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Sample records for sediment water interface

  1. Water and sediment temperature dynamics in shallow tidal environments: The role of the heat flux at the sediment-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivato, M.; Carniello, L.; Gardner, J.; Silvestri, S.; Marani, M.

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, we investigate the energy flux at the sediment-water interface and the relevance of the heat exchanged between water and sediment for the water temperature dynamics in shallow coastal environments. Water and sediment temperature data collected in the Venice lagoon show that, in shallow, temperate lagoons, temperature is uniform within the water column, and enabled us to estimate the net heat flux at the sediment-water interface. We modeled this flux as the sum of a conductive component and of the solar radiation reaching the bottom, finding the latter being negligible. We developed a "point" model to describe the temperature dynamics of the sediment-water continuum driven by vertical energy transfer. We applied the model considering conditions characterized by negligible advection, obtaining satisfactory results. We found that the heat exchange between water and sediment is crucial for describing sediment temperature but plays a minor role on the water temperature.

  2. Effects of Sediment Chemical Properties on Phosphorus Release Rates in the Sediment-Water Interface of the Steppe Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Su, Derong; Lv, Shihai; Diao, Zhaoyan; Xie, Jingjie; Luo, Yan

    2017-11-22

    Rising temperature causes a process of phosphorus release, which can be characterized well using phosphorus release rates (V P ). The objective of the present study was to investigate the major factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates through a wetland habitat simulation experiment. The results showed that the V P of different wetland sediments were different and changed with the order of W-R (river wetland) > W-L (lake wetland) > W-M (grassy marsh wetland) > W-A (reservoir wetland). The main driving factors which influenced sediment phosphorus flux velocity in the sediment-water interface were sediment B-SO₄ 2- , B-MBN and A-MBP content. Path analysis and determination coefficient analysis indicated the standard multiple regression equation for sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment-water interface, and each main factor was Y = -0.105 + 0.096X₁ + 0.275X₂ - 0.010X₃ ( r = 0.416, p phosphorus release rates; X₁ is sediment B-SO₄ 2- content; X₂ is sediment B-MBN; and X₃ is sediment A-MBP content. Sediment B-SO₄ 2- , B-MBN and A-MBP content and the interaction between them were the main factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment-water interface. Therefore, these results suggest that soil chemical properties and microbial activities likely play an important role in phosphorus release rates in the sediment-water interface. We hope to provide effective scientific management and control methods for relevant environmental protection departments.

  3. Measurements of gaseous mercury exchanges at the sediment-water, water-atmosphere and sediment-atmosphere interfaces of a tidal environment (Arcachon Bay, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Sylvain; Tessier, Emmanuel; Monperrus, Mathilde; Bridou, Romain; Clavier, Jacques; Thouzeau, Gerard; Amouroux, David

    2011-05-01

    The elemental mercury evasion from non-impacted natural areas is of significant importance in the global Hg cycle due to their large spatial coverage. Intertidal areas represent a dynamic environment promoting the transformations of Hg species and their subsequent redistribution. A major challenge remains in providing reliable data on Hg species variability and fluxes under typical transient tidal conditions found in such environment. Field experiments were thus carried out to allow the assessment and comparison of the magnitude of the gaseous Hg fluxes at the three interfaces, sediment-water, sediment-atmosphere and water-atmosphere of a mesotidal temperate lagoon (Arcachon Bay, Aquitaine, France) over three distinct seasonal conditions. The fluxes between the sediment-water and the sediment-atmosphere interfaces were directly evaluated with field flux chambers, respectively static or dynamic. Water-atmosphere fluxes were evaluated from ambient concentrations using a gas exchange model. The fluxes at the sediment-water interface ranged from -5.0 to 5.1 ng m(-2) h(-1) and appeared mainly controlled by diffusion. The occurrence of macrophytic covers (i.e.Zostera noltii sp.) enhanced the fluxes under light radiations. The first direct measurements of sediment-atmosphere fluxes are reported here. The exchanges were more intense and variable than the two other interfaces, ranging between -78 and 40 ng m(-2) h(-1) and were mostly driven by the overlying atmospheric Hg concentrations and superficial sediment temperature. The exchanges between the water column and the atmosphere, computed as a function of wind speed and gaseous mercury saturation ranged from 0.4 to 14.5 ng m(-2) h(-1). The flux intensities recorded over the intertidal sediments periodically exposed to the atmosphere were roughly 2 to 3 times higher than the fluxes of the other interfaces. The evasion of elemental mercury from emerged intertidal sediments is probably a significant pathway for Hg evasion in

  4. Effects of Sediment Chemical Properties on Phosphorus Release Rates in the Sediment-Water Interface of the Steppe Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rising temperature causes a process of phosphorus release, which can be characterized well using phosphorus release rates (VP. The objective of the present study was to investigate the major factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates through a wetland habitat simulation experiment. The results showed that the VP of different wetland sediments were different and changed with the order of W–R (river wetland > W–L (lake wetland > W–M (grassy marsh wetland > W–A (reservoir wetland. The main driving factors which influenced sediment phosphorus flux velocity in the sediment–water interface were sediment B-SO42−, B-MBN and A-MBP content. Path analysis and determination coefficient analysis indicated the standard multiple regression equation for sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment–water interface, and each main factor was Y = −0.105 + 0.096X1 + 0.275X2 − 0.010X3 (r = 0.416, p < 0.01, n = 144, where Y is sediment phosphorus release rates; X1 is sediment B-SO42− content; X2 is sediment B-MBN; and X3 is sediment A-MBP content. Sediment B-SO42−, B-MBN and A-MBP content and the interaction between them were the main factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment–water interface. Therefore, these results suggest that soil chemical properties and microbial activities likely play an important role in phosphorus release rates in the sediment–water interface. We hope to provide effective scientific management and control methods for relevant environmental protection departments.

  5. Performance of a hydrostatic sampler for collecting samples at the water-sediment interface in lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando PEDROZO

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The water-sediment interface plays a significant role in the determination of the trophic degree of a waterbody. Numerous redox reactions take place there, resulting in the release of contaminants from the sediments to the water column. The aim of the present work was to develop an equipment for collecting samples from the water-sediment interface. Such equipment was to have a simple design, low construction cost, no depth limitations, and high levels of personal safety and to be reliable in the collection of samples. The performance of the hydrostatic sampler thus developed was tested against samples collected either remotely with a corer or directly with syringes by autonomous divers. The hydrostatic sampler permits access to depths where the costs of the traditional diving methodology are expensive, and where working conditions are dangerous for the diver. The hydrostatic sampler provides an additional means of collecting samples from the water-sediment interface, which together with pore-water samples, facilitates the investigation and understanding of chemical mechanisms in lakes, for instance, those that control the P release from sediment to the water column.

  6. Migration of trace heavy metals at the sea water/sediment interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo; Tomiyama, Chisato

    1984-01-01

    Migration behavior of some trace heavy metals such as Co(II), Cu(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II) at the sea water/sediment interface was investigated by tank experiments. The sea water which was doped with these metal ions (ppb to ppm levels) allowed to contact with the raw-, ignited- and autoclaved-marine sediments and the change of the concentration of each metal was traced at definite time intervals. At the end of the experiments, a core sample of the sediment was taken and analyzed for each metal in every 1 mm thick segment. On the other hand, the surface sediment was submitted to partial extraction with various kinds of reagents to estimate the chemical species of the metals captured in the sediment. While every metal ion was quickly adsorbed on surface of the raw sediment, a concentration gradient from surface to bottom of the water phase occurred in the ignited sediment system. The migration of manganese to the sediment phase was assumed to be concerned with bacterial activity in the sediment. Copper and zinc seemed to be adsorbed very quickly onto some fine sediment particles by the formation of organometallic complexes with some organic materials existing in the sediments. Cobalt migrated relatively fast downward within the sediment phase after its deposition. (author)

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF A BIDIRECTIONAL ADVECTIVE FLUX METER FOR SEDIMENT-WATER INTERFACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bidirectional advective flux meter for measuring water transport across the sediment-water interface has been successfully developed and field tested. The flow sensor employs a heat-pulse technique combined with a flow collection funnel for the flow measurement. Because the dir...

  8. Radioisotope mobility across the sediment/water interface in the deep sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ten Brink, M.R.B.

    1987-01-01

    The removal of radiotracers from water to sediments and their partitioning between phases were used to study the rates and mechanisms of transfer for trace elements across the sediment/water interface in the deep sea. The in situ mobility of 22 Na, 134 Cs, 133 Ba, 65 Zn, 125 Sb, 7 Be, 203 Hg, 54 Mn, 60 Co, 59 Fe, 113 Gd, and 141 Ce was measured using MANOP Lander benthic chambers in the N. equatorial Pacific and in San Clemente Basin. The contributions to mobility of diffusion, bioturbation, advection of pore waters, and transport across the diffusive boundary layer was assessed. The penetration of particle reactive tracers in the upper cm suggested a mixing rate of ≤10 -7 cm 2 /s at Sites C and S and ≤10 -5 cm 2 /s at Sites M and H. Greater penetration could be correlated with worm tubes but no evidence of irrigation was found. The presence of nodules did not prevent transport of soluble tracers to the underlying sediment or concentrate tracers. Diffusion was the predominant mode of transport for radiotracers in the short-term in situ experiments

  9. High resolution microprofiling, fractionation and speciation at sediment water interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricius, Anne-Lena; Duester, Lars; Ecker, Dennis; Ternes, Thomas A.

    2016-04-01

    Within aquatic environments, the exchange between the sediment and the overlaying water is often driven by steep gradients of, e.g., the oxygen concentration, the redox potential or the pH value at the sediment water interface (SWI). Important transport processes at the SWI are sedimentation and resuspension of particulate matter and diffusional fluxes of dissolved substances. To gain a better understanding of the key factors and processes determining the fate of substances at the SWI, methods with a spatial high resolution are required that enable the investigation of several sediment parameters in parallel to different analytes of interest in the sediment pore water. Moreover, beside the total content, questions concerning the speciation and fractionation are of concern in studying the different (transport) processes. Due to the availability of numerous micro-sensors and -electrodes (e.g., O2, redox potential, pH value, H2S, N2O) and the development of methods for pore water sampling [1], the toolbox to study the heterogeneous and often dynamic conditions at the SWI at a sub-millimetre scale were considerably improved. Nevertheless, the methods available for pore water sampling often require the installation of the sampling devices at the sampling site and/or intensive preparation procedures that may influence the conditions at the area studied and/or the characteristics of the samples taken. By combination of a micro profiling system with a new micro filtration probe head connected to a pump and a fraction collector, a micro profiling and micro sampling system ("missy") was developed that enables for the first time a direct, automate and low invasive sampling of small volumes (content of metal(loid)s, but also their fractionation (size dependent and micelle mediated) or speciation related distributions along sediment depth profiles in parallel to different sediment parameters (O2, redox and pH). Together with the results of missy-experiments, the results of

  10. Diffusion of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Across the Sediment-Water Interface and In Seawater at Aquaculture Areas of Daya Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangju Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the yearly increasing marine culture activities in floating cages in Daya Bay, China, the effects of pollution may overlap and lead to more severe water environmental problems. In order to track the impacts of the marine culture in floating cages on water environment, sediments and overlying water were sampled by cylindrical samplers at three representative aquaculture areas of Daya Bay. The water content, porosity, density of sediments as well as the vertical distributions of ammonia nitrogen and active phosphate in pore water along sediments depth were measured. The release rate and annual released quantity of the nutrients across sediment-water interface were calculated using Fick’s Law. A horizontal two-dimensional mathematical model was developed to compute the spatial and temporal distributions of the nutrients in seawater after being released across the sediment-water interface. The results showed that the sediments, with a high content and a large annual released quantity of nitrogen and phosphorus, constitute a potential inner source of seawater pollution. Influenced by tide and water depth, the scope of diffusion and migration of the nutrients appears as a long belt which is about 1 km long and 50 m wide. Seawater in this area is vulnerable to eutrophication.

  11. Stratigraphic controls on fluid and solute fluxes across the sediment-water interface of an estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Audrey H.; Lazareva, Olesya; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Crespo, Kyle; Chan, Clara S.; Stieglitz, Thomas; Michael, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    Shallow stratigraphic features, such as infilled paleovalleys, modify fresh groundwater discharge to coastal waters and fluxes of saltwater and nutrients across the sediment–water interface. We quantify the spatial distribution of shallow surface water–groundwater exchange and nitrogen fluxes near a paleovalley in Indian River Bay, Delaware, using a hand resistivity probe, conventional seepage meters, and pore-water samples. In the interfluve (region outside the paleovalley) most nitrate-rich fresh groundwater discharges rapidly near the coast with little mixing of saline pore water, and nitrogen transport is largely conservative. In the peat-filled paleovalley, fresh groundwater discharge is negligible, and saltwater exchange is deep (∼1 m). Long pore-water residence times and abundant sulfate and organic matter promote sulfate reduction and ammonium production in shallow sediment. Reducing, iron-rich fresh groundwater beneath paleovalley peat discharges diffusely around paleovalley margins offshore. In this zone of diffuse fresh groundwater discharge, saltwater exchange and dispersion are enhanced, ammonium is produced in shallow sediments, and fluxes of ammonium to surface water are large. By modifying patterns of groundwater discharge and the nature of saltwater exchange in shallow sediments, paleovalleys and other stratigraphic features influence the geochemistry of discharging groundwater. Redox reactions near the sediment–water interface affect rates and patterns of geochemical fluxes to coastal surface waters. For example, at this site, more than 99% of the groundwater-borne nitrate flux to the Delaware Inland Bays occurs within the interfluve portion of the coastline, and more than 50% of the ammonium flux occurs at the paleovalley margin.

  12. Nutrient fluxes across sediment-water interface in Bohai Bay Coastal Zone, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Di; Yuan, Dekui; Feng, Huan; Xing, Fangwei; Teo, Fang Yenn; Li, Shuangzhao

    2017-01-30

    Sediment cores and overlying water samples were collected at four sites in Tianjin Coastal Zone, Bohai Bay, to investigate nutrient (N, P and Si) exchanges across the sediment-water interface. The exchange fluxes of each nutrient species were estimated based on the porewater profiles and laboratory incubation experiments. The results showed significant differences between the two methods, which implied that molecular diffusion alone was not the dominant process controlling nutrient exchanges at these sites. The impacts of redox conditions and bioturbation on the nutrient fluxes were confirmed by the laboratory incubation experiments. The results from this study showed that the nutrient fluxes measured directly from the incubation experiment were more reliable than that predicted from the porewater profiles. The possible impacts causing variations in the nutrient fluxes include sewage discharge and land reclamation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gas exchange rates across the sediment-water and air-water interfaces in south San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Blayne; Hammond, Douglas E.

    1984-01-01

    Radon 222 concentrations in the water and sedimentary columns and radon exchange rates across the sediment-water and air-water interfaces have been measured in a section of south San Francisco Bay. Two independent methods have been used to determine sediment-water exchange rates, and the annual averages of these methods agree within the uncertainty of the determinations, about 20%. The annual average of benthic fluxes from shoal areas is nearly a factor of 2 greater than fluxes from the channel areas. Fluxes from the shoal and channel areas exceed those expected from simple molecular diffusion by factors of 4 and 2, respectively, apparently due to macrofaunal irrigation. Values of the gas transfer coefficient for radon exchange across the air-water interface were determined by constructing a radon mass balance for the water column and by direct measurement using floating chambers. The chamber method appears to yield results which are too high. Transfer coefficients computed using the mass balance method range from 0.4 m/day to 1.8 m/day, with a 6-year average of 1.0 m/day. Gas exchange is linearly dependent upon wind speed over a wind speed range of 3.2–6.4 m/s, but shows no dependence upon current velocity. Gas transfer coefficients predicted from an empirical relationship between gas exchange rates and wind speed observed in lakes and the oceans are within 30% of the coefficients determined from the radon mass balance and are considerably more accurate than coefficients predicted from theoretical gas exchange models.

  14. Biodiversity links above and below the marine sediment-water interface that may influence community stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Austen, M.C.; Lambshead, P.J.D.; Hutchings, P.; Boucher, G.; Snelgrove, P.V.R.; Heip, C.H.R.; King, G.; Koike, I.; Smith, C.

    2002-01-01

    Linkages across the sediment-water interface (SWI) between biodiversity and community stability appear to exist but are very poorly studied. Processes by which changes in biodiversity could affect stability on the other side of the SWI include carbon transfer during feeding, decomposition of organic

  15. Diffusive flux of PAHs across sediment-water and water-air interfaces at urban superfund sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minick, D James; Anderson, Kim A

    2017-09-01

    Superfund sites may be a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the surrounding environment. These sites can also act as PAH sinks from present-day anthropogenic activities, especially in urban locations. Understanding PAH transport across environmental compartments helps to define the relative contributions of these sources and is therefore important for informing remedial and management decisions. In the present study, paired passive samplers were co-deployed at sediment-water and water-air interfaces within the Portland Harbor Superfund Site and the McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site. These sites, located along the Willamette River (Portland, OR, USA), have PAH contamination from both legacy and modern sources. Diffusive flux calculations indicate that the Willamette River acts predominantly as a sink for low molecular weight PAHs from both the sediment and the air. The sediment was also predominantly a source of 4- and 5-ring PAHs to the river, and the river was a source of these same PAHs to the air, indicating that legacy pollution may be contributing to PAH exposure for residents of the Portland urban center. At the remediated McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site, flux measurements highlight locations within the sand and rock sediment cap where contaminant breakthrough is occurring. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2281-2289. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  16. Oxygen imaging at the sediment-water interface using lifetime-based laser induced fluorescence (tau LIF) of nano-sized particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murniati, E.; Gross, D.; Herlina, H.

    2016-01-01

    Most applications of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) for dissolved oxygen (DO) imaging in flowing water are based on luminescence intensity measurements of a dissolved indicator. A major limitation for applying the technique in the bottom boundary layer (BBL) is the sorption of the luminescent dye...... to organic surfaces at the sediment. Many sediment and soil studies have used planar optodes on transparent foils as an imaging technique for observing concentration distributions across the sediment-water interface. The presence of the foil, however, is restricting the free flow and therewith the DO...

  17. Effect of sediment-water interface 'boundary layer' on exposure of nodules and their abundance: a study from seabed photos

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    affects nodule abundance estimates based on photos. A model showing variable burial (or exposure) depending upon the thickness of the Sediment-Water Interface Boundary (SWIB) layer is presented. Standard relationships can be established between nodule...

  18. Effect of environmental conditions on variation in the sediment-water interface created by complex macrofaunal burrows on a tidal flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon Joo; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Hyun, Jung-Ho

    2007-11-01

    We quantified the increase in the sediment-water interface created by the burrowing activities of the resident macrofaunal community and its variation with respect to the physical conditions of the habitat on a tidal fat. We investigated environmental factors and dimensions of macrofaunal burrows with respect to tidal height and vegetation during spring and summer at three sites. A resin-casting method was used to quantify the dimensions of all burrows at each site. The dimensions of macrofaunal burrows varied both temporally and spatially and the increase in the sediment-water interface reached a maximum of 311%, ranging from 20 to 255% under different habitat conditions. The sediment-water interface depended on the duration of exposure resulting from tidal height, increased temperatures resulting from seasonality, and marsh plant density. Burrows were deeper and more expansive at both higher tidal levels and higher temperatures in summer. Burrow dimensions were sharply reduced with the disappearance of adult macrofauna in areas where the roots of the marsh plant Suaeda japonica were dense. The significance of this study lies in quantifying the burrow dimensions of the entire macrofaunal community, rather than just a single population, and confirming their spatial and temporal variation with respect to physical conditions of the habitat. Environmental factors responsible for variation in burrow dimensions are discussed.

  19. Dynamics of microalgal communities in the water-column/sediment interface of the inner shelf off Parana State, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luiz Queiroz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The composition and biomass of the microalgal community at the water-column/sediment interface on the continental shelf off Parana State (Brazil were studied every 2 months during 1999. Samples for cell identification and determination of chlorophyll a were taken from the interface layer and at discrete depths up to 4 m above the sediment. Results showed a community mainly formed by benthic and planktonic diatoms >30 µm, benthic diatoms 30 µm, which accounted for most of the pigment biomass, were resuspended from the interface after turbulent periods, and may take advantage of calm periods to stay and grow at the interface. Small benthic diatoms were more susceptible to wind-induced turbulence occurring in higher densities in the water column just above the water-sediment interface. A cyanobacterial bloom (Trichodesmiun was observed at these bottom layers in the spring-summer periods.A composição geral e a biomassa da comunidade microalgal da interface sedimento/água da plataforma do Estado do Paraná (Brasil foram estudadas em 1999 em relação ao regime de ventos. A cada dois meses foram coletadas amostras para a identificação de organismos e determinação de clorofila a, na interface água-sedimento e em profundidades discretas, ao longo da coluna d'água, até 4m acima do sedimento. Os resultados obtidos revelaram uma comunidade constituída principalmente por diatomáceas planctônicas e bentônicas maiores que 30 µm, diatomáceas bentônicas menores que 30 µm, e cianobactérias coloniais. As densidades celulares foram geralmente mais altas na interface. Eventos de mistura e sedimentação parecem ser determinantes na regulação da composição e biomassa de tais comunidades. Formas menores, mais susceptíveis à turbulência, dominaram a comunidade de água de fundo na maioria das ocasiões, e foram as mais abundantes na interface apenas em períodos de extrema estabilidade. Células maiores, aparentemente contendo a maior parte

  20. Gas exchange rates across the sediment-water andd air-water interfaces in south San Francisco Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, B.; Hammond, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Radon 222 concentrations in the water and sedimentary columns and radon exchange rates across the sediment-water and air-water interfaces have been measured in a section of south San Francisco Bay. Two independent methods have been used to determine sediment-water exchange rates, and the annual averages of these methods agree within the uncertainity of the determinations, about 20%. The annual average of bethic fluxes from shoal areas is nearly a factor of 2 greater than fluxes from the channel areas. Fluxes from the shoal and channel areas exceed those expected from simple molecular diffusion by factors of 4 and 2, respectively, apparently due to macrofaunal irrigation. Values of the gas transfer coefficient for radon exchange across the air-water inteface were determined by constructing a radon mass balance for the water column and by direct measurement using floating chambers. The chamber method appears to yield results which are too high. Transfer coefficients computed using the mass balance method range from 0.4 m/day to 1.8 m/day, with a 6-year average of 1.0 m/day. Gas exchange is linearly dependent upon wind speed over a wind speed range of 3.2--6.4 m/s, but shows no dependence upon current velocity. Gas transfer coefficients predicted from an empirical relationship between gas exchange rates and wind speed observed in lakes and the oceans are within 30% of the coefficients determined from the radon mass balance and are considerably more accurate than coefficients predicted from theoretical gas exchange models

  1. Influence of an aerobic sediment-water interface in relation to reduced risk of phosphorus leaching from re-established wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsmann, Ditte M.; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    water interactions are of fundamental importance for the biogeochemical processes controlling phosphorus dynamics in wetlands, and different hydrological pathways such as groundwater discharge and surface water flooding are operating within wetlands (Hoffmann et al., 2009). During groundwater discharge...... depends both on the hydrological regimes and the processes taking place at the sediment-water interface. Re-oxidation of iron might allow a recapturing of phosphorus (Zak et al., 2004), and thereby impede P losses to the aquatic environment....

  2. [Phosphorus characteristics and the impact to water quality across interface of overlying water and sediment of Xiazhuhu wetland in Northern Zhejiang Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian-Guo; Zhu, Huang-Chao; Wang, Zhao-De; Lin, Yuan; Li, Shuai; Xie, Guan-Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Jian

    2009-06-15

    Healthy wetland system is regarded as an effective way for biological remediation of non-point source pollutants. A case field investigation on phosphorus (P) status of overlying water and sediment was carried out for Xiazhuhu wetland located in Northern Zhejiang Province, China. A static wetland microcosm experiment was conducted to understand the characteristics and mechanisms related to P exchanging, P forms changing, and water quality impact across the interface of water and sediment. Field investigation showed that total P (TP) concentrations of sediments were found from 0.187 mg x g(-1) to 0.591 mg x g(-1), and TP in overlying water reached from 0.022 mg x L(-1) to 0.718 mg x L(-1) where the seasonal concentration variations of TP, dissolved P (DP), and particulate P (PP) were commonly found in order as winter > summer > spring > fall. Fed by synthetic solution containing P levels of 0.0 - 10.5 mg x L(-1), a 35-day-lasting microcosm study showed that P retention by sediments could be divided into three basic phases in order, i.e., buffer reaction, rapid adsorption, and slow adsorption. Under a typical stress concentration of 1.0 mg x L(-1) in overlying water, the increment of P tanks in different forms was found as NH4 Cl-P (0.0%), Fe-P/Mn-P (around 20%), NaOH-TP (around 66%, mainly as the form of Al-P), Ca-P (1.9%), and Res-P (11.3%), on the condition of Xiazhuhu wetland under low water season. Application of Al to wetland would increase the capacity of sediment P retention in Xiazhuhu wetland.

  3. Temporal variability of exchange between groundwater and surface water based on high-frequency direct measurements of seepage at the sediment-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Sheibley, Rich W.; Cox, Stephen E.; Simonds, Frederic W.; Naftz, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Seepage at the sediment-water interface in several lakes, a large river, and an estuary exhibits substantial temporal variability when measured with temporal resolution of 1 min or less. Already substantial seepage rates changed by 7% and 16% in response to relatively small rain events at two lakes in the northeastern USA, but did not change in response to two larger rain events at a lake in Minnesota. However, seepage at that same Minnesota lake changed by 10% each day in response to withdrawals from evapotranspiration. Seepage increased by more than an order of magnitude when a seiche occurred in the Great Salt Lake, Utah. Near the head of a fjord in Puget Sound, Washington, seepage in the intertidal zone varied greatly from −115 to +217 cm d−1 in response to advancing and retreating tides when the time-averaged seepage was upward at +43 cm d−1. At all locations, seepage variability increased by one to several orders of magnitude in response to wind and associated waves. Net seepage remained unchanged by wind unless wind also induced a lake seiche. These examples from sites distributed across a broad geographic region indicate that temporal variability in seepage in response to common hydrological events is much larger than previously realized. At most locations, seepage responded within minutes to changes in surface-water stage and within minutes to hours to groundwater recharge associated with rainfall. Likely implications of this dynamism include effects on water residence time, geochemical transformations, and ecological conditions at and near the sediment-water interface.

  4. Calibration and application of an automated seepage meter for monitoring water flow across the sediment-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tengyi; Fu, Dafang; Jenkinson, Byron; Jafvert, Chad T

    2015-04-01

    The advective flow of sediment pore water is an important parameter for understanding natural geochemical processes within lake, river, wetland, and marine sediments and also for properly designing permeable remedial sediment caps placed over contaminated sediments. Automated heat pulse seepage meters can be used to measure the vertical component of sediment pore water flow (i.e., vertical Darcy velocity); however, little information on meter calibration as a function of ambient water temperature exists in the literature. As a result, a method with associated equations for calibrating a heat pulse seepage meter as a function of ambient water temperature is fully described in this paper. Results of meter calibration over the temperature range 7.5 to 21.2 °C indicate that errors in accuracy are significant if proper temperature-dependence calibration is not performed. The proposed calibration method allows for temperature corrections to be made automatically in the field at any ambient water temperature. The significance of these corrections is discussed.

  5. Cesium, manganese and cobalt water-sediment transfer kinetics and diffusion into mangrove sediments inferred by radiotracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, E.C.; Machado, W.; Patchineelam, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    A study on the trace elements transfer from tidal water to mangrove sediments from Guanabara Bay (southeastern Brazil) was performed in laboratory microcosms. Sediment cores were covered with tidal water spiked with 137 Cs, 54 Mn and 57 Co during 5-h experiments, and water samples were taken at regular intervals to measure uptake kinetics at the sediment-water interface. At the end of the experiments, the uptake and diffusional penetration into the sediments was evaluated. Half-removal times from water to sediments were slightly higher for 137 Cs (3.4 ± 1.7 h) than observed for 54 Mn (2.3 ± 0.2 h) and 57 Co (2.6 ± 1.1 h). After these experiments, all radioisotopes presented decreasing activities with increasing sediment depth, being the distribution of 137 Cs indicative of higher diffusion within the upper 2 cm. This study on the removal of 137 Cs, 54 Mn and 57 Co from tidal water by mangrove sediments suggests that while 57 Co and 54 Mn presented closer behaviors, there was a slightly higher mobility of 137 Cs. (author)

  6. Entrainment at a sediment concentration interface in turbulent channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jorge; Shringarpure, Mrugesh; Cantero, Mariano; Balachandar, S.

    2016-11-01

    In this work we address the role of turbulence on entrainment at a sediment concentration interface. This process can be conceived as the entrainment of sediment-free fluid into the bottom sediment-laden flow, or alternatively, as the entrainment of sediment into the top sediment-free flow. We have performed direct numerical simulations for fixed Reynolds and Schmidt numbers while varying the values of Richardson number and particle settling velocity. The analysis performed shows that the ability of the flow to pick up a given sediment size decreases with the distance from the bottom, and thus only fine enough sediment particles are entrained across the sediment concentration interface. For these cases, the concentration profiles evolve to a final steady state in good agreement with the well-known Rouse profile. The approach towards the Rouse profile happens through a transient self-similar state. Detailed analysis of the three dimensional structure of the sediment concentration interface shows the mechanisms by which sediment particles are lifted up by tongues of sediment-laden fluid with positive correlation between vertical velocity and sediment concentration. Finally, the mixing ability of the flow is addressed by monitoring the center of mass of the sediment-laden layer. With the support of ExxonMobil, NSF, ANPCyT, CONICET.

  7. Biogeochemical processes of incorporation and transformation of 14C labelled fulvic acid, humic acid and simple organic molecules at the sediment-water interface (submarine canyon of the NW Mediterranean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscail, R.; Gadel, F.

    1987-01-01

    The input of organic compounds at the marine water-sediment interface was simulated by the injection of 14 C labelled raygrass fulvic and humic acids and glutamic acid in the overlying water of three identically preserved interfaces. After incubations of 6 days under in situ conditions (13 0 C, oxidizing conditions), separation of the resulting products are carried out by successive chemical extractions. They correspond to the relative importance of biological (respiration, assimilation) and geochemical (condensation in geopolymers and adsorption) processes. Two experiments have showed predominance of biological processes (with 14 C fulvic and glutamic acids), while in the case of 14 C humic acid, incorporation in sediment and geochemical processes are more important. (Auth.)

  8. Toxicity of water and sediment from stormwater retarding basins to Hydra hexactinella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrantz, Rikke Tjørnhøj; Pollino, Carmel A.; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2008-01-01

    of 50 ml/L and 100 ml/L, while the 7 h pulse exposure caused a significant increase in the mean population growth rate compared to the control. Water samples from the two other retarding basins were found non-toxic to H. hexactinella. This is the first study to employ sediment tests with Hydra spp....... on stormwater sediments and a lower population growth rate was observed for organisms exposed to sediment from the Avoca St retarding basins. The behavioral study showed that H. hexactinella tended to avoid the sediment-water interface when exposed to sediment from all retarding basins, compared...... to the reference sediment. Further work is needed to determine the long-term effects of stormwater polluted sediments and acute effects due to organism exposure to short-term high concentrations during rain events. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. Radon-222 and radium-226 in southeastern Bering Sea shelf waters and sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, D.M.; Reeburgh, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    Radon-222 and 226 Ra activities were measured in the waters and sediment of the southeastern Bering Sea shelf to evaluate the use of radon as a tracer of gas exchange, water column mixing and sediment-water exchange. Cross-shelf distributions of 222 Rn and 226 Ra are presented. Gas transfer coefficients were estimated using near-surface 222 Rn deficiency measurements. A statistically significant linear relationship between averaged wind speed and transfer coefficient was found. Vertical eddy diffusivities were evaluated by applying a one-dimensional model to near-bottom excess 222 Rn distributions; these diffusivities were compared to independently determined values. The one-dimensional model applied to the near-bottom 222 Rn data was found to be inadequate and a two-dimensional model was applied to improve the fit between model and data. Exchange across the sediment-water interface was computed from the deficiency of 222 Rn measured in sediment cores, standing crop estimates of excess 222 Rn in the water column and 222 Rn production rates of sediment surface grab samples. Biological irrigation of the sediments appeared to be the primary exchange mechanism between the sediment and water columns. Distributions in the water column showed finestructure reported previously and suggested biological removal of 226 Ra. (author)

  10. The marine geochemistry of actinium-227: Evidence for its migration through sediment pore water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Masatoshi; Nikaido, Hirofumi

    1990-01-01

    227 Ac with a half life of 21.8 years has a potential utility as a tracer of deep water circulation and mixing studies on time scales less than 100 years. Here the authors present the first measurement of 227 Ac profile in the pore water of Northwest Pacific deep-sea sediment and in the ∼10,000 m long water column of Izu-Ogasawara Trench. The results clearly show that 227 Ac is supplied from the sediment to the overlying water through migration in the pore water. The model calculation indicates that the molecular diffusion alone through sediment porewater can support only a half of the standing crop of excess 227 Ac in the water column and the enhanced supply of 227 Ac by particle mixing is necessary to account for the remainder. Thus, bioturbation in the deep sea plays an important role in controlling the flux of some short-lived radionuclides such as 227 Ac and 228 Ra across the sediment-water interface

  11. Investigating the Role of Hydrologic Residence Time in Nitrogen Transformations at the Sediment-Water Interface using Controlled Variable Head Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, T. B.; Zarnetske, J. P.; Briggs, M. A.; Singha, K.; Day-Lewis, F. D.

    2017-12-01

    Many important biogeochemical processes governing both carbon and nitrogen dynamics in streams take place at the sediment-water interface (SWI). This interface is highly variable in biogeochemical function, with stream stage often influencing the magnitude and direction of water and solute exchange through the SWI. It is well known that the SWI can be an important location for carbon and nitrogen transformations, including denitrification and greenhouse gas production. The degree of mixing of carbon and nitrate, along with oxygen from surface waters, is strongly influenced by hydrologic exchange at the SWI. We hypothesize that hydrologic residence time, which is also determined by the magnitude of exchange, is a key control on the fate of nitrate at the SWI and on the end products of denitrification. Previous studies in the headwaters of the Ipswich River in MA as part of the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen Experiments (LINX II) and other long-term monitoring suggest that the Ipswich River SWI represents an important source of nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas. Using a novel constant-head infiltrometer ring embedded in the stream sediments, we created four unique controlled down-welling (i.e., recharge) conditions, and tested how varying this hydrologic flux and thus the residence time distribution influenced biogeochemical function of the Ipswich River SWI. Specifically, we added isotopically-labelled 15N-nitrate to stream water during each controlled hydrologic flux experiment to quantify nitrate transformation rates, including denitrification end products, under the different hydrologic conditions. We also measured a suite of carbon and nitrogen solutes, along with dissolved oxygen conditions throughout each experiment to characterize the broader residence timescale and biogeochemical responses to the hydrologic manipulations. Initial results show that the oxic conditions of the SWI were strongly responsive to changes in hydrologic flux rates, thereby changing the

  12. Water at Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneholm, Olle; Hansen, Martin Hangaard; Hodgson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The interfaces of neat water and aqueous solutions play a prominent role in many technological processes and in the environment. Examples of aqueous interfaces are ultrathin water films that cover most hydrophilic surfaces under ambient relative humidities, the liquid/solid interface which drives...

  13. Effects of bioirrigation on the spatial and temporal dynamics of oxygen above the sediment-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murniati, E.; Gross, D.; Herlina, H.

    2017-01-01

    Burrow ventilation by tube-dwelling benthic animals affects solute exchange between sediments and water by 2 means. Drawing of O2-rich water into the burrow increases O2 availability in the sediment and stimulates biogeochemical and microbial processes, whereas flushing of the burrow creates a 3......-dimensional flow field above the burrow, which induces mixing. Previous studies have revealed the role of the diffusive boundary layer (DBL) thickness on the exchange of solutes between the sediment and overlying water. Mapping the O2 gradient within the DBL is a challenging task in the presence of benthic...... the outlet of the burrows and drawdown of O2-rich water above the inlet caused by peristaltic pumping of C. plumosus larvae. Vertical O2 gradients changed dynamically during burrow ventilation relative to in a control tank without animals. The advective transport of O2 above the opening caused by burrow...

  14. Monitoring and evaluation of plant and hydrological controls on arsenic transport across the water sediment interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, P. R.; MacDonald, L. H.; Paull, J.

    2009-12-01

    Plants and hydrology influence the transport of arsenic in wetlands by changing the dominant redox chemistry in the subsurface, and different plant and hydrological regimes can serve as effective barriers or promoters of metal transport. Inorganic arsenic, especially arsenate, binds to iron oxides in wetlands. In flooded wetland sediments, organic carbon from plants consumes oxygen and promotes reductive iron dissolution, which leads to arsenic release, while plants simultaneously create microoxic regimes around root hairs that oxidize and precipitate iron, promoting arsenic capture. Hydrology influences arsenic mobility by promoting wetting and drying cycles. Such cycles can lead to rapid shifts from anaerobic to aerobic conditions, and vice versa, with lasting impact on the oxidation state of iron and, by extension, the mobility of arsenic. Remediation strategies should take these competing conditions into account, and to help inform these strategies this study examines the chemistry of an industrially contaminated wetland when the above mechanisms aggregate. The study tests whether, in bulk, plants promote iron reduction or oxidation in intermittently flooded or consistently flooded sediments, and how this impacts arsenic mobility. This research uses a novel dialysis-based monitoring technique to examine the macro-properties of arsenic transport at the sediment water interface and at depth. Dialysis-based monitoring allows long-term seasonal trends in anaerobic porewater and allows active hypothesis testing on the influence of plants on redox chemistry. This study finds that plants promote iron reduction and that iron-reducing zones tend to correlate with zones with mobile arsenic. However, one newly reported and important finding of this study is that a brief summer drought that dried and oxidized sediments with a long history of iron-reduction zone served to effectively halt iron reduction for many months, and this corresponded to a lasting decline in

  15. Effect of salinity and sediment characteristics on the sorption and desorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate at sediment-water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Chun; Jia Chengxia; Pan Gang

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of solution salinity, pH and the sediment characteristics on the sorption and desorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The results showed that the sorption of PFOS onto sediment increased by a factor of 3 as the CaCl 2 concentration increased from 0.005 to 0.5 mol L -1 at pH 7.0, and nearly 6 at pH 8.0. Desorption hysteresis occurred over all salinity. The thermodynamic index of irreversibility (TII) values increased with increasing concentration of CaCl 2 . Maximum irreversibility was found in the sorption systems with CaCl 2 in the concentration of 0.5 mol L -1 . The results suggested that PFOS can be largely removed from the water with increasing salinity, and get trapped onto sediments irreversibly. These phenomena could be explained by salting-out effect and Ca-bridging effect. Studies also suggested that the content of total organic carbon is the dominant psychochemical properties of sediment controlling the sorption of PFOS. - Salinity is an important environmental parameter affecting the transport and fate of PFOS in aquatic environment.

  16. Multi-Elements in Waters and Sediments of Shallow Lakes: Relationships with Water, Sediment, and Watershed Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissoon, La Toya T; Jacob, Donna L; Hanson, Mark A; Herwig, Brian R; Bowe, Shane E; Otte, Marinus L

    2015-06-01

    We measured concentrations of multiple elements, including rare earth elements, in waters and sediments of 38 shallow lakes of varying turbidity and macrophyte cover in the Prairie Parkland (PP) and Laurentian Mixed Forest (LMF) provinces of Minnesota. PP shallow lakes had higher element concentrations in waters and sediments compared to LMF sites. Redundancy analysis indicated that a combination of site- and watershed-scale features explained a large proportion of among-lake variability in element concentrations in lake water and sediments. Percent woodland cover in watersheds, turbidity, open water area, and macrophyte cover collectively explained 65.2 % of variation in element concentrations in lake waters. Sediment fraction smaller than 63 µm, percent woodland in watersheds, open water area, and sediment organic matter collectively explained 64.2 % of variation in element concentrations in lake sediments. In contrast to earlier work on shallow lakes, our results showed the extent to which multiple elements in shallow lake waters and sediments were influenced by a combination of variables including sediment characteristics, lake morphology, and percent land cover in watersheds. These results are informative because they help illustrate the extent of functional connectivity between shallow lakes and adjacent lands within these lake watersheds.

  17. Water at Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björneholm, Olle; Hansen, Martin H; Hodgson, Andrew; Liu, Li-Min; Limmer, David T; Michaelides, Angelos; Pedevilla, Philipp; Rossmeisl, Jan; Shen, Huaze; Tocci, Gabriele; Tyrode, Eric; Walz, Marie-Madeleine; Werner, Josephina; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2016-07-13

    The interfaces of neat water and aqueous solutions play a prominent role in many technological processes and in the environment. Examples of aqueous interfaces are ultrathin water films that cover most hydrophilic surfaces under ambient relative humidities, the liquid/solid interface which drives many electrochemical reactions, and the liquid/vapor interface, which governs the uptake and release of trace gases by the oceans and cloud droplets. In this article we review some of the recent experimental and theoretical advances in our knowledge of the properties of aqueous interfaces and discuss open questions and gaps in our understanding.

