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Sample records for sedum alfredii hance

  1. Transcriptomic analysis of cadmium stress response in the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

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    Jun Gao

    Full Text Available The Sedum alfredii Hance hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE has the ability to hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd, as well as zinc (Zn and lead (Pb in above-ground tissues. Although many physiological studies have been conducted with these plants, the molecular mechanisms underlying their hyper-tolerance to heavy metals are largely unknown. Here we report on the generation of 9.4 gigabases of adaptor-trimmed raw sequences and the assembly of 57,162 transcript contigs in S. alfredii Hance (HE shoots by the combination of Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa deep sequencing technologies. We also have functionally annotated the transcriptome and analyzed the transcriptome changes upon Cd hyperaccumulation in S. alfredii Hance (HE shoots. There are 110 contigs and 123 contigs that were up-regulated (Fold Change ≥ 2.0 and down-regulated (Fold Change alfredii Hance (HE at q-value cutoff of 0.005, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR was employed to compare gene expression patterns between S. alfredii Hance (HE and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE. Our results demonstrated that several genes involved in cell wall modification, metal translocation and remobilization were more induced or constitutively expressed at higher levels in HE shoots than that in NHE shoots in response to Cd exposure. Together, our study provides large-scale expressed sequence information and genome-wide transcriptome profiling of Cd responses in S. alfredii Hance (HE shoots.

  2. [Enhanced Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals from Contaminated Soils Using Sedum alfredii Hance with Biodegradable Chelate GLDA].

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    Wei, Ze-bin; Chen, Xiao-hong; Wu, Qi-tang; Tan, Meng

    2015-05-01

    Chemically enhanced phytoextraction by hyperaccumulator has been proposed as an effective approach to remove heavy metals from contaminated soil. Pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of application of the biodegradable chelate GLDA (L glutamic acid N,N-diacetic acid) at different doses or the combination of GLDA with EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) or CIT (citric acid) on the uptake of Cd, Zn and Pb by Sedum alfredii Hance (a Zn and Cd hyperaccumulator). Experimental results showed that GLDA addition to soil significantly increased the concentrations of Cd and Zn in Sedum alfredii Hance and its Cd and Zn phytoextraction compared to the control. Additionally, GLDA at 2.5 mmol · kg(-1) resulted in the highest phytoextraction, being 2.5 and 2.6 folds of the control for Cd and Zn, respectively. However, the combined application of GLDA + EDTA (1:1) and GLDA + CIT (1 :1 and 1:3) at a total dose of 5 mmol · kg(-1) did not increase the phytoextraction of Zn and Cd, compared to the GLDA only treatment. Therefore, the biodegradable chelate GLDA could be regarded as a good chelate candidate for the phytoextraction of heavy metals of heavy metals from contaminated soils, particularly for Cd and Zn contaminated soils.

  3. A nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain enhances phytoextraction of heavy metals by the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

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    Zhang, Xincheng; Lin, Li; Chen, Mingyue; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Weidong; Chen, Bao; Yang, Xiaoe; An, Qianli

    2012-08-30

    Low biomass and shallow root systems limit the application of heavy metal phytoextraction by hyperaccumulators. Plant growth-promoting microbes may enhance hyperaccumulators'phytoextraction. A heavy metal-resistant fungus belonged to the Fusarium oxysporum complex was isolated from the Zn/Cd co-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance grown in a Pb/Zn mined area. This Fusarium fungus was not pathogenic to plants but promoted host growth. Hydroponic experiments showed that 500 μM Zn(2+) or 50 μM Cd(2+) combined with the fungus increased root length, branches, and surface areas, enhanced nutrient uptake and chlorophyll synthesis, leading to more vigorous hyperaccumulators with greater root systems. Soil experiments showed that the fungus increased root and shoot biomass and S. alfredii-mediated heavy metal availabilities, uptake, translocation or concentrations, and thus increased phytoextraction of Zn (144% and 44%), Cd (139% and 55%), Pb (84% and 85%) and Cu (63% and 77%) from the original Pb/Zn mined soil and a multi-metal contaminated paddy soil. Together, the nonpathogenic Fusarium fungus was able to increase S. alfredii root systems and function, metal availability and accumulation, plant biomass, and thus phytoextraction efficiency. This study showed a great application potential for culturable indigenous fungi other than symbiotic mycorrhizas to enhance the phytoextraction by hyperaccumulators. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Effects of Different Kinds of Organic Materials on Soil Heavy Metal Phytoremediation Efficiency by Sedum alfredii Hance].

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    Yao, Gui-hua; Xu, Hai-zhou; Zhu, Lin-gang; Ma, Jia-wei; Liu, Dan; Ye, Zheng-qian

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of clean organic materials i. e., biogas residue (BR), mushroom residue (MR), and bamboo shell (BS) on phytoextraction remediation of two heavy metal contaminated soils (collected from Wenzhou and Fuyang, which referred to "Wenzhou soil" and "Fuyang soil", respectively.) using a cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. The results indicated that the effects of organic materials on availabilities of soil heavy metals were different due to different kinds of heavy metals, organic materials, and the application rates of the organic materials. Addition with 5% BR showed the greatest activation to copper (Cu), Zn in Wenzhou soil, and in Fuyang soil 1% BS had the highest activation for Cu, Zn, lead ( Ph) and Cd. Growth of shoot biomass of Sedum alfredii Hance increased with the addition rate of organic materials, and the plant dry weights were increased by 23.7%-93.0%. In Wenzhou soil, only 1% BS treatment had the best effect on Cd uptake and accumulation in shoots of Sedum alfredii Hance, increased by 22.6%, while other treatments were inferior to the control. For Zn, MR treatments were inferior to the control, while other treafments were superior to the control, of which 5% BR, 1% BS and 5% BS exceeded the control by 39. 6%, 32.6% and 23.8%, respectively. In Fuyang soil, for Cd, the treatment effects of 5% BS, 1% BR and 5% BR were the greatest, of which Cd accumulation in shoots exceeded the control by 12.9%, 12.8% and 6.2%, respectively, while Cd accumulations in shoots in all other treatments were less than that of control. For Zn, the treatments of adding organic materials promoted Zn accumulation in shoots of Sedum alfredii Hance, and the best treatments were as follows: 5% BS. 5% BR and 5% MR, exceeded the control by 38.4%, 25.7% and 22.4%, respectively.

  5. Influence of EDTA on lead transportation and accumulation by Sedum alfredii Hance

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    Liu Dan [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Ministry of Education; Zhejiang Forestry College, Lin' an (China). School of Tourism and Health; Li Ting-Qiang; Yang Xiao-E; Islam, E.; Jin Xiao-Fen; Mahmood, Q. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Ministry of Education

    2007-09-15

    Hydroponics and pot experiments were conducted to study the effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on Pb transportation and accumulation by two contrasting ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance. In hydroponics experiments, the accumulating ecotype (AE) showed more ability to tolerate Pb toxicitycompared with the non-accumulating ecotype (NAE). When treated with equimolar mixtures of EDTA and Pb, maximum Pb accumulation occurred without any phytotoxicity symptoms. Pot experiments with Pb contents of 400 mg kg{sup -1} showed that 5 mm EDTA is the optimum dose for the phytoextraction of soils contaminated with relatively low Pb levels; in contrast, increasing EDTA addition resulted in increased Pb accumulation in the shoots of AE in soils with high Pb content (1200 mg kg{sup -1}). The post-harvest effects of EDTA on available Pb were strong compared with those without addition of EDTA (CK). Within the initial 7 days almost no differences of water-soluble Pb were noted in soils contaminated with both levels of Pb but after 2 weeks, water-soluble Pb started to decrease significantlycompared with before. Considering the toxicity and biodegradability of synthetic chelators, it can be concluded that the chelate-assisted technique is more suitable for soils contaminated with low Pb levels and to avoid environment risks; a suitable dose of chelators must be considered before application. (orig.)

  6. Effects of cadmium on ultrastructure and antioxidative defense system in hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xiaofen; Yang Xiaoe; Islam, Ejazul; Liu Dan; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2008-01-01

    Plant growth, ultrastructural and antioxidant adaptations and glutathione biosynthesis in Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype Sedum alfredii Hance (HE) countering high Cd environment were investigated and compared with its non Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Cadmium exposure resulted in significant ultrastructural changes in root meristem and leaf mesophyll cells of S. alfredii, but damage was more pronounced in NHE even when Cd concentrations were one-tenth of those applied to HE. Cadmium stress damaged chloroplasts causing imbalanced lamellae formation coupled with early leaf senescence. Histochemical results revealed that glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis inhibition led to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and superoxide radical (O 2 · - ) in HE but not in NHE. Differences were noted in both HE and NHE for catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities under various Cd stress levels. No relationship was found between antioxidative defense capacity including activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, GPX, APX and GR as well as ascorbic acid (AsA) contents and Cd tolerance in the two ecotypes of S. alfredii. The GSH biosynthesis induction in root and shoot exposed to elevated Cd conditions may be involved in Cd tolerance and hyperaccumulation in HE of S. alfredii H

  7. Comparison of synthetic chelators and low molecular weight organic acids in enhancing phytoextraction of heavy metals by two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance.

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    Liu, Dan; Islam, Ejazul; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiaoe; Jin, Xiaofen; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2008-05-01

    Lab scale and pot experiments were conducted to compare the effects of synthetic chelators and low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) on the phytoextraction of multi-contaminated soils by two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance. Through lab scale experiments, the treatment dosage of 5 and 10 mM for synthetic chelators and LMWOA, respectively, and the treatment time of 10 days were selected for pot experiment. In pot experiment, the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) was found more tolerant to the metal toxicity compared with the non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). EDTA for Pb, EDDS for Cu, and DTPA for Cu and Cd were found more effective to enhance heavy metal accumulation in the shoots of S. alfredii Hance. Compared with synthetic chelators, the phytoextraction ability of LMWOA was lesser. Considering the strong post-harvest effects of synthetic chelators, it is suggested that higher dosage of LMWOA could be practiced during phytoextraction, and some additional measures could also be taken to lower the potential environmental risks of synthetic chelators in the future studies.

  8. Distance-dependent varieties of microbial community structure and metabolic functions in the rhizosphere of Sedum alfredii Hance during phytoextraction of a cadmium-contaminated soil.

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    Yang, Wenhao; Zhang, Taoxiang; Lin, Sen; Ni, Wuzhong

    2017-06-01

    The recovery of microbial community and activities is crucial to the remediation of contaminated soils. Distance-dependent variations of microbial community composition and metabolic characteristics in the rhizospheric soil of hyperaccumulator during phytoextraction are poorly understood. A 12-month phytoextraction experiment with Sedum alfredii in a Cd-contaminated soil was conducted. A pre-stratified rhizobox was used for separating sub-layer rhizospheric (0-2, 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, 8-10 mm from the root mat)/bulk soils. Soil microbial structure and function were analyzed by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and MicroResp™ methods. The concentrations of total and specified PLFA biomarkers and the utilization rates for the 14 substrates (organic carbon) in the 0-2-mm sub-layer rhizospheric soil were significantly increased, as well as decreased with the increase in the distance from the root mat. Microbial structure measured by the ratios of different groups of PLFAs such as fungal/bacterial, monounsaturated/saturated, ratios of Gram-positive to Gram-negative (GP/GN) bacterial, and cyclopropyl/monoenoic precursors and 19:0 cyclo/18:1ω7c were significantly changed in the 0-2-mm soil. The PLFA contents and substrate utilization rates were negatively correlated with pH and total, acid-soluble, and reducible fractions of Cd, while positively correlated with labile carbon. The dynamics of microbial community were likely due to root exudates and Cd uptake by S. alfredii. This study revealed the stimulations and gradient changes of rhizosphere microbial community through phytoextraction, as reduced Cd concentration, pH, and increased labile carbons are due to the microbial community responses.

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance both absorption and stabilization of Cd by Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in a Cd-contaminated acidic soil.

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    Hu, Junli; Wu, Shengchun; Wu, Fuyong; Leung, Ho Man; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-10-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to compare the phytoextraction efficiencies of Cd by hyper-accumulating Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) and fast-growing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) from a Cd-contaminated (1.6 mg kg(-1)) acidic soil, and their responses to the inoculations of two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal strains, Glomus caledonium 90036 (Gc) and Glomus mosseae M47V (Gm). Ryegrass and stonecrop were harvested after growing for 9 and 27 wk, respectively. Without AM fungal inoculation, the weekly Cd extraction by stonecrop (8.0 μg pot(-1)) was 4.3 times higher than that by ryegrass (1.5 μg pot(-1)). Both Gc and Gm significantly increased (P soil acid phosphatase activities, and available P concentrations, and thereby plant P absorptions (except for Gm-inoculated ryegrass), shoot biomasses, and Cd absorptions (except for Gm-inoculated stonecrop), while only Gc-inoculated stonecrop significantly accelerated (P soil pH. The results suggested the potential application of hyper-accumulating Alfred stonecrop associated with AM fungi (notably Gc) for both extraction and stabilization of Cd in the in situ treatment of Cd-contaminated acidic soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancement of Cd phytoextraction by hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii using electrical field and organic amendments.

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    Xiao, Wendan; Li, Dan; Ye, Xuezhu; Xu, Haizhou; Yao, Guihua; Wang, Jingwen; Zhang, Qi; Hu, Jing; Gao, Na

    2017-02-01

    The combined use of organic amendment-assisted phytoextraction and electrokinetic remediation to decontaminate Cd-polluted soil was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. The plant species selected was the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. Prior to the pot experiment, the loamy soil was treated with 15 g kg -1 of pig manure compost, 10 g kg -1 of humic acid, or 5 mmol kg -1 of EDTA, and untreated soil without application of any amendment was the control. Two conditions were applied to each treatment: no voltage (without an electrical field) and a direct current (DC) electrical field (1 V cm -1 with switching polarity every day). Results indicated that Cd concentrations in S. alfredii were significantly (p phytoextraction by hyperaccumulator S. alfredii.

  11. Zinc and cadmium accumulation and tolerance in populations of Sedum alfredii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, D.M.; Shu, W.S.; Zhang, J.; Zou, H.L.; Lin, Z.; Ye, Z.H.; Wong, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the variation of Zn and Cd accumulation and tolerance of Sedum alfredii (a newly reported Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator), field surveys and hydroponic experiments were conducted among three populations of this species: two originating from old Pb/Zn mines in Zhejiang (ZJ) and Hunan (HN) Provinces and one from a 'clean' site in Guangdong (GD) Province, China. Under field conditions, up to 12,524 and 12,253 mg kg -1 Zn, and 1400 and 97 mg kg -1 Cd in shoots of ZJ and HN plants were recorded respectively. Under hydroponic conditions, ZJ and HN plants accumulated significantly higher Zn and Cd in their leaves and stems, and possessed significantly higher Zn and Cd tolerance than GD plants. Among the two contaminated populations, ZJ plants showed higher Cd tolerance and accumulation (in leaves) than HN plants. The present results indicate that significant differences in Zn and Cd accumulation and tolerance exist in populations of S. alfredii. - Marked variation of Zn and Cd tolerance and accumulation exist in populations of Sedum alfredii, a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator

  12. Uptake, sequestration and tolerance of cadmium at cellular levels in the hyperaccumulator plant species Sedum alfredii

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    Tian, Shengke; Xie, Ruohan; Wang, Haixin; Hu, Yan; Hou, Dandi; Liao, Xingcheng; Brown, Patrick H.; Yang, Hongxia; Lin, Xianyong; Labavitch, John M.; Lu, Lingli

    2017-04-01

    Sedum alfredii is one of a few plant species known to hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd). Uptake, localization, and tolerance of Cd at cellular levels in shoots were compared in hyperaccumulating (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating (NHE) ecotypes of Sedum alfredii. X-ray fluorescence images of Cd in stems and leaves showed only a slight Cd signal restricted within vascular bundles in the NHEs, while enhanced localization of Cd, with significant tissue- and age-dependent variations, was detected in HEs. In contrast to the vascular-enriched Cd in young stems, parenchyma cells in leaf mesophyll, stem pith and cortex tissues served as terminal storage sites for Cd sequestration in HEs. Kinetics of Cd transport into individual leaf protoplasts of the two ecotypes showed little difference in Cd accumulation. However, far more efficient storage of Cd in vacuoles was apparent in HEs. Subsequent analysis of cell viability and hydrogen peroxide levels suggested that HE protoplasts exhibited higher resistance to Cd than those of NHE protoplasts. These results suggest that efficient sequestration into vacuoles, as opposed to rapid transport into parenchyma cells, is a pivotal process in Cd accumulation and homeostasis in shoots of HE S. alfredii. This is in addition to its efficient root-to-shoot translocation of Cd.

  13. Pig manure vermicompost (PMVC) can improve phytoremediation of Cd and PAHs co-contaminated soil by Sedum alfredii

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    Purpose Main challenge of phytoremediation of co-contaminated soils is developing strategies for efficient and simultaneous removal of multiple pollutants. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the potential for enhanced phytoextraction of cadmium (Cd) by Sedum alfredii and dissipation of po...

  14. Heavy metal phytoextraction by Sedum alfredii is affected by continual clipping and phosphorus fertilization amendment.

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    Huang, Huagang; Li, Tingqiang; Gupta, D K; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiao-E; Ni, Bingnan; Li, Mao

    2012-01-01

    Improving the efficacy of phytoextraction is critical for its successful application in metal contaminated soils. Mineral nutrition affects plant growth and metal absorption and subsequently the accumulation of heavy metal through hyper-accumulator plants. This study assessed the effects of di-hydrogen phosphates (KH2PO4, Ca(H2PO4)2, NaH2PO4 and NH4H2PO4) application at three levels (22, 88 and 352 mg P/kg soil) on Sedum alfredii growth and metal uptake by three consecutive harvests on aged and Zn/Cd combined contaminated paddy soil. The addition of phosphates (P) significantly increased the amount of Zn taken up by S. alfredii due to increased shoot Zn concentration and dry matter yield (DMY) (P phytoextraction of Zn and Cd was observed in KH2PO4 and NH4H2PO4 treatment at 352 mg P/kg soil. The amount of Zn removed by phytoextraction increased in the order of 1st clipping < 2nd clipping < 3rd clipping, and for Cd extraction the order was 2nd clipping < 1st clipping < 3rd clipping. These results indicate that the application of P fertilizers coupled with multiple cuttings can enhance the removal of Zn and Cd from contaminated soils by S. alfredii, thus shortening the time needed for accomplishing remediation goals.

  15. The endophytic bacterium, Sphingomonas SaMR12, improves the potential for zinc phytoremediation by its host, Sedum alfredii.

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    Bao Chen

    Full Text Available The endophytic bacterium, Sphingomonas SaMR12, isolated from Sedum alfredii Hance, appears to increase plant biomass and zinc-extraction from contaminated soil; however, the mechanism by which this occurs is not clear. Here, the ability of SaMR12 to promote zinc extraction and its effects on root morphology and exudation were examined in hydroponics. Zinc treatment increased shoot biomass by 30 to 45%, and by a further 10 to 19% when combined with SaMR12 inoculation. Zinc treatment also increased zinc accumulation modestly and this too was enhanced with SaMR12. Both biomass and zinc levels increased in a dose-dependent manner with significant effects seen at 50 µM zinc and apparent saturation at 500 µM. Zinc and the endophyte also increased levels of auxin but not at 50 µM and zinc increased levels of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide but mainly at 500 µM. As for root morphology, SaMR12 increased root branching, the number of root tips, and surface area. Zinc and SaMR12 also increased the exudation of oxalic acid. For most assays the effects of the endophyte and zinc were additive, with the notable exception of SaMR12 strongly reducing the production of reactive oxygen species at 500 µM zinc. Taken together, these results suggest that the promotion of growth and zinc uptake by exposure to zinc and to SaMR12 are independent of reactive oxygen and do not involve increases in auxin.

  16. The variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under cadmium stress: metabonomics analysis.

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    Qing Luo

    Full Text Available Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under the stress of cadmium (Cd. S. alfredii was cultured for 4 days in the nutrient solution spiked with CdCl2 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 40, and 400 µM Cd after the pre-culture. The root exudates were collected and analyzed by GC-MS, and 62 compounds were identified. Of these compounds, the orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA showed that there were a distinct difference among the root exudates with different Cd treatments and 20 compounds resulting in this difference were found out. Changing tendencies in the relative content of these 20 compounds under the different Cd treatments were analyzed. These results indicated that trehalose, erythritol, naphthalene, d-pinitol and n-octacosane might be closely related to the Cd stabilization, phosphoric acid, tetradecanoic acid, oxalic acid, threonic acid and glycine could be attributed to the Cd mobilization, and mannitol, oleic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, fructose, octacosanol and ribitol could copy well with the Cd stress.

  17. The impact of EDTA on lead distribution and speciation in the accumulator Sedum alfredii by synchrotron X-ray investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Shengke; Lu Lingli; Yang Xiaoe; Huang Huagang; Brown, Patrick; Labavitch, John; Liao Haibing; He Zhenli

    2011-01-01

    The in vivo localization and speciation of lead (Pb) in tissues of the accumulator Sedum alfredii grown in EDTA-Pb and Pb(NO 3 ) 2 was studied by synchrotron X-ray investigation. The presence of EDTA-Pb in solution resulted in a significant reduction of Pb accumulation in S. alfredii. Lead was preferentially localized in the vascular bundles regardless of treatments but the intensities of Pb were lower in the plants treated with EDTA. Lead was predominantly presented as a Pb-cell wall complex in the plants regardless of its supply form. However, a relatively high proportion of Pb was observed as Pb-EDTA complex when the plant was treated with EDTA-Pb, but as a mixture of Pb 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , Pb-malic, and Pb-GSH when cultured with ionic Pb. These results suggest that EDTA does not increase the internal mobility of Pb, although the soluble Pb-EDTA complex could be transported and accumulated within the plants of S. alfredii. - Research highlights: → The plants of S. alfredii are less effective in taking up Pb from the EDTA-Pb medium. → Pb is mainly localized in the vascular bundles and probably as Pb-cell wall complex. → EDTA does not increase the internal mobility of Pb within the plants of S. alfredii. → The Pb-EDTA complex could be transported and accumulated within the plants. - The plants of S. alfredii are able to transport and accumulate the Pb-EDTA complex, but are less effective in taking up Pb from the EDTA-Pb medium.

  18. The impact of EDTA on lead distribution and speciation in the accumulator Sedum alfredii by synchrotron X-ray investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Shengke [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Lu Lingli, E-mail: linglilulu@gmail.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Yang Xiaoe, E-mail: xyang571@yahoo.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Huang Huagang [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Brown, Patrick; Labavitch, John [Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Liao Haibing [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); He Zhenli [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The in vivo localization and speciation of lead (Pb) in tissues of the accumulator Sedum alfredii grown in EDTA-Pb and Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} was studied by synchrotron X-ray investigation. The presence of EDTA-Pb in solution resulted in a significant reduction of Pb accumulation in S. alfredii. Lead was preferentially localized in the vascular bundles regardless of treatments but the intensities of Pb were lower in the plants treated with EDTA. Lead was predominantly presented as a Pb-cell wall complex in the plants regardless of its supply form. However, a relatively high proportion of Pb was observed as Pb-EDTA complex when the plant was treated with EDTA-Pb, but as a mixture of Pb{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, Pb-malic, and Pb-GSH when cultured with ionic Pb. These results suggest that EDTA does not increase the internal mobility of Pb, although the soluble Pb-EDTA complex could be transported and accumulated within the plants of S. alfredii. - Research highlights: > The plants of S. alfredii are less effective in taking up Pb from the EDTA-Pb medium. > Pb is mainly localized in the vascular bundles and probably as Pb-cell wall complex. > EDTA does not increase the internal mobility of Pb within the plants of S. alfredii. > The Pb-EDTA complex could be transported and accumulated within the plants. - The plants of S. alfredii are able to transport and accumulate the Pb-EDTA complex, but are less effective in taking up Pb from the EDTA-Pb medium.

  19. Phytoextraction of metals and rhizoremediation of PAHs in co-contaminated soil by co-planting of Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Huang, Huagang; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Li, Tingqiang; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe; Alva, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the potential for phytoextraction of heavy metals and rhizoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in co-contaminated soil by co-planting a cadmium/zinc (Cd/Zn) hyperaccumulator and lead (Pb) accumulator Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis). Co-planting with castor decreased the shoot biomass of S. alfredii as compared to that in monoculture. Cadmium concentration in S. alfredii shoot significantly decreased when grown with ryegrass or castor as compared to that in monoculture. However, no reduction of Zn or Pb concentration in S. alfredii shoot was detected in co-planting treatments. Total removal of either Cd, Zn, or Pb by plants was similar across S. alfredii monoculture or co-planting with ryegrass or castor, except enhanced Pb removal in S. alfredii and ryegrass co-planting treatment. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor significantly enhanced the pyrene and anthracene dissipation as compared to that in the bare soil or S. alfredii monoculture. This appears to be due to the increased soil microbial population and activities in both co-planting treatments. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor provides a promising strategy to mitigate both metal and PAH contaminants from co-contaminated soils.

  20. Unique Rhizosphere Micro-characteristics Facilitate Phytoextraction of Multiple Metals in Soil by the Hyperaccumulating Plant Sedum alfredii.

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    Hou, Dandi; Wang, Kai; Liu, Ting; Wang, Haixin; Lin, Zhi; Qian, Jie; Lu, Lingli; Tian, Shengke

    2017-05-16

    Understanding the strategies that the roots of hyperaccumulating plants use to extract heavy metals from soils is important for optimizing phytoremediation. The rhizosphere characteristics of Sedum alfredii, a hyperaccumulator, were investigated 6 months after it had been planted in weathered field soils contaminated with 5.8 μg of Cd g -1 , 1985.1 μg of Zn g -1 , 667.5 μg of Pb g -1 , and 698.8 μg of Cu g -1 . In contrast with the non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE), the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) of S. alfredii was more tolerant to the metals, and higher levels of Cd and Zn accumulated. The HE was characterized by a unique rhizosphere, including extensive root systems, a reduced soil pH, a higher metal bioavailability, and increased rhizomicrobial activity. The bioavailability of metals was significantly correlated with the HE's unique bacterial communities (P heavy metal phytoextraction.

  1. Interactive effects of Cd and PAHs on contaminants removal from co-contaminated soil planted with hyperaccumulator plant Sedum alfredii

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    Wang, Kai; Huang, Huagang; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiaoe [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). MOE Key Lab. of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health; Zhu, Zhiqiang [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). MOE Key Lab. of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health; Hainan Univ., Haikou (China). College of Agriculture; He, Zhenli [Florida Univ., Port Pierce, FL (United States). Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences; Alva, Ashok [US Department of Agriculture, Prosser, WA (United States). Agricultural Research Service

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Soil contamination by multiple organic and inorganic contaminants is common but its remediation by hyperaccumulator plants is rarely reported. The growth of a cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and removal of contaminants from Cd and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) co-contaminated soil were reported in this study. Materials and methods: Soil slightly contaminated by Cd (0.92 mg kg{sup -1} DW) was collected from a vegetable field in Hangzhou and was spiked with two levels (0 and 6 mg kg{sup -1} DW) of Cd and three levels (0, 25, and 150 mg kg{sup -1} DW) of phenanthrene (PHE) or pyrene (PYR). A pot experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using S. alfredii with unplanted controls for 60 days. Shoot and root biomass of plants, dehydrogenase activity (DHA), and microbial biomass carbon in the soil were measured. Concentrations of Cd and PAHs in the plant and soil were determined. Results and discussion: Elevated Cd level (6.38 mg kg{sup -1} DW) increased S. alfredii growth. The presence of PAHs decreased the stimulatory effects of Cd on plant biomass and Cd concentrations in shoots in Cd spiked soil, thus decreasing Cd phytoextraction efficiency. Cadmium removal by S. alfredii after 60 days of growth varied from 5.8% to 6.7% and from 5.7% to 9.6%, in Cd unspiked and spiked soils, respectively. Removal rate of PAHs in the soil was similar with or without the plants. Removal rate of PYR decreased at the elevated Cd level in the soil. This appears to be due to a decrease in soil microbial activity. This is confirmed by a decrease in DHA, which is a good indicator of soil microbial activity. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that S. alfredii could effectively extract Cd from Cd-contaminated soils in the presence of PHE or PYR; however, both PAHs exhibited negative effects on phytoextraction of Cd from Cd spiked soil (6.38 mg kg{sup -1} DW). S. alfredii is not suitable for remediation of PAHs. The effects of Cd and PAHs concentrations on the

  2. Dissolution of different zinc salts and zn uptake by Sedum alfredii and maize in mono- and co-cropping under hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng'ai; Wu, Qitang; Zeng, Shucai; Chen, Xian; Wei, Zebin; Long, Xinxian

    2013-09-01

    Previous soil pot and field experiments demonstrated that co-cropping the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii with maize increased Zn phytoextraction by S. alfredii and decreased Zn uptake by maize shoots. This hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate whether the facilitation of Zn phytoextraction by S. alfredii resulted from improved dissolution in this co-cropping system and its relation to root exudates. S. alfredii and maize were mono- and co-cropped (without a root barrier) in nutrient solution spiked with four Zn compounds, ZnS, ZnO, Zn3(PO4)2 and 5ZnO x 2CO3-4H2O (represented as ZnCO3) at 1000 mg/L Zn for 15 days without renewal of nutrient solution after pre-culture. The root exudates were collected under incomplete sterilization and analyzed. The results indicated that the difference in Zn salts had a greater influence on the Zn concentration in maize than for S. alfredii, varying from 210-2603 mg/kg for maize shoots and 6445-12476 mg/kg for S. alfredii in the same order: ZnCO3 > ZnO > Zn3(PO4)2 > ZnS. For the four kinds of Zn sources in this experiment, co-cropping with maize did not improve Zn phytoextraction by S. alfredii. In most cases, compared to co-cropped and mono-cropped maize, mono-cropped S. alfredii resulted in the highest Zn2+ concentration in the remaining nutrient solution, and also had a higher total concentration of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) and lower pH of root exudation. Root exudates did partly influence Zn hyperaccumulation in S. alfredii.

  3. Pig manure vermicompost (PMVC) can improve phytoremediation of Cd and PAHs co-contaminated soil by Sedum alfredii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Huagang; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiaoe [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health; Zhu, Zhiqiang [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health; Hainan Univ., Haikou (China). College of Agriculture; He, Zehnli [Florida Univ., Fort Pierce (United States). Indian River Research and Education Center; Alva, Ashok [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Prosser, WA (United States). Agricultural Research Service

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: A major challenge to phytoremediation of co-contaminated soils is developing strategies for efficient and simultaneous removal of multiple pollutants. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the potential for enhanced phytoextraction of cadmium (Cd) by Sedum alfredii and dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in co-contaminated soil by application of pig manure vermicompost (PMVC). Materials and methods: Soil contaminated by Cd (5.53 mg kg{sup -1} DW) was spiked with phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene together (250 mg kg{sup -1} DW for each PAH). A pot experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with four treatments: (1) soil without plants and PMVC (Control), (2) soil planted with S. alfredii (Plant), (3) soil amended with PMVC at 5 % (w/w) (PMVC), and (4) treatment 2 + 3 (Plant + PMVC). After 90 days, shoot and root biomass of plants, Cd concentrations in plant and soil, and PAH concentrations in soil were determined. Abundance of PAH degraders in soil, soil bacterial community structure and diversity, and soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass carbon were measured. Results and discussion: Application of PMVC to co-contaminated soil increased the shoot and root dry biomass of S. alfredii by 2.27- and 3.93-fold, respectively, and simultaneously increased Cd phytoextraction without inhibiting soil microbial population and enzyme activities. The highest dissipation rate of PAHs was observed in Plant + PMVC treatment. However, neither S. alfredii nor PMVC enhanced PAH dissipation when applied separately. Abundance of PAH degraders in soil was not significantly related to PAH dissipation rate. Plant + PMVC treatment significantly influenced the bacterial community structure. Enhanced PAH dissipation in the Plant + PMVC treatment could be due to the improvement of plant root growth, which may result in increased root exudates, and subsequently change bacterial community structure to be favorable for PAH dissipation. Conclusions: This

  4. Overexpressing the Sedum alfredii Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase Increased Resistance to Oxidative Stress in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD is a very important reactive oxygen species (ROS-scavenging enzyme. In this study, the functions of a Cu/Zn SOD gene (SaCu/Zn SOD, from Sedum alfredii, a cadmium (Cd/zinc/lead co-hyperaccumulator of the Crassulaceae, was characterized. The expression of SaCu/Zn SOD was induced by Cd stress. Compared with wild-type (WT plants, overexpression of SaCu/Zn SOD gene in transgenic Arabidopsis plants enhanced the antioxidative defense capacity, including SOD and peroxidase activities. Additionally, it reduced the damage associated with the overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and superoxide radicals (O2•-. The influence of Cd stress on ion flux across the root surface showed that overexpressing SaCu/Zn SOD in transgenic Arabidopsis plants has greater Cd uptake capacity existed in roots. A co-expression network based on microarray data showed possible oxidative regulation in Arabidopsis after Cd-induced oxidative stress, suggesting that SaCu/Zn SOD may participate in this network and enhance ROS-scavenging capability under Cd stress. Taken together, these results suggest that overexpressing SaCu/Zn SOD increased oxidative stress resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis and provide useful information for understanding the role of SaCu/Zn SOD in response to abiotic stress.

  5. Bioremediation of Cd-DDT co-contaminated soil using the Cd-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and DDT-degrading microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zhi-qiang [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); College of Agriculture, Hainan University, Renmin Road 58, Haikou 570228 (China); Yang, Xiao-e, E-mail: xyang@zju.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Kai; Huang, Hua-gang; Zhang, Xincheng [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Fang, Hua [Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Li, Ting-qiang [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Alva, A.K. [U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Prosser, WA (United States); He, Zhen-li [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Planting of S. alfredii is an effective technique for phytoextraction of Cd and DDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil inoculation with Pseudomonas sp. DDT-1 increases root biomass of S. alfredii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil inoculation with Pseudomonas sp. DDT-1 improves the removal efficiency of DDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The plant-microbe strategy is promising for remediation of Cd-DDT co-contaminated soil. - Abstract: The development of an integrated strategy for the remediation of soil co-contaminated by heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants is a major research priority for the decontamination of soil slated for use in agricultural production. The objective of this study was to develop a bioremediation strategy for fields co-contaminated with cadmium (Cd), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and its metabolites 1, 1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) and 1, 1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD) (DDT, DDE, and DDD are collectively called DDs) using an identified Cd-hyperaccumulator plant Sedum alfredii (SA) and DDT-degrading microbes (DDT-1). Initially, inoculation with DDT-1 was shown to increase SA root biomass in a pot experiment. When SA was applied together with DDT-1, the levels of Cd and DDs in the co-contaminated soil decreased by 32.1-40.3% and 33.9-37.6%, respectively, in a pot experiment over 18 months compared to 3.25% and 3.76% decreases in soil Cd and DDs, respectively, in unplanted, untreated controls. A subsequent field study (18-month duration) in which the levels of Cd and DDs decreased by 31.1% and 53.6%, respectively, confirmed the beneficial results of this approach. This study demonstrates that the integrated bioremediation strategy is effective for the remediation of Cd-DDs co-contaminated soils.

  6. Bioremediation of Cd-DDT co-contaminated soil using the Cd-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and DDT-degrading microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zhi-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e; Wang, Kai; Huang, Hua-gang; Zhang, Xincheng; Fang, Hua; Li, Ting-qiang; Alva, A.K.; He, Zhen-li

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Planting of S. alfredii is an effective technique for phytoextraction of Cd and DDs. ► Soil inoculation with Pseudomonas sp. DDT-1 increases root biomass of S. alfredii. ► Soil inoculation with Pseudomonas sp. DDT-1 improves the removal efficiency of DDs. ► The plant-microbe strategy is promising for remediation of Cd-DDT co-contaminated soil. - Abstract: The development of an integrated strategy for the remediation of soil co-contaminated by heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants is a major research priority for the decontamination of soil slated for use in agricultural production. The objective of this study was to develop a bioremediation strategy for fields co-contaminated with cadmium (Cd), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and its metabolites 1, 1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) and 1, 1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD) (DDT, DDE, and DDD are collectively called DDs) using an identified Cd-hyperaccumulator plant Sedum alfredii (SA) and DDT-degrading microbes (DDT-1). Initially, inoculation with DDT-1 was shown to increase SA root biomass in a pot experiment. When SA was applied together with DDT-1, the levels of Cd and DDs in the co-contaminated soil decreased by 32.1–40.3% and 33.9–37.6%, respectively, in a pot experiment over 18 months compared to 3.25% and 3.76% decreases in soil Cd and DDs, respectively, in unplanted, untreated controls. A subsequent field study (18-month duration) in which the levels of Cd and DDs decreased by 31.1% and 53.6%, respectively, confirmed the beneficial results of this approach. This study demonstrates that the integrated bioremediation strategy is effective for the remediation of Cd-DDs co-contaminated soils.

  7. Interaction between U and Th on their uptake, distribution, and toxicity in V S. alfredii based on the phytoremediation of U and Th.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhenling; Tang, Siqun; Zhang, Lu; Ma, Lijian; Ding, Songdong; Du, Liang; Zhang, Dong; Jin, Yongdong; Wang, Ruibing; Huang, Chao; Xia, Chuanqin

    2017-01-01

    Variant Sedum alfredii Hance (V S. alfredii) could simultaneously take up U and Th from water with the highest concentrations recorded as 1.84 × 10 4 and 6.72 × 10 3  mg/kg in the roots, respectively. Th stimulated U uptake by V S. alfredii roots at Th 10 (10 μM of Th), however, the opposite was observed at Th 100 (100 μM of Th). A similar result was found in the effect of U on the uptake of Th by V S. alfredii. Subcellular fractionation studies of V S. alfredii indicated that U and Th were mainly stored in cell wall fraction, and much less was found in organelle and soluble fractions. Chemical form examination results showed that water-soluble U and Th were the predominant chemical forms in this plant. Addition of the other radionuclide in aqueous solutions altered the concentration and percentage of U or Th in cell wall fraction and in water-soluble form, resulting in the change of the uptake capacity of U or Th by V S. alfredii roots. Comparing with single U or Th treatment, the plant cells revealed more swollen chloroplasts and enhanced thickening in cell walls under the U 100  + Th 100 treatment, as observed by TEM. Those results collectively displayed that V S. alfredii may be utilized as a potential plant to simultaneously remove U and Th from aqueous solutions (rhizofiltration).

