was designed to excite chlorophyll fluorescence of tomato seeds. The fluorescent signal acquisition unit was made up of a fluorescence spectrometer, an optical fiber, an optical fiber scaffolds and a narrowband filter. The data processing unit mainly included a computer. Tomato fruits of green ripe stage, discoloration stage, firm ripe stage and full ripe stage were harvested, and their seeds were collected directly. In this research, the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system was used to collect fluorescence spectrums of tomato seeds of different maturities. Principal component analysis (PCA) method was utilized to reduce the dimension of spectral data and extract principal components, and PCA was combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to establish discriminant model of tomato seeds maturity, the discriminant accuracy was greater than 90%. Research results show that using chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology is feasible for seeds maturity detection, and the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system has high detection accuracy.

  11. Development of high-index optical coating for security holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nadir A. G.

    2000-10-01

    Over the past few years security holograms have grown into a complex business to prevent counterfeiting of security cards, banknotes and the like. Rapid advances in holographic technology have led to a growing requirement for optical materials and coating methods to produce such holograms at reasonable costs. These materials have specific refractive indices and are used to fabricate semi- transparent holograms. The present paper describes a coating process to deposit optical coating on flexible films inside a vacuum web metallizer for the production of high quality semi-transparent holograms.

  12. Qualification of Indigenously Developed Special Coatings for Aero-Engine Components

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sambasiva Rao; T. Rangaraju; V. Unnikrishnan

    1999-01-01

    The demand for higher performance and reliability of aero-engiaes necessitates its components to worksatisfactorily under severe operating conditions. The durability of various components in these environmentis often enhanced by applying suitable coatings. The development of new materials/processing methods andalso various coatings to protect the components have been driven by the ever-increasing severity of theaero-engine internal environment. While the selection of a coating is dictated by ...

  13. Development of a thin film vitreous bond based composite ceramic coating for corrosion and abrasion services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, B.

    2003-01-01

    IPC has been involved with the Alberta Research Council in developing a vitreous bond (VB) - based composite ceramic fluoropolymer coating technology. Compared to the present state of the art which is based on a hard discontinuous phase (ceramic particles) suspended in a soft continuous matrix (fluoropolymer mix) the novelty of our approach consists of designing a composite system in which both the ceramic and the fluoropolymer phases are continuous. The ceramic matrix will provide the strength and the erosion resistance for the fluoropolymer matrix even at high temperatures. The ceramic formulation employed is not affected by temperatures up to 500 o F while the fluoropolymer matrix provides a corrosion protection seal for the ceramic matrix. The inherent flexibility of the polymer matrix will protect against brittle fractures that may develop by handling or impact. Therefore the composite coating is able to withstand the deformation of the substrate without chipping or disbanding. The fluoropolymer matrix also provides dry lubrication properties further enhancing the erosion resistance of the ceramic phase. The thickness of the coating is very thin, in the 25 to 100 micron range. In summary, the coating technology is able to provide the following features: Corrosion protection levels similar to those of fluoropolymer coatings; Erosion resistance similar to that of ceramic coatings; Price comparable to that of polymer coatings; Exceptional wear resistance properties; and Capability for coating complicated shapes internally or externally or both. This paper will discuss the theory and development of this new technology and the resultant coating and potential properties. (author)

  14. Plasma sprayed alumina coatings for radiation detector development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A mechanical as well as metallurgical bonding is necessary. 3. Applications ... Here the feasibility of using metallic components that were plasma spray- ... To study the electrical insulation, integrity of ceramic coating etc, tests were carried out.

  15. NB Coating Developments with HIPIMS for SRF Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Terenziani, G; Junginger, T; Santillana, I A; Ehiasarian, A P

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years the interest of the thin film science and technology community on High Impulse Power Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) coatings has steadily increased. HIPIMS literature shows that better thin film morphology, denser and smoother films can be achieved when compared with standard dc Magnetron Sputtering (dcMS) coating technology [1]. Furthermore the capability of HIPIMS to produce a high quantity of ionized species [2,3] can allow conformal coatings also for complex geometries. A study is under way at CERN to apply this technology for the Nb coating of SRF 1.3-1.5 GHz Cu cavities, and in parallel at SHU the plasma physics and its correlation with film morphology are being investigated [2]. Recent results achieved with this technique are presented in the paper.

  16. Development of an Iridium-192 seed for use in ophthalmic brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Fabio R.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos; Moura, Joao A.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, Eduardo S.; Souza, Carla D.; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.

    2011-01-01

    The Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN), in partnership with the School or Medicine (UNIFESP), created a project that aims to develop and implement an ophthalmic therapeutic treatment for cancer with Iridium-192 seeds. The School of Medicine treats many cancer cases in the SUS (Brazilian Public Health System), and brachytherapy group of IPEN has extensive experience in prototype sources. The seed to be manufactured will perform as follows: a core of Iridium-192 is packaged inside small cylindrical seeds consist of a titanium capsule of 0.8 mm outer diameter, 0.05 mm wall thickness and 4 5 mm in length. The core is an alloy of platinum-iridium (20/80) of 3.0 mm in length and 0.3 mm in diameter. Material analysis, neutron activation and activity measurements were carried out. (author)

  17. Development of insulating coatings for liquid metal blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Borgstedt, H.U.; Farnum, E.H.; Natesan, K.; Vitkovski, I.V.

    1994-07-01

    It is shown that self-cooled liquid metal blankets are feasible only with electrically insulating coatings at the duct walls. The requirements on the insulation properties are estimated by simple analytical models. Candidate insulator materials are selected based on insulating properties and thermodynamic consideration. Different fabrication technologies for insulating coatings are described. The status of the knowledge on the most crucial feasibility issue, the degradation of the resisivity under irradiation, is reviewed

  18. The role of gibberellins in improving the resistance of tebuconazole-coated maize seeds to chilling stress by microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijuan; Yang, Daibin; Yan, Xiaojing; Cui, Li; Wang, Zhenying; Yuan, Huizhu

    2016-11-07

    Chilling stress during germination often causes severe injury. In the present study, maize seed germination and shoot growth under chilling stress were negatively correlated with the dose of tebuconazole in an exponential manner as predicted by the model Y = A + B × e (-x/k) . Microencapsulation was an effective means of eliminating potential phytotoxic risk. The gibberellins (GAs) contents were higher after microencapsulation treatment than after conventional treatment when the dose of tebuconazole was higher than 0.12 g AI (active ingredient) kg -1 seed. Further analysis indicated that microencapsulation can stimulate ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) activity to some extent, whereas GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox) and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) activities remained similar to those in the control. Genes encoding GA metabolic enzymes exhibited different expression patterns. Transcript levels of ZmKO1 increased in the microcapsule treatments compared to the control. Even when incorporated into microcapsules, tebuconazole led to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox1 at doses of less than 0.12 g AI kg -1 seed and to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox2 when the dose was higher than 0.12 g AI kg -1 seed. With increasing doses of microencapsulated tebuconazole, the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox4, ZmGA2ox5 and ZmGA2ox6 exhibited upward trends, whereas the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox7 exhibited a downward trend.

  19. Vitamin E homologs and ¿-oryzanol levels in rice (Oryza sativa L.) during seed development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin E homologs (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and gamma-oryzanol have gained significant attention due to their proposed health benefits and ability to increase vegetable oil stability. Changes in the levels of these phytochemicals were examined during seed development. Rapid accumulation of toc...

  20. Competition between meiotic and apomictic pathways during ovule and seed development results in clonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojsgaard, Diego H; Martínez, Eric J; Quarin, Camilo L

    2013-01-01

    Meiotic and apomictic reproductive pathways develop simultaneously in facultative aposporous species, and compete to form a seed as a final goal. This developmental competition was evaluated in tetraploid genotypes of Paspalum malacophyllum in order to understand the low level of sexuality in facultative apomictic populations. Cyto-embryology on ovules, flow cytometry on seeds and progeny tests by DNA fingerprinting were used to measure the relative incidence of each meiotic or apomictic pathway along four different stages of the plant's life cycle, namely the beginning and end of gametogenesis, seed formation and adult offspring. A high variation in the frequencies of sexual and apomictic pathways occurred at the first two stages. A trend of radical decline in realized sexuality was then observed. Sexual and apomictic seeds were produced, but the efficiency of the sexual pathway dropped drastically, and exclusively clonal offspring remained. Both reproductive pathways are unstable at the beginning of development, and only the apomictic one remains functional. Key factors reducing sexuality are the faster growth and parthenogenetic development in the aposporous pathway, and an (epi)genetically negative background related to the extensive gene de-regulation pattern responsible for apomixis. The effects of inbreeding depression during post-fertilization development may further decrease the frequency of effective sexuality. No claim to original US government works. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Comparing carbohydrate status during norway spruce seed development and somatic embryo formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gösslová, M.; Svobodová, H.; Lipavská, H.; Albrechtová, J.; Vreugdenhil, D.

    2001-01-01

    The carbohydrate status of developing seeds of Picea abies was examined in order to provide a frame of reference for the evaluation of changes in carbohydrate content in maturing somatic embryos of the same species. Samples were taken at weekly intervals from 12 May 1998 (estimated time of

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms among Children Enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Levy, Susan E.; Daniels, Julie; Schieve, Laura; Croen, Lisa A.; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Blaskey, Lisa; Giarelli, Ellen; Lee, Li-Ching; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Reynolds, Ann; Rice, Catherine; Rosenberg, Cordelia Robinson; Thompson, Patrick; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Young, Lisa; Schendel, Diana

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the phenotypic profiles of children aged 30-68 months in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED). Children classified as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delay (DD) with ASD symptoms, DD without ASD symptoms, and population comparison (POP) differed significantly from each other on cognitive, adaptive,…

  3. Development of Antibody-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles for Biomarker Immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Chapa Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs have great potential in biomedical applications because of their magnetic response offers the possibility to direct them to specific areas and target biological entities. Magnetic separation of biomolecules is one of the most important applications of MNPs because their versatility in detecting cancer biomarkers. However, the effectiveness of this method depends on many factors, including the type of functionalization onto MNPs. Therefore, in this study, magnetite nanoparticles have been developed in order to separate the 5′-nucleotidase enzyme (5eNT. The 5eNT is used as a bio-indicator for diagnosing diseases such as hepatic ischaemia, liver tumor, and hepatotoxic drugs damage. Magnetic nanoparticles were covered in a core/shell type with silica, aminosilane, and a double shell of silica-aminosilane. A ScFv (fragment antibody and anti-CD73 antibody were attached to the coated nanoparticles in order to separate the enzyme. The magnetic separation of this enzyme with fragment antibody was found to be 28% higher than anti-CD73 antibody and the enzyme adsorption was improved with the double shell due to the increased length of the polymeric chain. Magnetite nanoparticles with a double shell (silica-aminosilane were also found to be more sensitive than magnetite with a single shell in the detection of biomarkers.

  4. Development and evaluation of a hot-melt coating technique for enteric coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Trambak Patil

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional enteric coating requires the use of organic based polymers which are equally hazardous to the environment and operating personnel. Hot-melt coating avoids the use of solvents and is a safer and time-saving process. The present study was designed to assess the efficacy of hot-melt coating (HMC as an enteric coating technique. Pellets prepared by extrusion spheronization were selected as the core formulation for a model of the gastric irritant drug diclofenac sodium (DFS because of their innate advantages over single-unit formulations. Stearic acid (SA and palmitic acid (PA were evaluated as enteric hot-melt coating materials. HMC was carried out in a specially modified coating pan by applying SA and PA in molten state onto preheated pellets to achieve a coating level of 5-15 %w/w. Hot-melt coated pellets were evaluated for disintegration pH and in vitro dissolution in the pH range 1.2 to 6.8, along with basic micromeritics. SEM of coated pellets showed a uniform and smooth coating. These results indicated that HMC of both SA and PA exhibited very good enteric coating ability. The coated pellets showed negligible drug release in acidic pH. As the pellets were subsequently transferred to a higher pH level, a gradual increase in release of the drug from the pellets was observed with increasing pH of the dissolution media. The release was dependent upon coating extent, providing sustained enteric release as opposed to abrupt release with mixed release kinetics.O revestimento entérico convencional requer o uso de polímeros orgânicos os quais são igualmente danosos ao meio ambiente e ao pessoal que o executa. O revestimento por fusão a quente evita o uso de solventes e é processo mais seguro e que consome menos tempo. O presente estudo foi planejado para avaliar a eficácia do revestimento por fusão a quente (RFQ como técnica de revestimento entérico. Os péletes preparados por esferonização por extrusão foram selecionados como

  5. Development of Nanostructured Antireflection Coatings for Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal G. Pethuraja

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Electro-optic infrared technologies and systems operating from ultraviolet (UV to long-wave infrared (LWIR spectra are being developed for a variety of defense and commercial systems applications. Loss of a significant portion of the incident signal due to reflection limits the performance of electro-optic infrared (IR sensing systems. A critical technology being developed to overcome this limitation and enhance the performance of sensing systems is advanced antireflection (AR coatings. Magnolia is actively involved in the development and advancement of nanostructured AR coatings for a wide variety of defense and commercial applications. Ultrahigh AR performance has been demonstrated for UV to LWIR spectral bands on various substrates. The AR coatings enhance the optical transmission through optical components and devices by significantly minimizing reflection losses, a substantial improvement over conventional thin-film AR coating technologies. Nanostructured AR coatings have been fabricated using a nanomanufacturable self-assembly process on substrates that are transparent for a given spectrum of interest ranging from UV to LWIR. The nanostructured multilayer structures have been designed, developed and optimized for various optoelectronic applications. The optical properties of optical components and sensor substrates coated with AR structures have been measured and the process parameters fine-tuned to achieve a predicted high level of performance. In this paper, we review our latest work on high quality nanostructure-based AR coatings, including recent efforts on the development of nanostructured AR coatings on IR substrates.

  6. Development of coatings for ultrasonic additive manufacturing sonotrode using laser direct metal deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niyanth S, Niyanth [ORNL; Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Jordan, Brian H [ORNL; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh [ORNL

    2016-10-01

    ORNL partnered with Fabrisonic, LLC to develop galling resistant hard facing coatings on sonotrodes used to fabricate 3D printed materials using ultrasonic additive manufacturing. The development and deployment of a coated sonotrode is expected to push the existing state of the art to facilitate the solidstate additive manufacturing of hard steels and titanium alloys. To this effect a structurally amorphous stainless steel material and cobalt chrome material were deposited on the sonotrode material. Both the deposits showed good adhesion to the substrate. The coatings made using the structurally amorphous steel materials showed cracking during the initial trials and cracking was eliminated by deposition on a preheated substrate. Both the coatings show hardness in excess of 600 HVN. Thus the phase 1 of this project has been used to identify suitable materials to use to coat the sonotrode. Despite the fact that successful deposits were obtained, the coatings need to be evaluated by performing detailed galling tests at various temperatures. In addition field tests are also necessary to test the stability of these coatings in a high cycle ultrasonic vibration mode. If awarded, phase 2 of the project would be used to optimize the composition of the deposit material to maximize galling resistance. The industrial partner would then use the coated sonotrode to fabricate builds made of austenitic stainless steel to test the viability of using a coated sonotrode.

  7. Development and evaluation of a dimensionless mechanistic pan coating model for the prediction of coated tablet appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niblett, Daniel; Porter, Stuart; Reynolds, Gavin; Morgan, Tomos; Greenamoyer, Jennifer; Hach, Ronald; Sido, Stephanie; Karan, Kapish; Gabbott, Ian

    2017-08-07

    A mathematical, mechanistic tablet film-coating model has been developed for pharmaceutical pan coating systems based on the mechanisms of atomisation, tablet bed movement and droplet drying with the main purpose of predicting tablet appearance quality. Two dimensionless quantities were used to characterise the product properties and operating parameters: the dimensionless Spray Flux (relating to area coverage of the spray droplets) and the Niblett Number (relating to the time available for drying of coating droplets). The Niblett Number is the ratio between the time a droplet needs to dry under given thermodynamic conditions and the time available for the droplet while on the surface of the tablet bed. The time available for drying on the tablet bed surface is critical for appearance quality. These two dimensionless quantities were used to select process parameters for a set of 22 coating experiments, performed over a wide range of multivariate process parameters. The dimensionless Regime Map created can be used to visualise the effect of interacting process parameters on overall tablet appearance quality and defects such as picking and logo bridging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid Accumulation during Seed Development Represses Seed Germination in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Anuja; Hernández, M. Luisa; He, Zhesi; Andriotis, Vasilios M.E.; Vaistij, Fabián E.; Larson, Tony R.; Graham, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana COMATOSE (CTS) encodes an ABC transporter involved in peroxisomal import of substrates for β-oxidation. Various cts alleles and mutants disrupted in steps of peroxisomal β-oxidation have previously been reported to exhibit a severe block on seed germination. Oxylipin analysis on cts, acyl CoA oxidase1 acyl CoA oxidase2 (acx1 acx2), and keto acyl thiolase2 dry seeds revealed that they contain elevated levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), jasmonic acid (JA), and JA-Ile. Oxylipin and transcriptomic analysis showed that accumulation of these oxylipins occurs during late seed maturation in cts. Analysis of double mutants generated by crossing cts with mutants in the JA biosynthesis pathway indicate that OPDA, rather than JA or JA-Ile, contributes to the block on germination in cts seeds. We found that OPDA was more effective at inhibiting wild-type germination than was JA and that this effect was independent of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 but was synergistic with abscisic acid (ABA). Consistent with this, OPDA treatment increased ABA INSENSITIVE5 protein abundance in a manner that parallels the inhibitory effect of OPDA and OPDA+ABA on seed germination. These results demonstrate that OPDA acts along with ABA to regulate seed germination in Arabidopsis. PMID:21335376

  9. Development and Implementation of Methods and Means for Achieving a Uniform Functional Coating Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishlov, A. V.; Sagatelyan, G. R.; Shashurin, V. D.