  18. Geochemistry of trace metals in a fresh water sediment: Field results and diagenetic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavan, R.W.; Cappellen, P. van; Zwolsman, J.J.G.; Berg, G.A. van den; Slomp, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined in pore water and sediment of a coastal fresh water lake (Haringvliet Lake, The Netherlands). Elevated sediment trace metal concentrations reflect anthropogenic inputs from the Rhine and Meuse Rivers. Pore water and sediment analyses, together with thermodynamic calculations, indicate a shift in trace metal speciation from oxide-bound to sulfide-bound over the upper 20 cm of the sediment. Concentrations of reducible Fe and Mn decline with increasing depth, but do not reach zero values at 20 cm depth. The reducible phases are relatively more important for the binding of Co, Ni, and Zn than for Pb and Cd. Pore waters exhibit supersaturation with respect to Zn, Pb, Co, and Cd monosulfides, while significant fractions of Ni and Co are bound to pyrite. A multi-component, diagenetic model developed for organic matter degradation was expanded to include Zn and Ni dynamics. Pore water transport of trace metals is primarily diffusive, with a lesser contribution of bioirrigation. Reactions affecting trace metal mobility near the sediment-water interface, especially sulfide oxidation and sorption to newly formed oxides, strongly influence the modeled estimates of the diffusive effluxes to the overlying water. Model results imply less efficient sediment retention of Ni than Zn. Sensitivity analyses show that increased bioturbation and sulfate availability, which are expected upon restoration of estuarine conditions in the lake, should increase the sulfide bound fractions of Zn and Ni in the sediments

  19. Effect of salinity and sediment characteristics on the sorption and desorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate at sediment-water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You Chun; Jia Chengxia [State Key Lab of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Pan Gang, E-mail: gpan@rcees.ac.c [State Key Lab of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2010-05-15

    This study investigated the influence of solution salinity, pH and the sediment characteristics on the sorption and desorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The results showed that the sorption of PFOS onto sediment increased by a factor of 3 as the CaCl{sub 2} concentration increased from 0.005 to 0.5 mol L{sup -1} at pH 7.0, and nearly 6 at pH 8.0. Desorption hysteresis occurred over all salinity. The thermodynamic index of irreversibility (TII) values increased with increasing concentration of CaCl{sub 2}. Maximum irreversibility was found in the sorption systems with CaCl{sub 2} in the concentration of 0.5 mol L{sup -1}. The results suggested that PFOS can be largely removed from the water with increasing salinity, and get trapped onto sediments irreversibly. These phenomena could be explained by salting-out effect and Ca-bridging effect. Studies also suggested that the content of total organic carbon is the dominant psychochemical properties of sediment controlling the sorption of PFOS. - Salinity is an important environmental parameter affecting the transport and fate of PFOS in aquatic environment.

  20. Analysis of factors controlling sediment phosphorus flux potential of wetlands in Hulun Buir grassland by principal component and path analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Su, Derong; Lv, Shihai; Diao, Zhaoyan; Ye, Shengxing; Zheng, Zhirong

    2017-11-08

    Phosphorus (P) flux potential can predict the trend of phosphorus release from wetland sediments to water and provide scientific parameters for further monitoring and management for phosphorus flux from wetland sediments to overlying water. Many studies have focused on factors affecting sediment P flux potential in sediment-water interface, but rarely on the relationship among these factors. In the present study, experiment on sediment P flux potential in sediment-water interface was conducted in six wetlands in Hulun Buir grassland, China and the relationships among sediment P flux potential in sediment-water interface, sediment physical properties, and sediment chemical characteristics were examined. Principal component analysis and path analysis were used to discuss these data in correlation coefficient, direct, and indirect effects on sediment P flux potential in sediment-water interface. Results indicated that the major factors affecting sediment P flux potential in sediment-water interface were amount of organophosphate-degradation bacterium in sediment, Ca-P content, and total phosphorus concentrations. The factors of direct influence sediment P flux potential were sediment Ca-P content, Olsen-P content, SOC content, and sediment Al-P content. The indirect influence sediment P flux potential in sediment-water interface was sediment Olsen-P content, sediment SOC content, sediment Ca-P content, and sediment Al-P content. And the standard multiple regression describing the relationship between sediment P flux potential in sediment-water interface and its major effect factors was Y = 5.849 - 1.025X 1  - 1.995X 2  + 0.188X 3  - 0.282X 4 (r = 0.9298, p < 0.01, n = 96), where Y is sediment P flux potential in sediment-water interface, X 1 is sediment Ca-P content, X 2 is sediment Olsen-P content, X 3 is sediment SOC content, and X 4 is sediment Al-P content. Therefore, future research will focus on these sediment properties to analyze the

  1. Biogeochemistry of (210)Pb and (210)Po in fresh waters and sediments. Doctoral thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, G.

    1988-06-01

    The geochemical cycling of (210)Pb in a Massachusetts lake was studied. A mass balance for the epilimnion showed that (210)Pb inputs by precipitation were matched by outputs on settling particles, so direct uptake by bottom sediments was inconsequential. Below the epilimnion, vertical mixing was very low because of a steep temperature/density gradient, and this limited vertical transport. Anoxic conditions caused remobilization of iron and (210)Pb, which reprecipitated at the oxycline and returned to the bottom via settling. Below the zone of precipitation, (210)Pb and iron distributions resulted from constant release from anoxic sediments and dilution in the water column. Sediment (210)Pb distributions were caused by sedimentation and Fickian transport. The Fickian component was equal to the pore water diffusive flux. In pore waters, (210)Pb and (210)Po were 100 times greater that in overlying water and had steep concentration gradients, unlike Fe, Mn, S(-II), and alkalinity. (210)Pb partition coefficients decreased from 15000 to 1500 with depth controlled by sorption on iron oxides. Remobilization to the water column comes from a thin layer of iron-rich floc near the sediment/water interface. Deeper in the cores, diffusive transport can cause redistribution of (210)Pb to an extent that can affect (210)Pb dating

  2. Impact of dechlorination processes on the sediment-water exchange of PCDD/F in Passaic river cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriaens, P.; Khijniak, A. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States); Jones, K.; Green, N. [Environmental Science, Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom); Gruden, C. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The potential for natural dechlorination processes in sediments to impact the biogeochemical cycling of dioxins and furans has been proposed as a possible mechanism to explain the prevalence of lesser halogenated dioxins and furans at the air-water interface. The hypothesis was supported by multiple lines of evidence, but has not been directly demonstrated. Field evidence indicated dynamic air-water exchange of PCDD/Fs in the Raritan Bay/Hudson River Estuary, whereby lesser chlorinated (predominantly diCDD/F) were present in the particle and apparent dissolved phase. Fugacity calculations indicated that the water column served as the source of these homologue groups. Laboratory evidence from Passaic River sediment cores and microbiallymediated dechlorination demonstrated that historic dioxins can undergo extensive dechlorination reactions, culminating in the formation of mono-and diCDD homologues. Similar pathways have been observed with PCDF, resulting in the accumulation of triCDF. The current paper reports on an investigation addressing the hypothesis of whether the lesser chlorinated PCDD/F observed at the air-water interface could be the result of selective dissolution of these congeners or homologues from sediments as they are produced during microbial dechlorination.

  3. Influence of tubificid worms on nutrient fluxes across water-sediment interface in fish farm settling ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puigagut J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of tubificid worms on nutrient translocation from water to fish farm sediments accumulating in settling ponds was addressed under laboratory conditions. Small microcosms of 0.5 L were filled up with 35 g of sludge from a fish farm settling pond and 0.15 L of filtered settling pond water. The experimental set up consisted of one control line (no worms added, a second experimental line with 1 mg of tubificid worms·g-1 fresh sediment (550 individuals·m-2 and a third experimental line with 40 mg of tubificid worms·g-1 fresh sediment (22 000 individuals·m-2. Nutrients translocation was determined by monitoring overlaying water concentration of ammonia, nitrate and phosphate for ten days. Results showed that abundances of 550 individuals·m-2 had no significant influence on the fluxes of nutrients here considered. However, the influence of higher abundances of tubificids (22 000 individuals·m-2 was of significant extent on the translocation of nitrate and phosphate. Accordingly, bioturbation of tubificids caused 55% lower nitrate uptake by the sediment when compared to control conditions. Phosphorus released by the sediments of the control condition was ca. 90% higher than that recorded under abundances of tubificids (22 000 individuals·m-2. Results obtained allowed us to estimate that fish farm settling ponds highly colonized by tubificid worms (22 000 individuals·m-2 may contribute to decrease phosphorus discharge (in terms of soluble phosphorus in ca. 5 g of P·ton-1 of fish produced.

  4. Demonstration of In Situ Treatment with Reactive Amendments for Contaminated Sediments in Active DoD Harbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    as hazardous wastes . The sediments are contaminated from the sediment bed surface to 1 foot below the sediment - water interface. The site is...enable deep water placement of the material on the sediment surface. The AquaGate, which is denser than water , sinks rapidly through the water column...zone (generally 10–20 centimeters [cm] below sediment - water interface) unless it is determined that there is little or no advective transport of

  5. Effects of salt pond restoration on benthic flux: Sediment as a source of nutrients to the water column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Brent R.; Kuwabara, James S.; Carter, James L.; Garrettt, Krista K.; Mruz, Eric; Piotter, Sarah; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding nutrient flux between the benthos and the overlying water (benthic flux) is critical to restoration of water quality and biological resources because it can represent a major source of nutrients to the water column. Extensive water management commenced in the San Francisco Bay, Beginning around 1850, San Francisco Bay wetlands were converted to salt ponds and mined extensively for more than a century. Long-term (decadal) salt pond restoration efforts began in 2003. A patented device for sampling porewater at varying depths, to calculate the gradient, was employed between 2010 and 2012. Within the former ponds, the benthic flux of soluble reactive phosphorus and that of dissolved ammonia were consistently positive (i.e., moving out of the sediment into the water column). The lack of measurable nitrate or nitrite concentration gradients across the sediment-water interface suggested negligible fluxes for dissolved nitrate and nitrite. The dominance of ammonia in the porewater indicated anoxic sediment conditions, even at only 1 cm depth, which is consistent with the observed, elevated sediment oxygen demand. Nearby openestuary sediments showed much lower benthic flux values for nutrients than the salt ponds under resortation. Allochthonous solute transport provides a nutrient advective flux for comparison to benthic flux. For ammonia, averaged for all sites and dates, benthic flux was about 80,000 kg/year, well above the advective flux range of −50 to 1500 kg/year, with much of the variability depending on the tidal cycle. By contrast, the average benthic flux of soluble reactive phosphorus was about 12,000 kg/year, of significant magnitude, but less than the advective flux range of 21,500 to 30,000 kg/year. These benthic flux estimates, based on solute diffusion across the sediment-water interface, reveal a significant nutrient source to the water column of the pond which stimulates algal blooms (often autotrophic). This benthic source may be

  6. Sedimentation from flocculated suspensions in the presence of settling-driven gravitational interface instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhnia, Mohamad; Strom, Kyle

    2015-09-01

    We experimentally examine sedimentation from a freshwater suspension of clay flocs overlying saltwater in the presence of gravitational instabilities. The study seeks to determine: (1) if flocculation hampers or alters interface instability formation; (2) how the removal rates of sediment from the buoyant layer compare to those predicted by individual floc settling; and (3) whether or not it is possible to develop a model for effective settling velocity. The experiments were conducted in a tank at isothermal conditions. All experiments were initially stably stratified but later developed instabilities near the interface that grew into downward convecting plumes of fluid and sediment. Throughout, we measured sediment concentration in the upper and lower layers, floc size, and plume descent rates. The data showed that flocculation modifies the mixture settling velocity, and therefore shifts the mode of interface instability from double-diffusive (what one would expect from unflocculated clay) to settling-driven leaking and Rayleigh-Taylor instability formation. Removal rates of sediment from the upper layer in the presence of these instabilities were on the same order of magnitude as those predicted by individual floc settling. However, removal rates were found to better correlate with the speed of the interface plumes. A simple force-balance model was found to be capable of reasonably describing plume velocity based on concentration in the buoyant layer. This relation, coupled with a critical Grashof number and geometry relations, allowed us to develop a model for the effective settling velocity of the mixture based solely on integral values of the upper layer.

  7. Sediment-water oxygen, ammonium and soluble reactive phosphorus fluxes in a turbid freshwater estuary (Curonian lagoon, Lithuania: evidences of benthic microalgal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bartoli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal measurements of total and diffusive benthic fluxes were performed during the ice-free period in the Curonian Lagoon (Lithuania. This mostly freshwater hypertrophic basin exhibits wide seasonal variations of water temperature (1-22°C and inorganic nitrogen availability and it is subjected to dramatic blooms of diatoms and cyanobacteria (>100 μg chl a l-1. In this shallow lagoon, nutrient exchanges at the sediment-water interface and the regulating factors have been poorly explored. Overall aim of the present work is to demonstrate that the activity of benthic microalgae, generally neglected in turbid systems, can be a relevant regulator of sedimentary processes. To this purpose, light and dark fluxes of oxygen, ammonium and soluble reactive phosphorus were measured seasonally by intact core laboratory incubation and diffusive fluxes were calculated from sediment profiles. We investigated sandy sediments that were collected from the central area lagoon, that is representative of the most of the shallower lagoon area. Oxygen and ammonium fluxes were significantly different under light and dark incubations, suggesting an active role of benthic microalgae at the sediment-water interface. In the light net oxygen production was measured in three out of four samplings, with July as only exception, and ammonium was retained within sediments. In the dark sediment respiration displayed a temperature-dependent pattern while ammonium efflux increased from March to October. Fluxes of reactive phosphorus varied significantly with sampling seasons but were less affected by the incubation condition. Diffusive fluxes peaked in July, where highest concentration gradients at the interface and theoretical efflux of ammonium and reactive phosphorous were calculated. The marked differences between diffusive and total nutrient fluxes are probably due to photosynthetic activity by benthic microalgae, and thus oxygen production, enhancement of aerobic

  8. [Impacts of Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) on lake sediment properties and phosphorus movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Gu, Xiao-Zhi; Shao, Shi-Guang; Hu, Hai-Yan; Zhong, Ji-Cheng; Fan, Cheng-Xin

    2011-01-01

    To examine the impact of Corbicula fluminea on sediment properties and phosphorus dynamics across sediment-water interface in lake, the microcosm experiment was carried out with sediment and lake water from the estuary of Dapu River, a eutrophic area in Taihu Lake. Rhizon samplers were used to acquire pore water, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) flux across sediment-water interface and sediment properties were determined. The activity of C. fluminea destroyed the initial sediment structure, mixed sediment in different depths, increased oxygen penetration depth, sediment water content, and total microbial activity in sediment. The downward movement of overlying water was enhanced by the activity of C. fluminea, which decreased Fe2+ in pore water by oxidation. The production of ferric iron oxyhydroxide adsorbed SRP from pore water and decreased SRP concentration in pore water, and this increased iron bound phosphorus in corresponding sediment. The emergence of C. fluminea accelerated SRP release from sediment to overlying water, and enhanced SRP flux increased with the rise of introduced C. fluminea density. Metabolization of C. fluminea might play an important role in accelerating SRP release.

  9. A review of the persistence of long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment - sediment/water interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgington, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    There is a considerable international concern regarding the advisability and safety of the disposal or dumping of radioactive wastes in the oceans. The assimilation capacity of the ocean for long-lived radionuclides will depend largely on the maximum concentrations that can be safely or agreeably contained within it. Since the mechanisms for removal or control are radioactive decay or association with particles and burial in the sediments, an understanding of the processes involved, in sediment-particle/water interactions, at the sediment/water interface, and within the sediment is extremely important. During the last 35 years there have been considerable inputs of long-lived radionuclides into the oceans as a result of weapons testing, routine releases from fuels reprocessing plants and operating nuclear reactors, and accidental releases from a variety of sources; this provides an excellent opportunity to study their behaviour in the oceans. Thus, the purpose here is to synthesize the present state of our knowledge of sediment/water interactions from studies, mainly of plutonium and americium, conducted in a wide range of environments from the Arctic to the tropics. (author)

  10. Fluid mechanics of environmental interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gualtieri, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Preface Preface of the first editionBiographies of the authors Part one - Preliminaries1. Environmental fluid mechanics: Current issues and future outlook B. Cushman-Roisin, C. Gualtieri & D.T. MihailovicPart two - Processes at atmospheric interfaces2. Point source atmospheric diffusionB. Rajkovic, I. Arsenic & Z. Grsic3. Air-sea interaction V. Djurdjevic & B. Rajkovic4. Modelling of flux exchanges between heterogeneous surfaces and atmosphere D.T. Mihailovic & D. Kapor5. Desert dust uptake-transport and deposition mechanisms - impacts of dust on radiation, clouds and precipitation G. Kallos, P. Katsafados & C. SpyrouPart three - Processes at water interfaces6. Gas-transfer at unsheared free-surfaces C. Gualtieri & G. Pulci Doria7. Advective diffusion of air bubbles in turbulent water flows H. Chanson8. Exchanges at the bed sediments-water column interface F.A. Bombardelli & P.A. Moreno9. Surface water and streambed sediment interaction: The hyporheic exchange D. Tonina10. Environm...

  11. Interaction between water, sediments and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snodgrass, W.J.; McKee, P.; Garnett, J.; Stieff, L.

    1988-08-01

    A model-based measurements program was carried out to evaluate the primary mechanisms controlling transport of uranium 238 and thorium 232 decay chain radionuclides in Quirke Lake, a water body draining much of the uranium mining and milling district near Elliot Lake, Ontario. This program included studies of radionuclide accumulation in sediments, particle settling and lake mass-balance studies. Also, sediment studies were undertaken to evaluate chemical fractionation, mineralogical associations, and sediment-water adsorption and release. A limnocorral experiment was conducted in an isolated portion of a lake to measure radium 226 removal from the water column and diffusion from the sediments back to the water. Modelling studies were made to assess the data. Substantial agreement was obtained using the model originally developed for the AECB between model predictions and observations for Quirke Lake and for the limnocorrals. Further work is required to complete the studies undertaken in this project to assess the significance of the efflux of radionuclides from the sediments. These studies include a laboratory program to measure kinetics of adsorption, sediment-water modelling studies of the results and a field measurement program to develop a mass-balance analysis for thorium. (numerous refs)

  12. Migration of two antibiotics during resuspension under simulated wind-wave disturbances in a water-sediment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Yi; Liu, Yu-Qing; Luo, Ran; Shang, Jing-Ge; Liao, Qian-Jia-Hua

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the migration of antibiotics (norfloxacin, NOR; and sulfamethoxazole, SMX) under simulated resuspension conditions across the sediment-water interface were quantified for two locations in China: point A, located in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu, and point B, located in Dapukou of Lake Taihu. The concentrations of suspended solids (SS) in the overlying water amounted to 100, 500, and 1000 mg/L during background, moderate, and strong simulated wind-wave disturbances, respectively. At each SS level, the initial concentrations of the two antibiotics were set to 1, 5, and 10 mg/L. The results showed that both resuspended SS and the initial concentration of antibiotics could influence the migration of NOR in the water-sediment system. Specifically, both higher SS and initial antibiotic concentrations were associated with higher rates of migration and accumulation of NOR from water to sediment. In contrast, the migration of SMX in the water-sediment system was not impacted by SS or initial antibiotic concentration. The adsorption capacities of sediments for NOR and SMX were significantly different at both locations, possibly reflecting differences in cation exchange capacity (CEC) and organic material (OM) contents. In general, higher CEC and OM values were found in sediments with a higher adsorption capacity for the antibiotics. When CEC and OM values of sediments were higher, the adsorption capacity reached up to 51.73 mg/kg. Large differences in the migration from water to sediment were observed for the two antibiotics, with NOR migration rates higher than those of SMX. The accumulation of NOR in surface sediment during resuspension was about 14 times higher than that of SMX. The main reason for this is that the chemical adsorption of NOR is seldom reversible. Overall, this study demonstrates that resuspension of NOR and SMX attached to sediments under simulated wind-wave disturbances can promote the migration of the antibiotics from water to sediment

  13. Resolving and modelling trace metal partitioning in a freshwater sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devallois, V.; Boyer, P.; Coulomb, B.; Boudenne, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of trace metals in sediments pose toxicological risks to biota and may impair water quality. the sediment-water interface is the site where gradients in physical, chemical and biological properties are the greatest. Both chemical and microbiological transformation processes are responsible for cycling elements between water and sediments. (Author)

  14. Biogeochemistry at a wetland sediment-alluvial aquifer interface in a landfill leachate plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, M.M.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Böhlke, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    The biogeochemistry at the interface between sediments in a seasonally ponded wetland (slough) and an alluvial aquifer contaminated with landfill leachate was investigated to evaluate factors that can effect natural attenuation of landfill leachate contaminants in areas of groundwater/surface-water interaction. The biogeochemistry at the wetland-alluvial aquifer interface differed greatly between dry and wet conditions. During dry conditions (low water table), vertically upward discharge was focused at the center of the slough from the fringe of a landfill-derived ammonium plume in the underlying aquifer, resulting in transport of relatively low concentrations of ammonium to the slough sediments with dilution and dispersion as the primary attenuation mechanism. In contrast, during wet conditions (high water table), leachate-contaminated groundwater discharged upward near the upgradient slough bank, where ammonium concentrations in the aquifer where high. Relatively high concentrations of ammonium and other leachate constituents also were transported laterally through the slough porewater to the downgradient bank in wet conditions. Concentrations of the leachate-associated constituents chloride, ammonium, non-volatile dissolved organic carbon, alkalinity, and ferrous iron more than doubled in the slough porewater on the upgradient bank during wet conditions. Chloride, non-volatile dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and bicarbonate acted conservatively during lateral transport in the aquifer and slough porewater, whereas ammonium and potassium were strongly attenuated. Nitrogen isotope variations in ammonium and the distribution of ammonium compared to other cations indicated that sorption was the primary attenuation mechanism for ammonium during lateral transport in the aquifer and the slough porewater. Ammonium attenuation was less efficient, however, in the slough porewater than in the aquifer and possibly occurred by a different sorption mechanism. A

  15. Diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs along depth profiles of arctic and subarctic lake water column and sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J.; Pohlman, John W.; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    Methane (CH4) emitted from high-latitude lakes accounts for 2–6% of the global atmospheric CH4 budget. Methanotrophs in lake sediments and water columns mitigate the amount of CH4 that enters the atmosphere, yet their identity and activity in arctic and subarctic lakes are poorly understood. We used stable isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), pyrosequencing and enrichment cultures to determine the identity and diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs in the water columns and sediments (0–25 cm) from an arctic tundra lake (Lake Qalluuraq) on the north slope of Alaska and a subarctic taiga lake (Lake Killarney) in Alaska's interior. The water column CH4 oxidation potential for these shallow (~2m deep) lakes was greatest in hypoxic bottom water from the subarctic lake. The type II methanotroph, Methylocystis, was prevalent in enrichment cultures of planktonic methanotrophs from the water columns. In the sediments, type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter, Methylosoma and Methylomonas) at the sediment-water interface (0–1 cm) were most active in assimilating CH4, whereas the type I methanotroph Methylobacter and/or type II methanotroph Methylocystis contributed substantially to carbon acquisition in the deeper (15–20 cm) sediments. In addition to methanotrophs, an unexpectedly high abundance of methylotrophs also actively utilized CH4-derived carbon. This study provides new insight into the identity and activity of methanotrophs in the sediments and water from high-latitude lakes.

  16. Oxygen penetration around burrows and roots in aquatic sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meysman, Filip J.R.; Galaktionov, O.S.; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion is the dominant physical mechanism for the transfer of oxygen into fine-grained aquatic sediments. This diffusive uptake occurs at the sediment-water interface, but also at internal interfaces, such as along ventilated burrows or O2 releasing plant roots. Here, we present a systematic...

  17. Water-level fluctuations influence sediment porewater ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reservoirs typically have elevated fish mercury (Hg) levels compared to natural lakes and rivers. A unique feature of reservoirs is water-level management which can result in sediment exposure to the air. The objective of this study is to identify how reservoir water-level fluctuations impact Hg cycling, particularly the formation of the more toxic and bioaccumulative methylmercury (MeHg). Total-Hg (THg), MeHg, stable isotope methylation rates and several ancillary parameters were measured in reservoir sediments (including some in porewater and overlying water) that are seasonally and permanently inundated. The results showed that sediment and porewater MeHg concentrations were over 3-times higher in areas experiencing water-level fluctuations compared to permanently inundated sediments. Analysis of the data suggest that the enhanced breakdown of organic matter in sediments experiencing water-level fluctuations has a two-fold effect on stimulating Hg methylation: 1) it increases the partitioning of inorganic Hg from the solid phase into the porewater phase (lower log Kd values) where it is more bioavailable for methylation; and 2) it increases dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the porewater which can stimulate the microbial community that can methylate Hg. Sulfate concentrations and cycling were enhanced in the seasonally inundated sediments and may have also contributed to increased MeHg production. Overall, our results suggest that reservoir management a

  18. Spatial variation in sediment-water exchange of phosphorus in Florida Bay: AMP as a model organic compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Jia-Zhong

    2010-10-15

    Dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) has been recognized as dominant components in total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) pools in many coastal waters, and its exchange between sediment and water is an important process in biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) was employed as a model DOP compound to simulate phosphorus exchange across sediment-water interface in Florida Bay. The sorption data from 40 stations were fitted to a modified Freundlich equation and provided a detailed spatial distribution both of the sediment's zero equilibrium phosphorus concentration (EPC(0-T)) and of the distribution coefficient (K(d-T)) with respect to TDP. The K(d-T) was found to be a function of the index of phosphorus saturation (IPS), a molar ratio of the surface reactive phosphorus to the surface reactive iron oxide content in the sediment, across the entire bay. However, the EPC(0-T) was found to correlate to the contents of phosphorus in the eastern bay only. Sediment in the western bay might act as a source of the phosphorus in the exchange process due to their high EPC(0-T) and low K(d-T), whereas sediments in the eastern bay might act as a sink because of their low EPC(0-T) and high K(d-T). These results strongly support the hypothesis that both phosphorus and iron species in calcareous marine sediments play a critical role in governing the sediment-water exchange of both phosphate and DOP in the coastal and estuarine ecosystems.

  19. Estimating deep seafloor interface and volume roughness parameters using the multibeam-hydrosweep system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Schenke, H.W.; Kodagali, V.N.; Hagen, R.

    composite roughness model, including water-sediment interface roughness and sediment volume roughness parameters the data was modeled. The model effectively uses the near normal incidence angle backscatter to determine the seafloor interface roughness...

  20. Nonlinear acoustics of water-saturated marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1976-01-01

    Interest in the acoustic qualities of water-saturated marine sediments has increased considerably during recent years. The use of sources of high-intensity sound in oil propsecting, in geophysical and geological studies of bottom and subbottom materials and profiles and recently in marine...... archaeology has emphasized the need of information about the nonlinear acoustic qualities of water-saturated marine sediments. While the acoustic experiments and theoretical investigations hitherto performed have concentrated on a determination of the linear acoustic qualities of water-saturated marine...... sediments, their parameters of nonlinear acoustics are still unexplored. The strong absorption, increasing about linearly with frequency, found in most marine sediments and the occurrence of velocity dispersion by some marine sediments restrict the number of nonlinear acoustic test methods traditionally...

  1. Decomposition of 14C-labeled organic substances in marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The depth variation of total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter composition and porewater composition in marine sediments suggest that different components of the organic matter undergo decomposition at widely different rates. The decomposition of 14 C-labeled organic substances was followed in sediment microcosms in the laboratory. The substances used were chosen to simulate a portion of material settling to the sediment-water interface (a marine diatom) or hypothesized components of refractory sediment organic matter (melanoidins and a bacterial polymer). The microcosms were found to be good models of the sediment-water interface in terms of how well they mimicked sediment decomposition rates and processes. The decomposition of the labeled material and the natural sediment TOC were monitored over 1 month: the water overlying the sediment remained oxic, and net consumption of nitrate was small. There was no detectable sulfate reduction. The algae and the bacterial polymer were decomposed on average 9x faster than the melanoidins and 90x faster than the natural sediment TOC. The soluble fraction of the algae was decomposed more rapidly than the particulate material

  2. Sediment pore water distribution coefficients of PCB congeners in enriched black carbon sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Andres; O'Sullivan, Colin; Reible, Danny; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2013-01-01

    More than 2300 sediment pore water distribution coefficients (K PCBids ) of 93 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured and modeled from sediments from Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal. K PCBids were calculated from previously reported bulk sediment values and newly analyzed pore water. PCBs in pore waters were measured using SPME PDMS-fiber and ∑PCB ranged from 41 to 1500 ng L −1 . The resulting K PCBids were ∼1 log unit lower in comparison to other reported values. A simple model for the K PCBid consisted of the product of the organic carbon fraction and the octanol–water partition coefficient and provided an excellent prediction for the measured values, with a mean square error of 0.09 ± 0.06. Although black carbon content is very high in these sediments and was expected to play an important role in the distribution of PCBs, no improvement was obtained when a two-carbon model was used. -- Highlights: •PCB sediment-pore water distribution coefficients were measured and modeled. •Distribution coefficients were lower in comparison to other reported values. •Organic carbon fraction times the K OW yielded the best prediction model. •The incorporation of black carbon into a model did not improve the results. -- The organic carbon fraction times the octanol–water partition coefficient yielded the best prediction model for the sediment pore water distribution coefficient of PCBs

  3. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

    2010-07-01

    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in

  4. Water at silica/liquid water interfaces investigated by DFT-MD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    This talk is dedicated to probing the microscopic structural organization of water at silica/liquid water interfaces including electrolytes by first principles DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations (DFT-MD). We will present our very recent DFT-MD simulations of electrolytic (KCl, NaCl, NaI) silica/liquid water interfaces in order to unravel the intertwined structural properties of water and electrolytes at the crystalline quartz/liquid water and amorphous silica/liquid water interfaces. DFT-MD simulations provide direct knowledge of the structural organization of water and the H-Bond network formed between the water molecules within the different water layers above the silica surface. One can furthermore extract vibrational signatures of the water molecules within the interfacial layers from the DFT-MD simulations, especially non-linear SFG (Sum Frequency generation) signatures that are active at solid/liquid interfaces. The strength of the simulated spectra is that a detailed analysis of the signatures in terms of the water/water H-Bond networks formed within the interfacial water layers and in terms of the water/silica or water/electrolytes H-Bond networks can be given. Comparisons of SFG spectra between quartz/water/electrolytes and amorphous silica/water/electrolytes interfaces allow us to definitely conclude on how the structural arrangements of liquid water at these electrolytic interfaces modulate the final spectroscopic signatures. Invited speaker.

  5. New Rhizon in situ sampler for pore water studies in aquatic sediments: For example nutrient input from submarine groundwater discharge in costal areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Seeberg-Elverfeldt, J.; Schlüter, Michael; Kölling, M.; Feseker, T.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate coastal biogeochemical cycles, especially at the sediment/water interface,improved sampling methods are necessary. For this purpose, we developed apore water in situ sampler with miniature sampling devices, so called Rhizons. Rhizonsoil moisture samplers have been used as sampling devices in unsaturated soilsfor the last ten years. In aquatic science they have been rarely used to extract porewater from sediments. This study presents a new developed Rhizon In Situ Sampler(RISS) ...

  6. Sediment-water gas exchange in two Swedish lakes measured by Eddy Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokic, J.; Sahlee, E.; Brand, A.; Sobek, S.

    2014-12-01

    Lake sediments are hotspots for carbon (C) cycling, acting both as sinks and sources through C burial and production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane. The fate of this CO2 in the water column is controlled by bottom water turbulence, a factor not accounted for in current estimates of sediment CO2 fluxes. This study is aimed to quantify the turbulent CO2 flux across the sediment-water interface (SWI) by measuring the oxygen (O2) flux with the non-invasive Eddy Correlation (EC) method that combines measurements of 3D velocity (ADV) and O2 fluctuations with a microsensor. Using the metabolic relation (respiratory quotient, RQ) of O2 and CO2 derived from a sediment incubation experiment we present the first estimates of turbulent lake sediment CO2 flux from two boreal lakes in Sweden (Erssjön and Erken, 0.07 km2 and 23.7 km2 respectively). Only ~10 % of the total dataset was extracted for flux calculations due to poor signal-to-noise ratio in the velocity and O2 signals. The sediment in Lake Erssjön was both consuming and producing O2, related to bacterial respiration and photosynthesis. Mean O2 flux was -0.19 and 0.17 μmol O2 m-2 sec-1, comparing to 0.04 μmol O2 m-2 sec-1 derived from the sediment incubation experiment. Fluxes for Lake Erken are still to be determined. Experimentally derived RQ of the both lake sediments were close to unity implying that in-situ CO2 fluxes are of similar magnitude as O2 fluxes, varying between -0.15 and 0.18 μmol C m-2 sec-1. The first measurement of turbulent sediment O2 flux and estimate of turbulent CO2 flux from a small boreal lake show higher and more variable fluxes than previously found in experimental studies. The low amount of data extracted for flux calculations (~10%) point towards the difficulties in EC measurement in low-turbulence environments. On-going work focuses on the turbulence structure in lakes and its influence on the gas fluxes at the SWI.

  7. Report on water quality, sediment and water chemistry data for water and sediment samples collected from source areas to Melton Hill and Watts Bar reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaszewski, T.M.; Bruggink, D.J.; Nunn, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Contamination of surface water and sediments in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) system as a result of past and present activities by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and also activities by non-ORR facilities are being studied by the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). Previous studies have documented the presence of heavy metals, organics, and radionuclides in the sediments of reservoirs in the vicinity. In support of the CR-ERP, during the summer of 1991, TVA collected and evaluated water and sediment samples from swimming areas and municipal water intakes on Watts Bar Reservoir, Melton Hill Reservoir and Norris Reservoir, which was considered a source of less-contaminated reference or background data. Despite the numerous studies, until the current work documented by this report, relatively few sediment or water samples had been collected by the CR-ERP in the immediate vicinity of contaminant point sources. This work focused on water and sediment samples taken from points immediately downstream from suspected effluent point sources both on and off the ORR. In August and September, 1994, TVA sampled surface water and sediment at twelve locations in melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs

  8. Toxicity of silicon carbide nanowires to sediment-dwelling invertebrates in water or sediment exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Joseph N.; Wang, Ning; Ritts, Andrew; Kunz, James L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Li, Hao; Deng, Baolin

    2011-01-01

    Silicon carbide nanowires (SiCNW) are insoluble in water. When released into an aquatic environment, SiCNW would likely accumulate in sediment. The objective of this study was to assess the toxicity of SiCNW to four freshwater sediment-dwelling organisms: amphipods (Hyalella azteca), midges (Chironomus dilutus), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), and mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea). Amphipods were exposed to either sonicated or nonsonicated SiCNW in water (1.0 g/L) for 48 h. Midges, mussels, and oligochaetes were exposed only to sonicated SiCNW in water for 96 h. In addition, amphipods were exposed to sonicated SiCNW in whole sediment for 10 d (44% SiCNW on dry wt basis). Mean 48-h survival of amphipods exposed to nonsonicated SiCNW in water was not significantly different from the control, whereas mean survival of amphipods exposed to sonicated SiCNW in two 48-h exposures (0 or 15% survival) was significantly different from the control (90 or 98% survival). In contrast, no effect of sonicated SiCNW was observed on survival of midges, mussels, or oligochaetes. Survival of amphipods was not significantly reduced in 10-d exposures to sonicated SiCNW either mixed in the sediment or layered on the sediment surface. However, significant reduction in amphipod biomass was observed with the SiCNW either mixed in sediment or layered on the sediment surface, and the reduction was more pronounced for SiCNW layered on the sediment. These results indicated that, under the experimental conditions, nonsonicated SiCNW in water were not acutely toxic to amphipods, sonicated SiCNW in water were acutely toxic to the amphipods, but not to other organisms tested, and sonicated SiCNW in sediment affected the growth but not the survival of amphipods.

  9. The Role of Water Movement and Spatial Scaling for Measurement of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen Fluxes in Intertidal Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, R. M.; Jensen, M. H.; Jensen, K. M.; Kristensen, E.; Asmus, H.; Wille, A.

    1998-02-01

    Fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) across the sediment-water interface were determined at intertidal locations in Königshafen, northern Wadden Sea, North Sea. Three different incubation techniques were compared: closed sediment cores (small scale), closed bell jars (medium scale) and an open flow system (Sylt flume, large scale). Water movement in the two closed systems was maintained below the resuspension limit by spinning magnets (cores, incubated in the laboratory) or by transfer of wave action through flexible plastic foil (bell jars,in situ), whereas in the flume system (in situ) water movement was unidirectional, driven by currents and waves. Data sets from several years of core measurements (1992-94), bell jar measurements (1980) and flume campaigns (1990-93) served as the basis for a comparison of dissolved inorganic nitrogen fluxes. Fluxes of ammonium and nitrate were within the same order of magnitude in closed cores and bell jars, while flume rates of ammonium were considerably higher. The high flume rates were caused by advective flushing due to tidal water movement and wave action. The release of ammonium increased significantly with current velocity between 1 and 13 cm s-1. Fluxes of ammonium were higher in sediments withArenicola marinacompared to those without this bioturbating species. The influence of benthic microalgae was evident only in the small and medium scale core and bell jar systems as reduced ammonium release during light exposure. Nitrate was consumed by sediments in both closed systems at a rate proportional to the nitrate concentration in the overlying water. Nitrate fluxes in the large scale Sylt flume were low with an average of only 7% of the ammonium fluxes, probably due to low concentrations in tidal waters during measurements (summer). Both closed, small scale or open, large scale techniques can be applied successfully for benthic flux studies, but the actual choice depends on the purpose of the

  10. Surface water, particulate matter, and sediments of inland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundschenk, H.

    1985-01-01

    The Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde (BfG) since 1958 runs a system for monitoring the surface water and sediments of Federal German waterways in its capacity as a directing water monitoring centre. The data recorded over the years show that the radioactivity released by the various emission sources leads to radionuclide concentrations in water, particulate matter, or sediments that generally are below the detection limits defined in the relevant legal provisions governing monitoring and surveillance of nuclear facilities effluents. Representative examples of measuring methods and results (as for e.g. for H-3) are given. (DG) [de

  11. Microplastic particles in sediments from Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob; Lassen, Pia; Shashoua, Yvonne

    . In some samples, several hundred particles consisting of fibres, flakes, spherules, and/or granules were identified per 100 g sediment, and also in sediments from open waters. Relationships to sediment characteristics (e.g. dry weight, TOC, grain size) and inorganic and organic contaminants including...

  12. Mechanism of ion adsorption to aqueous interfaces: Graphene/water vs. air/water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Debra L; Nguyen, Son C; Cox, Stephen J; Weller, Horst; Alivisatos, A Paul; Geissler, Phillip L; Saykally, Richard J

    2017-12-19

    The adsorption of ions to aqueous interfaces is a phenomenon that profoundly influences vital processes in many areas of science, including biology, atmospheric chemistry, electrical energy storage, and water process engineering. Although classical electrostatics theory predicts that ions are repelled from water/hydrophobe (e.g., air/water) interfaces, both computer simulations and experiments have shown that chaotropic ions actually exhibit enhanced concentrations at the air/water interface. Although mechanistic pictures have been developed to explain this counterintuitive observation, their general applicability, particularly in the presence of material substrates, remains unclear. Here we investigate ion adsorption to the model interface formed by water and graphene. Deep UV second harmonic generation measurements of the SCN - ion, a prototypical chaotrope, determined a free energy of adsorption within error of that for air/water. Unlike for the air/water interface, wherein repartitioning of the solvent energy drives ion adsorption, our computer simulations reveal that direct ion/graphene interactions dominate the favorable enthalpy change. Moreover, the graphene sheets dampen capillary waves such that rotational anisotropy of the solute, if present, is the dominant entropy contribution, in contrast to the air/water interface.

  13. Water induced sediment levitation enhances downslope transport on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raack, Jan; Conway, Susan J; Herny, Clémence; Balme, Matthew R; Carpy, Sabrina; Patel, Manish R

    2017-10-27

    On Mars, locally warm surface temperatures (~293 K) occur, leading to the possibility of (transient) liquid water on the surface. However, water exposed to the martian atmosphere will boil, and the sediment transport capacity of such unstable water is not well understood. Here, we present laboratory studies of a newly recognized transport mechanism: "levitation" of saturated sediment bodies on a cushion of vapor released by boiling. Sediment transport where this mechanism is active is about nine times greater than without this effect, reducing the amount of water required to transport comparable sediment volumes by nearly an order of magnitude. Our calculations show that the effect of levitation could persist up to ~48 times longer under reduced martian gravity. Sediment levitation must therefore be considered when evaluating the formation of recent and present-day martian mass wasting features, as much less water may be required to form such features than previously thought.