  8. Flavonoid variation in Eurasian Sedum and Sempervivum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, J.F; 't Hart, H; Elema, E.T; Bolck, A

    Flavonoids from vegetative parts of 29 species of Eurasian Sedum, Sedum meyeri-johannis from central East Africa, 34 species of Sempervivum, and Jovibarba heuffelii have been identified after acid hydrolysis. Ten flavonoid aglycones were detected, i.e. kaempferol, herbacetin, sexangularetin,

  9. Hance_WestForkSmithRiver_flasher_location_data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This entry contains two files. The first file, "Hance_WFSR Flasher locations.xlxs", contains information describing the location of installed landmark 'flashers'...

  10. EPICUTICULAR WAX COMPOSITION OF SOME EUROPEAN SEDUM SPECIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEVENS, JF; THART, H; BOLCK, A; ZWAVING, JH; MALINGRE, TM

    Epicuticular waxes from 30 species of Sedum and 2 species of Sempervivoideae, i.e. Aeonium spathulatum and Sempervivum nevadense, have been analysed by GC and GC-MS. The Sedum taxa examined were S. acre, S. album, S. series Alpestria (13 species), S. anglicum, S. brevifolium, S. litoreum, S. lydium,

  11. Composition of the oil of Eupatorium stoechadosmum Hance from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Tam, Nguyen T.; Kruk, C.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The essential oil of Eupatorium stoechadosmum Hance from Vietnam was analyzed by GC/MS. The main constituents were found to be thymohydroquinone dimethyl ether (confirmed by 1H-NMR, 73.6%), and B-caryophyllene (8.9%), accounting e for more than 82% of the oil. Selina-4,11-diene (11.0%) was also

  12. Typification of the binomial Sedum boissierianum Hausskncht Crassulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Bârcă

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genus Sedum, described by Linne in 1753, a polyphyletic genus of flowering plants in the family Crassulaceae, was extensively studied both by scholars and succulents enthusiasts. Despite the great attention it has received over time, many binomials lack types and consistent taxonomic treatments. My currently undergoing process of the comprehensive revision of the genus Sedum in România and the Balkans called for the clarification of taxonomical status and typification of several basionyms described based on plants collected from the Balkans and the region around the Black Sea. Almost a century and a half ago, Haussknecht intensely studied flora of Near East and assigned several binomials to plants of the genus Sedum, some of which were neglected and forgotten although they represent interesting taxa. The binomial Sedum boissierianum Haussknecht first appeared in schedae as nomen nudum around 1892, for specimens originating from Near East, but was later validated by Froederstroem in 1932. Following extensive revision of the relevant literature and herbarium specimens, I located original material for this taxon in several herbaria in Europe (BUCF, LD, P, Z. I hereby designate the lectotype and isolectotypes for this basionym and furthermore provide pictures of the herbarium specimens and pinpoint on a map the original collections sites for the designated types.

  13. Sedum sarmentosum Bunge (Crassulaceae, a Newly Naturalized Herb in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mong-Huai Su

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedum sarmentosum Bunge (Crassulaceae, a newly naturalized fleshy herb in Taiwan, is reported here. The taxonomic description, line drawing, and photographs are provided. The population is colonized on Mt. Tatun, Yangmingshan National Park, north Taiwan. Since this species was reported being invasive, its impacts on the local ecosystem should be concerned.

  14. Hepatoprotective standardized EtOH–water extract from the seeds of Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Sen; Guo, Tiantian; Cheng, Ni; Liu, Qingchao; Zhang, Yunting; Bai, Lu; Zhang, Li; Cao, Wei; Ho, Chi-Tang; Bai, Naisheng

    2016-01-01

    Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance (Oleaceae), its stem barks are known as Cortex fraxini (?? q?n p?) listed in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Phytochemical study has indicated that methanol extracts from Qinpi has protective effect on acute liver injury. The present study investigates the hepatoprotective activity of EtOH?water extract from the seeds of F.?rhynchophylla Hance against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice. The EtOH?water extract significantly alleviated liver damage as indicate...

  15. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory kaempferol glycosides from Sedum dendroideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Melo, Giany O; Malvar, David do C; Vanderlinde, Frederico A; Rocha, Fabio F; Pires, Priscila Andrade; Costa, Elson A; de Matos, Lécia G; Kaiser, Carlos R; Costa, Sônia S

    2009-07-15

    To identify the compounds responsible for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects previously described for Sedum dendroideum, through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated through mouse acetic acid-induced writhing model. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed through croton oil-induced mouse ear oedema and carrageenan-induced peritonitis. The Sedum dendroideum juice afforded seven known flavonoids identified with basis on NMR data. The oral administration of the major kaempferol glycosides kaempferitrin [1] (17.29 micromol/kg), kaempferol 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside [2] (16.82 micromol/kg), kaempferol 3-O-neohesperidoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside [3] (13.50 micromol/kg) or alpha-rhamnoisorobin [5] (23.13 micromol/kg) inhibited by 47.3%, 25.7%, 60.2% and 58.0%, respectively, the acetic acid-induced nociception (indomethacin: 27.95 micromol/kg, p.o.; 68.9%). Flavonoids 1, 2, 3 or 5, at the same doses, reduced by 39.5%, 46.5%, 35.6% and 33.3%, respectively, the croton oil-induced oedema (dexamethasone: 5.09 micromol/kg, s.c.; 83.7%) and impaired leukocyte migration by 42.9%, 46.3%, 50.4% and 49.6%, respectively (dexamethasone: 5.09 micromol/kg, s.c.; 66.1%). Our findings show that the major kaempferol glycosides may account for the renowned medicinal use of Sedum dendroideum against pain and inflammatory troubles.

  16. Bioremediation of Cd-DDT co-contaminated soil using the Cd-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and DDT-degrading microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of an integrated strategy for the remediation of soil co-contaminated by heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants is a major research priority for the decontamination of soil slated for use in agricultural production. The objective of this study was to develop a bioremediation ...

  17. Evaluation of the antioxidant and endothelial protective effects of Lysimachia christinae Hance (Jin Qian Cao) extract fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ning-Hua; Ke, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Shan; Yang, Xiao-Song; Chen, Qing-Jie; Huang, Sheng-Tang; Liu, Chao

    2018-04-10

    Lysimachia christinae Hance is a traditional Chinese medicine with diuretic, detumescent, and detoxifying effects. Our aimed to optimize the extraction protocol to maximize the yield of flavonoids from Lysimachia christinae Hance, and evaluate the pharmacological activities of four fractions, namely, petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (NB), and aqueous (AQ) fractions, of the ethanolic extract of Lysimachia christinae Hance. The flavonoid monomers in the crude extract were characterized via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were used as markers for extract quality control and standardization. The total flavonoid, total phenolic, and total polysaccharide contents of each fraction were determined by spectrophotometry. Further, the in vitro free radical (diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals) scavenging activities, and antioxidant capacity in endothelial cells were evaluated for each fraction. After optimizing the extraction protocol to maximize the total flavonoid yield from L. christinae Hance, the NB fractions had the highest total flavonoid (39.4 ± 4.55 mg RE/g), total phenolic (41.1 ± 3.07 mg GAE/g) and total polysaccharide (168.1 ± 7.07 mg GE/g); In addition, the NB fraction of the ethanolic extract of L. christinae Hance reveal the strongest radical-scavenging activity, antioxidant activity and protective effects against H 2 O 2 -induced injury in HUVECs. Among the four fractions of L. christinae Hance, the NB fraction showed the most potent antioxidant and endothelial protective effects, which may be attributed to its high flavonoid, phenolic contents and optimal portfolio of different active ingredients of NB fractions of the ethanolic extract of L. christinae Hance. This study might improve our understanding of the pharmacological activities of L. christinae Hance, thereby facilitating its use in disease prevention and treatment.

  18. Hepatoprotective standardized EtOH-water extract from the seeds of Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sen; Guo, Tiantian; Cheng, Ni; Liu, Qingchao; Zhang, Yunting; Bai, Lu; Zhang, Li; Cao, Wei; Ho, Chi-Tang; Bai, Naisheng

    2017-04-01

    Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance (Oleaceae), its stem barks are known as Cortex fraxini ( qín pí) listed in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Phytochemical study has indicated that methanol extracts from Qinpi has protective effect on acute liver injury. The present study investigates the hepatoprotective activity of EtOH-water extract from the seeds of F. rhynchophylla Hance against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice. The EtOH-water extract significantly alleviated liver damage as indicated by the decreased levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and reduced the pathological tissue injury induced by CCl 4 . Quantitative analysis of seven major constituents ( 1-7 ) in EtOH-water extract (EWE) was developed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD). The current research indicates that the EWE from the seeds of F. rhynchophylla Hance decreased liver index, inhibited the increase of serum aminotransferase induced by CCl 4 , and decreased hepatic MDA content, SOD and GSH-Px activities. These results suggested that the pretreatment with EWE protected mice against CCl 4 -induced liver injuries. Based on the results, the EtOH-water extract from the seeds of F. rhynchophylla Hance is efficacious for prevention and treatment of CCl 4 -induced hepatic injury in mice. Secoiridoid and tyrosol glucosides might be the active ingredients responsible for the biological and pharmacological activities of hepatoprotection.

  19. Unique parallel radiations of high-mountainous species of the genus Sedum (Crassulaceae) on the continental island of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takuro; Yu, Chih-Chieh; Nakamura, Koh; Chung, Kuo-Fang; Yang, Qin-Er; Fu, Cheng-Xin; Qi, Zhe-Chen; Kokubugata, Goro

    2017-08-01

    We explored the temporal and spatial diversification of the plant genus Sedum L. (Crassulaceae) in Taiwan based on molecular analysis of nrITS and cpDNA sequences from East Asian Sedum members. Our phylogenetic and ancestral area reconstruction analysis showed that Taiwanese Sedum comprised two lineages that independently migrated from Japan and Eastern China. Furthermore, the genetic distances among species in these two clades were smaller than those of other East Asian Sedum clades, and the Taiwanese members of each clade occupy extremely varied habitats with similar niches in high-mountain regions. These data indicate that species diversification occurred in parallel in the two Taiwanese Sedum lineages, and that these parallel radiations could have occurred within the small continental island of Taiwan. Moreover, the estimated time of divergence for Taiwanese Sedum indicates that the two radiations might have been correlated to the formation of mountains in Taiwan during the early Pleistocene. We suggest that these parallel radiations may be attributable to the geographical dynamics of Taiwan and specific biological features of Sedum that allow them to adapt to new ecological niches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Portulaca psammotropha Hance (Portulacaceae, a Neglected Species in the Flora of Taiwan and the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Wen Chung

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A neglected species in the Flora of Taiwan and the Philippines (the Batan islets, Portulaca psammotropha Hance, is described and illustrated. Herein, Portulaca quadrifida var. formosana and P. insularis are treated as synonym of P. psammotropha. This species is a typical littoral plant that is scattered on coral sands and coral reef in the archipelago around SE China. It can be characterized by leaves alternate; leaf blade quite fleshy, oblong to obovate-oblong, 3-10 mm long, apex obtuse; petals 5, yellowish, ca. 3-5 mm long. The stamen number and stigma lobes of this species vary among the populations observed.

  1. Reaction of Sedum spurium „Purpurteppich” Exposed to Thermal and Hydric Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Zaharia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A cultivar of sedum was used in this experience. Stems were harvested from normally developed plants and were exposed to extreme conditions of temperature and draught.  Results show that the plants lost significant quantities of water by physiological processes from one day to another, their weight varying from 16.8 g to 47.9 g.

  2. Cornus kousa F. Buerger ex Hance subsp. kousa (Cornaceae, a New Record from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Chettri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new record of the dogwood tree (Cornus kousa F. Buerger ex Hance subsp. kousa (Cornaceae from the Eastern Himalayas in India. This record extends the known geographical distribution of C. kousa from China, Republic of South Korea and Japan to Eastern Himalayas of the Indian biome. With this report, the distribution of the subspecies kousa is also extended from Japan and Korea to India. The species was discovered from Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve (27°06'-28°05'N, 88°02'-88°47'E in the state of Sikkim in the Eastern Himalayas. This discovery modified the current distribution of C. kousa in the world.

  3. Comparison of MultiHance {sup trademark} and Gadovist {sup trademark} for cerebral MR perfusion imaging in healthy volunteers; Vergleich von MultiHance {sup trademark} und Gadovist {sup trademark} zur zerebralen MR-Perfusionsmessung bei gesunden Probanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essig, M.; LeHuu, M.; Huebener, M.; Kaick, G. van [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Abt. Radiologische Diagnostik und Therapie, Heidelberg (Germany); Lodemann, K.P. [Bracco-Byk, Gulden (Germany); Schoenberg, S.O. [Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Grosshadern (Germany)

    2002-11-01

    To evaluate the weakly protein interacting MR contrast agent MultiHance {sup trademark} and the one-molar agent Gadovist {sup trademark} for cerebral perfusion MR imaging, a randomized intraindividual study was conducted in 12 healthy male volunteers. Perfusion-MRI was performed with single and double dose of each contrast agent on a 1.5T MR system using a gradient-echo EPI sequence. The imaging parameters, slice positioning and contrast media application were standardized. For the quantitative assessment rCBV and rCBF measurements of gray and white matter were performed. Additionally, the percentage of signal drop and the full width half maximum (FWHM) of ROI signal time curves were quantified. In a qualitative analysis the image quality of the rCBV and rCBF maps were assessed.Single dosage of the used new contrast agents was sufficient to achieve high quality perfusion maps. The susceptibility effect, described by percentage of signal loss (Gadovist {sup trademark} : 29.4% vs. MultiHance {sup trademark} : 28.3%) and the FWHM (Gadovist {sup trademark} : 6.4 s vs. Multihance {sup trademark} : 7.0 s) were not different between the agents for single dose.The one molar MR contrast agent Gadovist {sup trademark} has no advantages over MultiHance {sup trademark}, a MR contrast agent with a higher relaxivity in perfusion MRI. Both agents allow the calculation of high quality perfusion maps at a dosage of 0.1 mmol/kg bw with physiologic absolute values for regional CBV and CBF. The susceptibility effect is comparable for both agents and stronger than with conventional MR contrast media. (orig.) [German] Zur Evaluierung des gering proteinbindenden MR-Kontrastmittels MultiHance {sup trademark} und des einmolaren MR-Kontrastmittels Gadovist {sup trademark} fuer die MR-Perfusionsmessung im Gehirn wurden in einer randomisierten, intraindividuellen Vergleichsstudie 12 gesunde maennliche Probanden untersucht. Die Perfusionsmessung wurde an einem 1,5-T-MRT mit einer T2

  4. Multicenter analysis of tolerance and clinical safety of the extracellular MR contrast agent gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance {sup registered}); Multizentrische Analyse der Vertraeglichkeit und klinischen Sicherheit des extrazellulaeren MR-Kontrastmittels Gadobenat-Dimeglumin (MultiHance {sup registered})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herborn, Christoph U.; Jaeger-Booth, I.; Goyen, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Medizinisches PraeventionsCentrum Hamburg (MPCH) (Germany); Lodemann, K.P. [R und D, Altana Pharma (Germany); Spinazzi, A. [Marketing, BRACCO Ltd (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: Retrospective analysis of the occurrence of adverse events and the diagnostic efficacy of a paramagnetic contrast agent with weak intermittent protein binding and high relaxivity. Materials end methods: Postmarketing surveillance studies for gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance, BRACCO Altana Pharma, Constance) were conducted in Germany between 1998 and 2006 and then retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, relevant comorbidities, and allergies were recorded. The safety and tolerability of MultiHance were logged on a standardized data sheet. Results: A total of 38568 patients were included in the study. 829 patients (2.1%) had a known intolerance against contrast media. The examined regions included the central nervous system, the liver, and the vascular bed. The injection rate with automated injectors (n = 10456) varied between 1.0 und 3.0 ml/sec in 86.5% of patients. Adverse events totaled 1.2%. 11 patients (0.03%) experienced serious adverse events. The most frequent findings were nausea, vomiting and a feeling of warmth. Conclusion: MultiHance is a safe and very well tolerated contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a profile and frequency of adverse events similar to other extracellular MR contrast materials. (orig.)

  5. Simultaneous determination by HPLC of quercetin and kaempferol in three Sedum medicinal plants harvested in different seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luyao; Mei, Qing; Wan, Dingrong

    2014-04-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method was established for the fast quantification of quercetin and kaempferol in three Sedum crude medicines: Sedi Herba (Sedum sarmentosum Bunge.), Sedi Linearis Herba (Sedum lineare Thunb.) and Sedi Emarginati Herba (Sedum emarginatum Migo.). The column used was a YMC-pack ODS-A (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm), the mobile phase was a solution of methanol-0.4% phosphoric acid (47:53) with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min at 35°C and the detection wavelength was 360 nm. The calibration curves for quercetin and kaempferol were linear over the range of 0.01-0.62 µg for quercetin and 0.02-0.78 µg for kaempferol, and the average recoveries were 99.72% [relative standard deviation (RSD): 1.63% and 99.50% (RSD: 1.16%), respectively]. In conclusion, the method established in this paper is accurate and repeatable. It can be used for the determination of quercetin and kaempferol, controlling the quality of the three crude drugs. Furthermore, the experimental data showed that the best harvest season for the three Sedum medicinal species should be the full-bloom period between the end of April and the beginning of May.

  6. Multicenter analysis of tolerance and clinical safety of the extracellular MR contrast agent gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance registered)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herborn, Christoph U.; Jaeger-Booth, I.; Goyen, M.; Lodemann, K.P.; Spinazzi, A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Retrospective analysis of the occurrence of adverse events and the diagnostic efficacy of a paramagnetic contrast agent with weak intermittent protein binding and high relaxivity. Materials end methods: Postmarketing surveillance studies for gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance, BRACCO Altana Pharma, Constance) were conducted in Germany between 1998 and 2006 and then retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, relevant comorbidities, and allergies were recorded. The safety and tolerability of MultiHance were logged on a standardized data sheet. Results: A total of 38568 patients were included in the study. 829 patients (2.1%) had a known intolerance against contrast media. The examined regions included the central nervous system, the liver, and the vascular bed. The injection rate with automated injectors (n = 10456) varied between 1.0 und 3.0 ml/sec in 86.5% of patients. Adverse events totaled 1.2%. 11 patients (0.03%) experienced serious adverse events. The most frequent findings were nausea, vomiting and a feeling of warmth. Conclusion: MultiHance is a safe and very well tolerated contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a profile and frequency of adverse events similar to other extracellular MR contrast materials. (orig.)

  7. Morphological, Micoscopical Studies and Elemental analysis of Polygonum Chinese L. and Rhoeo discolor Hance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe Moe Lwin

    2008-03-01

    In the present study, two selected medicinal plants, namely Polygonum chinense L. (Mahaga-Kyansit) and Rhoeo discolor Hance. (Mi-gwin-gamon) are collected from Dawei District. In this paper, the outstanding features of selected plants, microscopical characters and elemental analysis of these leaves are also presented.In morphological studies of Mahaga-kyansit, herbs, swollen at nodes, black-coloured patches present at central portion of leaf blade, ochreate stipules. The inflorescences are terminally corymbose. The ovary trigonous-ovoid, stigma trifixed. In microscopical studies, stomata anomocytic. The cuticle is striation on both surface. In transverse section of midrib, the vascular bundles are collateral, about 8-10 numbers in basal, one was larger than the other bundles, 2numbers in middle regions and 1 bundle in apical regions. Calcium oxalate crystals (Rosette) are present in the parenchymatous cells. In the present study, the Migwin-gamon are rosette-forming succulent herbs. The leaves are crowded, upright, the upper surface green, the lower surface rich reddish-purple. The inflorescences are axillary, boat-shaped. Flowers involucres bracts. The androecium are stamens 6, often clothed wIth moniliform hairs, anthers often with and expanded or variously modified connective. The gynaecium are carpel 3,, trilocular, stigma capitate. In the microscopical studies, the leaves are isobilateral leaf. The stomata are tetracytic type. Lower epidermis cells larger than the upper one and stoma in the lower epidermis. Crystal of tetragonal system form (Prism) present in the mesophyll cells.

  8. Analysis of the essential oils of Alpiniae Officinarum Hance in different extraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y.; Lin, L. J.; Huang, X. B.; Li, J. H.

    2017-09-01

    It was developed for the analysis of the essential oils of Alpiniae Officinarum Hance extracted by steam distillation (SD), ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction (UAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) via gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with retention index (RI) method. There were multiple volatile components of the oils extracted by the three above-mention methods respectively identified; meanwhile, each one was quantified by area normalization method. The results indicated that the content of 1,8-Cineole, the index constituent, by SD was similar as SFE, and higher than UAE. Although UAE was less time consuming and consumed less energy, the oil quality was poorer due to the use of organic solvents was hard to degrade. In addition, some constituents could be obtained by SFE but could not by SD. In conclusion, essential oil of different extraction methods from the same batch of materials had been proved broadly similarly, however, there were some differences in composition and component ratio. Therefore, development and utilization of different extraction methods must be selected according to the functional requirements of products.

  9. A review on the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Alpinia officinarum Hance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Ibrahim Babangida; Malami, Ibrahim; Yahaya, Yakubu; Sule, Sahabi Manga

    2018-05-25

    Alpinia officinarum Hance is a perennial plant that has been traditionally used for many decades to treat several ailments including inflammation, pain, stomach-ache, cold, amongst others. Pharmacological studies over the years have demonstrated remarkable bioactivities that could be further explored for development of new therapeutic agents against various ailments. The paper critically reviewed the ethno-medicinal uses, pharmacology, and phytochemistry of A. officinarum. Keywords including A. officinarum and its synonyms were searched using electronic databases including ISI web of knowledge, Science direct, Scopus, PubMed, Google scholar and relevant database for Masters and Doctoral theses. A. officinarum is prepared in Asia, Turkey, Morocco and Iran as a decoction, infusion or juice as a single preparation or in combination with other herbs, food or drinks for the treatment of general health problems including cold, inflammation, digestive disorders, etc. Pharmacological studies revealed the potent in vitro and in vivo bioactivities of various parts of A. officinarum that include anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity, homeostasis, lipid regulation, antioxidant, antiviral, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, etc. Over 90 phytochemical constituents have been identified and isolated from A. officinarum comprising vastly of phenolic compounds especially diarylheptanoids isolated from the rhizome and considered the most active bioactive components. In vitro and in vivo studies have confirmed the potency of A. officinarum. However, further studies are required to establish the mechanisms mediating its bioactivities in relation to the medicinal uses as well as investigating any potential toxicity for future clinical studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Continuous remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by co-cropping system enhanced with chelator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ze-Bin; Guo, Xiao-Fang; Wu, Qi-Tang; Long, Xin-Xian

    2014-11-01

    In order to elucidate the continuous effectiveness of co-cropping system coupling with chelator enhancement in remediating heavy metal contaminated soils and its environmental risk towards underground water, soil lysimeter (0.9 m x 0.9 m x 0.9 m) experiments were conducted using a paddy soil affected by Pb and Zn mining in Lechang district of Guangdong Province, 7 successive crops were conducted for about 2.5 years. The treatments included mono-crop of Sedum alfredii Hance (Zn and Cd hyperaccumulator), mono-crop of corn (Zea mays, cv. Yunshi-5, a low-accumulating cultivar), co-crop of S. alfredii and corn, and co-crop + MC (Mixture of Chelators, comprised of citric acid, monosodium glutamate waste liquid, EDTA and KCI with molar ratio of 10: 1:2:3 at the concentration of 5 mmol x kg(-1) soil). The changes of heavy metal concentrations in plants, soil and underground water were monitored. Results showed that the co-cropping system was suitable only in spring-summer seasons and significantly increased Zn and Cd phytoextraction. In autumn-winter seasons, the growth of S. alfredii and its phytoextraction of Zn and Cd were reduced by co-cropping and MC application. In total, the mono-crops of S. alfredii recorded a highest phytoextraction of Zn and Cd. However, the greatest reduction of soil Zn, Cd and Pb was observed with the co-crop + MC treatment, the reduction rates were 28%, 50%, and 22%, respectively, relative to the initial soil metal content. The reduction of this treatment was mainly attributed to the downwards leaching of metals to the subsoil caused by MC application. The continuous monitoring of leachates during 2. 5 year's experiment also revealed that the addition of MC increased heavy metal concentrations in the leaching water, but they did not significantly exceed the III grade limits of the underground water standard of China.

  11. The leaf surface strucure of the species from the subgenus Sedum of the genus Sedum L. (Crassulaceae DC. from the protected soil collections of A.V. Fomin Botanical Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola V. Yatsenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available By means of light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM the structure of leaf ’s epidermis of 8 species of genus SedumL. was investigated. A number of common (amphistomatics, anisocytic type of stomatal complex, strum cuticle and different signs have been revealed in the structure of the leaf ’s tissue. The results acquired on the basis of micromorphology of a leaf ’s epidermis can be used in the taxonomy of the investigated Sedumspecies.

  12. Lead uptake, tolerance, and accumulation exhibited by the plants Urtica dioica and Sedum spectabile in contaminated soil without additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Milena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Urtica dioica and Sedum spectabile collected from plants growing at uncontaminated sites were transplanted in Pb-contaminated soil without additives (EDTA, HEDTA to identify their natural potential for hyper-tolerance and hyperaccumulation of lead. The total content of Pb in the plants was determined by atomic spectroscopy. Our research showed that the concentrated toxic levels of lead (Pb in Sedum spectabile and Urtica dioica were about 100 or more times higher than those of non-accumulator plants. It can be concluded that these plants have a high natural potential for hypertolerance and hyperaccumulation of lead, since they can hyperaccumulate it without addition of any chelating compounds (EDTA, HEDTA to enhance lead uptake. This makes them very promising plants for use in phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated sites.

  13. Computed tomography findings of hepatic veno-occlusive disease caused by Sedum aizoon with histopathological correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, H.; Chen, H. Z., E-mail: chenhz@enzemed.com; Zhu, J. S. [Department of Infectious Diseases, Taizhou Hospital Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai (China); Ruan, B. [State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Zhang, Z. Q. [Department of Infectious Disease, Xianju Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xianju (China); Lin, X.; Gan, M. F. [Department of Infectious Diseases, Taizhou Hospital Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai (China)

    2015-11-23

    This study investigated the value of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis and treatment of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (HVOD) caused by Sedum aizoon (SA). The clinical manifestations, treatment results, imaging findings, and histological findings of the liver were analyzed in 39 patients with HVOD caused by SA. Hepatomegaly, liver dysfunction, abdominal effusion, and geographic density changes on liver CT scans were found in all 39 patients. The pathological findings of histological liver examination included swelling and point-like necrosis of liver cells, significant expansion and congestion of the sinuses, endothelial swelling, and wall thickening with incomplete lumen occlusion of small liver vessels. CT geographic density changes were confirmed by histological examination of the liver in 18 patients. Sixteen patients with small amounts of ascites that started within 4 weeks of treatment recovered completely or significantly improved after symptomatic and supportive treatment. However, only 43.75% of the patients with larger amounts of ascites improved following symptomatic and supportive treatment. In conclusion, liver CT examination is a valuable, safe, and noninvasive tool for the diagnosis of HVOD caused by SA. In selected cases, liver CT examination may replace liver biopsy and histological analysis.

  14. Micropropagation and subsequent enrichment of carotenoids, fatty acids and tocopherol contents in Sedum dasyphyllum L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han Yong; Saini, Ramesh Kumar; Gopal, Judy; Keum, Young-Soo; Kim, Doo Hwan; Lee, Onew; Sivanesan, Iyyakkannu

    2017-10-01

    A promising micropropagation protocol has been systematically established and demonstrated for the enhanced production of carotenoids, tocopherol and fatty acids in shoot tissues of Sedum dasyphyllum. Shoot tip explants were grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Different concentrations of N6-benzyladenine (BA) or thidiazuron (TDZ) alone or in combination with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) were tested in order to stimulate multiple shoot production. Ideal shoot induction (100%) and maximized shoot numbers (36.4) were obtained on explants cultured on media incorporated with 2 µM BA and 1 µM NAA combinations. The in vitro-developed shoots rooted best on half-strength MS media incorporated with 2 µM indole 3-butyric acid. Plantlets were effectively acclimatized in the greenhouse with 100% survival rate. The composition and contents of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, tocopherol and fatty acids in shoot tissues of S. dasyphyllum were investigated using HPLC and GC-MS. The most abundant carotenoid in the shoot tissue was all-E-lutein (40.3-70.5 µg g-1 FW) followed by 9'-Z-neoxanthin (5.3-9.9 µg g-1 FW), all-E-violaxanthin (4.4-8.2 µg g-1 FW), and all-E-β-carotene (1.6-3.6 µg g-1 FW). The α-tocopherol contents of in vitro-raised shoots was 6.5-fold higher than shoots of greenhouse-grown plants. The primary fatty acids found in shoot tissues were α-linolenic acid (32.0-39.3%), linoleic acid (27.4-38.2%), palmitic acid (13.3-15.5%) and stearic acid (5.2-12.2%). In all, summarizing the findings, the micropropagated S. dasyphyllum showed significant enrichment of valuable bioactive carotenoids (92.3 µg g-1 FW), tocopherols (14.6 µg g-1 FW) and α-linolenic acid (39.3%) compared to their greenhouse counterparts. The protocol demonstrated here could be applied for the mass propagation and production of enhanced bioactive compounds from S. dasyphyllum with credibility.

  15. Features of morpho-anatomic structure of vegetative organs of Sedum antiquum Omelcz et Zaverucha (Crassulaceae DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentyna Berezkina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study results of biological features and morpho-anatomical structure of vegetative organs of Sedum antiquum Omelcz et Zaverucha (Crassulaceae DC. are given. S. antiquum is Eastern Carpathian-Opillia rare endemic species. It is listed in the Red Book of Ukraine and in the European Red List of Animals and Plants and is endangered in world scale. As a result of study of morpho-anatomic structure of leaves and stems of S. antiquum the anisocytic type of stomata and presence of cuticle have been determined. It was ascertained that structure of leaves is adapted to the accumulation of significant water reserves and its further gradual use. Ecological and phytocenotic conditions of growth are studied too. S. antiquum has been determined here as petrophyte, calcephyl, and succulent ephemer. This rare species need protection and control of population state in all natural habitats.

  16. Copper changes the yield and cadmium/zinc accumulation and cellular distribution in the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhu [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Longhua, E-mail: lhwu@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Hu, Pengjie [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo, Yongming [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Yantai 264003 (China); Christie, Peter [Agri-Environment Branch, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Low Cu has no significant effect on Sedum plumbizincicola plant growth and Cd and Zn uptake. • Plant held Cu in unactive areas and insoluble forms as de-toxification mechanisms. • Influence of Cu on Zn and Cd uptake and translocation were different. • Cu accumulation in leaf veins may restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves -- Abstract: Non-accumulated metals in mixed metal contaminated soils may affect hyperaccumulator growth and metal accumulation and thus remediation efficiency. Two hydroponics experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) on cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) accumulation by the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola, Cu toxicity and plant detoxification using chemical sequential extraction of metals, sub-cellular separation, micro synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. Compared with the control (0.31 μM Cu), 5–50 μM Cu had no significant effect on Cd/Zn accumulation, but Cu at 200 μM induced root cell plasmolysis and disordered chloroplast structure. The plants held Cu in the roots and cell walls and complexed Cu in insoluble forms as their main detoxification mechanisms. Exposure to 200 μM Cu for 4 days inhibited plant Cd uptake and translocation but did not affect Zn concentrations in roots and stems. Moreover, unloading of Cd and Zn from stem to leaf was restrained compared to control plants, perhaps due to Cu accumulation in leaf veins. Copper may thus interfere with root Cd uptake and restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves. Further investigation of how Cu affects plant metal uptake may help elucidate the Cd/Zn hyper-accumulating mechanisms of S. plumbizincicola.

  17. Copper changes the yield and cadmium/zinc accumulation and cellular distribution in the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Low Cu has no significant effect on Sedum plumbizincicola plant growth and Cd and Zn uptake. • Plant held Cu in unactive areas and insoluble forms as de-toxification mechanisms. • Influence of Cu on Zn and Cd uptake and translocation were different. • Cu accumulation in leaf veins may restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves -- Abstract: Non-accumulated metals in mixed metal contaminated soils may affect hyperaccumulator growth and metal accumulation and thus remediation efficiency. Two hydroponics experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) on cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) accumulation by the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola, Cu toxicity and plant detoxification using chemical sequential extraction of metals, sub-cellular separation, micro synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. Compared with the control (0.31 μM Cu), 5–50 μM Cu had no significant effect on Cd/Zn accumulation, but Cu at 200 μM induced root cell plasmolysis and disordered chloroplast structure. The plants held Cu in the roots and cell walls and complexed Cu in insoluble forms as their main detoxification mechanisms. Exposure to 200 μM Cu for 4 days inhibited plant Cd uptake and translocation but did not affect Zn concentrations in roots and stems. Moreover, unloading of Cd and Zn from stem to leaf was restrained compared to control plants, perhaps due to Cu accumulation in leaf veins. Copper may thus interfere with root Cd uptake and restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves. Further investigation of how Cu affects plant metal uptake may help elucidate the Cd/Zn hyper-accumulating mechanisms of S. plumbizincicola

  18. Long-term field phytoextraction of zinc/cadmium contaminated soil by Sedum plumbizincicola under different agronomic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lin; Li, Zhu; Wang, Jie; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Na; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In two long-term field experiments the zinc (Zn)/cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola (S. plumbizincicola) was examined to optimize the phytoextraction of metal contaminated soil by two agronomic strategies of intercropping with maize (Zea mays) and plant densities. Soil total Zn and Cd concentrations decreased markedly after long-term phytoextraction. But shoot biomass and Cd and Zn concentrations showed no significant difference with increasing remediation time. In the intercropping experiment the phytoremediation efficiency in the treatment "S. plumbizincicola intercropped with maize" was higher than in S. plumbizincicola monocropping, and Cd concentrations of corn were below the maximum national limit. In the plant density experiment the phytoremediation efficiency increased with increasing plant density and 440,000 plants ha(-1) gave the maximum rate. These results indicated that S. plumbizincicola at an appropriate planting density and intercropped with maize can achieve high remediation efficiency to contaminated soil without affecting the cereal crop productivity. This cropping system combines adequate agricultural production with soil heavy metal phytoextraction.

  19. Influence of Rapeseed Cake on Heavy Metal Uptake by a Subsequent Rice Crop After Phytoextraction Using Sedum plumbizincicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liqiang; Wu, Longhua; Li, Zhu; Yang, Bingfan; Yin, Bin; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A glasshouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of phytoextraction by Sedum plumbizincicola and application of rapeseed cake (RSC) on heavy metal accumulation by a subsequent rice (Oryza sativa L.) crop in a contaminated paddy soil collected from east China. After phytoextraction by S. plumbizincicola the soil and brown rice Cd concentrations effectively declined. After phytoextraction, RSC application reduced brown rice Cd concentrations in the subsequent rice crop to 0.23-0.28 mg kg(-1), almost down to the standard limit (0.2 mg kg(-1)). After phytoextraction and then application of RSC, the soil solution pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations increased during early stages of rice growth resulting directly and indirectly in lowering the bioavailability of the heavy metals. Thus the grain yield of the subsequent rice crop increased and the heavy metals in the brown rice declined significantly. In this contaminated acid soil, growing the hyperaccumulator S. plumbizincicola and rice in rotation together with RSC application may therefore be regarded as a viable strategy for safe grain production and bioremediation.

  20. Trichoderma reesei FS10-C enhances phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil by Sedum plumbizincicola and associated soil microbial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ying; Luo, Yang; Ma, Wenting; Zhu, Lingjia; Ren, Wenjie; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter; Li, Zhengao

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of Trichoderma reesei FS10-C on the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil by the hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola and on soil fertility. The Cd tolerance of T. reesei FS10-C was characterized and then a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the growth and Cd uptake of S. plumbizincicola with the addition of inoculation agents in the presence and absence of T. reesei FS10-C. The results indicated that FS10-C possessed high Cd resistance (up to 300 mg L-1). All inoculation agents investigated enhanced plant shoot biomass by 6–53% of fresh weight and 16–61% of dry weight and Cd uptake by the shoots by 10–53% compared with the control. All inoculation agents also played critical roles in increasing soil microbial biomass and microbial activities (such as biomass C, dehydrogenase activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis activity). Two inoculation agents accompanied by FS10-C were also superior to the inoculation agents, indicating that T. reesei FS10-C was effective in enhancing both Cd phytoremediation by S. plumbizincicola and soil fertility. Furthermore, solid fermentation powder of FS10-C showed the greatest capacity to enhance plant growth, Cd uptake, nutrient release, microbial biomass and activities, as indicated by its superior ability to promote colonization by Trichoderma. The solid fermentation powder of FS10-C might serve as a suitable inoculation agent for T. reesei FS10-C to enhance both the phytoremediation efficiency of Cd-contaminated soil and soil fertility. PMID:26113858

  1. Bioaugmentation with endophytic bacterium E6S homologous to Achromobacter piechaudii enhances metal rhizoaccumulation in host Sedum plumbizincicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eMa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of hyperaccumulator–endophyte symbiotic systems is a potential approach to improve phytoremediation efficiency, since some beneficial endophytic bacteria are able to detoxify heavy metals, alter metal solubility in soil and facilitate plant growth. The objective of this study was to isolate multi-metal resistant and plant beneficial endophytic bacteria and to evaluate their role in enhancing plant growth and metal accumulation/translocation. The metal resistant endophytic bacterial strain E6S was isolated from stems of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator plant Sedum plumbizincicola growing in metalliferous mine soils using Dworkin and Foster salts minimal agar medium with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC as the sole nitrogen source, and identified as homologous to Achromobacter piechaudii based on morphological and biochemical characteristics, partial 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis. Strain E6S showed high level of resistance to various metals (Cd, Zn and Pb. Besides utilizing ACC, strain E6S exhibited plant beneficial traits, such as solubilization of phosphate and production of indole-3-acetic acid. Inoculation with E6S significantly increased the bioavailability of Cd, Zn and Pb in soil. In addition, bacterial cells bound considerable amounts of metal ions in the following order: Zn ˃ Cd ˃ Pb. Inoculation of E6S significantly stimulated plant biomass, uptake and bioaccumulation of Cd, Zn and Pb. However, E6S greatly reduced the root to shoot translocation of Cd and Zn, indicating that bacterial inoculation assisted the host plant to uptake and store heavy metals in its root system. Inoculation with the endophytic bacterium E6S homologous to A. piechaudii can improve phytostabilization of metalliferous soils due to its effective ability to enhance in situ metal rhizoaccumulation in plants.