    2017-12-01

    A mathematical model is proposed to calculate the growth rate of the thin-film coating thickness at various points in a flat substrate surface during planetary motion of the substrate, which makes it possible to calculate an expected coating thickness distribution. Proper software package is developed. The coefficients used for computer simulation are experimentally determined.

  10. Novel Development of Biocompatible Coatings for Bone Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Yue Hou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged life expectancy also results in an increased need for high-performance orthopedic implants. It has been shown that a compromised tissue-implant interface could lead to adverse immune-responses and even the dislodging of the implant. To overcome these obstacles, our research team has been seeking ways to decrease the risk of faulty tissue-implant interfaces by improving the biocompatibility and the osteo-inductivity of conventional orthopedic implants using ultrafine particle coatings. These particles were enriched with various bioactive additives prior to coating, and the coated biomaterial surfaces exhibited significantly increased biocompatibility and osteoinductivity. Physical assessments firstly confirmed the proper incorporation of the bioactive additives after examining their surface chemical composition. Then, in vitro assays demonstrated the biocompatibility and osteo-inductivity of the coated surfaces by studying the morphology of attached cells and their mineralization abilities. In addition, by quantifying the responses, activities and gene expressions, cellular evaluations confirmed the positive effects of these polymer based bioactive coatings. Consequently, the bioactive ultrafine polymer particles demonstrated their ability in improving the biocompatibility and osteo-inductivity of conventional orthopedic implants. As a result, our research team hope to apply this technology to the field of orthopedic implants by making them more effective medical devices through decreasing the risk of implant-induced immune responses and the loosening of the implant.

  11. Inheritance of the characters glossy and mat of the seed coat in beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) in norm and after gamma rays and ethylmethanesulfonate treatment in Fo anf F1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriges, F.; Rukmanski, G.

    1990-01-01

    Reciprocal crosses were made between the following cultivars: 1) kidney bean cvs. Dobrudzhanski 7, Tyrnovo 13 and Astor, having glossy seeds, and Sataya 425 with mat seeds; 2) string bean cvs. Oreol and Zarya (glossy) and Starozagorski Cheren (glossy). Seeds of F o and F 1 were treated with 10 krad gamma rays and 0.01% ethylmethanesulfonate using the mutagens singly and in combination. Deviations from the expected segregation of the characters were observed in kidney beans, being most pronounced following the consequtive treatment, which may be explaned by arisal of mutations and increased frequencies of recombinatipon in the genetic material. This assumption was confirmed in string beans where post mutagen treatment mat seeds were found in hybrids from parental cultivars with glossy seeds and the mat seeds were presented in the following generation. These changes could be explained by arisal of recessive mutations. It is concluded that the combined application of hybridization and mutagenesis increases genetic diversity of the hybrid progeny in regard to glossy and mat bean seed coat. 4 tabs., 2 refs

  12. Transcriptome analysis of pecan seeds at different developing stages and identification of key genes involved in lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Ni, Jun; Shah, Faheem Afzal; Wang, Qiaojian; Wang, Zhaocheng; Wu, Lifang; Fu, Songling

    2018-01-01

    Pecan is an economically important nut crop tree due to its unique texture and flavor properties. The pecan seed is rich of unsaturated fatty acid and protein. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the biosynthesis of fatty acids in the developing seeds. In this study, transcriptome sequencing of the developing seeds was performed using Illumina sequencing technology. Pecan seed embryos at different developmental stages were collected and sequenced. The transcriptomes of pecan seeds at two key developing stages (PA, the initial stage and PS, the fast oil accumulation stage) were also compared. A total of 82,155 unigenes, with an average length of 1,198 bp from seven independent libraries were generated. After functional annotations, we detected approximately 55,854 CDS, among which, 2,807 were Transcription Factor (TF) coding unigenes. Further, there were 13,325 unigenes that showed a 2-fold or greater expression difference between the two groups of libraries (two developmental stages). After transcriptome analysis, we identified abundant unigenes that could be involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, degradation and some other aspects of seed development in pecan. This study presents a comprehensive dataset of transcriptomic changes during the seed development of pecan. It provides insights in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for fatty acid biosynthesis in the seed development. The identification of functional genes will also be useful for the molecular breeding work of pecan.

  13. Control of Seed Germination and Plant Development by Carbon and Nitrogen Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eOsuna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the molecular basis of the influence of external carbon/nitrogen (C/N ratio and other abiotic factors on phytohormones regulation during seed germination and plant developmental processes, and the identification of elements that participate in this response is essential to understand plant nutrient perception and signaling. Sugars (sucrose, glucose and nitrate not only act as nutrients but also as signaling molecules in plant development. A connection between changes in auxin transport and nitrate signal transduction has been reported in Arabidopsis thaliana through the NRT1.1, a nitrate sensor and transporter that also functions as a repressor of lateral root growth under low concentrations of nitrate by promoting auxin transport. Nitrate inhibits the elongation of lateral roots, but this effect is significantly reduced in abscisic acid (ABA-insensitive mutants, what suggests that ABA might mediate the inhibition of lateral root elongation by nitrate. Gibberellin (GA biosynthesis has been also related to nitrate level in seed germination and its requirement is determined by embryonic ABA. These mechanisms connect nutrients and hormones signaling during seed germination and plant development. Thus, the genetic identification of the molecular components involved in nutrients-dependent pathways would help to elucidate the potential crosstalk between nutrients, nitric oxide (NO and phytohormones (ABA, auxins and GAs in seed germination and plant development. In this review we focus on changes in C and N levels and how they control seed germination and plant developmental processes through the interaction with other plant growth regulators, such as phytohormones.

  14. Development of Protective Coatings for Co-Sequestration Processes and Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierwagen, Gordon; Huang, Yaping

    2011-11-30

    The program, entitled Development of Protective Coatings for Co-Sequestration Processes and Pipelines, examined the sensitivity of existing coating systems to supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) exposure and developed new coating system to protect pipelines from their corrosion under SCCO2 exposure. A literature review was also conducted regarding pipeline corrosion sensors to monitor pipes used in handling co-sequestration fluids. Research was to ensure safety and reliability for a pipeline involving transport of SCCO2 from the power plant to the sequestration site to mitigate the greenhouse gas effect. Results showed that one commercial coating and one designed formulation can both be supplied as potential candidates for internal pipeline coating to transport SCCO2.

  15. Development of silicide coating over molybdenum based refractory alloy and its characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.P.; Banerjee, S.; Sharma, I.G.; Suri, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Molybdenum based refractory alloys are potential candidate materials for structural applications in high temperature compact nuclear reactors and fusion reactors. However, these alloys being highly susceptible to oxidation in air or oxygen at elevated temperature, undergoes severe losses from highly volatile molybdenum trioxide species. Present investigation, therefore, examines the feasibility of development of silicide type of coating over molybdenum base TZM alloy shape (Mo > 99 wt.%) using pack cementation coating technique. TZM alloy was synthesized in this laboratory from oxide intermediates of MoO 2 , TiO 2 and ZrO 2 in presence of requisite amount of carbon, by alumino-thermic reduction smelting technique. The arc melted and homogenized samples of TZM alloy substrate was then embedded in the chosen and intimately mixed pack composition consisting of inert matrix (Al 2 O 3 ), coating powder (Si) and activator (NH 4 Cl) taken in the judicious proportion. The sealed charge packs contained in an alumina crucible were heated at temperatures of 1000 o C for 8-16 h heating cycle to develop the coating. The coating phase was confirmed to be of made of MoSi 2 by XRD analysis. The morphology of the coating was studied by SEM characterization. It had revealed that the coating was diffusion bonded where Si from coating diffused inward and Mo from TZM substrate diffused outward to form the coating. The coating was found to be resistant to oxidation when tested in air up to 1200 o C. A maximum 100 μm of coating thickness was achieved on each side of the substrate.

  16. Pathways for the developing Myanmar’s seed sector: A scoping study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den J.A.; Subedi, A.; Jongeleen, F.; Naing Lin Oo,

    2015-01-01

    The study presents an integrated assessment of Myanmar’s seed sector. The study includes information and analyses on regulatory environment for seed production and sales, a characterization of Myanmar’s seed sector with its various seed systems, a landscape of current seed sector interventions; an

  17. genetics and inheritance of seed dormancy inflicted by seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. The study was undertaken to investigate the genetic mode of inheritance of dormancy imposed by the hull (seed coat) in rice seeds. Freshly harvested seeds of parents, F1 and F2 populations of a cross between a dormant cultivar Kisegese and non-dormant strain K2004 were used. Germination test of the ...

  18. Viabilidade de sementes de erva-de-touro, sob diferentes condições de armazenamento Seed viability of coat button under different storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Guimarães

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A manutenção da viabilidade das sementes é muito influenciada pelas condições de armazenamento. No caso das plantas daninhas, essa informação pode servir como suporte para a realização de outras pesquisas e também ajudar na compreensão da dinâmica das infestações. Neste trabalho, a viabilidade das sementes da planta daninha erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens foi monitorada durante dois anos, quando armazenadas em câmara fria (temperatura de 10 ºC e umidade relativa de 50%, em congelador (-18 ºC, em armazém convencional (condições não controladas e no solo. Quando armazenado em câmara fria (em sacos de papel e em congelador (em tubos plásticos herméticos, o lote de sementes mantém a viabilidade inicial (70,5% por no mínimo 730 dias (período experimental. No solo, ocorre perda de viabilidade com o tempo, numa taxa constante de 8,2% para cada 100 dias. Em armazém convencional, a viabilidade das sementes (em sacos de papel é mantida por 200 dias, com redução acentuada entre 300 e 500 dias, chegando ao final de 730 dias com 2,8% de viabilidade. Em nenhuma das formas de armazenamento há indução de dormência secundária nas sementes.Seed viability is strongly influenced by storage conditions. In weeds, this information may serve as support for other research works and help to understand infestation dynamics as well. This work, conducted at Universidade Federal de Lavras, was carried out to evaluate the viability of coat button (Tridax procumbens seeds stored in cold chamber ( temperature of 10 ºC and relative humidity of 50%, in freezer (-18 ºC, conventional warehouse (uncontrolled conditions and soil, over 2 years. Seed lot with 70.5% initial viability, maintained this condition over the experimental period (730 days when stored in cold chamber (in paper bags and in freezer (in airtight plastic tubes. Under soil conditions, viability loss occurred with time, at a constant rate of 8.2% at every 100 days. In a

  19. The development and characterization of advanced broadband mirror coatings for the far-UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Arika; Fleming, Brian T.; Wiley, James; Quijada, Manuel; Del Hoyo, Javier; Hennessy, John; Hicks, Brian; France, Kevin; Kruczek, Nicholas; Erickson, Nicholas

    2017-08-01

    We present a progress report on the development of new broadband mirror coatings that demonstrate > 80% reflectivities from 1020-5000Å. Four different coating recipes are presented as candidates for future far-ultraviolet (FUV) sensitive broadband observatories. Three samples were first coated with aluminum (Al) and lithium fluoride (LiF) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) using a new high-temperature physical vapor deposition (PVD) process. Two of these samples then had an ultrathin (10-20 Å) protective coat of either magnesium fluoride (MgF2) or aluminum fluoride (AlF3) applied using atomic later deposition (ALD) at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). A fourth sample was coated with Al and a similar high temperature PVD coating of AlF3. Polarized reflectivities into the FUV for each sample were obtained through collaboration with the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. We present a procedure for using these reflectivities as a baseline for calculating the optical constants of each coating recipe. Given these results, we describe plans for improving our measurement methodology and techniques to develop and characterize these coating recipes for future FUV missions.

  20. Design and development on automated control system of coated fuel particle fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Malin; Shao Youlin; Liu Bing

    2013-01-01

    With the development trend of the large-scale production of the HTR coated fuel particles, the original manual control system can not meet the requirement and the automation control system of coated fuel particle fabrication in modern industrial grade is needed to develop. The comprehensive analysis aiming at successive 4-layer coating process of TRISO type coated fuel particles was carried out. It was found that the coating process could be divided into five subsystems and nine operating states. The establishment of DCS-type (distributed control system) of automation control system was proposed. According to the rigorous requirements of preparation process for coated particles, the design considerations of DCS were proposed, including the principle of coordinated control, safety and reliability, integration specification, practical and easy to use, and open and easy to update. A complete set of automation control system for coated fuel particle preparation process was manufactured based on fulfilling the requirements of these principles in manufacture practice. The automated control system was put into operation in the production of irradiated samples for HTRPM demonstration project. The experimental results prove that the system can achieve better control of coated fuel particle preparation process and meet the requirements of factory-scale production. (authors)

  1. Bruchid egg induced transcript dynamics in developing seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani K Baruah

    Full Text Available Black gram (Vigna mungo seeds are a rich source of digestible proteins, however, during storage these seeds are severely damaged by bruchids (Callosobruchus spp., reducing seed quality and yield losses. Most of the cultivated genotypes of black gram are susceptible to bruchids, however, few tolerant genotypes have also been identified but the mechanism of tolerance is poorly understood. We employed Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH to identify specifically, but rarely expressed bruchid egg induced genes in black gram. In this study, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH library was constructed to study the genes involved in defense response in black gram against bruchid infestation. An EST library of 277 clones was obtained for further analyses. Based on CAP3 assembly, 134 unigenes were computationally annotated using Blast2GOPRO software. In all, 20 defense related genes were subject to quantitative PCR analysis (qPCR out of which 12 genes showed up-regulation in developing seeds of the pods oviposited by bruchids. Few major defense genes like defensin, pathogenesis related protein (PR, lipoxygenase (LOX showed high expression levels in the oviposited population when compared with the non-oviposited plants. This is the first report on defense related gene transcript dynamics during the bruchid-black gram interaction using SSH library. This library would be useful to clone defense related gene(s such as defensin as represented in our library for crop improvement.

  2. Recent developments in laser-fusion target coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, R.J.; Catlett, D.S.; Fossey, D.; Mayer, A.; McCreary, W.J.; Powell, B.W.; Simonsic, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Techniques to fabricate hollow, spherical, multilayered laser-fusion targets are described. The first is a glow discharge polymerization process for plastic coating. A chemical vapor deposition process for depositing Mo/Re alloys is also discussed along with some new techniques for electrodeless plating and for electroplating a wide variety of metals

  3. Seed characters and their usefulness in the separation of Asteraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli Fernandes Batista

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on seed structure of Asteraceae have received little attention of botanists. Seed structure in Asteraceae is analyzed to evaluate the usefulness of characters in the separation of species through the analysis of nine weedy species. Seeds originate from anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate ovules. The partial collapse of the developing seed coat is a common characteristic in the Asteraceae species studied. The testa consists of crushed and thin-walled cells in almost all of the species studied herein, except for Elephantopus mollis and Parthenium hysterophorus, which showed exotesta cells with U-shaped thickening. The analysis revealed high uniformity in seed characters.

  4. Seed treatments enhance photosynthesis in maize seedlings by reducing infection with Fusarium spp. and consequent disease development in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of a seed treatment on early season growth, seedling disease development, incidence Fusarium spp. infection, and photosynthetic performance of maize were evaluated at two locations in Iowa in 2007. Maize seed was either treated with Cruiser 2Extreme 250 ® (fludioxonil + azoxystrobin + me...