  14. Uptake, translocation, and elimination in sediment-rooted macrophytes: a model-supported analysis of whole sediment test data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepens, Noël J; Arts, Gertie H P; Focks, Andreas; Koelmans, Albert A

    2014-10-21

    Understanding bioaccumulation in sediment-rooted macrophytes is crucial for the development of sediment toxicity tests using macrophytes. Here, we explore bioaccumulation in sediment-rooted macrophytes by tracking and modeling chemical flows of chlorpyrifos, linuron, and six PCBs in water-sediment-macrophyte systems. Chemical fluxes across the interfaces between pore water, overlying water, shoots, and roots were modeled using a novel multicompartment model. The modeling yielded the first mass-transfer parameter set reported for bioaccumulation by sediment-rooted macrophytes, with satisfactory narrow confidence limits for more than half of the estimated parameters. Exposure via the water column led to rapid uptake by Elodea canadensis and Myriophyllum spicatum shoots, followed by transport to the roots within 1-3 days, after which tissue concentrations gradually declined. Translocation played an important role in the exchange between shoots and roots. Exposure via spiked sediment led to gradual uptake by the roots, but subsequent transport to the shoots and overlying water remained limited for the chemicals studied. These contrasting patterns show that exposure is sensitive to test set up, chemical properties, and species traits. Although field-concentrations in water and sediment will differ from those in the tests, the model parameters can be assumed applicable for modeling exposure to macrophytes in the field.

  15. Sediment, water pollution indicators for heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabaleiro, S.; Horn, A.

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of an aquatic system requires consideration of its dynamics: spatial and temporal variations of physical, chemical and biological. Heavy metals have peculiar behavior in the aquatic system and may not be available in the waters, but on sediments.The sub-basin of the Sarandi stream is responsible for the contamination of Pampulha Lake. The Instituto Mineiro das Águas – IGAM - uses tool for monitoring the quality of surface water for developing strategies for conservation, restoration and rational use of water resources. So through the indices: IQA ( Indice de qualidade de águas) Index of water quality, and TC- toxic contamination, reduces conflicts, implements the disciplining of the environmental economy.This study determined the monitoring of sediment and water of Sarandi Stream, so in the samples collected during dry and rainy seasons (2007- 2008) were analyzed heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Pb) and physical-chemical factors (conductivity, solids dissolved, temperature, turbidity). This allowed the determination of Hackanson factors of contamination and Muller Index geoaccumulation, indicating very high contamination in sediments regarding the elements Cr, Cu, and Cd, and high contamination for Pb, Zn, and Mn. The comparison with the indices of water quality- IQA (IGAM - 2006, 2007 and 2008), combined with exploratory data analysis and graphs of correlation between the variables indicated favorable conditions for metals contamination on water and sediment for these metals, besides allowing the identification of its source

  16. Effect of redox conditions on bacterial community structure in Baltic Sea sediments with contrasting redox conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergh, A.K.; Bodelier, P.L.E.; Slomp, C.P; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus release from sediments can exacerbate the effect of eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems. The flux of phosphorus from marine sediments to the overlying water is highly dependent on the redox conditions at the sediment-water interface. Bacteria are key players in the biological

  17. Testing lagoonal sediments with early life stages of the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana): An approach to assess sediment toxicity in the Venice Lagoon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picone, Marco; Bergamin, Martina; Delaney, Eugenia

    2018-01-01

    between samples and control) and to investigate the possible correlation with sediment chemistry and physical properties. The results showed that statistical performances of the LDR test with A. tonsa correspond with the outcomes of other tests applied to the sediment-water interface (Strongylocentrotus...

  18. Interfacial behavior of alkaline protease at the air-water and oil-water interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Yanyan; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yue

    2018-03-01

    The interfacial behavior of alkaline protease at the air-water and n-hexane-water interfaces was investigated using interfacial tension, dilatational rheology and dynamic light scattering. Additionally, different adsorption models which are Langmuir, Frumkin, Reorientation-A and Reorientation-R were used to fitting the data of equilibrium interfacial tension for further understanding the interfacial behavior of alkaline protease. Data fitting of the equilibrium interfacial tension was achieved by IsoFit software. The results show that the molecules arrangement of the alkaline protease at the n-hexane-water interface is more tightly than at the air-water interface. The data were further analyzed to indicate that the hydrophobic chains of alkaline protease penetrate into oil phase deeper than the air phase. Also data indicate that the electrostatic interactions and hydrophobic interactions at the n-hexane-water interface are stronger than at the air-water interface within molecules of the alkaline protease. Based on comprehensive analysis of the adsorption kinetics and interfacial rheological properties, interfacial structures mechanism of alkaline protease at n-hexane-water and air-water interfaces was proposed.

  19. Sediment transport following water transfer from Yangtze River to Taihu Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To meet the increasing need of fresh water and to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, water transfer from the Yangtze River was initiated in 2002. This study was performed to investigate the sediment distribution along the river course following water transfer. A rainfall-runoff model was first built to calculate the runoff of the Taihu Basin in 2003. Then, the flow patterns of river networks were simulated using a one-dimensional river network hydrodynamic model. Based on the boundary conditions of the flow in tributaries of the Wangyu River and the water level in Taihu Lake, a one-dimensional hydrodynamic and sediment transport numerical model of the Wangyu River was built to analyze the influences of the inflow rate of the water transfer and the suspended sediment concentration (SSC of inflow on the sediment transport. The results show that the water transfer inflow rate and SSC of inflow have significant effects on the sediment distribution. The higher the inflow rate or SSC of inflow is, the higher the SSC value is at certain cross-sections along the river course of water transfer. Higher inflow rate and SSC of inflow contribute to higher sediment deposition per kilometer and sediment thickness. It is also concluded that a sharp decrease of the inflow velocity at the entrance of the Wangyu River on the river course of water transfer induces intense sedimentation at the cross-section near the Changshu hydro-junction. With an increasing distance from the Changshu hydro-junction, the sediment deposition and sedimentation thickness decrease gradually along the river course.

  20. The Deposition and Accumulation of Microplastics in Marine Sediments and Bottom Water from the Irish Continental Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jake; Lusher, Amy; Thompson, Richard C; Morley, Audrey

    2017-09-07

    Microplastics are widely dispersed throughout the marine environment. An understanding of the distribution and accumulation of this form of pollution is crucial for gauging environmental risk. Presented here is the first record of plastic contamination, in the 5 mm-250 μm size range, of Irish continental shelf sediments. Sixty-two microplastics were recovered from 10 of 11 stations using box cores. 97% of recovered microplastics were found to reside shallower than 2.5 cm sediment depth, with the area of highest microplastic concentration being the water-sediment interface and top 0.5 cm of sediments (66%). Microplastics were not found deeper than 3.5 ± 0.5 cm. These findings demonstrate that microplastic contamination is ubiquitous within superficial sediments and bottom water along the western Irish continental shelf. Results highlight that cores need to be at least 4-5 cm deep to quantify the standing stock of microplastics within marine sediments. All recovered microplastics were classified as secondary microplastics as they appear to be remnants of larger items; fibres being the principal form of microplastic pollution (85%), followed by broken fragments (15%). The range of polymer types, colours and physical forms recovered suggests a variety of sources. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms influencing microplastic transport, deposition, resuspension and subsequent interactions with biota.

  1. [Sediment-water flux and processes of nutrients and gaseous nitrogen release in a China River Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhu-hong; Chen, Neng-wang; Wu, Yin-qi; Mo, Qiong-li; Zhou, Xing-peng; Lu, Ting; Tian, Yun

    2014-09-01

    The key processes and fluxes of nutrients (N and P) and gaseous N (N2 and N2O) across the sediment-water interface in a river reservoir (Xipi) of the Jiulong River watershed in southeast China were studied. Intact core sediment incubation of nutrients exchange, in-situ observation and lab incubation of excess dissolved N2 and N2O (products of nitrification, denitrification and Anammox), and determination of physiochemical and microbe parameters were carried out in 2013 for three representative sites along the lacustrine zone of the reservoir. Results showed that ammonium and phosphate were generally released from sediment to overlying water [with averaged fluxes of N (479.8 ± 675.4) mg. (m2. d)-1 and P (4. 56 ± 0.54) mg. (m2 d) -1] , while nitrate and nitrite diffused into the sediment. Flood events in the wet season could introduce a large amount of particulate organic matter that would be trapped by the dam reservoir, resulting in the high release fluxes of ammonium and phosphate observed in the following low-flow season. No clear spatial variation of sediment nutrient release was found in the lacustrine zone of the reservoir. Gaseous N release was dominated by excess dissolved N2 (98% of total), and the N2 flux from sediment was (15.8 ± 12. 5) mg (m2. d) -1. There was a longitudinal and vertical variation of excess dissolved N2, reflecting the combined results of denitrification and Anammox occurring in anoxic sediment and fluvial transport. Nitrification mainly occurred in the lower lacustrine zone, and the enrichment of N2O was likely regulated by the ratio of ammonium to DIN in water.

  2. Field scale modeling to estimate phosphorus and sediment load reductions using a newly developed graphical user interface for soil and water assessment tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streams throughout the North Canadian River watershed in northwest Oklahoma, USA have elevated levels of nutrients and sediment. SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was used to identify areas that likely contributed disproportionate amounts of phosphorus (P) and sediment to Lake Overholser, the re...

  3. Ecohydrological Interfaces as Dynamic Hotspots of Biogeochemical Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Stefan; Lewandowski, Joerg; Hannah, David; McDonald, Karlie; Folegot, Silvia; Baranov, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Ecohydrological interfaces, represent the boundaries between water-dependent ecosystems that can alter substantially the fluxes of energy and matter. There is still a critical gap of understanding the organisational principles of the drivers and controls of spatially and temporally variable ecohydrological interface functions. This knowledge gap limits our capacity to efficiently quantify, predict and manage the services provided by complex ecosystems. Many ecohydrological interfaces are characterized by step changes in microbial metabolic activity, steep redox gradients and often even thermodynamic phase shifts, for instance at the interfaces between atmosphere and water or soil matrix and macro-pores interfaces. This paper integrates investigations from point scale laboratory microcosm experiments with reach and subcatchment scale tracer experiments and numerical modeling studies to elaborate similarities in the drivers and controls that constitute the enhanced biogeochemical activity of different types of ecohydrologica interfaces across a range of spatial and temporal scales. We therefore combine smart metabolic activity tracers to quantify the impact of bioturbating benthic fauna onto ecosystem respiration and oxygen consumption and investigate at larger scale, how microbial metabolic activity and carbon turnover at the water-sediment interface are controlled by sediment physical and chemical properties as well as water temperatures. Numerical modeling confirmed that experimentally identified hotspots of streambed biogeochemical cycling were controlled by patterns of physical properties such as hydraulic conductivities or bioavailability of organic matter, impacting on residence time distributions and hence reaction times. In contrast to previous research, our investigations thus confirmed that small-scale variability of physical and chemical interface properties had a major impact on biogeochemical processing at the investigated ecohydrological interfaces

  4. Arsenic and antimony geochemistry of mine wastes, associated waters and sediments at the Giant Mine, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, Skya E.; Jamieson, Heather E.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Antimony and arsenic were speciated in sediments and pore waters near Giant Mine. • Sediments will continue to be a source of arsenic and antimony to overlying water. • Aquatic vegetation traps contaminated sediment and takes up antimony and arsenic. - Abstract: Elevated levels of arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) in water and sediments are legacy residues found downstream from gold-mining activities at the Giant Mine in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada. To track the transport and fate of As and Sb, samples of mine-waste from the mill, and surface water, sediment, pore-water, and vegetation downstream of the mine were collected. Mine waste, pore-water, and sediment samples were analyzed for bulk chemistry, and aqueous and solid-state speciation. Sediment and vegetation chemistry were evaluated using scanning electron microscope imaging, synchrotron-based element mapping and electron microprobe analysis. The distributions of As and Sb in sediments were similar, yet their distributions in the corresponding pore-waters were mostly dissimilar, and the mobility of As was greater than that of Sb. Competition for sorption sites is the most likely cause of elevated Sb concentrations in relatively oxidized pore-water and surface water. The aqueous and solid-state speciation of As and Sb also differed. In pore-water, As(V) dominated in oxidizing environments and As(III) in reducing environments. In contrast, the Sb(V) species dominated in all but one pore-water sample, even under reducing conditions. Antimony(III) appears to preferentially precipitate or adsorb onto sulfides as evidenced by the prevalence of an Sb(III)-S secondary solid-phase and the lack of Sb(III)(aq) in the deeper zones. The As(V)–O solid phase became depleted with depth below the sediment–water interface, and the Sb(V)–O phase persisted under relatively reducing conditions. In the surficial zone at a site populated by Equisetum fluviatile (common horsetail), As and

  5. Assessment of copper, cadmium and zinc remobilization in Mediterranean marine coastal sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellari, Aikaterini; Plavšić, Marta; Karavoltsos, Sotiris; Dassenakis, Manos; Scoullos, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The remobilization of copper, cadmium and zinc in sediments of three selected coastal microenvironments of the Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean) is assessed. Various analytical methods and techniques were employed providing concentrations, profiles and forms of metals and organic matter in sediments and pore waters. At Loutropyrgos, a non-industrial site located, however, within an intensively industrialized enclosed gulf, an intense resupply of zinc in pore water from sediment was recorded, correlating with the highest value of weakly bound fraction of zinc determined at this area. The comparatively high zinc concentrations measured in the pore waters (394 nM), exceed considerably those in the overlying seawater (12.5 nM determined by DGT; 13.5 nM total), resulting in the formation of a strong concentration gradient at the sediment-water interface. Potential zinc flux at the sediment-water interface at Loutropyrgos (based on 0.4 mm DGT profile) was calculated equal to 0.8 mmol.m -2.d -1. The half lives of trace metals at Loutropyrgos site, based on the aforementioned DGT profiles, amount to 0.1 y (Zn), 2.8 y (Cd), 4.5 y (Cu), 2.2 y (Mn) and 0.4 y (Fe) pointing out to the reactivity of these metals at the sediment-water interface. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in pore waters of the three selected sites (2.7-5.2 mg/L) was up to four times higher compared to that of the corresponding overlying seawater. Similarly, the concentrations of carbohydrates in pore waters (0.20-0.91 mg/L monosaccharides; 0.71-1.6 mg/L polysaccharides) are an order of magnitude higher than those of seawater, forming a concentration gradient at the sediment-water interface. Total carbohydrates contribute between 34 and 48% of the organic carbon of the pore waters, being significantly higher than those of seawater from the corresponding areas, which were in the range of 15-21%. The complexing capacity as for copper ions (CCu) determined in pore water ranges widely, from 0

  6. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Verification of Sediment Ecotoxicity Assessment Ring(SEA Ring)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the verification is to test the efficacy and ability of the Sediment Ecotoxicity Assessment Ring (SEA Ring) to evaluate the toxicity of contaminants in the sediment, at the sediment-water interface, and WC to organisms that live in those respective environments.

  7. Sediment and toxic contaminant transport modeling in coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Mayer, D.W.; Argo, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Models are presented to estimate the migration of toxic contaminants in coastal waters. Ocean current is simulated by the vertically-averaged, finite element, two-demensional model known as CAFE-I with the Galerkin weighted residual technique. The refraction of locally generated waves or swells is simulated by the wave refraction model, LO3D. Using computed current, depth, and wave characteristics, the finite element model, FETRA, simulated sediment and contaminant transport in coastal waters, estuaries and rivers. Prior to the application of these models to the Irish Sea and other coastal waters, the finite element model, FETRA, was tested to demonstrate its ability to simulate sediment and contaminant interaction, and the mechanism governing the transport, deposition, and resuspension of contaminated sediment. Several simple equations such as the unsteady, advection-diffusion equation, the equation for noncohesive-sediment load due to wind-induced waves in offshore and surf zones, and the equation for sediment-radionuclide transport simulation were solved during the preliminary testing of the model. (Kato, T.)

  8. Sediment-water chemical exchange in the coastal zone traced by in situ radon-222 flux measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, C.S.; Kipphut, G.W.; Klump, J.V.

    1980-01-01

    In situ radon-222 flux experiments conducted in benthic chambers in Cape Lookout Bight, a small marine basin on the North Carolina coast, reveal that enhanced chemical transport across the sediment-water interface during summer months is caused by abiogenic bubble tube structures. Transport rates for dissolved radon, methane, and ammonium more than three times greater than those predicted on the basis of molecular diffusion occur when open tubes are maintained by semidiurnal low-tide bubbling

  9. Resuspension and settling of helminth eggs in water: Interactions with cohesive sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Mita E; Andersen, Thorbjørn J; Dalsgaard, Anders; Olsen, Annette; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2012-08-01

    Helminth parasite eggs in low quality water represent main food safety and health hazards and are therefore important indicators used to determine whether such water can be used for irrigation. Through sedimentation helminth eggs accumulate in the sediment, however resuspension of deposited helminth eggs will lead to increased concentration of suspended eggs in the water. Our study aimed to determine the erodibility (erosion rate and erosion threshold) and settling velocity of Ascaris and Trichuris eggs as well as cohesive sediment at different time points after incorporation into the sediment. Cohesive sediment collected from a freshwater stream was used to prepare a sediment bed onto which helminth eggs were allowed to settle. The erodibility of both sediment and helminth eggs was found to decrease over time indicating that the eggs were incorporated into the surface material of the bed and that this material was stabilized through time. This interaction between eggs and bulk sediment was further manifested in an increased settling velocity of suspended eggs when sediment was present in the suspension as compared to a situation with settling in clean water. The incorporation into the sediment bed and the aggregation with sediment particles decrease the mobility of both helminth egg types. Our findings document that helminth eggs should not be viewed as single entities in water systems when modelling the distribution of eggs since both erodibility and settling velocity of eggs are determined by mobility of the sediment present in the water stream. Recalculation of the erosion threshold for helminth eggs and sediment showed that even at relatively low current velocities i.e. 0.07-0.12ms(-1) newly deposited eggs will be mobile in open irrigation channels. These environmental factors affecting resuspension must be taken into account when developing models for sedimentation of helminth eggs in different water systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  10. Biogeochemical malfunctioning in sediments beneath a deep-water fish farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdemarsen, Thomas; Bannister, Raymond J; Hansen, Pia K; Holmer, Marianne; Ervik, Arne

    2012-11-01

    We investigated the environmental impact of a deep water fish farm (190 m). Despite deep water and low water currents, sediments underneath the farm were heavily enriched with organic matter, resulting in stimulated biogeochemical cycling. During the first 7 months of the production cycle benthic fluxes were stimulated >29 times for CO(2) and O(2) and >2000 times for NH(4)(+), when compared to the reference site. During the final 11 months, however, benthic fluxes decreased despite increasing sedimentation. Investigations of microbial mineralization revealed that the sediment metabolic capacity was exceeded, which resulted in inhibited microbial mineralization due to negative feed-backs from accumulation of various solutes in pore water. Conclusions are that (1) deep water sediments at 8 °C can metabolize fish farm waste corresponding to 407 and 29 mmol m(-2) d(-1) POC and TN, respectively, and (2) siting fish farms at deep water sites is not a universal solution for reducing benthic impacts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fate of Metals in Relation to Water and Sediment Properties in a Subtropical Lake in Central Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaotombi, Shaikhom; Gupta, Prem Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Lakes of Himalaya are one of the most fragile ecosystems on earth. Tourism and urban development in the upland region strongly affect its water resources. The high rate of sedimentation and organic matter deposition alters the ecological state of sediment bed, which indirectly influences on dynamics of metallic elements. We investigated spatial and temporal variations of water and sediment characteristic in Lake Sattal of Central Himalaya, India. Samples were collected seasonally from four sampling locations from January 2011 to December 2012. Pearson's correlation and Canonical correspondence analysis (CCAs) were applied to examine the dynamics and behaviors of heavy metals. Concentrations of elements were in the order of fluoride (Fl) > zinc (Zn) > copper (Cu) > iron (Fe) > manganese (Mn). Sand size fraction was higher in the littoral zone while clay particle was dominant in the profundal zone of the lake. Dissolved oxygen at sediment-water-interface (SWI) and water temperature were the major factors influencing the dynamics of metallic contents in the water column. Spatially, total organic matter (TOM) was higher in the deeper portion of the lake. Our study revealed that mobility of Fe is temperature-dependent, whereas speciation of Mn and Cu are primarily controlled by the suboxic condition of SWI in organic-rich site. Upland lakes are more vulnerable to anoxic condition and have severe implications on heavy metals speciation. Proper implementation of land use policies and management practices, including stormwater detention, can be integrated into resolving such problems.

  12. Spatial Variability of Metals in Surface Water and Sediment in the Langat River and Geochemical Factors That Influence Their Water-Sediment Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Ying Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper determines the controlling factors that influence the metals’ behavior water-sediment interaction facies and distribution of elemental content (75As, 111Cd, 59Co, 52Cr, 60Ni, and 208Pb in water and sediment samples in order to assess the metal pollution status in the Langat River. A total of 90 water and sediment samples were collected simultaneously in triplicate at 30 sampling stations. Selected metals were analyzed using ICP-MS, and the metals’ concentration varied among stations. Metal concentrations of water ranged between 0.08–24.71 μg/L for As, <0.01–0.53 μg/L for Cd, 0.06–6.22 μg/L for Co, 0.32–4.67 μg/L for Cr, 0.80–24.72 μg/L for Ni, and <0.005–6.99 μg/L for Pb. Meanwhile, for sediment, it ranged between 4.47–30.04 mg/kg for As, 0.02–0.18 mg/kg for Cd, 0.87–4.66 mg/kg for Co, 4.31–29.04 mg/kg for Cr, 2.33–8.25 mg/kg for Ni and 5.57–55.71 mg/kg for Pb. The average concentration of studied metals in the water was lower than the Malaysian National Standard for Drinking Water Quality proposed by the Ministry of Health. The average concentration for As in sediment was exceeding ISQG standards as proposed by the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines. Statistical analyses revealed that certain metals (As, Co, Ni, and Pb were generally influenced by pH and conductivity. These results are important when making crucial decisions in determining potential hazardous levels of these metals toward humans.

  13. Geophysical characterisation of the groundwater-surface water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, P. J.; Chambers, J. E.; Uhlemann, S. S.; Binley, A.

    2017-11-01

    Interactions between groundwater (GW) and surface water (SW) have important implications for water quantity, water quality, and ecological health. The subsurface region proximal to SW bodies, the GW-SW interface, is crucial as it actively regulates the transfer of nutrients, contaminants, and water between GW systems and SW environments. However, geological, hydrological, and biogeochemical heterogeneity in the GW-SW interface makes it difficult to characterise with direct observations. Over the past two decades geophysics has been increasingly used to characterise spatial and temporal variability throughout the GW-SW interface. Geophysics is a powerful tool in evaluating structural heterogeneity, revealing zones of GW discharge, and monitoring hydrological processes. Geophysics should be used alongside traditional hydrological and biogeochemical methods to provide additional information about the subsurface. Further integration of commonly used geophysical techniques, and adoption of emerging techniques, has the potential to improve understanding of the properties and processes of the GW-SW interface, and ultimately the implications for water quality and environmental health.

  14. Effect of water flux and sediment discharge of the Yangtze River on PAHs sedimentation in the estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rufeng; Feng, Chenghong; Wang, Dongxin; He, Maozhi; Hu, Lijuan; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-12-01

    Historical distribution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their carriers (i.e., organic matter and mineral particles) in the sediment cores of the Yangtze Estuary were investigated, with emphasis laid on the role of the Yangtze River. Grain size component of sediments (clay, silt, and sand) and organic carbon (black carbon and total organic carbon) in the sediment cores were markedly affected by water flux and sediment discharge of the Yangtze River. Qualitative and quantitative analysis results showed that sands and black carbon acted as the main carriers of PAHs. The sedimentation of two-ring to three-ring PAHs in the estuary had significant correlations with water flux and sediment discharge of the Yangtze River. The relative lower level of the four-ring and five-ring to six-ring PAHs concentrations appeared around the year 2003 and remained for the following several years. This time period accorded well with the water impoundment time of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The decreased level of two-ring to three-ring PAHs occurred in the year 1994, and the peak points around the year 2009 indicated that PAHs sedimentation in the estuary also had close relationship to severe drought and flood in the catchments. The findings presented in this paper could provide references for assessing the impacts of water flux and sediment discharge on the historical deposition of PAHs and their carriers in the Yangtze Estuary.

  15. A Study on the Environmental Standard of Sediment on the Bottom of the Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Yoo, Hye Jin [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    Sediment on the bottom of the water has been considered one of the water pollutants in the environmental management of Korea so treated as a management on pollutants, as you can see the examples in the dragging operation in the polluted sea area. To healthily maintain and conserve the water ecosystem including bottom living things in the water, sediment on the bottom of the water should be recognized as the independent medium, which should maintain the certain quality like the water, the atmosphere, and soil, rather than the source of water pollution. Such recognition means that the management of sediment on the bottom of the water should change the fragmentary goal, centered the post management focusing on the water management, to the ecosystematic goal including the bottom living things. In a point of the view, this study has a great significance to suggest not only the final goal for the management of sediment on the bottom of the water but also the necessity of developing the environmental standard of the sediment on the bottom of the water, which is a standard of the management or judgment in the actual managing the sediment on the bottom of the water - an estimation on the pollution of sediment, a removal of the polluted sediment, a purification of sediment, and an abandonment of the dragged sediment -, and the development measures. Considering the situation that even the basic scheme related to the management of sediment is not prepared in the Government level, the concept of the environmental standard of sediment, the foreign example of the environmental standard of sediment, the current state of the domestic sediment pollution, and the development scheme of the environmental standard in this study must be the important foundation to establish the management system of sediment in the Government level. 121 refs., 10 figs., 45 tabs.

  16. Monitoring of Water and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    seepage is occurring in a freshwater lake environment and to map the lateral extent of any subsurface contamination at the groundwater –surface water ...and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater -Surface Water Interface August 2008 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Monitoring of Water and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater -Surface Water Interface 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  17. EPA Office of Water (OW): Nutrient, Sediment, and Pathogens Water Impairments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National dataset consisting of a snapshot of 303(d) Listed Impaired Waters combined with Impaired Waters with TMDLs whose parent cause is Nutrients, Sediments, and...

  18. The sequence of sediment behaviour during wave-induced liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Hatipoglu, Figen; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    to be in agreement with recent centrifuge wave-tank experiments. As for the final stage of the sequence of processes (formation of ripples), the ripple steepness (normalized with the angle of repose) for sediment with liquefaction history is found to be the same as that in sediment with no liquefaction history.......This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the complete sequence of sediment behaviour beneath progressive waves. The sediment was silty with d(50) = 0.060 mm. Two kinds of measurements were carried out: pore-water pressure measurements (across the sediment depth...... of liquefaction and compaction fronts in the sediment and (iii) the characteristics of the orbital motion of the liquefied sediment including the motion of the interface between the water body and the sediment. The ranges of the various quantities in the tests were: wave height, H = 9-17 cm, wave period, T = 1...

  19. [Virus adsorption from batch experiments as influenced by air-water interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Bing-zi; Zhang, Jia-bao; Zhang, Cong-zhi; Wang, Qiu-ying; Chen, Ji

    2007-12-01

    The presence of air-water interface in batch sorption experiments may result in inaccurate estimation of virus adsorption onto various soils. A batch sorption experiment was conducted to compare the adsorption results of MS2 in different soils under presence/absence of air-water interface. Soils with sterilization/nonterilization treatment were used. Virus recovery efficiency in a blank experiment (no soil) was also evaluated as affected by different amount of air-water interface. The presence of air-water interface altered the results of virus adsorption in different soils with different extent, with Sandy fluvo-aquic soil being the most considerably affected, followed by Red loam soil, and the least being Red clay soil, probably because of different soil properties associated with virus adsorption/inactivation. Soil sterilization resulted in more significant difference of virus adsorption onto the Sandy fluvo-aquic soil between the presence and absence of air-water interface, while a reduced difference was observed in the Red loam soil. The presence of air-water interface significantly decreased virus recovery efficiency, with the values being decreased with increase in the amount of air-water interface. Soil particles likely prohibit viruses from reaching the air-water interface or alter the forces at the solid-water-air interface so that the results from the blank experiment did not truly represent results from control blank, which probably resulted in adsorption difference between presence and absence of the air-water interface.

  20. Interstitial water chemistry and nutrients fluxes from tropical intertidal sediment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Zingde, M.D.

    temporal changes in relation to their con- centrations in the overlying creek water. The high chlorinity creek water infiltrating in the bed after September, progres- sively pushed down the monsoonal low chlorinity water trapped in the sediment resulting....4-2.5%), the trend of decreasing con- centration with depth indicated some accumulation in the sediment over the years. The 1.0-2.5% Corgin core 2 commonly occurs in silty-clay sediment along the centra] west coast of India16 even in areas where there is no apparent...

  1. Sediment-water distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in Yangtze River Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Gang; You Chun

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) distribution in water and sediment in Yangtze River Estuary showed that the estuary was a sink for PFOS. Salinity was an important parameter in controlling the sediment-water interactions and the fate or transport of PFOS in the aquatic environment. As the salinity (S per mille ) increased from 0.18 to 3.31, the distribution coefficient (K d ) between sediment and water linearly increased from 0.76 to 4.70 L g -1 . The study suggests that PFOS may be carried with the river water and transported for long distances before it reaches to the sea and largely scavenged to the sediment in the estuaries due to the dramatic change in salinity. - PFOS may be largely scavenged to the sediment in estuaries due to the dramatic change in salinity during its transport from lands to oceans.

  2. Phase transition behavior of sediment transport at the sand-mud interface, across scales from flumes to the large rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H.; Nittrouer, J. A.; Wu, B.; Zhang, Y.; Mohrig, D. C.; Lamb, M. P.; Wang, Y.; Fu, X.; Moodie, A. J.; Naito, K.; Parker, G.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment dispersal and deposition creates deltaic landscapes, establishes coastlines, and produces fertile floodplains, all of which serve as critical landforms inhabited by a large proportion of humankind. If poorly managed, sediment loads in these environments can elevate and clog channels, thereby enhancing hazards such as severe flooding. Predictive descriptions of sediment loads, however, are not well constrained, especially for fine-grained (silt and very-fine sand) dispersal systems, which often include river deltas and coastlines. Here, we show efforts to collect and analyze an extensive sediment load database for fine-grained channels, spanning from small flume experiments to large rivers, in order to evaluate the nature of sediment flux. Our analyses determined that sediment transport exhibits two distinct transport phases, separated by a discontinuous transition, whereby sediment flux differs by one to two orders of magnitude. It is determined that the transition responds to the bed material grain size, and we propose a phase diagram based on this metric alone. These findings help elucidate why previous theories of sediment transport at the sand-silt interface, which are typically continuous, are not able to give satisfactory predictions across different scales and environments. Our work serves to help evaluate anthropic influences on rivers, deltas, and coastlines, and can be applied to better constrain sediment flux of paleo-fluvial systems found on Earth and Mars. For example, in situ measurements of sediment flux for the silty-sandy bed of the lower Yellow River, China, validate the aforementioned phase transition behavior, and illustrate that the channel resides near the transition of high to low efficiency transport modes. Recent dam construction and resulting downstream coarsening of the bed via armoring, however, might lead to the unintended consequence of enhancing flood risk by driving the system to a low efficiency transport mode with high

  3. Sediment and toxic contaminant transport modeling in coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Mayer, D.W.; Argo, R.S.

    1982-02-01

    A hydrodynamic model, CAFE-I, a wave refraction model, LO3D, and a sediment and contaminant transport model, FETRA, were selected as tools for evaluating exposure levels of radionuclides, heavy metals, and other toxic chemicals in coastal waters. Prior to the application of these models to the Irish Sea and other coastal waters, the finite element model, FETRA, was tested to demonstrate its ability to simulate sediment and contaminant interactions (e.g., adsorption and desorption), and the mechanisms governing the transport, deposition, and resuspension of contaminated sediments

  4. Presence, distribution, and diversity of iron-oxidizing bacteria at a landfill leachate-impacted groundwater surface water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, R.; Gan, P.; Mackay, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    ) were dominated by members of the Bradyrhizobiaceae and Comamonadaceae; clones from the deeper sediments were phylogenetically more diverse, dominated by members of the Rhodocyclaceae. The iron deposition profiles indicated that active iron oxidation occurred only within the near-to-surface GSI......We examined the presence of iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) at a groundwater surface water interface (GSI) impacted by reduced groundwater originating as leachate from an upgradient landfill. IOB enrichments and quantifications were obtained, at high vertical resolution, by an iron/oxygen opposing...... site mirrored the IOB distribution. Clone libraries from two separate IOB enrichments indicated a stratified IOB community with clear differences at short vertical distances. Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria were the dominant phylotypes. Clones from the near-surface sediment (1-2 cm below ground surface...

  5. Enantioselective analysis of ibuprofen and its biotransformation products in water/sediment systems,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundström, Maria; Escola, Monica; Radke, Michael

    2015-01-01

    of the sediments in the aquatic systems has neither been taken in account previously. In this study, four water-sediment systems were chosen according to anthropogenic exposure and sediment conditions. A low anthropogenic impact lake (Largen), a river receiving wastewater (Fyrisån) and two sediments (anoxic......As ibuprofen degrades enantioselectively in activated sludge, the same process is assumed to occur in surface lake-water and in river-water based biofilms. Yet, the effects of the wastewater inflow, containing non-racemic ibuprofen, into natural systems have never been studied. The role......-7 days in Tvären and B1 respectively. Largen sediments, not impacted by wastewater, degraded ibuprofen faster than Fyrisån sediments did. Yet, these two sediments sediments showed no significant difference with respect to the degradation rates of the ibuprofen enantiomers. A connection between wastewater...

  6. Dynamic Stabilization of Metal Oxide–Water Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBriarty, Martin E.; von Rudorff, Guido Falk; Stubbs, Joanne; Eng, Peter; Blumberger, Jochen; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2017-02-08

    Metal oxide growth, dissolution, and redox reactivity depend on the structure and dynamics at the interface with aqueous solution. We present the most definitive analysis to date of the hydrated naturally abundant r-cut (11$\\bar{0}$2) termination of the iron oxide hematite (α-Fe2O3). In situ synchrotron X-ray scattering analysis reveals a ridged lateral arrangement of adsorbed water molecules hydrogen bonded to terminal aquo groups. Large-scale hybrid-functional density functional theory-based molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) simulations show how this structure is dynamically stabilized by picosecond exchange between aquo groups and adsorbed water, even under nominally dry conditions. Surface pKa prediction based on bond valence analysis suggests that water exchange may influence the proton transfer reactions associated with acid/base reactivity at the interface. Our findings rectify inconsistencies between existing models and may be extended to resolving more complex electrochemical phenomena at metal oxide-water interfaces.

  7. Characteristic sediment and water column chlorophyll-a in the sea cucumber’s Paracaudina sp. habitat on the Kenjeran Water, Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widianingsih, W.; Zaenuri, M.; Anggoro, S.; Kusumaningrum, H. P.; Hartati, R.

    2018-03-01

    The study of characteristic sediment and water column chlorophyll-a has an important role in the sea cucumber habitat. Sediment chlorophyll-a represents a productivity primer for the benthic community. This research has a purpose to investigate characteristic sediment and water column chlorophyll-a on the Kenjeran water, Surabaya. Sediment samples were collected by the ekman grab for analysis, grain size and nutrient. The sample for sediment chlorophyll-a was taken by core sampler. The water samples were taken with Nansen Bottles. According to the research result, the values of sediment chlorophyll-a at station 10, 11 and 12 were higher than the other stations. In contrast, the value of chlorophyll-a in the column water had almost the same value for each station. The sediment chlorophyll-a value on clay and silt sediment type was higher than the fine sand and coarse sediment type. The suitable habitat characteristic for Paracaudina sp. was clay and silt sediment with sediment chlorophyll concentration ranging from 347.82 mg·m-2 to 1135.52 mg·m-2.

  8. Water and suspended sediment division at a stratified tidal junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschman, F.A.; Vegt, M. van der; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Hoekstra, P.

    2013-01-01

    Tidal junctions play a crucial role in the transport of water, salt, and sediment through a delta distributary network. Water, salt and sediment are exchanged at tidal junctions, thereby influencing the transports in the connecting branches and the overall dynamics of the system. This paper

  9. Discriminating sediment and clear water over coastal water using GD technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Abd Rahman Mat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently two algorithms are being used routinely by the MODIS Atmosphere and Ocean Team in order to distinguish sediment influence and clear water pixels over turbid water area. These two algorithms require complicated computational analyses. In this paper, a simple algorithm based on empirical technique to detect the sediment-influenced pixels over coastal waters is proposed as an alternative to these two algorithms. This study used apparent reflectance acquired from MODIS L1B product. This algorithm is based on the gradient difference of the line connecting the 0.47- and 1.24-μm channels and 0.47- and 0.66-μm channels of a log-log graph of the apparent reflectance values against MODIS wavelengths. Over clear-water areas (deep blue sea, the 0.47-, 0.66- and 1.24-μm channels fitted very well in line with correlation R > 0.99. Over turbid waters, a substantial increase of 0.66 μm in the reflectance leads to a low correlation value. By computing the difference between the gradient of the line connecting 0.47 and 0.66 μm and the gradient of the line connecting 0.47 and 1.24 μm, the threshold to discriminate turbid and shallow coastal waters from clear-water pixels can be obtained. If the gradient difference is greater than 0, the pixels were then marked as sediment-influenced pixels. This proposed algorithm works well for MODIS Terra and Aqua sensor. The comparison of this algorithm with an established algorithm also showed a good agreement.

  10. Water and suspended sediment division at a stratified tidal junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschman, F.A.; Vegt, van der M.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Hoekstra, P.

    2013-01-01

    [1] Tidal junctions play a crucial role in the transport of water, salt, and sediment through a delta distributary network. Water, salt and sediment are exchanged at tidal junctions, thereby influencing the transports in the connecting branches and the overall dynamics of the system. This paper

  11. Toxicity of sediments and pore water from Brunswick Estuary, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, Parley V.; Lasier, Peter J.; Geitner, Harvey

    1993-01-01

    A chlor-alkali plant in Brunswick, Georgia, USA, discharged >2 kg mercury/d into a tributary of the Turtle River-Brunswick Estuary from 1966 to 1971. Mercury concentrations in sediments collected in 1989 along the tributary near the chlor-alkali plant ranged from 1 to 27 μg/g (dry weight), with the highest concentrations found in surface (0–8 cm) sediments of subtidal zones in the vicinity of the discharge site. Toxicity screening in 1990 using Microtox® bioassays on pore water extracted on site from sediments collected at six stations distributed along the tributary indicated that pore water was highly toxic near the plant discharge. Ten-day toxicity tests on pore water from subsequent sediment samples collected near the plant discharge confirmed high toxicity to Hyalella azteca, and feeding activity was significantly reduced in whole-sediment tests. In addition to mercury in the sediments, other metals (chromium, lead, and zinc) exceeded 50 μg/g, and polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) concentrations ranged from 67 to 95 μg/g. On a molar basis, acid-volatile sulfide concentrations (20–45 μmol/g) in the sediments exceeded the metal concentrations. Because acid-volatile sulfides bind with cationic metals and form metal sulfides, which are generally not bioavailable, toxicities shown by these sediments were attributed to the high concentrations of PCBs and possibly methylmercury.

  12. Influence of a thin veneer of low-hydraulic-conductivity sediment on modelled exchange between river water and groundwater in response to induced infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Healy, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    A thin layer of fine-grained sediment commonly is deposited at the sediment–water interface of streams and rivers during low-flow conditions, and may hinder exchange at the sediment–water interface similar to that observed at many riverbank-filtration (RBF) sites. Results from a numerical groundwater-flow model indicate that a low-permeability veneer reduces the contribution of river water to a pumping well in a riparian aquifer to various degrees, depending on simulated hydraulic gradients, hydrogeological properties, and pumping conditions. Seepage of river water is reduced by 5–10% when a 2-cm thick, low-permeability veneer is present on the bed surface. Increasing thickness of the low-permeability layer to 0·1 m has little effect on distribution of seepage or percentage contribution from the river to the pumping well. A three-orders-of-magnitude reduction in hydraulic conductivity of the veneer is required to reduce seepage from the river to the extent typically associated with clogging at RBF sites. This degree of reduction is much larger than field-measured values that were on the order of a factor of 20–25. Over 90% of seepage occurs within 12 m of the shoreline closest to the pumping well for most simulations. Virtually no seepage occurs through the thalweg near the shoreline opposite the pumping well, although no low-permeability sediment was simulated for the thalweg. These results are relevant to natural settings that favour formation of a substantial, low-permeability sediment veneer, as well as central-pivot irrigation systems, and municipal water supplies where river seepage is induced via pumping wells

  13. Water and suspended sediment dynamics in the Sungai Selangor estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Ishak; Kamarudin Samuding; Nazrul Hizam Yusoff

    2000-01-01

    Observations of salinity, temperature, suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and tidal current velocity were made in the lower and along the longitudinal axis sungai Selangor estuary over near-spring cycles. The variations of these parameters at the measurement stations and along the channel are presented to illustrate the water and sediment dynamics in the estuary. The results shows that the Sungai Selangor estuary changes from a partially-mixed type during neaps to a well-mixed one during springs. promoted by stronger tidal energy during the higher tidal ranges. The strong neap density stratification is also promoted by the high river discharges during the measurement period maximum concentration of suspended sediment 2000 mg,'/) occurs during maximum current velocities both during flood and ebb. The maximum salinity was achieved during high water slack but the salt water was totally flushed out of estuary during low water springs. The longitudinal axis measurement indicates that a partially-developed zone of turbidity maximum with a sediment concentration over 1000 mg/l was observed at the limit of salt water intrusion in salinity range less than 1 ppt. Tidal pumping as oppose to the estuarine circulation is the more dominant factor in the maximum formation as the salt water is totally excluded at low water. (author)

  14. Study of polluted water mixing on sediment of Lahore canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asim, M.