  2. Effects of 4-Week Intervention with Ulmus macrocarpa Hance Extract on Immune Function Biomarkers in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ra Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulmus macrocarpa extract has been shown to have immune-related effects in animals, but no studies have yet been performed in humans. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to determine the effect of short-term administration of Ulmus macrocarpa Hance extract (UME on immune function biomarkers and its safety in human subjects. Fifty-eight subjects were randomly assigned to a UME group or a placebo group. Subjects in the UME group were given 500 mg per day of UME orally for 4 weeks. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI of tumor necrotic factor-α increased only in the UME group at 1 week (P=0.027. The MFI of interleukin-2 decreased less significantly in the UME group than in the placebo group at 1 week (P=0.028. However, unfortunately, at 4 weeks, no intergroup differences were detected in MFIs of cytokine. In conclusion, administration of UME for 1 week increased serum TNF-α and sustains IL-2 in human, which suggests that UME increases Th1-related immune function in the short term in healthy people. However, additional studies are needed to confirm the results of this first-stage study and further trials are required to decide on optimal dosage and duration of administration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02414412.

  3. Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography in Combination with Chemometric Methods to Evaluate the Holistic Quality Consistency and Predict the Antioxidant Activity of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge Hance Injection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanping Yang

    Full Text Available In this paper, microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC fingerprints combined with quantification were successfully developed to monitor the holistic quality consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge. Hance Injection (ISHI. ISHI is a Chinese traditional patent medicine used for its anti-inflammatory and hemostatic effects. The effects of five crucial experimental variables on MEEKC were optimized by the central composite design. Under the optimized conditions, the MEEKC fingerprints of 28 ISHIs were developed. Quantitative determination of seven marker compounds was employed simultaneously, then 28 batches of samples from two manufacturers were clearly divided into two clusters by the principal component analysis. In fingerprint assessments, a systematic quantitative fingerprint method was established for the holistic quality consistency evaluation of ISHI from qualitative and quantitative perspectives, by which the qualities of 28 samples were well differentiated. In addition, the fingerprint-efficacy relationship between the fingerprints and the antioxidant activities was established utilizing orthogonal projection to latent structures, which provided important medicinal efficacy information for quality control. The present study offered a powerful and holistic approach to evaluating the quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations.

  4. A R2R3-MYB Gene LfMYB113 is Responsible for Autumn Leaf Coloration in Formosan sweet gum (Liquidambar formosana Hance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chi-Hsiang; Chu, Fang-Hua

    2017-03-01

    The regulation of autumn leaf coloration in deciduous trees has long been an enigma. Due to the fact that different coloration phenotypes may be considered when planting, more understanding of the regulation mechanism is needed. In this study, a R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene LfMYB113 was identified from a subtropical deciduous tree species Formosan sweet gum (Liquidambar formosana Hance). The expression patterns of LfMYB113 in four selected phenotypes were different and were positively correlated with leaf anthocyanin content. In a 35S::LfMYB113 transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plant, both the early and late genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway were shown to be up-regulated. It was also shown that LfMYB113 can activate the promoter sequence of LfDFR1 and LfDFR2. Transient overexpression of LfMYB113 in Nicotiana benthamiana showed strong anthocyanin accumulation and pre-senescence; the latter was confirmed by up-regulation of senescence-associated genes. In addition, the activation of proLfSGR::YFP by LfMYB113 in transient experiments indicated that LfMYB113 may have a role in regulation of Chl degradation. To our knowledge, this is the first time a R2R3-MYB transcription factor has been functionally identified as one of the key regulators of autumn leaf coloration and autumn leaf senescence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. [Effects of intercropping Sedum plumbizincicola in wheat growth season under wheat-rice rotation on the crops growth and their heavy metals uptake from different soil types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Shen, Li-bo; Cheng, Miao-miao; Wang, Song-feng; Wu, Long-hua; Zhou, Shou-biao; Luo, Yong-ming

    2011-10-01

    A pot experiment with heavy metals- contaminated black soil from Heilongjiang Province, alluvial soil from Henan Province, and paddy soil from Zhejiang Province was conducted to study the effects of intercropping Sedum plumbizincicola in wheat growth season under wheat (Triticum aestivum) - rice (Oryza sativa) rotation on the growth of the crops and their heavy metals uptake, aimed to explore the feasibility of simultaneous grain production and heavy metals-contaminated soil phytoremediation in main food crop production areas of this country. Comparing with monoculture T. aestivum, intercropping S. plumbizincicola increased the soil NaNO3 -extractable Zn and Cd significantly, with the increment of extractable Zn in test paddy soil, alluvial soil, and black soil being 55%, 32% and 110%, and that of extractable Cd in test paddy soil and black soil being 38% and 110%, respectively. The heavy metals concentration in T. aestivum shoots under intercropping S. plumbizincicola was 0.1-0.9 times higher than that under monoculture T. aestivum, but the intercropping had little effects on the rice growth and its heavy metals uptake. Though the Cd concentration in rice grain after S. plumbizincicola planting was still higher than 0.2 mg kg(-1) (the limit of Cd in food standard), it presented a decreasing trend, as compared with that after monoculture T. aestivum. Therefore, intercropping S. plumbizincicola in wheat growth season under wheat-rice rota- tion could benefit the phytoremediation of heavy metals-contaminated soil, and decrease the food-chain risk of rotated rice.

  6. [Effects of intercropping Sedum plumbizincicola and Apium graceolens on the soil chemical and microbiological properties under the contamination of zinc and cadmium from sewage sludge application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nai, Feng-Jiao; Wu, Long-Hua; Liu, Hong-Yan; Ren, Jing; Liu, Wu-Xing; Luo, Yong-Ming

    2013-05-01

    Taking the vegetable soil with zinc- and cadmium contamination from a long-term sewage sludge application as the object, a pot experiment was conducted to study the remediation effect of Sedum plumbizincicola and Apium graceolens under continuous monoculture and intercropping. With the remediation time increased, both S. plumbizincicola and A. graceolens under monoculture grew poorly, but S. plumbizincicola under intercropping grew well. Under intercropping, the soil organic matter, total N, extractable N, and total P contents decreased significantly while the soil extractable K content had a significant increase, the counts of soil bacteria and fungi increased by 7.9 and 18.4 times and 3.7 and 4.3 times, respectively, but the soil urease and catalase activities remained unchanged, as compared with those under A. graceolens and S. plumbizincicola monoculture. The BIOLOG ECO micro-plates also showed that the carbon sources utilization level and the functional diversity index of soil microbial communities were higher under intercropping than under monoculture, and the concentrations of soil zinc and cadmium under intercropping decreased by 5.8% and 50.0%, respectively, with the decrements being significantly higher than those under monoculture. It was suggested that soil microbial effect could be one of the important factors affecting plant growth.

  7. Effect of solar radiation (UV and visible) at high altitude on CAM-cycling and phenolic compound biosynthesis in Sedum album

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachereau, F.; Marigo, G.; Asta, J.

    1998-01-01

    The field experiment was carried out in order to compare the response of a CAM plant, Sedum album L., to solar radiation at a high altitude (2 100 m) with that at a low altitude location with respect to CAM and phenolic content. Treatment sites included (1) sun-exposed, low altitude, (2) sun-exposed, high altitude with different light treatments, including UV-B and UV-B + A screening, and (3) shade at high altitude. After a 70-day treatment period, CAM-cycling and phenolic compound content were analysed, and high altitude treatments were compared to the low altitude control. The sun-exposed low altitude control was characterized by CAM-cycling and a low phenolic compound content during the experiment. In plants transplanted to the high altitude, only the shaded group maintained a CAM-cycling and a phenolic compound content similar to those of the sun-exposed low altitude control. Samples under UV-B and UV-B + A filters showed similar responses, suggesting the absence of a specific UV-A radiation effect. The screening of UV-B or UV-B + A radiation allowed plants to partially maintain a CAM-cycling and induced a decrease in phenolic compound content. These responses under UV filters were, however, intermediate between those observed in sun-exposed and shaded groups. These results demonstrate a specific effect of radiation from both visible (400–800 nm) and UV-B (280–320 nm) bands on both CAM-cycling and phenolic biosynthesis in S. album L. plants. These light-dependent effects are discussed on a physiological basis and a possible interaction between CAM-cycling and phenolic metabolism is suggested. (author)

  8. Changes in metal availability, desorption kinetics and speciation in contaminated soils during repeated phytoextraction with the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhu; Jia, Mingyun; Wu, Longhua; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yongming

    2016-02-01

    Phytoextraction is one of the most promising technologies for the remediation of metal contaminated soils. Changes in soil metal availability during phytoremediation have direct effects on removal efficiency and can also illustrate the interactive mechanisms between hyperaccumulators and metal contaminated soils. In the present study the changes in metal availability, desorption kinetics and speciation in four metal-contaminated soils during repeated phytoextraction by the zinc/cadmium hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola (S. plumbizincicola) over three years were investigated by chemical extraction and the DGT-induced fluxes in soils (DIFS) model. The available metal fractions (i.e. metal in the soil solution extracted by CaCl2 and by EDTA) decreased greatly by >84% after phytoextraction in acid soils and the deceases were dramatic at the initial stages of phytoextraction. However, the decreases in metal extractable by CaCl2 and EDTA in calcareous soils were not significant or quite low. Large decreases in metal desorption rate constants evaluated by DIFS were found in calcareous soils. Sequential extraction indicated that the acid-soluble metal fraction was easily removed by S. plumbizincicola from acid soils but not from calcareous soils. Reducible and oxidisable metal fractions showed discernible decreases in acid and calcareous soils, indicating that S. plumbizincicola can mobilize non-labile metal for uptake but the residual metal cannot be removed. The results indicate that phytoextraction significantly decreases metal availability by reducing metal pool sizes and/or desorption rates and that S. plumbizincicola plays an important role in the mobilization of less active metal fractions during repeated phytoextraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in metal availability, desorption kinetics and speciation in contaminated soils during repeated phytoextraction with the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhu; Jia, Mingyun; Wu, Longhua; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    Phytoextraction is one of the most promising technologies for the remediation of metal contaminated soils. Changes in soil metal availability during phytoremediation have direct effects on removal efficiency and can also illustrate the interactive mechanisms between hyperaccumulators and metal contaminated soils. In the present study the changes in metal availability, desorption kinetics and speciation in four metal-contaminated soils during repeated phytoextraction by the zinc/cadmium hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola (S. plumbizincicola) over three years were investigated by chemical extraction and the DGT-induced fluxes in soils (DIFS) model. The available metal fractions (i.e. metal in the soil solution extracted by CaCl_2 and by EDTA) decreased greatly by >84% after phytoextraction in acid soils and the deceases were dramatic at the initial stages of phytoextraction. However, the decreases in metal extractable by CaCl_2 and EDTA in calcareous soils were not significant or quite low. Large decreases in metal desorption rate constants evaluated by DIFS were found in calcareous soils. Sequential extraction indicated that the acid-soluble metal fraction was easily removed by S. plumbizincicola from acid soils but not from calcareous soils. Reducible and oxidisable metal fractions showed discernible decreases in acid and calcareous soils, indicating that S. plumbizincicola can mobilize non-labile metal for uptake but the residual metal cannot be removed. The results indicate that phytoextraction significantly decreases metal availability by reducing metal pool sizes and/or desorption rates and that S. plumbizincicola plays an important role in the mobilization of less active metal fractions during repeated phytoextraction. - Highlights: • Metal availability, desorption, and speciation were tested during phytoextraction. • Metal availability showed an initial sharp decline then a slight change in acid soils. • Metal availability changed little during

  10. The hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola harbors metal-resistant endophytic bacteria that improve its phytoextraction capacity in multi-metal contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Oliveira, Rui S; Nai, Fengjiao; Rajkumar, Mani; Luo, Yongming; Rocha, Inês; Freitas, Helena

    2015-06-01

    Endophyte-assisted phytoremediation has recently been suggested as a successful approach for ecological restoration of metal contaminated soils, however little information is available on the influence of endophytic bacteria on the phytoextraction capacity of metal hyperaccumulating plants in multi-metal polluted soils. The aims of our study were to isolate and characterize metal-resistant and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) utilizing endophytic bacteria from tissues of the newly discovered Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola and to examine if these endophytic bacterial strains could improve the efficiency of phytoextraction of multi-metal contaminated soils. Among a collection of 42 metal resistant bacterial strains isolated from the tissues of S. plumbizincicola grown on Pb/Zn mine tailings, five plant growth promoting endophytic bacterial strains (PGPE) were selected due to their ability to promote plant growth and to utilize ACC as the sole nitrogen source. The five isolates were identified as Bacillus pumilus E2S2, Bacillus sp. E1S2, Bacillus sp. E4S1, Achromobacter sp. E4L5 and Stenotrophomonas sp. E1L and subsequent testing revealed that they all exhibited traits associated with plant growth promotion, such as production of indole-3-acetic acid and siderophores and solubilization of phosphorus. These five strains showed high resistance to heavy metals (Cd, Zn and Pb) and various antibiotics. Further, inoculation of these ACC utilizing strains significantly increased the concentrations of water extractable Cd and Zn in soil. Moreover, a pot experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of inoculating metal-resistant ACC utilizing strains on the growth of S. plumbizincicola and its uptake of Cd, Zn and Pb in multi-metal contaminated soils. Out of the five strains, B. pumilus E2S2 significantly increased root (146%) and shoot (17%) length, fresh (37%) and dry biomass (32%) of S. plumbizincicola as well as plant Cd uptake (43%), whereas

  11. Flavanones from Sedum sarmentosum Bunge Alleviate CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats by Targeting TGF-β1/TβR/Smad Pathway In Turn Inhibiting Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuancan Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study is to evaluate the therapeutic effects of flavanones from Sedum sarmentosum Bunge (FSSB on CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats and the underlying mechanisms of action. Methods. An experimental model of liver fibrosis was established by subcutaneous injection of rats with CCl4 (40% v/v, 3 ml/kg twice per week for six weeks. FSSB (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg was intragastrically administered once per day consecutively for five weeks. Results. Our results showed that FSSB significantly attenuated CCl4-induced liver fibrosis as evidenced by reducing the elevated levels of serum biochemical indexes and improving the histological changes, including decreasing the elevation in serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, hyaluronic acid (HA, and laminin (LN level, reducing infiltration of inflammatory cells and collagen fibers in liver tissue. In addition, compared to the model group, FSSB markedly downregulated the protein and mRNA expression of TGF-β1, TGF-β1 receptors I and II (TβRI and TβRII, Smad2, Smad3, and Vimentin in liver tissue, at the mean time upregulating the expression of Smad7 and E-cadherin. Conclusions. The results suggest that FSSB alleviated CCl4-induced liver fibrosis probably through inhibition of TGF-β/TβR/Smad pathway in turn inhibiting epithelial mesenchymal transition.

  12. Comparison of Antioxidant Capability after Isopropanol Salting-Out Pretreatment and n-Butanol Partition Extraction, and Identification and Evaluation of Antioxidants of Sedum formosanum N.E.Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jung-Hui; Lai, Wen-Hui; Lin, Shang-Dung; Lan, Cheng-Fong; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Liao, Ming-Yuan

    2016-04-19

    Crude extracts of Sedum formosanum N.E.Br. obtained from n-butanol partition (BP) and isopropanol salting-out pretreatment (ISP) were analyzed using antioxidation assays. The results indicated that the extract from ISP contained more potent antioxidants and thus exhibited more antioxidant activity in all the assays. The superoxide radical-scavenging activity and inhibition of nitric oxide radicals achieved after ISP were 3.65 and 2.18 times higher than those achieved through BP, respectively. Eight bioactive natural products were isolated and identified according to an analysis of antioxidation activity in different fractions of the ISP crude extract, namely three cyanophoric glycosides 1-3, three flavonoids 4-6 and two phenolic compounds (7 and a new compound 8). Among them, compounds 5 and 6 exhibit the highest antioxidation capability, and the ISP is suitable for obtaining compounds 5 and 6 using HPLC chromatograms. Therefore, ISP is an excellent extraction technology that can be used to extract antioxidant compounds in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.

  13. Phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil by co-cropping with chelator application and assessment of associated leaching risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z B; Guo, X F; Wu, Q T; Long, X X; Penn, C J

    2011-08-01

    Phytoextraction using hyperaccumulating plants is generally time-consuming and requires the cessation of agriculture. We coupled chelators and a co-cropping system to enhance phytoextraction rates, while allowing for agricultural production. An experiment on I m3 lysimeter beds was conducted with a co-cropping system consisting of the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and low-accumulating corn (Zea Mays, cv. Huidan-4), with addition ofa mixture of chelators (MC), to assess the efficiency of chelator enhanced co-crop phytoextraction and the leaching risk caused by the chelator. The results showed that the addition of MC promoted the growth of S. alfredii in the first crop (spring-summer season) and significantly increased the metal phytoextraction. The DTPA-extractable and total metal concentrations in the topsoil were also reduced more significantly with the addition of MC compared with the control treatments. However, mono-cropped S. alfredii without MC was more suitable for maximizing S. alfredii growth and therefore phytoextraction of Zn and Cd during the autumn-winter seasons. No adverse impact to groundwater due to MC application was observed during the experiments with three crops and three MC applications. But elevated total Cd and Pb concentrations among subsoils compared to the initial subsoil concentrations were found for the co-crop + MC treatment after the third crop.

  14. Phytoextraction of 55-year-old wastewater-irrigated soil in a Zn-Pb mine district: effect of plant species and chelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, YiPing; Yang, YuFen; Li, ZhiAn; Yang, Yang; Wang, JiaXi; Zhuang, Ping; Zou, Bi

    2017-07-16

    Untreated water from mining sites spreads heavy metal contamination. The present study assessed the phytoextraction performance of heavy metal-accumulating plants and the effects of chemical chelators on cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) removal from paddy fields that have been continuously irrigated with mining wastewater from mines for 55 years. Outdoor pot experiments showed that the total Pb, Zn, and Cd content was lower in the rhizosphere soil of Amaranthus hypochondriacus than in that of Sedum alfredii, Solanum nigrum, and Sorghum bicolor. The aboveground biomass (dry weight) and relative growth rate of A. hypochondriacus were significantly higher than that of the other three species (P phytoextraction effect.

  15. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of Liquidambar formosana Hance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inverted biological microscope (XSP-18CE,. Changfang, China). ... were quantified by Molecular Imaging Software. (Offic 600F ..... Chernoff AE, Granowitz EV, Shapiro L, Vannier E,. Lonnemann G ... and its reference compounds. Food. Chem.

  16. Cadmium Sorption Characteristics of Soil Amendments and its Relationship with the Cadmium Uptake by Hyperaccumulator and Normal Plants in Amended Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Wu, Qi-Tang; Lee, Charles C.C.; Li, Baoqin; Long, Xinxian

    2013-01-01

    In order to select appropriate amendments for cropping hyperaccumulator or normal plants on contaminated soils and establish the relationship between Cd sorption characteristics of soil amendments and their capacity to reduce Cd uptake by plants, batch sorption experiments with 11 different clay minerals and organic materials and a pot experiment with the same amendments were carried out. The pot experiment was conducted with Sedum alfredii and maize (Zea mays) in a co-cropping system. The results showed that the highest sorption amount was by montmorillonite at 40.82 mg/g, while mica was the lowest at only 1.83 mg/g. There was a significant negative correlation between the n value of Freundlich equation and Cd uptake by plants, and between the logarithm of the stability constant K of the Langmuir equation and plant uptake. Humic acids (HAs) and mushroom manure increased Cd uptake by S. alfredii, but not maize, thus they are suitable as soil amendments for the co-cropping S. alfredii and maize. The stability constant K in these cases was 0.14–0.16 L/mg and n values were 1.51–2.19. The alkaline zeolite and mica had the best fixation abilities and significantly decreased Cd uptake by the both plants, with K ≥ 1.49 L/mg and n ≥ 3.59. PMID:24912231

  17. Mudas de Jasminum mesnyi Hance produzidas com substratos à base de lodo de esgoto compostado Seedlings of Jasminum mesnyi Hance produced in substrates based on composted sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício B. Scheer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre as alternativas de disposição de resíduos urbanos está o reaproveitamento do lodo de esgoto no cultivo de plantas ornamentais e florestais. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o crescimento de Jasminum mesnyi (jasmim amarelo em substratos à base de lodo de esgoto aeróbio compostado com resíduos de podas de árvores trituradas, com diferentes níveis de fertilizante e comparar o desempenho em relação às mudas produzidas em substrato comercial à base de casca de Pinus compostada e vermiculita. Três níveis de fertilizante foram testados (0; 2,7 e 4 g dm-3 em três tipos de substrato: comercial e compostos à base de podas e lodo nas proporções 3:1 (v/v e 2:1 (v/v. Foram mensuradas as seguintes variáveis: somatória do comprimento dos ramos, altura e biomassa aérea seca (folhas e ramos. O crescimento obtido com o uso dos compostos à base de lodo de esgoto foi superior ao obtido com o substrato comercial para todos os níveis de fertilização. Os maiores crescimentos das mudas de jasmim amarelo foram observados com os compostos nas proporções de 3:1 e 2:1 (v/v associados à adição de 4 g dm-3 de fertilizante e com o composto na proporção de 2:1 com a adição de 2,7 g dm-3 de fertilizante.Use of sewage sludge is one of the alternatives for the disposal of urban waste. Sludge can be used for cultivation of ornamental and forest plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of composted substrates based on sewage sludge and crushed tree pruning for the production of Jasminum mesnyi seedlings (Yellow jasmine and to compare growth rates with a commercial substrate based on composted Pinus bark and vermiculite. Three levels of fertilization (0; 2.7 e 4 g dm-3 and three types of substrates were tested: commercial, and 3:1 (v/v and 2:1 (v/v composted substrate based on crushed tree pruning and sewage sludge. Sum of branch length, height and dried aerial biomass (leaves and branches were measured. Growth rates were higher on composted sewage sludge than on commercial substrate for all fertilization levels. Highest growth rates were observed in the 3:1 and 2:1 (v/v treatments plus 4 g dm-3 of fertilizer as well as in the 2:1 (v/v treatment plus 2.7 g dm-3 of fertilizer.

  18. Seedlings of Jasminum mesnyi Hance produced in substrates based on composted sewage sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Scheer, Maurício B.; Carneiro, Charles; Bressan, Otávio A.; Santos, Kaline G. dos

    2012-01-01

    Entre as alternativas de disposição de resíduos urbanos está o reaproveitamento do lodo de esgoto no cultivo de plantas ornamentais e florestais. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o crescimento de Jasminum mesnyi (jasmim amarelo) em substratos à base de lodo de esgoto aeróbio compostado com resíduos de podas de árvores trituradas, com diferentes níveis de fertilizante e comparar o desempenho em relação às mudas produzidas em substrato comercial à base de casca de Pinus compostada e ver...

  19. Mudas de Jasminum mesnyi Hance produzidas com substratos à base de lodo de esgoto compostado

    OpenAIRE

    Scheer,Maurício B.; Carneiro,Charles; Bressan,Otávio A.; Santos,Kaline G. dos

    2012-01-01

    Entre as alternativas de disposição de resíduos urbanos está o reaproveitamento do lodo de esgoto no cultivo de plantas ornamentais e florestais. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o crescimento de Jasminum mesnyi (jasmim amarelo) em substratos à base de lodo de esgoto aeróbio compostado com resíduos de podas de árvores trituradas, com diferentes níveis de fertilizante e comparar o desempenho em relação às mudas produzidas em substrato comercial à base de casca de Pinus compostada e ver...

  20. E-hancing the Master of Business Administration (MBA) Managerial Accounting Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabriskie, Fern H.; McNabb, David E.

    2007-01-01

    Professional education, including managerial accounting education, at independent colleges and universities faces two challenges: (a) meeting shifting demand with static or declining resources and (b) ensuring that graduates gain the technological knowledge and skills that they need to succeed in their future careers. For many schools, the…

  1. Effect of soil washing with only chelators or combining with ferric chloride on soil heavy metal removal and phytoavailability: Field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofang; Wei, Zebin; Wu, Qitang; Li, Chunping; Qian, Tianwei; Zheng, Wei

    2016-03-01

    In a field experiment on multi-metal contaminated soil, we investigated the efficiency of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu removal by only mixture of chelators (MC) or combining with FeCl3. After washing treatment, a co-cropping system was performed for heavy metals to be extracted by Sedum alfredii and to produce safe food from Zea mays. We analyzed the concentration of heavy metals in groundwater to evaluate the leashing risk of soil washing with FeCl3 and MC. Results showed that addition of FeCl3 was favorable to the removal of heavy metals in the topsoil. Metal leaching occurred mainly in rain season during the first co-cropping. The removal rates of Cd, Zn, Pb, and Cu in topsoil were 28%, 53%, 41%, and 21% with washing by FeCl3+MC after first harvest. The application of FeCl3 reduced the yield of S. alfredii and increased the metals concentration of Z. mays in first harvest. However, after amending soil, the metals concentration of Z. mays in FeCl3+MC treatment were similar to that only washing by MC. The grains and shoots of Z. mays were safe for use in feed production. Soil washing did not worsen groundwater contamination during the study period. But the concentration of Cd in groundwater was higher than the limit value of Standard concentrations for Groundwater IV. This study suggests that soil washing using FeCl3 and MC for the remediation of multi-metal contaminated soil is potential feasibility. However, the subsequent measure to improve the washed soil environment for planting crop is considered. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Repeated phytoextraction of four metal-contaminated soils using the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Zhang, Hao; Christie, Peter

    2014-06-01

    A cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator extracted metals from four contaminated soils over three years in a glasshouse experiment. Changes in plant metal uptake and soil total (aqua regia-extractable) and available metals were investigated. Plant Cd concentrations in a high-Cd acid soil and plant Zn concentrations in two acid soils decreased during repeated phytoextraction and were predicted by soil available metal concentrations. However, on repeated phytoextraction, plant Cd concentrations remained constant in lightly Cd-polluted acid soils, as did plant Cd and Zn in alkaline soils, although soil available metal concentrations decreased markedly. After phytoextraction acid soils showed much higher total metal removal efficiencies, indicating possible suitability of phytoextraction for acid soils. However, DGT-testing, which takes soil metal re-supply into consideration, showed substantial removal of available metal and distinct decreases in metal supply capacity in alkaline soils after phytoextraction, suggesting that a strategy based on lowering the bioavailable contaminant might be feasible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Repeated phytoextraction of four metal-contaminated soils using the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Zhang, Hao; Christie, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator extracted metals from four contaminated soils over three years in a glasshouse experiment. Changes in plant metal uptake and soil total (aqua regia-extractable) and available metals were investigated. Plant Cd concentrations in a high-Cd acid soil and plant Zn concentrations in two acid soils decreased during repeated phytoextraction and were predicted by soil available metal concentrations. However, on repeated phytoextraction, plant Cd concentrations remained constant in lightly Cd-polluted acid soils, as did plant Cd and Zn in alkaline soils, although soil available metal concentrations decreased markedly. After phytoextraction acid soils showed much higher total metal removal efficiencies, indicating possible suitability of phytoextraction for acid soils. However, DGT-testing, which takes soil metal re-supply into consideration, showed substantial removal of available metal and distinct decreases in metal supply capacity in alkaline soils after phytoextraction, suggesting that a strategy based on lowering the bioavailable contaminant might be feasible. - Highlights: • Plant shoot Cd decreased in high-Cd acid soil and also plant Zn did in two acid soils. • Plant shoot Cd remained constant in low-Cd acid soil and also plant Zn did in alkaline soils. • Acidic soils showed much higher total metal removal efficiency than the alkaline soils. - Acid soil has high total metal phytoremediation efficiency while a strategy based on stripping of the bioavailable contaminant might be feasible for alkaline soil phytoremediation

  4. Miconidin and miconidin methyl ether from Primula obconica Hance: new allergens in an old sensitizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2006-01-01

    . obconica. 12 primin-positive persons were patch tested with miconidin 0.01% petrolatum (pet.), miconidin in 96% ethanol incorporated into 0.01% pet., and miconidin methyl ether 1.0% pet. All persons were positive to miconidin 0.01% pet., with the strength of reactions very similar to those...

  5. Regeneración de Sedum praealtum A.DC (siempreviva vía organogénesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Miguel Bravo-Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dalbergia congestiflora Pittier (campincerán is used to make musical instruments in Michoacán (Mexico, so this specie is considered overexploited and at risk of extinction. Propagation studies of campincerán are scarce, but the factors that could affect the propagation by stem cuttings of this species are auxin exogenous concentration and position of the stem cuttings (apical, media and basal. The hypothesis tested is that a higher sprouting and rooting at concentrations between 1 and 10 ppm of indolbutyric acid (IBA and the basal stem cuttings are observed. Method: The stem cuttings of D. congestiflora were collected in Tacámbaro, Michoacán. The apical, middle and basal cuttings were placed in a rooting solution of 1, 5 and 10 ppm of IBA. The variables studied were the sprouting percentage, the mean number of sprouts and the mean length of the sprouts after 15, 45 and 75 days, while the percentage of rooting was evaluated after 150 days. Results: The sprouting percentage, mean number of sprouts and mean length of sprouts were higher in basal cuttings in relation to the apical and meddle cuttings. The rooting was observed only at basal cuttings with 10 ppm of IBA. Conclusion: The sprouting of cuttings was observed at low cocentrations of IBA and this is independent of position stem cuttings, but the rooting occurred only at 10 ppm of IBA.

  6. [HPLC characteristic fingerprints of sedi linearis herba and sedi herba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lan-Qing; Mei, Qing; Wan, Ding-Rong; Yang, Xin-Zhou; Qiao, Shu; Zhao, Yu-Dan

    2014-04-01

    To study HPLC characteristic fingerprint of Sedum lineare from different harvest periods, and to compare with its related species Sedum sarmentosum. The HPLC fingerprints of Sedum lineare from different collecting periods were established and compared with Sedum sarmentosum by the same detection method. Hyperin, isoquercitrin and astragaloside were identified from the HPLC fingerprint of Sedum lineare. The fingerprint of Sedum lineare growing in the same area but different environment were basically identical; while there were remarkable differences of Sedum lineare growing in the same place but from different harvest periods, with the area of most common peaks changing from little to great, and slightly different peak number. The HPLC fingerprint of the two Sedum species had four common peaks, but could be distinguished from each other. The optimal harvest period of these two species should be full-bloom stage. The established method can provide reference for identification and quality analysis of Sedum lineare.

  7. Antiproliferative activities of lesser galangal (Alpinia officinarum Hance Jam1), turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), and ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against acute monocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoregie, Samson N; Omoruyi, Felix O; Wright, Vincent F; Jones, Lemore; Zimba, Paul V

    2013-07-01

    Acute monocytic leukemia (AML M5 or AMoL) is one of the several types of leukemia that are still awaiting cures. The use of chemotherapy for cancer management can be harmful to normal cells in the vicinity of the target leukemia cells. This study assessed the potency of the extracts from lesser galangal, turmeric, and ginger against AML M5 to use the suitable fractions in neutraceuticals. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts from the leaves and rhizomes of lesser galangal and turmeric, and from the rhizomes only of ginger were examined for their antiproliferative activities against THP-1 AMoL cells in vitro. Lesser galangal leaf extracts in organic solvents of methanol, chloroform, and dichloromethane maintained distinctive antiproliferative activities over a 48-h period. The turmeric leaf and rhizome extracts and ginger rhizome extracts in methanol also showed distinctive anticancer activities. The lesser galangal leaf methanol extract was subsequently separated into 13, and then 18 fractions using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Fractions 9 and 16, respectively, showed the greatest antiproliferative activities. These results indicate that the use of plant extracts might be a safer approach to finding a lasting cure for AMoL. Further investigations will be required to establish the discriminatory tolerance of normal cells to these extracts, and to identify the compounds in these extracts that possess the antiproliferative activities.

  8. Safety and adverse effects during 24 hours after contrast-enhanced MRI with gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance {sup registered}) in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Guenther; Schuerholz, Hellmut; Buecker, Arno; Fries, Peter [Homburg University Hospital, Homburg, Saar (Germany); Kirchin, Miles A. [Bracco Imaging SpA, Milan (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    Gadolinium-based MR contrast agents have long been considered safe for routine diagnostic imaging. However, the advent of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) among certain patients with severe renal insufficiency has brought the issue of safety into question. Nowhere is safety of greater concern than among children who frequently require multiple contrast-enhanced MRI examinations over an extended period of time. To retrospectively evaluate the safety of gadobenate dimeglumine for contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI across a range of indications. Two hundred pediatric inpatients (age: 4 days to 15 years) underwent CE MRI as part of clinical routine. The children received a gadobenate dimeglumine dose of either 0.05 mmol/kg body weight (liver, abdominal imaging, musculoskeletal imaging, brain and other rare indications) or 0.1 mmol/kg bodyweight (cardiovascular imaging, MR-urography). Young (< 8 years) children with congenital heart disease were intubated and underwent MRA evaluation with controlled ventilation. Monitoring for adverse events was performed for at least 24 h after each gadobenate dimeglumine injection. Depending on clinical necessity, laboratory measurements and, in some cases, vital sign and ECG determinations were made before and after contrast injection. Safety was evaluated by age group, indication and dose administered. No clinically adverse events were reported among children who had one MRI scan only or among children who had several examinations. There were no changes in creatinine or bilirubin levels even in very young children. No adverse events were recorded during the first 24 h following administration of gadobenate dimeglumine in 200 children. (orig.)

  9. Isolation and Purification of Sesquiterpene Lactones from Ixeris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bunge) Hance by highspeed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Methods: I. sonchifolia was extracted with water and then loaded on a glass column (10 ~ 1500 cm containing 3000g D101 macroporous resin) where various ...

  10. Evaluation of parental percep- tion of childhood urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-10

    Jun 10, 2017 ... This underscores the need for a high level of awareness of the disorder ... hance parental health-seeking behaviour.13-15This will ..... diseases in children consistent with the World Kidney ..... -medication profile of dental.

  11. Litopenaeus vannamei

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... rate, healthy shrimp, better feed conversion ratio (FCR), and also reducing ... hancing the best growth, also they could benefit to their invertebrate host by ..... culture on L. vannamei in outdoor tanks with no water exchanging.

  12. Communication during Cultural Context need to be Learned During English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王计

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses the importance of cultural learning during English study. It is not only aim at some ways to en-hance cultural knowledge and also how the cultural context response influences the effective of communication.

  13. Systemic Insecticides Reduce Feeding, Survival and Fecundity of Adult Black Vine Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on a Variety of Ornamental Nursery Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of bioassays were conducted to test the systemic activity of clothianidin, chlorantraniliprole, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam against adult black vine weevils (Otiorhynchus sulcatus F.) on Taxus, Heuchera, Astilbe, Sedum, Euonymus, and Rhododendron grown in containers. The insecticides wer...

  14. DISTRIBUTION OF ALKALOIDS AND TANNINS IN THE CRASSULACEAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEVENS, JF; THART, H; VANHAM, CHJ; ELEMA, ET; VANDENENT, MMVX; WILDEBOER, M; ZWAVING, JH

    Alkaloid and tannin levels of 36 species of the Crassulaceae were compared. The taxa investigated were Crassula multicava, Echeveria venezuelensis, Pachyphytum compactum, Kalanchoe (two sop.), Bryophyllum daigremontianum, Sedum (23 spp.), Aeonium (four spp.) and Sempervivum (three spp.). Apart from

  15. Design and Development of Low P-Emission Substrate for the Protection of Urban Water Bodies Collecting Green Roof Runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Karczmarczyk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization leads to higher phosphorus (P concentration in urban catchments. Among different stormwater retention measures, green roofs are the least efficient in phosphorus retention. Moreover, much research has shown that green roofs act as sources of phosphorus, and they can emit P in significant loads. In this study low P emission green roof substrate was developed based on the proposed step by step procedure for the selection of materials including laboratory tests, column experiments, and the monitoring of the open air green roof model. Developed substrate is the mixture of crushed red brick (35% of volume, crushed limestone (20% of volume, and sand (45% of volume, and is characterized by a bulk density of 1.52 g/cm3, water permeability of 9 mm/min, water capacity of 24.6% of volume, and granulometric composition that meets the Landscaping and Landscape Development Research Society (FLL guidelines. Limestone was added to limit the potential P leaching from crushed red brick and vegetated mate consisted of Sedum album, Sedum acre, Sedum kamtschaticum, Sedum spurium, Sedum reflexum, Sedum sexangulare, Dianthus deltoides, Dianthus carthusianorum, and Thymus vulgaris. The open air model experiment was run for 319 days, from March 2015 to February 2016. The total water runoff from the green roof model amounted to 43.3% of runoff from the reference roof. The only one runoff event polluted with phosphorus was connected with the outflow of melted snow from an unfreezing green roof model.

  16. I~FA~TERIE VERSUS KORf)S V A~ f)ROFESSIO~ELE OFFISIERE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hance regimental esprit, individual interest and morale as well as, not least, collective and in- dividual flexibility of mind. 3. The advantages and benefits of regimental traditions and esprit could be further ex- tended within the army by: a. Inducting National Servicemen via their future regiments. Personnel would thus be.

  17. Strong enhancement of streaming current power by application of two phase flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Sherwood, John D.; Shui, Lingling; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2011-01-01

    We show that the performance of a streaming-potential based microfluidic energy conversion system can be strongly en-hanced by the use of two phase flow. In single-phase systems, the internal conduction current induced by the streaming poten-tial limits the output power, while in a two-phase system

  18. How can radio frequency identification technology impact nursing practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, Luanne; Wyld, David

    2014-12-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology can save nurses time, improve quality of care, en hance patient and staff safety, and decrease costs. However, without a better understanding of these systems and their benefits to patients and hospitals, nurses may be slower to recommend, implement, or adopt RFID technology into practice.