  5. Unsaturated Lipids Change in Olive Tree Drupe and Seed during Fruit Development and in Response to Cold-Stress and Acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone D’Angeli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The olive tree is a plant of economic value for the oil of its drupe. It is a cultigen complex composed of genotypes with differences in cold-hardiness. About 90% of the oil is stored in oil bodies (OBs in the drupe during the oleogenic phase. Phenols and lipids contribute to oil quality, but the unsaturated fatty acid (FA fraction is emerging as the most important for quality, because of the very high content in oleic acid, the presence of ω6-linoleic acid and ω3-linolenic acid, and the very low saturated FA content. Another 10% of oil is produced by the seed. Differences in unsaturated FA-enriched lipids exist among seed coat, endosperm, and embryo. Olive oil quality is also affected by the environmental conditions during fruit growth and genotype peculiarities. Production of linoleic and α-linolenic acids, fruit growth, fruit and leaf responses to low temperatures, including cuticle formation, and cold-acclimation are related processes. The levels of unsaturated FAs are changed by FA-desaturase (FAD activities, involving the functioning of chloroplasts and endoplasmic reticulum. Cold induces lipid changes during drupe and seed development, affecting FADs, but its effect is related to the genotype capability to acclimate to the cold.

  6. Effects of environmental variation during seed production on seed dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Steven; MacGregor, Dana R

    2017-02-01

    The environment during seed production has major impacts on the behaviour of progeny seeds. It can be shown that for annual plants temperature perception over the whole life history of the mother can affect the germination rate of progeny, and instances have been documented where these affects cross whole generations. Here we discuss the current state of knowledge of signal transduction pathways controlling environmental responses during seed production, focusing both on events that take place in the mother plant and those that occur directly as a result of environmental responses in the developing zygote. We show that seed production environment effects are complex, involving overlapping gene networks active independently in fruit, seed coat, and zygotic tissues that can be deconstructed using careful physiology alongside molecular and genetic experiments. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Development of aluminide coatings on vanadium-base alloys in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Dragel, D.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminide coatings were produced on vanadium and vanadium-base alloys by exposure of the materials to liquid lithium that contained 3/5 at.% dissolved aluminum in sealed V and V-20 wt.% Ti capsules at temperatures between 775 and 880 degrees C. After each test, the capsules were opened and the samples were examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and analyzed by electron-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction. Hardness of the coating layers and bulk alloys was determined by microidentation techniques. The nature of the coatings, i.e., surface coverage, thickness, and composition, varied with exposure time and temperature, solute concentration in lithium, and alloy composition. Solute elements that yielded adherent coatings on various substrates can provide a means of developing in-situ electrical insulator coatings by reaction of the reactive layers with dissolved nitrogen in liquid lithium

  8. Development of alloy-film coated dispenser cathode for terahertz vacuum electron devices application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, R.K.; Bera, A.; Raju, R.S.; Tanwar, A.K.; Baek, I.K.; Min, S.H.; Kwon, O.J.; Sattorov, M.A.; Lee, K.W.; Park, G.-S.

    2013-01-01

    High power terahertz vacuum electron devices demand high current density and uniform emission dispenser cathode. It was found that the coating of noble metals e.g., Os, Ir, and Re on the surface of tungsten dispenser cathodes enhances the emission capabilities and uniformity. Hence metal coated cathode might be the best candidate for terahertz devices applications. In this study, ternary-alloy-film cathode (2Os:2Re:1 W) and Os coated cathode have been developed and the results are presented. The cathodes made out of this alloy coating showed 1.5 times higher emission and 0.02 eV emission uniformity as compared to those of simply Os coated cathodes which can be used in terahertz devices application.

  9. Development of alloy-film coated dispenser cathode for terahertz vacuum electron devices application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, R. K.; Bera, A. [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Raju, R. S. [Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI), Rajasthan (India); Tanwar, A. K.; Baek, I. K.; Min, S. H.; Kwon, O. J.; Sattorov, M. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for THz-Bio Application Systems, and Seoul-Teracom Inc., Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. W. [LIG Nex1, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, G.-S., E-mail: gunsik@snu.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for THz-Bio Application Systems, and Seoul-Teracom Inc., Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institute of Convergence Technology, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    High power terahertz vacuum electron devices demand high current density and uniform emission dispenser cathode. It was found that the coating of noble metals e.g., Os, Ir, and Re on the surface of tungsten dispenser cathodes enhances the emission capabilities and uniformity. Hence metal coated cathode might be the best candidate for terahertz devices applications. In this study, ternary-alloy-film cathode (2Os:2Re:1 W) and Os coated cathode have been developed and the results are presented. The cathodes made out of this alloy coating showed 1.5 times higher emission and 0.02 eV emission uniformity as compared to those of simply Os coated cathodes which can be used in terahertz devices application.

  10. Improvement of black nickel coatings. [product development for use in solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R. E.; Lin, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Selectively absorbing black nickel coatings are among the most optically efficient low cost coatings for use on flat plate solar collectors. However, a current Ni-Zn-S-O coating in use is quite susceptible to a humid environment, degrading badly in less than ten days at 38 C (100 F) at 95 percent relative humidity. Therefore, a black nickel formula was developed which can withstand such exposures with no loss of optical efficiency, solar absorption of 0.92 and an infrared emittance (at 100 C) of 1.00 were still present after 14 days of humidity exposure. This compares to a solar absorptance of only 0.72 for the previous formula after a similar time period. The electroplating bath and conditions were changed to obtain the more stable coating configuration. The effect of bath composition, temperature, pH, and plating current density and time on the coating composition, spectral optical properties and durability were investigated systematically.

  11. Development and application of edible skin coatings to improve the quality of kinnow during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Din

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and investigate the effect of application of indigenous skin coating materials for kinnow fruit, which surely would have superior effect on shelf stability and an attractive alternate for inedible coatings. Economical and underutilized sources were explored for this purpose. Eight different formulations were developed to check their suitability through various physico-chemical analyses. It was concluded that edible coating prepared from corn starch, stearic acid, jojoba oil and monoglycerides (T8 was observed best in terms of physico-chemical properties of fruits and significantly increased the shelf life.

  12. Development of Advanced Anti-Reflection Coatings for High Performance Solar Energy Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MicroLink and its subcontractor Magnolia Solar will develop and demonstrate advanced anti-reflection coating (ARC) designs that will provide a better broadband and...

  13. Development of an encapsulation method using plasma arc welding to produce iodine-125 seeds for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, Anselmo; Calvo, Wilson A.P.; Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Somessari, Samir L.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Souza, Carla D.; Rela, Paulo R.

    2011-01-01

    The prostate cancer, which is the second cause of death by cancer in men, overcome only by lung cancer is public health problem in Brazil. Brachytherapy is among the possible available treatments for prostate cancer, in which small seeds containing Iodine-125 radioisotope are implanted into the prostate gland. The seed consists of a titanium sealed capsule with 0.8 mm external diameter and 4.5 mm length, containing a central silver wire with adsorbed Iodine-125. The Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) is one of the viable techniques for sealing process. The equipment used in this technique is less costly than in other processes, such as, Laser Beam Welding (LBW). The main purpose of this work was the development of an encapsulation method using PAW. The development of this work has presented the following phases: cutting and cleaning titanium tube, determination of the welding parameters, development of a titanium tube holding device for PAW, sealed sources validation according to ISO 2919 - Sealed Radioactive Sources - General Requirements and Classification, and metallographic assays. The developed procedure to seal Iodine-125 seeds using PAW has shown high efficiency, satisfying all the established requirements of ISO 2919. The results obtained in this work will give the possibility to establish a routine production process according to the orientations presented in resolution RDC 17 - Good Manufacturing Practices to Medical Products defined by the ANVISA - National Agency of Sanitary Surveillance. (author)

  14. Development of an encapsulation method using plasma arc welding to produce iodine-125 seeds for brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, Anselmo; Calvo, Wilson A.P.; Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Somessari, Samir L.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Souza, Carla D.; Rela, Paulo R., E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: wapcalvo@ipen.b, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: somessar@ipen.b, E-mail: olcosta@ipen.b, E-mail: esmoura@ipen.b, E-mail: cdsouza@ipen.b, E-mail: prela@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The prostate cancer, which is the second cause of death by cancer in men, overcome only by lung cancer is public health problem in Brazil. Brachytherapy is among the possible available treatments for prostate cancer, in which small seeds containing Iodine-125 radioisotope are implanted into the prostate gland. The seed consists of a titanium sealed capsule with 0.8 mm external diameter and 4.5 mm length, containing a central silver wire with adsorbed Iodine-125. The Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) is one of the viable techniques for sealing process. The equipment used in this technique is less costly than in other processes, such as, Laser Beam Welding (LBW). The main purpose of this work was the development of an encapsulation method using PAW. The development of this work has presented the following phases: cutting and cleaning titanium tube, determination of the welding parameters, development of a titanium tube holding device for PAW, sealed sources validation according to ISO 2919 - Sealed Radioactive Sources - General Requirements and Classification, and metallographic assays. The developed procedure to seal Iodine-125 seeds using PAW has shown high efficiency, satisfying all the established requirements of ISO 2919. The results obtained in this work will give the possibility to establish a routine production process according to the orientations presented in resolution RDC 17 - Good Manufacturing Practices to Medical Products defined by the ANVISA - National Agency of Sanitary Surveillance. (author)

  15. Lack of divergence in seed ecology of two Amphicarpaea (Fabaceae) species disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Keliang; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C; Yang, Xuejun; Huang, Zhenying

    2015-06-01

    Many congeneric species are disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America. No previous study has compared the seed biology of closely related disjunct taxa of legumes or of a diaspore-heteromorphic species. Our objective was to compare seed dormancy in two such sister species in the genus Amphicarpaea (Fabaceae). We investigated the ecology and ecophysiology of aerial and subterranean seeds of the amphicarpic species Amphicarpaea edgeworthii from China and compared the results to those published for its sister species A. bracteata from eastern North America. The seed coat of aerial seeds of A. edgeworthii is well developed, whereas the seed coat of subterranean seeds is not. Aerial seeds have combinational dormancy (physical dormancy [PY] + physiological dormancy [PD]) broken by scarification followed by cold stratification or by after-ripening and scarification; whereas subterranean seeds have PD broken by cold stratification. Aerial seeds formed a persistent soil seed bank, and subterranean seeds a transient soil seed bank. Aerial seeds of A. bracteata also have PY+PD and subterranean seeds PD. Subterranean seeds of both species are desiccation intolerant. Dormancy in neither aerial nor subterranean seeds of both species has diverged over geological time. Compared to subterranean seeds, aerial seeds of both species dispersed over longer distances. Seed dispersal ability and degree of dormancy of neither species fits the high-risk/low-risk (H-H/L-L) strategy found in many diaspore-dimorphic species. Rather, both species have an H-L/L-H strategy for these two life history traits. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  16. The Level of SGOT and SGPT after The Administration of Powdered Colorant Pigment Isolated from Kesumba Keling’s (Bixa Orellana Seed Coats An experimental study in Balb/C Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi Suparmi

    2011-06-01

    Design and Methods: The research is an experimental research with Factorial Design with 2 factors. Food Colorant Powder was made from bixin, norbixin, and crude extract pigment isolated from B. orellana seed coat’s. A total of 60 male mice were divided into 10 treatment groups. Powdered colorant solution at the concentration of 0% (control, 1%, 5%, and 10% were orally administered using gavage as much as 1 ml a day for 30 days. Results: Kruskal Wallis test results shows a not significant difference SGOT and SGPT level among the groups (p > 0.05, thus consumption of colorant powder of bixin, norbixin, and the crude extract with various concentrations did not affect the SGOT and SGPT. Conclusion: Colorant powder isolated from B. orellana seed coat’s has been shown to have no effect on the liver function, so it is safe as food colorant (Sains Medika, 3(1:69-77.

  17. Development of nano SiO2 incorporated nano zinc phosphate coatings on mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamilselvi, M.; Kamaraj, P.; Arthanareeswari, M.; Devikala, S.; Selvi, J. Arockia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano SiO 2 incorporated nano zinc phosphate coating on mild steel was developed. • Coatings showed enhanced corrosion resistance. • The nano SiO 2 is adsorbed on mild steel surface and become nucleation sites. • The nano SiO 2 accelerates the phosphating process. - Abstract: This paper reports the development of nano SiO 2 incorporated nano zinc phosphate coatings on mild steel at low temperature for achieving better corrosion protection. A new formulation of phosphating bath at low temperature with nano SiO 2 was attempted to explore the possibilities of development of nano zinc phosphate coatings on mild steel with improved corrosion resistance. The coatings developed were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Electrochemical measurements. Significant variation in the coating weight, morphology and corrosion resistance was observed as nano SiO 2 concentrations varied from 0.5–4 g/L. The results showed that, the nano SiO 2 in the phosphating solution changed the initial potential of the interface between mild steel substrate and phosphating solution and reduce the activation energy of the phosphating process, increase the nucleation sites and yielded zinc phosphate coatings of higher coating weight, greater surface coverage and enhanced corrosion resistance. Better corrosion resistance was observed for coatings derived from phosphating bath containing 1.5 g/L nano SiO 2 . The new formulation reported in the present study was free from Ni or Mn salts and had very low concentration of sodium nitrite (0.4 g/L) as accelerator

  18. Identification of differentially expressed genes between developing seeds of different soybean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongshuang Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is a major source of protein and oil and a primary feedstock for biodiesel production. Research on soybean seed composition and yield has revealed that protein, oil and yield are controlled quantitatively and quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified for each of these traits. However, very limited information is available regarding the genetic mechanisms controlling seed composition and yield. To help address this deficiency, we used Affymetrix Soybean GeneChips® to identify genes that are differentially expressed between developing seeds of the Minsoy and Archer soybean cultivars, which differ in seed weight, yield, protein content and oil content. A total of 700 probe sets were found to be expressed at significantly different (defined as having an adjusted p-value below or equal to 0.05 and an at least 2-fold difference levels between the two cultivars at one or more of the three developmental stages and in at least one of the two years assayed. Comparison of data from soybeans collected in two different years revealed that 97 probe sets were expressed at significantly different levels in both years. Functional annotations were assigned to 78% of these 97 probe sets based on the SoyBase Affymetrix™ GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array Annotation. Genes involved in receptor binding/activity and protein binding are overrepresented among the group of 97 probe sets that were differentially expressed in both years assayed. Probe sets involved in growth/development, signal transduction, transcription, defense/stress response and protein and lipid metabolism were also identified among the 97 probe sets and their possible implications in the regulation of agronomic traits are discussed. As the Minsoy and Archer soybean cultivars differ with respect to seed size, yield, protein content and lipid content, some of the differentially expressed probe sets identified in this study may thus play important roles in controlling these traits

  19. Development of Electrically Conductive Transparent Coatings for Acrylic Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1952-12-01

    after drying, but increased to 4,000 megoihms/square after 16 hours. 4. Polyacrylic-polyamine Cop-lyrrvrs Aqueous solutions of polymethacrylic acid ...methacrylic acid -methyl methaerylate copolymer re•I. The composite material, i. e., the acrylic and applied coating, retains essentially all the original...ation in 5%, NaOH solution for 5 minutes, rinsed in distilled water, immersed with agitation in 1516 nitric acid for 3 minutes and finally rinsed well

  20. Evaluation of germination, vegetative development and genotoxicity of lettuce from irradiated seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Caio H.; Arthur, Valter

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture has benefited from the use of radiation techniques, which provides plant varieties with distinguish characteristics, such as higher productivity, precocity and greater resistance to disease, pests and harsh weather conditions. Therefore, this study aimed on the analysis of greenhouse morphological development of Lactuca sativa originated from irradiated seeds; as well as test their genotoxic effect. The seeds were irradiated at doses of 25, 50, 75, 150 and 300 Gy. In order to determine the germination index, the number of seedlings emerged from each well was counted. Biometric and weight measurements were taken during the development and post-harvest stages. Genotoxicity tests were performed based on the biological assay Allium cepa. The results demonstrated that the best vegetative development was observed for individuals originated from seeds irradiated with doses of 25 and 50 Gy when compared with the control, while this dose did not differ significantly from 75 Gy The calculated germination index remained constant at all dosages. Inhibition of vegetative growth was observed on 150 and 300 Gy dosed individuals. It was also observed that the increasing rate of irradiation is inversely proportional to the mitotic index. A relationship can be established between increased levels of irradiation with increasing percentage of aberrant cells. (author)