    2016-01-01

    People living in societies along the canals which pass through the urban areas, are adding domestic and industrial waste water and wastes into them like Lahore canal. This untreated industrial and municipal waste and contaminated water may become a risk to irrigation water quality and sediment moving in it in the form of suspended load. The results disclose that as suspended sediment concentration increases the pH value drops. Consequently it can be established from results that they are inversely related to each other but this behaviour is generally due to effect of rain water runoff. The suspended sediment content was at its highest during monsoon season. Similarly pH values varied considerably from limit of 6.5-8.4. Other water quality chemical parameters did not stray from their recommended limits. The dumping of waste water from pipes did not have any major effect on the water quality of the canal due to its less percentage to the total canal discharge. (author)

  15. Linearity and Reversibility of Iodide Adsorption on Sediments from Hanford, Washington Under Water Saturated Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2004-01-01

    A series of adsorption and desorption experiments were completed to determine the linearity of iodide adsorption, as a function of concentration, and its reversibility onto sediment for geochemical conditions germane to the proposed disposal of low-level radioactive waste by the U.S. Department of Energy's Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Iodine-129 is predicted to be one of the top three long-term risk drivers based on past performance assessment conducted for the eventual disposal of the low-level portion of radioactive wastes currently stored in underground storage tanks at Hanford, because iodide exhibits little adsorption affinity to mineral surfaces resulting in high mobility in the subsurface environment. Adsorption experiments, conducted with Hanford formation sediments and groundwater spiked with dissolved 125I (as an analog tracer for 129I), indicated that iodide adsorption was very low at pH 7.5 and could be represented by a linear isotherm up to a total concentration of 100 mg/L dissolved iodide. The linearity of iodide adsorption up to concentrations of 100 mg/L validates the use of the linear Kd construct in transport models to predict the fate and transport of 129I in subsurface systems at Hanford. The results of desorption experiments indicated that up to 60% of adsorbed iodide was readily desorbed after 14 days by the same groundwater solution. Iodide adsorption was considered to be partially reversible or weakly binding on the sediments. Even though small amount of initial iodide is retarded by adsorption reactions at mineral-water interfaces, the weak adsorption affinity results in release of iodide when iodide free pore waters and ground waters contact the contaminated sediments in the vadose zone and aquifer systems

  16. Measuring groundwater transport through lake sediments by advection and diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornett, R.J.; Risto, B.A.; Lee, D.R.

    1989-08-01

    A method for estimating low rates of groundwater inflow and outflow through the bottom sediments of surface waters was developed and tested. A one-dimensional advection-diffusion model was fitted to measured pore water profiles of two nonreactive solutes, tritiated water and chloride, and the advection rate was calculated by a nonlinear least squares technique. Using 3 H profiles measured 0-0.5 m below the sediment-water interface, rates of groundwater advection into a lake through interbedded sands and gyttja were estimated to be about 1.0 m/year. In midlake locations underlain by soft organic gyttja, rates of advection were much lower (<0.1 m/year). Knowledge of the rate and direction of groundwater flow substantially altered the interpretation of pore water profiles within the sediments and the fluxes of solutes. This technique can be used to estimate flow rates less than 2 m/annum with minimal disturbance, without enclosing the sediments in a container, in a diversity of systems. (author)

  17. Sediment distribution and composition on the shallow water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediments of the shallow water carbonate basin in Zanzibar channel were investigated for composition and grain size distribution. The surface sediment composition was dominated by carbonate sands (with CaCO3 > 30%), except in the area adjacent to mainland coastline and a thin lobe which projects from Ruvu River to ...

  18. Arsenic and antimony geochemistry of mine wastes, associated waters and sediments at the Giant Mine, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Skya E.; Jamieson, Heather E.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) in water and sediments are legacy residues found downstream from gold-mining activities at the Giant Mine in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada. To track the transport and fate of As and Sb, samples of mine-waste from the mill, and surface water, sediment, pore-water, and vegetation downstream of the mine were collected. Mine waste, pore-water, and sediment samples were analyzed for bulk chemistry, and aqueous and solid-state speciation. Sediment and vegetation chemistry were evaluated using scanning electron microscope imaging, synchrotron-based element mapping and electron microprobe analysis. The distributions of As and Sb in sediments were similar, yet their distributions in the corresponding pore-waters were mostly dissimilar, and the mobility of As was greater than that of Sb. Competition for sorption sites is the most likely cause of elevated Sb concentrations in relatively oxidized pore-water and surface water. The aqueous and solid-state speciation of As and Sb also differed. In pore-water, As(V) dominated in oxidizing environments and As(III) in reducing environments. In contrast, the Sb(V) species dominated in all but one pore-water sample, even under reducing conditions. Antimony(III) appears to preferentially precipitate or adsorb onto sulfides as evidenced by the prevalence of an Sb(III)-S secondary solid-phase and the lack of Sb(III)(aq) in the deeper zones. The As(V)–O solid phase became depleted with depth below the sediment–water interface, and the Sb(V)–O phase persisted under relatively reducing conditions. In the surficial zone at a site populated by Equisetum fluviatile (common horsetail), As and Sb were associated with organic material and appeared mobile in the root zone. In the zone below active plant growth, As and Sb were associated primarily with inorganic phases suggesting a release and reprecipitation of these elements upon plant death. The co-existence of reduced

  19. Winter evolution of DMS and DMSP in Venice lagoon water and sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaro, Andrea; Moret, Ivo; Piazza, Rossano; Da Rin, Eleonora; Turetta, Clara; Cescon, Paolo

    2002-03-01

    The evolution of dimethylsulphide (DMS) and dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) concentrations in the water and sediment of the Venice lagoon were studied together with the concentration of chlorophyll a, temperature and the composition and density of phytoplankton to understand the role of the sediment as a source of DMS during the winter period. The temporal trend of water DMS concentration in this period showed a maximum concentration in February (75.7 nmol S l-1) related to low DMSP and chlorophyll a concentrations but to high phytoplanktonic abundance. The DMS and DMSP concentrations were greater in the sediment than in the water. The temporal trend of DMS concentration in sediment showed a maximum in February (1155 nmol S l-1) related to the maximum of DMS concentration in surface water. These observations suggested that in the winter period DMS could be produced by the conversion of the DMSP present in the bulk water but principally by that present in the sediment (microbiological degradation of DMSP or other sulphur-containing compounds) that subsequently diffuse in water.

  20. Chloride, bromide and iodide distributions in Loch Lomond sediment interstitial water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, A.B.; Shimmield, T.M.; Scott, R.D.; Davidson, C.M.; Hooker, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The post glacial sediments of Loch Lomond contain a well defined band of marine deposited material which is overlain and underlain by freshwater deposited sediment. The chronology of the sedimentary sequence has been well established by radiocarbon dating and, in the southern basin of the Loch, the marine sediment band is of the order of 1 m thick and typically occurs at a depth of about 3 to 4 m beneath the sediment surface. Previous work has established that the marine deposited sediment contains enhanced concentrations of iodine and bromine relative to the contiguous freshwater sediments and that dissolution of halogen elements from the marine sediments generates a concentration gradient, with consequent diffusive transport, of these elements in the sediment interstitial water. This environment is thus highly suitable for investigation of the rate of transport of halogen elements through the sediment a topic of direct relevance to radioactive waste disposal in the context of far field migration of 129 I. Previous studies resulted in successful modelling of the diffusive transport of bromine in the interstitial water of the sediment on the basis of the observed concentration profile for total bromine in the water. This work was, however, of restricted value since (1) speciation was not determined (2) archived sediment was used and (3) samples were processed and analyzed under ambient laboratory conditions. The objective of the work described in this report was to collect a new core of Loch Lomond sediment and to carry out appropriate analyses to overcome the above limitations

  1. Heavy metal concentrations and toxicity in water and sediment from stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Kristin; Viklander, Maria; Scholes, Lian; Revitt, Mike

    2010-06-15

    Sedimentation is a widely used technique in structural best management practices to remove pollutants from stormwater. However, concerns have been expressed about the environmental impacts that may be exerted by the trapped pollutants. This study has concentrated on stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks and reports on the accumulated metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and the associated toxicity to the bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The metal concentrations are compared with guidelines and the toxicity results are assessed in relation to samples for which metal concentrations either exceed or conform to these values. The water phase metal concentrations were highest in the ponds whereas the sedimentation tanks exhibited a distinct decrease towards the outlet. However, none of the water samples demonstrated toxicity even though the concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn exceeded the threshold values for the compared guidelines. The facilities with higher traffic intensities had elevated sediment concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn which increased towards the outlet for the sedimentation tanks in agreement with the highest percentage of fine particles. The sediments in both treatment facilities exhibited the expected toxic responses in line with their affinity for heavy metals but the role of organic carbon content is highlighted. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Carboxylated fullerene at the oil/water interface

    OpenAIRE

    Li, R; Chai, Y; Jiang, Y; Ashby, PD; Toor, A; Russell, TP

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 American Chemical Society. The self-assembly of carboxylated fullerene with poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) with different molecular weights, poly-2-vinylpyridine, and amine-terminated polystyrene, at the interface between toluene and water was investigated. For all values of the pH, the functionalized fullerene interacted with the polymers at the water/toluene interface, forming a nanoparticle network, reducing the interfacial tension. At pH values of 4.84 and 7.8, robust,...

  3. Salmonella rarely detected in Mississippi coastal waters and sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M R; Wang, S Y; McLean, T I; Flood, C J; Ellender, R D

    2010-12-01

    Standards for the rapid detection of individual pathogens from environmental samples have not been developed, but in their absence, the use of molecular-based detection methods coupled with traditional microbiology techniques allows for rapid and accurate pathogen detection from environmental waters and sediment. The aim of this research was to combine the use of enrichment with PCR for detection of Salmonella in Mississippi coastal waters and sediment and observe if that presence correlated with levels of enterococci and climatological variables. Salmonella were primarily found in samples that underwent nutrient enrichment and were present more frequently in freshwater than marine waters. Salmonella were detected infrequently in marine and freshwater sediments. There was a significant positive correlation between the presence of detectable Salmonella and the average enterococcal count. An inverse relationship, however, was observed between the frequency of detection and the levels of salinity, turbidity and sunlight exposure. Results from this study indicated the presence of Salmonella in Mississippi coastal waters, and sediments are very low with significant differences between freshwater and marine environments. Using pathogenic and novel nonpathogenic molecular markers, Salmonella do not appear to be a significant pathogenic genus along the Mississippi Coast. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Nano-and microstructure of air/oil/water interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGillivray, D.; Mata, J.; White, J.; Zank, J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: We report the creation of air/oil/water interfaces with variable thickness oil films, using polyisobutylen based (PIB) surfactants co-spread with long-chain paraffinic alkanes on clean water surfaces. The resultant stable oil layers are readily measurable with simple surface techniques, exhibit physical densities the same as expected for bulk oils, and are up to - 1 00 A thick above the water surface as determined using x-ray reflectometry. This provides a ready system for studying the competition of surfactants at the oil/water interface. Results from the competition of a non-ionic polyamide surfactant or an anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate with the PIB surfactant are reported. However, this smooth oil layer does not account for the total volume of spread oil, nor is the increase in thickness proportional to the film compression. Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) reveals surfactant and oil structures on the scale of 1 to 10μm at the interface. At low surface pressure (π m Nm-1) large, -10μm inhomogeneities are observed. Beyond a phase transition observed at ∼ 24 m Nm-1 a structure with a spongy appearance and a micron-scale texture develops. These structures have implications for understanding the microstructure at the oil/water interface in emulsions.

  5. Proton Transfers at the Air-Water Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Himanshu

    Proton transfer reactions at the interface of water with hydrophobic media, such as air or lipids, are ubiquitous on our planet. These reactions orchestrate a host of vital phenomena in the environment including, for example, acidification of clouds, enzymatic catalysis, chemistries of aerosol and atmospheric gases, and bioenergetic transduction. Despite their importance, however, quantitative details underlying these interactions have remained unclear. Deeper insight into these interfacial reactions is also required in addressing challenges in green chemistry, improved water quality, self-assembly of materials, the next generation of micro-nanofluidics, adhesives, coatings, catalysts, and electrodes. This thesis describes experimental and theoretical investigation of proton transfer reactions at the air-water interface as a function of hydration gradients, electrochemical potential, and electrostatics. Since emerging insights hold at the lipid-water interface as well, this work is also expected to aid understanding of complex biological phenomena associated with proton migration across membranes. Based on our current understanding, it is known that the physicochemical properties of the gas-phase water are drastically different from those of bulk water. For example, the gas-phase hydronium ion, H3O +(g), can protonate most (non-alkane) organic species, whereas H 3O+(aq) can neutralize only relatively strong bases. Thus, to be able to understand and engineer water-hydrophobe interfaces, it is imperative to investigate this fluctuating region of molecular thickness wherein the 'function' of chemical species transitions from one phase to another via steep gradients in hydration, dielectric constant, and density. Aqueous interfaces are difficult to approach by current experimental techniques because designing experiments to specifically sample interfacial layers (applied quantum mechanics and molecular dynamics to simulate our experiments toward gaining insight at the

  6. Attachment of composite porous supra-particles to air-water and oil-water interfaces: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunov, Vesselin N; Al-Shehri, Hamza; Horozov, Tommy S

    2016-09-29

    We developed and tested a theoretical model for the attachment of fluid-infused porous supra-particles to a fluid-liquid interface. We considered the wetting behaviour of agglomerated clusters of particles, typical of powdered materials dispersed in a liquid, as well as of the adsorption of liquid-infused colloidosomes at the liquid-fluid interface. The free energy of attachment of a composite spherical porous supra-particle made from much smaller aggregated spherical particles to the oil-water interface was calculated. Two cases were considered: (i) a water-filled porous supra-particle adsorbed at the oil-water interface from the water phase, and, (ii) an oil-filled porous supra-particle adsorbed at the oil-water interface from the oil-phase. We derived equations relating the three-phase contact angle of the smaller "building block" particles and the contact angle of the liquid-infused porous supra-particles. The theory predicts that the porous supra-particle contact angle attached at the liquid interface strongly depends on the type of fluid infused in the particle pores and the fluid phase from which it approaches the liquid interface. We tested the theory by using millimetre-sized porous supra-particles fabricated by evaporation of droplets of polystyrene latex suspension on a pre-heated super-hydrophobic surface, followed by thermal annealing at the glass transition temperature. Such porous particles were initially infused with water or oil and approached to the oil-water interface from the infusing phase. The experiment showed that when attaching at the hexadecane-water interface, the porous supra-particles behaved as hydrophilic when they were pre-filled with water and hydrophobic when they were pre-filled with hexadecane. The results agree with the theoretically predicted contact angles for the porous composite supra-particles based on the values of the contact angles of their building block latex particles measured with the Gel Trapping Technique. The

  7. Nutrient Fluxes From Profundal Sediment of Ultra-Oligotrophic Lake Tahoe, California/Nevada: Implications for Water Quality and Management in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Marc W.; Horne, Alexander J.

    2018-03-01

    A warming climate is expected to lead to stronger thermal stratification, less frequent deep mixing, and greater potential for bottom water anoxia in deep, temperate oligotrophic lakes. As a result, there is growing interest in understanding nutrient cycling at the profundal sediment-water interface of these rare ecosystems. This paper assessed nutrient content and nutrient flux rates from profundal sediment at Lake Tahoe, California/Nevada, USA. Sediment is a large reservoir of nutrients, with the upper 5 cm containing reduced nitrogen (˜6,300 metric tons) and redox-sensitive phosphorus (˜710 metric tons) equivalent to ˜15 times the annual external load. Experimental results indicate that if deep water in Lake Tahoe goes anoxic, profundal sediment will release appreciable amounts of phosphate (0.13-0.29 mg P/m2·d), ammonia (0.49 mg N/m2·d), and iron to overlaying water. Assuming a 10 year duration of bottom water anoxia followed by a deep-water mixing event, water column phosphate, and ammonia concentrations would increase by an estimated 1.6 µg P/L and 2.9 µg N/L, nearly doubling ambient concentrations. Based on historic nutrient enrichment assays this could lead to a ˜40% increase in algal growth. Iron release could have the dual effect of alleviating nitrate limitation on algal growth while promoting the formation of fine iron oxyhydroxide particles that degrade water clarity. If the depth and frequency of lake mixing decrease in the future as hydrodynamic models suggest, large-scale in-lake management strategies that impede internal nutrient loading in Lake Tahoe, such as bottom water oxygen addition or aluminum salt addition, may need to be considered.

  8. Water-Sediment Partition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Nansi Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guizhai; Diao, Youjiang

    2018-06-01

    Based on field data of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediment in Nansi Lake. The concentrations and the partitioning characteristic of PAHs in the water and sediment were studied. The lgKd of high molecular weight PAHs were higher than the low molecular weight PAHs. The most of PAHs Kd values were negligible correlated with TOC, soluble salt, clay and pH of the sediment in Nansi Lake.

  9. Long-distance electron transfer by cable bacteria in aquifer sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Hubert; Bosch, Julian; Griebler, Christian

    2016-01-01

    recycling of sulfate by electron transfer over 1–2-cm distance. Sediments were taken from a hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer, amended with iron sulfide and saturated with water, leaving the sediment surface exposed to air. Steep geochemical gradients developed in the upper 3 cm, showing a spatial separation...... recently been discovered in marine sediments to couple spatially separated redox half reactions over centimeter scales. Here we provide primary evidence that such sulfur-oxidizing cable bacteria can also be found at oxic–anoxic interfaces in aquifer sediments, where they provide a means for the direct...

  10. Radionuclide transport in the "sediments - water - plants" system of the water bodies at the Semipalatinsk test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidarkhanova, A K; Lukashenko, S N; Larionova, N V; Polevik, V V

    2018-04-01

    This paper provides research data on levels and character of radionuclide contamination distribution in the «sediments- water - plants » system of objects of the Semipalatinsk test site (STS). As the research objects there were chosen water bodies of man-made origin which located at the territory of "Experimental Field", "Balapan", "Telkem" and "Sary-Uzen" testing sites. For research the sampling of bottom sediments, water, lakeside and water plants was taken. Collected samples were used to determine concentration of anthropogenic radionuclides 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am, 137 Cs. The distribution coefficient (K d ) was calculated as the ratio of the content of radionuclides in the sediments to the content in water, and the concentration ratio (F V ) was calculated as the ratio of radionuclide content in plants to the content in sediments or soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cadmium Diagenesis in Polluted Sediments of a Tropical Estuary of SE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchineelam, S. R.; Metzger, E.; Jézéquel, D.; Sarazin, G.; Smoak, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    Sepetiba bay is a shallow semi enclosed water body located about 70km on the west side of the city of Rio de Janeiro with an area of 450km² separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a sand spit. Fishing, shrimp and tourism are important economic activities. During 35 years a Zinc/Cadmium smelter has polluted the bay. The objective of this investigation is to demonstrate how diagenetic processes are responsible for the cadmium remobilization out or fixation into the sediment column.. Two contrasting sites were selected to compare the diagenetic process. P1 located near to the smelter and P2 is about 20km away from the smelter next to a domestic effluents discharge into the bay. Peeper samplers with 25 cells with a resolution of 2,5cm were introduced into the sediment at both sites. After a period of 3 weeks equilibrium, the pore waters were separated from each cell and analyzed within 24 hours for alkalinity, H2S, NH3 and soluble phosphate by conventional methods An ICP-AES spectrometer was used to analyze Na, Mg, Li, Ba, Sr, Si, Fe and Mn. The total and labile Cd in pore waters were determined by differential-pulse stripping voltammetry. The solute profiles have revealed that the sediments at both sites were anoxic. The slopes of the ferrous and sulfide profile constituents permitted characterization the area at P1 as ferrous dominant with oxic conditions in the overlying water and P2 as a sulfidic rich environment with suboxic conditions in the water column. At P1 total dissolved Cd in the overlying water was about 450pM and labile fraction varied from 85 to 177pM. Just below the sediment water interface 695pM of total dissolved Cd was observed. Probably diagenetic processes are responsible for release of cadmium at the sediment interface. Below this maxima Cd concentrations decreased to 30pM. At P2 a concentration o of 150pM of total dissolved Cd was detected in the overlying water and samples in the pore waters at the sediment interface had an average concentration

  12. Mobilization of radionuclides from sediments. Potential sources to Arctic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, D.H.; Boerretzen, P.; Mathisen, B.; Salbu, B.; Tronstad, E.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminated soils and sediments can act as secondary sources of radionuclides to Arctic waters. In cases where the original source of contamination has ceased or been greatly reduced (e.g., weapons' testing, waste discharges from Mayak and Sellafield) remobilization of radionuclides from preciously contaminated sediments increases in importance. With respect to Arctic waters, potential secondary sources include sediments contaminated by weapons' testing, by discharges from nuclear installations to seawater, e.g., the Irish Sea, or by leakages from dumped waste containers. The major land-based source is run-off from soils and transport from sediments in the catchment areas of the Ob and Yenisey rivers, including those contaminated by Mayak discharges. Remobilization of radionuclides is often described as a secondary source of contamination. Whereas primary sources of man-made radionuclides tend to be point sources, secondary sources are usually more diffuse. Experiments were carried out on marine (Kara Sea, Irish Sea, Stepovogo and Abrosimov Fjords), estuarine (Ob-Yenisey) and dirty ice sediments. Total 137 Cs and 90 Sr concentrations were determined using standard radiochemical techniques. Tracer studies using 134 Cs and 85 Sr were used to investigate the kinetics of radionuclide adsorption and desorption. It is concluded that 90 Sr is much less strongly bound to marine sediments than 137 Cs, and can be chemically mobilized through ion exchange with elements is seawater. Radiocaesium is strongly and rapidly fixed to sediments. Discharges of 137 Cs to surface sediments (i.e., from dumped containers) would be expected to be retained in sediments to a greater extent than discharges to sea-waters. Physical mobilization of sediments, for example resuspension, may be of more importance for transport of 137 Cs than for 90 Sr. 7 refs., 4 figs

  13. Anisotropic diffusion of volatile pollutants at air-water interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ping Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The volatile pollutants that spill into natural waters cause water pollution. Air pollution arises from the water pollution because of volatilization. Mass exchange caused by turbulent fluctuation is stronger in the direction normal to the air-water interface than in other directions due to the large density difference between water and air. In order to explore the characteristics of anisotropic diffusion of the volatile pollutants at the air-water interface, the relationship between velocity gradient and mass transfer rate was established to calculate the turbulent mass diffusivity. A second-order accurate smooth transition differencing scheme (STDS was proposed to guarantee the boundedness for the flow and mass transfer at the air-water interface. Simulations and experiments were performed to study the trichloroethylene (C2HCl3 release. By comparing the anisotropic coupling diffusion model, isotropic coupling diffusion model, and non-coupling diffusion model, the features of the transport of volatile pollutants at the air-water interface were determined. The results show that the anisotropic coupling diffusion model is more accurate than the isotropic coupling diffusion model and non-coupling diffusion model. Mass transfer significantly increases with the increase of the air-water relative velocity at a low relative velocity. However, at a higher relative velocity, an increase in the relative velocity has no effect on mass transfer.

  14. Water and bottom sediments quality of brackish water shrimp farms in Kaliganj Upazila, Satkhira, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Aktaruzzaman, Mohammed Shakhaoat Hossain, Abu Naieum Muhammad Fakhruddin, Mohammed Jamal Uddin, Syed Hafizur Rahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp culture plays a central part in the fisheries sector of Bangladesh that leads to a significant change in the structure and composition of frozen food export sector. An investigation was carried out to determine physiochemical parameters, nutrients content, bacterial contamination and metal content in shrimp “Gher” (Farms water and sediments. Physicochemical parameters were analyzed in situ by portable meters. Ammonia, phosphate, bacterial counts, and metals contents were analyzed by Nesslerization, colorimetric and standard microbiological methods and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometery (AAS, respectively. Except Dissolve oxygen and temperature all other physiochemical parameters were unsuitable for shrimp culture. The concentration of ammonia was 0.384 to 1.5 mg L-1 and the concentration of phosphate ranged from 0.02 to 0.818 mg L-1. In bacteriological analysis, highest levels of coliform were found in the tested samples and total colifom count reached up to 2.04x103 cfu mL-1. Among the tested metals, Cr was highest in water and sediment samples. Concentration of Cr ranged from 0.150 to 0.807 mg L-1 and 1.957 to 3.436 mg kg-1 in water and sediment samples, respectively. A significant difference was observed for the concentration of metals in sediment and water samples. The high concentration of nutrients and metals in shrimp “Gher” water and sediment as well as the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the “Gher” and river water indicated unhygienic environment and the sources of contamination of shrimp “Gher”.

  15. Opportunistic Pathogens and Microbial Communities and Their Associations with Sediment Physical Parameters in Drinking Water Storage Tank Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ke; Struewing, Ian; Domingo, Jorge Santo; Lytle, Darren

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence and densities of opportunistic pathogens (OPs), the microbial community structure, and their associations with sediment elements from eight water storage tanks in Ohio, West Virginia, and Texas were investigated. The elemental composition of sediments was measured through X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra. The occurrence and densities of OPs and amoeba hosts (i.e., Legionella spp. and L. pneumophila, Mycobacterium spp., P. aeruginosa, V. vermiformis, Acanthamoeba spp.) were determined using genus- or species-specific qPCR assays. Microbial community analysis was performed using next generation sequencing on the Illumina Miseq platform. Mycobacterium spp. were most frequently detected in the sediments and water samples (88% and 88%), followed by Legionella spp. (50% and 50%), Acanthamoeba spp. (63% and 13%), V. vermiformis (50% and 25%), and P. aeruginosa (0 and 50%) by qPCR method. Comamonadaceae (22.8%), Sphingomonadaceae (10.3%), and Oxalobacteraceae (10.1%) were the most dominant families by sequencing method. Microbial communities in water samples were mostly separated with those in sediment samples, suggesting differences of communities between two matrices even in the same location. There were associations of OPs with microbial communities. Both OPs and microbial community structures were positively associated with some elements (Al and K) in sediments mainly from pipe material corrosions. Opportunistic pathogens presented in both water and sediments, and the latter could act as a reservoir of microbial contamination. There appears to be an association between potential opportunistic pathogens and microbial community structures. These microbial communities may be influenced by constituents within storage tank sediments. The results imply that compositions of microbial community and elements may influence and indicate microbial water quality and pipeline corrosion, and that these constituents may be important for optimal storage tank management

  16. Persistence profile of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in shallow and deep Gulf waters and sediments: Effect of water temperature and sediment–water partitioning characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tansel, B.; Fuentes, C.; Sanchez, M.; Predoi, K.; Acevedo, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The half-lives of PAHs in the deep waters (over 1000 m) are about twice longer than the shallow areas (100–150 m). ► In the water column, anthracene levels can decrease by 50% within 1–2 days. ► The half-lives of the PAHs in the sediments are significantly longer than those in the water column. ► The half-life of pyrene in the shallow and deep sediments is 9 and 16 years, respectively. - Abstract: Persistence profiles of selected polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed depending on temperature variations in the water column and water–sediment interactions in the Gulf of Mexico. The PAHs studied include anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene. The half-lives of PAHs in the deep waters (over 1000 m) are about twice as long as those in the shallow areas (100–150 m), and almost 2.5 times as long as those in the top layer (0–10 m) of the water column. The half-lives of the PAHs in the sediments are significantly longer. Among the PAHs studied, chrysene is the most persistent in the water column, and pyrene is the most persistent in the sediments. The half-life of chrysene in the shallow and deep waters is over 2.5 and about 5 years, respectively. For pyrene, the half-life in the shallow and deep sediments is about 9 and 16 years, respectively.

  17. Trace metals in water and sediments from Ologe Lagoon, southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, K.A.; Osibanjo, O.

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of trace metals in water and sediment samples from Ologe lagoon located in southwestern Nigeria were investigated. The lagoon is a source of water for domestic, transportation and fishing activities. The water quality characteristics for a period of two years (January, 1997 - November, 1998), and the speciation of metals in the lagoon sediments were evaluated. The lagoon water quality characteristics, with respect to heavy metal contamination, were compared with global averages for freshwater and international water quality standards for drinking water. All elements except iron, were well within the safety limits. Sequential extraction techniques were used to establish the association of the total concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Mn in the sediment samples with their contents as exchangeable, carbonates, Fe/Mn oxides, and organic and residual fractions. The concentrations of trace metals in the whole sediments were generally below the world-wide background levels. When compared to a number of sediment quality guidelines, the concentrations of trace metals were found to be below the level considered to have the potential to cause biological effects. Pb and Cd were extracted from the residual fraction at values greater than 50%. The metals that were most easily extractable in the samples analyzed were Mn and Zn, which posed the highest risk to water contamination. The low level of industrialization in the study area has kept the lagoon relatively free from heavy metal contamination. (author)

  18. Managing erosion, sediment transport and water quality in drained peatland catchments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marttila, H.

    2010-07-01

    Peatland drainage changes catchment conditions and increases the transport of suspended solids (SS) and nutrients. New knowledge and management methods are needed to reduce SS loading from these areas. This thesis examines sediment delivery and erosion processes in a number of peatland drainage areas and catchments in order to determine the effects of drainage on sediment and erosion dynamics and mechanics. Results from studies performed in peat mining, peatland forestry and disturbed headwater catchments in Finland are presented and potential sediment load management methods are discussed for drainage areas and headwater brooks. Particular attention is devoted to erosion of organic peat, sediment transport and methods to reduce the impacts of peatland drainage in boreal headwaters. This thesis consists of six articles. The first and second papers focus on the erosion and sediment transport processes at peat harvesting and peatland forestry drainage networks. The results indicate that in-channel processes are important in drained peatland, since the drainage network often constitutes temporary inter-storm storage for eroding and transporting material. Sediment properties determine the bed sediment erosion sensitivity, as fluffy organic peat sediment consolidates over time. As flashiness and peak runoff control sediment entrainment and transport from drained peatland areas, water quality management should include peak runoff management. The third, fourth and fifth papers studies use and application of peak runoff control (PRC) method to the peat harvesting and peatland forestry conditions for water protection. Results indicate that effective water quality management in drained peatland areas can be achieved using this method. Installation of the PRC structures is a useful and cost-effective way of storing storm runoff waters temporarily in the ditch system and providing a retention time for eroded sediment to settle to the ditch bed and drainage network. The main

  19. Discharge, sediment, and water chemistry in Clear Creek, western Nevada, water years 2013–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Jena M.; Riddle, Daniel J.; Paul, Angela P.

    2018-05-01

    Clear Creek is a small stream that drains the eastern Carson Range near Lake Tahoe, flows roughly parallel to the Highway 50 corridor, and discharges to the Carson River near Carson City, Nevada. Historical and ongoing development in the drainage basin is thought to be affecting Clear Creek and its sediment-transport characteristics. Previous studies from water years (WYs) 2004 to 2007 and from 2010 to 2012 evaluated discharge, selected water-quality parameters, and suspended-sediment concentrations, loads, and yields at three Clear Creek sampling sites. This report serves as a continuation of the data collection and analyses of the Clear Creek discharge regime and associated water-chemistry and sediment concentrations and loads during WYs 2013–16.Total annual sediment loads ranged from 870 to 5,300 tons during WYs 2004–07, from 320 to 1,770 tons during WYs 2010–12, and from 50 to 200 tons during WYs 2013–16. Ranges in annual loads during the three study periods were not significantly different; however, total loads were greater during 2004–07 than they were during 2013–16. Annual suspended-sediment loads in WYs 2013–16 showed no significant change since WYs 2010–12 at sites 1 (U.S. Geological Survey reference site 10310485; Clear Creek above Highway 50, near Spooner Summit, Nevada) or 2 (U.S. Geological Survey streamgage 10310500; Clear Creek above Highway 50, near Spooner Summit, Nevada), but significantly lower loads at site 3 (U.S. Geological Survey site 10310518; Clear Creek at Fuji Park, at Carson City, Nevada), supporting the theory of sediment deposition between sites 2 and 3 where the stream gradient becomes more gradual. Currently, a threshold discharge of about 3.3 cubic feet per second is required to mobilize streambed sediment (bedload) from site 2 in Clear Creek. Mean daily discharge was significantly lower in 2010–12 than in 2004–07 and also significantly lower in 2013–16 than in 2010–12. During this study, lower bedload, and

  20. In situ sampling of interstitial water from lake sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Albertus G.; van Raaphorst, Wim; Lijklema, Lambertus

    1982-01-01

    A sampler with a relatively high resolution has been developed, which allows interstitial water to be obtained from lake sediments at well defined depths, without serious disturbance of sediment structure. Oxidation effects are excluded. Sampling time is in the order of a day. Installation requires

  1. Assessing the transport of PAH in the surficial sediment layer by passive sampler approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belles, Angel; Alary, Claire; Criquet, Justine; Ivanovsky, Anastasia; Billon, Gabriel

    2017-02-01

    A new method based on passive samplers has been developed to assess the diffusive flux of fluorene, fluoranthene and pyrene in the sediment bed and across the sediment-water interface. The dissolved compound concentration gradient in the sediment in the vertical direction was measured at the outlet of a storm water pond by using polyethylene strips as passive samplers. Simultaneously, the dissipation of a set of tracer compounds preloaded in the passive samplers was measured to estimate the effective diffusion coefficients of the pollutants in the sediment. Both measurements were used to evaluate the diffusive flux of the compounds according to Fick's first law. The diffusive fluxes of the 3 studied compounds have been estimated with a centimetre-scale resolution in the upper 44cm of the sediment. According to the higher compound diffusion coefficient and the steeper concentration gradient in the surficial sediment layer, the results show that the net flux of compounds near the sediment interface (1cm depth) is on average 500 times higher than in the deep sediment, with average fluxes at 1cm depth on the order of 5, 0.1 and 0.1ng/m 2 /y for fluorene, fluoranthene and pyrene, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synchrotron X-ray scattering studies at mineral-water interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarello, R.P.; Sturchio, N.C.

    1995-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques provide a powerful tool for the in situ study of atomic scale processes occurring at solid-liquid interfaces. We have applied these techniques to characterize and study reactions at mineral-water interfaces. Here we present two examples. The first is the characterization of the calcite (CaCO 3 ) (10 bar 14) cleavage surface, in equilibrium with deionized water, by crystal truncation rod measurements. The second is the in situ study of the heteroepitaxial growth of otavite (CdCO 3 ) on the calcite (10 bar 14) cleavage surface. The results of such studies will lead to significant progress in understanding mineral-water interface geochemistry

  3. Behaviour of metallic and radioactive elements in lagoonal sediments: the example of the Canet-St Nazaire Pond (Mediterranean Coast)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernat, M.; Chassefiere, B.; Cauwet, G.; Faguet, D.; Gadel, F.; Monaco, A.; Ouakad, M.; Thommeret, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The behaviour of Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and radionuclides (U, Th, Pb, Ra) was studied in water, suspensions and sediments of an euxinic lagoonal environment of the French Mediterranean coast. The dynamic of these elements at the sediment-water interface is considered particularly in relation to the redox conditions, the nature of inorganic and organic supports and the sedimentation rate. (author)

  4. Levels of trace metals in water and sediment from Tyume River and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of trace metals (Cd, Pb, Co, Zn Cu and Ni) were determined in water and sediment ... mg/l) and Pb (0.021 ± 0.004 to 0.035 ± 0.001 mg/l) were found in the river water, ... Key words: trace metals, water, sediment, farmland, Tyume River

  5. Tributyltin distribution and producing androgenic activity in water, sediment, and fish muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shue, Meei-Fang; Chen, Ting-Chien; Bellotindos, Luzvisminda M; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the concentrations of Tributyltin (TBT) in water, sediment, and fish muscle samples taken from Kaohsiung Harbor and Kaoping River estuary, Taiwan. TBT concentrations in water and sediment samples ranged from less than 18.5 to 34.1 ng Sn L(-1) and from 2.44 to 29.7 ng Sn g(-1) weight per weight (w/w), respectively. Concentrations in the TBT-contaminated fish muscle samples ranged from 10.8 to 79.6 ng Sn g(-1) w/w. The TBT concentrations in fish muscle were higher than those in water and sediment samples. The fish muscle/water TBT bioconcentration factor (BCF) ranged from 590 to 3363 L kg(-1). Additionally, the water samples were assessed for androgenic activity with an MCF7-AR1 human breast cancer cell line. The androgenic activity ranged from 0.94 to 3.1 ng-dihydrotestosterone per litre water (ng-DHT L(-1)). Higher concentrations of TBT in water and sediment samples occurred in the dry season, but the androgenic activity had higher values in the rainy season.

  6. BOGDAŁÓW SEDIMENT TRAP OF DIRTY WATERS AS AN ECO-HYDROLOGICAL OBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Gilewska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sediment traps of dirty waters are, generally speaking, temporary hydrotechnical constructions associated with the purification of mine waters from mineral-organic suspensions. Once coal mining is finished and artificial supplies are cut off, such sediment traps – depending on hydrological and hydrotechnical conditions – undergo drainage or are utilised as water reservoirs. Drained sediment traps most commonly go through a period of self-generated reclamation – renaturalisation and become, similarly to water reservoirs, eco-hydrological objects. Bearing in mind the fact that the role of sediment traps is cleaning dirty waters, it seemed advisable to recognise the properties of sediments accumulated in them and to assess their impact on the arising plant communities. Two years after its closure, the entire area of the sediment trap (16 ha was subjected to soil science and phytosociological investigation. Differentiated moisture content and soil conditions of the sediment tank surface were favourable for the settlement of various species characterised by differing site requirements which conferred a completely new quality to this post-industrial land and its biodiversity. The invasion of herbaceous and woody plants indicates that despite the function of sediment tank played earlier in the brown coalmine infrastructure, the material which was accumulated in it provided a favourable habitat for the development of plant cover. It may be assumed that it can be attributed to a significant admixture of brown coal.

  7. Ecotoxicological Assessment of Water and Sediment Pollution of the Iskar River bellow Samokov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Diadovski

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A system of integral ecological indices has been worked out to assess the level of pollution of water and sediments with hazardous substances. A model for the dynamics of the integral index for water and sediments pollution is proposed. This index was applied for ecotoxicological assessment of water and sediments pollution of the Iskar river bellow Samokov. A modification method on time series analysis is applied.

  8. Contaminant characterization of sediment and pore-water in the Clinch River and Poplar Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, D.A.; Harris, R.A.; Campbell, K.R.; Hargrove, W.W.; Rash, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    Sediment and pore-water samples were collected from 80 locations in the Clinch River and Poplar Creek system to characterize concentrations and spatial distribution of contaminants for use in ecological risk assessment. Sediment cores were collected at each site and the top 15 cm was analyzed to represent the biologically active zone. Sediment for pore-water extraction was collected in large volumes using a Ponar grab sampler. Pore-water was extracted from this sediment using centrifugation, All samples were analyzed for metals (including methyl mercury), organics, and radiological constituents. Additionally, sediment was analyzed for physical properties: particle size distribution, density, and porosity. Sediment and pore-water were also analyzed for total organic carbon and nitrogen and ammonia levels. Sediment and pore-water were also analyzed for total organic carbon and nitrogen and ammonia levels. Sediment and pre-water results indicate that there are several areas where concentrations of a variety of contaminants are high enough to causes ecological effects. These locations in the river are immediately downstream from know sources of Contamination from on-site DOE facilities. East Fork Poplar Creek is a source of several metals, including mercury, cadmium, chromium, and copper. Mitchell Branch is a source of number of metals, uranium isotopes, technetium-99, and several PAHs. There are two clear sources of arsenic and selenium to the system, one in Poplar Creek and one in Melton Hill Reservoir, both related to past disposal of coal-ash. High concentrations in sediments did not always coincide with high concentrations in pore-water for the same sites and contaminants. This appears to be related to particle size of the sediment and total organic carbon

  9. Algal and archaeal polyisoprenoids in a recent marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bian, Liangqiao; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Xie, Tianmin

    2001-01-01

    Analyses of C-13 contents of individual organic molecules in a marine sediment show that crocetane, 2,6,11,15-tetramethylhexadecane, an isomer of phytane, is produced by microorganisms that use methane as their main source of carbon. The sediments lie at a water depth of 68 m in the Kattegat......, the strait between Denmark and Sweden. Crocetane appears first 185 cm below the sediment-water interface, in the zone marking the transition from sulfate reduction to methanogenesis. Its delta C-13 value is -90 +/- 10 parts per thousand versus Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB). Its structure, which includes......-consuming member of the microbial consortium responsible for the anaerobic oxidation of methane [Hoehler et al., 1994], in which, as first demonstrated quantitatively in these sediments [Iversen and Jorgensen, 1985], electrons are transferred from methane to sulfate. The presence of archaeal biomass throughout...