  19. Novel Therapeutic Targets to Treat Social Behavior Deficits in Autism and Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Nicholas , J.S., Brady, K.T., Carpenter, L.A., Hatcher, C.R., Meekins, K.A., Furlanetto, R.W., Charles, J.M., 2012. En- hanced cortisol response to...disorders. Cochrane DB Syst. Rev. 8, CD004677. Yang, C.J., Tan , H.P., Du, Y.J., 2014. The developmental disruptions of serotonin signaling may be

  20. Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hanced values needed to interpret the data at higher energies point towards the importance of strong-coupling effects. ... when all secondary particles have been created. For short times in the initial phase ... It is decisive for a proper representation of the available data for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at and beyond SPS.

  1. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    municator, one who can listen as well as talk. The joy one can derive from interacting with bright young minds, challenging and stimulating them, is indescribable. Combined with en- hanced financial remunerations, this sense of satisfaction more than anything else must make teaching a better career option. This issue of ...

  2. An overview of current non-nuclear radioactive waste management in the Nordic countries and considerations on possible needs for enhanced inter-Nordic cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Brewitz, Erica; Magnússon, Sigurður M.

    -hanced Nordic cooperation within the area. The radiation safety authorities in the Nordic countries were all asked to produce a current status report including thoughts about possible needs for enhanced cooperation. The material was presented and discussed at a meeting in Copenhagen of rep-resentatives of NKS...

  3. The present status in the clinical development of MR contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laniado, M.; Kopp, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    The paramagnetic extracellular Gd contrast media (Gd-CM) Magnevist, Dotarem, Omniscan, and ProHance are on the market, whereas Gadovist, Optimark, and MultiHance (also used as a hepatobiliary CM) are undergoing clinical trials (phase III). Among other indications, Gd-CM are applied in tumours, inflammation, vascular pathologies, and MR-angiography. The paramagnetic hepatobiliary CM Teslascan, Eovist and MultiHance are in clinical trials (phase II and III). They improve tumour detection and characterisation. The Mn-CM Teslascan is also suited for pancreatic imaging, the Gd-CM MultiHance for imaging of myocardial infarction and the brain, and the Gd-CM Eovist has been used in liver CT. The superparamagnetic reticuloendothelial CM Endorem is on the market whereas Resovist is undergoing phase-III trials. Both agents have the same indications as the hepatobiliary CM. Sinerem is another superparamagnetic CM. However, it acts as a blood pool agent and accumulates in lymph nodes (MR lymphography). Gastrointestinal CM are divided into paramagnetic, superparamagnetic and diamagnetic agents acting either as positive or negative CM. Some are on the market, but their clinical value is limited. (orig.) [de

  4. Miscellaneous botanical Notes VIII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1957-01-01

    The only record of Thesium in Malaysia was hitherto the Southern Chinese Thesium psilotoides Hance from medium altitudes of the Benguet and Bontoe Mountain Provinces in North Luzon, according to Merrill (Enum. Philip. Fl. Pl. 2, 1923, 115), occurring between 1200 and 1500 m. The same species has

  5. 78 FR 47109 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Physaria globosa (Short's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    .... (dead nettle), Phacelia bipinnatifida (forest phacelia), Polygonatum biflorum (Solomon's seal), Sedum...-thickened roots with slender rhizomes. The stems are slender, erect, and up to 2 meters (m) (6 feet (ft... and root-tip chromosome counts by Matthews et al. (2002, pp. 17-23) validated this taxon's status as a...

  6. Do green roofs cool the air?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solcerova, A.; van de Ven, F.H.M.; Wang, Mengyu; Rijsdijk, Michiel; van de Giesen, N.C.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and an increasing number and duration of heat waves poses a need to mitigate extremely high temperatures. One of the repeatedly suggested measures to moderate the so called urban heat island are green roofs. This study investigates several extensive sedum-covered green roofs in

  7. ALKALOIDS OF SOME EUROPEAN AND MACARONESIAN SEDOIDEAE AND SEMPERVIVOIDEAE (CRASSULACEAE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEVENS, JF; THART, H; HENDRIKS, H; MALINGRE, TM

    1992-01-01

    Some 22 pyrrolidine and piperdine alkaloids were detected in the leafy parts of Sedum acre, S. aetnense, S. anglicum, S. brissemoreti, S. farinosum, S. fusiforme, S. lancerottense, S. melanantherum, and S. nudum. In addition to the alkaloids known from S. acre, 1-(2-pyrrolidyl)-propan-2-one and

  8. Towards Providing Solutions to the Air Quality Crisis in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area: Carbon Sequestration by Succulent Species in Green Roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo-Ortega, Margarita; Rosas, Ulises; Reyes-Santiago, Jerónimo

    2017-03-31

    In the first months of 2016, the Mexico City Metropolitan Area experienced the worst air pollution crisis in the last decade, prompting drastic short-term solutions by the Mexico City Government and neighboring States. In order to help further the search for long-term sustainable solutions, we felt obliged to immediately release the results of our research regarding the monitoring of carbon sequestration by green roofs. Large-scale naturation, such as the implementation of green roofs, provides a way to partially mitigate the increased carbon dioxide output in urban areas. Here, we quantified the carbon sequestration capabilities of two ornamental succulent plant species, Sedum dendroideum and Sedum rubrotinctum, which require low maintenance, and little or no irrigation. To obtain a detailed picture of these plants' carbon sequestration capabilities, we measured carbon uptake on the Sedum plants by quantifying carbon dioxide exchange and fixation as organic acids, during the day and across the year, on a green roof located in Southern Mexico City. The species displayed their typical CAM photosynthetic metabolism. Moreover, our quantification allowed us to conservatively estimate that a newly planted green roof of Sedum sequesters approximately 180,000,000 ppm of carbon dioxide per year in a green roof of 100 square meters in the short term. The patterns of CAM and carbon dioxide sequestration were highly robust to the fluctuations of temperature and precipitation between seasons, and therefore we speculate that carbon sequestration would be comparable in any given year of a newly planted green roof. Older green roof would require regular trimming to mantain their carbon sink properties, but their carbon sequestration capabilities remain to be quantified. Nevertheless, we propose that Sedum green roofs can be part of the long-term solutions to mitigate the air pollution crisis in the Mexico City Metropolitan area, and other "megacities" with marked seasonal drought.

  9. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome in a Patient with Tongue Cancer: A Report of a Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Baba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS is a rare but life-threatening complication of neuroleptic drugs, which are used widely in head and neck cancer (HANC patients who develop delirium. Methods and Results. Postoperative delirium in a 39-year-old man with tongue cancer was treated with haloperidol and chlorpromazine. Three days after the first administration of antipsychotics, the patient exhibited elevated body temperature, autonomic and extrapyramidal symptoms, and impaired consciousness. A definitive diagnosis was made using the research diagnostic criteria for NMS in the DSM-IV, and the antipsychotics were immediately discontinued. The patient was given dantrolene and bromocriptine to treat the NMS. The patient’s hyperthermia, elevated creatinin kinase (CK, and muscle rigidity improved gradually, with all symptoms of NMS resolving completely by 13 days after the diagnosis. Conclusions. HANC surgeons must be alert for early signs of NMS and use antipsychotics conservatively to avoid NMS and its potentially fatal outcome.

  10. UNICOAT. Development Laboratory Characterization and Field Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-30

    PROBLEMS 4bD 4E2UIRED AIhTE4HANCE THE IMPORTANCE OF THIS MATERIAL IS T4aT IT WILL PROVIDE AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE FOR A FLEVIBLE PRiMER. THIS PRiMED IS...ICCA’- on tiis 9-!4 i𔃿 was e:Lfflient. NADEP Norfolk personnel tD . Cddmani iriiortei NAD (C..-eu oi ttog snort out 1,+e. tor. CcidMAn ,totaed that

  11. Evaluation of effects of hydrogel on allergic dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Deok

    2010-05-01

    In this study, radiation-irradiated natural extracts including Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, Glechoma longituba, Plantago asiatica, and Morus alba were selected as the effective materials on allergy and inflammation. Hydroatogel and cosmetics that are made of radiation-irradiated natural extracts showed no skin irritation. Hydroatogel showed beneficial effect on atopy dermatitis in clinical test. It also showed significant skin barrier recovery effect

  12. Protective effect of galangin in Concanavalin A- induced hepatitis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Luo Q; Zhu L; Ding J; Zhuang X; Xu L; Chen F

    2015-01-01

    Qingqiong Luo,1,* Liping Zhu,1,* Jieying Ding,1 Xing Zhuang,1 Lili Xu,2 Fuxiang Chen1 1Department of Clinical Immunology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, 2Division of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Galangin is an active pharmacological ingredient from propolis and Alpinia officinarum Hance, and has been r...

  13. Protective effect of galangin in Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Qingqiong; Zhu, Liping; Ding, Jieying; Zhuang, Xing; Xu, Lili; Chen, Fuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Qingqiong Luo,1,* Liping Zhu,1,* Jieying Ding,1 Xing Zhuang,1 Lili Xu,2 Fuxiang Chen1 1Department of Clinical Immunology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, 2Division of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Galangin is an active pharmacological ingredient from propolis and Alpinia officinarum Hance, an...

  14. Perfusion MRI in CNS disease: current concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essig, M.; Giesel, F.; Le-Huu, M.; Stieltjes, B.; Tengg, H. von; Weber, M.-A.

    2004-01-01

    Today there are several indications for cerebral perfusion MRI. The major indications routinely used in increasing numbers of imaging centers include cerebrovascular disease, tumor imaging and recently psychiatric disorders. Perfusion MRI is based on the injection of a gadolinium chelate and the rapid acquisition of images as the bolus of contrast agent passes through the blood vessels in the brain. The contrast agent causes a signal change; this signal change over time can be analysed to measure cerebral hemodynamics. The quality of brain perfusion studies is very dependent on the contrast agent used: a robust and strong signal decrease with a compact bolus is needed. MultiHance (gadobenate dimeglumine, Gd-BOPTA) is the first of a new class of paramagnetic MR contrast agents with a weak affinity for serum proteins. Due to the interaction of Gd-BOPTA with serum albumin, MultiHance presents with significantly higher T1- and T2-relaxivities enabling a sharper bolus profile. This article reviews the indications of perfusion MRI and the performance of MultiHance in MR perfusion of different diseases. Previous studies using perfusion MRI for a variety of purposes required the use of double dose of contrast agent to achieve a sufficiently large signal drop to enable the acquisition of a clear input function and the calculation of perfusion rCBV and rCBF maps of adequate quality. Recent studies with Multi-Hance suggest that only a single dose of this agent is needed to cause a signal drop of about 30% which is sufficient to allow the calculation of high quality rCBV and rCBF maps. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of effects of hydrogel on allergic dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Deok [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, radiation-irradiated natural extracts including Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, Glechoma longituba, Plantago asiatica, and Morus alba were selected as the effective materials on allergy and inflammation. Hydroatogel and cosmetics that are made of radiation-irradiated natural extracts showed no skin irritation. Hydroatogel showed beneficial effect on atopy dermatitis in clinical test. It also showed significant skin barrier recovery effect

  16. Constructing Teaching Model for Training English Guides of Stone In-scription Relics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧

    2016-01-01

    A teaching model based on constructivism is proposed in this paper. The model contains five teaching steps, e.g. inter-pretation teaching, questioning-dialogue, knowledge and skills teaching, discussion-collaboration and field training. Practice proves that it can effectively improve the training efficiency of the training of English guides of stone inscription relics and en-hance their interpretation quality and English skills.

  17. Parallel Flux Tensor Analysis for Efficient Moving Object Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    sensing and layered sensor fusion. Such agile sensor networks need to be further en- hanced to minimize overall power consumption under the constraint of...but also higher power consumption . The speed-up of the multicore flux tensor implementation ranged from a factor of 11 to 20 for the smaller SD video...1107. [7] S. Ali and M. Shah, “ COCOA - Tracking in aerial imagery,” in SPIE Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR) Systems and

  18. Governing innovation projects in firms: The role of competition between innovation projects and interdepartmental collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Iferd, Younes; Schubert, Torben

    2017-01-01

    The existing literature shows that interdepartmental collaboration within companies en-hances innovativeness due to easier access to and integration of knowledge spread over dispersed actors. As companies are well aware of these benefits they also use competi-tion between innovation projects to organize their innovation projects. Such competitive mechanisms have often been regarded as problematic because of their adverse effects on collaboration and knowledge sharing. At the same time, they h...

  19. In situ phytoextraction of copper and cadmium and its biological impacts in acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongbiao; Fan, Yuchao; Yang, John; Xu, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Zhu, Zhenqiu

    2016-10-01

    Phytoremediation is a potential cost-effective technology for remediating heavy metal-contaminated soils. In this study, we evaluated the biomass and accumulation of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) of plant species grown in a contaminated acidic soil treated with limestone. Five species produced biomass in the order: Pennisetum sinese > Elsholtzia splendens > Vetiveria zizanioides > Setaria pumila > Sedum plumbizincicola. Over one growing season, the best accumulators for Cu and Cd were Pennisetum sinese and Sedum plumbizincicola, respectively. Overall, Pennisetum sinese was the best species for Cu and Cd removal when biomass was considered. However, Elsholtzia splendens soil had the highest enzyme activities and microbial populations, while the biological properties in Pennisetum sinese soil were moderately enhanced. Results would provide valuable insights for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermal insulation performance of green roof systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, Serdar; Morgan, Susan; Retzlaff, William; Once, Orcun [southern Illinois University (United States)], e-mail: scelik@siue.edu, e-mail: smorgan@siue.edu, e-mail: wretzla@siue.edu, e-mail: oonce@siue.edu

    2011-07-01

    With the increasing costs of energy, good building insulation has become increasingly important. Among existing insulation techniques is the green roof system, which consists of covering the roof of a building envelop with plants. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of vegetation type and growth media on the thermal performance of green roof systems. Twelve different green roof samples were made with 4 different growth media and 3 sedum types. Temperature at the sample base was recorded every 15 minutes for 3 years; the insulation behavior was then analysed. Results showed that the insulation characteristics were achieved with a combination of haydite and sedum sexangulare. This study demonstrated that the choice of growth media and vegetation is important to the green roof system's performance; further research is required to better understand the interactions between growth media and plant roots.

  1. Pollen morphology of the family crassulaceae from pakistan and kashmir and its taxonomic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasir, M.; Perveen, A.; Sarwar, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Pollen morphology of 28 species representing 9 genera viz., Bryophyllum, Kalanchoe, Pseudosedum, Rhodiola, Rosularia, Hylotelephium, Sedum, Tillaea and Orostachys of the family Crassulaceae from Pakistan has been studied by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually free, radially symmetrical, isopolar, sub-oblate to oblate-spheroidal, or prolate-spheroidal to subprolate often prolate and tricolporate. Tectum mostly striate-rugulate or sub-psilate rarely reticulate-rugulate. Significant variation is found in shape and exine ornamentation and on the basis these characters family has been divided into three pollen types' viz., Rhodiola sinuata-type, Rosularia viguieri-type and Sedum hispanicum-type. Numerical analysis of based on pollen characters of 28 species was also carried out to determine the phylogenetic relationships of various genera and the species of the family Crassulaceae. (author)

  2. New distribution data of some Pontic and submediterranean plant species in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomović Gordana M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here the distribution of 11 rare Pontic and submediterranean plant species in Serbia based on field research, herbarium and literature data. These taxa were mapped on 10 x 10 km2 UTM grid. The following taxa were analyzed: Dianthus pinifolius Sibth. & Sm., Doronicum hungaricum Reichenb. fil., Sedum stefco Stefanov, Sempervivum zeleborii Schott, Trifolium pignantii Fauche & Chaub., Ranunculus illyricus L., Potentilla chrysantha Trev., Prunus tenella Batsch, Saxifraga bulbifera L., Linaria pelisseriana (L Miller and Gagea bohemica (Zausc Schul. & Schul.

  3. Plant establishment on unirrigated green roof modules in a subtropical climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Bruce D.; Volder, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims The application of green roof technology has become more common in the central, northwestern and eastern USA, and is now being employed across the southern USA as well. However, there is little research in the literature that evaluated plant survival on unirrigated green roofs in subtropical climates that experience frequent drought and heat stress. Here, we summarize the results of a study of plant establishment on a modular green roof in south-central Texas. Methodology Fifteen plant species were field tested in 11.4-cm-deep green roof modules on a four-storey building in College Station, Texas, with irrigation limited to the first several weeks of establishment. Climate data, plant growth and species survival were measured over three growing seasons. Principal results Four species survived growing seasons without any losses: Graptopetalum paraguayense, Malephora lutea, Manfreda maculosa and Phemeranthus calycinus. Six species experienced varying levels of mortality: Bulbine frutescens, Delosperma cooperi, Lampranthus spectabilis, Sedum kamtschaticum, Sedum mexicanum and Nassella tenuissima. Five species had no survivors: Dichondra argentea, Stemodia lanata, Myoporum parvifolium, Sedum moranense and Sedum tetractinum. Conclusions The establishment and survival of several plant species without any mortality suggests that irrigation limited to the first few weeks after planting may be an effective approach on green roofs in spite of the more challenging climatic conditions in the southern USA. Since the climate in south-central Texas had been consistently drier and warmer than normal during the study period, longer-term research on these species is recommended to expand knowledge of establishment requirements for these species under a wider range of conditions, including wetter than normal years.

  4. Green roof systems: a study of public attitudes and preferences in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Cañero, Rafael; Emilsson, Tobias; Fernandez-Barba, Carolina; Herrera Machuca, Miguel Ángel

    2013-10-15

    This study investigates people's preconceptions of green roofs and their visual preference for different green roof design alternatives in relation to behavioral, social and demographical variables. The investigation was performed as a visual preference study using digital images created to represent eight different alternatives: gravel roof, extensive green roof with Sedums not in flower, extensive green roof with sedums in bloom, semi-intensive green roof with sedums and ornamental grasses, semi-intensive green roof with shrubs, intensive green roof planted with a lawn, intensive green roof with succulent and trees and intensive green roof with shrubs and trees. Using a Likert-type scale, 450 respondents were asked to indicate their preference for each digital image. Results indicated that respondents' sociodemographic characteristics and childhood environmental background influenced their preferences toward different green roof types. Results also showed that green roofs with a more careful design, greater variety of vegetation structure, and more variety of colors were preferred over alternatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An application of multilevel flow modelling method for nuclear plant state identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Businaro, T.; Di Lorenzo, A.; Meo, G.B.; Rabbani, M.I.; Rubino, E.

    1986-01-01

    With the advent of advanced digital techniques it has been rendered possible, necessity of which has long since been recognised, to develop a computer based man-machine interface and hance an expert system based on knowledge based decision making for operator support in the control rooms of nuclear plants. The Multilevel Flow Modelling method developed at RISO Laboratories, Denmark, has been applied in the present experiment to model Italian PEC reactor and to verify applicability of this method in plant state identification. In MFM method functional structure of a process plant is described in terms of a set of interrelated mass and energy flow structures on different levels of physical aggregation

  6. The advantage of high relaxivity contrast agents in brain perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, F.; Hermier, M.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate MRI characterization of brain lesions is critical for planning therapeutic strategy, assessing prognosis and monitoring response to therapy. Conventional MRI with gadolinium-based contrast agents is useful for the evaluation of brain lesions, but this approach primarily depicts areas of disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) rather than tissue perfusion. Advanced MR imaging techniques such as dynamic contrast agent-enhanced perfusion MRI provide physiological information that complements the anatomic data available from conventional MRI. We evaluated brain perfusion imaging with gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA, MultiHance; Bracco Imaging, Milan, Italy). The contrast-enhanced perfusion technique was performed on a Philips Intera 1.5-T MR system. The technique used to obtain perfusion images was dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI, which is highly sensitive to T2* changes. Combined with PRESTO perfusion imaging, SENSE is applied to double the temporal resolution, thereby improving the signal intensity curve fit and, accordingly, the accuracy of the derived parametric images. MultiHance is the first gadolinium MR contrast agent with significantly higher T1 and T2 relaxivities than conventional MR contrast agents. The higher T1 relaxivity, and therefore better contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, leads to significantly improved detection of BBB breakdown and hence improved brain tumor conspicuity and delineation. The higher T2 relaxivity allows high-quality T2*-weighted perfusion MRI and the derivation of good quality relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps. We determined the value of MultiHance for enhanced T2*-weighted perfusion imaging of histologically proven (by surgery or stereotaxic biopsy) intraaxial brain tumors (n=80), multiple sclerosis lesions (n=10), abscesses (n=4), neurolupus (n=15) and stroke (n=16). All the procedures carried out were safe and no adverse events occurred. The acquired perfusion images were of good quality in

  7. Defense Manpower Commission Staff Studies and Supporting Papers. Volume 2. The Total Force and Its Manpower Requirements Including Overviews of Each Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    J^^’.Si*!** \\ ir..’’T^-.’-T*TSfn titoa i iMBi’M, OTTŕ" ,^~" fraCk k^«^;-<^»J,..;^.a,L.^t»^^ri^fc ft WBMyLmH’.’JW*^Hi,.J , Jl,l|llliln|Kli|Pffl...also develop a means to inspect tube internals to insure they are clean 11. Develop a deep tank, high volume, high head hydraulic driven pump to...and procedures that have been implemented at this Command and havs en- hanced productivity are: - Power floor cleaners Pneumatic/ hydraulic ram tire

  8. Plant Communities Suitable for Green Roofs in Arid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gioannini

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In extensive green roof settings, plant communities can be more robust than monocultures. In addition, native plants might be hardier and more ecologically sound choices than non-native plants in green roof systems. The objectives of this research were to (1 compare the performance of plant communities with that of monocultures and (2 compare the growth of natives to non-natives in a simulated green roof setting. We conducted a two-year experiment at an outdoor site in a desert environment using four plant morphological types (groundcover, forb, succulent and grass. Native plants selected were Chrysactinia mexicana, Melampodium leucanthum, Euphorbia antisyphilitica, and Nassella tenuissima, and non-natives were Delosperma nubigenum, Stachys byzantina, Sedum kamtschiaticum and Festuca glauca. Plants were assigned randomly to either monoculture or community and grown in 1 m × 1 m custom-built trays filled with 15 cm of a proprietary blend of 50/20/30 lightweight aggregate/sand/compost (by volume. Native forb, Melampodium, in community had greater coverage for four of the five measurements in the first year over native forb in monoculture and non-native forb regardless of setting. Native forb coverage was also greater than non-native forb for three of the four measurements in year 2, regardless of setting. Coverage of native grass was significantly greater than non-native grasses throughout the experiment. Coverage was also greater for eight of nine measurements for native succulent over non-natives succulent. However, non-native groundcover coverage was significantly greater than native groundcover for seven of nine measurements. On 1 November 2016, relative water content (RWC for succulents (p = 0.0424 was greatest for native Euphorbia in monoculture at 88%. Native Euphorbia also had greater RWC than non-native Sedum on 4 April 2017 (78% and 4 July 2017 (80%. However, non-native Sedum had greater root length (6548 cm, root dry weight (12.1 g

  9. Nuevos taxones vegetales alóctonos de jardinería en el área continental de NE de España: comportamiento e historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILLOT, D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides information about two topics rarely found in literature on invasions: 1-the record of succulent species naturalised within a continental-type climate area (Teruel, NE Spain, 2-the distinction between taxonomical varieties of invasive taxa. Besides, historical information on introduction, area of origin and taxonomical consideration is provided for each taxa. A. americana var. marginata Trel, Agave ingens Berger, Malephora purpureo-crocea (Haw. Schwantes and Sedum dendroideum DC. subsp. praealtum (A. DC. R. T. Clausen are recorded for the first time in the area.

  10. Modelling of green roof hydrological performance for urban drainage applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2014-01-01

    from 3 different extensive sedum roofs in Denmark. These data consist of high-resolution measurements of runoff, precipitation and atmospheric variables in the period 2010–2012. The hydrological response of green roofs was quantified based on statistical analysis of the results of a 22-year (1989...... return period. Annual runoff volumes were estimated to be 43–68% of the total precipitation. The peak time delay was found to greatly vary from 0 to more than 40 min depending on the type of event, and a general decrease in the time delay was observed for increasing rainfall intensities. Furthermore...

  11. Effects of zinc and cadmium interactions on root morphology and metal translocation in a hyperaccumulating species under hydroponic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tingqiang; Yang Xiaoe; Lu Lingli; Islam, Ejazul; He Zhenli

    2009-01-01

    Effects of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) interactions on root morphology and metal translocation in the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) of S. alfredii were investigated under hydroponic conditions. Specific root lengths (SRL), specific root surface areas (SRA) and specific root volumes (SRV) of the HE increased significantly when plant were treated with 500 μM Zn or 100 μM Cd + 500 μM Zn, whereas these root parameters were significantly decreased for the NHE when plant were treated with 100 μM Cd, 500 μM Zn or 100 μM Cd + 500 μM Zn. SRL and SRA of the HE were mainly constituted by roots with diameter between 0.2-0.4 mm (diameter class 3 and 4) which were significantly increased in treatment of 500 μM Zn or 100 μM Cd + 500 μM Zn, whereas in the NHE, metal treatments caused a significant decrease in SRL and SRA of the finest diameter class root (diameter between 0.1-0.3 mm). The HE of S. alfredii could maintain a fine, widely branched root system under contaminated conditions compared with the NHE. Relative root growth, net Cd uptake and translocation rate in the HE were significantly increased by adding 500 μM Zn, as compared with the second growth period, where 100 μM Cd was supplied alone. Cadmium and Zn concentrations in the shoots of the HE were 12-16 times and 22-27 times higher than those of the NHE under 100 μM Cd + 500 μM Zn combined treatment. These results indicate strong positive interactions of Zn and Cd occurred in the HE under 100 μM Cd + 500 μM Zn treatment and Cd uptake and translocation was enhanced by adding 500 μM Zn.

  12. Effects of zinc and cadmium interactions on root morphology and metal translocation in a hyperaccumulating species under hydroponic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Tingqiang, E-mail: litq@zju.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Yang Xiaoe; Lu Lingli [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Islam, Ejazul [Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tandojam, 48800 Hyderabad (Pakistan); He Zhenli [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, Florida 34945 (United States)

    2009-09-30

    Effects of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) interactions on root morphology and metal translocation in the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) of S. alfredii were investigated under hydroponic conditions. Specific root lengths (SRL), specific root surface areas (SRA) and specific root volumes (SRV) of the HE increased significantly when plant were treated with 500 {mu}M Zn or 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn, whereas these root parameters were significantly decreased for the NHE when plant were treated with 100 {mu}M Cd, 500 {mu}M Zn or 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn. SRL and SRA of the HE were mainly constituted by roots with diameter between 0.2-0.4 mm (diameter class 3 and 4) which were significantly increased in treatment of 500 {mu}M Zn or 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn, whereas in the NHE, metal treatments caused a significant decrease in SRL and SRA of the finest diameter class root (diameter between 0.1-0.3 mm). The HE of S. alfredii could maintain a fine, widely branched root system under contaminated conditions compared with the NHE. Relative root growth, net Cd uptake and translocation rate in the HE were significantly increased by adding 500 {mu}M Zn, as compared with the second growth period, where 100 {mu}M Cd was supplied alone. Cadmium and Zn concentrations in the shoots of the HE were 12-16 times and 22-27 times higher than those of the NHE under 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn combined treatment. These results indicate strong positive interactions of Zn and Cd occurred in the HE under 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn treatment and Cd uptake and translocation was enhanced by adding 500 {mu}M Zn.

  13. Study of growth and development features of ten ground cover plants in Kish Island green space in warm season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shooshtarian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Having special ecological condition, Kish Island has a restricted range of native species of ornamental plants. Expansion of urban green space in this Island is great of importance due to its outstanding touristy position in the South of Iran. The purpose of this study was to investigate the growth and development of groundcover plants planted in four different regions of Kish Island and to recommend the most suitable and adaptable species for each region. Ten groundcover species included Festuca ovina L., Glaucium flavum Crantz., Frankenia thymifolia Desf., Sedum spurium Bieb., Sedum acre L., .Potentilla verna L., Carpobrotus acinaciformis (L. L. Bolus., Achillea millefolium L., Alternanthera dentata Moench. and Lampranthus spectabilis Haw. Evaluation of growth and development had been made by measurement of morphological characteristics such as height, covering area, leaf number and area, dry and fresh total weights and visual scoring. Physiological traits included proline and chlorophyll contents evaluated. This study was designed in factorial layout based on completely randomized blocks design with six replicates. Results showed that in terms of indices such as covering area, visual quality, height, total weight, and chlorophyll content, Pavioon and Sadaf plants had the most and the worst performances, respectively in comparison to other regions’ plants. Based on evaluated characteristics, C. acinaciformis, L. spectabilis and F. thymifolia had the most expansion and growth in all quadruplet regions and are recommend for planting in Kish Island and similar climates.

  14. Treeline proximity alters an alpine plant-herbivore interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illerbrun, Kurt; Roland, Jens

    2011-05-01

    Rising treeline threatens the size and contiguity of alpine meadows worldwide. As trees encroach into previously open habitat, the movement and population dynamics of above-treeline alpine species may be disrupted. This process is well documented in studies of the Rocky Mountain apollo butterfly (Parnassius smintheus). However, subtler consequences of treeline rise remain poorly understood. In this study, we examine whether treeline proximity affects feeding behaviour of P. smintheus larvae, due to altered habitat affecting the distribution and availability of their host plant, lance-leaved stonecrop (Sedum lanceolatum). Understanding differential larval exploitation of food resources in relation to the treeline is an important step in predicting the consequences of continued treeline rise. Parnassius smintheus larvae feed more intensively on S. lanceolatum away from the treeline despite the relative paucity of hosts in these areas, and despite higher fitness penalties associated with the plant's herbivory-induced chemical defenses. Sedum lanceolatum growing near the treeline is less attractive, and therefore represents a less significant resource for P. smintheus larvae than its abundance might imply. If treeline rise continues, we suggest that this pattern of altered resource exploitation may represent a mechanism by which larvae are adversely affected even while adult movement among and within meadows appears sufficient for maintaining population health, and total host availability seems ample.

  15. Observation and Estimation of Evapotranspiration from an Irrigated Green Roof in a Rain-Scarce Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcan Feng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available While the rain-driven evapotranspiration (ET process has been well-studied in the humid climate, the mixed irrigation and rain-driven ET process is less understood for green roof implementations in dry regions, where empirical observations and model parameterizations are lacking. This paper presents an effort of monitoring and simulating the ET process for an irrigated green roof in a rain-scarce environment. Annual ET rates for three weighing lysimeter test units with non-vegetated, sedums, and grass covers were 2.01, 2.52, and 2.69 mm d−1, respectively. Simulations based on the three Penman–Monteith equation-derived models achieved accuracy within the reported range of previous studies. Compared to the humid climate, the overestimation of high ET rates by existing models is expected to cause a larger error in dry environments, where the enhanced ET process caused by repeated irrigations overlapped with hot, dry conditions often occurs during summer. The studied sedum species did not show significantly lower ET rates than native species, and could not effectively take advantage of the deep moisture storage. Therefore, native species, instead of the shallow-rooted species commonly recommended in humid climates, might be a better choice for green roofs in rain-scarce environments.

  16. A New Method for Sensing Soil Water Content in Green Roofs Using Plant Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Natalia F; Rojas, Claudia; Bonilla, Carlos A; Vargas, Ignacio T

    2017-12-28

    Green roofs have many benefits, but in countries with semiarid climates the amount of water needed for irrigation is a limiting factor for their maintenance. The use of drought-tolerant plants such as Sedum species, reduces the water requirements in the dry season, but, even so, in semiarid environments these can reach up to 60 L m -2 per day. Continuous substrate/soil water content monitoring would facilitate the efficient use of this critical resource. In this context, the use of plant microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) emerges as a suitable and more sustainable alternative for monitoring water content in green roofs in semiarid climates. In this study, bench and pilot-scale experiments using seven Sedum species showed a positive relationship between current generation and water content in the substrate. PMFC reactors with higher water content (around 27% vs. 17.5% v / v ) showed larger power density (114.6 and 82.3 μW m -2 vs. 32.5 μW m -2 ). Moreover, a correlation coefficient of 0.95 (±0.01) between current density and water content was observed. The results of this research represent the first effort of using PMFCs as low-cost water content biosensors for green roofs.

  17. [Antiviral activity of representatives of the family Crassulaceae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirobokov, V P; Evtushenko, A I; Lapchik, V F; Shirobokova, D N; Suptel', E A

    1981-12-01

    The antiviral properties of the juice of 11 species of the orpine family were studied. 8 of them belonged to the genera Kalanchoe, i. e. Kalanchoe diagremontiona R. Hamet, K. pinnata (Zam.) Persoon, K. Peteri Werd., K. prolifera (Bovie) R. Hamet, K. marnierriana (Mann. et Boit) Jacobs; K. blossfeldiana v. Poelln, K. beharensis Drake del Gastillo, K. waldheimii R. Hamet et Perr and 3 belonged to the Sedum genera, i. e. Sedum telephium L., S. spectabile Boreau, S. acre L. A high virus neutralizing activity of the juice from 4 species of Kalanchoe, i. e. K. blossfeldiana, K. waldheimii, K. pinnata and K. beharensis was shown. Inhibition of the virus infecting activity was observed at the juice dilutions from 1-2 to 1-8000 and higher. The viricidal factor of Kalanchoe is stable. It is not destroyed by ether, alcohol and potassium periodate. It is not absorbed by bentonite at the acid pH values. Addition of cattle serum or purified proteins to the juice resulted in their precipitation which suppressed the viricidal activity of the juice.

  18. Voluntary muscle activation improves with power training and is associated with changes in gait speed in mobility-limited older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Skjødt, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Incomplete voluntary muscle activation may contribute to impaired muscle mechanical function and physical function in older adults. Exercise interventions have been shown to increase voluntary muscle activation, although the evidence is sparse for mobility-limited older adults, particularly...... in association with physical function. This study examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on outcomes of voluntary muscle activation and gait speed in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 37 older men and women with a usual gait speed...... in TG (r=0.67, pactivation is improved in mobility-limited older adults following 12-weeks of progressive power training, and is associated with improved maximal gait speed. Incomplete voluntary muscle activation should be considered one of the key mechanisms...

  19. Enhancing endogenous stem cells in the newbornvia delayed umbilical cord clamping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher Lawton; Sandra Acosta; Nate Watson; Chiara Gonzales-Portillo; hTeo Diamandis; Naoki Tajiri; Yuji Kaneko; Paul R. Sanberg; Cesar V. Borlongan

    2015-01-01

    There is currently no consensus among clinicians and scientists over the appropriate or optimal timing for umbilical cord clamping. However, many clinical studies have suggested that delayed cord clamping is associated with various neonatal beneifts including increased blood volume, reduced need for blood transfusion, increased cerebral oxygenation in pre-term infants, and decreased frequency of iron deifciency anemia in term infants. Human umbilical cord blood con-tains signiifcant amounts of stem and progenitor cells and is currently used in the treatment of several life-threatening diseases. We propose that delayed cord clamping be encouraged as it en-hances blood lfow from the placenta to the neonate, which is accompanied by an increase supply of valuable stem and progenitor cells, as well as may improve blood oxygenation and increase blood volume, altogether reducing the infant’s susceptibility to both neonatal and age-related diseases.

  20. Brachypodium distachyon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanackovic, Vanja

    Starch is one of the most abundant polysaccharides on the Earth, the principal energy storage of most plant species and of crucial significance for humans as a major nutrient in human diet. The majority of produced starch comes from cereals, domesticated grasses, characterized by specific en......­hanced traits known as the domestication syndrome. Wild grasses, on the other side, still have traits lost during the process. Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is one of the wild grass recently introduced as a model plant for temperate cereals, closely related to pre-domesticated cereals such as barley...... (Hordeum vulgare). This thesis focuses on domestication of grasses – the cereal ancestors, starch in the grass Brachypodium distachyon, and its comparison to domesticated cereal. Grasses can potentially be used for the reintroduction of the lost grass traits, like health-promoting carbohydrates. Therefore...

  1. Heterogeneous Deployment to Meet Traffic Demand in a Realistic LTE Urban Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coletti, Claudio; Hu, Liang; Nguyen, Huan Cong

    2012-01-01

    growth of mo-bile broadband traffic. Emphasis is put on how to optimally as-sign the spectrum for the different networks layers in an evolved HetNet including outdoor and indoor small cells. The study is conducted for a “Hot-Zone” scenario, i.e. a high-traffic area within a realistic dense urban...... performance with a minimum user data rate of 1 Mbps is achieved when deploying small cells on dedicated channels rather than co-channel deployment. Fur-thermore, the joint pico and femto deployment turns out to be the right trade-off between increased base station density and en-hanced network capacity....

  2. Characterisation of NORM Contaminated Objects: Reliable and Efficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breddam, Kresten; Hou, Xiaolin; Koufakis, Markos

    The predominant contributors to the production of Technologically En-hanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM) and NORM-waste in the Nordic countries are the on- and offshore oil and gas produc-ers. In oil and gas production processes, host rock formation water con-taining low...... concentrations of NORM is mixed with seawater containing high concentrations of sulphate. This leads to precipitation of NORM (Ra, Pb, Po)SO4, which is deposited as either scale or sludge in the production equipment. NORM contaminated pipes, tubes, pumps and tanks, etc. are therefore subject to radiological...... characterization in order to ensure safe reuse or recycling as well as safe NORM waste handling.The procedures and measurement techniques may significantly affect the amount of mate-rial that is categorized as NORM contaminated equipment and NORM waste. At present, different procedures are used for categorization...

  3. High-field, high-resolution, susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: improved image quality by addition of contrast agent and higher field strength in patients with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinker, K.; Noebauer-Huhmann, I.M.; Szomolanyi, P.; Weber, M.; Grabner, G.; Trattnig, S.; Stavrou, I.; Knosp, E.; Hoeftberger, R.; Stadlbauer, A.