  1. Evaluation of germination, vegetative development and genotoxicity of lettuce from irradiated seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Caio H.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: caiohaddadfranco@lnbio.cnpem.com.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente; Silva, Regildo M.G. da, E-mail: regildo@assis.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Assis, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias de Letras. Lab. de Fitoterapicos e Farmacologia; Franco, Jose G.; Franco, Suely S. H., E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br, E-mail: zegilmar60@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Agriculture has benefited from the use of radiation techniques, which provides plant varieties with distinguish characteristics, such as higher productivity, precocity and greater resistance to disease, pests and harsh weather conditions. Therefore, this study aimed on the analysis of greenhouse morphological development of Lactuca sativa originated from irradiated seeds; as well as test their genotoxic effect. The seeds were irradiated at doses of 25, 50, 75, 150 and 300 Gy. In order to determine the germination index, the number of seedlings emerged from each well was counted. Biometric and weight measurements were taken during the development and post-harvest stages. Genotoxicity tests were performed based on the biological assay Allium cepa. The results demonstrated that the best vegetative development was observed for individuals originated from seeds irradiated with doses of 25 and 50 Gy when compared with the control, while this dose did not differ significantly from 75 Gy The calculated germination index remained constant at all dosages. Inhibition of vegetative growth was observed on 150 and 300 Gy dosed individuals. It was also observed that the increasing rate of irradiation is inversely proportional to the mitotic index. A relationship can be established between increased levels of irradiation with increasing percentage of aberrant cells. (author)

  2. DNA demethylation activates genes in seed maternal integument development in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Lin, Haiyan; Tong, Xiaohong; Hou, Yuxuan; Chang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Jian

    2017-11-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that regulates various plant developmental processes. Rice seed integument determines the seed size. However, the role of DNA methylation in its development remains largely unknown. Here, we report the first dynamic DNA methylomic profiling of rice maternal integument before and after pollination by using a whole-genome bisulfite deep sequencing approach. Analysis of DNA methylation patterns identified 4238 differentially methylated regions underpin 4112 differentially methylated genes, including GW2, DEP1, RGB1 and numerous other regulators participated in maternal integument development. Bisulfite sanger sequencing and qRT-PCR of six differentially methylated genes revealed extensive occurrence of DNA hypomethylation triggered by double fertilization at IAP compared with IBP, suggesting that DNA demethylation might be a key mechanism to activate numerous maternal controlling genes. These results presented here not only greatly expanded the rice methylome dataset, but also shed novel insight into the regulatory roles of DNA methylation in rice seed maternal integument development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and characterisation of iridium-192 seeds for brachytherapy treatment of ocular tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peleias Jr, F.S.; Zeituni, C.A.; Souza, C.D.; Rostelato, M.E.CM.; Mattos, F.R.; Banega, M.A.G.; Rodrigues, B.T.; Tiezzi, R.; Oliveira, T.B.; Feher, A.; Moura, J.A.; Costa, O.L.

    2014-01-01

    Even ocular tumors are not amongst the cases with a high incidence, they affect the population, particularly children. The Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP) in partnership with Escola Paulista de Medicina (UNIFESP), created a project to develop an alternative treatment for ophthalmic cancer that uses iridium-192 seeds in brachytherapy. This work aims to study and develop a seed of iridium-192 from a platinum-iridium alloy The prototype seed has a 3.0 mm long core sealed by a titanium capsule of 0.8 mm of outer diameter, 0.05 mm of wall thickness and 4.5 mm long. We developed a methodology that covered: characterisation of the material used in the core, creation of a device for neutron activation of the cores and leakage tests. The results show that this methodology is feasible. As a suggestion for future work, studies regarding metrology and dosimetry of these sources should be carried out. (authors)

  4. Development of durable self-cleaning coatings using organic–inorganic hybrid sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Divya [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wu, Xinghua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute at NTU - ERI@N, 1 CleanTech Loop, #06-04, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); Fu, Qitao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ho, Jeffrey Weng Chye [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute at NTU - ERI@N, 1 CleanTech Loop, #06-04, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); Kanhere, Pushkar D. [Energy Research Institute at NTU - ERI@N, 1 CleanTech Loop, #06-04, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); Li, Lin [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Chen, Zhong, E-mail: ASZChen@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute at NTU - ERI@N, 1 CleanTech Loop, #06-04, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore)

    2015-07-30

    show the best self-cleaning performance both before and after mechanical abrasion. The developed coating process is simple and can be easily scaled-up for large surfaces that require self-cleaning function.

  5. Development of anodic coatings on aluminium under sparking conditions in silicate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfort, F. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Sackville Street, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Berkani, A. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Sackville Street, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Matykina, E. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Sackville Street, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Skeldon, P. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Sackville Street, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: peter.skeldon@manchester.ac.uk; Thompson, G.E. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Sackville Street, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Habazaki, H. [Graduate Engineering School, Hokkaido University, N13 W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Shimizu, K. [University Chemical Laboratory, Keio University, 4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223 (Japan)

    2007-02-15

    Spark anodizing of aluminium at 5 A dm{sup -2} in sodium metasilicate/potassium hydroxide electrolytes is studied, with particular emphasis on the mechanism of coating growth, using transmission electron microscopy and surface analytical techniques, with coatings typically 10 {mu}m, or more, thick. Two-layered coatings develop by deposition of an outer layer based on amorphous silica, associated with low levels of alkali-metal species, at the coating surface and growth of an inner, mainly alumina-based, layer, with an amorphous region next to the metal/coating interface. Formation of crystalline phases in the inner layer, mainly {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, with some {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and occasional {delta}-Al{sub 2}O, is assisted by local heating, and possibly also by ionic migration processes, arising from the rapid coating growth at sites of breakdown. Due to local access of electrolyte species in channels created by breakdown events, the silicon content in the inner coating regions varies widely, ranging from negligible levels to about 10 at.%. Silica deposition at the coating surface and formation of Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} and Al{sub 6}Si{sub 2}O{sub 13} phases is promoted by increased time of anodizing and concentration of metasilicate in the electrolyte. However, at sufficiently high concentration of metasilicate and ph, when more extreme voltage fluctuations accompany breakdown, the two-layered nature of coatings is replaced by a mixture of aluminium-rich and silicon-rich regions throughout the coating thickness.

  6. Fatty Acid and Transcript Profiling in Developing Seeds of Three Brassica napus Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petkova Mariana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid levels and gene expression profiles for selected genes associated with the synthesis of fatty acids (FA, triacylglycerol, and oil body proteins were examined in three oilseed rape (Brassica napus cultivars that have utility for cultivar development in our spring canola breeding program. The seed oil content of Bronowski, Q2, and Westar was 39.0, 40.1, and 40.6%, respectively at 40 days after flowering (DAF. During the 20 to 40 day period of seed development, cultivars had varying levels of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic, eicosenoic, and erucic acid. In general, the percentage of each FA was similar among the cultivars during seed development. However, the level of oleic acid was lower and the levels of eicosenoic acid and erucic acid were higher in Bronowski than in Q2 and Westar seeds; linoleic acid also tended to be lower in Bronowski. Gene expression among the cultivars was similar from 10 to 40 DAF. The few exceptions were that expression of KAS1 and SAD were higher in Westar and Q2 than in Bronowski at 25 DAF, SAD was highest in Q2, intermediate in Westar, and lowest in Bronowski at 35 DAF, FAD2 was higher in Q2 than in Bronowski at 35 DAF, FAD3 was higher in Q2 than in Bronowski at 15 DAF and Q2 and Westar at 25 and 30 DAF, and FAE1 was higher in Westar and Q2 than in Bronowski at 30 DAF. Correlation analysis for gene expression against DAF for each genotype supported a common trend in gene expression among the three cultivars with gene expression tending to decrease over time; except for LPAAT, which tended to increase. The correlation between the level of FAs and expression of genes by genotype indicated no general trend; rather correlations seem to depend on the genotype.

  7. Development of electrically insulating coatings for service in a lithium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Uz, M.; Wieder, S.

    2000-01-01

    Several experiments were conducted to develop electrically insulating CaO coatings on a V-4Cr-4Ti alloy for application in an Li environment. The coatings were developed by vapor phase transport external to Li, and also in-situ in an Li-Ca environment at elevated temperature. In the vapor phase study, several geometrical arrangements were examined to obtain a uniform coating of Ca on the specimens, which were typically coupons measuring 5 to 10 x 5 x 1 mm. After Ca deposition from the vapor phase, the specimens were oxidized in a high-purity argon environment at 600 C to convert the deposited metal into oxide. The specimens exhibited insulating characteristics after this oxidation step. Several promising coated specimens were then exposed to high-purity Li at 500 C for 48--68 h to determine coating integrity. Microstructural characteristics of the coatings were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Electrical resistances of the coatings were measured by a two-probe method between room temperature and 700 C before and after exposure to Li

  8. Irradiation effect on the seed vigor, SOD activity and MDA content in germinating seeds of yellow-seeded and black-seeded rape seed (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jixiang; Hu Danhong; Liu Houli

    1993-01-01

    Seeds of a set of near-isogenic lines (Brassica napus L.) with different seed coat color from yellow to black were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays of 150 krad. Seed vigor, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in germinating seeds were analysed. In these characters, no significant difference between yellow-seeded lines (YLs) and black-seeded lines (BLs) showed before irradiation. But after irradiation, SOD activity in YLs was lower than that in BLs. While MDA content in YLs was obviously higher that that in DLs. As a result of irradiation, seed vigor of YLs was lower than that in BLs. these results indicated that the irradiation resistance of rape seed was related to the level of SOD as well as protective structure or substances in seed coat and that the radiosensitivity of YLs was higher than that of DLs

  9. Corrosion resistance and development length of steel reinforcement with cementitious coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xiaofei

    This research program focused on the corrosion resistance and development length of reinforcing steel coated with Cementitious Capillary Crystalline Waterproofing (CCCW) materials. The first part of this research program involved using the half-cell potential method to evaluate the corrosion resistance of CCCW coating materials. One hundred and two steel bars were embedded in concrete cylinders and monitored. In total, 64 steel reinforcing bars were coated with CCCW prior to embedment, 16 mortar cylinders were externally coated with CCCW, and 22 control (uncoated) samples were tested. All the samples were immersed in a 3.5% concentration chloride solution for a period of one year. Three coating types were studied: CCCW-B, CCCW-B+ C and CCCW-C+D. The test results showed that the CCCW coating materials delayed the corrosion activity to varying degrees. In particular, CCCW-C+D applied on the reinforcing steel surface dramatically delayed the corrosion activity when compared to the control samples. After being exposed to the chloride solution for a period of one year, no sign of corrosion was observed for the cylinders where the concrete surface was coated. The second part of this research evaluated the bond strength and development length of reinforcing steel coated with two types of CCCW coating materials (CCCW-B+C and CCCW-C+D) using a modified pull-out test method. A self-reacting inverted T-shaped beam was designed to avoid compression in the concrete surrounding the reinforcing steel. Steel reinforcing bars were embedded along the web portion of the T-beam with various embedded lengths and were staggered side by side. In total, six T-beams were fabricated and each beam contained 8 samples. Both short-term (7 days) and long-term (3 months) effects of water curing were evaluated. The reinforcing steel bars coated with CCCW-B+C demonstrated a higher bond strength than did samples coated with CCCW-C+D. However, the bond strengths of samples with coating materials

  10. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose edible coating containing Zataria multiflora essential oil and grape seed extract on chemical attributes of rainbow trout meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Raeisi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Meat products, especially fish meat, are very susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage. In this study, first, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO components was done and then two concentrations of ZEO, (1% and 2% and two concentrations of grape seed extract (GSE, (0.5% and 1% were used in carboxymethyl cellulose coating alone and in combination, and their antioxidant effects on rainbow trout meat were evaluated in a 20-day period using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS test. Their effects on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN and pH were evaluated as well. The main components of ZEO are thymol and carvacrol. These components significantly decreased production of thio-barbituric acid (TBA, TVBN and pH level of fish meat. The initial pH, TVBN and TBA content was 6.62, 12.67 mg N per 100 g and 0.19 mg kg-1, respectively. In most treatments significant (p < 0.05 effects on aforementioned factors was seen during storage at 4 ˚C. The results indicated that use of ZEO and GSE as a natural antioxidant agents was effective in reducing undesirable chemical reactions in storage of fish meat.

  11. Multifunctional properties of cotton fabrics coated with in situ synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles capped with date seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Mehrez E; Shaarawy, S; Hebeish, A A

    2018-02-01

    In situ formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) was studied within the framework of several factors. variables examined include (i) innovation of a new capping agent; (ii) nature of the cotton fabric related to its processing; (iii) formation of Zinc hydroxide (Zn(OH) 2 ) due to reduction of zinc acetate with sodium hydroxide (iv) treatment of the differently processed cotton fabrics with (Zn(OH) 2 ) functionalized dispersion as per the exhaustion method, (v) further treatment of the cotton fabrics with (Zn(OH) 2 ) dispersion according to the pad-dry-cure method and (Vi) conversion of (Zn(OH) 2 ) to ZnO-NPs during the curing step in the latter method. Results depict that the incorporation of the bio-extract obtained from date seed waste works effectively as capping material which stabilize ZnO-NPs. Mercerized bleached cotton fabric proves to be a better candidate than mercerized loomstate cotton fabric in conferring sustainable bactericidal and UV blocking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a CVD silica coating for UK advanced gas-cooled nuclear reactor fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.J.; Houlton, M.R.; Moore, D.A.; Foster, A.I.; Swidzinski, M.A.M.

    1983-04-01

    Vapour deposited silica coatings could extend the life of the 20% Cr/25% Ni niobium stabilised (20/25/Nb) stainless steel fuel cladding of the UK advanced gas cooled reactors. A CVD coating process developed originally to be undertaken at atmospheric pressure has now been adapted for operation at reduced pressure. Trials on the LP CVD process have been pursued to the production scale using commercial equipment. The effectiveness of the LP CVD silica coatings in providing protection to 20/25/Nb steel surfaces against oxidation and carbonaceous deposition has been evaluated. (author)

  13. Development of a Nondestructive Evaluation Technique for Degraded Thermal Barrier Coatings Using Microwave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, M.; Ogawa, K.; Shoji, T.

    2008-02-01

    Thermal barrier coatings have been widely used in gas turbine engines in order to protect substrate metal alloy against high temperature and to enhance turbine efficiency. Currently, there are no reliable nondestructive techniques available to monitor TBC integrity over lifetime of the coating. Hence, to detect top coating (TC) and TGO thicknesses, a microwave nondestructive technique that utilizes a rectangular waveguide was developed. The phase of the reflection coefficient at the interface of TC and waveguide varies for different TGO and TC thicknesses. Therefore, measuring the phase of the reflection coefficient enables us to accurately calculate these thicknesses. Finally, a theoretical analysis was used to evaluate the reliability of the experimental results.

  14. Do rice suspension-cultured cells treated with abscisic acid mimic developing seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Koya; Fujimura, Tatsuhito

    2015-08-01

    Starch synthesis is activated in the endosperm during seed development and also in rice suspension cells cultured with abscisic acid. In the anticipation that the mechanisms of starch synthesis are similar between the endosperm and the suspension cells cultured with abscisic acid, expression of genes involved in starch synthesis was evaluated in the suspension cells after abscisic acid treatment. However, it was found that the regulatory mechanism of starch synthesis in the suspension cells cultured with abscisic acid was different from that in developing seeds. Expression analyses of genes involved in oil bodies, which accumulate in the embryo and aleurone layer, and seed storage proteins, which accumulate mainly in the endosperm, showed that the former were activated in the suspension cells cultured with abscisic acid, but the latter were not. Master regulators for embryogenesis, OsVP1 (homologue of AtABI3) and OsLFL1 (homologue of AtFUS3 or AtLFL2), were expressed in the suspension cells at levels comparable to those in the embryo. From these results, it is suggested that interactions between regulators and abscisic acid control the synthesis of phytic acid and oil bodies in the cultured cells and embryo. We suggest that the system of suspension cells cultured with abscisic acid helps to reveal the mechanisms of phytic acid and oil body synthesis in embryo.

  15. Development and evaluation of suspension plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia coatings as thermal barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Every, Kent J.