  10. Instability of water-ice interface under turbulent flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Norihiro; Naito, Kensuke; Yokokawa, Miwa

    2015-04-01

    It is known that plane water-ice interface becomes unstable to evolve into a train of waves. The underside of ice formed on the water surface of rivers are often observed to be covered with ice ripples. Relatively steep channels which discharge melting water from glaciers are characterized by beds covered with a series of steps. Though the flowing agent inducing instability is not water but gas including water vapor, a similar train of steps have been recently observed on the Polar Ice Caps on Mars (Spiral Troughs). They are expected to be caused by the instability of water-ice interface induced by flowing fluid on ice. There have been some studies on this instability in terms of linear stability analysis. Recently, Caporeale and Ridolfi (2012) have proposed a complete linear stability analysis in the case of laminar flow, and found that plane water-ice interface is unstable in the range of sufficiently large Reynolds numbers, and that the important parameters are the Reynolds number, the slope angle, and the water surface temperature. However, the flow inducing instability on water-ice interface in the field should be in the turbulent regime. Extension of the analysis to the case of fully developed turbulent flow with larger Reynolds numbers is needed. We have performed a linear stability analysis on the instability of water-ice interface under turbulent flow conditions with the use of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the mixing length turbulent model, the continuity equation of flow, the diffusion/dispersion equation of heat, and the Stefan equation. In order to reproduce the accurate velocity distribution and the heat transfer in the vicinity of smooth walls with the use of the mixing length model, it is important to take into account of the rapid decrease in the mixing length in the viscous sublayer. We employ the Driest model (1956) to the formulation. In addition, as the thermal boundary condition at the water surface, we describe the

  11. Predicting pollutant concentrations in the water column during dredging operations: Implications for sediment quality criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, Julio Cesar; Wasserman, Maria Angélica V.; Barrocas, Paulo Rubens G.; Almeida, Aline Mansur

    2016-01-01

    The development of new dredging techniques that can reduce, or at least predict, the environmental impacts, is in high demand by governments in developing countries. In the present work, a new methodology was developed, to evaluate the level of metals contamination (i.e. cadmium, lead and zinc) of the water column, during a dredging operation. This methodology was used to evaluate the impacts of the construction of a new maritime terminal in Sepetiba Bay, Brazil. The methodology quantifies the amount of resuspended sediments and calculates the expected contaminants concentrations in the water column. The results indicated that sediment quality criteria were not compatible with water quality criteria, because the dredging of contaminated sediments does not necessarily yield contaminated water. It is suggested that the use of sediment quality criteria for dredging operations might be abandoned, and the methodology presented in this study applied to assess dredging's environmental impacts, predicting water contamination levels. - Graphical abstract: A graphic model showing transference of contaminants from the sediments to the water column. The dark sediment area represents the dredged sediments and the arrows emerging from them represent the resuspended sediments affecting the water column. - Highlights: •Developing countries demand for new dredging projects. •A new model evaluates concentrations of metals in the water, caused by dredging. •The model shows that water and sediment quality criteria are not compatible. •Local hydrodynamics have a strong influence on the contamination of the water. •Management of dredging operations reduces environmental contamination.

  12. Dynamic hydraulic models to study sedimentation in drinking water networks in detail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. W. M. Pothof

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation in drinking water networks can lead to discolouration complaints. A sufficient criterion to prevent sedimentation in the Dutch drinking water networks is a daily maximum velocity of 0.25 m s−1. Flushing experiments have shown that this criterion is a sufficient condition for a clean network, but not a necessary condition. Drinking water networks include many locations with a maximum velocity well below 0.25 m s−1 without accumulated sediments. Other criteria need to be developed to predict which locations are susceptible to sedimentation and to prevent sedimentation in future networks. More distinctive criteria are helpful to prioritise flushing operations and to prevent water quality complaints.

    The authors use three different numerical modelling approaches – quasi-steady, rigid column and water hammer – with a temporal discretisation of 1 s in order to assess the influence of unsteady flows on the wall shear stress, causing resuspension of sediment particles. The model predictions are combined with results from flushing experiments in the drinking water distribution system of Purmerend, the Netherlands. The waterhammer model does not result in essentially different flow distribution patterns, compared to the rigid column and quasi-steady modelling approach. The extra information from the waterhammer model is a velocity oscillation of approximately 0.02 m s−1 around the quasi-steady solution. The presence of stagnation zones and multiple flow direction reversals seem to be interesting new parameters to predict sediment accumulation, which are consistent with the observed turbidity data and theoretical considerations on critical shear stresses.

  13. MEASUREMENT OF THE VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF WATER-SATURATED CLAY SEDIMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complex shear modulus of both kaolin -water and bentonite-water mixtures has been determined in the laboratory. The method involved measuring the...range two to forty-three kHz. Dispersed sediments behaved like Newtonian liquids. Undispersed sediments, however, were viscoelastic in character, and...their shear moduli exhibited no dependence on frequency. For undispersed kaolin mixtures, a typical result is (21.6 + i 1.2) x 1,000 dynes per square

  14. Radioactive pollution of the Chernobyl cooling pond bottom sediments. I. Water-physical properties, chemical compound and radioactive pollution of pore water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Pirnach

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available First results of complex research of the Chernobyl cooling pond bottom sediments are presented. The general problematic is considered. Information about vertical distribution of bottom sediments water-physical properties, and also ionic compound and radioactive pollution 137Cs and 90Sr of pore water is received. The inventory of bottom sediments pore water activity is calculated. Strong correlations between concentration in pore water 137Cs, K +, NH4 + within the selected sediments columns are found out. Results of researches are intended for the forecast of radioecological situation change in the cooling pond water-soil complex during drying-up.

  15. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond

  16. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  17. Ecotoxicological assessment of water and sediment of the Corumbataí River, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM. Jardim

    Full Text Available The Corumbataí River drains an economically important area which is mainly represented by the municipalities of Piracicaba and Rio Claro. In view of the impacts caused by the discharge of industrial waste and domestic sewage into the Piracicaba River, the Corumbataí has become increasingly significant as a source of water for the municipality of Piracicaba. However, chemical, physical, and microbiological analyses carried out prior to the present study had already indicated a decline in the quality of the Corumbataí waters. This study aimed to assess, through water and sediment samples, both acute and chronic toxicity to Daphnia magna and Daphnia similis, and to analyze acid-volatile sulfide (AVS and simultaneously extracted metal (SEM in the sediment. Resulting data were intended to be a contribution to future projects for the management and recuperation of this system. To that aim, water and sediment were collected at seven Corumbataí sampling stations in November 2003 and March 2004. Acute toxicity to D. similis was detected in water and sediment samples from the Piracicaba station, located at the mouth of the Corumbataí River. Chronic toxicity was identified in the water or sediment samples of all stations, with the exception of Analândia Montante (upstream, at the head of the river. This was found to affect survival, growth, and fecundity of the test-organisms. The AVS and SEM analyses showed the bioavailability of the metals, thus explaining toxicity found in bioassaying samples of water and sediment. The use of two test-organism species made it possible to obtain a better assessment of the condition of both water and sediment samples of the Corumbataí River.

  18. Water Orientation at Ceramide/Water Interfaces Studied by Heterodyne-Detected Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Adhikari, Aniruddha

    2016-10-10

    Lipid/water interaction is essential for many biological processes. The water structure at the nonionic lipid interface remains little known, and there is no scope of a priori prediction of water orientation at nonionic interfaces, either. Here, we report our study combining advanced nonlinear spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation on the water orientation at the ceramide/water interface. We measured χ spectrum in the OH stretch region of ceramide/isotopically diluted water interface using heterodyne-detected vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy and found that the interfacial water prefers an overall hydrogen-up orientation. Molecular dynamics simulation indicates that this preferred hydrogen-up orientation of water is determined by a delicate balance between hydrogen-up and hydrogen-down orientation induced by lipid-water and intralipid hydrogen bonds. This mechanism also suggests that water orientation at neutral lipid interfaces depends highly on the chemical structure of the lipid headgroup, in contrast to the charged lipid interfaces where the net water orientation is determined solely by the charge of the lipid headgroup.

  19. Heavy metal partitioning of suspended particulate matter-water and sediment-water in the Yangtze Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chenghong; Guo, Xiaoyu; Yin, Su; Tian, Chenhao; Li, Yangyang; Shen, Zhenyao

    2017-10-01

    The partitioning of ten heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) between the water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sediments in seven channel sections during three hydrologic seasons in the Yangtze Estuary was comprehensively investigated. Special attention was paid to the role of tides, influential factors (concentrations of SPM and dissolved organic carbon, and particle size), and heavy metal speciation. The SPM-water and sediment-water partition coefficients (K p ) of the heavy metals exhibited similar changes along the channel sections, though the former were larger throughout the estuary. Because of the higher salinity, the K p values of most of the metals were higher in the north branch than in the south branch. The K p values of Cd, Co, and As generally decreased from the wet season to the dry season. Both the diagonal line method and paired samples t-test showed that no specific phase transfer of heavy metals existed during the flood and ebb tides, but the sediment-water K p was more concentrated for the diagonal line method, owing to the relatively smaller tidal influences on the sediment. The partition coefficients (especially the K p for SPM-water) had negative correlations with the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) but positive correlations were noted with the particle size for most of the heavy metals in sediment. Two types of significant correlations were observed between K p and metal speciation (i.e., exchangeable, carbonate, reducible, organic, and residual fractions), which can be used to identify the dominant phase-partition mechanisms (e.g., adsorption or desorption) of heavy metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Organic matter accumulation and degradation in subsurface coastal sediments: a model-based comparison of rapid sedimentation and aquifer transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Holstein

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The redox succession in shallow marine sediments generally exhibits a predictable pattern. Pore water profiles from a back barrier tidal flat in the German Wadden Sea depart from the expected redox zoning. Instead, a sulfate minimum zone associated with a sulfate-methane-sulfate double interface and a distinct ammonium peak at 1.5 m below sea floor (mbsf is displayed. Such evidence for significant degradation of organic matter (OM in subsurface layers is challenging our understanding of tidal flat biogeochemistry as little is known about processes that relocate reactive OM into layers far distant from the sediment-water interface. The objectives of our model study were to identify possible mechanisms for the rapid transport of organic matter to subsurface layers that cause the reversed redox succession and to constrain several important biogeochemical control parameters. We compared two scenarios for OM transfer: rapid sedimentation and burial of OM as well as lateral advection of suspended POM. Using a diagenetic model, uncertain process parameters, in particular those connected to OM degradation and (vertical or lateral transport, are systematically calibrated using field data.

    We found that both scenarios, advection and sedimentation, had solutions consistent with the observed pore water profiles. For this specific site, however, advective transport of particulate material had to be rejected since the reconstructed boundary conditions were rather improbable. In the alternative deposition set-up, model simulations suggested the deposition of the source OM about 60 yrs before cores were taken. A mean sedimentation rate of approximately 2 cm yr−1 indicates substantial changes in near coast tidal flat morphology, since sea level rise is at a much lower pace. High sedimentation rates most probably reflect the progradation of flats within the study area. These or similar morphodynamic features also occur in other coastal areas

  1. Investigation of the transfer of radionuclides in water and marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guegueniat, P.

    1977-01-01

    The investigation of the behavior of radioactive isotopes in the system sea water-sediments has been carried out at various distances from a release radioactive waste locality. The analytical procedure for the measurement of radioactivity and stable isotopes in sea water, the difficulties arising for the sampling of sediments have been discussed. The dispersion of 125 Sb - good tracer for displacements of water - was explained by very slow hydrolysis speed and by the possible existence of synergy phenomena [fr

  2. Remobilisation of artificial radionuclides from the sediment of the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.; Kershaw, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The past decade has seen significant decreases in discharges of radioactivity in liquid wastes from the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) plant at Sellafield. Concentrations of many Sellafield-derived radionuclides in the water of the Irish Sea have decreased as a result. This will result in the return of previously contaminated sediment to the sediment surface and enhanced seawater/pore-water mixing by bio-irrigation, and may be responsible for higher rates of particle exchange across the sediment-seawater interface. In these circumstances, the decrease in seawater concentrations might be expected to be accompanied by the remobilisation of sediment-bound radionuclides into the water column. We have tested this hypothesis in the Sellafield situation in two ways. First, the differences were examined between measured concentrations of radionuclides in sea water and the concentrations which are to be expected on the basis of extrapolation from the conditions of steadier discharge rates experienced in the past. Secondly, modelling studies have shown that migration of radionuclides into the water phase is likely under these conditions. (author)

  3. Distribution of butyltins in the waters and sediments along the coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Anita; Meena, Ram M; Jadhav, Sangeeta; Bhosle, Narayan B

    2011-02-01

    Water and surface sediment samples were analyzed for butyltins (TBT, DBT, MBT) from various ports along the east and west coast of India. The total butyltin (TB) in water samples varied between ~1.7 and 342 ng S nl⁻¹, whereas for sediments it varied between below detection limit to 14861 ng S ng⁻¹ dry weight of sediment. On an average Chennai port recorded the highest level of butyltins in the sediments while Paradip recorded the highest level of butylins in the waters. A fairly good relationship between the TB in the sediment and overlying water samples, as well as between organic carbon and TB, implicates the importance of adsorption/desorption process in controlling the levels of TBT in these port areas. In India the data on organotin pollution is very sparse; most of the port areas have been surveyed for butyltins for the first time during this study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Textural features of the beach sediments of Wast Water Lake, Northwest England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Emilia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is dedicated to Wast Water Lake (Northwest England, Great Britain and the character of its beach sediments. The aim of the study is to identify the textural features of the lake’s beach sediments based on two methods. The first is a granulometric analysis and the second a pebble shape analysis according to Zingg (1935 and Sneed & Folk (1958. Both analyses were carried out for all of the lake’s accessible beaches and the cliffs adjacent to them. The transport and deposition history of the examined sediments was identified through field research and laboratory analysis. The results show that the textural features of the sediments at Wast Water are more often typical of a fluvial environment, rather than having been changed by lacustrine water movements.

  5. Testing lagoonal sediments with early life stages of the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana): An approach to assess sediment toxicity in the Venice Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Marco; Bergamin, Martina; Delaney, Eugenia; Ghirardini, Annamaria Volpi; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2018-01-01

    The early-life stages of development of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa from egg to copepodite I is proposed as an endpoint for assessing sediment toxicity by exposing newly released eggs directly onto the sediment-water interface. A preliminary study of 5 sediment samples collected in the lagoon of Venice highlighted that the larval development rate (LDR) and the early-life stages (ELS) mortality endpoints with A. tonsa are more sensitive than the standard amphipod mortality test; moreover LDR resulted in a more reliable endpoint than ELS mortality, due to the interference of the sediment with the recovery of unhatched eggs and dead larvae. The LDR data collected in a definitive study of 48 sediment samples from the Venice Lagoon has been analysed together with the preliminary data to evaluate the statistical performances of the bioassay (among replicate variance and minimum significant difference between samples and control) and to investigate the possible correlation with sediment chemistry and physical properties. The results showed that statistical performances of the LDR test with A. tonsa correspond with the outcomes of other tests applied to the sediment-water interface (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryotoxicity test), sediments (Neanthes arenaceodentata survival and growth test) and porewater (S. purpuratus); the LDR endpoint did, however, show a slightly higher variance as compared with other tests used in the Lagoon of Venice, such as 10-d amphipod lethality test and larval development with sea urchin and bivalves embryos. Sediment toxicity data highlighted the high sensitivity and the clear ability of the larval development to discriminate among sediments characterized by different levels of contamination. The data of the definitive study evidenced that inhibition of the larval development was not affected by grain-size and the organic carbon content of the sediment; in contrast, a strong correlation between inhibition of the larval development

  6. Mercury cycling in surface water, pore water and sediments of Mugu Lagoon, CA, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E. [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, Box 951772, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1772 (United States)], E-mail: rothenberg.sarah@gmail.com; Ambrose, Richard F. [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, Box 951772, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1772 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Box 951772, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1772 (United States)], E-mail: rambrose@ucla.edu; Jay, Jennifer A. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Box 951593, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1593 (United States)], E-mail: jjay@seas.ucla.edu

    2008-07-15

    Mugu Lagoon is an estuary in southern California, listed as impaired for mercury. In 2005, we examined mercury cycling at ten sites within at most four habitats. In surface water (unfiltered and filtered) and pore water, the concentration of total mercury was correlated with methylmercury levels (R{sup 2} = 0.29, 0.26, 0.27, respectively, p < 0.05), in contrast to sediments, where organic matter and reduced iron levels were most correlated with methylmercury content (R{sup 2} = 0.37, 0.26, respectively, p < 0.05). Interestingly, levels for percent methylmercury of total mercury in sediments were higher than typical values for estuarine sediments (average 5.4%, range 0.024-38%, n = 59), while pore water methylmercury K{sub d} values were also high (average 3.1, range 2.0-4.2 l kg{sup -1}, n = 39), and the estimated methylmercury flux from sediments was low (average 1.7, range 0.14-5.3 ng m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, n = 19). Mercury levels in predatory fish tissue at Mugu are >0.3 ppm, suggesting biogeochemical controls on methylmercury mobility do not completely mitigate methylmercury uptake through the food web. - Trends in mercury cycling differed between habitats and within matrices at Mugu Lagoon.

  7. Dynamic hydraulic models to study sedimentation in drinking water networks in detail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.; Blokker, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Sedimentation in drinking water networks can lead to discolouration complaints. A sufficient criterion to prevent sedimentation in the Dutch drinking water networks is a daily maximum velocity of 0.25 m s?1. Flushing experiments have shown that this criterion is a sufficient condition for a clean

  8. Metal concentrations in water and sediments from tourist beaches of Acapulco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan, M P; Roy, P D; Thangadurai, N; Srinivasalu, S; Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F; Sarkar, S K; Lakshumanan, C; Navarrete-López, M; Muñoz-Sevilla, N P

    2011-04-01

    A survey on the metal concentrations (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, Zn) in beach water and sediments is reported from the tourist destination of Acapulco city on the Pacific coast of Mexico. The concentration of dissolved trace metals (DTMs) in beach water and acid leachable trace metals (ALTMs) in sediments indicated that they are anthropogenic in nature due to the increased tourist activities in the crowded beach locations. The statistical analysis indicates Fe and Mn play a major role as metal scavengers in both the medium (water and sediment) and the higher value of other metals is site specific in the study area, indicating that they are transported from the local area. Comparison results suggest that the beach water quality has deteriorated more than the sediments and special care needs to be taken to restore the beach quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamic Stabilization of Metal Oxide–Water Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBriarty, Martin E.; von Rudorff, Guido Falk; Stubbs, Joanne E.; Eng, Peter J.; Blumberger, Jochen; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2017-02-08

    The interaction of water with metal oxide surfaces plays a crucial role in the catalytic and geochemical behavior of metal oxides. In a vast majority of studies, the interfacial structure is assumed to arise from a relatively static lowest energy configuration of atoms, even at room temperature. Using hematite (α-Fe2O3) as a model oxide, we show through a direct comparison of in situ synchrotron X-ray scattering with density functional theory-based molecular dynamics simulations that the structure of the (1102) termination is dynamically stabilized by picosecond water exchange. Simulations show frequent exchanges between terminal aquo groups and adsorbed water in locations and with partial residence times consistent with experimentally determined atomic sites and fractional occupancies. Frequent water exchange occurs even for an ultrathin adsorbed water film persisting on the surface under a dry atmosphere. The resulting time-averaged interfacial structure consists of a ridged lateral arrangement of adsorbed water molecules hydrogen bonded to terminal aquo groups. Surface pKa prediction based on bond valence analysis suggests that water exchange will influence the proton-transfer reactions underlying the acid/base reactivity at the interface. Our findings provide important new insights for understanding complex interfacial chemical processes at metal oxide–water interfaces.

  10. Holocene planktonic foraminifera from the shelf sediments off Kerala Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Twenty-two planktonic foraminifers were identified from a few samples collected aboard INS KISTNA at 9~'N and 76~'E, at 89 metres depth from the bottom sediment-water interface. A few of the more characteristic features of each are described. Some...

  11. Carboxylated Fullerene at the Oil/Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongqiang; Chai, Yu; Jiang, Yufeng; Ashby, Paul D; Toor, Anju; Russell, Thomas P

    2017-10-04

    The self-assembly of carboxylated fullerene with poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) with different molecular weights, poly-2-vinylpyridine, and amine-terminated polystyrene, at the interface between toluene and water was investigated. For all values of the pH, the functionalized fullerene interacted with the polymers at the water/toluene interface, forming a nanoparticle network, reducing the interfacial tension. At pH values of 4.84 and 7.8, robust, elastic films were formed at the interface, such that hollow tubules could be formed in situ when an aqueous solution of the functionalized fullerene was jetted into a toluene solution of PS-b-P2VP at a pH of 4.84. With variation of the pH, the mechanical properties of the fullerene/polymer assemblies can be varied by tuning the strength of the interactions between the functionalized fullerenes and the PS-b-P2VP.

  12. Water and sediment temperatures at mussel beds in the upper Mississippi River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Teresa J.; Sauer, Jennifer; Karns, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Native freshwater mussels are in global decline and urgently need protection and conservation. Declines in the abundance and diversity of North American mussels have been attributed to human activities that cause pollution, waterquality degradation, and habitat destruction. Recent studies suggest that effects of climate change may also endanger native mussel assemblages, as many mussel species are living close to their upper thermal tolerances. Adult and juvenile mussels spend a large fraction of their lives burrowed into sediments of rivers and lakes. Our objective was to measure surface water and sediment temperatures at known mussel beds in the Upper Mississippi (UMR) and St. Croix (SCR) rivers to estimate the potential for sediments to serve as thermal refugia. Across four mussel beds in the UMR and SCR, surface waters were generally warmer than sediments in summer, and were cooler than sediments in winter. This suggests that sediments may act as a thermal buffer for mussels in these large rivers. Although the magnitude of this effect was usually cause mortality in laboratory studies. These data suggest that elevated water temperatures resulting from global warming, thermal discharges, water extraction, and/or droughts have the potential to adversely affect native mussel assemblages.

  13. Water Quality and Heavy Metal Concentrations in Sediment of Sungai Kelantan, Kelantan, Malaysia: A Baseline Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A.K.; Mushrifah, I.; Mohamad Shuhaimi Othman

    2009-01-01

    A study on water quality and heavy metal concentration in sediment at selected sites of Sungai Kelantan was carried out. Ten water samples were collected along the river for physical and chemical analysis and twenty-six water and sediment samples were collected for heavy metal analysis. Water was sampled at three different dates throughout the study period whereas sediments were collected once. In addition to heavy metal analysis, sediment samples were also analysed for texture, ph and organic content. The physical and chemical water quality analyses were carried out according to the ALPHA procedures. Result of water quality analysis (physico-chemical) indicated that Sungai Kelantan is characterised by excellent water quality and comparable to pristine ecosystems such as the National Park and Kenyir Lake. This river was classified into class I - class III based on Malaysian interim water quality standard criteria (INWQS). Heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd was detected at low concentration in sediment samples, except for Fe and Mn. The presence of Fe and Mn in sediment samples was though to be of natural origin from the soil. Anthropogenic metal concentrations in sediment were low indicating that Sungai Kelantan has not experienced extreme pollution. (author)

  14. Sedimentation Effects on the Water Supply of APG

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-07

    THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Background  The APG (South) Water Treatment Plant ( WTP ...low flow (15.6 cfs)  Typically during Maryland summers drought conditions prevent water uptake Background Cont’d  In 2007 the WTP was forced to shut...around the WTP intake  Will decrease particulate matter in the intake water  Will prevent sedimentation from completely blocking flow to the water

  15. Adsorption - desorption equilibria of some radionuclides in sediment - sea water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Assy, N.B.; Fattah, A.T.A.; El-Shinawy, R.M.K.; Essa, M.W.A.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical and physical properties of Suez Canal bottom sediments (SCBS) and sea water at port Tawfeek area, the south entrance of Suez canal, have been studied. The SCBS was separated into its size fractions (natural sediment, sand, silt and clay). These different sediment fractions were allowed to be in equilibrium with 89 Sr, 60 Co and 134 Cs solutions. Desorption studies were carried out on these contaminated sediments. (author) 16 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  16. Influence of macrobenthos on chemical diagenesis of marine sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aller, R.C.

    1977-05-01

    Diagenetic reactions involving the decomposition of organic matter and the dissolution, mobilization, and reprecipitation of metals sensitive to oxidation-reduction reactions, are most intense and rapid in the upper 1 m and especially the upper 10 cm of marine sediment. It is in this upper zone where most benthic organisms live and interact with sediments and where exchange rates of dissolved and particulate material between sediment and overlying water are largely determined. In Long Island Sound, U.S.A., both spatial and temporal trends in sediment chemistry and the flux of material out of the bottom demonstrate the control of diagenesis by bottom fauna. /sup 234/Th//sup 238/U disequilibrium studies demonstrate that particle reworking rates near the sediment-water interface vary both temporally and spatially in the Sound. The most rapid reworking occurs in protobranch-inhabited bottom areas as do the highest /sup 234/Th inventories. Excess /sup 234/Th profiles in the sediment allow determination of the rates of selected diagenetic reactions, such as Mn/sup + +/ production, near the sediment surface. Both the /sup 234/Th disequilibrium and flux measurements indicate that intra-estuarine redistribution of metals continually takes place.

  17. Distribution of phosphorus and organic carbon in the nearshore sediments of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajamanickam, G.V.; Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Samples collected from sediment water interface from the inner shelf region of Goa coast are examined for their phosphorus and organic carbon, which indicate the geochemical environment under which the present day deposits are laid down...

  18. The mobility of radiocaesium in lake sediment and implications for dating studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.T.; Nolan, L.; Ireland, D.G.; Comans, R.N.J.

    1998-01-01

    The experiments to study the uptake of radiocaesium by sediment cores from Esthwaite Water, Cumbria, UK in order to develop a model to simultaneously describe uptake of radiocaesium from the water column and diffusion of activity within the sediment has been carried out. By measuring the rate of diffusion of activity through the sediment and sediment pore waters as a function of time the validity of the equilibrium approach to modelling radiocaesium sorption and mobility in sediments has been assessed. By comparison with in situ measurements was found, that rates of diffusion of activity introduced by diffusion across the sediment-water interface (as in the experiments) were approximately one order of magnitude greater than those determined from Chernobyl and weapons test activity-depth profiles. Modelling of the removal of activity from Esthwaite Water showed that the majority of the activity was transported to the sediments by attachment to and settling of suspended particles. It is concluded that activity deposited on particulates (forming the majority of activity observed in situ) was more strongly bound to sediments than that introduced by direct diffusion. This explanation is consistent with observed 'two-phase' 137 Cs profiles in sediments. Predictions of future evolution of the weapons test peak are made on the basis of these studies. It is shown that the peak in the activity-depth profile will remain an important marker for dating studies for the forseeable future

  19. 18O/16O ratios of the pore water of Baltic Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstel, H.

    1983-01-01

    Two cores of Baltic Sea sediment were collected in 1975. The 18 O/ 16 O ratio of the water enclosed in the sediment (pore water) was measured after the separation of the liquid from the solid phase. The results may support the discussion about the history of the Baltic Sea. At the top of the core the 18 O/ 16 O ratio of the water represents the oxygen isotope composition of the sea water above. Towards the deeper parts of the sediment, independently of the salt content, the 18 O/ 16 O ratio decreases towards values observed in the precipitation of the surrounding land areas. (author)

  20. Theoretical vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy of water near lipid and surfactant monolayer interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, S.; Gruenbaum, S. M.; Skinner, J. L. [Theoretical Chemistry Institute and Department of Chemistry, 1101 University Ave., University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Understanding the structure of water near cell membranes is crucial for characterizing water-mediated events such as molecular transport. To obtain structural information of water near a membrane, it is useful to have a surface-selective technique that can probe only interfacial water molecules. One such technique is vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. As model systems for studying membrane headgroup/water interactions, in this paper we consider lipid and surfactant monolayers on water. We adopt a theoretical approach combining molecular dynamics simulations and phase-sensitive VSFG to investigate water structure near these interfaces. Our simulated spectra are in qualitative agreement with experiments and reveal orientational ordering of interfacial water molecules near cationic, anionic, and zwitterionic interfaces. OH bonds of water molecules point toward an anionic interface leading to a positive VSFG peak, whereas the water hydrogen atoms point away from a cationic interface leading to a negative VSFG peak. Coexistence of these two interfacial water species is observed near interfaces between water and mixtures of cationic and anionic lipids, as indicated by the presence of both negative and positive peaks in their VSFG spectra. In the case of a zwitterionic interface, OH orientation is toward the interface on the average, resulting in a positive VSFG peak.

  1. Hydrogeochemical assessment of mine-impacted water and sediment of iron ore mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Atirah Affandi, Fatin; Kusin, Faradiella Mohd; Aqilah Sulong, Nur; Madzin, Zafira

    2018-04-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the hydrogeochemical behaviour of mine-impacted water and sediment of a former iron ore mining area. Sampling of mine water and sediment were carried out at selected locations within the mine including the former mining ponds, mine tailings and the nearby stream. The water samples were analysed for their hydrochemical facies, major and trace elements including heavy metals. The water in the mining ponds and the mine tailings was characterised as highly acidic (pH 2.54-3.07), but has near-neutral pH in the nearby stream. Results indicated that Fe and Mn in water have exceeded the recommended guidelines values and was also supported by the results of geochemical modelling. The results also indicated that sediments in the mining area were contaminated with Cd and As as shown by the potential ecological risk index values. The total risk index of heavy metals in the sediment were ranked in the order of Cd>As>Pb>Cu>Zn>Cr. Overall, the extent of potential ecological risks of the mining area were categorised as having low to moderate ecological risk.

  2. Mercury in water and bottom sediments from a mexican reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila Perez, P.; Zarazua Ortega, G.; Barcelo Quintal, D.; Rosas, P.; Diazdelgado, C.

    2001-01-01

    The Lerma-Santiago river's source is located in the State of Mexico. Its drainage basin occupies an area of 129,632 km2. The river receives urban wastewater discharges from 29 municipalities, as well as industrial water discharges, both treated and untreated, mainly from the industrial zones of Toluca, Lerma, Ocoyoacac, Santiago Tianguistengo, Pasteje and Atlacomulco. It is estimated that during a year, the stream receives 536 x 106 m3 of waste waters, which carries 350,946 ton of organic load; 33% of these waste waters come from urban discharges, and 67% originate from industrial discharges. The Jose Antonio Alzate Reservoir fed by the Lerma river is the first significant water reservoir downstream of the main industrial areas in the State of Mexico and both are considered the most contaminated water bodies in the State of Mexico. Mercury concentrations in water and bottom sediments in the Jose Antonio Alzate Reservoir were determined in 6 different sampling zones over a 1-year period. Mercury was measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and irradiated with a thermal neutron flux of 9 x 1012 n. cm-2 s-1 for a period of 26 hours. High variations of mercury concentrations in water in both, soluble and suspended forms, were observed to depend on the sampling season. During the rainy season, rain events contribute with a substantial water volume to modify physicochemical parameters like pH, which dilute chemical species in the Alzate Reservoir. There are evidence that in the Jose Antonio Alzate reservoir, sedimentation and adsorption act as a natural cleaning process, decreasing the dissolved concentrations and increasing the metallic content of the sediments. A negative gradient was identified for mercury concentrations, from the Lerma river inlet to Alzate Reservoir dam, which demonstrates the considerable influence of the Lerma river inlet. This gradient also proves the existence of a metal recycling process between water and sediment, while the

  3. The Role of Sedimentation on Waters Edge and Analysis Pb and Zn Concentration in Water from Sentani Lake, Jayapura-Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Deminggus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted research on the role of sediment on the waters edge and content analysis of metal concentrations of lead (Pb, zinc (Zn in the water of Sentani Lake in Jayapura, Papua Province. The experiment was conducted in April 2013. The study was conducted to determine the role of lake sediments on water quality, sediment characteristics and metal analysis has been analyzed in the laboratory to determine the concentration of Pb and Zn in the sediment. Metal analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS instrumentation. Sediment characteristics that have analysis, namely physical and chemical parameters are bulk density, density, porosity, water content, texture, pH, DO, colors and others. Sediment sampling locations are Ifale, estuary, Yahim beach and Yoboy with each location in depth of 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm vertically. The results showed that at each sampling site and every sediment depths showed highly significant influence on the metal content of Pb and Zn. In general, the deeper the sediment content of Pb and Zn showed different results. Average content of heavy metals (Pb and Zn in sediments at each location that are Ifale at 27.37 mg/Kg and 35.04 mg/Kg, estuary of 15.37 mg/Kg and Pb is 28.01 mg/Kg, Yahim beach of 3.83 mg/Kg and 33.50 mg/Kg, while the location of Yoboy of 6.69 mg/Kg and 34.60 mg/Kg. Concentration of Pb (3.83 to 27.37 mg/Kg and Zn (6.69 to 35.04 mg/Kg in sediments is lower than the standard quality of heavy metals in sediments (EPA Region Va is 40 mg/Kg for Pb and 90 mg/Kg for Zn metals, therefore concentrations of Pb and Zn in sediments at four locations of Sentani lake is still below the quality standard so that the levels of Pb and Zn in the sediment is not contaminated. The existence of Sentani lake sediments act as a reservoir heavy metal and not as a source of pollutants to the water quality in the Sentani lake.

  4. Water-quality conditions and suspended-sediment transport in the Wilson and Trask Rivers, northwestern Oregon, water years 2012–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczyk, Steven; Bragg, Heather M.; Uhrich, Mark A.

    2015-07-28

    In October 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey began investigating and monitoring water-quality conditions and suspended-sediment transport in the Wilson and Trask Rivers, northwestern Oregon. Water temperature, specific conductance, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen were measured every 15–30 minutes in both streams using real-time instream water-quality monitors. In conjunction with the monitoring effort, suspended-sediment samples were collected and analyzed to model the amount of suspended sediment being transported by each river. Over the course of the 3-year study, which ended in September 2014, nearly 600,000 tons (t) of suspended-sediment material entered Tillamook Bay from these two tributaries. 

  5. Sediment predictions in Wadi Al-Naft using soil water assessment tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwan Imzahim Abdulkareem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediment production is the amount of sediment in the unit area that is transported through the basin by water transfer over a specified period of time. The main aim of present study is to predict sediment yield of Wadi, Al-Naft watershed with 8820 Km2area, that is located in the North-East of Diyala Governorate in Iraq, using Soil-Water Assessment Tool, (SWAT and to predict the impact of land management and the input data including the land use, soil type, and soil texture maps which are obtained from Landsat-8 satellite image. Digital Elevation Model,(DEM with resolution (14 14 meter is used to delineate the watershed with the aid of model. Three Land-sat images were used to cover the study area which were mosaic processed and the study area masked- up from the mosaic, image. The area of study has been registries by Arc-GIS 10.2 and digitized the soil hydrologic group through assistant of Soil Plant Assistant Water Model, (SPAW which was progressed by USDA, Agricultural, Research Service, using the data of soil textural and organic matter from Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, the available water content, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and bulk density. The results of average, sediment depth and the maximum upland sediment for simulation period (2010-2020 were predicted to be (1.7 mm, and (12.57 Mg/ha, respectively.

  6. Sediment-water interactions affecting dissolved-mercury distributions in Camp Far West Reservoir, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, James S.; Alpers, Charles N.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Stewart, A. Robin; Fend, Steven V.; Parcheso, Francis; Moon, Gerald E.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2003-01-01

    summary information (figuratively at the top of the pyramid) and the later details of methods or results (figuratively towards the base of the pyramid) using hyperlinks to supporting figures and tables, and an electronically linked Table of Contents. During two sampling events, two replicate sediment cores (Coring methods; Fig. 2) from each of three reservoir locations (Fig. 1) were used in incubation experiments to provide flux estimates and benthic biological characterizations. Incubation of these cores provided ?snapshots? of solute flux across the sediment-water interface in the reservoir, under benthic, environmental conditions representative of the time and place of collection. Ancillary data, including nutrient and ligand fluxes, were gathered to provide a water-quality framework from which to compare the results for mercury. The following major observations from interdependent physical, biological, and chemical data were made:

  7. Characterizing water-metal interfaces and machine learning potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryczko, Kevin

    In this thesis, we first discuss the fundamentals of ab initio electronic structure theory and density functional theory (DFT). We also discuss statistics related to computing thermodynamic averages of molecular dynamics (MD). We then use this theory to analyze and compare the structural, dynamical, and electronic properties of liquid water next to prototypical metals including platinum, graphite, and graphene. Our results are built on Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) generated using density functional theory (DFT) which explicitly include van der Waals (vdW) interactions within a first principles approach. All calculations reported use large simulation cells, allowing for an accurate treatment of the water-electrode interfaces. We have included vdW interactions through the use of the optB86b-vdW exchange correlation functional. Comparisons with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange correlation functional are also shown. We find an initial peak, due to chemisorption, in the density profile of the liquid water-Pt interface not seen in the liquid water-graphite interface, liquid watergraphene interface, nor interfaces studied previously. To further investigate this chemisorption peak, we also report differences in the electronic structure of single water molecules on both Pt and graphite surfaces. We find that a covalent bond forms between the single water molecule and the platinum surface, but not between the single water molecule and the graphite surface. We also discuss the effects that defects and dopants in the graphite and graphene surfaces have on the structure and dynamics of liquid water. Lastly, we introduce artificial neural networks (ANNs), and demonstrate how they can be used to machine learn electronic structure calculations. As a proof of principle, we show the success of an ANN potential energy surfaces for a dimer molecule with a Lennard-Jones potential.

  8. Impact of water and sediment discharges on subaqueous delta evolution in Yangtze Estuary from 1950 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-ping Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine how the subaqueous delta evolution depends on the water and sediment processes in the Yangtze Estuary, the amounts of water and sediment discharged into the estuary were studied. The results show that, during the period from 1950 to 2010, there was no significant change in the annual water discharge, and the multi-annual mean water discharge increased in dry seasons and decreased in flood seasons. However, the annual sediment discharge and the multi-annual mean sediment discharge in flood and dry seasons took on a decreasing trend, and the intra-annual distribution of water and sediment discharges tended to be uniform. The evolution process from deposition to erosion occurred at the −10 m and −20 m isobaths of the subaqueous delta. The enhanced annual water and sediment discharges had a silting-up effect on the delta, and the effect of sediment was greater than that of water. Based on data analysis, empirical curves were built to present the relationships between the water and sediment discharges over a year or in dry and flood seasons and the erosion/deposition rates in typical regions of the subaqueous delta, whose evolution followed the pattern of silting in flood seasons and scouring in dry seasons. Notably, the Three Gorges Dam has changed the distribution processes of water and sediment discharges, and the dam's regulating and reserving functions can benefit the subaqueous delta deposition when the annual water and sediment discharges are not affected.

  9. Modeling Benthic Sediment Processes to Predict Water Quality and Ecology in Narragansett Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benthic sediment acts as a huge reservoir of particulate and dissolved material (within interstitial water) which can contribute to loading of contaminants and nutrients to the water column. A benthic sediment model is presented in this report to predict spatial and temporal ...

  10. Trace Element Mobility in Water and Sediments in a Hyporheic Zone Adjacent to an Abandoned Uranium Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan, C.; Blake, J.; Cerrato, J.; Ali, A.; Cabaniss, S.

    2015-12-01

    The legacy of abandoned uranium mines lead to community concerns about environmental and health effects. This study focuses on a cross section of the Rio Paguate, adjacent to the Jackpile Mine on the Laguna Reservation, west-central New Mexico. Often, the geochemical interactions that occur in the hyporheic zone adjacent to these abandoned mines play an important role in trace element mobility. In order to understand the mobility of uranium (U), arsenic (As), and vanadium (V) in the Rio Paguate; surface water, hyporheic zone water, and core sediment samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). All water samples were filtered through 0.45μm and 0.22μm filters and analyzed. The results show that there is no major difference in concentrations of U (378-496μg/L), As (0.872-6.78μg/L), and V (2.94-5.01μg/L) between the filter sizes or with depth (8cm and 15cm) in the hyporheic zone. The unfiltered hyporheic zone water samples were analyzed after acid digestion to assess the particulate fraction. These results show a decrease in U concentration (153-202μg/L) and an increase in As (33.2-219μg/L) and V (169-1130μg/L) concentrations compared to the filtered waters. Surface water concentrations of U(171-184μg/L) are lower than the filtered hyporheic zone waters while As(1.32-8.68μg/L) and V(1.75-2.38μg/L) are significantly lower than the hyporheic zone waters and particulates combined. Concentrations of As in the sediment core samples are higher in the first 15cm below the water-sediment interface (14.3-3.82μg/L) and decrease (0.382μg/L) with depth. Uranium concentrations are consistent (0.047-0.050μg/L) at all depths. The over all data suggest that U is mobile in the dissolved phase and both As and V are mobile in the particular phase as they travel through the system.

  11. Temporal variations of water and sediment fluxes in the Cointzio river basin, central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvert, C.; Gratiot, N.; Navratil, O.; Esteves, M.; Prat, C.; Nord, G.