    2008-01-01

    To demonstrate intratumoral susceptibility effects in malignant brain tumors and to assess visualization of susceptibility effects before and after administration of the paramagnetic contrast agent MultiHance (gadobenate dimeglumine; Bracco Imaging), an agent known to have high relaxivity, with respect to susceptibility effects, image quality, and reduction of scan time. Included in the study were 19 patients with malignant brain tumors who underwent high-resolution, susceptibility-weighted (SW) MR imaging at 3 T before and after administration of contrast agent. In all patients, Multihance was administered intravenously as a bolus (0.1 mmol/kg body weight). MR images were individually evaluated by two radiologists with previous experience in the evaluation of pre- and postcontrast 3-T SW MR images with respect to susceptibility effects, image quality, and reduction of scan time. In the 19 patients 21 tumors were diagnosed, of which 18 demonstrated intralesional susceptibility effects both in pre- and postcontrast SW images, and 19 demonstrated contrast enhancement in both SW images and T1-weighted spin-echo MR images. Conspicuity of susceptibility effects and image quality were improved in postcontrast images compared with precontrast images and the scan time was also reduced due to decreased TE values from 9 min (precontrast) to 7 min (postcontrast). The intravenous administration of MultiHance, an agent with high relaxivity, allowed a reduction of scan time from 9 min to 7 min while preserving excellent susceptibility effects and image quality in SW images obtained at 3 T. Contrast enhancement and intralesional susceptibility effects can be assessed in one sequence. (orig.)

  4. Different Patterns of Changes in the Dry Season Diameter at Breast Height of Dominant and Evergreen Tree Species in a Mature Subtropical Forest in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Hua Yan; Guo-Yi Zhou; De-Qiang Zhang; Xu-Li Tang; Xu Wang

    2006-01-01

    Information on changes in diameter at breast height (DBH) is important for net primary production (NPP)estimates, timing of forest inventory, and forest management. In the present study, patterns of DBH change were measured under field conditions during the dry season for three dominant and native tree species in a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve. For each tree species,different patterns of DBH change were observed. In the case of the fast-growing tree species Castanopsis chinensis Hance, large diurnal fluctuations occur, with a peak DBH in the early morning (around 05:00 h) that decreases to a minimum by about 14:00 h. Both Schima superba Gardn. et Chemp and Cryptocarya chinensis (Hance) Hemsl. exhibited less diurnal swelling and shrinkage. Diurnal fluctuations for these species were observed on a few occasions over the period of observation. Graphical comparisons and statistical analysis of changes in DBH with meteorological variables indicate that for different trees, the different changes in DBH observed responded to different meteorological variables. Large stem changes were found to occur for Ca. chinensis trees that were associated with variations in solar radiation. However, both S. superba and Cr. chinensis were found to be less sensitive to solar radiation. Changes in the DBH of these two species were found to be controlled mainly by soil temperature and soil moisture. During the later dry season, with a lower soil temperature and soil moisture, all three tree species stopped growing and only negligible shrinkage, expansion, or fluctuation occurred, suggesting that the optimum time to measure tree growth in the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve is the later dry season.

  5. Efficiency of repeated phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc from an agricultural soil contaminated with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kai; Ma, Tingting; Liu, Hongyan; Wu, Longhua; Ren, Jing; Nai, Fengjiao; Li, Rui; Chen, Like; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Long-term application of sewage sludge resulted in soil cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) contamination in a pot experiment conducted to phytoextract Cd/Zn repeatedly using Sedum plumbizincicola and Apium graceolens in monoculture or intercropping mode eight times. Shoot yields and soil physicochemical properties changed markedly with increasing number of remediation crops when the two plant species were intercropped compared with the unplanted control soil and the two monoculture treatments. Changes in soil microbial indices such as average well colour development, soil enzyme activity and soil microbial counts were also significantly affected by the growth of the remediation plants, especially intercropping with S. plumbizincicola and A. graveolens. The higher yields and amounts of Cd taken up indicated that intercropping of the hyperaccumulator and the vegetable species may be suitable for simultaneous agricultural production and soil remediation, with larger crop yields and higher phytoremediation efficiencies than under monoculture conditions.

  6. Nutritional and antioxidant properties of wild edible plants and their use as potential ingredients in the modern diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romojaro, Ana; Botella, Ma Ángeles; Obón, Concepción; Pretel, Ma Teresa

    2013-12-01

    Thirteen species of wild edible plants belonging to 11 botanical families consumed in the traditional Mediterranean diet were evaluated. Sanguisorba minor, Quercus ballota and Sedum sediforme showed the highest hydrophilic total antioxidant activity (H-TAA) and total phenols. Asparagus acutifolius, Allium ampeloprasum, Foeniculum vulgare and Malva sylvestris presented high levels of potassium, Malva and Asparagus are interesting due to their zinc content, and Urtica urens contains a high content of calcium. Sensory analysis indicated that fruits from Q. ballota could be considered very sweet and plants of Crithmum maritimum and Oxalis pes-caprae are very acidic. Moreover, testers highlighted the salty taste of C. maritimum. Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum and Mesembryanthemum cristalinum, the spicy taste of A. ampeloprasum, and the aroma of F. vulgare. Our results indicate that increased consumption of the investigated plant species could provide health benefits. Moreover, due to their sensorial properties, they could be used as new ingredients to improve the diversity in modern diet and highly creative cuisine.

  7. Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Deborah A; Johnson, Gwynn R; Spolek, Graig A

    2011-01-01

    Numbers of greenroofs in urban areas continue to grow internationally; so designing greenroof soil to reduce the amount of nutrients in the stormwater runoff from these roofs is becoming essential. This study evaluated changes in extensive greenroof water discharge quality and quantity after adding biochar, a soil amendment promoted for its ability to retain nutrients in soils and increase soil fertility. Prototype greenroof trays with and without biochar were planted with sedum or ryegrass, with barren soil trays used as controls. The greenroof trays were subjected to two sequential 7.4cm/h rainfall events using a rain simulator. Runoff from the rain events was collected and evaluated. Trays containing 7% biochar showed increased water retention and significant decreases in discharge of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, phosphate, and organic carbon. The addition of biochar to greenroof soil improves both runoff water quality and retention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. NEW CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF ALIEN FLORA IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÎRBU CULIŢĂ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a number of seventeen alien plant species are presented, one of them being now for the first time reported in Romania (Sedum sarmentosum Bunge. Some species are mentioned for the first time in the flora of Moldavia (Aster novae-angliae L., Cenchrus incertus M. A. Curtis, Chenopodium pumilio R. Br., Fraxinus americana L., Lindernia dubia (L. Pennell, Petunia × atkinsiana D. Don, Solidago gigantea Aiton, Tagetes erecta L. or Transylvania (Kochia sieversiana (Pallas C. A. Mey., and some are reported from new localities (seven species. For each species, there are presented general data on the geographical origin, its distribution in Europe and worldwide, as well as its invasion history and current distribution in Romania. Some of these species manifest a remarkable spreading tendency, expanding their invasion area in Romania. Voucher specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iaşi (IASI.

  9. Photoperiodism and crassulacean acid metabolism : I. Immunological and kinetic evidences for different patterns of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isoforms in photoperiodically inducible and non-inducible Crassulacean acid metabolism plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulfert, J; Müller, D; Kluge, M; Queiroz, O

    1982-05-01

    Plants of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana v. Poelln. Tom Thumb and Sedum morganianum E. Walth. were grown under controlled photoperiodic conditions under either short or long days. Gaz exchange measurements confirmed that in K. blossfeldiana Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) was photoperiodically inducible and that S. morganianum performed CAM independently of photoperiod. With K. blossfeldiana, a comparison of catalytic and regulatory properties of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) from short-day and long-day grown plants showed differences, but not with S. morganianum. Ouchterlony double diffusion tests and immunotitration experiments (using a S. morganianum PEPC antibody) established that CAM is induced in K. blossfeldiana-but not in S. morganianum-through the synthesis of a new PEPC isoform; this form shows an immunological behavior different from that prevailing under non-inductive conditions and can be considered as specific for CAM performance.

  10. Vegetation composition and structure significantly influence green roof performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnett, N.; Nagase, A.; Booth, R.; Grime, P. [Sheffield Univ., Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Landscape Architecture

    2005-07-01

    The majority of published literature on green roofs contains little specific information on the contribution of plants to the various functions and properties of green roofs. This paper reviewed previously published material in an attempt to shed light on the role of vegetation composition in green roof systems, with specific reference to hydrology and biodiversity support. Two ongoing experiments at the University of Sheffield were then considered: (1) a comparison of quality and quantity of runoff from different types of vegetation; and (2) a comparison of flowering seasons and biodiversity support of different vegetation. Results of the studies showed that there was no general pattern of variation in runoff that could be related to vegetation complexity or taxonomic composition of the communities. During the winter months, high precipitation quickly saturated the soil and percolate losses were similar for all treatments. In the summer, throughflow losses differed between treatments in relation to the structure of the plant canopy. Differing mechanisms resulted in variations in the volume of percolate that was collected. Lower volumes of percolate were observed in herb-only monocultures of Leontdon hispidus, a species with a high water content. Tap-rooted species were seen to more effectively absorb soil moisture. The biodiversity support study focused on the study of Sedum species and Labiatae species, which suggested that mixed vegetation containing these species had a far greater likelihood of attracting wild bees to support pollination. Results of the studies indicated that green roof vegetation with greater structural and species diversity may provide different benefits than sedum-dominated roots. Further studies are needed to investigate the trade-offs between vegetation types, and green roof functions and performance in order to justify calls for a wider diversity of green roof types. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  11. Impacts of Green Infrastructure on the Water Budget and Other Ecosystem Services in Subhumid Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Y.; Burian, S. J.; Pardyjak, E.; Pomeroy, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) measures have been well established as part of low-impact development approaches for stormwater (SW) management. The origin of the concepts, practices and the preponderance of research have taken place in humid climates. Recent work has begun to explore and adapt GI to subhumid and semi-arid climates, which experience warmer and drier periods. But much remains unknown about effects of GI on the water cycle and how to effectively implement to maximize ecosystem benefits. This research synthesizes observation and modeling to address questions related to changes in evapotranspiration (ET), SW runoff volume, and other water cycle processes from GI introduction in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. First, the water budget of green roofs is being studied via weighing lysimeter systems on two rooftop gardens on the University of Utah campus. ET, outflow, and soil moisture have been measured for approximately one year. Up to this early summer, average ET rates for lysimeters of pure medium, Sedums, and Bluegrass are 1.85±1.01, 1.97±0.94, and 2.31±0.91 mm/d respectively; the maximum ET rate could reach 6.11 mm/d from Sedums. Over 2/3 of total rainfall and irrigation were slowly consumed via ET from green roof. Second, the observation studies are leading to new ET modeling techniques that are being incorporated into the U.S. EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). The modified SWMM has been used to simulate ET, SW runoff volume, and overall water budget changes from GI implementation. Preliminary result shows that ET could account for 10% of the total inflows into bioretentions, and 25% of the inflows into landscapes; potential ET rates could vary up to 0.95 mm/hr across 53 subcatchments in the 29 acres catchment. The influence of various design factors for GI on SW runoff reduction and the water budget is also to be estimated. The application of the research is to analyze the water budget of the Red Butte Creek Watershed in Salt Lake City and to

  12. Screening of Stat3 inhibitory effects of Korean herbal medicines in the A549 human lung cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Shik; Bang, Ok-Sun; Kim, Jinhee

    2014-06-01

    The transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is constitutively activated in many human cancers. It promotes tumor cell proliferation, inhibits apoptosis, induces angiogenesis and metastasis, and suppresses antitumor host immune responses. Therefore, Stat3 has emerged as a promising molecular target for cancer therapies. In this study, we evaluated the Stat3-suppressive activity of 38 herbal medicines traditionally used in Korea. Medicinal herb extracts in 70% ethanol were screened for their ability to suppress Stat3 in the A549 human lung cancer cell line. A Stat3-responsive reporter assay system was used to detect intracellular Stat3 activity in extract-treated cells, and Western blot analyses were performed to measure the expression profiles of Stat3-regulated proteins. Fifty percent of the 38 extracts possessed at least mild Stat3-suppressive activities (i.e., activity less than 75% of the vehicle control). Ethanol extracts of Bupleurum falcatum L., Taraxacum officinale Weber, Solanum nigrum L., Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, Euonymus alatus Sieb., Artemisia capillaris Thunb., and Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Baill inhibited up to 75% of the vehicle control Stat3 activity level. A549 cells treated with these extracts also had reduced Bcl-xL, Survivin, c-Myc, and Mcl-1 expression. Many medicinal herbs traditionally used in Korea contain Stat3 activity-suppressing substances. Because of the therapeutic impact of Stat3 inhibition, these results could be useful when developing novel cancer therapeutics from medicinal herbs.

  13. Comparison of Magnetic Susceptibility Tensor and Diffusion Tensor of the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Chunlei

    2013-10-01

    Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) provides a novel approach for noninvasive assessment of the white matter pathways of the brain. Using mouse brain ex vivo , we compared STI with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), in terms of tensor values, principal tensor values, anisotropy values, and tensor orientations. Despite the completely different biophysical underpinnings, magnetic susceptibility tensors and diffusion tensors show many similarities in the tensor and principal tensor images, for example, the tensors perpendicular to the fiber direction have the highest gray-white matter contrast, and the largest principal tensor is along the fiber direction. Comparison to DTI fractional anisotropy, the susceptibility anisotropy provides much higher sensitivity to the chemical composition of the white matter, especially myelin. The high sensitivity can be further enhanced with the perfusion of ProHance, a gadolinium-based contrast agent. Regarding the tensor orientations, the direction of the largest principal susceptibility tensor agrees with that of diffusion tensors in major white matter fiber bundles. The STI fiber tractography can reconstruct the fiber pathways for the whole corpus callosum and for white matter fiber bundles that are in close contact but in different orientations. There are some differences between susceptibility and diffusion tensor orientations, which are likely due to the limitations in the current STI reconstruction. With the development of more accurate reconstruction methods, STI holds the promise for probing the white matter micro-architectures with more anatomical details and higher chemical sensitivity.

  14. Research on the Financing Efficiency of the New Crowdfunding Modes---A Case Study of Kickstarter%商品回报型众筹项目融资效率研究--以Kickstarter平台为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩騄; 张元萍

    2016-01-01

    With the commodity crowdfunding model as the research subject , this paper uses data envelopment analysis to study the financing efficiency of the projects in 14 categories on American crowdfunding platform Kickstarter.The results indi-cate that those categories with a relatively high financing efficiency have characteristcis of a younger age of the target audience , high technological content of the products and a better reputation basis.Moreover, the process of crowdfunding will further en-hance the reputation of the product or the project.This study has some reference value for domestic platforms of crowdfunding.%以商品众筹模式为研究对象,运用数据包络法对美国Kickstarter众筹平台的14种门类筹资项目的筹资效率进行分析,结果发现:筹资效率较高的项目门类具有受众群体轻龄化、产品科技化及口碑基础佳等特征;且在众筹融资的过程中众筹这一融资形式会不断强化该产品或项目的口碑传播和市场反馈。本文的研究结论对国内商品众筹平台具有一定的借鉴意义。

  15. Composition Analysis and Inhibitory Effect of Sterculia lychnophora against Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pangdahai is a traditional Chinese drug, specifically described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia as the seeds of Sterculia lychnophora Hance. Here, we separated S. lychnophora husk and kernel, analyzed the nutrient contents, and investigated the inhibitory effects of S. lychnophora ethanol extracts on cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, important bacteria in dental caries and plaque formation. Ethanol extracts of S. lychnophora showed dose-dependent antibacterial activity against S. mutans with significant inhibition at concentrations higher than 0.01 mg/mL compared with the control group (p 0.03 mg/mL, while bacterial viability was decreased dose-dependently at high concentrations (0.04, 0.08, 0.16, and 0.32 mg/mL. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract revealed a strong presence of alkaloid, phenolics, glycosides, and peptides while the presence of steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and organic acids was low. The S. lychnophora husk had higher moisture and ash content than the kernel, while the protein and fat content of the husk were lower (p<0.05 than those of the kernel. These results indicate that S. lychnophora may have antibacterial effects against S. mutans, which are likely related to the alkaloid, phenolics, glycosides, and peptides, the major components of S. lychnophora.

  16. 3D interactive augmented reality-enhanced digital learning systems for mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kai-Ten; Tseng, Po-Hsuan; Chiu, Pei-Shuan; Yang, Jia-Lin; Chiu, Chun-Jie

    2013-03-01

    With enhanced processing capability of mobile platforms, augmented reality (AR) has been considered a promising technology for achieving enhanced user experiences (UX). Augmented reality is to impose virtual information, e.g., videos and images, onto a live-view digital display. UX on real-world environment via the display can be e ectively enhanced with the adoption of interactive AR technology. Enhancement on UX can be bene cial for digital learning systems. There are existing research works based on AR targeting for the design of e-learning systems. However, none of these work focuses on providing three-dimensional (3-D) object modeling for en- hanced UX based on interactive AR techniques. In this paper, the 3-D interactive augmented reality-enhanced learning (IARL) systems will be proposed to provide enhanced UX for digital learning. The proposed IARL systems consist of two major components, including the markerless pattern recognition (MPR) for 3-D models and velocity-based object tracking (VOT) algorithms. Realistic implementation of proposed IARL system is conducted on Android-based mobile platforms. UX on digital learning can be greatly improved with the adoption of proposed IARL systems.

  17. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum basal levels is not affected by power training in mobility-limited older adults - A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Nielsen, Martin KF; Simonsen, Casper

    2017-01-01

    high extent, it may be particularly effective in terms of eliciting increases in systemic BDNF levels. We examined the effects of 12 weeks of power training on mature BDNF (mBDNF) and total BDNF (tBDNF) in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We......Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potential important factor involved in neuroplasticity, and may be a mediator for eliciting adaptations in neuromuscular function and physical function in older individuals following physical training. As power training taxes the neural system to a very...... included 47 older men and women: n = 22 in the training group (TG: progressive high intensity power training, 2 sessions per week; age 82.7 ± 5.4 years, 55% women) and n = 25 in the control group (CG: no interventions; age 82.2 ± 4.5 years, 76% women). Following overnight fasting, basal serum levels of m...

  18. Research in Oral History of the Chinese Anti-Japanese War Since the 21st century%21世纪以来中国抗战口述史研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪葛春

    2015-01-01

    21世纪以来,中国抗战口述史研究取得了不少进步,主要体现在综合性研究、南京大屠杀研究、日本掠夺中国劳工研究、日本侵华教育研究、日军细菌战研究、慰安妇问题研究、反映中国军民抗战斗争、生活的研究等方面。同时,相关研究仍要解决史料的凭信问题,增强学术交流,丰富研究内容。%Since the 21st century, research in oral history of the Chinese Anti-Japanese War has made great progress, mainly embedded in the comprehensive research, the Nanjing massacre, Japanese plundering Chinese la-borers, the Japan's enslaving education in China , the Japanese germ warfare , comfort women , China's military and civilian struggle and lives in the war.Meanwhile, research still have to solve the historical authenticity, en-hance academic exchanges, enrich contents of study.

  19. Effect of space flight on the frequency of micronuclei and expression of stress-responsive proteins in cultured mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikenaga, Mituo; Hirayama, Jun; Kato, Tomohisa [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Radiation Biology Center] [and others

    2002-12-01

    Results of past space experiments suggest that the biological effect of space radiation could been hanced under microgravity in some cases, especially ininsects. To examine if such a synergistic effect of radiation and microgravity also exists in human cells, frequencies of chromosome instability and cellular levels of several stress-responsive proteins were analyzed incultured human and rodent cells afterspace flight. Human (MCF7 and ataxia telangiectasia(AT)2KY), mouse (m5S) and hamster (Syrian hamster embryo (SHE)) cell lines were loaded on the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-95 mission) and grown during a 9-daymission. After landing, the micronuclei resulting from abnormal nuclear division and accumulationof stress-responsive proteins such as p53 and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which are involved in radiation-induced signal transduction cascades, were analyzed. The frequencies of micronucleiin all the four mammalian cell strains tested were not significantly different between flight and ground control samples. Also, the cellular amounts of p53, p21 (WAF1/SDI1/CIP1) and activated (phosphorylated) forms of three distinct MAPKs in MCF7 and m5S cells of flight samples were similar to those of ground control samples. These results indicated that anyeffect of space radiation, microgravity, or combination of both were not detectable, at least under thepresent experimental conditions. (author)

  20. Phytoremediation potential of transplanted bare-root seedlings of trees for lead/zinc and copper mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiang; Chen, Yi-Tai; Wang, Shu-Feng; Pan, Hong-Wei; Sun, Hai-Jing; Liu, Cai-Xia; Liu, Jian-Feng; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2016-11-01

    Selecting plant species that can overcome unfavorable conditions and increase the recovery of degraded mined lands remains a challenge. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using transplanted tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc and copper mine tailings. One-year-old bare-root of woody species (Rhus chinensis Mill, Quercus acutissima Carruth, Liquidambar formosana Hance, Vitex trifolia Linn. var. simplicifolia Cham, Lespedeza cuneata and Amorpha fruticosa Linn) were transplanted into pots with mine tailings and tested as potential metal-tolerant plants. Seedling survival, plant growth, root trait, nutrient uptake, and metal accumulation and translocation were assessed. The six species grew in both tailings and showed different tolerance level. A. fruticosa was highly tolerant of Zn, Pb and Cu, and grew normally in both tailings. Metal concentrations were higher in the roots than in the shoots of the six species. All of the species had low bioconcentration and translocation factor values. However, R. chinensis and L. formosana had significantly higher translocation factor values for Pb (0.88) and Zn (1.78) than the other species. The nitrogen-fixing species, A. fruticosa, had the highest tolerance and biomass production, implying that it has great potential in the phytoremediation of tailing areas in southern China.

  1. Research supporting potential modification of the NASA specification for dry heat microbial reduction of spacecraft hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, James A.; Beaudet, Robert; Schubert, Wayne

    Dry heat microbial reduction (DHMR) is the primary method currently used to reduce the microbial load of spacecraft and component parts to comply with planetary protection re-quirements. However, manufacturing processes often involve heating flight hardware to high temperatures for purposes other than planetary protection DHMR. At present, the specifica-tion in NASA document NPR8020.12, describing the process lethality on B. atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) bacterial spores, does not allow for additional planetary protection bioburden reduction credit for processing outside a narrow temperature, time and humidity window. Our results from a comprehensive multi-year laboratory research effort have generated en-hanced data sets on four aspects of the current specification: time and temperature effects in combination, the effect that humidity has on spore lethality, and the lethality for spores with exceptionally high thermal resistance (so called "hardies"). This paper describes potential modifications to the specification, based on the data set gener-ated in the referenced studies. The proposed modifications are intended to broaden the scope of the current specification while still maintaining confidence in a conservative interpretation of the lethality of the DHMR process on microorganisms.

  2. Gd-BOPTA-enhanced excretory MR urography without administration of diuretics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allkemper, T.; Tombach, B.; Heindel, W.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical utility of Gd-BOPTA enhanced excretory magnetic resonance urography without additional administration of diuretics in correlation with conventional urography. Method: 15 preoperative patients with pelvic tumors were examined at 1.5 T using a breath-hold high-resolution 3D-FLASH sequence during first-pass as well as 5, 10, 15 minutes after iv. injection of 0.05 mmol/kg BW Gd-BOPTA (MultiHance trademark ) without administration of diuretics. Post-processed coronal and multiplanar MIP reconstructions were compared to conventional excretory urography with regard to morphologic accuracy, anatomic variability, filling defects, cause and level of obstruction or compression, tumor visibility, and time-effectiveness by two independent radiologists. Results: Visualization of the urinary tract by MRU was comparable to conventional excretory urography in 14 of 15 cases. Caliceal fornices were better delineated on conventional urographies, whereas MRU was considered superior in the assessment of the inferior ureter sections, the urinary bladder and obstructive tumors, whose extents could be clearly marked out. Examination times of both techniques were comparable. Conclusion: These first results show that non-diuretic Gd-BOPTA enhanced MRU is comparable to conventional excretory urography for the preoperative diagnosis of pelvic tumors. Further improvements of this technique seem possible by optimization of examination intervals and injection doses. (orig.) [de

  3. Spatial Distribution of Trace Elements in Rice Field at Prafi District Manokwari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aplena Elen S. Bless

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mapping spatial variability of trace elements in rice Ḁeld is necessary to obtain soil quality information to en-hance rice production. ἀis study was aimed to measure concentration and distribution of Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Cd in two diᴀerent sites (SP1, SP2 of PraḀ rice Ḁeld in Manokwari West Papua. ἀe representative 26 soil samples were analysed for their available trace metal concentration (DTPA, soil pH, and C-organic and soil texture. ἀe result indicated that Fe toxicity and Zn deḀcient problems were encountered in both sites.  Rice Ḁeld in SP2 was more deḀcient in Zn than SP1. Site with the highest trace elements (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Cd concentration had low soil pH and high C-organic. Acidic soil has higher solubility of metals; while high C-organic could improve the formation of dissolve organic carbon-metal binding, hence it improving the trace metals concentration in soil solution.

  4. Therapeutic values, chemical constituents and toxicity of Taiwanese Dysosma pleiantha--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppaiya, Palaniyandi; Tsay, Hsin Sheng

    2015-07-16

    Dysosma pleiantha (Hance) Woodson also called as Bajiaolian belongs to the family Berberidaceae, is widely used in Taiwan as traditional Chinese herbal medicine for more than thousands of years. It is usually recommended by various traditional Chinese medical doctors and herbal pharmacies for general remedies including postpartum recovery, treatment of weakness, neck mass, acne, hepatoma, lumbago, snakebite, tumor growth and dysmenorrhea. In the textbooks of traditional Chinese medicine, there is limited information about the toxicity of Bajiaolian. Podophyllotoxin, a lignan is the main toxic ingredient of Bajiaolian rhizome. Therefore, Bajiaolian is documented as the fifth highest cause of poisoning among the herbal medicine in Taiwan. Since the therapeutic and toxic doses are very close, Bajiaolian poisoning cases are frequently reported in Taiwan. Moreover, Dysosma poisoning cases are difficult to diagnosis because physicians are unfamiliar with this medicine's multiple clinical presentations in different stages of intoxication. Therefore, the objective of this review is to represent the collective information available in literatures regarding D. pleiantha, a cytotoxic lignan containing medicinal plant. Specifically, the literatures have been reviewed for articles pertaining to chemical constituents, properties, therapeutical benefits, toxicity, poisoning symptoms, toxic as well as therapeutic dose and medical management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in Photosystem Ⅱ Activity and Leaf Reflectance Features of Several Subtropical Woody Plants Under Simulated SO2 Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Liu; Chang-Lian Peng; Zhi-Fang Lin; Gui-Zhu Lin; Ling-Ling Zhang; Xiao-Ping Pan

    2006-01-01

    The effects of simulated SO2 treatment on the photosynthetic apparatus were investigated in five subtropical forest plants, namely Pinus massoniana Lamb., Schima superba Gardn. et Champ., Castanopsis fissa (Champ. ex Benth.) Rehd. et Wils., Acmena acuminatissima (BI.) Merr et Perry, and Cryptocarya concinna Hance. After leaf sections had been immersed in 0, 20, 50, and 100 mmol/L NaHSO3 for 20 h, total chlorophyll (Chl) content, Chl a/b, maximal photochemical efficiency, and the photochemical quantum yields of photosystem Ⅱ of all five woody plants were reduced to different degrees, whereas lutein content (Chl base) was increased. Two protective mechanisms, namely the xanthophyll cycle (de-epoxidation) and an anti-oxidant system (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging capacity), showed differences in the degree of modulation under simulated SO2 treatment. Compared with control (distilled water treatment), the revised normalized difference vegetation index, a leaf reflectance index, was lowered with increasing concentrations of NaHSO3. Cryptocarya concinna, a dominant species in the late succession stage of subtropical forests in South China, exhibited less sensitivity to NaHSO3. Conversely, Pinus massoniana, the pioneer heliophyte species, was most susceptible to NaHSO3 treatment. It is suggested that SO2 pollution may accelerate the succession of subtropical forest.

  6. Regulation of Light Energy Utilization and Distribution of Photosynthesis in Five Subtropical Woody Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Liu; Chang-Lian Peng; Zhi-Fang Lin; Gui-Zhu Lin; Xiao-Ping Pan

    2007-01-01

    The adaptations and responses of photosynthesis to long- and short-term growth light gradient treatments were investigated in five subtropical forest plants, namely Pinus massoniana Lamb., Schima superba Gardn. et Champ.,Castanopsis fissa (Champ. ex Benth.) Rehd. et Wils., Acmena acuminatissima (BI.) Merr et Perry, and Cryptocarya concinna Hance. With diurnal changes in sunlight and air temperature, the de-epoxidation state and lutein content in the five woody plants under three light intensifies first increased and then decreased during the day. However,maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm; where Fm is the maximum fluorescence yield and Fv is variable fluorescence) and the photochemical quantum yields of photosystem (PS) Ⅱ (ΦPSII) of the species examined changed in the opposite manner, with those in plants grown under 100% natural light changing the most. After long-term treatment (21 months), anti-oxidant capacity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH·)-scavenging capacity) and utilization of excitation energy showed differences in modulation by different light intensities. It was shown that A.acuminatissima and C. concinna, as dominant species in the late succession stage of a subtropical forest in Dinghu mountain, South China, were better able to adapt to different light environments. However, P. massoniana, the pioneer species of this forest, exhibited less adaptation to Iow light intensity and was definitely eliminated by the forest successlon process.

  7. A new diarylheptanoid from Alpinia officinarum promotes the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuguang; Zhang, Xiaopo; Wang, Yong; Chen, Feng; Li, Youbin; Li, Yonghui; Tan, Yinfeng; Gong, Jingwen; Zhong, Xia; Li, Hailong; Zhang, Junqing

    2018-03-01

    A new diarylheptanoid, namely trans-(4R,5S)-epoxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone (1), and a new natural product, 7-(4″-hydroxy-3″-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-hepta-4E,6E-dien-3-one (2), were obtained from the aqueous extract of Alpinia officinarum Hance, together with three other diarylheptanoids, 5-hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone (3), 1,7-diphenyl-4E-en-3-heptanone (4) and 5-methoxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone (5). The structures were characterised mainly by analysing their physical data including IR, NMR and HRMS. This study highlights that the 4,5-epoxy moiety in 1 is rarely seen in diarylheptanoids. In addition, the five isolates were tested for their differentiation activity of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The results showed that these compounds could dose-dependently promote adipocyte differentiation without cytotoxicity (IC 50  > 100 μM).

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents: A Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sahraei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI contrast agents most commonly agents used in diagnosing different diseases. Several agents have been ever introduced with different peculiar characteristics. They vary in potency, adverse reaction and other specification, so it is important to select the proper agent in different situations. We conducted a systematic literature search in MEDLINE/PUBMED, Web of Science (ISI, Scopus,Google Scholar by using keywords "gadolinium" and "MRI contrast Medias", "Gadofosvest", "Gadobenate" and "Gadoxetate". The most frequent contrast media agents made based on gadolinium (Gd. These are divided into two categories based on the structure of their chelating parts, linear agents and macrocyclic agents. All characteristics of contrast media factors, including efficiency, kinetic properties, stability, side effects and the rate of resolution are directly related to the structure of chelating part of that formulation.In vitro data has shown that the macrocyclic compounds are the most stable Gd-CA as they do not bind to serum proteins, they all possess similar and relatively low relaxivity and the prevalence of Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF has decreased by increasing the use of macrocyclic agents in recent years. No cases of NSF have been recorded after the administration of any of the high-relaxivity protein interacting agents, the vascular imaging agent gadofosveset trisodium (Ablavar, the hepatic imaging agent gadoxetate meglumine (Eovist, and the multipurpose agent gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance. In pregnancy and lactating women, stable macrocyclic agent is recommended.

  9. Synthesis and Relaxivity Studies of a DOTA-Based Nanomolecular Chelator Assembly Supported by an Icosahedral Closo-B122− -Core for MRI: A Click Chemistry Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish S. Jalisatgi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An icosahedral closo-B122− scaffold based nano-sized assembly capable of carrying a high payload of Gd3+-chelates in a sterically crowded configuration is developed by employing the azide-alkyne click reaction. The twelve copies of DO3A-t-Bu-ester ligands were covalently attached to an icosahedral closo-B122− core via suitable linkers through click reaction. This nanomolecular structure supporting a high payload of Gd3+-chelate is a new member of the closomer MRI contrast agents that we are currently developing in our laboratory. The per Gd ion relaxivity (r1 of the newly synthesized MRI contrast agent was obtained in PBS, 2% tween/PBS and bovine calf serum using a 7 Tesla micro MRI instrument and was found to be slightly higher (r1 = 4.7 in PBS at 25 °C compared to the clinically used MRI contrast agents Omniscan (r1 = 4.2 in PBS at 25 °C and ProHance (r1 = 3.1 in PBS at 25 °C.

  10. Immediate Adverse Reactions to Gadolinium-Based MR Contrast Media: A Retrospective Analysis on 10,608 Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenza Granata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Contrast media (CM for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI may determine the development of acute adverse reactions. Objective was to retrospectively assess the frequency and severity of adverse reactions associated with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs injection in patients who underwent MRI. Material and Methods. At our center 10608 MRI examinations with CM were performed using five different GBCAs: Gd-BOPTA (MultiHance, Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, Gd-EOBDTPA (Primovist, Gd-DOTA (Dotarem, and Gd-BTDO3A (Gadovist. Results. 32 acute adverse reactions occurred, accounting for 0.3% of all administration. Twelve reactions were associated with Gd-DOTA injection (0.11%, 9 with Gd-BOPTA injection (0.08%, 6 with Gd-BTDO3A (0.056%, 3 with Gd-EOB-DTPA (0.028%, and 2 with Gd-DTPA (0.018%. Twenty-four reactions (75.0% were mild, four (12.5% moderate, and four (12.5% severe. The most severe reactions were seen associated with use of Gd-BOPTA, with 3 severe reactions in 32 total reactions. Conclusion. Acute adverse reactions are generally rare with the overall adverse reaction rate of 0.3%. The most common adverse reactions were not severe, consisting in skin rash and hives.

  11. Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Deborah A.; Johnson, Gwynn R. [Portland State University, Mechanical and Materials Engineering, POB 751, Portland, OR 97207 (United States); Spolek, Graig A., E-mail: graig@cecs.pdx.edu [Portland State University, Mechanical and Materials Engineering, POB 751, Portland, OR 97207 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Numbers of greenroofs in urban areas continue to grow internationally; so designing greenroof soil to reduce the amount of nutrients in the stormwater runoff from these roofs is becoming essential. This study evaluated changes in extensive greenroof water discharge quality and quantity after adding biochar, a soil amendment promoted for its ability to retain nutrients in soils and increase soil fertility. Prototype greenroof trays with and without biochar were planted with sedum or ryegrass, with barren soil trays used as controls. The greenroof trays were subjected to two sequential 7.4 cm/h rainfall events using a rain simulator. Runoff from the rain events was collected and evaluated. Trays containing 7% biochar showed increased water retention and significant decreases in discharge of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, phosphate, and organic carbon. The addition of biochar to greenroof soil improves both runoff water quality and retention. - Highlights: > Biochar in green roof soil reduces nitrogen and phosphorus in the runoff. > Addition of biochar reduces turbidity of runoff. > Addition of biochar reduces total organic carbon content in runoff by 67-72%. > Biochar improves water retention of saturated soil. - In this controlled laboratory experiment, greenroof soil was amended by the addition of biochar, which reduced the water runoff concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon.

  12. Flowers of Çoruh Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Çakmakçı

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coruh valley has an important biological diversity in term of plants, flora-fauna, wildlife and ecosystems. These regions contain the landraces, wild and weedy relatives, other wild, herbaceous and flowering trees, herbaceous flowering plants, medicinal and aromatic and flowering and ornamental shrubs plants species which are especially economically important plant for floriculture, eco-tourism, botanical tourism and nature tourism. Many important medicinal and aromatic and ornamental plants species are found in this region and naturally grow. It is considered that Acantholimon, Achillea, Alkanna, Allium, Amygdalus, Angelica, Anemone, Anthemis, Arabis, Arctium, Artemisia, Asparagus, Asperula, Astragalus, Calamintha, Calendula, Calutea, Campanula, Capparis, Cardamine, Centaurea, Cephalanthera, Cephalaria, Chelidonium, Chenopodium, Chysanthemum, Colchicum, Consolida, Coriandrum, Cornus, Coronilla, Cerasus, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Crocus, Cyclamen, Dactylorhiza, Digitalis, Dianthus, Draba, Echinops, Equisetum, Ferula, Filipendula, Fritillaria, Fumaria, Gagea, Galanthus, Galium, Genista, Gentiana, Geranium, Geum, Gladiolus, Glychirrza, Helichrysum, Hesperis, Hypericum, İnula, İris, Isatis, Juniperus, Lilium, Linaria, Linum, lysimachia, Malus, Malva, Marrubium, Melissa, Mentha, Micromeria, Morina, Muscari, Mysotis, Narcissus, Neotchichatchewia, Nepeta, Onobrychis, Orchis, Ornithogalum, Origanum, Paeonia, Papaver, Pedicularis, Peganum, Phelypaea, Platanthera, Plantago, Pilosella, Pelargonium, Potentilla, Polygonum, Polygala, Primula, Punica, Prunus, Pyrus, Ranunculus, Rhamnus, Rhododendron, Rhus, Rosa, Rubia, Rubus, Rumex, Salvia, Sambucus, Satureja, Scilla, Scorzonera, Scutellaria, Sedum, Sempervivum, Sideritis, Sophora, Sorbus, Stachys, Tanecetum, Teucrium, Thymus, Trigonella, Tulipa, Tussilago, Uechtriitzia, Vaccinium, Verbascum, Verbena, Veronica, Viburnum and Ziziphora species commonly found in the region may be may be evaluated economically.