    The insulating effects from thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) in gas turbine engines allow for increased operational efficiencies and longer service lifetimes. Consequently, improving TBCs can lead to enhanced gas turbine engine performance. This study was conducted to investigate if yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings, the standard industrial choice for TBCs, produced from nano-sized powder could provide better thermal insulation than current commericial YSZ coatings generated using micron-sized powders. The coatings for this research were made via the recently developed suspension plasma spraying (SPS) process. With SPS, powders are suspended in a solvent containing dispersing agents; the suspension is then injected directly into a plasma flow that evaporates the solvent and melts the powder while transporting it to the substrate. Although related to the industrial TBC production method of air plasma spraying (APS), SPS has two important differences---the ability to spray sub-micron diameter ceramic particles, and the ability to alloy the particles with chemicals dissolved in the solvent. These aspects of SPS were employed to generate a series of coatings from suspensions containing ˜100 nm diameter YSZ powder particles, some of which were alloyed with neodymium and ytterbium ions from the solvent. The SPS coatings contained columnar structures not observed in APS TBCs; thus, a theory was developed to explain the formation of these features. The thermal conductivity of the coatings was tested to evaluate the effects of these unique microstructures and the effects of the alloying process. The results for samples in the as-sprayed and heat-treated conditions were compared to conventional YSZ TBCs. This comparison showed that, relative to APS YSZ coatings, the unalloyed SPS samples typically exhibited higher as-sprayed and lower heat-treated thermal conductivities. All thermal conductivity values for the alloyed samples were lower than conventional YSZ TBCs

  16. Development of transgenic Brassica juncea lines for reduced seed sinapine content by perturbing phenylpropanoid pathway genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Kajla

    Full Text Available Sinapine is a major anti-nutritive compound that accumulates in the seeds of Brassica species. When ingested, sinapine imparts gritty flavuor in meat and milk of animals and fishy odor to eggs of brown egg layers, thereby compromising the potential use of the valuable protein rich seed meal. Sinapine content in Brassica juncea germplasm ranges from 6.7 to 15.1 mg/g of dry seed weight (DSW which is significantly higher than the prescribed permissible level of 3.0 mg/g of DSW. Due to limited natural genetic variability, conventional plant breeding approach for reducing the sinapine content has largely been unsuccessful. Hence, transgenic approach for gene silencing was adopted by targeting two genes-SGT and SCT, encoding enzymes UDP- glucose: sinapate glucosyltransferase and sinapoylglucose: choline sinapoyltransferase, respectively, involved in the final two steps of sinapine biosynthetic pathway. These two genes were isolated from B. juncea and eight silencing constructs were developed using three different RNA silencing approaches viz. antisense RNA, RNAi and artificial microRNA. Transgenics in B. juncea were developed following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. From a total of 1232 independent T0 transgenic events obtained using eight silencing constructs, 25 homozygous lines showing single gene inheritance were identified in the T2 generation. Reduction of seed sinapine content in these lines ranged from 15.8% to 67.2%; the line with maximum reduction had sinapine content of 3.79 mg/g of DSW. The study also revealed that RNAi method was more efficient than the other two methods used in this study.

  17. Development of marker-free transgenic Jatropha plants with increased levels of seed oleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Jing

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jatropha curcas is recognized as a new energy crop due to the presence of the high amount of oil in its seeds that can be converted into biodiesel. The quality and performance of the biodiesel depends on the chemical composition of the fatty acids present in the oil. The fatty acids profile of the oil has a direct impact on ignition quality, heat of combustion and oxidative stability. An ideal biodiesel composition should have more monounsaturated fatty acids and less polyunsaturated acids. Jatropha seed oil contains 30% to 50% polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic acid which negatively impacts the oxidative stability and causes high rate of nitrogen oxides emission. Results The enzyme 1-acyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine delta 12-desaturase (FAD2 is the key enzyme responsible for the production of linoleic acid in plants. We identified three putative delta 12 fatty acid desaturase genes in Jatropha (JcFAD2s through genome-wide analysis and downregulated the expression of one of these genes, JcFAD2-1, in a seed-specific manner by RNA interference technology. The resulting JcFAD2-1 RNA interference transgenic plants showed a dramatic increase of oleic acid (> 78% and a corresponding reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids (Jatropha had around 37% oleic acid and 41% polyunsaturated fatty acids. This indicates that FAD2-1 is the major enzyme responsible for converting oleic acid to linoleic acid in Jatropha. Due to the changes in the fatty acids profile, the oil of the JcFAD2-1 RNA interference seed was estimated to yield a cetane number as high as 60.2, which is similar to the required cetane number for conventional premium diesel fuels (60 in Europe. The presence of high seed oleic acid did not have a negative impact on other Jatropha agronomic traits based on our preliminary data of the original plants under greenhouse conditions. Further, we developed a marker-free system to generate the transgenic Jatropha

  18. Advanced Environmental Barrier Coating Development for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: NASA's Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    This presentation reviews NASA environmental barrier coating (EBC) system development programs and the coating materials evolutions for protecting the SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites in order to meet the next generation engine performance requirements. The presentation focuses on several generations of NASA EBC systems, EBC-CMC component system technologies for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite combustors and turbine airfoils, highlighting the temperature capability and durability improvements in simulated engine high heat flux, high pressure, high velocity, and with mechanical creep and fatigue loading conditions. The current EBC development emphasis is placed on advanced NASA 2700F candidate environmental barrier coating systems for SiC/SiC CMCs, their performance benefits and design limitations in long-term operation and combustion environments. Major technical barriers in developing environmental barrier coating systems, the coating integrations with next generation CMCs having the improved environmental stability, erosion-impact resistance, and long-term fatigue-environment system durability performance are described. The research and development opportunities for advanced turbine airfoil environmental barrier coating systems by utilizing improved compositions, state-of-the-art processing methods, and simulated environment testing and durability modeling are discussed.

  19. Development of a coating technique for inertial confinement fusion plastic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, U.; Tsubakihara, H.

    1986-01-01

    Deuterated polystyrene as a target material offers several advantages over other polymers because of the following: (1) it is chemically and physically stable at ordinary conditions, (2) it can be easily formed into spherical shells, and (3) it has a very high fraction of D 2 /H 2 (above approx.99%). As in our previous studies, the fabrication method was basically a utilization of the emulsion technique. This method is well suited to mass-producing the polymer targets without microprocessing techniques. We have developed a fabrication method for single shell targets and an extension of this technique also enables us to fabricate double shell targets. This new method is faster and less labor intensive than previous techniques. The development of ICF experiments requires multilayer structure targets; we have developed, moreover, a new fabrication technique called the multicoating method. The polymer coating can be fabricated by the application of an emulsion technique. On the other hand, with metal coating, a nonelectroplating method was used, and nickel was employed as the coating metal. The thickness of the polymer coating layer can be controlled with the rotational speed of a stirrer in the emulsion. In the case of nickel coating, it is achieved by controlling the plating bath temperature and immersion time during the plating process. The experiment resulted in the development of a new technique for the fabrication of multilayer targets and low density, thick polymer-layer-coated targets

  20. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.57 Hard seeds. Seeds which remain hard at the end of the prescribed test because they have not absorbed water, due to an impermeable seed coat... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at 15...

  1. Development of Ferrite-Coated Soft Magnetic Composites: Correlation of Microstructure to Magnetic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunday, Katie Jo

    milling and analyzed for magnetic core loss dependence on particle size, cure temperature, and microstructure of both coating and core powder. We present a significant increase in core loss related to eddy current loss from coating particles sintering and Fe grain growth. Lastly, a more resistive coating material, NiZnCu-ferrite, is applied for improved resistivity, which leads to lower eddy current loss and improved magnetic performance. By highlighting the importance of microstructure and composition on magnetic properties, a closer look at interfacial features and local microstrain are necessary and accomplished in this work. Future developments of ferrite-based SMC coatings are required to transform the use of electromagnetic devices in today's society.

  2. Development of Antifouling and Bactericidal Coatings for Platelet Storage Bags Using Dopamine Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjesfandiari, Narges; Weinhart, Marie; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Haag, Rainer; Brooks, Donald E

    2018-03-01

    Platelets have a limited shelf life, due to the risk of bacterial contamination and platelet quality loss. Most platelet storage bags are made of a mixture of polyvinyl chloride with a plasticizer, denoted as pPVC. To improve biocompatibility of pPVC with platelets and to inhibit bacterial biofilm formation, an antifouling polymer coating is developed using mussel-inspired chemistry. A copolymer of N,N-dimethylacrylamide and N-(3-aminopropyl)methacrylamide hydrochloride is synthesized and coupled with catechol groups, named DA51-cat. Under mild aqueous conditions, pPVC is first equilibrated with an anchoring polydopamine layer, followed by a DA51-cat layer. Measurements show this coating decreases fibrinogen adsorption to 5% of the control surfaces. One-step coating with DA51-cat does not coat pPVC efficiently although it is sufficient for coating silicon wafers and gold substrates. The dual layer coating on platelet bags resists bacterial biofilm formation and considerably decreases platelet adhesion. A cationic antimicrobial peptide, E6, is conjugated to DA51-cat then coated on silicon wafers and introduces bactericidal activity to these surfaces. Time-of-flight second ion-mass spectroscopy is successfully applied to characterize these surfaces. pPVC is widely used in medical devices; this method provides an approach to controlling biofouling and bacterial growth on it without elaborate surface modification procedures. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Development of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) methods for controlled release pellet coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalle, P; Pollitt, M J; Bradley, K; Cooper, B; Pearce, G; Djemai, A; Fitzpatrick, S

    2014-07-01

    This work focused on the control of the manufacturing process for a controlled release (CR) pellet product, within a Quality by Design (QbD) framework. The manufacturing process was Wurster coating: firstly layering active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) onto sugar pellet cores and secondly a controlled release (CR) coating. For each of these two steps, development of a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) method is discussed and also a novel application of automated microscopy as the reference method. Ultimately, PAT methods should link to product performance and the two key Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) for this CR product are assay and release rate, linked to the API and CR coating steps respectively. In this work, the link between near infra-red (NIR) spectra and those attributes was explored by chemometrics over the course of the coating process in a pilot scale industrial environment. Correlations were built between the NIR spectra and coating weight (for API amount), CR coating thickness and dissolution performance. These correlations allow the coating process to be monitored at-line and so better control of the product performance in line with QbD requirements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Advanced ceramic coating development for industrial/utility gas turbines. Final report, 11 Mar 1979-1 Sep 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogan, J.W.; Stetson, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    A program was conducted with the objective of developing advanced thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. Coating application was by plasma spray. Duplex, triplex and graded coatings were tested. Coating systems incorporated both NiCrAly and CoCrAly bond coats. Four ceramic overlays were tested: ZrO 2 .82O 3 , CaO.TiO 2 , 2CaO.SiO 2 , and MgO.Al 2 O 3 . The best overall results were obtained with a CaO.TiO 2 coating applied to a NiCrAly bond coat. This coating was less sensitive than the ZrO 2 .8Y 2 O 3 coating to process variables and part geometry. Testing with fuels contaminated with compounds containing sulfur, phosphorus and alkali metals showed the zirconia coatings were destabilized. The calcium titanate coatings were not affected by these contaminants. However, when fuels were used containing 50 ppm of vanadium and 150 ppm of magnesium, heavy deposits were formed on the test specimens and combustor components that required frequent cleaning of the test rig. During the program Mars engine first-stage turbine blades were coated and installed for an engine cyclic endurance run with the zirconia, calcium titanate, and calcium silicate coatings. Heavy spalling developed with the calcium silicate system. The zirconia and calcium titanate systems survived the full test duration. It was concluded that these two TBC's showed potential for application in gas turbines

  5. Development of Fe-AI CVD coatings as tritium permeation barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrol, C.; Schuster, F.; Le Marois, G.; Serra, E.

    1998-01-01

    A specific method of pack-cementation has been developed in order to perform a CVD deposition of Fe-Al alloys on a martensitic steel at a temperature which respects its mechanical properties ( 2 Al 5 intermetallic phases thanks to a low pressure deposition and using a special cement containing Fe and Al. These coatings coated with an Al 2 O 3 top layer drastically reduce the permeation rate of deuterium with regards to the uncoated substrate. (authors)

  6. Synthesis and silica coating of calcia-doped ceria/plate-like titanate (K0.8Li0.27Ti1.73O4) nanocomposite by seeded polymerization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Toni, Ahmed Mohamed; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio

    2007-01-01

    Calcia-doped ceria is of potential interest as an ultraviolet (UV) radiation blocking material in personal care products because of the excellent UV light absorption property and low catalytic ability for the oxidation of organic materials superior to undoped ceria. In order to reduce the oxidation catalytic activity further, calcia-doped ceria was coated with amorphous silica by means of seeded polymerization technique. Generally, nanoparticles of inorganic materials do not provide a good coverage for human skin because of the agglomeration of the particles. The plate-like particles are required to enhance the coverage ability of inorganic materials. This can be accomplished by synthesis of calcia-doped ceria/plate-like potassium lithium titanate (K 0.8 Li 0.27 Ti 1.73 O 4 ) nanocomposite with subsequent silica coating to control catalytic activity of calcia-doped ceria. Calcia-doped ceria/plate-like potassium lithium titanate nanocomposite was prepared by soft chemical method followed by silica coating via seeded polymerization technique. Silica coated calcia-doped ceria/plate-like potassium lithium titanate nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM, TEM, XPS and FT-IR

  7. Exogenous glutamine increases lipid accumulation in developing seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes biomass production and compositional changes of developing castor seeds in response to change in the nitrogen resource (glutamine of the medium. During the early developmental period (24-36 days after pollination, oil was found to initially accumulate in the developing seeds. Carbohydrates and oil were inversely related after glutamine provision (35 mM, in the culture medium. [U-14C] sucrose labeling was used to investigate the effect of metabolic fluxes among different storage materials. Addition of glutamine led to a 7% increase of labeling in lipids and an inverse decrease of labeling in carbohydrates. It was postulated that changes in the glutamine concentration in the medium are likely to influence the partitioning of resources between the various storage products, especially carbohydrates and oil. These observations will contribute to a better understanding of assimilate partitioning in developing castor seeds and the development of molecular strategies to improve castor bean seed quality and plant breeding studies.

  8. Characterization of physical and biochemical changes in plasma treated spinach seed during germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hye Ji, Sang; Ki, Se Hoon; Kang, Min Ho; Choi, Jin Sung; Park, Yeunsoo; Oh, Jaesung; Kim, Seong Bong; Yoo, Suk Jae; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Gyungsoon

    2018-04-01

    Despite the accumulating data on the effect of plasma on seed germination, mechanisms of plasma action need more extensive research. In a previous study, we observed that high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma enhanced the germination of spinach seeds and subsequent seedling growth. As a follow-up study, we investigated the physico-chemical, biochemical, and molecular changes in seed after plasma treatment, focusing on the early germination stage, to elucidate mechanism(s) for the stimulating effects of plasma on seed germination. The primary radicle protruded from seeds exposed to high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma (one shot) slightly faster than the control seeds. The hydrophilicity of the seed surface significantly increased after treatment with high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma (one shot). However, a very subtle increase in water uptake by plasma treated seeds was observed. Raman and FTIR spectroscopy analyses on chloroform extract of seed coats demonstrated no significant chemical etching on the surface of plasma treated seeds. This may be related to no dramatic increase in water absorption by seeds. The level of GA hormone and starch hydrolysis inside the plasma treated seeds was significantly elevated within 24 h. Taken together, our results suggest that high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma may not only enhance hydrophilicity of the seed surface but also stimulate biochemical and molecular processes inside seed, leading to enhanced embryonic development.