    2009-04-01

    The STREAMS program (Sediment TRansport and Erosion Across MountainS) was launched in 2006 to study suspended sediment dynamics in mountainous areas. Two watersheds were selected as part of the program: the Bléone river basin in the French Alps, and the Cointzio river basin (636 km2), located in the mountainous region of Michoacán, in central Mexico. The volcanic soils of the Cointzio catchment undergo important erosion processes, especially during flashflood events. Thus, a high-frequency monitoring of sediment transport is highly required. The poster presents the high-frequency database obtained from the 2008 hydrological season at the Santiago Undameo gauged station, located at the basin's outlet. Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) was estimated every 10 minutes by calibrating turbidity measurements with bottle sampling acquired on a double-daily basis. Water discharge time-series was approximated with continuous water-level measurements (5 minutes time-step), and a stage-discharge rating curve. Our investigation highlights the influence of sampling frequency on annual water and sediment fluxes estimate. A daily or even a weekly water-level measurement provides an unexpectedly reliable assessment of the seasonal water fluxes, with an under-estimation of about 5 % of the total flux. Concerning sediment fluxes, a high-frequency SSC survey appears to be necessary. Acquiring SSC data even twice a day leads to a significant (over 30 %) under-estimation of the seasonal sediment load. These distinct behaviors can be attributed to the fact that sediment transport almost exclusively occurs during brief night flood events, whereas exfiltration on the watershed always provides a base flow during the daily water-level measurements.

  12. Distribution, sources and composition of antibiotics in sediment, overlying water and pore water from Taihu Lake, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhang, Yuan, E-mail: zhangyuan@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhou, Changbo [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Guo, Changsheng; Wang, Dingming [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Du, Ping [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Luo, Yi [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wan, Jun; Meng, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-11-01

    The occurrence of 15 antibiotics classified as sulphonamides, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim in sediment, overlying water, and pore water matrices in Taihu Lake, China was studied. The total concentrations were from 4.1 μg/kg to 731 μg/kg, from 127 ng/L to 1210 ng/L, and from 1.5 ng/L to 216 ng/L in sediment, overlying water and pore water, respectively. Antibiotics in different locations originated from various sources, depending on human, agricultural and aquacultural activities. Composition analysis indicated that human-derived and animal-derived drugs significantly contributed to the total contamination of antibiotics in the lake, indicating the high complexity of contamination sources in Taihu Lake Basin. The in situ sediment–pore water partitioning coefficients were generally greater than sediment–overlying water partitioning coefficients, suggesting continuous inputs into the lake water. This study shows that antibiotics are ubiquitous in all compartments in Taihu Lake, and their potential hazards to the aquatic ecosystem need further investigation. - Highlights: • Antibiotics are ubiquitous in sediment, overlying water and pore water in Taihu Lake. • Antibiotics in Taihu Lake originated from human and nonhuman activities. • Ksp is higher than Ksw, indicating the continuous antibiotics input to lake water.

  13. Distribution, sources and composition of antibiotics in sediment, overlying water and pore water from Taihu Lake, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Changbo; Guo, Changsheng; Wang, Dingming; Du, Ping; Luo, Yi; Wan, Jun; Meng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of 15 antibiotics classified as sulphonamides, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim in sediment, overlying water, and pore water matrices in Taihu Lake, China was studied. The total concentrations were from 4.1 μg/kg to 731 μg/kg, from 127 ng/L to 1210 ng/L, and from 1.5 ng/L to 216 ng/L in sediment, overlying water and pore water, respectively. Antibiotics in different locations originated from various sources, depending on human, agricultural and aquacultural activities. Composition analysis indicated that human-derived and animal-derived drugs significantly contributed to the total contamination of antibiotics in the lake, indicating the high complexity of contamination sources in Taihu Lake Basin. The in situ sediment–pore water partitioning coefficients were generally greater than sediment–overlying water partitioning coefficients, suggesting continuous inputs into the lake water. This study shows that antibiotics are ubiquitous in all compartments in Taihu Lake, and their potential hazards to the aquatic ecosystem need further investigation. - Highlights: • Antibiotics are ubiquitous in sediment, overlying water and pore water in Taihu Lake. • Antibiotics in Taihu Lake originated from human and nonhuman activities. • Ksp is higher than Ksw, indicating the continuous antibiotics input to lake water

  14. Concentration of arsenic in water, sediments and fish species from naturally contaminated rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Juan José; Schenone, Nahuel F; Pérez Carrera, Alejo; Fernández Cirelli, Alicia

    2013-04-01

    Arsenic (As) may occur in surface freshwater ecosystems as a consequence of both natural contamination and anthropogenic activities. In this paper, As concentrations in muscle samples of 10 fish species, sediments and surface water from three naturally contaminated rivers in a central region of Argentina are reported. The study area is one of the largest regions in the world with high As concentrations in groundwater. However, information of As in freshwater ecosystems and associated biota is scarce. An extensive spatial variability of As concentrations in water and sediments of sampled ecosystems was observed. Geochemical indices indicated that sediments ranged from mostly unpolluted to strongly polluted. The concentration of As in sediments averaged 6.58 μg/g ranging from 0.23 to 59.53 μg/g. Arsenic in sediments barely followed (r = 0.361; p = 0.118) the level of contamination of water. All rivers showed high concentrations of As in surface waters, ranging from 55 to 195 μg/L. The average concentration of As in fish was 1.76 μg/g. The level of contamination with As differed significantly between species. Moreover, the level of bioaccumulation of As in fish species related to the concentration of As in water and sediments also differed between species. Whilst some fish species seemed to be able to regulate the uptake of this metalloid, the concentration of As in the large catfish Rhamdia quelen mostly followed the concentration of As in abiotic compartments. The erratic pattern of As concentrations in fish and sediments regardless of the invariable high levels in surface waters suggests the existence of complex biogeochemical processes behind the distribution patterns of As in these naturally contaminated ecosystems.

  15. Impacts of ocean acidification on sediment processes in shallow waters of the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeau, Frédéric; van Rijswijk, Pieter; Pozzato, Lara; Middelburg, Jack J

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important roles of shallow-water sediments in global biogeochemical cycling, the effects of ocean acidification on sedimentary processes have received relatively little attention. As high-latitude cold waters can absorb more CO2 and usually have a lower buffering capacity than warmer waters, acidification rates in these areas are faster than those in sub-tropical regions. The present study investigates the effects of ocean acidification on sediment composition, processes and sediment-water fluxes in an Arctic coastal system. Undisturbed sediment cores, exempt of large dwelling organisms, were collected, incubated for a period of 14 days, and subject to a gradient of pCO2 covering the range of values projected for the end of the century. On five occasions during the experimental period, the sediment cores were isolated for flux measurements (oxygen, alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and silicate). At the end of the experimental period, denitrification rates were measured and sediment samples were taken at several depth intervals for solid-phase analyses. Most of the parameters and processes (i.e. mineralization, denitrification) investigated showed no relationship with the overlying seawater pH, suggesting that ocean acidification will have limited impacts on the microbial activity and associated sediment-water fluxes on Arctic shelves, in the absence of active bio-irrigating organisms. Only following a pH decrease of 1 pH unit, not foreseen in the coming 300 years, significant enhancements of calcium carbonate dissolution and anammox rates were observed. Longer-term experiments on different sediment types are still required to confirm the limited impact of ocean acidification on shallow Arctic sediment processes as observed in this study.

  16. Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediments and Shallow Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong-Rong; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Gao, Bo-Cai; Davis, Curtiss O.

    2002-01-01

    Ocean color sensors were designed mainly for remote sensing of chlorophyll concentrations over the clear open oceanic areas (case 1 water) using channels between 0.4 and 0.86 micrometers. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) launched on the NASA Terra and Aqua Spacecrafts is equipped with narrow channels located within a wider wavelength range between 0.4 and 2.5 micrometers for a variety of remote sensing applications. The wide spectral range can provide improved capabilities for remote sensing of the more complex and turbid coastal waters (case 2 water) and for improved atmospheric corrections for Ocean scenes. In this article, we describe an empirical algorithm that uses this wide spectral range to identifying areas with suspended sediments in turbid waters and shallow waters with bottom reflections. The algorithm takes advantage of the strong water absorption at wavelengths longer than 1 micrometer that does not allow illumination of sediments in the water or a shallow ocean floor. MODIS data acquired over the east coast of China, west coast of Africa, Arabian Sea, Mississippi Delta, and west coast of Florida are used in this study.

  17. The Association of Cryptosporidium parvum With Suspended Sediments: Implications for Transport in Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searcy, K. E.; Packman, A. I.; Atwill, E. R.; Harter, T.

    2003-12-01

    Understanding the transport and fate of microorganisms in surface waters is of vital concern in protecting the integrity and safety of municipal water supply systems. The human pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is a particular public health interest, as it is ubiquitous in the surface waters of the United States, it can persist for long periods in the environment, and it is difficult to disinfect in water treatment plants. Due to its small size (5 um), low specific gravity (1.05 g/cm3), and negative surface charge, C. parvum oocysts are generally considered to move through watersheds from their source to drinking water reservoirs with little attenuation. However, the transport of the oocysts in surface waters may be mediated by interactions with suspended sediments. Batch experiments were conducted to determine the extent of C. parvum oocyst attachment to several inorganic and organic sediments under varying water chemical conditions, and settling column experiments were performed to demonstrate how these associations influence the effective settling velocity of C. parvum oocysts. Results from these experiments showed that C. parvum oocysts do associate with inorganic and organic sediments and often settle at the rate of the suspended sediment. The size and surface charge of the host suspended sediment influenced the extent of oocyst attachment as oocysts preferentially associated with particles greater than 3 um, and fewer oocysts associated with particles having a highly negative surface charge. Background water chemical conditions including ionic strength, ion composition, and pH did not have a significant effect on oocyst attachment to suspended sediments.

  18. Rainfall-induced runoff from exposed streambed sediments: an important source of water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, S K; Gottschall, N; Wilkes, G; Grégoire, D S; Topp, E; Pintar, K D M; Sunohara, M; Marti, R; Lapen, D R

    2015-01-01

    When surface water levels decline, exposed streambed sediments can be mobilized and washed into the water course when subjected to erosive rainfall. In this study, rainfall simulations were conducted over exposed sediments along stream banks at four distinct locations in an agriculturally dominated river basin with the objective of quantifying the potential for contaminant loading from these often overlooked runoff source areas. At each location, simulations were performed at three different sites. Nitrogen, phosphorus, sediment, fecal indicator bacteria, pathogenic bacteria, and microbial source tracking (MST) markers were examined in both prerainfall sediments and rainfall-induced runoff water. Runoff generation and sediment mobilization occurred quickly (10-150 s) after rainfall initiation. Temporal trends in runoff concentrations were highly variable within and between locations. Total runoff event loads were considered large for many pollutants considered. For instance, the maximum observed total phosphorus runoff load was on the order of 1.5 kg ha. Results also demonstrate that runoff from exposed sediments can be a source of pathogenic bacteria. spp. and spp. were present in runoff from one and three locations, respectively. Ruminant MST markers were also present in runoff from two locations, one of which hosted pasturing cattle with stream access. Overall, this study demonstrated that rainfall-induced runoff from exposed streambed sediments can be an important source of surface water pollution. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Sediment-water distribution of contaminants of emerging concern in a mixed use watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the occurrence and distribution of 15 contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) in stream water and sediments in the Zumbro River watershed in Minnesota and compared these with sub-watershed land uses. Sixty pairs of sediment and water samples were collected across all seasons from...

  20. Self-Assembly of Peptides at the Air/Water Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Mehmet

    2013-03-01

    Peptides are commonly used as building blocks for design and development of novel materials with a variety of application areas ranging from drug design to biotechnology. The precise control of molecular architecture and specific nature of the nonbonded interactions among peptides enable aggregates with well defined structural and functional properties. The interaction of peptides with interfaces leads to dramatic changes in their conformational and aggregation behavior. In this talk, I will discuss our research on the interplay of intermolecular forces and influence of interfaces. In the first part the amphiphilic nature of short peptide oligomers and their behavior at the air/water interface will be discussed. The surface driving force and its decomposition will be analyzed. In the second part aggregation of peptides in bulk water and at an interface will be discussed. Different design features which can be tuned to control aggregation behavior will be analyzed.

  1. Sediment pollution characteristics and in situ control in a deep drinking water reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zizhen; Huang, Tinglin; Li, Yang; Ma, Weixing; Zhou, Shilei; Long, Shenghai

    2017-02-01

    Sediment pollution characteristics, in situ sediment release potential, and in situ inhibition of sediment release were investigated in a drinking water reservoir. Results showed that organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in sediments increased from the reservoir mouth to the main reservoir. Fraction analysis indicated that nitrogen in ion exchangeable form and NaOH-extractable P (Fe/Al-P) accounted for 43% and 26% of TN and TP in sediments of the main reservoir. The Risk Assessment Code for metal elements showed that Fe and Mn posed high to very high risk. The results of the in situ reactor experiment in the main reservoir showed the same trends as those observed in the natural state of the reservoir in 2011 and 2012; the maximum concentrations of total OC, TN, TP, Fe, and Mn reached 4.42mg/L, 3.33mg/L, 0.22mg/L, 2.56mg/L, and 0.61mg/L, respectively. An in situ sediment release inhibition technology, the water-lifting aerator, was utilized in the reservoir. The results of operating the water-lifting aerator indicated that sediment release was successfully inhibited and that OC, TN, TP, Fe, and Mn in surface sediment could be reduced by 13.25%, 15.23%, 14.10%, 5.32%, and 3.94%, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Uranium isotopes in waters and bottom sediments of rivers and lakes in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak-Flis, Z.; Kaminska, I.; Chrzanowski, E.

    2004-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 238 U, 234 U and 235 U were determined in waters and bottom sediments in two main rivers in Poland (the Vistula and Odra rivers) with their tributaries, in four coastal rivers and six lakes. Concentration of 238 U and 233 U were compared with the concentrations of 226 Ra determined in another study. As compared with concentrations in coastal rivers and in lakes, enhanced concentrations of the radionuclides were observed in water and bottom sediments in the upper and middle courses of Vistula river, whereas in the Odra river the enhanced concentrations were present only in the bottom sediments. The enhanced concentrations in the Vistula river result from the discharge of coal mine waters from the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, and they indicate that the discharge was continued. The enhanced concentration in Odra river observed only in bottom sediments indicate that the discharge occurred in the past. The 234 U/ 238 U ratio for the bottom sediments was close to unity, indicating that these isotopes were close to equilibrium, whereas for water the average ratio was form 1.2 for lakes to 1.5 for the Vistula river, demonstrating the lack of equilibrium. (author)

  3. The main microelements and phosphorus content of sediments formed in a drinking water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Valentukeviciene

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is the only source for drinking water supply in Lithuania. Twenty water intakes exploiting Quaternary aquifers are operating in Vilnius City. The main aim of this study was to characterize the heavy metal content of internal pipeline sediments in the water supply network. It also provides a new insight into the accumulation of phosphorus and its variation in pipeline sediments in the study area. The results of this research reflect the level of heavy metals that accumulated during the water supply process. The main microelements detected were lead, nickel, zinc and copper. The research results will be useful for conducting preliminary evaluations of possible microelement accumulation in other similar water supply systems. The evaluation of water supply sediments is considered as one of the most important activities associated with a water safety approach. The results of this research indicate the dependence between phosphorus accumulation and Pb, Cr, Zn, Ni and Cu quantities in the internal sediments of water supply pipelines.

  4. Electrochemical peroxidation of PCBs and VOCs in superfund site water and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrudato, R.J.; Chiarenzelli, J.R. [SUNY, Oswego, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) process has been developed and used to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and volatile organic compounds (VOC)-contaminated water, sludge, and sediments at a New York State Federal and State Superfund Site. The process involves passing an oscillating low-amperage (<10 amps) current through steel electrodes immersed in an acidified water or sediment slurry into which hydrogen peroxide (<1,000 ppm) is added. The generated free radicals attack organic compounds, including organo-metallic complexes and refractory compounds including PCBs. PCB degradation ranged from about 30% to 80% in experiments involving Federal Superfund Site sediments; total PCBs were reduced by {approximately}97% to 68%, respectively, in water and slurry collected from a State Superfund subsurface storage tank. VOC bench-scale experiments involved chloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and acetone and after a 3-min ECP treatment, degradation ranged from >94% to about 99.9%. Results indicate the ECP is a viable process to degrade organic contaminants in water and sediment suspensions. Because the treated water suspensions are acidified, select trace metal sorbed to the particulates is solubilized and therefore can be segregated from the particulates, offering a process that simultaneously degrades organic contaminants and separates trace metals. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. Thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Douglas D.; Martin, Ana I.; Yun, Tae Sup; Francisca, Franco M.; Santamarina, J. Carlos; Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2009-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for evaluating phase transformation processes that would accompany energy production from gas hydrate deposits and for estimating regional heat flow based on the observed depth to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. The coexistence of multiple phases (gas hydrate, liquid and gas pore fill, and solid sediment grains) and their complex spatial arrangement hinder the a priori prediction of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments. Previous studies have been unable to capture the full parameter space covered by variations in grain size, specific surface, degree of saturation, nature of pore filling material, and effective stress for hydrate-bearing samples. Here we report on systematic measurements of the thermal conductivity of air dry, water- and tetrohydrofuran (THF)-saturated, and THF hydrate–saturated sand and clay samples at vertical effective stress of 0.05 to 1 MPa (corresponding to depths as great as 100 m below seafloor). Results reveal that the bulk thermal conductivity of the samples in every case reflects a complex interplay among particle size, effective stress, porosity, and fluid-versus-hydrate filled pore spaces. The thermal conductivity of THF hydrate–bearing soils increases upon hydrate formation although the thermal conductivities of THF solution and THF hydrate are almost the same. Several mechanisms can contribute to this effect including cryogenic suction during hydrate crystal growth and the ensuing porosity reduction in the surrounding sediment, increased mean effective stress due to hydrate formation under zero lateral strain conditions, and decreased interface thermal impedance as grain-liquid interfaces are transformed into grain-hydrate interfaces.

  6. Field Evaluation Of Arsenic Transport Across The Ground-Water/Surface Water Interface: Ground-Water Discharge And Iron Oxide Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of arsenic in ground water, surface water, and sediments at a Superfund Site in the northeastern United States (see companion presentation by K. G. Scheckel et al). Ground-water discharge into the study area was cha...

  7. Towards ligand docking including explicit interface water molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Lemmon

    Full Text Available Small molecule docking predicts the interaction of a small molecule ligand with a protein at atomic-detail accuracy including position and conformation the ligand but also conformational changes of the protein upon ligand binding. While successful in the majority of cases, docking algorithms including RosettaLigand fail in some cases to predict the correct protein/ligand complex structure. In this study we show that simultaneous docking of explicit interface water molecules greatly improves Rosetta's ability to distinguish correct from incorrect ligand poses. This result holds true for both protein-centric water docking wherein waters are located relative to the protein binding site and ligand-centric water docking wherein waters move with the ligand during docking. Protein-centric docking is used to model 99 HIV-1 protease/protease inhibitor structures. We find protease inhibitor placement improving at a ratio of 9:1 when one critical interface water molecule is included in the docking simulation. Ligand-centric docking is applied to 341 structures from the CSAR benchmark of diverse protein/ligand complexes [1]. Across this diverse dataset we see up to 56% recovery of failed docking studies, when waters are included in the docking simulation.

  8. Environmental contamination of Gorganrood Water and Sediment in district of Gonbad-Kavoos City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Forghani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Rivers are the key resources for drinking and agricultural purposes and their quality assessment is very important. The chemical quality of surface waters is influenced by natural processes and anthropogenic activities (e.g. discharge of urban, agricultural and industrial wastewaters. Pollutants discharging into a river from both natural and anthropogenic sources are distributed between sediment and water. Thus, in evaluating the pollution condition of a water body, both sediment and water should be considered. Sediments are generally regarded as an important component of the total river systems, since they provide a bank of environmental information for both natural and anthropogenic pollution. Of the various pollutants, potentially toxic elements (PTEs are of environmental concern, because they are the most toxic, persistent and abundant pollutants that cab accumulate in aquatic habitats and their concentration increases through biomagnification. Regarding the importance of rivers in supply of water, the assessment of hydrochemical properties and PTEs concentration in water and sediment is very important. Gorganrood is an important river in Golestan province (NE of Iran, which plays an important role in providing water supply. This river recharges from Aladagh Mountains and discharges into Caspian Sea. The Gorganrood River is about 350 Km long and its drainage area is about 1025 Km2. This river trends E-W across the study area and is supplied by many tributaries. The average water discharge of Gorganrood in autumn and spring is 4.6 and 12.3 m3/sec, respectively. This river flows through the recent alluviums (silt, sand and clay. During the last years, various domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewaters in Gonbad-e-Kavoos district discharge into the Gorganrood. The wastewaters are constant polluting source for rivers. This study aimed to assess the quality of Gorganrood River water as well as the pollution of bed sediments at

  9. Modelling of flow and settling in storm water sedimentation tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluck, J.

    1994-01-01

    In the near future in the Netherlands many reservoirs will have to be built to abate the pollution of the surface water by overflowing storm water from combined sewer systems [Kluck, 1992-a]. These reservoirs, called storm water sedimentation tanks, reduce the pollution in two ways. The most

  10. Occurrence of Pesticides in Water, Sediment, and Soil from the Yolo Bypass, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L. Smalling

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential sources of pesticides to the Yolo Bypass, including those that could potentially impact critical life stages of resident fish. To assess direct inputs during inundation, pesticide concentrations were analyzed in water and suspended and bed sediment samples collected from source watersheds during high-flow events. To understand inputs from direct application on fields, pesticides were also measured in soils collected from several sites within the Bypass. Thirteen current-use pesticides were detected in water samples collected in 2004 with the highest pesticide concentrations observed at the input sites to the Bypass during high-flow. Hexazinone and simazine were detected at all sites and at some of the highest concentrations. In bed and suspended sediments collected in 2004 and 2005, thirteen current-use pesticides were detected along with DDT and its metabolites. Trifluralin, DDE, and DDT were highest in the bed sediments, whereas oxyfluorfen and thiobencarb were highest in the suspended sediments. With the exception of the three organochlorine insecticides, suspended sediments had higher pesticide concentrations compared to bed sediments, indicating the potential for pesticide transport especially during high-flow events. Soil samples were dominated by DDT and its degradates but also contained a variety of current-use pesticides typically at lower concentrations. The types of pesticides detected in water and sediments were correlated with agricultural application in each watershed. Understanding the distribution of pesticides between the water and sediment is important in assessing their fate and transport within the Bypass, and in evaluating the exposure and potential effects to resident fish.

  11. A comparative study of the flux and fate of the Mississippi and Yangtze river sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Large rivers play a key role in delivering water and sediment into the global oceans. Large-river deltas and associated coastlines are important interfaces for material fluxes that have a global impact on marine processes. In this study, we compare water and sediment discharge from Mississippi and Yangtze rivers by assessing: (1 temporal variation under varying climatic and anthropogenic impacts, (2 delta response of the declining sediment discharge, and (3 deltaic lobe switching and Holocene sediment dispersal patterns on the adjacent continental shelves. Dam constructions have decreased both rivers’ sediment discharge significantly, leading to shoreline retreat along the coast. The sediment dispersal of the river-dominated Mississippi Delta is localized but for the tide-dominated Yangtze Delta is more diffuse and influenced by longshore currents. Sediment declines and relative sea level rises have led to coastal erosion, endangering the coasts of both rivers.

  12. Spreading of oil from protein stabilised emulsions at air/water interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, E.P.; Bos, M.A.; Kuijpers, A.J.; Wijnen, M.E.; Walstra, P.

    2002-01-01

    Spreading of a drop of an emulsion made with milk proteins on air/water interfaces was studied. From an unheated emulsion, all oil molecules could spread onto the air/water interface, indicating that the protein layers around the oil globules in the emulsion droplet were not coherent enough to

  13. Disturbances to metal partitioning during toxicity testing of iron(II)-rich estuarine pore waters and whole sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Stuart L; Batley, Graeme E

    2003-02-01

    Metal partitioning is altered when suboxic estuarine sediments containing Fe(II)-rich pore waters are disturbed during collection, preparation, and toxicity testing. Experiments with model Fe(II)-rich pore waters demonstrated the rates at which adsorptive losses of Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Zn occur upon exposure to air. Experiments with Zn-contaminated estuarine sediments demonstrated large and often unpredictable changes to metal partitioning during sediment storage, removal of organisms, and homogenization before testing. Small modifications to conditions, such as aeration of overlying waters, caused large changes to the metal partitioning. Disturbances caused by sediment collection required many weeks for reestablishment of equilibrium. Bioturbation by benthic organisms led to oxidation of pore-water Fe(II) and lower Zn fluxes because of the formation of Fe hydroxide precipitates that adsorb pore-water Zn. For five weeks after the addition of organisms to sediments, Zn fluxes increased slowly as the organisms established themselves in the sediments, indicating that the establishment of equilibrium was not rapid. The results are discussed in terms of the dynamic nature of suboxic, Fe(II)-rich estuarine sediments, how organisms perturb their environment, and the importance of understanding chemistry in toxicity testing with whole sediments or pore water. Recommendations are provided for the handling of sediments for toxicity testing.

  14. High-resolution measurement and mapping of tungstate in waters, soils and sediments using the low-disturbance DGT sampling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Dong-Xing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Williams, Paul N. [Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL (United Kingdom); Xu, Hua-Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Li, Gang [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Luo, Jun, E-mail: esluojun@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Ma, Lena Q. [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • Two high-resolution diffusive gradients in thin-films samplers were characterized. • For the first time DGT was applied to study the bioavailability of W in soils. • 1D and 2D high resolution profiling of W fluxes across the SWI were obtained. • The apparent diffusion W fluxes across two micro-interfaces were calculated. - Abstract: Increasing tungsten (W) use for industrial and military applications has resulted in greater W discharge into natural waters, soils and sediments. Risk modeling of W transport and fate in the environment relies on measurement of the release/mobilization flux of W in the bulk media and the interfaces between matrix compartments. Diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) is a promising passive sampling technique to acquire such information. DGT devices equipped with the newly developed high-resolution binding gels (precipitated zirconia, PZ, or ferrihydrite, PF, gels) or classic/conventional ferrihydrite slurry gel were comprehensively assessed for measuring W in waters. {sup Ferrihydrite}DGT can measure W at various ionic strengths (0.001–0.5 mol L{sup −1} NaNO{sub 3}) and pH (4–8), while {sup PZ}DGT can operate across slightly wider environmental conditions. The three DGT configurations gave comparable results for soil W measurement, showing that typically W resupply is relatively poorly sustained. 1D and 2D high-resolution W profiling across sediment—water and hotspot—bulk media interfaces from Lake Taihu were obtained using {sup PZ}DGT coupled with laser ablation ICP–MS measurement, and the apparent diffusion fluxes across the interfaces were calculated using a numerical model.

  15. Sedimentation and Its Impacts/Effects on River System and Reservoir Water Quality: case Study of Mazowe Catchment, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundu, Colleta; Tumbare, Michael James; Kileshye Onema, Jean-Marie

    2018-04-01

    Sediment delivery into water sources and bodies results in the reduction of water quantity and quality, increasing costs of water purification whilst reducing the available water for various other uses. The paper gives an analysis of sedimentation in one of Zimbabwe's seven rivers, the Mazowe Catchment, and its impact on water quality. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model was used to compute soil lost from the catchment as a result of soil erosion. The model was used in conjunction with GIS remotely sensed data and limited ground observations. The estimated annual soil loss in the catchment indicates soil loss ranging from 0 to 65 t ha yr-1. Bathymetric survey at Chimhanda Dam showed that the capacity of the dam had reduced by 39 % as a result of sedimentation and the annual sediment deposition into Chimhanda Dam was estimated to be 330 t with a specific yield of 226 t km-2 yr-1. Relationship between selected water quality parameters, TSS, DO, NO3, pH, TDS, turbidity and sediment yield for selected water sampling points and Chimhanda Dam was analyzed. It was established that there is a strong positive relationship between the sediment yield and the water quality parameters. Sediment yield showed high positive correlation with turbidity (0.63) and TDS (0.64). Water quality data from Chimhanda treatment plant water works revealed that the quality of water is deteriorating as a result of increase in sediment accumulation in the dam. The study concluded that sedimentation can affect the water quality of water sources.

  16. Water and sediment transport modeling of a large temporary river basin in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamvroudis, C; Nikolaidis, N P; Tzoraki, O; Papadoulakis, V; Karalemas, N

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this research was to study the spatial distribution of runoff and sediment transport in a large Mediterranean watershed (Evrotas River Basin) consisting of temporary flow tributaries and high mountain areas and springs by focusing on the collection and use of a variety of data to constrain the model parameters and characterize hydrologic and geophysical processes at various scales. Both monthly and daily discharge data (2004-2011) and monthly sediment concentration data (2010-2011) from an extended monitoring network of 8 sites were used to calibrate and validate the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. In addition flow desiccation maps showing wet and dry aquatic states obtained during a dry year were used to calibrate the simulation of low flows. Annual measurements of sediment accumulation in two reaches were used to further calibrate the sediment simulation. Model simulation of hydrology and sediment transport was in good agreement with field observations as indicated by a variety of statistical measures used to evaluate the goodness of fit. A water balance was constructed using a 12 year long (2000-2011) simulation. The average precipitation of the basin for this period was estimated to be 903 mm yr(-1). The actual evapotranspiration was 46.9% (424 mm yr(-1)), and the total water yield was 13.4% (121 mm yr(-1)). The remaining 33.4% (302 mm yr(-1)) was the amount of water that was lost through the deep groundwater of Taygetos and Parnonas Mountains to areas outside the watershed and for drinking water demands (6.3%). The results suggest that the catchment has on average significant water surplus to cover drinking water and irrigation demands. However, the situation is different during the dry years, where the majority of the reaches (85% of the river network are perennial and temporary) completely dry up as a result of the limited rainfall and the substantial water abstraction for irrigation purposes. There is a large variability in the

  17. Metal contamination in water sediments; Contaminacion por metales en sedimentos acuaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usero Garcia, J.; Morillo Aguado, J.; Gracia Manarillo, I. [Universidad de Sevilla. Sevilla (Spain)

    1997-09-01

    The origin, distribution, and behaviour of metals in aquatic systems, and factors affecting the solubilization and entry into the water column of metals associated with sediments are examined. Also, the interaction of these metals with and toxic effects on living organisms are studied. Finally, the existing methods for assessing the degree of pollution of sediments and the mobility of the metals associated with the sediments are explained. In the second section of this paper, the methods used for sampling, preparing, and analysing the sediments are described. (Author) 48 refs.

  18. Description of gas hydrates equilibria in sediments using experimental data of soil water potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Istomin, V. [NOVATEK, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chuvilin, E. [Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Geology; Makhonina, N.; Kvon, V. [VNIIGAZ, Moscow (Russian Federation); Safonov, S. [Schlumberger Moscow Research, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Analytical relationships have been developed between hydrate dissociation pressure and vapor pressure above the pore water surface. In addition, experiments have been discussed in numerous publications on the effect of narrow interconnected throats between pores on clathrate dissociation conditions in porous media. This paper presented an approach that improved upon the available thermodynamic methods for calculation of hydrate phase equilibria. The approach took into account the properties of pore water in natural sediments including three-phase equilibrium of gas-pore water-gas hydrate in a similar way as for unfrozen water in geocryology science. The purpose of the paper was to apply and adapt geocryology and soil physics method to the thermodynamic calculation of non-clathrated water content in sediments. It answered the question of how to estimate the non-clathrated water content if pore water potential was known. The paper explained the thermodynamics of water phase in porous media including the thermodynamic properties of supercooled water, the thermodynamic properties of pore water and pore ice in sediments, and the phase equilibria of pore water. The paper also discussed the quantitative techniques that were utilized for determination of unfrozen water content in sediments and its dependence on temperature variation. These included contact-saturation, calorimetric, dielectric, nuclear magnetic resonance, and others. The thermodynamic calculations of pore water phase equilibria were also presented. 30 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs.

  19. Strontium isotopic stratigraphy utilizing authigenic dolomites in hemipelagic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.A. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA)); Kastner, M. (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (USA)); Elderfield, H. (Univ. of Cambridge (England))

    1990-05-01

    Authigenic dolomites commonly occur in organic-rich, continental margin marine sediments. These dolomites play a key role in the age dating of stratigraphic sections. The dolomites often are the only lithology amenable to paleomagnetic stratigraphy; they preserve siliceous microfossils against diagenetic; recrystallization, and provide useful strontium isotopic stratigraphic ages. Several potential sources of error frequently are unique to the use of authigenic dolomites in the strontium isotope methods. (1) The dolomites occur as cements of the host lithology, hence, they are not a pure phase. Potentially important contaminants during analysis include gypsum clay minerals, feldspars, and iron and manganese oxides. Strontium may occur as a structural substituent ion in these minerals or as a surface-adsorbed ion. Various leaching techniques have been tested to isolate dolomitic strontium. Purer dolomites and strontium-enriched dolomites often can be selected to ease these problems. (2) The dolomites form after the deposition of the host sediment, therefore, they record the diagenetic age not the depositional age. The stable isotopic composition of the dolomites can aid in selection of early formed samples. (3) The dolomites record pore-water strontium isotope compositions, not seawater isotopic compositions. This problem is also minimized by choosing dolomites formed near the sediment-water interface. (4) The dolomites formed near the sediment-water interface originated as rotodolomites and undergo subsequent burial diagenesis, creating a potential for later strontium isotope exchange. This problem is minimized by selecting fresh samples from the interior of nearly impermeable beds and nodules. Results from the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and from the Eocene through Pliocene Pisco basin of Peru show that authigenic dolomites can provide useful strontium isotopic age estimates.

  20. Effect of water-sediment regulation and its impact on coastline and suspended sediment concentration in Yellow River Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-bo Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the water-sediment regulation (WSR scheme, mainly focused on solving the sedimentation problems of reservoirs and the lower reaches of the Yellow River, has inevitably influenced the sediment distribution and coastal morphology of the Yellow River Estuary. Using coastline delineation and suspended sediment concentration (SSC retrieval methods, this study investigated water and sediment changes, identified detailed inter-annual and intra-annual variations of the coastline and SSC in the normal period (NP: 1986–2001, before and after the flood season and WSR period (WSRP: 2002–2013, before and after WSR. The results indicate that (1 the sedimentation in the low reaches of the Yellow River turned into erosion from 2002 onward; (2 the inter-annual coastline changes could be divided into an accretion stage (1986–1996, a slow erosion stage (1996–2002, and a slow accretion stage (2002–2013; (3 an intra-annual coastline extension occurred in the river mouth in most years of the WSRP; and (4 the mean intra-annual accretion area was 0.789 km2 in the NP and 4.73 km2 in the WSRP, and the mean SSC increased from 238 mg/L to 293 mg/L in the NP and from 192 mg/L to 264 mg/L in the WSRP.

  1. Dynamic sorption data of selected radionuclides in sediment-water-systems from the Gorleben region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.

    1993-01-01

    In 48 sediment-water-systems from the Gorleben region about 300 continuous-flow-column experiments were performed with 10 radionuclides. To simulate conditions as close as possible to natural ones (as regards the bedding of sediments, speed of filtration, environment, and microbiology - if necessary) for the sediment-groundwater-systems, the ranges of retardation factors for fresh, mixed and salt water systems were specified. For the investigated sand-water-systems, a comparison of the results obtained from continuous-flow-column and batch experiments for 85Sr and 134Cs was made. (orig.) [de

  2. Heat transfer on liquid-liquid interface of molten-metal and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Saito, Yasushi; Mishima, Kaichiro

    2001-01-01

    Molten-core pool had been formed in the lower-head of TMI-2 pressure vessel at the severe accident. The lower head, however, didn't receive any damage by reactor core cooling. Heat transfer at outside of the lower head and boiling heat transfer at liquid-liquid interface of molten-metal and water, however, are important for initial cooling process of the molten-core pool. The heat transfer experiments for the liquid-liquid interface of molten-metal and water are carried out over the range of natural convection to film boiling region. Phenomenon on the heat transfer experiments are visualized by using of high speed video camera. Wood's metal and U-alloy 78 are used as molten-metal. The test section of the experiments consists of a copper block with heater, wood's metal, and water. Three thermocouple probes are used for temperature measurement of water side and the molten-metal side. Stability of the liquid-liquid interface is depended on the wetness of container wall for molten metal and the temperature distribution of the interface. Entrainment phenomena of molten-metal occurs by a fluctuation of the interface after boiling on the container wall surface. The boiling curves obtained from the liquid-liquid interface experiments are agree with the nucleate boiling and the film boiling correlations of solid-liquid system. (Suetake, M.)

  3. Total mercury concentrations in surface water and sediments from Danube Delta lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODOROF Liliana

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The samples were collected from surface water and sediments of Danube Delta lakes, during april and may 2006. The sediments were digested with nitric acid, and the surface water with real aqua, at Microwave Oven Anton Paar and analised at FIMS 400 Perkin Elmer. The results show that the total mercury is compared with the maximum allowed limits according with Normative 161/2006.

  4. Hyporheic zone as a bioreactor: sediment heterogeneity influencing biogeochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perujo, Nuria; Romani, Anna M.; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean fluvial systems are characterized by frequent periods of low flow or even drought. During low flow periods, water from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is proportionally large in fluvial systems. River water might be vertically transported through the hyporheic zone, and then porous medium acts as a complementary treatment system since, as water infiltrates, a suite of biogeochemical processes occurs. Subsurface sediment heterogeneity plays an important role since it influences the interstitial fluxes of the medium and drives biomass growing, determining biogeochemical reactions. In this study, WWTP water was continuously infiltrated for 3 months through two porous medium tanks: one consisting of 40 cm of fine sediment (homogeneous); and another comprised of two layers of different grain size sediments (heterogeneous), 20 cm of coarse sediment in the upper part and 20 cm of fine one in the bottom. Several hydrological, physicochemical and biological parameters were measured periodically (weekly at the start of the experiment and biweekly at the end). Analysed parameters include dissolved nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, and oxygen all measured at the surface, and at 5, 20 and 40 cm depth. Variations in hydraulic conductivity with time were evaluated. Sediment samples were also analysed at three depths (surface, 20 and 40 cm) to determine bacterial density, chlorophyll content, extracellular polymeric substances, and biofilm function (extracellular enzyme activities and carbon substrate utilization profiles). Preliminary results suggest hydraulic conductivity to be the main driver of the differences in the biogeochemical processes occurring in the subsurface. At the heterogeneous tank, a low nutrient reduction throughout the whole medium is measured. In this medium, high hydraulic conductivity allows for a large amount of infiltrating water, but with a small residence time. Since some biological processes are largely time-dependent, small water

  5. The influence of neap-spring tidal variation and wave energy on sediment flux in salt marsh tidal creeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jessica; Ferner, Matthew C.; Callaway, John C.

    2018-01-01

    Sediment flux in marsh tidal creeks is commonly used to gage sediment supply to marshes. We conducted a field investigation of temporal variability in sediment flux in tidal creeks in the accreting tidal marsh at China Camp State Park adjacent to northern San Francisco Bay. Suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), velocity, and depth were measured near the mouths of two tidal creeks during three six-to-ten-week deployments: two in winter and one in summer. Currents, wave properties and SSC were measured in the adjacent shallows. All deployments spanned the largest spring tides of the season. Results show that tidally-averaged suspended-sediment flux (SSF) in the tidal creeks decreased with increasing tidal energy, and SSF was negative (bayward) for tidal cycles with maximum water surface elevation above the marsh plain. Export during the largest spring tides dominated the cumulative SSF measured during the deployments. During ebb tides following the highest tides, velocities exceeded 1 m/s in the narrow tidal creeks, resulting in negative tidally-averaged water flux, and mobilizing sediment from the creek banks or bed. Storm surge also produced negative SSF. Tidally-averaged SSF was positive in wavey conditions with moderate tides. Spring-tide sediment export was about 50% less at a station 130 m further up the tidal creek than at the creek mouth. The negative tidally-averaged water flux near the creek mouth during spring tides indicates that in the lower marsh, some of the water flooding directly across the bay--marsh interface drains through the tidal creeks, and suggests that this interface may be a pathway for sediment supply to the lower marsh as well.

  6. Adsorptionof polar organic molecules at oil/water interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aveyard, R; Chapman, J

    1975-03-15

    A study has been made of the adsorption of several esters of dicarboxylic acids at the alkane/water and the air/water interface. The adsorption of n-butanol and n-heptanol at the air/water surface also has been investigated. The surface pressure (pi) -surface area (A) isotherms are compared for the various films, and standard free energies of adsorption have been determined. Attempts have been made to fit the pi, A isotherms using surface equations of state based on the models, of both a 2-dimensional gas and a 2-dimensional solution. The solution model has proved reasonably successful for fairly dilute films at the air/water surface. At higher coverages, an equation derived by Smith for liquid expanded monolayers gives a moderately good description of films of heptanol on water. A simple application of the solution model on adsorbed monolayers at the liquid; liquid interface met with little success. However, it is found that 2-dimensional gas equations describe such systems surprisingly well for fairly low surface concentrations. (20 refs.)