  13. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium, copper and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Longhua; Li, Zhu; Han, Cunliang; Liu, Ling; Teng, Ying; Sun, Xianghui; Pan, Cheng; Huang, Yujuan; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2012-07-01

    A pot experiment and afield trial were conducted to study the remediation of an aged field soil contaminated with cadmium, copper and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (7.67 +/- 0.51 mg kg(-1) Cd, 369 +/- 1 mg kg(-1) Cu in pot experiment; 8.46 +/- 0.31 mg kg(-1) Cd, 468 +/- 7 mg kg(-1) Cu, 323 +/- 12 microg kg(-1) PCBs for field experiment) under different cropping patterns. In the pot experiment Sedum plumbizincicola showed pronounced Cd phytoextraction. After two periods (14 months) of cropping the Cd removal rates in these two treatments were 52.2 +/- 12.0 and 56.1 +/- 9.1%, respectively. Total soil PCBs in unplanted control pots decreased from 323 +/- 11 to 49.3 +/- 6.6 microg kg(-1), but with no significant difference between treatments. The field microcosm experiment intercropping of three plant species reduced the yield of S. plumbizincicola, with a consequent decrease in soil Cd removal. S. plumbizincicola intercropped with E. splendens had the highest shoot Cd uptake (18.5 +/- 1.8 mg pot(-1)) after 6 months planting followed by intercropping with M. sativa (15.9 +/- 1.9 mg pot(-1)). Liming with S. plumbizincicola intercropped with M. sativa significantly promoted soil PCB degradation by 25.2%. Thus, adjustment of soil pH to 5.56 combined with intercropping with S. plumbizincicola and M. sativagave high removal rates of Cd, Cu, and PCBs.

  14. Decoupling factors affecting plant diversity and cover on extensive green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIvor, J Scott; Margolis, Liat; Puncher, Curtis L; Carver Matthews, Benjamin J

    2013-11-30

    Supplemental irrigation systems are often specified on green roofs to ensure plant cover and growth, both important components of green roof performance and aesthetics. Properties of the growing media environment too can alter the assemblage of plant species able to thrive. In this study we determine how plant cover, above ground biomass and species diversity are influenced by irrigation and growing media. Grass and forb vegetative cover and biomass were significantly greater in organic based growing media but there was no effect of supplemental irrigation, with two warm season grasses dominating in those treatments receiving no supplemental irrigation. On the other hand, plant diversity declined without irrigation in organic media, and having no irrigation in inorganic growing media resulted in almost a complete loss of cover. Sedum biomass was less in inorganic growing media treatments and species dominance shifted when growing media organic content increased. Our results demonstrate that supplemental irrigation is required to maintain plant diversity on an extensive green roof, but not necessarily plant cover or biomass. These results provide evidence that planting extensive green roofs with a mix of plant species can ensure the survival of some species; maintaining cover and biomass when supplemental irrigation is turned off to conserve water, or during extreme drought. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Water quality function of an extensive vegetated roof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Dimitar; Driscoll, Charles T; Todorova, Svetoslava; Montesdeoca, Mario

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we present the results of a four-year study of water quality in runoff from an extensive, sedum covered, vegetated roof on an urban commercial building. Monitoring commenced seven months after the roof was constructed, with the first growing season. Stormwater drainage quality function of the vegetated roof was compared to a conventional (impermeable, high-albedo) membrane roof in addition to paired measurements of wet and bulk depositions at the study site. We present concentrations and fluxes of nutrients and major solutes. We discuss seasonal and year-to-year variation in water quality of drainage from the vegetated roof and how it compares with atmospheric deposition and drainage from the impermeable roof. Drainage waters from the vegetated roof exhibited a high concentration of nutrients compared to atmospheric deposition, particularly during the warm temperature growing season. However, nutrient losses were generally low because of the strong retention of water by the vegetated roof. There was marked variation in the retention of nutrients by season due to variations in concentrations in drainage from the vegetated roof. The vegetated roof was a sink of nitrogen, total phosphorus and chloride, and a source of phosphate and dissolved inorganic and organic carbon. Chloride exhibited elevated inputs and leaching during the winter. The drainage from the vegetated and impermeable roofs met the United States Environmental Protection Agency freshwater standards for all parameters, except for total phosphorus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Deborah A.; Johnson, Gwynn R.; Spolek, Graig A.

    2011-01-01

    Numbers of greenroofs in urban areas continue to grow internationally; so designing greenroof soil to reduce the amount of nutrients in the stormwater runoff from these roofs is becoming essential. This study evaluated changes in extensive greenroof water discharge quality and quantity after adding biochar, a soil amendment promoted for its ability to retain nutrients in soils and increase soil fertility. Prototype greenroof trays with and without biochar were planted with sedum or ryegrass, with barren soil trays used as controls. The greenroof trays were subjected to two sequential 7.4 cm/h rainfall events using a rain simulator. Runoff from the rain events was collected and evaluated. Trays containing 7% biochar showed increased water retention and significant decreases in discharge of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, phosphate, and organic carbon. The addition of biochar to greenroof soil improves both runoff water quality and retention. - Highlights: → Biochar in green roof soil reduces nitrogen and phosphorus in the runoff. → Addition of biochar reduces turbidity of runoff. → Addition of biochar reduces total organic carbon content in runoff by 67-72%. → Biochar improves water retention of saturated soil. - In this controlled laboratory experiment, greenroof soil was amended by the addition of biochar, which reduced the water runoff concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon.

  17. Mosses, a necessary step for perennial plant dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiaffredo, M. [MCK Environnement (France); Denayer, F.O. [Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques de Lille, Laboratoire de Botanique et de Cryptogamie (France)

    2004-07-01

    Green roofs have the potential to fulfill the requirements of several important ecological functions such as regulating rainwater; creating surfaces of ecological compensation; reducing the greenhouse effect,; improving air quality and reducing noise pollution. This paper described the advantages of both intensive and extensive green roof systems. Intensive green roofs refer to those in which a real garden is planted with bushes and possibly trees. A significant depth of substrate is needed in intensive green roofs, leading to higher construction and maintenance costs. Extensive green roofs refer to those in which rustic drought resistant plants are planted in only a shallow layer of substrate. Extensive green roofs do not require fertilization or watering and do not require much upkeep. Observations at a terraced and waterproofed roof that was planted 15 years ago showed that mosses and sedum grow well in gravel without human intervention. This paper reviewed the important ecological role that mosses play in terms of carbon fixation, nitrogen fixation, effects on vascular plants, water relations and soil stabilization. It was concluded that mosses are well suited for lands where colonization is particularly difficult. Mosses were shown to be among the first colonizers of mineral soils. Moss mats reduce substrate temperature fluctuations and moisture loss, while contributing to pedogenesis and plant succession. They also grow successfully in harsh environments, and can tolerate repeated cycles of drought and rehydration. 34 refs.

  18. Succulent species differ substantially in their tolerance and phytoextraction potential when grown in the presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengjun; Sale, Peter W G; Clark, Gary J; Liu, Wuxing; Doronila, Augustine I; Kolev, Spas D; Tang, Caixian

    2015-12-01

    Plants for the phytoextraction of heavy metals should have the ability to accumulate high concentrations of such metals and exhibit multiple tolerance traits to cope with adverse conditions such as coexistence of multiple heavy metals, high salinity, and drought which are the characteristics of many contaminated soils. This study compared 14 succulent species for their phytoextraction potential of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. There were species variations in metal tolerance and accumulation. Among the 14 succulent species, an Australian native halophyte Carpobrotus rossii exhibited the highest relative growth rate (20.6-26.6 mg plant(-1) day(-1)) and highest tolerance index (78-93%), whilst Sedum "Autumn Joy" had the lowest relative growth rate (8.3-13.6 mg plant(-1) day(-1)), and Crassula multicava showed the lowest tolerance indices (phytoextraction of these heavy metals than other species. These findings suggest that Carpobrotus rossii is a promising candidate for phytoextraction of multiple heavy metals, and the aquatic or semiterrestrial Crassula helmsii is suitable for phytoextraction of Cd and Zn from polluted waters or wetlands.

  19. DESCRIPTION OF SOME SPONTANEUS SPECIES AND THE POSSIBILITIES OF USE THEM IN THE ROCKY GARDENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUTA ERZSEBET

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania’s spontaneous flora are reported over 3759 species of plants, of which 3136 species are spontaneous [CIOCÂRLAN, 2000], 23 have been declared nature monuments, 74 are extinct, 39 endangered, 171 are vulnerable and 1253 are rare. Characteristic grassland species is approximately 37% of total existent plants in Romania, and alpine species is 14%. It was identified a total of 57 endemic taxons (species and subspecies and 171 subendemic taxons [www.wikipedia.org].The floristic ranges adapted to the unfavorable conditions dictated by nature, with the possibility to use in rocky gardens, are: Campanula carpatica Jacq., Dianthus callizonus Schott et Kotschy, Gentiana acaulis L., Leontopodium alpinum Cass., Phlox amoena Sims., Saxifraga oppositifolia L., Sedum alpestre Vill., Sempervivum montanum L., Viola odorata L. Species that grow on alpine meadows in the spring until late autumn, recommended in landscape arrangements are: Adonis vernalis L., Carlina acaulis L., Paeonia tenuifolia L., Primula elatior Hill., Primula veris L., species that impress through form and the chromatic variety.This paper contains a brief description of some native species used or recommended for rocky gardens.

  20. Biological studies on Brazilian plants used in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C; Fronza, M; Goettert, M; Geller, F; Luik, S; Flores, E M M; Bittencourt, C F; Zanetti, G D; Heinzmann, B M; Laufer, S; Merfort, I

    2009-04-21

    n-Hexanic and ethanolic extracts from twelve plants (Brugmansia suaveolens Brecht. et Presl., Eupatorium laevigatum Lam., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Iresine herbstii Hook., Kalanchöe tubiflora Hamet-Ahti, Petiveria alliacea L., Pluchea sagittalis (Lam.) Cabrera, Piper regnellii DC., Schinus molle L., Sedum dendroideum Moç et Sessé ex DC., Waltheria douradinha St. Hill., Xanthium cavanillesii Schouw.) used in traditional South Brazilian medicine as wound healing agents were investigated in various biological assays, targeting different aspects in this complex process. The extracts were investigated on NF-kappaB DNA binding, p38alpha MAPK, TNF-alpha release, direct elastase inhibition and its release as well as on caspase-3. Fibroblasts migration to and proliferation into the wounded monolayers were evaluated in the scratch assay, the agar diffusion test for antibacterial and the MTT assay for cytotoxic effects. The hydrophilic extracts from Galinsoga parviflora, Petiveria alliacea, Schinus molle, Waltheria douradinha and Xanthium cavanillesii as well as the lipophilic extract of Waltheria douradinha turned out to be the most active ones. These results increase our knowledge on the wound healing effects of the investigated medicinal plants. Further studies are necessary to find out the effective secondary metabolites responsible for the observed effects.

  1. Living on the mall : patterning and place making in the case study of Nouvelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillies-Smith, S.; Ring, H. [Martha Schwartz, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    One of the largest habitable green roofs in the New England area was designed by Martha Schwartz Inc. The green roof spans 1.5 acres of mall rooftop that will be accessible by two connected condominium towers. A condominium complex associated with the expansion of the Natick Mall entitled Nouvelle, offers a new type of housing, in which a private, residential apartment complex adjoins a suburban, upscale indoor shopping mall. There are many new opportunities to use the expansive area of the mall complex roof to function as a productive, multi-use, shared private park. As an art-based landscape architectural practice, the office has adapted bold and graphic qualities as a model for its green roof design. The Nouvelle green roof offers dynamic circulation, enjoyable social space and recreation, intersecting a continuous coverage of patterned sedum and river stone that spans an entire roofscape. The green roof demonstrates an innovative combination of intensive and extensive plantings that create a system of legible and visually pleasing patterning from above. This case study addressed these innovations and implementation challenges within the context of mall architecture and green roof technologies. In addition, it also identified the social uses of roof spaces, and the aesthetics and sustainability of patterning in intensive and extensive planting design.

  2. The rapid isolation of vacuoles from leaves of crassulacean Acid metabolism plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringstad, R; Kenyon, W H; Black, C C

    1980-09-01

    A technique is presented for the isolation of vacuoles from Sedum telephium L. leaves. Leaf material is digested enzymically to produce protoplasts rapidly which are partially lysed by gentle osmotic shock and the inclusion of 5 millimolar ethyleneglycol-bis (beta-aminoethyl ether)N,N'-tetraacetic acid in the wash medium. Vacuoles are isolated from the partially lysed protoplasts by brief centrifugation on a three-step Ficoll-400 gradient consisting of 5, 10, and 15% (w/v) Ficoll-400. A majority of the vacuoles accumulate at the 5 to 10% Ficoll interface, whereas a smaller proportion sediments at the 10 to 15% Ficoll-400 interface. The total time required for vacuole isolation is 2 to 2.5 hours, beginning from leaf harvest.The yield of vacuoles is approximately 44%. The major vacuole layer is 15 hours when left in Ficoll; however, dispersion into media of various osmotic concentrations resulted in decreased stability. Addition of mercaptobenzothiazole, CaCl(2), MgCl(2), bovine serum albumin, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, polyethylene glycol 600, and KH(2)PO(4) to the vacuole isolation media did not increase the stability of the isolated vacuoles.THIS TECHNIQUE WITH ONLY SLIGHT MODIFICATIONS HAS BEEN USED TO ISOLATE LEAF CELL VACUOLES FROM THE FOLLOWING CRASSULACEAN ACID METABOLISM PLANTS: pineapple, Kalanchoë fedtschenkoi, and Echeveria elegans. Spinach leaves also were used successfully.

  3. Movement of Water from Old to Young Leaves in Three Species of Succulents

    Science.gov (United States)

    RABAS, A. R.; MARTIN, C. E.

    2003-01-01

    A hypothetical adaptive response of succulent plants to drought‐stress is the redistribution of water from old to young leaves. We examined the effects of possible movement of water from old to young leaves in three succulent species, Carpobrotus edulis (weak CAM‐inducible), Kalanchoe tubiflora (CAM) and Sedum spectabile (possibly a CAM‐cycler or CAM‐inducible). Old leaves were removed from plants, and photosynthesis, transpiration, f. wt : d. wt ratios, diurnal acid fluctuations, stomatal conductance and internal CO2 concentrations of the remaining young leaves were measured during drought‐stress. Comparison was made with plants retaining old leaves. There was no evidence that water moved from old to young leaves during drought‐stress as previously hypothesized. Only in drought‐stressed plants of K. tubiflora, were photosynthetic and transpiration rates of young leaves greater on shoots with old leaves removed compared with attached. There was a trend in all species for greater fluctuations in acidity in young leaves on shoots that lacked older leaves. For two of the three species studied, the f. wt : d. wt ratios of young leaves were greater under drought‐stress, on shoots with old leaves removed than with them attached. Absence of old leaves may reduce competition for water with young leaves, which consequently have higher water content and greater photosynthetic rates. PMID:12907468

  4. Nocturnal uptake and assimilation of nitrogen dioxide by C3 and CAM plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Misa; Konaka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Morikawa, Hiromichi

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2 by C3 and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, they were fumigated with 4 microl l(-1) 15N-labeled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for 8 h. The amount of NO2 and assimilation of NO2 by plants were determined by mass spectrometry and Kjeldahl-nitrogen based mass spectrometry, respectively. C3 plants such as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and ground cherry (Physalis alkekengi) showed a high uptake and assimilation during daytime as high as 1100 to 2700 ng N mg(-1) dry weight. While tobacco and ground cherry strongly reduced uptake and assimilation of NO2 during nighttime, kenaf kept high nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2 as high as about 1500 ng N mg(-1) dry weight. Stomatal conductance measurements indicated that there were no significant differences to account for the differences in the uptake of NO2 by tobacco and kenaf during nighttime. CAM plants such as Sedum sp., Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (kalanchoe) and Aloe arborescens exhibited nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2. However, the values of uptake and assimilation of NO2 both during daytime and nighttime was very low (at most about 500 ng N mg(-1) dry weight) as compared with those of above mentioned C3 plants. The present findings indicate that kenaf is an efficient phytoremediator of NO2 both during daytime and nighttime.

  5. Case study : MAG Geislingen : a public park atop a shopping mall in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, H. [ZinCo GmbH, Unterensingen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    A design retrofit competition for the Maschinenfabrik Geislingen (MAG) in the town of Geislingen, Germany, was won by the architectural firm Haring und Zoller from Stuttgart. The town of Geislingen dates back more than 1000 years. As such, new projects must ensure an aesthetic compatibility between the past and the present. The resulting design, with green roof, incorporated a shopping area, a sports and leisure complex and an underground parking lot in a sloped terrain. The extensive green roofs, which total 100,000 square feet on this private property in the town centre, are maintained in the long term by the town gardeners. The cooperation between the client Kaufland Stiftung Co., the architectural firm and the local planning authorities was central to the projects success. Together they managed to achieve this unique project which attracts visitors from three continents and has resulted in a several imitations. The extensive part of the green roof, which is carried out as sedum green roofs, is not open to the public and must be maintained once a year. A drainage layer made of Floradrain{sup R} elements is installed underneath the entire green roof system independently from the extensive or intensive build-up type of green roof. All surfaces, boundaries and foundations could be built directly into the drainage layer without impeding the draining rain water. 9 figs.

  6. Gd-BOPTA-enhanced excretory MR urography without administration of diuretics; Gd-BOPTA-gestuetzte MR-Ausscheidungsurographie ohne Diuretikagabe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allkemper, T.; Tombach, B.; Heindel, W. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2001-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical utility of Gd-BOPTA enhanced excretory magnetic resonance urography without additional administration of diuretics in correlation with conventional urography. Method: 15 preoperative patients with pelvic tumors were examined at 1.5 T using a breath-hold high-resolution 3D-FLASH sequence during first-pass as well as 5, 10, 15 minutes after iv. injection of 0.05 mmol/kg BW Gd-BOPTA (MultiHance {sup trademark}) without administration of diuretics. Post-processed coronal and multiplanar MIP reconstructions were compared to conventional excretory urography with regard to morphologic accuracy, anatomic variability, filling defects, cause and level of obstruction or compression, tumor visibility, and time-effectiveness by two independent radiologists. Results: Visualization of the urinary tract by MRU was comparable to conventional excretory urography in 14 of 15 cases. Caliceal fornices were better delineated on conventional urographies, whereas MRU was considered superior in the assessment of the inferior ureter sections, the urinary bladder and obstructive tumors, whose extents could be clearly marked out. Examination times of both techniques were comparable. Conclusion: These first results show that non-diuretic Gd-BOPTA enhanced MRU is comparable to conventional excretory urography for the preoperative diagnosis of pelvic tumors. Further improvements of this technique seem possible by optimization of examination intervals and injection doses. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Abschaetzung der Durchfuehrbarkeit und des klinischen Nutzens der Gd-BOPTA-gestuetzten MR-Ausscheidungsurographie (MRU) ohne zusaetzliche Diuretikagabe im Vergleich zur konventionellen Ausscheidungsurographie. Methoden: 15 Patienten mit Beckentumoren wurden praeoperativ an einem 1.5 T-Ganzkoerpersystem mit Hilfe einer atemgehaltenen, hochaufloesenden 3D-FLASH-Sequenz unmittelbar nach intra-venoeser Applikation von 0,05 mmol/kg KG Gd-BOPTA (MultiHance {sup

  7. Contrast-enhanced MRA of the renal and aorto-iliac-femoral arteries: Comparison of gadobenate dimeglumine and gadofosveset trisodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iezzi, Roberto; Soulez, Gilles; Thurnher, Siegfried; Schneider, Guenther; Kirchin, Miles A.; Shen, Ningyan; Pirovano, Gianpaolo; Spinazzi, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Rationale and objectives: Dedicated contrast agents are now available for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA). This study retrospectively compares the safety and diagnostic performance data from Phase III regulatory trials performed to evaluate gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance) and gadofosveset trisodium (Vasovist) for renal and peripheral CE-MRA. Materials and methods: Similar examination and blinded assessment methodology was utilized in all studies to determine the safety and diagnostic performance of the agents for detection of significant (>50%) steno-occlusive disease. Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) was used as the standard of truth. Diagnostic performance data (sensitivity, specificity, predictive values [PVs], and likelihood ratios [LRs]) were compared (Chi-square test). Results: CE-MRA with gadobenate dimeglumine was more specific (92.4% vs. 80.5%, p < 0.0001) and accurate (83.6% vs. 77.1%, p = 0.022) than CE-MRA with gadofosveset in the detection of significant renal artery stenosis. The average sensitivity was higher for gadofosveset (74.4% vs. 67.3%, p = 0.011) in peripheral vessels although gadobenate dimeglumine was more specific (93.0% vs. 88.2%, p < 0.0001) with no difference in accuracy (86.6% vs. 86.3%, p = 0.66). PPVs were higher (p < 0.0001) for gadobenate dimeglumine in both vascular territories. Pre- to post-test shifts in the probability of detecting significant disease were greater after gadobenate dimeglumine. Adverse events in the renal and peripheral studies were reported by 9.2% and 7.7% of patients after gadobenate dimeglumine compared with 30.3% and 22.1% of patients after gadofosveset. Conclusion: The diagnostic performance of CE-MRA for the detection of significant steno-occlusive disease is similar with gadofosveset and gadobenate dimeglumine although the rate of adverse events appears higher with gadofosveset.

  8. Contrast-enhanced MRA of the renal and aorto-iliac-femoral arteries: Comparison of gadobenate dimeglumine and gadofosveset trisodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iezzi, Roberto [Department of Radiology, Universita G. D' Annunzio, Chieti (Italy); Soulez, Gilles [Centre Hospitalier de L' Universite De Montreal, Montreal (Quebec) (Canada); Thurnher, Siegfried [Department of Radiology, Hospital Brothers of St. John of God, Vienna (Austria); Schneider, Guenther [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Saarland, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Kirchin, Miles A., E-mail: miles.kirchin@bracco.com [Worldwide Medical and Regulatory Affairs, Bracco Imaging SpA, Via E. Folli, 50, Milan 20134 (Italy); Shen, Ningyan; Pirovano, Gianpaolo; Spinazzi, Alberto [Worldwide Medical and Regulatory Affairs, Bracco Diagnostics, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Rationale and objectives: Dedicated contrast agents are now available for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA). This study retrospectively compares the safety and diagnostic performance data from Phase III regulatory trials performed to evaluate gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance) and gadofosveset trisodium (Vasovist) for renal and peripheral CE-MRA. Materials and methods: Similar examination and blinded assessment methodology was utilized in all studies to determine the safety and diagnostic performance of the agents for detection of significant (>50%) steno-occlusive disease. Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) was used as the standard of truth. Diagnostic performance data (sensitivity, specificity, predictive values [PVs], and likelihood ratios [LRs]) were compared (Chi-square test). Results: CE-MRA with gadobenate dimeglumine was more specific (92.4% vs. 80.5%, p < 0.0001) and accurate (83.6% vs. 77.1%, p = 0.022) than CE-MRA with gadofosveset in the detection of significant renal artery stenosis. The average sensitivity was higher for gadofosveset (74.4% vs. 67.3%, p = 0.011) in peripheral vessels although gadobenate dimeglumine was more specific (93.0% vs. 88.2%, p < 0.0001) with no difference in accuracy (86.6% vs. 86.3%, p = 0.66). PPVs were higher (p < 0.0001) for gadobenate dimeglumine in both vascular territories. Pre- to post-test shifts in the probability of detecting significant disease were greater after gadobenate dimeglumine. Adverse events in the renal and peripheral studies were reported by 9.2% and 7.7% of patients after gadobenate dimeglumine compared with 30.3% and 22.1% of patients after gadofosveset. Conclusion: The diagnostic performance of CE-MRA for the detection of significant steno-occlusive disease is similar with gadofosveset and gadobenate dimeglumine although the rate of adverse events appears higher with gadofosveset.

  9. MR angiography of the carotid arteries and intracranial circulation: advantage of a high relaxivity contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzalone, N.; Scotti, R.; Iadanza, A.

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have shown the usefulness of contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) for imaging the supraortic vessels, and, as a consequence, it has rapidly become a routine imaging modality. The main advantage over unenhanced techniques is the possibility to acquire larger volumes, allowing demonstration of the carotid artery from its origin to the intracranial portion. Most published studies on CE-MRA of the carotid arteries have been performed with standard Gd-based chelates whose T1 relaxivity values are similar. Recently new gadolinium chelates such as gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOP-TA, MultiHance; Bracco Imaging, Milan, Italy) have been developed which have markedly higher intravascular T1 relaxivity values. When administered at an equivalent dose to that of a standard agent, these newer contrast agents produce significantly greater intravascular signal enhancement. The availability of an appropriate high-relaxivity contrast agent might also help to overcome some of the intrinsic technical problems (e. g. those related to flow) that affect time-of-flight (TOF) and phase contrast (PC) MR angiography of the intracranial vasculature. To avoid the problem of superimposition of veins, ultrafast gradient echo MRA techniques with very short TR and TE have been developed. Although the precise sequence parameters vary between manufacturers, they are basically similar. The choice between performing a time-resolved or high spatial resolution CE-MRA examination depends upon the precise clinical application. The most common applications include the study of cerebral aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, dural arteriovenous fistulas and dural venous diseases

  10. Population expanding with the phalanx model and lineages split by environmental heterogeneity: a case study of Primula obconica in subtropical China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Fei Yan

    Full Text Available Current and historical events have both affected the current distribution patterns and intraspecific divergence of plants. While numerous studies have focused on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP, the impacts of such events on the flora of subtropical China remain poorly understood. Subtropical China is famous for its highly complex topography and the limited impact from glaciation during the Pleistocene; this may have resulted in a different genetic legacy for species in this region compared to fully glaciated areas.We used plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data and distribution modeling to analyze the divergence patterns and demographic history of Primula obconica Hance, a widespread herbaceous montane species in subtropical China. The phylogenetic analysis revealed two major lineages (lineage A and lineage B, representing a west-east split into the Yunnan and Eastern groups, and the Sichuan and Central groups, respectively. The Eastern and Central groups comprised relatively new derived haplotypes. Nested Clade Analysis and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses both indicated that P. obconica mainly experienced a gradual expansion of populations. In addition, the simulated distribution of P. obconica during the Last Glacial Maximum was slightly larger than its present-day distribution.Our results are the first to identify a west-east migration of P. obconica. The gradual expansion pattern and a larger potential distribution range in cold periods detected for P. obconica indicate that the population expansion of this species is consistent with the phalanx model. In addition, the current patterns of genetic differentiation have persisted as a result of the extensive environmental heterogeneity that exists in subtropical China.

  11. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum basal levels is not affected by power training in mobility-limited older adults - A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvid, L G; Nielsen, M K F; Simonsen, C; Andersen, M; Caserotti, P

    2017-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potential important factor involved in neuroplasticity, and may be a mediator for eliciting adaptations in neuromuscular function and physical function in older individuals following physical training. As power training taxes the neural system to a very high extent, it may be particularly effective in terms of eliciting increases in systemic BDNF levels. We examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on mature BDNF (mBDNF) and total BDNF (tBDNF) in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 47 older men and women: n=22 in the training group (TG: progressive high intensity power training, 2 sessions per week; age 82.7±5.4years, 55% women) and n=25 in the control group (CG: no interventions; age 82.2±4.5years, 76% women). Following overnight fasting, basal serum levels of mBDNF and tBDNF were assessed (human ELISA kits) at baseline and post-intervention. At baseline, mBDNF and tBDNF levels were comparable in the two groups, TG and CG. Post-intervention, no significant within-group or between-group changes were observed in mBDNF or tBDNF. Moreover, when divided into responder tertiles based upon changes in mBDNF and tBDNF (i.e. decliners, maintainers, improvers), respectively, comparable findings were observed for TG and CG. Altogether, basal systemic levels of serum mBDNF and tBDNF are not affected in mobility-limited older adults following 12-weeks of power training, and do not appear to be a major mechanistic factor mediating neuroplasticity in mobility-limited older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 5-Methoxyl Aesculetin Abrogates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation by Suppressing MAPK and AP-1 Pathways in RAW 264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, a pale amorphous coumarin derivative, 5-methoxyl aesculetin (MOA, was isolated from the dried bark of Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance (Oleaceae. MOA modulates cytokine expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, but the precise mechanisms are still not fully understood. We determined the effects of MOA on the production of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the LPS-induced inflammatory responses of RAW 264.7 macrophages. MOA significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β. It also effectively attenuated inducible nitric oxide (NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and TNF-α mRNA expression and significantly decreased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species. It inhibited phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2, thus blocking nuclear translocation of activation protein (AP-1. In a molecular docking study, MOA was shown to target the binding site of ERK via the formation of three hydrogen bonds with two residues of the kinase, which is sufficient for the inhibition of ERK. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of MOA in RAW 264.7 macrophages derive from its ability to block both the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs and one of their downstream transcription factors, activator protein-1 (AP-1. Our observations support the need for further research into MOA as a promising therapeutic agent in inflammatory diseases.

  13. Structure and interactions in biomaterials based on membrane-biopolymer self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltover, Ilya

    Physical and chemical properties of artificial pure lipid membranes have been extensively studied during the last two decades and are relatively well understood. However, most real membrane systems of biological and biotechnological importance incorporate macromolecules either embedded into the membranes or absorbed onto their surfaces. We have investigated three classes of self-assembled membrane-biopolymer biomaterials: (i) Structure, interactions and stability of the two-dimensional crystals of the integral membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR). We have conducted a synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of oriented bR multilayers. The important findings were as follows: (1) the protein 2D lattice exhibited diffraction patterns characteristic of a 2D solid with power-law decay of in-plane positional correlations, which allowed to measure the elastic constants of protein crystal; (2) The crystal melting temperature was a function of the multilayer hydration, reflecting the effect of inter-membrane repulsion on the stability of protein lattice; (3) Preparation of nearly perfect (mosaicity gene therapy applications. We have established that DNA complexes with cationic lipid (DOTAP) and a neutral lipid (DOPC) have a compact multilayer liquid crystalline structure ( L ca ) with DNA intercalated between the lipid bilayers in a periodic 2D smectic phase. Furthermore, a different 2D columnar phase of complexes was found in mixtures with a transfectionen-hancing lipid DOPE. This structure ( HcII ) derived from synchrotron x-ray diffraction consists of DNA coated by cationic lipid monolayers and arranged on a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice. Optical microscopy revealed that the L ca complexes bind stably to anionic vesicles (models of cellular membranes), whereas the more transfectant HcII complexes are unstable, rapidly fusing and releasing DNA upon adhering to anionic vesicles.

  14. Quantitative determination of salvinorin A, a natural hallucinogen with abuse liability, in Internet-available Salvia divinorum and endemic species of Salvia in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Xiang Lin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, recreational use of Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae, a herbal drug that contains a hallucinogenic ingredient, salvinorin A, has become a new phenomenon among young drug users. In Taiwan, as in many other countries, dry leaves of S. divinorum and its related concentrated extract products are available via the Internet. Besides S. divinorum, there are many endemic Salvia species whose salvinorin A content is yet unknown. To understand the abuse liability of these products, the aim of this study was to assess the concentration of salvinorin A in endemic Salvia species and Internet-available salvinorin A-related products. Samples of S. divinorum were purchased via the Internet and samples of eight endemic species of Salvia were collected in Taiwan, including S. arisanensis Hayata, S. coccinea Juss. ex Murr, S. hayatana Makino ex Hayata, S. japonica Thumb. ex Murr, S. nipponica Miq. Var. formosana (Hayata Kudo, S. scapiformis Hance, S. tashiroi Hayata. Icon. PI. Formosan, and S. keitaoensis Hayata. The content of salvinorin A was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Salvinorin A was extracted from the dry leaves of S. divinorum and endemic species of Salvia with methanol and analyzed on a C-18 column by isocratic elution with a mobile phase of acetonitrile–water. Salvinorin A was detected in S. divinorum, but not in the endemic Salvia species of Taiwan. Therefore, endemic species of Salvia in Taiwan may not possess hallucinogenic potential. However, the potential harm from S. divinorum available via the Internet should be thoroughly assessed in Taiwan, and control measures similar to those implemented in many other countries should be considered.

  15. Protective effect of galangin in Concanavalin A- induced hepatitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Q

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Qingqiong Luo,1,* Liping Zhu,1,* Jieying Ding,1 Xing Zhuang,1 Lili Xu,2 Fuxiang Chen1 1Department of Clinical Immunology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, 2Division of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Galangin is an active pharmacological ingredient from propolis and Alpinia officinarum Hance, and has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The present study aims to reveal the effect of galangin on Concanavalin A (ConA-induced hepatitis (CIH, a well-established animal model of immune-mediated liver injury, and to clarify the related mechanism. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with galangin followed by ConA challenge. Results indicated that galangin inhibited ConA-induced liver damage. Mice pretreated with galangin showed more reduction of liver damage when compared with control mice pretreated with vehicle solution. In galangin-pretreated mice with induced CIH, increases in serum levels of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin-12 were dramatically attenuated, and chemokines and adhesion molecules like interferon inducible protein-10, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 messenger RNA expressions in liver were decreased. Moreover, CIH mice pretreated with galangin showed less leukocyte infiltration and T-cell activation in the liver. Further, the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effects of galangin may be attributed to its modulation of crucial inflammatory signaling pathways, including nuclear factor kappa B and interferon-gamma/signal transducer and activator of transcription 1. Collectively, these findings suggest the preventive and therapeutic potential of galangin in immune-mediated liver injury in vivo. Keywords: galangin, Concanavalin A

  16. By Improving Regional Cortical Blood Flow, Attenuating Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Sequential Apoptosis Galangin Acts as a Potential Neuroprotective Agent after Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Cheng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is a devastating disease with a complex pathophysiology. Galangin is a natural flavonoid isolated from the rhizome of Alpina officinarum Hance, which has been widely used as an antioxidant agent. However, its effects against ischemic stroke have not been reported and its related neuroprotective mechanism has not really been explored. In this study, neurological behavior, cerebral infarct volumes and the improvement of the regional cortical blood flow (rCBF were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of galangin in rats impaired by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO-induced focal cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, the determination of mitochondrial function and Western blot of apoptosis-related proteins were performed to interpret the neuroprotective mechanism of galangin. The results showed that galangin alleviated the neurologic impairments, reduced cerebral infarct at 24 h after MCAO and exerted a protective effect on the mitochondria with decreased production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS. These effects were consistent with improvements in the membrane potential level (Dym, membrane fluidity, and degree of mitochondrial swelling in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, galangin significantly improved the reduced rCBF after MCAO. Western blot analysis revealed that galangin also inhibited apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner concomitant with the up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression, down-regulation of Bax expression and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, a reduction in cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol, the reduced expression of activated caspase-3 and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. All these data in this study demonstrated that galangin might have therapeutic potential for ischemic stroke and play its protective role through the improvement in rCBF, mitochondrial protection and inhibiting caspase-dependent mitochondrial cell death pathway for the first time.

  17. Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in the Russian Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed.

  18. Utilization of lightflecks by seedlings of five dominant tree species of different subtropical forest successional stages under low-light growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q; Chen, Y J; Song, L Y; Liu, N; Sun, L L; Peng, C L

    2012-05-01

    We selected five typical tree species, including one early-successional species (ES) Pinus massoniana Lamb., two mid-successional species (MS) Schima superba Gardn. et Champ. and Castanopsis fissa (Champ. ex Benth.) Rehd. et Wils. and two late-successional species (LS) Cryptocarya concinna Hance. and Acmena acuminatissima (BI.) Merr et Perry., which represent the plants at three successional periods in Dinghushan subtropical forest succession of southern China. Potted seedlings of the five species were grown under 12% of full sunlight for 36 months. The ES and MS showed the slowest and fastest responses to lightflecks, respectively, which correlated with the rate of stomatal opening. In contrast to P. massoniana and C. concinna, the other three species exhibited a high induction loss. Early-successional species showed the lowest specific leaf area and chlorophyll content, the highest photosynthetic capacity (A(max)) and respiratory carbon losses (R(d)). Compared with ES and MS, LS showed lower A(max) and R(d). The five tree species showed a similar chlorophyll a/b ratio after long-term low-light adaptations. On the other hand, LS had a relatively higher de-epoxidation state to protect themselves from excess light during lightflecks. Our results indicated that (i) slower responses to lightflecks could partially explain why ES species could not achieve seedling regeneration in low-light conditions; (ii) fast responses to lightflecks could partially explain why MS species could achieve seedling regeneration in low-light conditions; and (iii) smaller respiratory carbon losses might confer on the LS species a competitive advantage in low-light conditions.

  19. 5-Methoxyl Aesculetin Abrogates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation by Suppressing MAPK and AP-1 Pathways in RAW 264.7 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Li, Xueqin; Wu, Haifeng; Long, Wei; Jiang, Xiaojian; Shen, Ting; Qiang, Qian; Si, Chuanling; Wang, Xinfeng; Jiang, Yunyao; Hu, Weicheng

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, a pale amorphous coumarin derivative, 5-methoxyl aesculetin (MOA), was isolated from the dried bark of Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance (Oleaceae). MOA modulates cytokine expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, but the precise mechanisms are still not fully understood. We determined the effects of MOA on the production of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the LPS-induced inflammatory responses of RAW 264.7 macrophages. MOA significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β. It also effectively attenuated inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and TNF-α mRNA expression and significantly decreased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species. It inhibited phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), thus blocking nuclear translocation of activation protein (AP)-1. In a molecular docking study, MOA was shown to target the binding site of ERK via the formation of three hydrogen bonds with two residues of the kinase, which is sufficient for the inhibition of ERK. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of MOA in RAW 264.7 macrophages derive from its ability to block both the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and one of their downstream transcription factors, activator protein-1 (AP-1). Our observations support the need for further research into MOA as a promising therapeutic agent in inflammatory diseases. PMID:26938526

  20. By improving regional cortical blood flow, attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and sequential apoptosis galangin acts as a potential neuroprotective agent after acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaojing; Wu, Chuanhong; Zhu, Li; Gao, Jian; Fang, Jing; Li, Defeng; Fu, Meihong; Liang, Rixin; Wang, Lan; Cheng, Ming; Yang, Hongjun

    2012-11-09

    Ischemic stroke is a devastating disease with a complex pathophysiology. Galangin is a natural flavonoid isolated from the rhizome of Alpina officinarum Hance, which has been widely used as an antioxidant agent. However, its effects against ischemic stroke have not been reported and its related neuroprotective mechanism has not really been explored. In this study, neurological behavior, cerebral infarct volumes and the improvement of the regional cortical blood flow (rCBF) were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of galangin in rats impaired by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced focal cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, the determination of mitochondrial function and Western blot of apoptosis-related proteins were performed to interpret the neuroprotective mechanism of galangin. The results showed that galangin alleviated the neurologic impairments, reduced cerebral infarct at 24 h after MCAO and exerted a protective effect on the mitochondria with decreased production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). These effects were consistent with improvements in the membrane potential level (Dym), membrane fluidity, and degree of mitochondrial swelling in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, galangin significantly improved the reduced rCBF after MCAO. Western blot analysis revealed that galangin also inhibited apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner concomitant with the up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression, down-regulation of Bax expression and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, a reduction in cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol, the reduced expression of activated caspase-3 and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). All these data in this study demonstrated that galangin might have therapeutic potential for ischemic stroke and play its protective role through the improvement in rCBF, mitochondrial protection and inhibiting caspase-dependent mitochondrial cell death pathway for the first time.