  9. Dynamic Metabolic Profiles and Tissue-Specific Source Effects on the Metabolome of Developing Seeds of Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helin Tan

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus is one of several important oil-producing crops, and the physiological processes, enzymes, and genes involved in oil synthesis in canola seeds have been well characterized. However, relatively little is known about the dynamic metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation in seeds, as well as the mechanistic origins of metabolic changes. To explore the metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation, we isolated metabolites from both seed and silique wall and identified and characterized them by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results showed that a total of 443 metabolites were identified from four developmental stages. Dozens of these metabolites were differentially expressed during seed ripening, including 20 known to be involved in seed development. To investigate the contribution of tissue-specific carbon sources to the biosynthesis of these metabolites, we examined the metabolic changes of silique walls and seeds under three treatments: leaf-detachment (Ld, phloem-peeling (Pe, and selective silique darkening (Sd. Our study demonstrated that the oil content was independent of leaf photosynthesis and phloem transport during oil accumulation, but required the metabolic influx from the silique wall. Notably, Sd treatment resulted in seed senescence, which eventually led to a severe reduction of the oil content. Sd treatment also caused a significant accumulation of fatty acids (FA, organic acids and amino acids. Furthermore, an unexpected accumulation of sugar derivatives and organic acid was observed in the Pe- and Sd-treated seeds. Consistent with this, the expression of a subset of genes involved in FA metabolism, sugar and oil storage was significantly altered in Pe and Sd treated seeds. Taken together, our studies suggest the metabolite profiles of canola seeds dynamically varied during the course of oil accumulation, which may provide a new insight into the mechanisms

  10. Indigenous endophytic seed bacteria promote seedling development and defend against fungal disease in browntop millet (Urochloa ramosa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S K; White, J F

    2018-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate indigenous seed endophyte effects on browntop millet seedling development. We report that seed-inhabiting bacterial endophytes are responsible for promoting seedling development, including stimulation of root hair formation, increasing root and shoot length growth and increasing photosynthetic pigment content of seedlings. Bacterial endophytes also improved resistance of seedlings to disease. A total of four endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized seeds and identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Curtobacterium sp. (M1), Microbacterium sp. (M2), Methylobacterium sp. (M3) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (M4). Removal of bacteria with streptomycin treatment from the seeds compromised seedling growth and development. When endophytes were reinoculated onto seeds, seedlings recovered normal development. Strains M3 and M4 were found to be most potent in promoting growth of seedlings. Bacteria were found to produce auxin, solubilize phosphate and inhibit fungal pathogens. Significant protection of seedlings from Fusarium infection was found using strain M4 in microcosm assays. The antifungal lipopeptide genes for surfactin and iturin were detected in M4; culture extracts of M4 showed a positive drop collapse result for surfactins. This study demonstrates that browntop millet seeds vector indigenous endophytes that are responsible for modulation of seedling development and protection of seedlings from fungal disease. This study is significant and original in that it is the first report of seed-inhabiting endophytes of browntop millet that influence seedling development and function in defence against soilborne pathogens. This study suggests that conservation and management of seed-vectored endophytes may be important in development of more sustainable agricultural practices. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Development and characterization of AlCrN coated Si3N4 ceramic cutting tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.V.C.; Nono, M.C.A.; Machado, J.P.B.; Silva, O.M.M.; Sa, F.C.L.

    2010-01-01

    Ceramic cutting tools are showing a growing market perspective in terms of application on machining operations due to their high hardness, wear resistance, and machining without a cutting fluid, therefore are good candidates for cast iron and Nickel superalloys machining. The objective of the present paper was the development of Si 3 N 4 based ceramic cutting insert, characterization of its physical and mechanical properties, and subsequent coating with AlCrN using a PVD method. The characterization of the coating was made using an optical profiler, XRD, AFM and microhardness tester. The results showed that the tool presented a fracture toughness of 6,43 MPa.m 1/2 and hardness of 16 GPa. The hardness reached 31 GPa after coating. The machining tests showed an improvement on work piece roughness when machining with coated insert, in comparison with the uncoated cutting tool. Probably this fact is related to hardness, roughness and topography of AlCrN. (author)

  12. Anticorrosive Performance of Zinc Phosphate Coatings on Mild Steel Developed Using Galvanic Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arthanareeswari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticorrosive performance of zinc phosphate coatings developed by galvanic coupling technique on mild steel substrates using the cathode materials such as titanium (Ti, copper (Cu, brass (BR, nickel (Ni, and stainless steel (SS is elucidated in this study. Thermal and chemical stability tests, immersion test in 3.5% NaCl, ARE salt droplet test, and salt spray test were carried out. The study reveals that the mild steel substrates phosphated under galvanically coupled condition showed better corrosion resistance than the one coated without coupling. The open circuit potential (OCP of phosphated mild steel panels in 3.5% NaCl was found to be a function of phosphate coating weight and porosity of the coating.

  13. Development and characterization of Si3N4 coated AlCrN ceramic cutting tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.V.C.; Nono, M.C.A.; Martins, G.V.; Machado, J.P.B.; Silva, O.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, silicon nitride based cutting tools are used to machine cast iron from the automotive industry and nickel superalloys from the aero industries. Advances in manufacturing technologies (increased cutting speeds, dry machining, etc.) induced the fast commercial growth of physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings for cutting tools, in order to increase their life time. In this work, a new composition of the Si 3 N 4 ceramic cutting tool was developed, characterized and subsequently coated, using a PVD process, with aluminum chromium nitride (AlCrN). The Si 3 N 4 substrate properties were analyzed by XRD, AFM, hardness and fracture toughness. The AlCrN coating was analyzed by AFM, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and hardness. The results showed that this PVD coating could be formed homogeneously, without cracks and promoted a higher surface hardness to the insert and consequently it can produce a better wear resistance during its application on high speed machining. (author)

  14. Development of carbon nanotubes reinforced hydroxyapatite composite coatings on titanium by electrodeposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopi, D.; Shinyjoy, E.; Sekar, M.; Surendiran, M.; Kavitha, L.; Sampath Kumar, T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Successful development of CNTs reinforced HAP coating on Ti by electrodeposition. •CNTs as a reinforcing material imparts strength and toughness to HAP. •Incorporating CNTs improves crystallinity, morphology, biological properties of HAP. •CNTs–HAP coating on Ti is bioresistive, better candidate for implant applications. -- Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are outstanding reinforcement material for imparting strength and toughness to brittle hydroxyapatite (HAP). This work reports the electrodeposition of CNTs reinforced HAP on titanium substrate at −1.4 V vs. SCE during 30 min with the functionalised CNTs concentration ranging from 0 to 2 wt.%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), mechanical and biological studies were used to characterise the coatings. Also, the corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by electrochemical techniques in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution

  15. Development of radioactive 166Ho-coated balloon and its dose estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K. B.; Kim, K. H.; Hong, Y. D.; Park, E. W.

    2000-01-01

    The use of balloon with radioisotope is a promising method to prevent restenosis after transluminal coronary arterial angioplasty or stent implantation. In this study, we have developed a new radioactive coated balloon, which is prepared by coating the surface of existing balloon with 166 Ho instead of being filled with beta sources which emit high energy beta-particles for the purpose of the delivery of sufficient radiation to the vessel wall. To estimate the safety of 166 Ho-coated balloon, leaching test and radiation resistance test of the balloon were performed. The absorbed dose distributions around the 166 Ho-coated balloon were estimated by means of Monte Carlo simulation and the initial activities for optimal therapeutic regimen were determined on the basis of this results

  16. Research and development in the field of radiation curable coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmler, K.; Goethlich, L.; Osterloh, R.; Zosel, A.

    1977-08-01

    Suitable monomers for radiation curable coatings are mono- and polyfunctional acrylates and N vinylcompounds like vinylpyrrolidone and divinylpropyleneurea. Methacrylates, vinylesters and vinylethers are less suited. The residual monomer content of two completely cured coatings (UP and epoxyacrylate resins) amounts to 0.01 to 0.05%. Electron beam cured UP/acrylate films are particularly soil resistant. Peroxide and electron beam cured UP resin coatings differ in their curing pattern. Development of radiation sources now allows for testing radiation curable coatings on laboratory units. Modern EB and UV radiators deliver comparable results. The patent literature on electron beam curing comprises more than 700 known applications. In the course of the work described herein 4 patents were applied for. (orig.) [de

  17. Development of electrical insulation and conduction coating for fusion experimental devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Tsujimura, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Toyoda, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Inoue, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Abe, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka (Japan); Murakami, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Development of electrical insulation and conduction methods that can be applied for large components have been investigated for future large fusion experimental devices. A thermal spraying method is employed to coat the insulation or conduction materials on the structural components. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been selected as an insulation material, while Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr and WC-NiCr have been chosen as conduction materials. These materials were coated on stainless steel base plates to examine the basic characteristics of the coated layers, such as their adhesive strength to the base plate and electrical resistance. It was found that they have sufficient electrical insulation and conduction properties, respectively. In addition, the sliding tests of the coated layers showed sufficient frictional properties. The applicability of the spraying method was examined on a 100mm x 1000mm surface and found to be applicable for large surfaces in fusion experimental devices. (orig.).

  18. Development of electrical insulation and conduction coating for fusion experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Tsujimura, S.; Toyoda, M.; Inoue, M.; Abe, T.; Murakami, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Development of electrical insulation and conduction methods that can be applied for large components have been investigated for future large fusion experimental devices. A thermal spraying method is employed to coat the insulation or conduction materials on the structural components. Al 2 O 3 has been selected as an insulation material, while Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr and WC-NiCr have been chosen as conduction materials. These materials were coated on stainless steel base plates to examine the basic characteristics of the coated layers, such as their adhesive strength to the base plate and electrical resistance. It was found that they have sufficient electrical insulation and conduction properties, respectively. In addition, the sliding tests of the coated layers showed sufficient frictional properties. The applicability of the spraying method was examined on a 100mm x 1000mm surface and found to be applicable for large surfaces in fusion experimental devices. (orig.)

  19. Facile approach in the development of icephobic hierarchically textured coatings as corrosion barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momen, G., E-mail: gmomen@uqac.ca; Farzaneh, M.

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • A superhydrophobic coating is developed via a simple environmental-friendly method. • This coating can be used on the surface of various metals such as copper, magnesium. • The superhydrophobic aluminum surface showed the excellent corrosion resistance. • The fabricated surface revealed a drastically reduction of ice adhesion strength. • Such surfaces can advantageously be used in cold climate regions. - Abstract: An anti-corrosion superhydrophobic film with water contact angle greater than 160° on aluminum alloy 6061 substrate was fabricated simply through the spin-coating method applied to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles doped in silicone rubber solution. The as-obtained sample was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and water contact angle/surface energy measurement. The corrosion behaviour of such coating in the NaCl solutions was investigated using the potentiodynamic polarization. The results show that the corrosion resistance of the developed superhydrophobic surface is improved greatly due to the composite wetting states or interfaces with numerous air pockets between its surface and the NaCl solution. This superhydrophobic coating could serve as an effective barrier against aggressive medium. Ice adhesion strength of the as-prepared superhydrophobic coating was also evaluated by measuring its ice adhesion force which was found to have reduced by 4.8 times compared to that of aluminum substrate as reference test.

  20. Development of Cold Spray Coatings for Accident-Tolerant Fuel Cladding in Light Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Benjamin; Yeom, Hwasung; Johnson, Greg; Dabney, Tyler; Walters, Jorie; Romero, Javier; Shah, Hemant; Xu, Peng; Sridharan, Kumar

    2018-02-01

    The cold spray coating process has been developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison for the deposition of oxidation-resistant coatings on zirconium alloy light water reactor fuel cladding with the goal of improving accident tolerance during loss of coolant scenarios. Coatings of metallic (Cr), alloy (FeCrAl), and ceramic (Ti2AlC) materials were successfully deposited on zirconium alloy flats and cladding tube sections by optimizing the powder size, gas preheat temperature, pressure and composition, and other process parameters. The coatings were dense and exhibited excellent adhesion to the substrate. Evaluation of the samples after high-temperature oxidation tests at temperatures up to 1300°C showed that the cold spray coatings significantly mitigate oxidation kinetics because of the formation of thin passive oxide layers on the surface. The results of the study indicate that the cold spray coating process is a viable near-term option for developing accident-tolerant zirconium alloy fuel cladding.

  1. Development of procedure using plasma welding process to produce 125I seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, Anselmo

    2006-01-01

    The prostate cancer, which is the second cause of death by cancer in men, overcome only by lung cancer, is a problem of public health in Brazil. Brachytherapy is among the possible available treatments for prostate cancer, in which small seeds containing 125 I radioisotope are implanted in the prostate. The seed consists of a titanium sealed capsule with 0.8 mm external diameter and 4.5 mm length, containing a central silver wire with adsorbed 125 I. The plasma arc welding is one of the viable techniques for the sealing process. The equipment used in this technique is less costly than in other processes. The main objective of this work was the development and the validation of the welding procedure using plasma welding process and the elaboration of a sealing routine according to Good Manufacturing Practices. The development of this work has presented the following phases: cut and cleaning of the titanium material, determination of the welding parameters, development of a device for holding the titanium tube during the welding process, validation of sealed sources according to ISO 2919 Sealed Radioactive Sources - General Requirements and Classification, leakage test according to ISO 9978 Sealed Radioactive Sources - Leakage Test Methods and metallographic assays. The developed procedure, to seal 125 I seeds using plasma welding process, has shown to be efficient, satisfying all the established requirements of ISO 2919. The results obtained in this work have given the possibility to establish a routine production process according to the orientations presented in resolution RDC number 59 - Good Manufacturing Practices do Medical Products of the ANVISA - Brazilian Nacional Agency of Sanitary Surveillance. (author)

  2. Development of Diffusion barrier coatings and Deposition Technologies for Mitigating Fuel Cladding Chemical Interactions (FCCI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Cole, James

    2013-02-27

    The goal of this project is to develop diffusion barrier coatings on the inner cladding surface to mitigate fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). FCCI occurs due to thermal and radiation enhanced inter-diffusion between the cladding and fuel materials, and can have the detrimental effects of reducing the effective cladding wall thickness and lowering the melting points of the fuel and cladding. The research is aimed at the Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in which higher burn-ups will exacerbate the FCCI problem. This project will study both diffusion barrier coating materials and deposition technologies. Researchers will investigate pure vanadium, zirconium, and titanium metals, along with their respective oxides, on substrates of HT-9, T91, and oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels; these materials are leading candidates for ABR fuel cladding. To test the efficacy of the coating materials, the research team will perform high-temperature diffusion couple studies using both a prototypic metallic uranium fuel and a surrogate the rare-earth element lanthanum. Ion irradiation experiments will test the stability of the coating and the coating-cladding interface. A critical technological challenge is the ability to deposit uniform coatings on the inner surface of cladding. The team will develop a promising non-line-of-sight approach that uses nanofluids . Recent research has shown the feasibility of this simple yet novel approach to deposit coatings on test flats and inside small sections of claddings. Two approaches will be investigated: 1) modified electrophoretic deposition (MEPD) and 2) boiling nanofluids. The coatings will be evaluated in the as-deposited condition and after sintering.

  3. Development of bacterially resistant polyurethane for coating medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roohpour, Nima; Moshaverinia, Alireza; Wasikiewicz, Jaroslaw M; Paul, Deepen; Vadgama, Pankaj; Wilks, Mark; Millar, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Polyurethanes have been widely used in medicine for coating and packaging implantable and other medical devices. Polyether-urethanes, in particular, have superior mechanical properties and are biocompatible, but in common with other medical materials they are susceptible to microbial film formation. In this study, polyether-urethane was end-capped with silver lactate and silver sulfadiazine functional groups to produce a bacterially resistant polymer without sacrificing the useful mechanical properties of the polyether-polyurethane. The silver ions were covalently incorporated into the polymer during chain extension of the prepolymer. The functionalized polymers were structurally characterized by light scattering, electron microscopy, NMR, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Mechanical properties, hydrophilicity, in vitro stability and antibacterial action of polymers were also investigated. Results indicate that both silver salts were successfully incorporated into the polymer structure without significant effect on mechanical properties, whilst conferring acceptable bacterial resistance.

  4. Ectopic expression of MPF2-like protein WSA206 leads to arrest in silique and seed development in heterologous host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    MPF2-like genes belonging to STMADS11 clade of MADS-box transcription factors are mostly involved in calyx inflation, floral reversion and fertility. However their role in fertility remained enigmatic. In this study we transformed WSA206 gene paralog - originated through genome duplication in a Solanaceous plant Withaniasomnifera - ectopically in a heterologous host Arabidopsis thaliana. Interesting phenotypes in floral organs and fruits were observed. Overexpression of WSA206 leads to arrest in silique development. The siliques were compressed and size was drastically reduced from 34mm to 3mm. Along with siliques, the seed development was also suppressed as revealed by shriveling of seeds and reduction in seed number. In extreme cases the siliques were devoid of any seeds. In cases where seeds developed, these were impaired in viability. Besides, the transgenic Arabidopsis also exhibited exorbitant growth of calyx to an extent that it resembled inflated calyx in Solanaceae. The calyx remained persistent and encapsulated the under-developed siliques containing non-viable seeds inside. Thus, fertility and sepal development are tightly coupled traits that are controlled by WSA206 paralog in heterologous system. (author)

  5. Development of Copper Canister through Cold Sprayed Coating Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Jong Won; Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Jong Youl; Jeong, Jong Tae; Kim, Sung Ki; Cho, Dong Keun

    2007-12-15

    General thickness of a copper canister is 5 cm for a underground disposal application. The lower limit of a thickness is determined by a forging technology. But many experts in this area agrees that the thickness 1 cm is enough at the underground disposal for the life time of 1,000,000 years. Thus new technology is suggested for the making 1 cm thickness copper canister, that is a cold spray coating method(CSC). In this report, the CSC is examined and the technical possibility for making copper canister is measured. The overview of CSC and its characteristics are discussed. Various copper particles for the CSC are analyzed and the formed coating layers are examined to find their porosity and uniformity. A Tafa copper particle and Chang-sung copper particle are selected for making 1 cm thick test specimen. Using the CSC specimens, tensile test and XRD analysis are performed. As a corrosion evaluation, a electrochemical test such as a polarization test is done, together with humid corrosion test and chloric acid immersion test. Through the corrosion tests, it is tried to confirm that the CSC is valuable method for making a copper canister. Consequently, it is confirmed that the CSC method is very usful for making 1 cm thick copper canister. the porosity of CSC layer is very low at 0.3 in case of Tafa copper layer. In corrosion tests, the CSC layers are very stable in active environments. It is hard to say that the difference of processing method but the purity of copper is important for the corrosion rate evaluation. The CSC method is very effective method for making 1 cm thick copper canister, It is hoped that the CSC method is applied in a HLW underground disposal system in the future.