  7. The Diffusive Boundary-Layer of Sediments - Oxygen Microgradients Over a Microbial Mat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØRGENSEN, BB; MARAIS, DJD

    1990-01-01

    Oxygen microelectrodes were used to analyze the distribution of the diffusive boundary layer (DBL) at the sedimen-water interface in relation to surface topography and flow velocity. The sediment, collected from saline ponds, was covered by a microbial mat that had high oxygen consumption rate...... and well-defined surface structure. Diffusion through the DBL constituted an important rate limitation to the oxygen uptake of the sediment. The mean effective DBL thickness decreased from 0.59 to 0.16 mm as the flow velocity of the overlying water was increased from 0.3 to 7.7 cm s-1 (measured 1 cm above...

  8. Risk assessing heavy metals in the groundwater-surface water interface at a contaminated site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigi, Giovanni; McKnight, Ursula S.; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    such as surface water and groundwater (EC, 2017). The current study quantified and assessed the contamination of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the shallow aquifer, hyporheic zone, stream water and streambed sediments at Rådvad site, a former metal manufacturing industrial area located in Denmark, investigating...... in the soil). Stream water was sampled in 12 points, while groundwater was sampled in 4 wells close to the stream where the interaction was suspected. Sediments and hyporheic zone were sampled in pair, where upward hydraulic heads have been detected. A drain discharging in the river was also sampled....... Sediments were divided in different layers and both heavy metal total concentration and chemical partitioning were analysed. Redox species and dissolved organic matter were also analysed in the water samples, while fraction of organic carbon was investigated in the extracted sediments. Results showed a high...

  9. Squirt flow due to interfacial water films in hydrate bearing sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sell

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sediments containing gas hydrate dispersed in the pore space are known to show a characteristic seismic anomaly which is a high attenuation along with increasing seismic velocities. Currently, this observation cannot be fully explained albeit squirt-flow type mechanisms on the microscale have been speculated to be the cause. Recent major findings from in situ experiments, using the gas in excess and water in excess formation method, and coupled with high-resolution synchrotron-based X-ray micro-tomography, have revealed the systematic presence of thin water films between the quartz grains and the encrusting hydrate. The data obtained from these experiments underwent an image processing procedure to quantify the thicknesses and geometries of the aforementioned interfacial water films. Overall, the water films vary from sub-micrometer to a few micrometers in thickness. In addition, some of the water films interconnect through water bridges. This geometrical analysis is used to propose a new conceptual squirt flow model for hydrate bearing sediments. A series of numerical simulations is performed considering variations of the proposed model to study seismic attenuation caused by such thin water films. Our results support previous speculation that squirt flow can explain high attenuation at seismic frequencies in hydrate bearing sediments, but based on a conceptual squirt flow model which is geometrically different than those previously considered.

  10. Transport of Water, Carbon, and Sediment Through the Yukon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Schuster, Paul F.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a water-quality study of the Yukon River. The Yukon River Basin (YRB), which encompasses 330,000 square miles in northwestern Canada and central Alaska (fig. 1), is one of the largest and most diverse ecosystems in North America. The Yukon River is more than 1,800 miles long and is one of the last great uncontrolled rivers in the world, and is essential to the eastern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea ecosystems, providing freshwater runoff, sediments, and nutrients (Brabets and others, 2000). Despite its remoteness, recent studies (Hinzman and others, 2005; Walvoord and Striegl, 2007) indicate the YRB is changing. These changes likely are in response to a warming trend in air temperature of 1.7i??C from 1951 to 2001 (Hartmann and Wendler, 2005). As a result of this warming trend, permafrost is thawing in the YRB, ice breakup occurs earlier on the main stem of the Yukon River and its tributaries, and timing of streamflow and movement of carbon and sediment through the basin is changing (Hinzman and others, 2005; Walvoord and Striegl, 2007). One of the most striking characteristics in the YRB is its seasonality. In the YRB, more than 75 percent of the annual streamflow runoff occurs during a five month period, May through September. This is important because streamflow determines when, where, and how much of a particular constituent will be transported. As an example, more than 95 percent of all sediment transported during an average year also occurs during this period (Brabets and others, 2000). During the other 7 months, streamflow, concentrations of sediment and other water-quality constituents are low and little or no sediment transport occurs in the Yukon River and its tributaries. Streamflow and water-quality data have been collected at more than 50 sites in the YRB (Dornblaser and Halm, 2006; Halm and Dornblaser, 2007). Five sites have been sampled more than 30 times and others have been sampled twice

  11. Distribution of butyltins in the waters and sediments along the coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Garg, A.; Meena, R; Jadhav, S.; Bhosle, N.B.

    for sediments it varied between below detection limit to 14861 ng Sn g sup(-1) dry weight of sediment. On an average Chennai port recorded the highest level of butyltins in the sediments while Paradip recorded the highest level of butylins in the waters. A...

  12. [Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediment from Zhoushan coastal area, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min; Tuan, Le Huy; Mei, Wei-Ping; Ruan, Hui-Hui; Wu, Hao

    2014-07-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been investigated in water and sediments of Zhoushan coastal area every two months in 2012. The concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 382.3 to 816.9 ng x L(-1), with the mean value of 552.5 ng x L(-1) in water; whereas it ranged from 1017.9 to 3047.1 ng x g(-1), with the mean value of 2 022.4 ng x g(-1) in sediment. Spatial distribution showed that Yangshan and Yanwoshan offshore area had the maximum and minimum of total PAHs contents in water, while the maximum and minimum occurred at Yangshan and Zhujiajian Nansha offshore area in sediment. Temporal distribution revealed that total PAHs contents in water reached the maximum and minimum values in October and June, however in sediments these values were found in August and June, respectively. The PAHs pollution was affected by oil emission, charcoal and coal combustion. Using the biological threshold and exceeded coefficient method to assess the ecological risk of PAHs in Zhoushan coastal area, the result showed that sigma PAHs had a lower probability of potential risk, while there was a higher probability of potential risk for acenaphthylene monomer, and there might be ecological risk for acenaphthene and fluorene. Distribution of PAHs between sediment and water showed that Zhoushan coastal sediment enriched a lot of PAHs, meanwhile the enrichment coefficient (K(d) value) of sediment in Daishan island was larger than that in Zhoushan main island.

  13. Water Orientation at Ceramide/Water Interfaces Studied by Heterodyne-Detected Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Adhikari, Aniruddha; Re, Suyong; Nishima, Wataru; Ahmed, Mohammed; Nihonyanagi, Satoshi; Klauda, Jeffery B.; Sugita, Yuji; Tahara, Tahei

    2016-01-01

    Lipid/water interaction is essential for many biological processes. The water structure at the nonionic lipid interface remains little known, and there is no scope of a priori prediction of water orientation at nonionic interfaces, either. Here, we

  14. Mineralogy, early marine diagenesis, and the chemistry of shallow-water carbonate sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, J. A.; Blättler, C. L.; Lundstrom, E. A.; Santiago-Ramos, D. P.; Akhtar, A. A.; Crüger Ahm, A.-S.; Bialik, O.; Holmden, C.; Bradbury, H.; Murray, S. T.; Swart, P. K.

    2018-01-01

    Shallow-water carbonate sediments constitute the bulk of sedimentary carbonates in the geologic record and are widely used archives of Earth's chemical and climatic history. One of the main limitations in interpreting the geochemistry of ancient carbonate sediments is the potential for post-depositional diagenetic alteration. In this study, we use paired measurements of calcium (44Ca/40Ca or δ44Ca) and magnesium (26Mg/24Mg or δ26Mg) isotope ratios in sedimentary carbonates and associated pore-fluids as a tool to understand the mineralogical and diagenetic history of Neogene shallow-water carbonate sediments from the Bahamas and southwest Australia. We find that the Ca and Mg isotopic composition of bulk carbonate sediments at these sites exhibits systematic stratigraphic variability that is related to both mineralogy and early marine diagenesis. The observed variability in bulk sediment Ca isotopes is best explained by changes in the extent and style of early marine diagenesis from one where the composition of the diagenetic carbonate mineral is determined by the chemistry of the fluid (fluid-buffered) to one where the composition of the diagenetic carbonate mineral is determined by the chemistry of the precursor sediment (sediment-buffered). Our results indicate that this process, together with variations in carbonate mineralogy (aragonite, calcite, and dolomite), plays a fundamental and underappreciated role in determining the regional and global stratigraphic expressions of geochemical tracers (δ13C, δ18O, major, minor, and trace elements) in shallow-water carbonate sediments in the geologic record. Our results also provide evidence that a large shallow-water carbonate sink that is enriched in 44Ca can explain the mismatch between the δ44/40Ca value of rivers and deep-sea carbonate sediments and call into question the hypothesis that the δ44/40Ca value of seawater depends on the mineralogy of primary carbonate precipitations (e.g. 'aragonite seas' and

  15. Benthic metal fluxes and sediment diagenesis in a water reservoir affected by acid mine drainage: A laboratory experiment and reactive transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, E.; Ayora, C.; Jiménez-Arias, J. L.; García-Robledo, E.; Papaspyrou, S.; Corzo, A.

    2014-08-01

    Reservoirs are one of the primary water supply sources. Knowledge of the metal fluxes at the water-sediment interfaces of reservoirs is essential for predicting their ecological quality. Redox oscillations in the water column are promoted by stratification; turnover events may significantly alter metal cycling, especially in reservoirs impacted by acid mine drainage (AMD). To study this phenomenon, an experiment was performed under controlled laboratory conditions. Sediment cores from an AMD-affected reservoir were maintained in a tank with reservoir water for approximately two months and subjected to alternating oxic-hypoxic conditions. A detailed metal speciation in solid phases of the sediment was initially performed by sequential extraction, and pore water was analyzed at the end of each redox period. Tank water metals concentrations were systematically monitored throughout the experiment. The experimental results were then used to calibrate a diffusion-reaction model and quantify the reaction rates and sediment-water fluxes. Under oxic conditions, pH, Fe and As concentrations decreased in the tank due to schwertmannite precipitation, whereas the concentrations of Al, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Co increased due to Al(OH)3 and sulfide dissolution. The reverse trends occurred under hypoxic conditions. Under oxic conditions, the fluxes calculated by applying Fick’s first law to experimental concentration gradients contradicted the fluxes expected based on the evolution of the tank water. According to the reactive transport calculations, this discrepancy can be attributed to the coarse resolution of sediment sampling. The one-cm-thick slices failed to capture effectively the notably narrow (1-2 mm) concentration peaks of several elements in the shallow pore water resulting from sulfide and Al(OH)3 dissolution. The diffusion-reaction model, extended to the complete year, computed that between 25% and 50% of the trace metals and less than 10% of the Al that precipitated under

  16. Antibiotics in surface water and sediments from Hanjiang River, Central China: Occurrence, behavior and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying; Yan, Xue; Shen, Yun; Di, Mingxiao; Wang, Jun

    2018-08-15

    Thirteen antibiotics including sulfonamides (SAs), tetracyclines (TETs) and fluoroquinolones (FQs) were measured in Hanjiang River (HR) during two periods. The total concentrations of 13 antibiotics in surface water and sediments ranged from 3.1 to 109 ng/l and from 10 to 45 ng/g dry weight, respectively. SAs were dominant in water while the concentrations of TETs were the highest in sediments in two seasons. For their spatial distribution, total concentrations of 13 antibiotics in both matrices were significantly higher in the lower section of HR (p  5.15) due to wastewater release, agricultural activities and water transfer project. Obvious seasonal variations of sulfadiazine, sulfameter, trimethoprim and oxytetracycline in water were observed (p  4.62). Phase partition of antibiotics between water and sediments suggested a greater affinity of TETs and FQs to sediments. In addition, significantly positive relationships were found between SAs (sulfameter, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim) and sediment TOC (p Risk assessment indicated that the hazard quotients of antibiotics were higher in the sediment than those in the water. Moreover, antibiotic mixtures posed higher ecological risks to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. E. coli Surface Properties Differ between Stream Water and Sediment Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of E. coli as an indicator organism in fresh water has led to numerous studies focusing on cell properties and transport behavior. However, previous studies have been unable to assess if differences in E. coli cell surface properties and genomic variation are associated with different environmental habitats. In this study, we investigated the variation in characteristics of E. coli obtained from stream water and stream bottom sediments. Cell properties were measured for 77 genomically different E. coli strains (44 strains isolated from sediments and 33 strains isolated from water under common stream conditions in the Upper Midwestern United States: pH 8.0, ionic strength 10mM and 22˚C. Measured cell properties include hydrophobicity, zeta potential, net charge, total acidity and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS composition. Our results indicate that stream sediment E. coli had significantly greater hydrophobicity, greater EPS protein content and EPS sugar content, less negative net charge, and higher point of zero charge than stream water E. coli. A significant positive correlation was observed between hydrophobicity and EPS protein for stream sediment E. coli but not for stream water E. coli. Additionally, E. coli surviving in the same habitat tended to have significantly larger (GTG5 genome similarity. After accounting for the intrinsic impact from the genome, environmental habitat was determined to be a factor influencing some cell surface properties, such as hydrophobicity. The diversity of cell properties and its resulting impact on particle interactions should be considered for environmental fate and transport modeling of aquatic indicator organisms such as E. coli.

  18. E. coli Surface Properties Differ between Stream Water and Sediment Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Liao, Chunyu; Thompson, Michael L; Soupir, Michelle L; Jarboe, Laura R; Dixon, Philip M

    2016-01-01

    The importance of E. coli as an indicator organism in fresh water has led to numerous studies focusing on cell properties and transport behavior. However, previous studies have been unable to assess if differences in E. coli cell surface properties and genomic variation are associated with different environmental habitats. In this study, we investigated the variation in characteristics of E. coli obtained from stream water and stream bottom sediments. Cell properties were measured for 77 genomically different E. coli strains (44 strains isolated from sediments and 33 strains isolated from water) under common stream conditions in the Upper Midwestern United States: pH 8.0, ionic strength 10 mM and 22°C. Measured cell properties include hydrophobicity, zeta potential, net charge, total acidity, and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) composition. Our results indicate that stream sediment E. coli had significantly greater hydrophobicity, greater EPS protein content and EPS sugar content, less negative net charge, and higher point of zero charge than stream water E. coli . A significant positive correlation was observed between hydrophobicity and EPS protein for stream sediment E. coli but not for stream water E. coli . Additionally, E. coli surviving in the same habitat tended to have significantly larger (GTG) 5 genome similarity. After accounting for the intrinsic impact from the genome, environmental habitat was determined to be a factor influencing some cell surface properties, such as hydrophobicity. The diversity of cell properties and its resulting impact on particle interactions should be considered for environmental fate and transport modeling of aquatic indicator organisms such as E. coli .

  19. Erosion and Sediment Transport Modelling in Shallow Waters: A Review on Approaches, Models and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hajigholizadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The erosion and sediment transport processes in shallow waters, which are discussed in this paper, begin when water droplets hit the soil surface. The transport mechanism caused by the consequent rainfall-runoff process determines the amount of generated sediment that can be transferred downslope. Many significant studies and models are performed to investigate these processes, which differ in terms of their effecting factors, approaches, inputs and outputs, model structure and the manner that these processes represent. This paper attempts to review the related literature concerning sediment transport modelling in shallow waters. A classification based on the representational processes of the soil erosion and sediment transport models (empirical, conceptual, physical and hybrid is adopted, and the commonly-used models and their characteristics are listed. This review is expected to be of interest to researchers and soil and water conservation managers who are working on erosion and sediment transport phenomena in shallow waters. The paper format should be helpful for practitioners to identify and generally characterize the types of available models, their strengths and their basic scope of applicability.

  20. Erosion and Sediment Transport Modelling in Shallow Waters: A Review on Approaches, Models and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajigholizadeh, Mohammad; Melesse, Assefa M; Fuentes, Hector R

    2018-03-14

    The erosion and sediment transport processes in shallow waters, which are discussed in this paper, begin when water droplets hit the soil surface. The transport mechanism caused by the consequent rainfall-runoff process determines the amount of generated sediment that can be transferred downslope. Many significant studies and models are performed to investigate these processes, which differ in terms of their effecting factors, approaches, inputs and outputs, model structure and the manner that these processes represent. This paper attempts to review the related literature concerning sediment transport modelling in shallow waters. A classification based on the representational processes of the soil erosion and sediment transport models (empirical, conceptual, physical and hybrid) is adopted, and the commonly-used models and their characteristics are listed. This review is expected to be of interest to researchers and soil and water conservation managers who are working on erosion and sediment transport phenomena in shallow waters. The paper format should be helpful for practitioners to identify and generally characterize the types of available models, their strengths and their basic scope of applicability.

  1. Soil, Groundwater, Surface Water, and Sediments of Kennedy Space Center, Florida: Background Chemical and Physical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Mota, Mario; Hall, Carlton R.; Dunlevy, Colleen A.

    2000-01-01

    This study documented background chemical composition of soils, groundwater, surface; water, and sediments of Kennedy Space Center. Two hundred soil samples were collected, 20 each in 10 soil classes. Fifty-one groundwater wells were installed in 4 subaquifers of the Surficial Aquifer and sampled; there were 24 shallow, 16 intermediate, and 11 deep wells. Forty surface water and sediment samples were collected in major watershed basins. All samples were away from sites of known contamination. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, aroclors, chlorinated herbicides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total metals, and other parameters. All aroclors (6) were below detection in all media. Some organochlorine pesticides were detected at very low frequencies in soil, sediment, and surface water. Chlorinated herbicides were detected at very low frequencies in soil and sediments. PAH occurred in low frequencies in soiL, shallow groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Concentrations of some metals differed among soil classes, with subaquifers and depths, and among watershed basins for surface water but not sediments. Most of the variation in metal concentrations was natural, but agriculture had increased Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn.

  2. Morphological variation of stimuli-responsive polypeptide at air–water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sungchul; Ahn, Sungmin; Cheng, Jie; Chang, Hyejin; Jung, Dae-Hong; Hyun, Jinho

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • It is the first report on the interfacial properties of ELP monolayers formed at the air–water interface. • ELP monolayers could be prepared with high stability at the air–water interface. • The compressive behavior of thermo-sensitive ELP monolayers was imaged. • The SERS spectra showed a change in the ELP secondary structure at different preparation conditions. - Abstract: The morphological variation of stimuli-responsive polypeptide molecules at the air–water interface as a function of temperature and compression was described. The surface pressure–area (π–A) isotherms of an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) monolayer were obtained under variable external conditions, and Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) monolayers were deposited onto a mica substrate for characterization. As the compression of the ELP monolayer increased, the surface pressure increased gradually, indicating that the ELP monolayer could be prepared with high stability at the air–water interface. The temperature in the subphase of the ELP monolayer was critical in the preparation of LB monolayers. The change in temperature induced a shift in the π–A isotherms as well as a change in ELP secondary structures. Surprisingly, the compression of the ELP monolayer influenced the ELP secondary structure due to the reduction in the phase transition temperature with decreasing temperature. The change in the ELP secondary structure formed at the air–water interface was investigated by surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Moreover, the morphology of the ELP monolayer was subsequently imaged using atomic force microscopy. The temperature responsive behavior resulted in changes in surface morphology from relatively flat structures to rugged labyrinth structures, which suggested conformational changes in the ELP monolayers.

  3. Morphological variation of stimuli-responsive polypeptide at air–water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sungchul; Ahn, Sungmin; Cheng, Jie [Department of Biosystems and Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyejin; Jung, Dae-Hong [Department of Chemical Education, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-741 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Jinho, E-mail: jhyun@snu.ac.kr [Department of Biosystems and Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921, Republic of Korea. (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • It is the first report on the interfacial properties of ELP monolayers formed at the air–water interface. • ELP monolayers could be prepared with high stability at the air–water interface. • The compressive behavior of thermo-sensitive ELP monolayers was imaged. • The SERS spectra showed a change in the ELP secondary structure at different preparation conditions. - Abstract: The morphological variation of stimuli-responsive polypeptide molecules at the air–water interface as a function of temperature and compression was described. The surface pressure–area (π–A) isotherms of an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) monolayer were obtained under variable external conditions, and Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) monolayers were deposited onto a mica substrate for characterization. As the compression of the ELP monolayer increased, the surface pressure increased gradually, indicating that the ELP monolayer could be prepared with high stability at the air–water interface. The temperature in the subphase of the ELP monolayer was critical in the preparation of LB monolayers. The change in temperature induced a shift in the π–A isotherms as well as a change in ELP secondary structures. Surprisingly, the compression of the ELP monolayer influenced the ELP secondary structure due to the reduction in the phase transition temperature with decreasing temperature. The change in the ELP secondary structure formed at the air–water interface was investigated by surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Moreover, the morphology of the ELP monolayer was subsequently imaged using atomic force microscopy. The temperature responsive behavior resulted in changes in surface morphology from relatively flat structures to rugged labyrinth structures, which suggested conformational changes in the ELP monolayers.

  4. Protein adsorption at the electrified air-water interface: implications on foam stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Kathrin; Rumpel, Armin; Walter, Johannes; Dombrowski, Jannika; Kulozik, Ulrich; Braunschweig, Björn; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2012-05-22

    The surface chemistry of ions, water molecules, and proteins as well as their ability to form stable networks in foams can influence and control macroscopic properties such as taste and texture of dairy products considerably. Despite the significant relevance of protein adsorption at liquid interfaces, a molecular level understanding on the arrangement of proteins at interfaces and their interactions has been elusive. Therefore, we have addressed the adsorption of the model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) at the air-water interface with vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) and ellipsometry. SFG provides specific information on the composition and average orientation of molecules at interfaces, while complementary information on the thickness of the adsorbed layer can be obtained with ellipsometry. Adsorption of charged BSA proteins at the water surface leads to an electrified interface, pH dependent charging, and electric field-induced polar ordering of interfacial H(2)O and BSA. Varying the bulk pH of protein solutions changes the intensities of the protein related vibrational bands substantially, while dramatic changes in vibrational bands of interfacial H(2)O are simultaneously observed. These observations have allowed us to determine the isoelectric point of BSA directly at the electrolyte-air interface for the first time. BSA covered air-water interfaces with a pH near the isoelectric point form an amorphous network of possibly agglomerated BSA proteins. Finally, we provide a direct correlation of the molecular structure of BSA interfaces with foam stability and new information on the link between microscopic properties of BSA at water surfaces and macroscopic properties such as the stability of protein foams.

  5. Modeling chemical accumulation in sediment of small waterbodies accounting for sediment transport and water-sediment exchange processes over long periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David Albert; Strehmel, Alexander; Erzgräber, Beate; Hammel, Klaus

    2017-12-01

    In a recent scientific opinion of the European Food Safety Authority it is argued that the accumulation of plant protection products in sediments over long time periods may be an environmentally significant process. Therefore, the European Food Safety Authority proposed a calculation to account for plant protection product accumulation. This calculation, however, considers plant protection product degradation within sediment as the only dissipation route, and does not account for sediment dynamics or back-diffusion into the water column. The hydraulic model Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS; US Army Corps of Engineers) was parameterized to assess sediment transport and deposition dynamics within the FOrum for Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and their USe (FOCUS) scenarios in simulations spanning 20 yr. The results show that only 10 to 50% of incoming sediment would be deposited. The remaining portion of sediment particles is transported across the downstream boundary. For a generic plant protection product substance this resulted in deposition of only 20 to 50% of incoming plant protection product substance. In a separate analysis, the FOCUS TOXSWA model was utilized to examine the relative importance of degradation versus back-diffusion as loss processes from the sediment compartment for a diverse range of generic plant protection products. In simulations spanning 20 yr, it was shown that back-diffusion was generally the dominant dissipation process. The results of the present study show that sediment dynamics and back-diffusion should be considered when calculating long-term plant protection product accumulation in sediment. Neglecting these may lead to a systematic overestimation of accumulation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3223-3231. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  6. Rock-Bound Arsenic Influences Ground Water and Sediment Chemistry Throughout New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gilpin R.; Ayotte, Joseph D.

    2007-01-01

    The information in this report was presented at the Northeastern Region Geological Society of America meeting held March 11-14, 2007, in Durham, New Hampshire. In the New England crystalline bedrock aquifer, concentrations of arsenic that exceed the drinking water standard of 10 ?g/L occur most frequently in ground water from wells sited in specific metamorphic and igneous rock units. Geochemical investigations indicate that these geologic units typically have moderately elevated whole-rock concentrations of arsenic compared to other rocks in the region. The distribution of ground water wells with As > 5 ?g/L has a strong spatial correlation with specific bedrock units where average whole-rock concentrations of arsenic exceed 1.1 mg/kg and where geologic and geochemical factors produce high pH ground water. Arsenic concentrations in stream sediments collected from small drainages reflect the regional distribution of this natural arsenic source and have a strong correlation with both rock chemistry and the distribution of bedrock units with elevated arsenic chemistry. The distribution of ground water wells with As > 5 ?g/L has a strong spatial correlation with the distribution of stream sediments where concentrations of arsenic exceed 6 mg/kg. Stream sediment chemistry also has a weak correlation with the distribution of agricultural lands where arsenical pesticides were used on apple, blueberry, and potato crops. Elevated arsenic concentrations in bedrock wells, however, do not correlate with agricultural areas where arsenical pesticides were used. These results indicate that both stream sediment chemistry and the solubility and mobility of arsenic in ground water in bedrock are influenced by host-rock arsenic concentrations. Stream sediment chemistry and the distribution of geologic units have been found to be useful parameters to predict the areas of greatest concern for elevated arsenic in ground water and to estimate the likely levels of human exposure to

  7. Geochemistry of deep-sea sediment cores from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mudholkar, A.V.; Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.

    , thought to be of diagenetic origin. Metals are suppliEd. by upward migration from a suboxic to anoxic zone at an intermediate depth of 12-35 cm below the sediment-water interface in all the cores. Buried maxima in transition metal concentration at depth...

  8. The Diffusive Boundary-Layer of Sediments - Oxygen Microgradients Over a Microbial Mat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØRGENSEN, BB; MARAIS, DJD

    1990-01-01

    Oxygen microelectrodes were used to analyze the distribution of the diffusive boundary layer (DBL) at the sedimen-water interface in relation to surface topography and flow velocity. The sediment, collected from saline ponds, was covered by a microbial mat that had high oxygen consumption rate...

  9. The Silica-Water Interface from the Analysis of Molecular Dynamic Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Lardhi, Sheikha F.

    2013-05-01

    Surface chemistry is an emerging field that can give detailed insight about the elec- tronic properties and the interaction of complex material surfaces with their neigh- bors. This is for both solid-solid and solid-liquid interfaces. Among the latter class, the silica-water interface plays a major role in nature. Silica is among the most abundant materials on earth, as well in advanced technological applications such as catalysis and nanotechnology. This immediately indicates the relevance of a detailed understanding of the silica-water interface. In this study, we investigate the details of this interaction at microscopic level by analyzing trajectories obtained with ab initio molecular dynamic simulations. The system we consider consists of bulk liquid water confined between two β-cristobalite silica surfaces. The molecular dynamics were generated with the CP2K, an ab initio molecular dynamic simulation tool. The simulations are 25 picoseconds long, and the CP2K program was run on 64 cores on a supercomputer cluster. During the simulations the program integrates Newton’s equations of motion for the system and generates the trajectory for analysis. For analysis, we focused on the following properties that characterize the silica water interface. We calculated the density profile of the water layers from the silica surface, and we also calculated the radial distribution function (RDF) of the hydrogen bond at the silanols on the silica surface. The main focus of this thesis is to write the programs for calculating the atom density profile and the RDF from the generated MD trajectories. The atomic probability density profile shows that water is strongly adsorbed on the (001) cristobalite surface, while the RDF indicates differently ad- sorbed water molecules in the first adsorption layer. As final remark, the protocol and the tools developed in this thesis can be applied to the study of basically any crystal-water interface.

  10. Quality-Assurance Plan for the Analysis of Fluvial Sediment by the U. S. Geological Survey Kentucky Water Science Center Sediment Laboratory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shreve, Elizabeth A; Downs, Aimee C

    2005-01-01

    This report describes laboratory procedures used by the U. S. Geological Survey Kentucky Water Science Center Sediment Laboratory for the processing and analysis of fluvial sediment samples for concentration of sand and finer material...

  11. Chemistry of marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    Some topics considered are as follows: characterization of sediments in the vicinity of offshore petroleum production; thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis; composition of polluted bottom sediments in Great Lakes harbors; distribution of heavy metals in sediment fractions; recent deposition of lead off the coast of southern California; release of trace constituents from sediments resuspended during dredging operations; and migration of chemical constituents in sediment-seawater interfaces

  12. Molecular modeling of the green leaf volatile methyl salicylate on atmospheric air/water interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyana-Arachchi, Thilanga P; Hansel, Amie K; Stevens, Christopher; Ehrenhauser, Franz S; Valsaraj, Kalliat T; Hung, Francisco R

    2013-05-30

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a green leaf volatile (GLV) compound that is emitted in significant amounts by plants, especially when they are under stress conditions. GLVs can then undergo chemical reactions with atmospheric oxidants, yielding compounds that contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). We investigated the adsorption of MeSA on atmospheric air/water interfaces at 298 K using thermodynamic integration (TI), potential of mean force (PMF) calculations, and classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our molecular models can reproduce experimental results of the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient of MeSA. A deep free energy minimum was found for MeSA at the air/water interface, which is mainly driven by energetic interactions between MeSA and water. At the interface, the oxygenated groups in MeSA tend to point toward the water side of the interface, with the aromatic group of MeSA lying farther away from water. Increases in the concentrations of MeSA lead to reductions in the height of the peaks in the MeSA-MeSA g(r) functions, a slowing down of the dynamics of both MeSA and water at the interface, and a reduction in the interfacial surface tension. Our results indicate that MeSA has a strong thermodynamic preference to remain at the air/water interface, and thus chemical reactions with atmospheric oxidants are more likely to take place at this interface, rather than in the water phase of atmospheric water droplets or in the gas phase.

  13. A new conceptual framework for water and sediment connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Cerdà, Artemi; Parsons, Tony; Nunes, Joao Pedro; Saco, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    For many years scientists have tried to understand, describe and quantify sediment transport on multiple scales; from the geomorphological work triggered by a single thunderstorm to the geological time scale land scape evolution, and from particles and soil aggregates up to the continental scale. In the last two decades, a new concept called connectivity (Baartman et al., 2013; Bracken et al., 2013, 2015; Parsons et al., 2015) has been used by the scientific community to describe the connection between the different scales at which the sediment redistribution research along the watershed are being studied: pedon, slope tram, slope, watersheds, and basins. This concept is seen as a means to describe and quantify the results of processes influencing the transport of sediment on all these scales. Therefore the concept of connectivity and the way scales are used in the design of a measurement and monitoring scheme are interconnected (Cerdà et al., 2012), which shows that connectivity is not only a tool for process understanding, but also a tool to measure processes on multiple scales. This research aims to describe catchment system dynamics from a connectivity point of view. This conceptual framework can be helpful to look at catchment systems and synthesize which data are necessary to take into account when measuring or modelling water and sediment transfer in catchment systems, Identifying common patterns and generalities will help discover physical reasons for differences in responses and interaction between these processes. We describe a conceptual framework which is meant to bring a better understanding of the system dynamics of a catchment in terms of water and sediment transfer by breaking apart the system dynamics in stocks (the system state at a given moment) and flows (the system fluxes). Breaking apart the internal system dynamics that determine the behaviour of the catchment system is in our opinion a way to bring a better insight into the concepts of

  14. Radiological impact of surface water and sediment near uranium mining sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, K; Stojanovska, Z; Badulin, V; Kunovska, B; Yovcheva, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the radiological impact of surface water and sediment around uranium mining sites 20 years after their closing. The areas under observations are 31 former classical underground uranium mining and exploratory sites in Bulgaria, named as objects. The extraction and processing of uranium ores in the Republic of Bulgaria were ended in 1992. To assess the radiological impact of radionuclides field expeditions were performed to sample water and bottom sediment. The migration of uranium through surface water was examined as one of the major pathways for contamination spread. The range of uranium concentration in water flowing from the mining sites was from 0.012 to 6.8 mgU l(-1) with a geometric mean of 0.192 mgU l(-1). The uranium concentrations in water downstream the mining sites were approximately 3 times higher than the background value (upstream). The concentrations of Unat, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (232)Th in the sediment of downstream river were higher than those upstream by 3.4, 2.6, 2, and 1.7 times, respectively. The distribution coefficient of uranium reflects its high mobility in most of the sites. In order to evaluate the impact on people as well as site prioritization for more detailed assessment and water management, screening dose assessments were done.

  15. Effect of hydration of sugar groups on adsorption of Quillaja bark saponin at air/water and Si/water interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Kamil; Orczyk, Marta; Marcinkowski, Kuba; Kobiela, Tomasz; Trapp, Marcus; Gutberlet, Thomas; Geue, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Adsorption of a natural glycoside surfactant Quillaja bark saponin ("QBS", Sigma Aldrich 84510) was studied at the air/water and Si/water interfaces using a combination of surface pressure (SP), surface dilatational rheology, neutron reflectivity (NR), Infra-Red Attenuated Total Reflection Spectroscopy (IR ATR) and Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM). The adsorbed layers formed at the air/water interface are predominantly elastic, with the dilatational surface storage modulus reaching the maximum value of E'=184 mN/m. The NR results point to a strong hydration of the adsorbed layers (about 65% hydration, corresponding to about 60 molecules of water per one QBS molecule), most likely related to the presence of multiple sugar groups constituting the glycone part of the QBS molecules. With a layer thickness of 19 Å, the adsorbed amount obtained from NR seems largely underestimated in comparison to the value obtained from the surface tension isotherm. While this high extent of hydration does not prevent formation of dense and highly elastic layers at the air-water surface, QBS adsorption at the Si/water interface is much weaker. The adsorption isotherm of QBS on Si obtained from the QCM study reflects much lower affinity of highly hydrated and negatively charged saponin molecules to the Si/water interface. We postulate that at the air/water interface, QBS adsorbs through the triterpene aglycone moiety. In contrast, weak hydrogen bonding between the glycone part and the surface silanol groups of Si is responsible for QBS adsorption on more polar Si/water interface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons across the air-water interface in the Bohai and Yellow Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingjun; Lin, Tian; Tang, Jianhui; Xie, Zhiyong; Tian, Chongguo; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-09-01

    In this study, air and surface seawater samples collected from the Bohai (BS) and Yellow Seas (YS) in May 2012 were determined exchange of PAHs, especially of low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs (three- and four-ring PAHs) at the air-water interface. Net volatilization fluxes of LMW PAHs were 266-1454 ng/m2/d and decreased with distance from the coast, indicating that these PAHs transported from coastal runoff were potential contributors to the atmosphere in the BS and YS. Moreover, LMW PAHs were enriched in the dissolved phase compared with those in the particulate phase in the water column, possibly suggesting that the volatilized LMW PAHs were directly derived from wastewater discharge or petroleum pollution rather than released from contaminated sediments. The air-sea exchange fluxes of the three-ring PAHs were 2- to 20-fold higher than their atmospheric deposition fluxes in the BS and YS. The input to and output from the water reached equilibrium for four-ring PAHs. Differently, five- and six-ring PAHs were introduced into the marine environment primarily through dry and wet deposition, indicating that the water column was still a sink of these PAHs from the surrounding atmosphere.

  17. Dilution of 210Pb by organic sedimentation in lakes of different trophic states, and application to studies of sediment-water interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binford, M.W.; Brenner, M.

    1986-01-01

    Lake sediments reflect conditions in the water column and can be used for rapid, integrative measurements of limnological variables. Examination of 210 Pb-dated cores from 12 Florida lakes of widely differing trophic state (expressed as Carlson's trophic state index: TSI) shows that net accumulation rate of organic matter is related to primary productivity in the water column. In 26 other lakes the activity of unsupported 210 Pb g -1 organic matter in surficial sediments is inversely related to trophic state and, therefore, to organic accumulation rate. From this observation, the authors develop a new method that uses fallout 210 Pb as a dilution tracer to calculate net sedimentary accumulation rates of any material in surface mud. They demonstrate strong relationships between net loss rate of biologically important materials (C, N, P, and pigments) and their respective water concentrations (expressed as TSI). Multiple regression models incorporating net sediment accumulation rates of all four variables explain up to 70% of the lake-to-lake variation of TSI. The 210 Pb-dilution method has application for studies for material cycling, paleolimnology, and sediment accumulation processes

  18. Radiological assessment of coastal marine sediment and water samples, Karachi coast, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.M.; Mashiatullah, A.; Akram, M.; Sajjad, M.I.; Shafiq, M.; Javed, T.; Aslam, M.

    1999-04-01

    Concentrations of selective natural radionuclides (/sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, /sup 40/K) in shallow marine coastal sediments and sea water off Karachi coast, Pakistan, were measured with a hyper pure germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometer. Sediment and water samples were collected from polluted Layari and Malire River downstream (pre-out fall), Gizri Creek, Layari River out fall in Karachi harbor, Karachi Harbor/ Manora Channel Mains, as well as from open sea (South-East Coast and North-West Coast) within the 10m depth contour. No artificial radionuclides (e.g. /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 134/Cs were detected in both water and sediment samples at any of these locations. The activity of /sup 226/Ra in coastal river sediments is found below its limit of detection (<18.35 Bqkg/sup -1/). Activity of /sup 228/Ra in sediments off Karachi Coast ranges between 11.80 +- 3.60 to 37.27+- 4.31 Bqkg/sup -1/. The highest activity was found south of Nuclear Power Station (KANUPP) and the lowest activity was found in the vicinity of Oyster Rocks (open sea). The /sup 226/Ra activity ranges from 19.40+- 5.88 to 67.14 +- 10.02 Bqkg/sup -1/. The activity of /sup 228/Ra in sediments of Manora Channel, South-east Coast of Karachi and the North west coast of Karachi are also in agreement with the IAEA marine sediment standard namely: IAEA-135 (/sup 228/Ra = 36.7 +- 3 Bqkg/sup -1/). The activity of /sup 226/Ra for the South East Coast of Karachi and the North west coast of Karachi are also in agreement with the IAEA marine sediment standard namely: IAEA 135(/sup 226/Ra=23.9 +- 1.1 Bqkg/sup -1/) and Pacific Ocean sediment standard namely: IAEA-368 (/sup 226/Ra=21.4+- 1.1 Bqkg/sup -1/). The /sup 40/K activity in sea sediments varies from 197.7+- 44.24 to 941.90 +- 39.00 Bqkg-1). The highest activity is observed in the vicinity of Oyster Rocks (open sea) along the Clifton coast (South-East Cost of Karachi) and the lowest activity is found south of Nuclear Power Station (KANUPP) along the

  19. Quantifying biologically and physically induced flow and tracer dynamics in permeable sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. R. Meysman

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Insight in the biogeochemistry and ecology of sandy sediments crucially depends on a quantitative description of pore water flow and the associated transport of various solutes and particles. We show that widely different problems can be modelled by the same flow and tracer equations. The principal difference between model applications concerns the geometry of the sediment-water interface and the pressure conditions that are specified along this boundary. We illustrate this commonality with four different case studies. These include biologically and physically induced pore water flows, as well as simplified laboratory set-ups versus more complex field-like conditions: [1] lugworm bio-irrigation in laboratory set-up, [2] interaction of bio-irrigation and groundwater seepage on a tidal flat, [3] pore water flow induced by rotational stirring in benthic chambers, and [4] pore water flow induced by unidirectional flow over a ripple sequence. The same two example simulations are performed in all four cases: (a the time-dependent spreading of an inert tracer in the pore water, and (b the computation of the steady-state distribution of oxygen in the sediment. Overall, our model comparison indicates that model development for sandy sediments is promising, but within an early stage. Clear challenges remain in terms of model development, model validation, and model implementation.

  20. Acclimation of Hydrilla verticillata to sediment anoxia in vegetation restoration in eutrophic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Dai, Yanran; Rui, Shengyang; Cui, Naxin; Zhong, Fei; Cheng, Shuiping

    2015-12-01

    Sediment anoxia generally results from intense organic enrichment and is a limiting factor in the restoration of vegetation in eutrophic waters. To investigate the effect of sediment anoxia on a typical pollution-tolerant submerged macrophyte species, Hydrilla verticillata, and acclimation mechanisms in the plant, a gradient of sediment anoxia was simulated with additions of sucrose to the sediment, which can stimulate increased concentrations of total nitrogen, NH4(+) and Fe in pore water. H. verticillata growth was significantly affected by highly anoxic conditions, as indicated by reduced total biomass in the 0.5 and 1% sucrose treatments. However, slight anoxia (0.1% sucrose addition) promoted growth, and the shoot biomass was 22.64% higher than in the control. In addition to morphologic alterations, H. verticillata showed physiological acclimations to anoxia, including increased anaerobic respiration and changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism in roots. The soluble protein and soluble carbohydrate contents in roots of the 1% treatment were both significantly higher compared with those in the control. The increase in alcohol dehydrogenase activity and pyruvate content in the roots suggested that H. verticillata has a well-developed capacity for anaerobic fermentation. This study suggests that highly anoxic sediments inhibit the growth of H. verticillata and the species has a degree of tolerance to anoxic conditions. Further in situ investigations should be conducted on the interactions between sediment conditions and macrophytes to comprehensively evaluate the roles of sediment in the restoration of vegetation in eutrophic waters.