  1. Objective evaluation of acute adverse events and image quality of gadolinium-based contrast agents (gadobutrol and gadobenate dimeglumine) by blinded evaluation. Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semelka, Richard C; Hernandes, Mateus de A; Stallings, Clifton G; Castillo, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to objectively evaluate a recently FDA-approved gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) in comparison to our standard GBCA for acute adverse events and image quality by blinded evaluation. Evaluation was made of a recently FDA-approved GBCA, gadobutrol (Gadavist; Bayer), in comparison to our standard GBCA, gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance; Bracco), in an IRB- and HIPAA-compliant study. Both the imaging technologist and patient were not aware of the brand of the GBCA used. A total of 59 magnetic resonance studies were evaluated (59 patients, 31 men, 28 women, age range of 5-85 years, mean age of 52 years). Twenty-nine studies were performed with gadobutrol (22 abdominal and 7 brain studies), and 30 studies were performed with gadobenate dimeglumine (22 abdominal and 8 brain studies). Assessment was made of acute adverse events focusing on objective observations of vomiting, hives, and moderate and severe reactions. Adequacy of enhancement was rated as poor, fair and good by one of two experienced radiologists who were blinded to the type of agent evaluated. No patient experienced acute adverse events with either agent. The target minor adverse events of vomiting or hives, and moderate and severe reactions were not observed in any patient. Adequacy of enhancement was rated as good for both agents in all patients. Objective, blinded evaluation is feasible and readily performable for the evaluation of GBCAs. This proof-of-concept study showed that both GBCAs evaluated exhibited consistent good image quality and no noteworthy adverse events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of brain metastases by means of dynamic susceptibility contrast enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopp, M.; Wenz, F.; Debus, J.; Hentrich, H.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: To assess if pre therapeutic measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and volume (rCVB) are able to predict the response of brain metastases to radiation therapy and to assess the influence of radiosurgery on rCBF and rCBV on brain metastases and normal surrounding tissue. We examined 25 patients with brain metastases prior to high dose radiosurgery with conventional T1 and T2 weighted MRI and dynamic susceptibility contrast enhanced MRI (DSC MRI). For DSC MRI 55 T2*w GE images of two sections were acquired after bolus administration of 0.1 mmol/kg gadoteridol (ProHance) for the simultaneous measurement of brain feeding arteries and brain tissue. This allowed an absolute quantification of rCBF and rCBV. Follow-up examinations were performed 6 weeks and 3 months after radiotherapy and the acquired perfusion data were related to a 3 point scale of treatment outcome. Radiosurgery was performed by a linear accelerator with a 80% isodose of 18-20 Gv. For treatment planning the heads of the patients were immobilized by a cask mask to avoid head movement. DSC MRI was able to assess perfusion data in all patients. Higher pre therapeutic rCBV seems to predict a poor treatment outcome. After radiosurgery patients with tumor remission and stable disease presented a decrease of rCBV over time regardless of temporary tumor volume increase. Patients with tumor progression at the 3 month followup presented an increase of rCBV. Effects on normal surrounding tissue could not be observed. DSC MRI using Gadoteridol allows the non-invasive assessment of rCBV and rCBF of brain metastases and its changes due to radiosurgery. The method may also be able to predict treatment outcome. Furthermore radiofrequency effects on surrounding unaffected tissue can be monitored. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  3. Tumor shrinkage assessed by volumetric MRI in the long-term follow-up after stereotactic radiotherapy of meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astner, Sabrina T.; Theodorou, Marilena; Dobrei-Ciuchendea, Mihaela; Kopp, Christine; Molls, Michael [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany); Auer, Florian [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany); Grosu, Anca-Ligia [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Hospital Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate tumor volume reduction in the follow-up of meningiomas after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) or linac radiosurgery (RS) by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients and Methods: In 59 patients with skull base meningiomas, gross tumor volume (GTV) was outlined on contrast-en-hanced MRI before and median 50 months (range 11-92 months) after stereotactic radiotherapy. MRI was performed as an axial three-dimensional gradient-echo T1-weighted sequence at 1.6 mm slice thickness without gap (3D-MRI). Results were compared to the reports of diagnostic findings. Results: Mean tumor size of all 59 meningiomas was 13.9 ml (0.8-62.9 ml) before treatment. There was shrinkage of the treated meningiomas in all but one patient. Within a median volumetric follow-up of 50 months (11-95 months), an absolute mean volume reduction of 4 ml (0-18 ml) was seen. The mean relative size reduction compared to the volume before radiotherapy was 27% (0-73%). Shrinkage measured by 3D-MRI was greater at longer time intervals after radiotherapy. The mean size reduction was 17%, 23%, and 30% (at < 24 months, 24-48 months, and 48-72 months). Conclusion: By using 3D-MRI in almost all patients undergoing radiotherapy of a meningioma, tumor shrinkage is detected. The data presented here demonstrate that volumetric assessment from 3D-MRI provides additional information to routinely used radiologic response measurements. After FSRT or RS, a mean size reduction of 25-45% can be expected within 4 years. (orig.)

  4. Dieta de Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae en un bosque templado del norte de Oaxaca: México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela González

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La región de la Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, ubicada al norte del estado de Oaxaca, México, es una zona de ecosistemas con alta actividad forestal; en algunas áreas sus bosques templados son conservados por iniciativas de las comunidades indígenas que ahí habitan. Dentro de estos bosques, se analizó la dieta del venado cola blanca (Odocoileus virginianus en San Miguel Amatlán y Santa Catarina Lachatao entre junio 1998 y agosto 1999. Se utilizó el análisis microhistológico de heces fecales, la observación de rastros de ramoneo en plantas y el análisis de contenidos estomacales. La dieta anual estuvo constituida por 42 especies de 23 familias vegetales. Las familias con el mayor número de especies fueron: Fagaceae, Asteraceae, Ericaceae y Fabaceae. La diversidad de la dieta durante la estación húmeda y seca no presentó diferencias significativas (H’= 0.918 y H’=0.867 respectivamente. El porcentaje de similitud entre ambas temporadas fue de 58%. La diferencia entre la frecuencia de aparición de las especies vegetales fue mayor en la estación húmeda. Del total de especies consumidas, el mayor porcentaje estuvo constituido por las herbáceas. Las especies preferidas a lo largo del año fueron: Sedum dendroideum (herbácea y Satureja macrostema (arbusto. La riqueza de especies en la dieta fue menor a la observada en otras regiones con bosques tropicales y bosques mixtos, pero similar a la obtenida en un bosque tropical seco en Costa Rica y en los bosques de coníferas en Estados Unidos.Odocoileus virginianus diet (Artiodactyla: Cervidae in a temperate forest of Northern Oaxaca, Mexico. The Sierra Madre de Oaxaca region, located in the Northern state of Oaxaca, Mexico, is an area of forest ecosystems subject to high exploitation rates, although in some areas its temperate forests are conserved by indigenous community initiatives that live there. We analyzed the diet of white tailed-deer (Odocoileus virginianus in the localities of

  5. Stormwater runoff mitigation and nutrient leaching from a green roof designed to attract native pollinating insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, S.; Grogan, D. S.; Hale, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    A green roof is typically installed for one of two reasons: to mitigate the 'urban heat island' effect, reducing ambient temperatures and creating energy savings, or to reduce both the quantity and intensity of stormwater runoff, which is a major cause of river erosion and eutrophication. The study of green roofs in the United States has focused on commercial systems that use a proprietary expanded shale or clay substrate, along with succulent desert plants (mainly Sedum species). The green roof has the potential not only to provide thermal insulation and reduce storm runoff, but also to reclaim some of the natural habitat that has been lost to the built environment. Of special importance is the loss of habitat for pollinating insects, particularly native bees, which have been in decline for at least two decades. These pollinators are essential for crop production and for the reproduction of at least 65% of wild plants globally. Our study involves the installation of a small (4ft by 4ft), self-designed green roof system built with readily available components from a hardware store. The garden will be filled with a soilless potting mix, combined with 15% compost, and planted with grasses and wildflowers native to the Seacoast, New Hampshire region. Some of the plant species are used by bees for nesting materials, while others provide food in the form of nectar, pollen, and seeds for bees, butterflies, hummingbirds, and granivorous birds. We monitor precipitation on the roof and runoff from the garden on a per storm basis, and test grab samples of runoff for dissolved organic nitrogen and phosphorous. Runoff and nutrient concentration results are compared to a non-vegetated roof surface, and a proprietary Green Grid green roof system. This project is designed to address three main questions of interest: 1) Can these native plant species, which potentially provide greater ecosystem services than Sedum spp. in the form of food and habitat, survive in the conditions on

  6. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gerasimyuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominant family of the flora of Odessa’s cemeteries is Asteraceae. There are other leading families such as Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae. Herbs and trees are dominant among the life forms. Mesophytes and kseromezophytes are in the majority among hihromorphs. Heliophytes are on the first place by adapting to the light. Our results showed that the adventitious plants occupy up to 44% of all amount of plants at the cemeteries in Odessa. Kenophytes is a dominant group among them. Floragenetics analysis revealed the dominance of the plants from Asia. There have been allocated plants that were met at all six cemeteries independently of the location religious and age characteristics of the cemetery. "Core" of the flora of Odessa’s cemetery have made weed Acer negundo L., Ballota nigra L. and decorative Hedera helix L., Centaurea dealbata Willd., Buxus sempervirens L., Convallaria majalis L., Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch., Thuja occidentalis L., Hemerocalis fulva (L. L. There were found 4 species of plants that belong to the rare and endangered plants of Odessa’s region: Convallaria majalis L., Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur, Clematis integrifolia L., Paeonia tenuifolia L. Moreover Convallaria majalis L. grows on all six investigated cemeteries. Also two species: Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur and Clematis Keywords: cemeteries, Odessa, flora, plants, ekobiomorphs.

  7. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominant family of the flora of Odessa’s cemeteries is Asteraceae. There are other leading families such as Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae. Herbs and trees are dominant among the life forms. Mesophytes and kseromezophytes are in the majority among hihromorphs. Heliophytes are on the first place by adapting to the light. Our results showed that the adventitious plants occupy up to 44% of all amount of plants at the cemeteries in Odessa. Kenophytes is a dominant group among them. Floragenetics analysis revealed the dominance of the plants from Asia. There have been allocated plants that were met at all six cemeteries independently of the location religious and age characteristics of the cemetery. "Core" of the flora of Odessa’s cemetery have made weed Acer negundo L., Ballota nigra L. and decorative Hedera helix L., Centaurea dealbata Willd., Buxus sempervirens L., Convallaria majalis L., Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch., Thuja occidentalis L., Hemerocalis fulva (L. L. There were found 4 species of plants that belong to the rare and endangered plants of Odessa’s region: Convallaria majalis L., Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur, Clematis integrifolia L., Paeonia tenuifolia L. Moreover Convallaria majalis L. grows on all six investigated cemeteries. Also two species: Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur and Clematis

  8. Vegetation growth parameters and leaf temperature: Experimental results from a six plots green roofs' system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrante, Patrizia; La Gennusa, Maria; Peri, Giorgia; Rizzo, Gianfranco; Scaccianoce, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    The paper provides a contribution for populating database of three physical parameters needed to model energy performance of buildings with green roofs: “coverage ratio” (σ_f), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf temperature (T_f). On purpose, six plant species were investigated experimentally: Phyla nordiflora, Aptenia lancifolia, Mesembryanthenum barbatus, Gazania nivea, Gazania uniflora, and Sedum. Proper ranges of the cited parameters have been found for each species. The here indicated ranges of σ_f values refer to different growth levels of the species in the same lapse of time, that is four months. Single measured LAI values are also reported for the same plants. As for the T_f (upper and lower layer), ranges of revealed temperatures refer to those detected from 10:30 a.m. to 16:30 p.m. of a selected day. Additionally, the dependence of T_f on climatic parameters was investigated. A linear equation resulted the best fitting curve for all experimental T_f data and the corresponding solar radiation data (with autocorrelation coefficients between 0.80 and 0.98). Furthermore, the effect potentially produced on building energy consumption by these species was analyzed using a simulation tool. Estimated cooling energy savings range approximately between 8% and 20% depending on adopted plants. - Highlights: • Green roof modeling requires the knowledge of various physical parameters. • Coverage ratio, leaf area index and leaves temperatures were measured for six species. • A tentative correlation between leaf temperature and climatic parameters was shown. • A correlation between LAI and coverage ratio was checked and discussed. • Potential effects of studied species on building energy consumption were investigated.

  9. Being the first kid on the block : installing a green roof in an emerging market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoll, C. [The Green Inst., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The Green Institute is an organization dedicated to improving the environment and creating employment opportunities in Minneapolis. This paper provided details of the institute's 2004 installation of a green roof system on the Phillips Eco-Enterprise Center, which was built by the institute in 1999. The building design included geo-exchange heating and cooling, an active day-lighting system, and an energy recovery ventilator. Structural support for a green roof was added during construction. While the rooftop structure was initially designed as an intensive green rooftop, the institute eventually decided to create an extensive green roof system combined with a deck area for visitors. The design of the green roof included a circular central gathering area with spokes. A mixture of sedums were planted, as well as plants native to Minnesota river bluff prairies. A variety of species were planted in order to determine which plant varieties would succeed. This paper provided technical details of the green roof's installation, as well as details of the organizational and administrative procedures required to orchestrate the different contractors and volunteers involved in the project. Details of the materials used for the construction of the roof were also included. The rooftop was opened to the public in 2005, and building tenants currently use the green roof for meetings, lunches and breaks. Television news stations have visited the roof, which is also visible to passengers on the Minneapolis light rail transit line. The Green Institute has continued to promote green roof market development in the city with a variety of green roof events, symposiums and workshops. The institute has also been successful in implementing a credit system to reduce stormwater utility fees for buildings with green roofs.

  10. Changes in metal mobility assessed by EDTA kinetic extraction in three polluted soils after repeated phytoremediation using a cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Phytoextraction is one of the most promising technologies for the decontamination of metal-polluted agricultural soils. Effects of repeated phytoextraction by the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola on metal (Cd, Zn, copper (Cu) and lead (Pb)) mobility were investigated in three contaminated soils with contrasting properties. EDTA kinetic extraction and the two first-order reactions model showed advantages in the assessment of soil metal mobility and clearly discriminated changes in metal fractions induced by phytoextraction. Repeated phytoextraction led to large decreases in readily labile (Q 1 0 ) and less labile (Q 2 0 ) fractions of Cd and Zn in all three soils with the sole exception of an increase in the Q 2 0 of Zn in the highly polluted soil. However, Q 1 0 fractions of soil Cu and Pb showed apparent increases with the sole exception of Pb in the acid polluted soil but showed a higher desorption rate constant (k 1 ). Furthermore, S. plumbizincicola decreased the non-labile fraction (Q 3 0 ) of all metals tested, indicating that the hyperaccumulator can redistribute soil metals from non-labile to labile fractions. This suggests that phytoextraction decreased the mobility of the metals hyperaccumulated by the plant (Cd and Zn) but increased the mobility of the metals not hyperaccumulated (Cu and Pb). Thus, phytoextraction of soils contaminated with mixtures of metals must be performed carefully because of potential increases in the mobility of non-hyperaccumulated metals in the soil and the consequent environmental risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Establishment and performance of an experimental green roof under extreme climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Petra M; Coffman, Reid

    2015-04-15

    Green roofs alter the surface energy balance and can help in mitigating urban heat islands. However, the cooling of green roofs due to evapotranspiration strongly depends on the climatic conditions, and vegetation type and density. In the Southern Central Plains of the United States, extreme weather events, such as high winds, heat waves and drought conditions pose challenges for successful implementation of green roofs, and likely alter their standard performance. The National Weather Center Experimental Green Roof, an interdisciplinary research site established in 2010 in Norman, OK, aimed to investigate the ecological performance and surface energy balance of green roof systems. Starting in May 2010, 26 months of vegetation studies were conducted and the radiation balance, air temperature, relative humidity, and buoyancy fluxes were monitored at two meteorological stations during April-October 2011. The establishment of a vegetative community trended towards prairie plant dominance. High mortality of succulents and low germination of grasses and herbaceous plants contributed to low vegetative coverage. In this condition succulent diversity declined. Bouteloua gracilis and Delosperma cooperi showed typological dominance in harsh climatic conditions, while Sedum species experienced high mortality. The plant community diversified through volunteers such as Euphorbia maculate and Portulaca maculate. Net radiation measured at a green-roof meteorological station was higher than at a control station over the original, light-colored roofing material. These findings indicate that the albedo of the green roof was lower than the albedo of the original roofing material. The low vegetative coverage during the heat and drought conditions in 2011, which resulted in the dark substrate used in the green roof containers being exposed, likely contributed to the low albedo values. Nevertheless, air temperatures and buoyancy fluxes were often lower over the green roof indicating

  12. Historical flora of Moscow’s Railway Junction (until 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinogradova Yulia Konstantinovna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article touches upon the biodiversity at the railways. The list of species found within the Moscow Railways (≈300 km from 1851 until today has been compiled based on herbarium data [MHA, MW, LE] and personal observations conducted in 1980-2016. The list of “railways’ flora” includes 1087 taxa from 447 genera of 94 families – this is significantly higher than what is known for the railroads of other regions. A brief comparative analysis with the “railways’ flora” in other regions of the world in respect of the species number, taxonomy and life form spectrum has been performed. The therophytes absolutely prevail in the life-form spectrum (46 percent. The role of the railways as a pathway for alien species has been confirmed. Around 54 percent of all alien plants recorded for the Moscow Region (Moscow and Moscow Region grow along the railways. Several species new for the former USSR territory was found there, as well as many species new for the Moscow Region. The Railways are not only “donors/sources” of alien species, they also act as a refugee area for “the escapees”: over 30 years, Asclepias syriaca has been growing within the section of the Kursk-Moscow railway located near the All-Russian Research Institute of Medical and Aromatic Plants. Galega officinalis, a specie that forms a 200 m2 area of tangled vegetation, was found there, too. A trend when plants fall out of cultivation was established, this is how Sedum hispanicum and S. album emerged. The article also marks the role of the rail slopes as a refugium of rare and endangered plants of the natural flora: some 35 species included in the Red Book of Moscow were found within the area.

  13. Biochar increases plant growth and alters microbial communities via regulating the moisture and temperature of green roof substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haoming; Ma, Jinyi; Wei, Jiaxing; Gong, Xin; Yu, Xichen; Guo, Hui; Zhao, Yanwen

    2018-09-01

    Green roofs have increasingly been designed and applied to relieve environmental problems, such as water loss, air pollution as well as heat island effect. Substrate and vegetation are important components of green roofs providing ecosystem services and benefiting the urban development. Biochar made from sewage sludge could be potentially used as the substrate amendment for green roofs, however, the effects of biochar on substrate quality and plant performance in green roofs are still unclear. We evaluated the effects of adding sludge biochar (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, v/v) to natural soil planted with three types of plant species (ryegrass, Sedum lineare and cucumber) on soil properties, plant growth and microbial communities in both green roof and ground ecosystems. Our results showed that sludge biochar addition significantly increased substrate moisture, adjusted substrate temperature, altered microbial community structure and increased plant growth. The application rate of 10-15% sludge biochar on the green roof exerted the most significant effects on both microbial and plant biomass by 63.9-89.6% and 54.0-54.2% respectively. Path analysis showed that biochar addition had a strong effect on microbial biomass via changing the soil air-filled porosity, soil moisture and temperature, and promoted plant growth through the positive effects on microbial biomass. These results suggest that the applications of biochar at an appropriate rate can significantly alter plant growth and microbial community structure, and increase the ecological benefits of green roofs via exerting effects on the moisture, temperature and nutrients of roof substrates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance evaluation of five Mediterranean species to optimize ecosystem services of green roofs under water-limited conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeñas, V; Janner, I; Medrano, H; Gulías, J

    2018-04-15

    Rapid urban growth in Mediterranean cities has become a serious environmental concern. Due to this expansion, which covers adjacent horizontal ground, a critical deficit of green areas has been increasing. Moreover, irrigation is considered an important issue since water is one of the most limiting natural resources all over the world. The main objective of this study was to perform a long-term experiment to assess five Mediterranean species for extensive green roof implementation in Mediterranean-climate conditions. Brachypodium phoenicoides, Crithmum maritimum, Limonium virgatum, Sedum sediforme and Sporobolus pungens were grown in experimental modules under well-watered and water-limited conditions (irrigation at 50% and 25% ET 0 , respectively). Plant growth and cover, relative appearance, color evolution and water use were determined periodically for two years. Shoot and root biomass were quantified at the end of the experimental period. The effects of the irrigation treatments and seasonal changes were assessed to identify the advantages and disadvantages of each species according to their environmental performance. All species survived and showed adequate esthetic performance and plant cover during the experiment. S. sediforme registered the lowest variation of relative appearance along the experiment, the highest biomass production and the lowest water consumption. Nevertheless, B. phoenicoides appeared to be an interesting alternative to S. sediforme, showing high esthetic performance and water consumption throughout the rainy season, suggesting a potential role of this species in stormwater regulation related with runoff reduction. S. pungens performed well in summer but presented poor esthetics during winter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Simulation of green roof runoff under different substrate depths and vegetation covers by coupling a simple conceptual and a physically based hydrological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulis, Konstantinos X; Valiantzas, John D; Ntoulas, Nikolaos; Kargas, George; Nektarios, Panayiotis A

    2017-09-15

    In spite of the well-known green roof benefits, their widespread adoption in the management practices of urban drainage systems requires the use of adequate analytical and modelling tools. In the current study, green roof runoff modeling was accomplished by developing, testing, and jointly using a simple conceptual model and a physically based numerical simulation model utilizing HYDRUS-1D software. The use of such an approach combines the advantages of the conceptual model, namely simplicity, low computational requirements, and ability to be easily integrated in decision support tools with the capacity of the physically based simulation model to be easily transferred in conditions and locations other than those used for calibrating and validating it. The proposed approach was evaluated with an experimental dataset that included various green roof covers (either succulent plants - Sedum sediforme, or xerophytic plants - Origanum onites, or bare substrate without any vegetation) and two substrate depths (either 8 cm or 16 cm). Both the physically based and the conceptual models matched very closely the observed hydrographs. In general, the conceptual model performed better than the physically based simulation model but the overall performance of both models was sufficient in most cases as it is revealed by the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency index which was generally greater than 0.70. Finally, it was showcased how a physically based and a simple conceptual model can be jointly used to allow the use of the simple conceptual model for a wider set of conditions than the available experimental data and in order to support green roof design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Odocoileus virginianus diet (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in a temperate forest of Northern Oaxaca, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Graciela; Briones-Salas, Miguel

    2012-03-01

    The Sierra Madre de Oaxaca region, located in the Northern state of Oaxaca, Mexico, is an area of forest ecosystems subject to high exploitation rates, although in some areas its temperate forests are conserved by indigenous community initiatives that live there. We analyzed the diet of white tailed-deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the localities of Santa Catarina Lachatao and San Miguel Amatlán from June 1998 to August 1999. Sampling was done during both the wet and dry seasons, and included the observation of browsing traces (238 observations), microhistological analysis of deer feces (28 deer pellet-groups), and two stomach content analysis. The annual diet of white-tailed deer was composed of 42 species from 23 botanical families. The most represented families in the diet of this deer were Fagaceae, Asteraceae, Ericaceae and Fabaceae. There were significant differences in the alpha diversity of the diet during the wet and dry seasons (H'=2.957 and H'=1.832, respectively). The similarity percentage between seasons was 56%. Differences in plant species frequency were significantly higher during the wet season. Herbaceous plants made up the greatest percentage of all the species consumed. The preferred species throughout the year were Senecio sp. (shrub), Sedum dendroideum (herbaceous), Arctostaphylos pungens (shrub) and Satureja macrostema (shrub). Diet species richness was found to be lower than that observed in a tropical forest (Venezuela), tropical dry forest (Mexico) and temperate deciduous and mixed forest (Mexico), but similar to the diet species richness observed in a tropical dry forest (Costa Rica) and temperate coniferous and deciduous forests (USA).

  17. Phylogenetic relationships and evolution of Crassulaceae inferred from matK sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mort, Mark E.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Francisco-Ortega, Javier; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo

    2001-01-01

    Chloroplast gene matK sequence data were used to estimate the phylogeny of 112 species of Crassulaceae sampled from 33 genera and all six recognized subfamilies. Our analyses suggest that five of six subfamilies recognized in the most recent comprehensive classification of the family are not monophyletic. Instead, we recovered a basal split in Crassulaceae between the southern African CRASSULA: clade (Crassuloideae) and the rest of the family (Sedoideae). These results are compatible with recent studies of cpDNA restriction site analyses. Within Sedoideae, four subclades were also recovered: KALANCHOE:, Leucosedum, Acre, and AEONIUM:; evidence also exists for a TELEPHIUM: clade and SEMPERVIVUM: clade. The genus SEDUM: is highly polyphyletic with representatives spread throughout the large Sedoideae clade. Sympetaly and polymerous flowers have arisen multiple times in Crassulaceae and thus are not appropriate characters upon which to base subfamilial limits, as has been done in the past. One floral character, haplostemy, appears to be confined to the well-supported CRASSULA: clade. Our analyses suggest a southern African origin of the family, with subsequent dispersal northward into the Mediterranean region. From there, the family spread to Asia/eastern Europe and northern Europe; two separate lineages of European Crassulaceae subsequently dispersed to North America and underwent substantial diversification. Our analyses also suggest that the original base chromosome number in Crassulaceae is x = 8 and that polyploidy has played an important role in seven clades. Three of these clades are exclusively polyploid (SEMPERVIVUM: clade and two subclades within the KALANCHOE: and AEONIUM: clades), whereas four (Crassula, Telephium, Leucosedum, and ACRE: clades) comprise both diploid and polyploid taxa. Polyploidy is particularly rampant and cytological evolution especially complex in the ACRE: clade.

  18. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais nos quintais do Bairro Novo Horizonte, Ituiutaba, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S.N Liporacci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da maioria dos estudos etnobotânicos serem focados em populações tradicionais, as populações de áreas urbanas também vêm sendo investigadas. O presente trabalho realizou um levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais nos quintais de um bairro urbano, próximo à zona rural, no município de Ituiutaba, MG, visando resgatar e identificar o conhecimento local a respeito das plantas medicinais. Para isso, 40 residências foram visitadas e os dados coletados por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas realizadas com os moradores. Foram encontradas 72 espécies de plantas medicinais, distribuídas em 33 famílias botânicas, destacando-se Asteraceae e Lamiaceae pelo número de espécies. As cinco espécies mais citadas pelos moradores foram: Mentha sp., Cymbopogon citratus, Sedum dendroideum, Plectranthus barbatus, e Rosmarinus officinalis. O hábito herbáceo foi predominante, e a parte da planta mais usada foi a folha, enquanto a decocção foi o modo de preparo mais frequente. Por mais que existam particularidades entre os diversos costumes e culturas das comunidades locais no Brasil, foi observada similaridade entre os resultados encontrados neste trabalho com outros levantamentos realizados, reforçando a importância da preservação e divulgação do conhecimento popular.

  19. Bugs, bees and spiders : green roof design for rare invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedge, D. [Livingroofs.org, London (United Kingdom); Kadas, G. [Royal Holloway Univ. of London, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The use of green roofs as mitigation technique for biodiversity is particularly relevant for the objectives of the London Biodiversity Partnership, particularly since London is undergoing large-scale regeneration and many of the new developments will be targeted on brownfield land. In 2002 two research projects were undertaken to create a baseline of data on how invertebrates were using the current green roofs in London. The London Biodiversity Partnership's Black Redstart Action Plan conducts research into green roofs to demonstrate how they can be maximized for biodiversity. The Black Redstart Project ensures that green roofs are used in new developments in London where such developments threaten this species. It is one of the country's rarest breeding birds, and is unique in that it is predominantly found in cities, on brownfield sites and post-industrial sites. Three green roof laboratories were established at 2 sites in London to investigate how substrates, substrate depths and planting affects the fauna associated with brownfields and green roofs in London. Although conservationists in London have urged many developers to provide green roofs to help the Black Redstart, there is concern that many of these roofs do no provide the proper support for the species. In some cases roofs are constructed of commercially driven products such as sedum mats that do provide habitat for some rare invertebrates but are not as supportive of a greater diversity of species as they could be due to the design process and a lack of knowledge of green roof technology. It was suggested that there is a need for cooperation between ecologists and Architects in order to achieve the habitat. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  20. DEMOGRAPHY OF ALPINE SHORT-LIVED PLANTS, LONGEVITY AND ONTOGENY STAGE DURATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Kazantseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim - to evaluate lifespan (full cycle and ontogeny stage durations of nine alpine short-lived North- West Caucasus plants.Methods. For calculation we used a new method which was developed and suggested earlier by us. This method is based on a discrete ontogeny description and on the probability theory and random processes. The data on the monitoring of the marked individuals were collected during six years.Results. We found out that the lifespan of Anthyllis vulneraria is 2.6±0.3 years (hereinafter “±” is Standard error, Draba hispida – 4.5±0.3, Murbeckiella huetii – 4.6±1.1, Carum meifolium – 7.8±1.4, Eritrichium caucasicum – 9.1±1.4, Trifolium badium – 10.3±2.6, Sedum tenellum – 11±2.05, Androsace albana – 12.1±2.5, Minuartia recurva – 22.9±4.5. Also we demonstrated the matrix population models for studied plants, which show the probability of transition of individuals from one ontogeny stage to another in time interval (in our experiment – 1 year.Conclusion. Mortality of seedlings and juvenile plants, except Murbeckiella huetii, is around and more than 50%. Two years is the minimal amount of time that is necessary for full cycle of short-lived alpine plants, as it was shown for Anthyllis vulneraria, Murbeckiella huetii и Trifolium badium. A 3-12 years lifespan was calculated for other studied species. Persistence of Eritrichium caucasicum and Androsace albana populations provided by resistance of adult vegetative plants.

  1. Photoperiodism and enzyme rhythms: Kinetic characteristics of the photoperiodic induction of Crassulacean acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulfert, J; Guerrier, D; Queiroz, O

    1975-01-01

    The effect of photoperiod on Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poellniz, cv. Tom Thumb, has characteristics similar to its effect on flowering in this plant (although these two phenomena are not causally related). The photoperiodic control of CAM is based on (a) dependance on phytochrome, (b) an endogenous circadian rhythm of sensitivity to photoperiodic signals, (c) a balance between specific positive (increase in enzyme capacity) and negative (inhibitory substances) effects of the photoperiod. Variations in malate content, capacity of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase, and capacity of CAM inhibitors in young leaves were measured under photoperiodic conditions noninductive for CAM and after transfer into photoperiodic conditions inductive for CAM. Essential characteristics of the photoperiodic induction of CAM are: 1) lag time for malate accumulation; 2) after-effect of the inductive photoperiod on the malate accumulation, on the increase in PEP carboxylase capacity, and on the decrease in the level of long-day produced inhibitors; final levels of malate, enzyme capacity and inhibitor are proportional to the number of inductive day-night cycles; 3) cireadian rhythm in PEP carboxylase capacity with a fixed phase under noninductive photoperiods and a continuously shifting phase under inductive photoperiods, after complex advancing and delaying transients. Kinetic similarities indicate that photoperiodic control of different physiological functions, namely, CAM and flowering, may be achieved through similar mechanisms. Preliminary results with species of Bryophyllum and Sedum support this hypothesis. Phase relationships suggest different degrees of coupling between endogenous enzymic rhythm and photoperiod, depending on whether the plants are under long days or short days.

  2. Desempeño térmico de cubiertas vegetadas en ciudades de zonas áridas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Emiliano Flores Asin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Las cubiertas vegetadas constituyen una estrategia de enverdecimiento urbano que contribuyen a reducir los efectos del calentamiento global, disminuyendo las temperaturas urbanas y los consumos de energía en espacios interiores derivados del acondicionamiento térmico para alcanzar condiciones de confort en verano. Sin embargo, su implementación en zonas áridas está supeditada a la restricción del recurso hídrico. Este trabajo evalúa el desempeño térmico de cubiertas vegetadas con dos especies que presentan distinto hábito de crecimiento y demanda hídrica -Aptenia cordifolia y Sedum spectabile-. A tal fin se desarrollaron mediciones de variables meteorológicas (temperatura de aire, temperatura y contenido de agua del sustrato, temperatura superficial de la losa en box experimentales, mediante microadquisidores de datos del tipo Onset-HOBO, en la estación verano 2015. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que las cubiertas vegetadas permiten disminuir la temperatura media interior 2ºC, la amplitud térmica 8ºC y la temperatura máxima 6ºC y, diferencias poco significativas entre las especies evaluadas (0.5°C. Estos valores reflejan la eficiencia térmica de las cubiertas vegetadas y la necesidad de ampliar el universo de especies evaluadas para determinar rangos de beneficio en torno a especies de baja demanda hídrica y alta disponibilidad local.