  6. Development of Copper Canister through Cold Sprayed Coating Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Jong Won; Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Jong Youl; Jeong, Jong Tae; Kim, Sung Ki; Cho, Dong Keun

    2007-12-01

    General thickness of a copper canister is 5 cm for a underground disposal application. The lower limit of a thickness is determined by a forging technology. But many experts in this area agrees that the thickness 1 cm is enough at the underground disposal for the life time of 1,000,000 years. Thus new technology is suggested for the making 1 cm thickness copper canister, that is a cold spray coating method(CSC). In this report, the CSC is examined and the technical possibility for making copper canister is measured. The overview of CSC and its characteristics are discussed. Various copper particles for the CSC are analyzed and the formed coating layers are examined to find their porosity and uniformity. A Tafa copper particle and Chang-sung copper particle are selected for making 1 cm thick test specimen. Using the CSC specimens, tensile test and XRD analysis are performed. As a corrosion evaluation, a electrochemical test such as a polarization test is done, together with humid corrosion test and chloric acid immersion test. Through the corrosion tests, it is tried to confirm that the CSC is valuable method for making a copper canister. Consequently, it is confirmed that the CSC method is very usful for making 1 cm thick copper canister. the porosity of CSC layer is very low at 0.3 in case of Tafa copper layer. In corrosion tests, the CSC layers are very stable in active environments. It is hard to say that the difference of processing method but the purity of copper is important for the corrosion rate evaluation. The CSC method is very effective method for making 1 cm thick copper canister, It is hoped that the CSC method is applied in a HLW underground disposal system in the future

  7. Identification of miRNAs and their target genes in developing soybean seeds by deep sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shou-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate gene expression by mediating gene silencing at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in higher plants. miRNAs and related target genes have been widely studied in model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice; however, the number of identified miRNAs in soybean (Glycine max is limited, and global identification of the related miRNA targets has not been reported in previous research. Results In our study, a small RNA library and a degradome library were constructed from developing soybean seeds for deep sequencing. We identified 26 new miRNAs in soybean by bioinformatic analysis and further confirmed their expression by stem-loop RT-PCR. The miRNA star sequences of 38 known miRNAs and 8 new miRNAs were also discovered, providing additional evidence for the existence of miRNAs. Through degradome sequencing, 145 and 25 genes were identified as targets of annotated miRNAs and new miRNAs, respectively. GO analysis indicated that many of the identified miRNA targets may function in soybean seed development. Additionally, a soybean homolog of Arabidopsis SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SLIENCING 3 (AtSGS3 was detected as a target of the newly identified miRNA Soy_25, suggesting the presence of feedback control of miRNA biogenesis. Conclusions We have identified large numbers of miRNAs and their related target genes through deep sequencing of a small RNA library and a degradome library. Our study provides more information about the regulatory network of miRNAs in soybean and advances our understanding of miRNA functions during seed development.

  8. Development of computational models for the simulation of isodose curves on dosimetry films generated by iodine-125 brachytherapy seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Adriano M.; Meira-Belo, Luiz C.; Reis, Sergio C.; Grynberg, Suely E., E-mail: amsantos@cdtn.b [Center for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The interstitial brachytherapy is one modality of radiotherapy in which radioactive sources are placed directly in the region to be treated or close to it. The seeds that are used in the treatment of prostate cancer are generally cylindrical radioactive sources, consisting of a ceramic or metal matrix, which acts as the carrier of the radionuclide and as the X-ray marker, encapsulated in a sealed titanium tube. This study aimed to develop a computational model to reproduce the film-seed geometry, in order to obtain the spatial regions of the isodose curves produced by the seed when it is put over the film surface. The seed modeled in this work was the OncoSeed 6711, a sealed source of iodine-125, which its isodose curves were obtained experimentally in previous work with the use of dosimetric films. For the films modeling, compositions and densities of the two types of dosimetric films were used: Agfa Personal Monitoring photographic film 2/10, manufactured by Agfa-Geavaert; and the model EBT radiochromic film, by International Specialty Products. The film-seed models were coupled to the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. The results obtained by simulations showed to be in good agreement with experimental results performed in a previous work. This indicates that the computational model can be used in future studies for other seeds models. (author)

  9. Development of computational models for the simulation of isodose curves on dosimetry films generated by iodine-125 brachytherapy seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Adriano M.; Meira-Belo, Luiz C.; Reis, Sergio C.; Grynberg, Suely E.

    2011-01-01

    The interstitial brachytherapy is one modality of radiotherapy in which radioactive sources are placed directly in the region to be treated or close to it. The seeds that are used in the treatment of prostate cancer are generally cylindrical radioactive sources, consisting of a ceramic or metal matrix, which acts as the carrier of the radionuclide and as the X-ray marker, encapsulated in a sealed titanium tube. This study aimed to develop a computational model to reproduce the film-seed geometry, in order to obtain the spatial regions of the isodose curves produced by the seed when it is put over the film surface. The seed modeled in this work was the OncoSeed 6711, a sealed source of iodine-125, which its isodose curves were obtained experimentally in previous work with the use of dosimetric films. For the films modeling, compositions and densities of the two types of dosimetric films were used: Agfa Personal Monitoring photographic film 2/10, manufactured by Agfa-Geavaert; and the model EBT radiochromic film, by International Specialty Products. The film-seed models were coupled to the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. The results obtained by simulations showed to be in good agreement with experimental results performed in a previous work. This indicates that the computational model can be used in future studies for other seeds models. (author)

  10. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  11. Physiological quality and gene expression related to heat-resistant proteins at different stages of development of maize seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, T; Von Pinho, E V R; Von Pinho, R G; Oliveira, G E; Andrade, V; Fernandes, J S

    2013-09-13

    We quantified and characterized the expression of heat-resistant proteins during seed development of maize lines with distinct levels of tolerance to high drying temperature. A corn field was planted for multiplication of seeds of different lines, two tolerant and two non-tolerant to high drying temperatures. Harvest of the seeds was carried out at various stages of development and they were then subjected to tests of moisture content, germination, first count of germination, accelerated aging, and cold test. The seeds were stored in a freezer for later analysis of expression of heat-resistant proteins by means of real-time PCR, electrophoresis, and spectrophotometry. We observed that heat-resistant proteins are expressed in a differential manner in seeds from different lines and at different stages of development. The expression of heat-resistant proteins was earlier in lines tolerant to high drying temperatures. Greater germination and vigor values was found for seeds collected at the last stage of development.

  12. Co-ordinate regulation of sterol biosynthesis enzyme activity during accumulation of sterols in developing rape and tobacco seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, Mark; Hellyer, Amanda; Clayton, John C; Duvoix, Annelyse; Lanot, Alexandra; Safford, Richard

    2003-02-01

    The activities of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, sterol methyl transferase 1 and sterol acyltransferase, key enzymes involved in phytosterol biosynthesis were shown to be co-ordinately regulated during oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L.) and tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.) seed development. In both plants, enzyme activities were low during the initial stages of seed development, increasing towards mid-maturation where they remained stable for a time, before declining rapidly as the oilseeds reached maturity. During seed development, the level of total sterols increased 12-fold in tobacco and 9-fold in rape, primarily due to an increase in steryl ester production. In both seed tissues, stages of maximum enzyme activity coincided with periods of high rates of sterol production, indicating developmental regulation of the enzymes to be responsible for the increases in the sterol content observed during seed development. Consistent with previous studies the data presented suggest that sterol biosynthesis is regulated by two key steps, although there may be others. The first is the regulation of carbon flux into the isoprenoid pathway to cycloartenol. The second is the flux from cycloartenol to Delta(5)-end-product sterols. The implications of the results in terms of enhancing seed sterol levels by genetic modification are also discussed.

  13. Development of long GdBCO coated conductor using the IBAD/MPMT-PLD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibi, A; Fukushima, H; Yamada, Y; Miyata, S; Kuriki, R; Takahashi, K; Shiohara, Y

    2006-01-01

    We have developed long GdBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-X (GdBCO) coated conductors by a multi-plume and multi-turn pulsed laser deposition (MPMT-PLD) method and have successfully fabricated 32 and 60.7 m long GdBCO coated conductors with a high critical current, I c , and high deposition rate. The I c of the 32 and 60.7 m long GdBCO coated conductors were 205 A (J c = 1.36 MA cm -2 ) and 183 A (J c = 1.45 MA cm -2 ), respectively, at 77 K and 0 T. In addition, they exhibited higher I c values in a magnetic field than a YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-X (YBCO) coated conductor: typically 20 A at 77 K and 3 T while the value for a YBCO coated conductor is 8 A. These high I c values are due to the smaller number of a-axis oriented grains in GdBCO than in YBCO. Furthermore, the speed of production of the GdBCO layer was increased to 10 m h -1 while that of the former YBCO coated conductor was 3.75 m h -1 . The material yield of long GdBCO layers using the MPMT-PLD method was about 26-28%. The high I c of GdBCO in a magnetic field, the high production rate and the high material yield are promising for applications

  14. Development of iridium coated x-ray mirrors for astronomical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhring, Thorsten; Probst, Anne-Catherine; Emmerich, Florian; Stollenwerk, Manfred; Stehlíková, Veronika; Friedrich, Peter; Damm, Christine

    2017-08-01

    Future space-based X-ray observatories need to be very lightweight for launcher mass constraints. Therefore they will use a reduced mirror thickness, which results in the additional requirement of low coating stress to avoid deformation of the initial precisely shaped mirror substrates. Due to their excellent reflection properties iridium coatings are sometimes applied for grazing incidence mirrors in astronomical X-ray telescopes. At Aschaffenburg University of Applied Sciences the coating of thin iridium films by an RF-magnetron sputtering technique is under development. The work is embedded in collaborations with the Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany, the Czech Technical University in Prague, the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera in Italy, the German Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research in Dresden, and the French Institute Fresnel. Sputtering with different parameters leads to iridium films with different properties. The current work is focused on the microstructure of the iridium coatings to study the influence of the substrate and of the argon gas pressure on the thin film growing process. Correlations between coating density, surface micro-roughness, the crystalline structure of the iridium layers, and the expected reflectivity of the X-ray mirror as well as coating stress effects are presented and discussed. The final goal of the project is to integrate the produced prototype mirrors into an X-ray telescope module. On a longer timescale measurements of the mirror modules optical performance are planned at the X-ray test facility PANTER.

  15. Method and Process Development of Advanced Atmospheric Plasma Spraying for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihm, Sebastian; Duda, Thomas; Gruner, Heiko; Thomas, Georg; Dzur, Birger

    2012-06-01

    Over the last few years, global economic growth has triggered a dramatic increase in the demand for resources, resulting in steady rise in prices for energy and raw materials. In the gas turbine manufacturing sector, process optimizations of cost-intensive production steps involve a heightened potential of savings and form the basis for securing future competitive advantages in the market. In this context, the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process for thermal barrier coatings (TBC) has been optimized. A constraint for the optimization of the APS coating process is the use of the existing coating equipment. Furthermore, the current coating quality and characteristics must not change so as to avoid new qualification and testing. Using experience in APS and empirically gained data, the process optimization plan included the variation of e.g. the plasma gas composition and flow-rate, the electrical power, the arrangement and angle of the powder injectors in relation to the plasma jet, the grain size distribution of the spray powder and the plasma torch movement procedures such as spray distance, offset and iteration. In particular, plasma properties (enthalpy, velocity and temperature), powder injection conditions (injection point, injection speed, grain size and distribution) and the coating lamination (coating pattern and spraying distance) are examined. The optimized process and resulting coating were compared to the current situation using several diagnostic methods. The improved process significantly reduces costs and achieves the requirement of comparable coating quality. Furthermore, a contribution was made towards better comprehension of the APS of ceramics and the definition of a better method for future process developments.

  16. Development a method for producing vegetable oil from safflower seeds by pressing in the field of ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    S. T. Antipov; S. V. Shakhov; A. N. Martekha; A. A. Berestovoy

    2015-01-01

    The article shows the prospects of production in agriculture safflower seeds for food and extract biologically active components. The physicochemical composition of safflower, which is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Safflower oil has a soothing and moisturizing effect, provides a barrier function of the skin, therefore, fatty oil is promising in terms of scientific evidence use in medical practice. In the article the task of developing a set of processes to extract oil from the seeds of saf...

  17. Development of a functionalized coating for inhibition of marine corrosion and biofouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittens, Jeanette Elizabeth

    The financial loss incurred by corrosion of metals in the marine environment has led to a need to develop effective, economic and environmentally friendly methods of protection. Traditional methods of counteracting the development of surface biofilms and biofouling within aqueous environments have involved implementing chemical biocides, often with a deleterious effect on non-target organisms. Sol gel coating technology offers a convenient route for immobilizing functional additives, such as inhibitors or, in the case of this study, biologically active microorganisms. Paenibacillus polymyxa biofilms inhibit the corrosion of metal substrates and this strain has the advantage of forming endospores can withstand the solvent and acid concentrations required in sol-gel formulation. Encapsulation of viable P. polymyxa endospores within the sol-gel matrix allowed germination on exposure to nutrients, when germinating endospores and vegetative cells were seen after fluorescence microscopy to be distributed throughout the coating. Laboratory electrochemical impedance tests were used to characterize the corrosion behaviour of the endospore-containing (biotic) sol-gel coating in comparison to an abiotic (no endospores) sol-gel only coating and one containing non-viable (killed) endospores. The technology enabled manipulation of the sol-gel formulation and the method of application to produce biotic sol-gel with enhanced corrosion inhibition properties on aluminium alloy. Field trials in a marine environment confirmed the corrosion protecting properties of the biotic coating and that the biotic coatings inhibited macroscopic biofouling for at least 29 weeks relative to the controls without encapsulated live endospores. Production of polymyxin by the encapsulated bacteria, which was proposed as a mechanism by which they inhibit MIC, was less than 1 mug per ml and below the threshold of detection by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and antimicrobial bioassay. Microcosm

  18. Development of a cell-seeded modified small intestinal submucosa for urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: A modified 3D porous SIS scaffold seeded with UC and treated with PAA produces better urethroplasty results than cell-seeded untreated SIS scaffolds, or unseeded PAA treated SIS scaffolds.

  19. Development of nanostructured PVD coatings for total knee replacement joints using HIPIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, Arunprabhu A.

    The aim of this study was to develop thin film coatings for total knee replacement joints using high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS). An industrial size four cathode magnetron sputtering system equipped with direct current (DC) and HIPIMS power supplies was used for this purpose. Initially, Plasma diagnostics were carried out using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) while sputtering Ti target in Ar + N2 atmosphere by utilizing various HIP IMS/conventional DCMS (henceforth UBM) source combinations by varying the process parameters such as coil current and N2 flow. Then, single layer titanium nitride (TiN) coating was deposited by varying the degree of HIPIMS utilisation and the process parameters such as bias voltage and coil current to thoroughly understand the effect of degree of HIPIMS utilisation on the microstructure, residual stress, texture, mechanical, tribological and corrosion properties of such coatings. The degree of HIPIMS utilisation was altered by increasing the number of HIPIMS targets used for the deposition. Four different source combinations were used for this purpose, as follows: 4 cathodes in conventional DCMS mode to deposit pure UBM coating, 1 HIPIMS + 3UBM and 2HIPIMS + 2UBM cathodes to deposit combined HIPIMS/UBM coatings and 2HIPIMS cathodes to deposit pure HIPIMS coatings. TiN/NbN, TiCN/NbCN and CrN/NbN multilayer coatings were deposited on CoCr alloy test buttons along with other (HSS, SS and Si) substrates since our intended application is on total knee replacement joints made of CoCr alloy. The knowledge gained by investigating the TiN (Ar + N[2]) plasma and the properties of TiN was used to determine the process parameters for depositing the multilayer coatings. X- ray diffraction (XRD) technique was used for calculating the texture, residual stress and bilayer thickness of the coatings. Nanoindentation method was used to determine the nano hardness of the coatings. The adhesion strength of the coatings was estimated by

  20. combining high seed number and weight to improve seed yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    ABSTRACT. Increasing seed size and seed weight is an important trait for trade, yield component and adaptation of chickpea ... determining yield or quality, and the development of rapid and ..... C.G. 1981. Control of seed growth in soybeans.