  3. Contrast-enhanced time-resolved 3-D MRA: applications in neurosurgery and interventional neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinacher, Peter C.; Stracke, Paul; Reinges, Marcus H.T.; Hans, Franz J.; Krings, Timo

    2007-01-01

    The decision-making process in the endovascular treatment of cranial dural AV fistulas and angiomas and their follow-up after treatment is usually based on conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Likewise, acquiring the vascular and hemodynamic information needed for presurgical evaluation of meningiomas may necessitate DSA or different MR-based angiographic methods to assess the arterial displacement, the location of bridging veins and tumor feeders, and the degree of vascularization. New techniques of contrast-enhanced MR angiography (MRA) permit the acquisition of images with high temporal and spatial resolution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability and clinical use of a newly developed contrast-enhanced 3-D dynamic MRA protocol for neurointerventional and neurosurgical planning and decision making. With a 3-T whole-body scanner (Philips Achieva), a 3-D dynamic contrast-enhanced (MultiHance, Bracco) MRA sequence with parallel imaging, and intelligent k-space readout (keyhole and ''CENTRA'' k-space filling) was added to structural MRI in patients with meningiomas, dural arteriovenous fistulas and pial arteriovenous malformations. The sequence had a temporal resolution of 1.3 s per 3-D volume with a spatial resolution of 0.566 x 0.566 x 1.5 mm per voxel in each 3-D volume and lasted 25.2 s. DSA was performed in selected patients following MRI. In patients with arteriovenous fistulas and malformations, MRA allowed the vascular shunt to be identified and correctly classified. Hemodynamic characteristics and venous architecture were clearly demonstrated. Larger feeding arteries could be identified in all patients. In meningiomas, MRA enabled assessment of the displacement of the cerebral arteries, depiction of the tumor feeding vessels, and evaluation of the anatomy of the venous system. The extent of tumor vascularization could be assessed in all patients and correlated with the histopathological findings that indicated

  4. Gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MR of VX2 carcinoma in rabbit liver: usefulness of the delayed phase imaging and optimal pulse sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seung Il; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Chong Soo

    2002-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of delayed imaging using gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance) and to determine the optimal pulse sequence for the detection of VX2 carcinoma lesions in the rabbit. Twelve VX2 carcinomas implanted in the livers of eleven New Zealand rabbits were studied. All patients underwent an MR protocal consisting of precontrast T2-and T1-weighted sequences, followed by repetition of the T1-weighted sequence at 0 to 30 (arterial phase). 31-60 (portal phase), and 40 minutes (delayed phase) after the intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg of gadobenate dimeglumine. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the liver and VX2 tumor, and the lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of precontrast and postcontrast MR images were quantitatively analyzed, and two experienced radiologists evaluated image quality in terms of lesion conspicuity, artifact, mass delineation, and vascular anatomy. Liver SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast, arterial, and portal imaging (p<0.05), while lesion SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast imaging (p<0.05). Lesion CNR was higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast and portal phase imaging (p<0.05), but there was no difference between arterial and delayed imaging. The latter provided better mass delineation than precontrast, arterial and portal phase imaging (p<0.05). While in terms of lesion conspicuity and vascular anatomy, the delayed phase was better than the arterial phase (p<0.05) but similar to the precontrast and portal phase. During the delayed phase, the gradient-echo sequence showed better results than the spin-echo in terms of liver SNR, and lesion SNR and CNR (p<0.05). Because it provides better lesion conspicuity and mass delineation by improving liver SNR and lesion-to-liver CNR, the addition of the delayed phase to a dynamic MRI sequence after gadobenate dimeglumine adminstration facilitates lesion detection. For delayed-phase imaging, the

  5. Critical Questions Regarding Gadolinium Deposition in the Brain and Body After Injections of the Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents, Safety, and Clinical Recommendations in Consideration of the EMA's Pharmacovigilance and Risk Assessment Committee Recommendation for Suspension of the Marketing Authorizations for 4 Linear Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Val M

    2017-06-01

    For magnetic resonance, the established class of intravenous contrast media is the gadolinium-based contrast agents. In the 3 decades since initial approval, these have proven in general to be very safe for human administration. However, in 2006, a devastating late adverse reaction to administration of the less stable gadolinium-based contrast agents was identified, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. The result of actions taken by the European Medicines Agency and the US Food and Drug Administration, stratifying the agents by risk and contraindicating specific agents in severe renal dysfunction, has led to no new cases being identified in North America or Europe. Subsequently, in 2014, long-term deposition in the brain of gadolinium was first shown, after administration of 2 nonionic linear chelates, gadodiamide, and gadopentetate dimeglumine. This has led to an intense focus on the question of in vivo distribution, possible dechelation, and subsequent deposition of gadolinium, together with substantial clarification of the phenomenon as well as stratification of the agents on this basis. This review focuses on 8 critical questions regarding gadolinium deposition in the brain and body, with the answers and discussion therein important for future regulatory decisions and clinical practice. It is now clear that dechelation of gadolinium occurs in vivo with the linear agents and is responsible for this phenomenon, with key experts in the field recommending, except where there is no suitable alternative, a shift in clinical practice from the linear to macrocyclic agents. In addition, on March 10, 2017, the Pharmacovigilance and Risk Assessment Committee of the European Medicines Agency recommended suspension of the marketing authorization for 4 linear gadolinium contrast agents-specifically Omniscan, Optimark, Magnevist, and MultiHance (gadodiamide, gadoversetamide, gadopentetate dimeglumine, and gadobenate dimeglumine)-for intravenous injection. Cited in the report was

  6. Gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MR of VX2 carcinoma in rabbit liver: usefulness of the delayed phase imaging and optimal pulse sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Il; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Chong Soo [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of delayed imaging using gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance) and to determine the optimal pulse sequence for the detection of VX2 carcinoma lesions in the rabbit. Twelve VX2 carcinomas implanted in the livers of eleven New Zealand rabbits were studied. All patients underwent an MR protocal consisting of precontrast T2-and T1-weighted sequences, followed by repetition of the T1-weighted sequence at 0 to 30 (arterial phase). 31-60 (portal phase), and 40 minutes (delayed phase) after the intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg of gadobenate dimeglumine. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the liver and VX2 tumor, and the lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of precontrast and postcontrast MR images were quantitatively analyzed, and two experienced radiologists evaluated image quality in terms of lesion conspicuity, artifact, mass delineation, and vascular anatomy. Liver SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast, arterial, and portal imaging (p<0.05), while lesion SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast imaging (p<0.05). Lesion CNR was higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast and portal phase imaging (p<0.05), but there was no difference between arterial and delayed imaging. The latter provided better mass delineation than precontrast, arterial and portal phase imaging (p<0.05). While in terms of lesion conspicuity and vascular anatomy, the delayed phase was better than the arterial phase (p<0.05) but similar to the precontrast and portal phase. During the delayed phase, the gradient-echo sequence showed better results than the spin-echo in terms of liver SNR, and lesion SNR and CNR (p<0.05). Because it provides better lesion conspicuity and mass delineation by improving liver SNR and lesion-to-liver CNR, the addition of the delayed phase to a dynamic MRI sequence after gadobenate dimeglumine adminstration facilitates lesion detection. For delayed-phase imaging, the

  7. 煤层底板穿层钻孔水力冲孔技术的应用及效果考察%Coal Floor Layer of Drilling Hydraulic Punching Technology Application and Effect of Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷庆超; 廉有轩; 王恩营; 刘度

    2015-01-01

    End of the alley pumping wear layer drilling hydraulic punching pressure, the anti-reflection measures can effectively en-hance the permeability of coal seam, expanding radius of extraction and improve the effect of the gas extraction., on the basis of the principle of antireflection unloading hydraulic punching in for zhengzhou mining revitalization of two coal mine hydraulic punching plate wear layer, gas drainage concentration before and after the hydraulic punching, the change of coal seam permeability and the gas flow attenuation coefficient and so on.The test results show that the average single-hole gas drainage concentration is 11.02%, after hy-draulic punching is 2.14%, the anti-reflection measures of improve 4 times; Coefficient of permeability of coal seam after taking steps to improve the 39 times;The gas flow attenuation coefficient is reduced nearly 3 times.Using the method of pressure measured at the same time the mine hydraulic punching effective drainage radius to 10 m.%采用底抽巷穿层钻孔水力冲孔卸压增透措施,可以有效增强煤层的透气性、扩大抽采半径和提高瓦斯抽采效果。基于水力冲孔卸压增透原理,对郑州矿区振兴二矿突出煤层实施底板穿层水力冲孔,考察水力冲孔前后瓦斯抽放浓度、煤层透气性和瓦斯流量衰减系数等的变化。试验结果表明:单孔平均瓦斯抽放浓度在水力冲孔后为11.02%,较未采取增透措施时的2.14%,提高了4倍;煤层透气性系数在采取措施后提高了39倍;瓦斯流量衰减系数则减小了近3倍。同时运用压力法测得该矿水力冲孔有效抽放半径为10 m。

  8. Calcium citrate: a new biomaterial that can enhance bone formation in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Li-ming

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To investigate the effect of a new biomaterial combining calcium citrate and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 on bone regeneration in a bone defect rabbit model. Methods: Totally 30 male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly and equally divided into calcium citrate-rhBMP-2 (CC-rhBMP-2 group and rhBMP-2 only group. Two 10 mm-long and 5 mm-deep bone defects were respec-tively created in the left and right femoral condyles of the rabbits. Subsequently 5 pellets of calcium citrate (10 mg combined with rhBMP-2 (2 mg or rhBMP-2 alone were im-planted into the bone defects and compressed with cotton swab. Bone granules were obtained at 2, 4 and 6 weeks after procedure and received histological analysis. LSD t-test and a subsequent t-test were adopted for statistical analysis. Results: Histomorphometric analysis revealed newly formed bones, and calcium citrate has been absorbed in the treatment group. The percent of newly formed bone area in femoral condyle in control group and CC-rhBMP-2 group was respectively 31.73%±1.26% vs 48.21%±2.37% at 2 weeks; 43.40%±1.65% vs 57.32%±1.47% at 4 weeks, and 51.32%±7.80% vs 66.74%±4.05% at 6 weeks (P<0.05 for all. At 2 weeks, mature cancellous bone was observed to be already formed in the treatment group. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that calcium citrate combined with rhBMP-2 signifcantly en-hances bone regeneration in bone defects. This synthetic gelatin matrix stimulates formation of new bone and bone marrow in the defect areas by releasing calcium ions. Key words: Bone morphogenetic protein-2; Biocompatible materials; Calcium citrate; Gelatin

  9. Pain catastrophizing as a risk factor for chronic pain after total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns LC

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lindsay C Burns,1–3 Sarah E Ritvo,1 Meaghan K Ferguson,1 Hance Clarke,3–5 Ze’ev Seltzer,3,5 Joel Katz1,3–5 1Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Arthritis Research Centre of Canada, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada; 4Department of Anesthesia, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 5Centre for the Study of Pain, Faculties of Dentistry and Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a common and costly surgical procedure. Despite high success rates, many TKA patients develop chronic pain in the months and years following surgery, constituting a public health burden. Pain catastrophizing is a construct that reflects anxious preoccupation with pain, inability to inhibit pain-related fears, amplification of the significance of pain vis-à-vis health implications, and a sense of helplessness regarding pain. Recent research suggests that it may be an important risk factor for untoward TKA outcomes. To clarify this impact, we systematically reviewed the literature to date on pain catastrophizing as a prospective predictor of chronic pain following TKA. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases to identify articles related to pain catastrophizing, TKA, risk models, and chronic pain. We reviewed titles and abstracts to identify original research articles that met our specified inclusion criteria. Included articles were then rated for methodological quality. including methodological quality. Due to heterogeneity in follow-up, analyses, and outcomes reported across studies, a quantitative meta-analysis could not be performed. Results: We identified six prospective longitudinal studies with small-to-mid-sized samples that met the inclusion criteria. Despite considerable variability in reported pain outcomes, pain catastrophizing was identified as a significant

  10. Vrancea Vineyard: A Rural Area with a European Comparative Advantage –The Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA CHICOŞ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to disseminate the partial results of a work that lasted more than three years and involved a substantial number of resources at both national and international level within the COHESION Project, implemented under the C.I.P. Interreg IIIB CADSES Neighbourhood Program. The Vrancea vineyard was the pilot area for the Romanian study and the main activities of the Romanian team (Urbanproiect Bucuresti, Partner Project no.13 within the project has been focused on this area.The COHESION (Integrated COncepts EnHancing CohESion of EurOpeaN Space Project aimed at enforcing the cohesion of the CADSES area, through developing policies to meet the problems of the European rural space. To this context, the project developed during 2003-2005 applied a methodology focused on increasing competitiveness of areas. An indicative product (wine, in which the involved areas provide a comparative advantage, has been targeted and integrated development pilot projects have been implemented in the participating areas. The Project's area of intervention consisted in the territories of Karditsa, Achaia and Nemea in Greece, the territory of Steirisches Vulkanland in Austria, Meissen in Germany, Appennino Reggiano in Italy, Northwest Bohemia in Czech Republic, and Vrancea in Romania.The aim of the project was “to investigate the development process in remote agricultural areas from practical point of view, i.e. locate the factors that hamper or promote local development in the remote agricultural zones of the CADSES area, and provide this information to other local development actors, so as to facilitate their action and thus contribute to accelerating convergence of the space in question and cohesion of the European territory” (PINDOS Strategic Planning Centre, 2006. The approach planned and applied by COHESION was the bottom up approach. Parallel and similar development projects (pilot activities were generated in a number of the areas involved and

  11. Contrast-enhanced time-resolved 3-D MRA: applications in neurosurgery and interventional neuroradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinacher, Peter C.; Stracke, Paul; Reinges, Marcus H.T.; Hans, Franz J.; Krings, Timo [University Hospital of the Technical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The decision-making process in the endovascular treatment of cranial dural AV fistulas and angiomas and their follow-up after treatment is usually based on conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Likewise, acquiring the vascular and hemodynamic information needed for presurgical evaluation of meningiomas may necessitate DSA or different MR-based angiographic methods to assess the arterial displacement, the location of bridging veins and tumor feeders, and the degree of vascularization. New techniques of contrast-enhanced MR angiography (MRA) permit the acquisition of images with high temporal and spatial resolution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability and clinical use of a newly developed contrast-enhanced 3-D dynamic MRA protocol for neurointerventional and neurosurgical planning and decision making. With a 3-T whole-body scanner (Philips Achieva), a 3-D dynamic contrast-enhanced (MultiHance, Bracco) MRA sequence with parallel imaging, and intelligent k-space readout (keyhole and ''CENTRA'' k-space filling) was added to structural MRI in patients with meningiomas, dural arteriovenous fistulas and pial arteriovenous malformations. The sequence had a temporal resolution of 1.3 s per 3-D volume with a spatial resolution of 0.566 x 0.566 x 1.5 mm per voxel in each 3-D volume and lasted 25.2 s. DSA was performed in selected patients following MRI. In patients with arteriovenous fistulas and malformations, MRA allowed the vascular shunt to be identified and correctly classified. Hemodynamic characteristics and venous architecture were clearly demonstrated. Larger feeding arteries could be identified in all patients. In meningiomas, MRA enabled assessment of the displacement of the cerebral arteries, depiction of the tumor feeding vessels, and evaluation of the anatomy of the venous system. The extent of tumor vascularization could be assessed in all patients and correlated with the histopathological findings that

  12. Establishment and performance of an experimental green roof under extreme climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Petra M., E-mail: pkklein@ou.edu [School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Coffman, Reid, E-mail: rcoffma4@kent.edu [College of Architecture and Environmental Design, Kent State University, Kent, OH (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Green roofs alter the surface energy balance and can help in mitigating urban heat islands. However, the cooling of green roofs due to evapotranspiration strongly depends on the climatic conditions, and vegetation type and density. In the Southern Central Plains of the United States, extreme weather events, such as high winds, heat waves and drought conditions pose challenges for successful implementation of green roofs, and likely alter their standard performance. The National Weather Center Experimental Green Roof, an interdisciplinary research site established in 2010 in Norman, OK, aimed to investigate the ecological performance and surface energy balance of green roof systems. Starting in May 2010, 26 months of vegetation studies were conducted and the radiation balance, air temperature, relative humidity, and buoyancy fluxes were monitored at two meteorological stations during April–October 2011. The establishment of a vegetative community trended towards prairie plant dominance. High mortality of succulents and low germination of grasses and herbaceous plants contributed to low vegetative coverage. In this condition succulent diversity declined. Bouteloua gracilis and Delosperma cooperi showed typological dominance in harsh climatic conditions, while Sedum species experienced high mortality. The plant community diversified through volunteers such as Euphorbia maculate and Portulaca maculate. Net radiation measured at a green-roof meteorological station was higher than at a control station over the original, light-colored roofing material. These findings indicate that the albedo of the green roof was lower than the albedo of the original roofing material. The low vegetative coverage during the heat and drought conditions in 2011, which resulted in the dark substrate used in the green roof containers being exposed, likely contributed to the low albedo values. Nevertheless, air temperatures and buoyancy fluxes were often lower over the green roof indicating

  13. Establishment and performance of an experimental green roof under extreme climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Petra M.; Coffman, Reid

    2015-01-01

    Green roofs alter the surface energy balance and can help in mitigating urban heat islands. However, the cooling of green roofs due to evapotranspiration strongly depends on the climatic conditions, and vegetation type and density. In the Southern Central Plains of the United States, extreme weather events, such as high winds, heat waves and drought conditions pose challenges for successful implementation of green roofs, and likely alter their standard performance. The National Weather Center Experimental Green Roof, an interdisciplinary research site established in 2010 in Norman, OK, aimed to investigate the ecological performance and surface energy balance of green roof systems. Starting in May 2010, 26 months of vegetation studies were conducted and the radiation balance, air temperature, relative humidity, and buoyancy fluxes were monitored at two meteorological stations during April–October 2011. The establishment of a vegetative community trended towards prairie plant dominance. High mortality of succulents and low germination of grasses and herbaceous plants contributed to low vegetative coverage. In this condition succulent diversity declined. Bouteloua gracilis and Delosperma cooperi showed typological dominance in harsh climatic conditions, while Sedum species experienced high mortality. The plant community diversified through volunteers such as Euphorbia maculate and Portulaca maculate. Net radiation measured at a green-roof meteorological station was higher than at a control station over the original, light-colored roofing material. These findings indicate that the albedo of the green roof was lower than the albedo of the original roofing material. The low vegetative coverage during the heat and drought conditions in 2011, which resulted in the dark substrate used in the green roof containers being exposed, likely contributed to the low albedo values. Nevertheless, air temperatures and buoyancy fluxes were often lower over the green roof indicating

  14. Plant endemics to Sierra de Gredos (central Spain: taxonomic, distributional, and evolutionary aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Bernardo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Causes related to a low number of endemics to Sierra de Gredos (central Iberian Peninsula are poorly understood. Taxonomic, distributional and genetic aspects of the 12 endemic taxa (species and subspecies are herein discussed. New populations found in the last years provide new chorological reports and taxa to science. As a result, we extend the distribution range of Pseudomisopates rivas-martinezii and describe a new subspecies (Teucrium oxylepis subsp. Gredense. Genetic variation was investigated by sequencing the ITS (Internal Transcribed Sequence region, which is a widespread nuclear DNA region used to detect significant sequence divergence at the species and population levels. At the species level, only eight endemics to this large mountain range (c. 4,800 km2 indicates both limited speciation events coupled with their persistence, despite the high species richness of the flora of Sierra de Gredos (>2,500. According to the levels of ITS sequence divergence, significant isolation processes may have predated the Quaternary in Sierra de Gredos to account for divergence of the monotypic genus Pseudomisopates from its closest relatives (Misopates, Acanthorrhinum. Isolation of the other seven endemic species from their closest relatives has been a more recent process, as revealed by the limited ITS sequence variation obtained in this study. At the population level, no net nucleotide substitutions were observed between distant populations of the endemic species: Antirrhinum grosii, Astragalus devesae, Centaurea avilae, Dianthus gredensis, Echinospartum barnadesii, Pseudomisopates rivas-martinezii, Santolina oblongifolia. In contrast, the three populations of Sedum lagascae displayed a relatively high number (4 of nucleotide substitutions. These results, together with limited morphological differentiation, may reflect insufficient population isolation of seven of the eight endemic species of Sierra de Gredos in the Quaternary. Recurrent population

  15. Ostensiewe illustrasies as mikrostrukturele items in verklarende skoolwoordeboeke gerig op leerders in die junior sekondêre fase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Louw

    2011-10-01

    School Dictionaries Targeting Learners in the Junior Secondary Phase. An explanatory school dictionary targeting learners in the junior secondary phase must, in the South African context, pursue user-oriented practices in order to add value for both mother-tongue- and non-mother-tongue-speaking learners on a communicative and a pedagogical level. One such practice would be the inclusion of ostensive illustrations as microstructural items in order to en-hance the transfer of pragmatic and semantic data. In this article, the value of ostensive illustrations and their relevance in an explanatory school dictionary targeting learners in the junior secondary phase are evaluated, after which certain reservations regarding their use are addressed. A decision on whether to include ostensive illustrations demands a further discussion of where to position these items in the microstructure, as well as a discussion of different types of illustrations that will be suitable for inclusion in the type of dictionary profiled. Thereafter a critical evaluation of the treatment of ostensive illustrations in a genuinely South African explanatory school dictionary targeting learners in the junior secondary phase is provided and suggestions made for an improved microstructural treatment that meets the demands set by the user perspective. Lastly, the issue of necessary mediostructural support for this data type in the form of precise, comprehensive cross-references will be raised. This article aims to present criteria for the successful lexicographical treatment of ostensive illustrations.


    Keywords: ADJECTIVE, CAPTIONS, COMMUNICATIVE VALUE, CROSS-REFERENCES, EXAMPLE MATERIAL, EXPLANATORY SCHOOL DICTIONARY, GROUP ILLUSTRATION, JUNIOR SECONDARY EDUCATIONAL PHASE, MICROSTRUCTURAL ITEMS, NOUN, OS-TENSIVE ILLUSTRATIONS, PEDAGOGICAL VALUE, STRUCTURAL INDICATOR, VERB

  16. 穿层孔吞吐压裂水力强化抽采技术研究及应用%Research and application of gas drainage with hydraulic reinforcement of water stimulation fracture in borehole through strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛新平; 高建良; 马耕

    2014-01-01

    为了解决低透气性煤层高效抽采的难题,采用穿层孔吞吐压裂水力强化改善煤层透气性。分析了水力强化工艺穿层孔瓦斯运移产出过程,研究了水力强化对硬煤储层和软煤层中瓦斯渗透率的影响,分析了水力强化对煤体渗透率的作用及增透机理,并进行了现场效果应用。结果表明:穿层孔吞吐压裂技术提高了煤层透气性,形成瓦斯产出通道,在硬煤中水力强化可在顶底板形成“虚拟储层”,瓦斯以渗流为主,软煤中以扩散运移为主;吞吐压裂水力强化通过形成洞穴和裂隙,增加煤层渗透性,减少瓦斯抽采流量衰减系数,提高瓦斯抽采效率。现场实施吞吐压裂水力措施后抽采纯量由14.8 m³增加至31.9~42.8 m³;抽采体积分数由14.1%增加至73.9%~77.5%,该技术具有较高的实际推广应用价值。%In order to solve the problem of how to efficiently extract the coal seam with low permeabil-ity, the hydraulic measures of stimulation fracturing through strata borehole has been adopted to im-prove the permeability of coal seam. The gas migration process through borehole in the hydraulic en-hanced technology has been analyzed. The effect of hydraulic reinforcement measures on hard and soft coal seam permeability has been studied, and the effect and mechanism of hydraulic reinforcement on the permeability of coal mass has been analyzed, and finally, the field experiment of hydraulic fracturing has been carried out. Research results show that the hydraulic measures of stimulation fracturing through strata borehole technology can improve the permeability of coal seam and contribute to form gas flow channel. There is“virtual reservoir”in roof and floor in hard coal seam and the gas shows see-page mainly, while, in soft coal seam gas shows diffusion migration mainly. The hydraulic measures of stimulation fracturing can increase the permeability of coal seam through

  17. Bilimsel Toplantı Duyuruları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adli Tıp Uzmanları Derneği ATUD

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available 1. Anadolu Adli Bilimler Sempozyumu 9-\t12 Ekim 2002 Atatürk Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Adli Tıp Anabilim Dalı Erzurum Prof.Dr.Ahmet Nezih Kök Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Cebeci Hastanesi Adli Tıp Anabilim Dalı Mamak-ANKARA Prof.Dr.Î.Hamit Hancı (0312 319 15 14 H. Ulusal Çocuk ve Suç Sempozyumu (Yargı Öncesi ve Yargılama Süresi 10-\t12 Nisan 2002 ATAUM, Ankara Adalet Bakanlığı, Ankara Üniversitesi, Unicef, Türkiye Çocuklara Yeniden Özgürlük Vakfı Tel: (312 425 46 91 Yıllık Adli Tıp Toplantıları 2002. 16-19 Mayıs 2002 Adalet Bakanlığı, Adli Tıp Kurumu, Antalya www.atk.gov.tr XX. Gevher Nesibe Tıp Günleri, IV. Adli Tıp Sempozyumu. 23-25 Mayıs 2002 Erciyes Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi - Acil Tıp Derneği, Kayseri Forensic Science Society Spring Meeting 2002 jointly with The Forensic Science Service 19-21 April 2002 Huntingdon Marriott Hotel, UK, E-mail: Conference@forensic-science-society.org.uk Forensic Science Society Summer Meeting 2002 12-14 July 2002 York St John College, York, UK, E-mail: Conference@forensic-science-society.org.uk 8th International Conference - Problems in Reconstructing Road Accidents October 18-19, 2002 Krakow, The Institute of Forensic Research http:// www.ies.krakow.pl e-mail junarski@ies.krakow.pl EAFS SC meeting 27 September 2002 Vienna Austria http:// www.enfsi.org/cms.phpPcp=eafs-meetingvienna XTV th ENFSI Annual meeting 22-25 May 2002 Linköpning Sweden ENFSI European Fingerprint Working Group Second Annual Meeting Krakow, September 25th-27th, 2002 Southwestern Association Of Toxicologists 2002 Spring Meeting, April 4-6, 2002 WICHITA, KANSAS 16th Meeting of the International Association of Forensic Sciences Convention Centre Le Corum Montpellier, France September 2-7, 2002 Tel +33 (04 67 63 53 40. Fax +33 (04 67 41 94 27 E-mail algcsi@mnet.fr International Association for Identification, New Jersey Division, 16th Annual Educational Conference October 20-23, 2002 E

  18. Time-delayed contrast-enhanced MRI improves detection of brain metastases and apparent treatment volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnirsky, Marina; Nguyen, Vinh; Katz, Joel S; Steinklein, Jared; Rosen, Lisa; Warshall, Craig; Schulder, Michael; Knisely, Jonathan P S

    2016-02-01

    Contrast-enhanced MRI is the preeminent diagnostic test for brain metastasis (BM). Detection of BMs for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) planning may improve with a time delay following administration of a high-relaxivity agent for 1.5-T and 3-T imaging systems. Metastasis detection with time-delayed MRI was evaluated in this study. Fifty-three volumetric MRI studies from 38 patients undergoing SRS for BMs were evaluated. All studies used 0.1-mmol/kg gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance; Bracco Diagnostics) immediately after injection, followed by 2 more axial T1-weighted sequences after 5-minute intervals (final image acquisition commenced 15 minutes after contrast injection). Two studies were motion limited and excluded. Two hundred eighty-seven BMs were identified. The studies were randomized and examined separately by 3 radiologists, who were blinded to the temporal sequence. Each radiologist recorded the number of BMs detected per scan. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test compared BM numbers between scans. One radiologist determined the scan on which BMs were best defined. All confirmed, visible tumors were contoured using iPlan RT treatment planning software on each of the 3 MRI data sets. A linear mixed model was used to analyze volume changes. The interclass correlations for Scans 1, 2, and 3 were 0.7392, 0.7951, and 0.7290, respectively, demonstrating excellent interrater reliability. At least 1 new lesion was detected in the second scan as compared with the first in 35.3% of subjects (95% CI 22.4%-49.9%). The increase in BM numbers between Scans 1 and 2 ranged from 1 to 10. At least 1 new lesion was detected in the third scan as compared with the second in 21.6% of subjects (95% CI 11.3%-35.3%). The increase in BM numbers between Scans 2 and 3 ranged from 1 to 9. Between Scans 1 and 3, additional tumors were seen on 43.1% of scans (increase ranged from 1 to 14). The median increase in tumor number for all comparisons was 1. There was a significant increase in number

  19. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF SEIZURES (EPILEPSY IN PEDIATRIC AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad

    2015-10-01

    no age is spared. Generalized Seizures accounted for 63.85% in our local Pediat ric age group. We were able to detect various epileptogenic foci, in 61.4% (40 cases. And with available CT findings we could able to distinguish and diagnose various Pathological lesions, including infections, congenital anomalies, calcified lesions and neoplasm. CECT should be done in evaluation of low and mixed density lesions, CECT helped more in evaluation of low density lesions and revealed ring enhancing lesions. Delayed (5 - 7 min and thin (2mm sections are more useful. Ring entrancing lesions due to infections are the commonest epileptogenic foci in our study accounting for 28%. And CECT is not helped much in evaluation other than low density lesions. As normal neurological examination can’t rule out an epileptogenic focus. Therefore CT brain shou ld be included. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION: Based on our study and on reviewing the literature, we are able to detect epileptogenic foci. CECT is very essential is evaluation of low density lesions. Only on contrast study we can detect and distinguish v arious lesions. Moreover delayed and thin sections are more useful CECT is may not play any role in evaluation of most of the congenital anomalies and calcified lesions. Ring en hancing lesions of infections etiology especially NCC are the commonest epilept ogenic foci in our local paediatric population. Therefore CT is the prime mode of investigation is evaluation of epilepsy in Paediatric

  20. The deegree framework - Spatial Data Infrastructure solution for end-users and developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehle, Christian; Poth, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    client software, desktop and web environments. A focus lies on different client solutions for specific standards like the Web Pro­cessing Service and the Web Coordinate Transformation Service. On the other hand, complex geoportal solutions comprised of multiple standards and en­hanced by components for user management, security and map client function­ality show the demanding requirements of real world solutions. The XPlan-GML-standard as defined by the German spatial planing authorities is a good ex­ample of how complex real-world requirements can get. XPlan-GML is intended to provide a framework for digital spatial planning documents and requires complex Geography Markup Language (GML) features along with Symbology Encoding (SE), Filter Encoding (FE), Web Map Services (WMS), Web Feature Services (WFS). This complex in­frastructure should be used by urban and spatial planners and therefore re­quires a user-friendly graphical interface hiding the complexity of the underly­ing infrastructure. Based on challenges faced within customer projects, the importance of easy to use software components is focused. SDI solution should be build upon ISO/OGC-standards, but more important, should be user-friendly and support the users in spatial data management and analysis.

  1. Didactica de las artes visuales sustentada en la propuesta de las inteligencias multiples de howard gardner: Experiencia aplicada en un primer año medio de la comuna de Concepción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Larenas Parra

    2005-07-01

    ón necesita el individuo del siglo XXI. To change the actual situation of owr chilean arts teaching, we must aim at designiny new and effective curriculum plans, be cause it is necessary to make a concrete new orientation of arts discipline. That means that owr main goal is to transform learning into an inter disciplinary searching by means of stimulating and interactive methodologies. As a result, students will have the opportunity of being an integral human being. For this reason, my studies propase you a new way of knowledge acquisition which consists of planning a new methodology strategy in orden to en hance artistic capacity taught in visual arts class. The results of this research were eloquent. To apply the new methodological strategy not only helps to develop the artistic ability in pupils, but also it helps them to make cognitive and affective interaction stronger. According to what 1 have an important role of promoting an integral education which deals with not only intelectual contents but also further education (education of tomorrow. That isto say that it isimportantto leam leaming inorderto encourage students capacity of solving complex and new problems duetothe fact that students must havethe ability of facing complex situations through multiple answers. Finally, 1 would like to say that visual arts discipline coincides with pedagogical modem tendencies which try to figure out what kind of education a person of XXI century needs.  

  2. A novel survey of the ethno medicinal knowledge of dental problems in Manoor Valley (Northern Himalaya), Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Inayat Ur; Ijaz, Farhana; Iqbal, Zafar; Afzal, Aftab; Ali, Niaz; Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Muhammad, Said; Qadir, Ghulam; Asif, Muhammad

    2016-12-24

    Juglans regia having (RFCs=0.69) and Rumex dentatus (0.58). CI results show that most respondents percentage was for Juglans regia having CI%=69%, followed by Rumex dentatus (57.7%). Medicinal plants with high fidelity level and reported for one dental disorder were Berberis lycium, Geranium wallichianum, Lathyrus aphaca, Platanus orientalis, Sedum spp. and Urtica dioica for toothache. Further, new medicinal uses of Abies pindrow, Ajuga integrifolia, Berberis lycium, Urtica dioica, Indigofera heterantha were recorded for the first time from Pakistan and Astragalus grahamianus, Corydalis cornuta, Prunella vulgaris, Ranunculus muricatus, Rumex hastatus, Stellaria media, Tagetes minuta, Taraxacum officinale and Lathyrus aphaca, across the world for the current reported medicinal uses. All mentioned plant species are reported for the first time ever for dental disorders from Manoor Valley. Nonetheless, this is a novel study as no single ethno medicinal study on dental disorder up-till now has been reported from Pakistan. The present study is the first ever documentation of ethno medicinal practices aiming at the dental disorders in Pakistan, which resulted in 64% of medicinal uses new claims. So, the reported species of remote valley should be further evaluated for proper experimentation and pharmacological activities to authenticate their current traditional usage. Field observation revealed vegetation of the area was generally threatened due to its unwise use by the local communities. Trends like deforestation, over grazing, habitat fragmentation and introduction of the exotic taxa were the visible threats. So conservation of such an important natural God gifted treasure is mandatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 现金分红、盈余管理方式选择与企业价值%Cash Dividends,Earnings Management Choice and Corporate Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘衡; 苏坤; 李彬

    2013-01-01

    In recent years,there is increasing public concern about the phenomena of em-phasizing on financing and ignoring investors‘return of China‘s listed companies.The China Securities Regulatory Commission has issued a series of announcements designed to strength-en cash dividends of listed companies and strengthen the awareness of the investor‘s returns. Cash dividends and earnings management are hot issues of capital market,but accrual-based earnings management is the main content of the traditional earnings management research,re-al earnings management has been neglected.In theory,the behavior of cash dividend reduces the level of corporate cash flow,the change of earnings management can improve the level cash flow and the corporate performance,which eventually leads to the change of corporate value. Using China‘s A-share market listed companies panel data from 1 998 to 2010,this paper studies the relationships between cash dividends,earnings management and corporate value. We find that the extent of real earnings management of cash dividend companies is significant-ly lower than the corresponding extent of non-cash dividends companies,and the extent of ac-crual-based earnings management of cash dividend companies is greatly higher than the corre-sponding extent of non-cash dividends companies,which means that cash dividend behavior has a significant impact on the choice of the listed company earnings management,and there is the phenomenon of collusion between real earnings management and accrual-based earnings management.The cash dividend company has a higher corporate value than the non-cash divi-dend company,which indicates that the listed company‘s cash dividend behavior helps to en-hance the corporate value.Further research suggests real earnings management and accrual-based earnings management have significant intermediary roles in the relationship between cash dividends and corporate value.These conclusions provide helpful insight for revealing the

  4. Bilimsel Toplantı Duyuruları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adli Tıp Uzmanları Derneği ATUD

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available I.\tThe Changing Health Care Enviroment: Issues for the Future, March 7, 1997, Nashville, Tennessee. For further information: American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 765 Commonwealth Avenue, 16th Floor, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 USA. Tel: 617 262 4990, Fax: 617 437 7596, Email: aslme@bu.edu. II.\tII. Adli Bilimler Sempozyumu,Balistik, 4-5 Nisan 1997, İzmir. İletişim: Doç.Dr.İ.Hamit Hancı, Ege Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Adli Tıp Anabilim Dalı, 35100 Bornova İZMİR. Tel: 0232 388 2157, 0232 388 1920/3256 III.\tGender Studies, Date commencement: 5 March 1997-24 April 1997, Days and times: Wednesdays 18.00-20.00. 1. Women's rights, 2. Serhia & Women, 3. Women & Law, 4. Refuge Women, 5. Domestic violence & Women, 6. Working life & Women, 7. Women & Union, 8. Politics & Women. For further information: Aysel İşçi & Dr.Laurence Raw, The British Council, Kırlangıç sok. No: 9, 06700 GOP ANKARA. Tel: 0312 468 6192 Fax: 0312 427 6182. IV.\tForensic Science Society Spring Meeting, Suspicious Death?, 11-13 April 1997, Leeds, United Kingdom. Details from Anne Holds- worth, 18A Mount Parade, Harrogate, North Yorkshire, UNITEN KINGDOM HGI IBX. An- ne@fscisoc.demon.co.uk. V.\tForensic Medicine and Drugs: Clinical and Scientific Aspects, 24-25 April 1997, Stakis Hydro, Dunblane, Scotland. Contact Dr DG Williams, Dept of Biochemistry, District General Hospital, Sunderland, UNITED KINGDOM. Tel: 0191 565 6256 ext 42800. VI.\tIV. Sosyal Psikiyatri Sempozyumu, 7-9 Mayıs 1997, Adana. Yazışma adresi: Prof.Dr.Yunus Emre Evlice, Çukurova Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Psikiyatri Anabilim Dalı, Balcalı 01330 ADANA. Tel: 0322 338 6857. VII.\tIII. Kadın Çalışmaları Toplantısı, 17-19 Mayıs 1997, Adana. İletişim: Çukurova Üniversitesi Kadın Sorunları Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi, Bakalı ADANA. VIII.\tThe 5th International Family Violence Research Conference, Family Research Laboratory, 29 June-2 July 1997, Durham United Kingdom

  5. Approach for Realization of Economic Development and Social Stability in Ethnic Region of Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yousheng

    2013-01-01

    -ori-entation methods .We should increase the income of poor rural families and their capacity for self -accumulation and self -development .We should innovate and improve the “whole package type”institutions doing poverty alleviation work , and form a new poverty alleviation model by “providing centralized investment;using it for special targets;constructing a comprehensive planning , to be im-plemented in entire villages;and by developing the entire region”. (2 ) Promoting the Capacity to Prevent and Reduce Disasters Some parts of ethnic regions in Sichuan lie in the high mountains and deep valleys where geolog-ical disasters frequently happen .Landslides and mudflows caused from storms or regionally heavy rain are the main natural disaster in these areas . Therefore , we should pay key attention to the pre-vention of geological disasters along the Jinshan , Dadu, and Yalong Rivers and to both the An ’ ning River Valley and Chengdu -Kunming Route , areas where mudflows , soil collapses and land-slides easily occur .We should further improve the defensive plan for geological disasters; strictly im-plement a system to evaluate the potential danger of geological disaster to the land construction and e-valuate the geological environmental influences of the mines;set up a good early warning prediction system regarding to geological disasters; and en-hance the ability to prevent geological disasters . We should promote the capacity to take precautions against earthquakes .Sichuan ’ s ethnic areas lie along the southern section of China ’ s North -South seismic belt .The seismic activity is more frequent here , so it is a key seismic monitoring ar-ea in China.Therefore, we should strengthen the spread of seismic knowledge; improve people ’ s awareness in disaster prevention and reduction;enhance the anti -earthquake capacity of local built structures;and improve the efficiency of get-ting knowledge about disaster as well as higher lev-els of earthquake

  6. Selected Abstracts of the 13th International Workshop on Neonatology; Cagliari (Italy; October 25th-28th, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    , F. Bolachi, N. Satta, A. PirasABS 67. SYSTEMIC PROPRANOLOL IN THE TREAT­MENT OF INFANTILE HEMANGIOMAS: EX­PERIENCE OF A MULTIDISCIPLINARY TEAM IN CAGLIARI • C. Ferreli, M. Pau, M. Zanda, R. Tumbarello, C Porcu, M. Corbeddu, F. RongiolettiABS 68. WT1, A MARKER FOR RADIAL GLIAL CELLS IN THE DEVELOPING HUMAN CEREBELLUM AT DIFFERENT GESTATIONAL AGES • V. Pibiri, C. Gerosa, R. AmbuABS 69. PEDIATRIC PROCEDURAL SEDATION DURING AMBULATORY TREATMENTS: COMPARI­SON BETWEEN INHALATION SEDATION WITH NI­TROUS OXIDE AND INTRAVENOUS SEDA­TION WITH MIDAZOLAM • M. Oricchio, G. Rosati, L. Gallottini, N. Satta, M. SambiagioABS 70. A SI-DOHaD-CCM PROJECT: ENVIRONMENT, EPIGENETIC FETAL PROGRAMMING AND PRE­VEN­TION OF CHRONIC DISEASES • E. Burgio, L. Migliore, I. Cetin, G. Faa, O. Forleo, F. Cesare Marincola, R. Pintus, A. Dessì, A. Noto, V. FanosABS 71. CONGENITAL DIAPHRAGMATIC HERNIA: EX­PERIENCE OF A TERTIARY NICU • E. Memmedova, C. Aygun, E. Ozyazıcı, K. Baysal, Ş. Küçüödük, G. OğurABS 72. AN INTERACTIVE TOOL SHOWS CO­MOR­BIDITIES OF CHILD AGGRESSION WITH OTHER CHILDHOOD PSYCHOPATHOLOGIES. UTI­LITIES AND STATISTICS OF THE WEBSITE WWW.ACTION-EUPROJECT.EU • M. Mauri, A. Hendriks, V. Fanos, D.I. Boomsma, M. BartelsABS 73. EVALUATION OF MOLECULAR BEACON FLUO­RESCENT PROBE FOR LABORA­TORY DIAGNOSIS OF CONGENITAL CYTO­MEGALOVIRUS (CMV INFECTION • G. Orrù, P. Melis, F. Puggioni, M. Puddu, G. Ottonello, V. Fanos, F. CogheABS 74. THE ETIOLOGY OF PROLONGED JAUNDICE • C. Aygun, G. HancıoğluABS 75. CHILD-FRIENDLY HOSPITAL ENVIRONMENT – NEW APPROACH WITH THE USE OF AUGMENTED REALITY • A. Piras, F. Simionato, B. De Magistris, A. Piras DenottiABS 76. DUCTUS VENOSUS IN EXPECTANT MAN­AGEMENT OF EARLY IUGR FETUSES AND RISK OF ADVERSE NEONATAL OUTCOME; A SURVIVAL ANALYSIS • S. Visentin, M. Andolfatto, A. Zanella, E. CosmiABS 77. COMPARISON OF pRIFLE and AKIN CRITERIA FOR DIAGNOSING ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY IN NEWBORNS • V. Coşkun, C. Aygun, O. Ozkaya, G