  1. The organic seed regulations framework in Europe - current status and recommendations for future development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Döring, T.F.; Bocci, R.; Hitchings, R.; Howlett, S.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Pautasso, M.; Raaijmakers, M.; Rey, F.; Stubsgaard, A.; Weinhappel, M.; Wilbois, K.P.; Winkler, L.R.; Wolfe, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Organic agriculture regulations, in particular European regulation EC 889/2008, prescribe the use of organically produced seed. For many cultivated plants, however, organic seed is often not available. This is mainly because investment in organic plant breeding and seed production has been low in

  2. Biosynthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides and galactosyl pinitols in developing and maturing seeds of winter vetch (Vicia vlllosa Roth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the accumulation of two types of α-D-galactosides: raffinose family oligosaccharides and galactosyl pinitols were compared with changes in the activities of galactosyltransferases during winter vetch (Vicia villosa Roth. seed development and maturation. Occurrence of galactinol and raffinose in young seeds and changes in activities of galactinol synthase and raffinose synthase during seed development indicated that formation of raffinose oligosaccharides (RFOs preceded synthesis of galactopinitols. Although transfer of galactose residues into raffinose oligosaccharides increased as seeds were maturing, at late stages of seed maturation the accumulation of galactopinitols was preferred to that of RFOs. In the present study, activities of enzymes transferring galactose moieties from galactinol to D-pinitol forming galactopinitol A, and further transfer of galactose moieties from galactinol to mono- and di-galactopinitol A were detected throughout seed development and maturation. This is a new observation, indicating biological potential of winter vetch seeds to synthesize mono-, di- and tri-galactosides of D-pinitol in a pathway similar to RFOs. The pattern of changes in activities of stachyose synthase and enzymes synthesizing galactopinitols (named galactopinitol A synthase and ciceritol synthase suggests that formation of stachyose, mono- and di-galactopinitol A (ciceritol is catalyzed by one enzyme. High correlation between activities of verbascose synthase and enzyme catalyzing synthesis of tri-galactopinitol A from galactinol and ciceritol (named tri-galactopinitol A synthase also suggests that biosynthesis of both types of tri-galactosides was catalyzed by one enzyme, but distinct from stachyose synthase. Changes in concentrations of galactosyl acceptors (sucrose and D-pinitol can be a factor which regulates splitting of galactose moieties between both types of galactosides in winter vetch seeds.

  3. Medicago truncatula contains a second gene encoding a plastid located glutamine synthetase exclusively expressed in developing seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seabra Ana R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitrogen is a crucial nutrient that is both essential and rate limiting for plant growth and seed production. Glutamine synthetase (GS, occupies a central position in nitrogen assimilation and recycling, justifying the extensive number of studies that have been dedicated to this enzyme from several plant sources. All plants species studied to date have been reported as containing a single, nuclear gene encoding a plastid located GS isoenzyme per haploid genome. This study reports the existence of a second nuclear gene encoding a plastid located GS in Medicago truncatula. Results This study characterizes a new, second gene encoding a plastid located glutamine synthetase (GS2 in M. truncatula. The gene encodes a functional GS isoenzyme with unique kinetic properties, which is exclusively expressed in developing seeds. Based on molecular data and the assumption of a molecular clock, it is estimated that the gene arose from a duplication event that occurred about 10 My ago, after legume speciation and that duplicated sequences are also present in closely related species of the Vicioide subclade. Expression analysis by RT-PCR and western blot indicate that the gene is exclusively expressed in developing seeds and its expression is related to seed filling, suggesting a specific function of the enzyme associated to legume seed metabolism. Interestingly, the gene was found to be subjected to alternative splicing over the first intron, leading to the formation of two transcripts with similar open reading frames but varying 5' UTR lengths, due to retention of the first intron. To our knowledge, this is the first report of alternative splicing on a plant GS gene. Conclusions This study shows that Medicago truncatula contains an additional GS gene encoding a plastid located isoenzyme, which is functional and exclusively expressed during seed development. Legumes produce protein-rich seeds requiring high amounts of nitrogen, we postulate

  4. International R and D project on development of coated particle fuel for innovative reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents an outline for an international collaborative project of coated particle fuel development for innovative reactors. Specific issues include identification of R and D needs and the Member State facilities for meeting the needs followed by development and demonstration of technology. (author)

  5. Er2O3 coating development and improvisation by metal oxide decomposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayjada, Pratipalsinh A.; Sircar, Amit; Raole, Prakash M.; Rahman, Raseel; Manocha, Lalit M.

    2015-01-01

    Compact, highly resistive and chemically as well as physically stable ceramic coatings are going to play vital role in successful and safe exploitation of tritium breeding and recovery system in the future fusion reactors. Due to its stability and high resistivity, Er 2 O 3 was initially studied for resistive coating application to mitigate Magneto Hydro Dynamic (MHD) forces in liquid Li cooled blanket concept. Subsequently, its excellence as tritium permeation barrier (TPB) was also revealed. Ever since, there is a continual thrust on studying its relevant properties and application methods among the fusion technology and materials community. Metal Oxide Decomposition is a chemical method of coating development. One of the major advantages of this process over most of the others is its simplicity and ability to coat complex structures swiftly. The component is dipped into a liquid solution of the Er 2 O 3 and subsequently withdrawn at an optimized constant speed, so as to leave a uniform wet layer on the surface. This can be repeated multiple times after drying the surface to obtain the required thickness. Subsequently, the component is heat treated to obtain crystalline uniform Er 2 O 3 coating over it. However, the porosity of the coatings and substrate oxidation are the challenges for in MOD method. We successfully develop Er 2 O 3 coating in cubic crystalline phase on P91 steel and fused silica substrates using 3 wt% erbium carboxylic acid solution in a solvent containing 50.5 wt% turpentine, 25.5 wt% n-butyl acetate, 8.4 wt% ethyl acetate, a stabilizer, and a viscosity adjustor. A dip coating system equipped with 800 C quartz tube furnace was used to prepare these coatings. The withdrawal speed was chosen as 72 mm/min from the literature survey. The crystallization and microstructure are studied as functions of heat treatment temperature in the range of 500-700 C. We also try to improvise the uniform coverage and porosity of the coating by altering the

  6. Arabidopsis CPR5 independently regulates seed germination and postgermination arrest of development through LOX pathway and ABA signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilan Gao

    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA and the lipoxygenases (LOXs pathway play important roles in seed germination and seedling growth and development. Here, we reported on the functional characterization of Arabidopsis CPR5 in the ABA signaling and LOX pathways. The cpr5 mutant was hypersensitive to ABA in the seed germination, cotyledon greening and root growth, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing CPR5 were insensitive. Genetic analysis demonstrated that CPR5 gene may be located downstream of the ABI1 in the ABA signaling pathway. However, the cpr5 mutant showed an ABA independent drought-resistant phenotype. It was also found that the cpr5 mutant was hypersensitive to NDGA and NDGA treatment aggravated the ABA-induced delay in the seed germination and cotyledon greening. Taken together, these results suggest that the CPR5 plays a regulatory role in the regulation of seed germination and early seedling growth through ABA and LOX pathways independently.

  7. Development of the Seeding System Used for Laser Velocimeter Surveys of the NASA Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor Flow Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserbauer, C. A.; Hathaway, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    Consideration is given to an atomizer-based system for distributing high-volume rates of polystyrene latex (PSL) seed material developed to support laser velocimeter investigations of the NASA Low-Speed Compressor flow field. Complete evaporation of the liquid carrier before the flow entering the compressor was of primary concern for the seeder system design. It is argued that the seed nozzle should incorporate a needle valve that can mechanically dislodge accumulated PSL seed material when the nozzle is turned off. Water is less expensive as the liquid carrier and should be used whenever adequate residence times are available to ensure complete evaporation. PSL agglomerates over time and needs to be mixed or blended before use. Arrangement of the spray nozzles needs to be adjustable to provide maximum seeding at the laser probe volume.

  8. Nutritional value OF Bottle Gourd ( Lagenaria siceraria ) Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whole seeds, dehulled seeds and seed coats of bottle gourd seed (Lagenaria siceraria) were analysed for their proximate, amino acids and mineral compositions. The results of the analysis showed that, whole seed has highest content of moisture (17.5 0.21%) and ash (5.80 0.83%) while dehulled had highest amount ...

  9. Development of combinatorial chemistry methods for coatings: high-throughput adhesion evaluation and scale-up of combinatorial leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potyrailo, Radislav A; Chisholm, Bret J; Morris, William G; Cawse, James N; Flanagan, William P; Hassib, Lamyaa; Molaison, Chris A; Ezbiansky, Karin; Medford, George; Reitz, Hariklia

    2003-01-01

    Coupling of combinatorial chemistry methods with high-throughput (HT) performance testing and measurements of resulting properties has provided a powerful set of tools for the 10-fold accelerated discovery of new high-performance coating materials for automotive applications. Our approach replaces labor-intensive steps with automated systems for evaluation of adhesion of 8 x 6 arrays of coating elements that are discretely deposited on a single 9 x 12 cm plastic substrate. Performance of coatings is evaluated with respect to their resistance to adhesion loss, because this parameter is one of the primary considerations in end-use automotive applications. Our HT adhesion evaluation provides previously unavailable capabilities of high speed and reproducibility of testing by using a robotic automation, an expanded range of types of tested coatings by using the coating tagging strategy, and an improved quantitation by using high signal-to-noise automatic imaging. Upon testing, the coatings undergo changes that are impossible to quantitatively predict using existing knowledge. Using our HT methodology, we have developed several coatings leads. These HT screening results for the best coating compositions have been validated on the traditional scales of coating formulation and adhesion loss testing. These validation results have confirmed the superb performance of combinatorially developed coatings over conventional coatings on the traditional scale.

  10. Development and morphology of the fruit and seed of the hemiparasite genus Jodina (Cervantesiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luján Luna

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The monotypic genus Jodina is endemic to central and southeastern South America, common in forests and scrubland environments. The fruit type in Jodina is controversial since it has been described at different stages of development. The main objective of this work was to analyze the morphology of the fruit of J. rhombifolia during its maturation to attain a consensus about its type. Also characteristics of seed development and anatomy were analyzed in detail. Material was processed according to conventional techniques for LM and SEM studies. The fruit of J. rhombifolia is a pseudodrupe since the ovary is half-inferior; the fleshy layer of the pericarp is constituted by an increase of the nectary disk whereas the stony layer is represented by the mesocarp. Participation of the nectary disk as part of the fruit wall has not been mentioned previously. The seed is “naked” —the integument disintegrates during development— and the resulting structure is a pyrene. The interpretations made by other authors on the fruit of Jodina are also discussed.

  11. Development of TiC coated wall materials for JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T.; Murakami, Y.; Obara, K.; Hiroki, S.; Nakamura, K.; Inagawa, K.

    1985-01-01

    Development of titanium carbide (TiC, 20 μm thick) coated wall materials has been carried out for JT-60. Application of TiC coatings onto molybdenum and Inconel 625 substrates requires a deposition temperature below 950 0 C and 600 0 C respectively, because recrystallization of molybdenum and age hardening of Inconel 625 occur above these temperatures. Through this process of coating we develop a new type plasma CVD(TP-CVD method) for molybdenum and a new type PVD(HCD-ARE method) for Inconel 625 which could successfully reduce the deposition temperature to 900 0 C and 500 0 C, respectively. The TiC coated wall samples were characterized by AES, ESCA, X-ray diffractometer, EPMA, SEM, metalography, tensile tests, thermal shock tests, and other techniques. As a result of the above measurements, it was demonstrated that the characteristics of those TiC coated walls satisfy the requirements arising from JT-60 operation conditions. (orig.)

  12. Design and operation of equipment used to develop remote coating capability for HTGR fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchomel, R.R.; Stinton, D.P.; Preston, M.K.; Heck, J.L.; Bolfing, B.J.; Lackey, W.J.

    1978-12-01

    Refabrication of HTGR fuels is a manufacturing process that consists of preparation of fuel kernels, application of multiple layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide, preparation of fuel rods, and assembly of fuel rods into fuel elements. All the equipment for refabrication of 233 U-containing fuel must be designed for completely remote operation and maintenance in hot-cell facilities. Equipment to remotely coated HTGR fuel particles has been designed and operated. Although not all of the equipment development needed for a fully remote coating system has been completed, significant progress has been made. The most important component of the coating furnace is the gas distributor, which must be simple, reliable, and easily maintainable. Techniques for loading and unloading the coater and handling microspheres have been developed. An engineering-scale system, currently in operation, is being used to verify the workability of these concepts. Coating crucible handling components are used to remove the crucible from the furnace, remove coated particles, and exchange the crucible, if necessary. After the batch of particles has been unloaded, it is transferred, weighed, and sampled. The components used in these processes have been tested to ensure that no particle breakage or holdup occurs. Tests of the particle handling system have been very encouraging because no major problems have been encountered. Instrumentation that controls the equipment performed very smoothly and reliably and can be operated remotely

  13. Interspecific variation in persistence of buried weed seeds follows trade-offs among physiological, chemical, and physical seed defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Adam S; Fu, Xianhui; Schutte, Brian J; Berhow, Mark A; Dalling, James W

    2016-10-01

    Soil seedbanks drive infestations of annual weeds, yet weed management focuses largely on seedling mortality. As weed seedbanks increasingly become reservoirs of herbicide resistance, species-specific seedbank management approaches will be essential to weed control. However, the development of seedbank management strategies can only develop from an understanding of how seed traits affect persistence.We quantified interspecific trade-offs among physiological, chemical, and physical traits of weed seeds and their persistence in the soil seedbank in a common garden study. Seeds of 11 annual weed species were buried in Savoy, IL, from 2007 through 2012. Seedling recruitment was measured weekly and seed viability measured annually. Seed physiological (dormancy), chemical (phenolic compound diversity and concentration; invertebrate toxicity), and physical traits (seed coat mass, thickness, and rupture resistance) were measured.Seed half-life in the soil ( t 0.5 ) showed strong interspecific variation ( F 10,30  = 15, p  central role of seed dormancy in controlling seed persistence.A quantitative comparison between our results and other published work indicated that weed seed dormancy and seedbank persistence are linked across diverse environments and agroecosystems. Moreover, among seedbank-forming early successional plant species, relative investment in chemical and physical seed defense varies with seedbank persistence. Synthesis and applications . Strong covariance among weed seed traits and persistence in the soil seedbank indicates potential for seedbank management practices tailored to specific weed species. In particular, species with high t 0.5 values tend to invest less in chemical defenses. This makes them highly vulnerable to physical harvest weed seed control strategies, with small amounts of damage resulting in their full decay.

  14. Changes in the composition of pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita moschata during development and maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petkova, Zh. Y.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the chemical and lipid composition of Cucurbita moschata seeds and seed oils at different stages of development were investigated. The oil content of the seeds at 30, 60 and 90 days after flowering was 10.7, 41.1, and 47.1%, respectively. The amount of proteins was 26.0, 35.9, and 38.2%. The contents of carbohydrates soluble in ethanol were 9.5, 1.8 and 1.3%. The starch and fiber percentage contents were 16.3, 6.8, 2.3 and 4.0, 6.9 and 10.0, respectively and the ash contents were 7.2, 4.7, and 4.5%. The total sterol percentages were found to be 2.0, 0.8 and 0.6 in the oils and 0.2, 0.3 and 0.3 in the seeds. The tocopherol contents were 2010, 512 and 527 mg·kg−1 in the oil, and 215, 210 and 250 mg·kg−1 in the seeds. The total phospholipid percentages were 8.7, 0.8 and 0.4 in the oils and 0.9, 0.3 and 0.2 in the seeds. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography and the major fatty acids in the oils at all stages of ripening were linoleic (40.8–50.2% followed by palmitic (21.5–25.9% and oleic (20.5–21.0%.Se determinaron los cambios en la composición química y en los lípidos de semillas de Cucurbita moschata así como en los aceites extraídos en diferentes etapas del desarrollo de las semillas. El cont