  1. Metal concentrations of river water and sediments in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Masaomi; Yustiawati; Syawal, M Suhaemi; Sikder, Md Tajuddin; Hosokawa, Toshiyuki; Saito, Takeshi; Tanaka, Shunitz; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2011-12-01

    To determine the water environment and pollutants in West Java, the contents of metals and general water quality of the Ciliwung River in the Jakarta area were measured. High Escherichia coli number (116-149/mL) was detected downstream in the Ciliwung River. In addition to evaluate mercury pollution caused by gold mining, mercury contents of water and sediment samples from the Cikaniki River, and from paddy samples were determined. The water was not badly polluted. However, toxic metals such as mercury were detected at levels close to the baseline environmental standard of Indonesia (0.83-1.07 μg/g of sediments in the Cikaniki River). From analyses of the paddy samples (0.08 μg/g), it is considered that there is a health risk caused by mercury.

  2. The influence of hydrology on lacustrine sediment contaminant records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    The way water flows to a lake, through streams, as runoff, or as groundwater, can control the distribution and mass of sediment and contaminants deposited. Whether a lake is large or small, deep or shallow, open or closed, the movement of water to a lake and the circulation patterns of water within a lake control how and where sediment and contaminants are deposited. Particle-associated contaminants may stay close to the input source of contamination or be transported by currents to bathymetric lows. A complex morphology of the lake bottom or shoreline can also affect how contaminants will be distributed. Dissolved contaminants may be widely dispersed in smaller lakes, but may be diluted in large lakes away from the source. Although dissolved contaminants may not be deposited in lake sediments, the impact of dissolved contaminants (such as nitrogen) may be reflected by the ecosystem. For instance, increased phosphorus and nitrogen may increase organic content or algal biomass, and contribute to eutrophication of the lake over time. Changes in oxidation-reduction potential at the sediment-water interface may either release some contaminants to the water column or conversely deposit other contaminants to the sediment depending on the compound’s chemical characteristics. Changes in land use generally affect the hydrology of the watershed surrounding a lake, providing more runoff if soil binding vegetation is removed or if more impervious cover (roads and buildings) is increased. Groundwater inputs may change if pumping of the aquifer connected to the lake occurs. Even if groundwater is only a small portion of the volume of water entering a lake, if contaminant concentrations in the aquifer are high compared to surface water inputs, the mass of contaminants from groundwater may be as, or more, important than surface water contributions.

  3. Molecular adsorption steers bacterial swimming at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Michael; Huang, Athena; Li, Guanglai; Maxey, Martin R; Tang, Jay X

    2013-07-02

    Microbes inhabiting Earth have adapted to diverse environments of water, air, soil, and often at the interfaces of multiple media. In this study, we focus on the behavior of Caulobacter crescentus, a singly flagellated bacterium, at the air/water interface. Forward swimming C. crescentus swarmer cells tend to get physically trapped at the surface when swimming in nutrient-rich growth medium but not in minimal salt motility medium. Trapped cells move in tight, clockwise circles when viewed from the air with slightly reduced speed. Trace amounts of Triton X100, a nonionic surfactant, release the trapped cells from these circular trajectories. We show, by tracing the motion of positively charged colloidal beads near the interface that organic molecules in the growth medium adsorb at the interface, creating a high viscosity film. Consequently, the air/water interface no longer acts as a free surface and forward swimming cells become hydrodynamically trapped. Added surfactants efficiently partition to the surface, replacing the viscous layer of molecules and reestablishing free surface behavior. These findings help explain recent similar studies on Escherichia coli, showing trajectories of variable handedness depending on media chemistry. The consistent behavior of these two distinct microbial species provides insights on how microbes have evolved to cope with challenging interfacial environments. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Asymmetric fluxes of water and sediments in a mesotidal mudflat channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, G.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrodynamics of a small tributary channel and its adjacent mudflat is studied in Willapa Bay, Washington State, USA. Velocity profiles and water levels are simultaneously measured at different locations in the channel and on the mudflat for two weeks. The above tidal flat and channel hydrodynamics differ remarkably during the tidal cycle. When the water surface level is above the tidal flat elevation, the channel is inactive. At this stage, the above tidal flat flow is predominantly aligned along the Bay axis, oscillating with the tide as a standing wave with peak velocities up to 0.3 m/s. When the mudflat becomes emergent, the flow concentrates in the channel. During this stage, current velocities up to 1 m/s are measured during ebb; and up to 0.6 m/s during flood. Standard equations for open-channel flow are utilized to study the channel hydrodynamics. From the continuity equation, a lateral inflow is predicted during ebb, which likely originates from the drainage of the mudflat through the lateral runnels. Both advective acceleration and lateral discharge terms, estimated directly from the velocity profiles, play a significant role in the momentum equation. The computed drag coefficient for bottom friction is small, due to an absence of vegetation and bottom bedforms in the channel. Sediment fluxes are calculated by combining flow and suspended sediment concentration estimated using the acoustic backscatter signal of the instruments. A net export of the sediment from the channel is found during ebb, which is not balanced by the sediment import during flood. When the mudflat is submerged, ebb-flood asymmetries in suspended sediment concentration are present, leading to a net sediment flux toward the inner part of the Willapa Bay. Finally, a residual flow is detected inside the channel at high slack water, probably associated with the thermohaline circulation.

  5. Lake Mixing Regime Influences Arsenic Transfer from Sediments into the Water Column and Uptake in Plankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, J.; Barrett, P. M.; Hull, E.; Burkart, K.; McLean, J.; Hargrave, O.; Neumann, R.

    2017-12-01

    The former ASARCO copper smelter in Ruston, WA, now a Superfund site, contaminated a large area of the south-central Puget Sound region with arsenic over its almost 100-year history. Arsenic, a priority Superfund contaminant and carcinogen, is a legacy pollutant impacting aquatic ecosystems in urban lakes downwind of the ASARCO emissions stack. We investigated the impact of lake mixing regime on arsenic transfer from sediments into lake water and aquatic biota. We regularly collected water column and plankton samples from four study lakes for two years, and deployed sediment porewater peepers and sediment traps to estimate arsenic flux rates to and from the sediments. In lakes with strong seasonal stratification, high aqueous arsenic concentrations were limited to anoxic hypolimnetic waters while low arsenic concentrations were observed in oxic surface waters. However, in polymictic, shallow lakes, we observed elevated arsenic concentrations throughout the entire oxic water column. Sediment flux estimates support higher rates of arsenic release from sediments and vertical transport. Because high arsenic in oxic waters results in spatial overlap between arsenate, a phosphate analog, and lake biota, we observed enhanced trophic transfer of arsenic in polymictic, shallow study lakes, with higher arsenic accumulation (up to an order of magnitude) in both phytoplankton and zooplankton compared to stratified lakes. Chemical and physical mechanisms for higher steady-state arsenic concentrations will be explored. Our work demonstrates that physical mixing processes coupled with sediment/water redox status exert significant control over bioaccumulation, making shallow, periodically-mixed urban lakes uniquely vulnerable to environmental and human health risks from legacy arsenic contamination.

  6. Remote sensing of suspended sediment water research: principles, methods, and progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Zhang, Jing

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the principle, data, methods and steps in suspended sediment research by using remote sensing, summed up some representative models and methods, and analyzes the deficiencies of existing methods. Combined with the recent progress of remote sensing theory and application in water suspended sediment research, we introduced in some data processing methods such as atmospheric correction method, adjacent effect correction, and some intelligence algorithms such as neural networks, genetic algorithms, support vector machines into the suspended sediment inversion research, combined with other geographic information, based on Bayesian theory, we improved the suspended sediment inversion precision, and aim to give references to the related researchers.

  7. Uranium in pore waters from North Atlantic (GME and Southern Nares Abyssal Plain) sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santschi, P.H.; Bajo, C.; Mantovani, M.; Orciuolo, D.; Cranston, R.E.; Bruno, J.

    1988-01-01

    Here we report the measurement of low uranium concentrations in composite pore-water samples from the uppermost 20-30 m of deep-sea abyssal plain sediments from the Great Meteor East and Southern Nares Abyssal Plains Area. Many values are the lowest uranium concentrations ever measured in the pore waters of deep-sea sediments. Our lowest value, 0.05 ± 0.01 p.p.b., is orders of magnitude lower than the predicted solubility of U0 2 or U 4 0 9 . The uranium concentrations obtained from both sites correlate closely with measured redox potentials in the sediments. The low mobility of uranium in pore waters from turbiditic deep-sea abyssal plain sediments, which can be deduced from these measurements, has important implications for the sub-seabed disposal of high-level radioactive waste, and for marine geochemistry of uranium. (author)

  8. Modelling of flow and settling in storm water sedimentation tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Kluck, J.

    1994-01-01

    In the near future in the Netherlands many reservoirs will have to be built to abate the pollution of the surface water by overflowing storm water from combined sewer systems [Kluck, 1992-a]. These reservoirs, called storm water sedimentation tanks, reduce the pollution in two ways. The most important is by simply storing a part of the sewage (waste water and storm water) and thus reducing the quantity of overflowing water. The second is by providing flow conditions in which particles can set...

  9. Adsorption, folding, and packing of an amphiphilic peptide at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Ozge; Sayar, Mehmet

    2012-02-23

    Peptide oligomers play an essential role as model compounds for identifying key motifs in protein structure formation and protein aggregation. Here, we present our results, based on extensive molecular dynamics simulations, on adsorption, folding, and packing within a surface monolayer of an amphiphilic peptide at the air/water interface. Experimental results suggest that these molecules spontaneously form ordered monolayers at the interface, adopting a β-hairpin-like structure within the surface layer. Our results reveal that the β-hairpin structure can be observed both in bulk and at the air/water interface. However, the presence of an interface leads to ideal partitioning of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues, and therefore reduces the conformational space for the molecule and increases the stability of the hairpin structure. We obtained the adsorption free energy of a single β-hairpin at the air/water interface, and analyzed the enthalpic and entropic contributions. The adsorption process is favored by two main factors: (1) Free-energy reduction due to desolvation of the hydrophobic side chains of the peptide and release of the water molecules which form a cage around these hydrophobic groups in bulk water. (2) Reduction of the total air/water contact area at the interface upon adsorption of the peptide amphiphile. By performing mutations on the original molecule, we demonstrated the relative role of key design features of the peptide. Finally, by analyzing the potential of mean force among two peptides at the interface, we investigated possible packing mechanisms for these molecules within the surface monolayer. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  10. Development and application of YSJ-1 type oil-water interface level gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Punan

    2003-01-01

    A new type nuclear device for measuring the oil-water interface level as well as the total liquid level was presented. A series of new methods, such as non-linear fitting of the level, automatic compensations for the deviation caused by the decay of radioactive source, the medium's temperature, etc., were employed. Comparing with other non-nuclear techniques, this device has the following advantages: non-contact surveying, anti-interference of paraffin wax coagulating and a little of repairing. The measuring range is 0-200cm for total liquid level and 0-100cm for oil-water interface level respectively. The measurement precision is 1% for total liquid level and 2% for the interface level respectively. The respond time is ≤10s, the long time stability ≤0.5% FS/48h and the temperature influence ≤0.01% FS /degree C. The gauge can be used in surveying oil-water interface level and total liquid level in oil-water separation tanks on oil fields. It is also suitable to measure the interface level of two kinds of liquids as well as the total liquid level in various storage tanks

  11. Transport of perfluoroalkyl acids in a water-saturated sediment column investigated under near-natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vierke, Lena; Möller, Axel; Klitzke, Sondra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the transport of C 4–10 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and C 4,6,8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in a water-saturated sediment column representing a riverbank filtration scenario under near-natural conditions. Short-chain PFCAs and PFSAs with up to six C-atoms showed complete tracer-like breakthrough. Longer chain ones were retarded due to sorption to the sediment or due to other processes in the aqueous phase. The study reports the first column derived sediment–water partition coefficients ranging from 0.01 cm 3 g −1 to 0.41 cm 3 g −1 for C 4,6 PFSAs and from 0.0 cm 3 g −1 to 6.5 cm 3 g −1 for C 4,5,6,8,9 PFCAs. The results clearly indicate that short-chain PFCAs and PFSAs may pose a problem if contaminated surface waters are used for drinking water production via riverbank filtration. Highlights: • Transport of per- and polyfluorinated compounds in a riverbank filtration scenario. • Investigations under near-natural conditions with a water-saturated sediment column. • Processes in water and sediment control the transport of analytes. • Short chain PFCAs and PFSAs are not retarded in the water-saturated sediment column. • First column derived sediment–water partition coefficients. -- Quantification of breakthrough of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) under conditions simulating a riverbank filtration scenario

  12. Determination of pentachlorophenol in water and aquifer sediments by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlitz, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    Methods for the determination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in water and aquifer sediments are presented. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromotography employing ion suppression and gradient elution is used. PCP can be determined directly in water at a lower limit of detection Of 0.2 micrograms per liter. For extracts of sediment, PCP can be determined to a lower limit of 1.0 micrograms per kilogram.

  13. Lead (Pb Accumulation in Water, Sediment and Mussels (Hiatula chinensis from Pasir Panjang Coast, Lekok-Pasuruan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defri Yona

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to evaluate Pb accumulation in the water, sediment and mussels (Hiatula chinensis from Lekok-Pasuruan. There were four sampling stations representing the study area: (1 urban areas, (2 water flow area from steam power plant (PLTU, (3 waste disposal area of PLTU, (4 fishing port. The average concentration of lead varied between stations in the water (0.279 ppm, sediment (0.423 ppm and mussels (0.427 ppm. Pearson`s correlation test shows strong relationship (p > 0.05 between Pb in the water, sediment and Hiatula chinensis. Mussels accumulation of lead from the sediment was assessed using bio-concentration factor (BCF and the result shows Hiatula chinensis is an accumulator of Pb (BCF > 1.

  14. Magnesium-rich minerals in sediment and suspended particulates of South Florida water bodies: implications for turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, W G; Fisher, M M; Cao, X; Osborne, T; Ellis, L

    2007-01-01

    Fine sediments in shallow water bodies such as Lake Okeechobee are prone to resuspension. Predominantly inorganic "mud" sediment that covers approximately 670 km2 of the lake has been recognized as a persistent source of turbidity. The objective of this study was to determine if mineral components of sediments in Lake Okeechobee and water conveyances of the northern Everglades also occur as suspended sediment and hence constitute a potential abiotic contributor to turbidity. Sediment samples were collected from nine stations within the lake and eight locations north of Water Conservation Area 2A in the Everglades. Water samples were also collected at selected locations. The silt and clay mineralogy of sediment and suspended particles was determined using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray elemental microanalysis, and high-resolution transmission-electron microscopy. Clay fractions of the lake sediment contained the Mg silicate minerals sepiolite and palygorskite, along with smectite, dolomite, calcite, and kaolinite. Sediment silt fractions were dominated by carbonates and/or quartz, with smaller amounts of Ca phosphates and sepiolite. Mineralogy of the mud sediment was similar to that reported for geologic phosphate deposits. This suggests that the mud sediment might have accumulated by stream transport of minerals from these deposits. Suspended solids and mud-sediment mineralogy were similar, except that smectite was more abundant in suspended solids. Everglade samples also contained Mg-rich minerals. The small size, low density, and fibrous or platy nature of the prevalent mud sediment minerals make them an abiotic, hydrodynamically sensitive source of persistent turbidity in a shallow lake. Mitigation efforts focused exclusively on P-induced biogeochemical processes do not address the origin or effects of these minerals. Ecological management issues such as turbidity control, P retention, geologic P input

  15. Comparison of sup(115m)Cd accumulation from sediments and sea water by polychaete worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Taishi; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    1976-01-01

    To know the role played by marine sediments in influencing the fate of discharged metals, (1) the interaction of metals between sediments and deposit-feeder marine worms (Nereis japonica), and (2) uptake and excretion of metals by worms were examined by laboratory experiments using sup(115m)Cd. Worms directly in contact with sup(115m)Cd-sediments accumulated sup(115m)Cd six times more than worms that were not in contact with the sup(115m)Cd sediments during the 8 days of experimentation and 12% of sup(115m)Cd in sediments were noted to be transfered to worms per unit. Comparing the concentration factor of 22 (from sea water) with accumulation from sediments, it was assumed that sup(115m)Cd in sediments would give the effect of 1/200 to the accumulation of sup(115m)Cd by worms in sea water to the accumulation of sup(115m)Cd. Further, to simulate these results close to that occuring in the natural ecosystem, the distribution of sup(115m)Cd in sea water, sediments and alga were also examined by means of a curve analysis of the distribution pattern by a three compartment model. It proved that the activity ratios of sup(115m)Cd were 9 for sediments and 21 for alga, which was similar to 22 for worms. (auth.)

  16. Engineer pioneer plants respond to and affect geomorphic constraints similarly along water–terrestrial interfaces world-wide

    OpenAIRE

    Corenblit, D.; Baas, A.; Balke, T.; Bouma, T.J.; Fromard, F.; Garófano-Gómez, V.; González, E.; Gurnell, A.M.; Hortobágyi, B.; Julien, F.; Kim, D.; Lambs, L.; Stallins, J.A.; Steiger, J.; Tabacchi, E.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Within fluvial and coastal ecosystems world-wide, flows of water, wind and sediment generate a shifting landscape mosaic composed of bare substrate and pioneer and mature vegetation successional stages. Pioneer plant species that colonize these ecosystems at the land–water interface have developed specific traits in response to environmental constraints (response...

  17. Methane Bubbles Transport Particles From Contaminated Sediment to a Lake Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwiche, K.; Hemond, H.

    2017-12-01

    Methane bubbling from aquatic sediments has long been known to transport carbon to the atmosphere, but new evidence presented here suggests that methane bubbles also transport particulate matter to a lake surface. This transport pathway is of particular importance in lakes with contaminated sediments, as bubble transport could increase human exposure to toxic metals. The Upper Mystic Lake in Arlington, MA has a documented history of methane bubbling and sediment contamination by arsenic and other heavy metals, and we have conducted laboratory and field studies demonstrating that methane bubbles are capable of transporting sediment particles over depths as great as 15 m in Upper Mystic Lake. Methane bubble traps were used in-situ to capture particles adhered to bubble interfaces, and to relate particle mass transport to bubble flux. Laboratory studies were conducted in a custom-made 15 m tall water column to quantify the relationship between water column height and the mass of particulate transport. We then couple this particle transport data with historical estimates of ebullition from Upper Mystic Lake to quantify the significance of bubble-mediated particle transport to heavy metal cycling within the lake. Results suggest that methane bubbles can represent a significant pathway for contaminated sediment to reach surface waters even in relatively deep water bodies. Given the frequent co-occurrence of contaminated sediments and high bubble flux rates, and the potential for human exposure to heavy metals, it will be critical to study the significance of this transport pathway for a range of sediment and contaminant types.

  18. Benthic iron and phosphorus release from river dominated shelf sediments under varying bottom water O2 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaisas, N. A.; Maiti, K.; White, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) cycling in coastal ocean is predominantly controlled by river discharge and biogeochemistry of the sediments. In coastal Louisiana, sediment biogeochemistry is strongly influenced by seasonally fluctuating bottom water O2, which, in turn transitions the shelf sediments from being a sink to source of P. Sediment P-fluxes were 9.73 ± 0.76 mg / m2 /d and 0.67±0.16 mg/m2/d under anaerobic and aerobic conditions respectively, indicating a 14 times higher P-efflux from oxygen deprived sediments. A high sedimentary oxygen consumption rate of 889 ± 33.6 mg/m2/d was due to organic matter re-mineralization and resulted in progressively decreasing the water column dissolved O2 , coincident with a P-flux of 7.2 ± 5.5 mg/m2/d from the sediment. Corresponding water column flux of Fe total was 19.7 ± 7.80 mg/m2/d and the sediment-TP decreased from 545 mg/Kg to 513 mg/Kg. A simultaneous increase in pore water Fe and P concentrations in tandem with a 34.6% loss in sedimentary Fe-bound P underscores the importance of O2 on coupled Fe- P biogeochemistry. This study suggests that from a 14,025 sq. km hypoxia area, Louisiana shelf sediments can supply 1.33x105 kg P/day into the water column compared to 0.094 x 105 kg P/day during the fully aerobic water column conditions.

  19. Amphipod and Sea Urchin tests to assess the toxicity of Mediterranean sediments: the case of Portmán Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cesar

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The sediment formed by the tailings of an abandoned mine, which discharged into Portmán Bay, Murcia, SE-Spain, was tested to establish a possible gradient of heavy metals. The results were compared with tolerance limits of what was calculated from control sites. Whole sediment toxicity tests were performed on two amphipod species, Gammarus aequicauda and Microdeutopus gryllotalpa, while sediment-water interface and porewater toxicity tests were performed on three sea urchins species, Arbacia lixula, Paracentrotus lividus and Sphaerechinus granularis. The sensitivity of these marine organisms was evaluated by exposure tests using the reference substances: ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, cadmium chloride (CdCl2, potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7, sodium dodecyl sulfate (C12H25NaO4S and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4. The concentration of heavy metals decreased along the pollution gradient. Amphipod 10 day acute toxicity tests clearly demonstrated the gradient of toxicity. The sediment-water interface tests conducted with sea urchins also pointed to a pollution gradient and were more sensitive than the tests involving amphipods.

  20. Radioactivity and natural radionuclides distribution in river water, coastal water, sediment and Eichornia Crassipes (Mart) solms and their accumulation factor at Surabaya area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Taftazani; Sumining; Muzakky

    2002-01-01

    Distributions of radioactivity and natural radionuclides in water, sediment and eichornia crassipes (mart) solms from Surabaya River and coastal area have been evaluated. Five sampling locations were selected to represent fresh water and coastal water environment. The samples consist of water (fresh & coastal), bottom surface sediment and eichornia crassipes (mart) solms. The result showed that the gross-β activity from water environment were lower than the threshold value of Environmental Minister Act. Kep.02/MENKLH/I/1988 (1000 mBq/L) and indicated that β-radio ecological quality of water were still good. But the activity of the gross-α of water environment were higher than the threshold value of Environmental Minister Act. Kep.02/MENKLH/I/1988 (100 mBq/L). The eichornia crassipes (mart) solms (gross) activity were higher than water and sediment activities and indicated that transfer of radio nuclides from water to sediment and organism can be detected in water environment. Two natural radionuclide can be identified by γ-Spectrometric technique, they were K"4"0 and Tl"2"0"8. Generally the distribution factors F_D were smaller than bioaccumulation factor F_B. (author)

  1. Survey of the mutagenicity of surface water, sediments, and drinking water from the Penobscot Indian Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Sarah H; Claxton, Larry D; Diliberto, Janet; Hughes, Thomas J; Swank, Adam; Kusnierz, Daniel H; Marshall, Valerie; DeMarini, David M

    2015-02-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) projects address the effects of environmental pollutants in a particular region on the health of the population in that region. This report is part of a RARE project that addresses this for the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN), Penobscot Island, Maine, U.S., where the Penobscot River has had fish advisories for many years due to high levels of mercury. We used the Salmonella mutagenicity assay with strains TA100, TA98, YG1041, and YG1042 with and without metabolic activation to assess the mutagenic potencies of organic extracts of the Penobscot River water and sediment, as well as drinking-water samples, all collected by the PIN Department of Natural Resources. The source water for the PIN drinking water is gravel-packed groundwater wells adjacent to the Penobscot River. Most samples of all extracts were either not mutagenic or had low to moderate mutagenic potencies. The average mutagenic potencies (revertants/L-equivalent) were 337 for the drinking-water extracts and 177 for the river-water extracts; the average mutagenic potency for the river-sediment extracts was 244 revertants(g-equivalent)(-1). This part of the RARE project showed that extracts of the Penobscot River water and sediments and Penobscot drinking water have little to no mutagenic activity that might be due to the classes of compounds that the Salmonella mutagenicity assay detects, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (nitroarenes), and aromatic amines. This study is the first to examine the mutagenicity of environmental samples from a tribal nation in the U.S. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Active oil-water interfaces: buckling and deformation of oil drops by bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Gabriel; Stocker, Roman

    2014-11-01

    Bacteria are unicellular organisms that seek nutrients and energy for growth, division, and self-propulsion. Bacteria are also natural colloidal particles that attach and self-assemble at liquid-liquid interfaces. Here, we present experimental results on active oil-water interfaces that spontaneously form when bacteria accumulate or grow on the interface. Using phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy, we simultaneously observed the dynamics of adsorbed Alcanivorax bacteria and the oil-water interface within microfluidic devices. We find that, by growing and dividing, adsorbed bacteria form a jammed monolayer of cells that encapsulates the entire oil drop. As bacteria continue to grow at the interface, the drop buckles and the interface undergoes strong deformations. The bacteria act to stabilize non-equilibrium shapes of the oil-phase such wrinkling and tubulation. In addition to presenting a natural example of a living interface, these findings shape our understanding of microbial degradation of oil and may have important repercussions on engineering interventions for oil bioremediation.

  3. Heavy metal contamination in stream water and sediments of gold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the seasonal variation in heavy metal contamination of stream water and sediments in the gold mining area of Atakunmosa West local Government, Osun State, Nigeria. Twelve villages of prominence in illegal gold mining were selected for the study covering dry and wet seasons of 2012. Stream water ...

  4. Pesticides distribution in surface waters and sediments of lotic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on the availability and distribution of Lindane (HCHs) and Total organochlorine phosphate (TOCP) in the surface waters and sediments of selected water bodies in Agbede wetlands was carried out from December, 2012 to May, 2014 in order to cover seasonal trends in both matrixes. A Gas Chromatograph ...

  5. Best Practices for In-Situ Sediment-Water Incubations with Benthic Landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengberg, Anders; Kononets, Mikhail; Hall, Per; Nilsson, Madeleine; Ekeroth, Nils

    2017-04-01

    Biological, chemical, physical and geological processes that take place at the seafloor are crucial in influencing and regulating many aquatic environments. One method to estimate exchange rates, fluxes, between the sediment and the overlying water is in-situ sediment-water incubations using autonomous chamber landers. As for all field sampling and measurements best practices methods are needed to obtain high quality data. With experiences form many years usage of the Gothenburg autonomous bottom lander systems this presentation will describe some of the experimental work that has been done with focus on quality control and data evaluation methods.

  6. Herbicide monitoring in soil, runoff waters and sediments in an olive orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Maria Jesus; De Luna, Elena; Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Hermosin, M Carmen

    2016-11-01

    Occurrences of surface water contamination by herbicides in areas where olive orchards are established reveal a need to understand soil processes affecting herbicide fate at field scale for this popular Mediterranean crop. A monitoring study with two herbicides (terbuthylazine and oxyfluorfen) in the first 2cm of soil, runoff waters, and sediments, was carried out after under natural rainfall conditions following winter herbicide application. At the end of the 107day field experiment, no residues of the soil applied terbuthylazine were recovered, whereas 42% of the oxyfluorfen applied remained in the top soil. Very low levels of both herbicides were measured in runoff waters; however, concentrations were slightly higher for terbuthylazine (0.53% of applied) than for oxyfluorfen (0.03% of applied), relating to their respective water solubilities. Congruent with soil residue data, 38.15% of the applied oxyfluorfen was found in runoff-sediment, compared to only 0.46% for terbuthylazine. Accordingly, the herbicide soil distribution coefficients measured within runoff field tanks was much greater for oxyfluorfen (Kd=3098) than for terbuthylazine (Kd=1.57). The herbicide oxyfluorfen is co-transported with sediment in runoff, remaining trapped and/or adsorbed to soil particle aggregates, due in part to its low water solubility. In contrast, terbuthylazine soil dissipation may be associated more so with leaching processes, favored by its high water solubility, low sorption, and slow degradation. By comparing these two herbicides, our results reaffirm the importance of herbicide physico-chemical properties in dictating their behavior in soil and also suggest that herbicides with low solubility, as seen in the case oxyfluorfen, remain susceptible to offsite transport associated with sediments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Formation and elasticity of membranes of the class II hydrophobin Cerato-ulmin at oil-water interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujun; Kirby, Stephanie M; Chen, Yuwu; Anna, Shelley L; Walker, Lynn M; Hung, Francisco R; Russo, Paul S

    2018-04-01

    Protein surfactants show great potential to stabilize foams, bubbles, and emulsions. An important family of surface active proteins, the hydrophobins, is secreted by filamentous fungi. Two hydrophobin classes have been recognized, with Class II exhibiting slightly better solubility than Class I, although neither is very soluble in water. Hydrophobins are small proteins (8-14 kDa), but they are larger and more rigid than typical surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. This rigidity seems to be manifested in the strength of adsorbed hydrophobin layers on oil droplets or air bubbles. A particular Class II hydrophobin, Cerato-ulmin, was characterized at the oil-water interface (the oil was squalane). The results are compared to measurements at the air-water interface, newly extended to lower Cerato-ulmin concentrations. For both oil-water and air-water interfaces, static and dynamic properties were measured during the evolution of the membrane structure. The static measurements reveal that dilute Cerato-ulmin solution efficiently decreases the interfacial tension, whether at oil-water or air-water interfaces. The reduction in surface tension requires several hours. Interfacial mechanics were characterized too, and the dilatational modulus was found to reach large values at both types of interfaces: 339 ± 19 mN/m at the squalane-water interface and at least 764 ± 45 mN/m at the air-water interface. Both values well exceed those typical of small-molecule surfactants, but come closer to those expected of particulate-loaded interfaces. Circular dichroism provides some insight to adsorption-induced molecular rearrangements, which seem to be more prevalent at the oil-water interface than at the air-water interface. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing natural and anthropogenic influences on water discharge and sediment load in the Yangtze River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yifei; Zou, Xinqing; Liu, Qing; Yao, Yulong; Li, Yali; Wu, Xiaowei; Wang, Chenglong; Yu, Wenwen; Wang, Teng

    2017-12-31

    The water discharge and sediment load of rivers are changing substantially under the impacts of climate change and human activities, becoming a hot issue in hydro-environmental research. In this study, the water discharge and sediment load in the mainstream and seven tributaries of the Yangtze River were investigated by using long-term hydro-meteorological data from 1953 to 2013. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and double mass curve (DMC) were used to detect trends and abrupt change-points in water discharge and sediment load and to quantify the effects of climate change and human activities on water discharge and sediment load. The results are as follows: (1) the water discharge showed a non-significant decreasing trend at most stations except Hukou station. Among these, water discharge at Dongting Lake and the Min River basin shows a significant decreasing trend with average rates of -13.93×10 8 m 3 /year and -1.8×10 8 m 3 /year (PYangtze River. (2) No significant abrupt change-points were detected in the time series of water discharge for all hydrological stations. In contrast, significant abrupt change-points were detected in sediment load, most of these changes appeared in the late 1980s. (3) The water discharge was mainly influenced by precipitation in the Yangtze River basin, whereas sediment load was mainly affected by climate change and human activities; the relative contribution ratios of human activities were above 70% for the Yangtze River. (4) The decrease of sediment load has directly impacted the lower Yangtze River and the delta region. These results will provide a reference for better resource management in the Yangtze River Basin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Contaminants in surface water and sediments near the Tynagh silver mine site, County Galway, Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, A. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Phillips, D.H., E-mail: d.phillips@qub.ac.uk [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Bowen, J. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Sen Gupta, B. [School of the Built Environment, Hariot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    A former silver mine in Tynagh, Co. Galway, Ireland is one of the most contaminated mine sites in Europe with maximum concentrations of Zn, As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cd far exceeding guideline values for water and sediment. The aims of this research were to 1) further assess the contamination, particularly metals, in surface water and sediment around the site, and 2) determine if the contamination has increased 10 years after the Environmental Protection Agency Ireland (EPAI) identified off-site contamination. Site pH is alkaline to neutral because CaCO{sub 3}-rich sediment and rock material buffer the exposed acid generating sulphide-rich ore. When this study was compared to the previous EPAI study conducted 10 years earlier, it appeared that further weathering of exposed surface sediment had increased concentrations of As and other potentially toxic elements. Water samples from the tailings ponds and adjacent Barnacullia Stream had concentrations of Al, Cd, Mn, Zn and Pb above guideline values. Lead and Zn concentrations from the tailings pond sediment were 16 and 5 times higher, respectively, than concentrations reported 10 years earlier. Pb and Zn levels in most sediment samples exceeded the Expert Group (EGS) guidelines of 1000 and 5000 mg/kg, respectively. Arsenic concentrations were as high as 6238 mg/kg in the tailings ponds sediment, which is 62 and 862 times greater than the EGS and Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines (CSQG), respectively. Cadmium, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations in water and sediment were above guideline values downstream of the site. Additionally, Fe, Mn and organic matter (OM) were strongly correlated and correlated to Zn, Pb, As, Cd, Cu and Ni in stream sediment. Therefore, the nearby Barnacullia Stream is also a significant pathway for contaminant transport to downstream areas. Further rehabilitation of the site may decrease the contamination around the area. - Highlights: • Tynagh silver mine in Co. Galway, Ireland is a source of

  10. Monitoring of nutrients, pesticides, and metals in waters, sediments, and fish of a wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadó, V; Quintana, X D; Hidalgo, M

    2006-10-01

    Wetland areas are of extraordinary importance for the conservation of wildlife. The Aiguamolls de l'Empordà Natural Park, located in Girona (northeast Spain), is one of the few areas in Europe acting as a way station for migratory birds. The natural park is made up of a brackish water reserve and a fresh water reserve. Agriculture and tourism, which are concentrated especially around coastal population centers, are the main activities in this area and result in the release into the environment of nutrients, pesticides, and heavy metals. This article aims to investigate the presence of nutrients, selected pesticides (organochlorine compounds, permethrin and triazines) and metals (Cr, Cu, Cd, Ni and Pb) in water, sediments, and fish samples. In the case of water, seasonal variations in levels of contamination were also monitored. Comparison was made of the fresh and brackish water reserves and concentration factors for metals and pesticides in sediment were determined. We conclude that the most significant sources of contamination in the natural park are from the entry of pesticides and nutrients into surface waters and sediments as a result of the intensive farming activity of the surrounding areas. The pesticides with the greatest presence were found to be lindane, heptachlor epoxide, permethrin, and atrazine. Among the metals analyzed, Cu and Cr presented the highest concentrations in surface waters and sediments.

  11. Water liquid-vapor interface subjected to various electric fields: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Mohammadreza; Azimian, Ahmad Reza; Rezaei, Majid; Nikzad, Safoora

    2017-11-01

    Investigation of the effects of E-fields on the liquid-vapor interface is essential for the study of floating water bridge and wetting phenomena. The present study employs the molecular dynamics method to investigate the effects of parallel and perpendicular E-fields on the water liquid-vapor interface. For this purpose, density distribution, number of hydrogen bonds, molecular orientation, and surface tension are examined to gain a better understanding of the interface structure. Results indicate enhancements in parallel E-field decrease the interface width and number of hydrogen bonds, while the opposite holds true in the case of perpendicular E-fields. Moreover, perpendicular fields disturb the water structure at the interface. Given that water molecules tend to be parallel to the interface plane, it is observed that perpendicular E-fields fail to realign water molecules in the field direction while the parallel ones easily do so. It is also shown that surface tension rises with increasing strength of parallel E-fields, while it reduces in the case of perpendicular E-fields. Enhancement of surface tension in the parallel field direction demonstrates how the floating water bridge forms between the beakers. Finally, it is found that application of external E-fields to the liquid-vapor interface does not lead to uniform changes in surface tension and that the liquid-vapor interfacial tension term in Young's equation should be calculated near the triple-line of the droplet. This is attributed to the multi-directional nature of the droplet surface, indicating that no constant value can be assigned to a droplet's surface tension in the presence of large electric fields.

  12. Self Assembly of Ionic Liquids at the Air/Water Interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minofar, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, aug (2015), s. 27-40 ISSN 2245-4551 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Ionic liquids * air/water interface * self assembly * ion-water interaction * ion-ion interaction Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  13. Sustainability of Water Reclamation: Long-Term Recharge with Reclaimed Wastewater Does Not Enhance Antibiotic Resistance in Sediment Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean E. McLain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater reclamation for municipal irrigation is an increasingly attractive option for extending water supplies. However, public health concerns include the potential for development of antibiotic resistance (AR in environmental bacteria after exposure to residual pharmaceuticals in reclaimed water. Though scientific studies have reported high levels of AR in soils irrigated with wastewater, these works often fail to address the soil resistome, or the natural occurrence of AR. This study compared AR patterns in sediment Enterococcus isolated from water storage basins containing either reclaimed water or groundwater in central Arizona. Resistance to 16 antibiotics was quantified in isolates to a depth of 30 cm. Results reveal high levels of resistance to certain antibiotics, including lincomycin, ciprofloxacin, and erythromycin, exists in sediments regardless of the water source (groundwater, reclaimed water, and higher AR was not detectable in reclaimed water sediments. Furthermore, multiple-antibiotic-resistance (MAR was substantially reduced in isolates from reclaimed water sediments, compared to freshwater sediment isolates. Comparing the development of AR in sediment bacteria at these two sites will increase awareness of the environmental and public health impacts of using reclaimed water for irrigation of municipal areas, and illustrates the necessity for control sites in studies examining AR development in environmental microbiota.

  14. Insecticide residue monitoring in sediments water fish and mangroves at the Cimanuk Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumatra, Made

    1982-01-01

    The water and sediments from the upper stream of Cimanuk river carry insecticide residues especially during the rainy season. The insecticides are deposited in the estuary of Cimanuk river and along the coast of Cimanuk delta. The insecticide residues found at the delta were diazinon thiodan DDE o p-DDT and p p-DDT. Those insecticides are found in most of the water sediments and mangrove leaves samples and some of fishes samples. The samples were taken from the river the estuary the sea, the tambaks, the coast line, and from paddy field. No insecticide residue is found in the water samples taken in the dry season but they are found in the sediment samples taken in both the dry and rainy season. Generally the diazinon residues are higher at the surface than at 0.5m depth in compact sediment but they are higher at 0.5m depth than at the surface of the mud from the coast line. Diazinon and thiodan are found only in three fish samples out of twenty samples analyzed but thiodan is found in almost all of the sediment and mangrove leaves samples. DDT is found in almost all of the samples analyzed. (author)

  15. Characterization of the quality of water, bed sediment, and fish in Mittry Lake, Arizona, 2014–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosillo, Edyth; Coes, Alissa L.

    2017-03-01

    Water, bed-sediment, and fish sampling was conducted in Mittry Lake, Arizona, in 2014–15 to establish current water-quality conditions of the lake. The parameters of temperature, dissolved-oxygen concentration, specific conductance, and alkalinity were measured in the field. Water samples were collected and analyzed for dissolved major ions, dissolved trace elements, dissolved nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved pesticides, bacteria, and suspended-sediment concentrations. Bed-sediment and fish samples were analyzed for trace elements, halogenated compounds, total mercury, and methylmercury.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels in drinking water were exceeded for sulfate, chloride, and manganese in the water samples. Trace-element concentrations were relatively similar between the inlet, middle, and outlet locations. Concentrations for nutrients in all water samples were below the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality’s water-quality standards for aquatic and wildlife uses, and all bacteria levels were below the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality’s recommended recreational water-quality criteria. Three out of 81 pesticides were detected in the water samples.Trace-element concentrations in bed sediment were relatively consistent between the inlet, middle, and outlet locations. Lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc concentrations, however, decreased from the inlet to outlet locations. Concentrations for lead, nickel, and zinc in some bed-sediment samples exceeded consensus-based sediment-quality guidelines probable effect concentrations. Eleven out of 61 halogenated compounds were detected in bed sediment at the inlet location, whereas three were detected at the middle location, and five were detected at the outlet location. No methylmercury was detected in bed sediment. Total mercury was detected in bed sediment at concentrations below the consensus-based sediment-quality guidelines probable effect

  16. Extending the analytical window for water-soluble organic matter in sediments by aqueous Soxhlet extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frauke; Koch, Boris P.; Witt, Matthias; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2014-09-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in marine sediments is a complex mixture of thousands of individual constituents that participate in biogeochemical reactions and serve as substrates for benthic microbes. Knowledge of the molecular composition of DOM is a prerequisite for a comprehensive understanding of the biogeochemical processes in sediments. In this study, interstitial water DOM was extracted with Rhizon samplers from a sediment core from the Black Sea and compared to the corresponding water-extractable organic matter fraction (Soxhlet extraction, which mobilizes labile particulate organic matter and DOM. After solid phase extraction (SPE) of DOM, samples were analyzed for the molecular composition by Fourier Transform Ion-Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) with electrospray ionization in negative ion mode. The average SPE extraction yield of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in interstitial water was 63%, whereas less than 30% of the DOC in Soxhlet-extracted organic matter was recovered. Nevertheless, Soxhlet extraction yielded up to 4.35% of the total sedimentary organic carbon, which is more than 30-times the organic carbon content of the interstitial water. While interstitial water DOM consisted primarily of carbon-, hydrogen- and oxygen-bearing compounds, Soxhlet extracts yielded more complex FT-ICR mass spectra with more peaks and higher abundances of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing compounds. The molecular composition of both sample types was affected by the geochemical conditions in the sediment; elevated concentrations of HS- promoted the early diagenetic sulfurization of organic matter. The Soxhlet extracts from shallow sediment contained specific three- and four-nitrogen-bearing molecular formulas that were also detected in bacterial cell extracts and presumably represent proteinaceous molecules. These compounds decreased with increasing sediment depth while one- and two-nitrogen-bearing molecules increased, resulting in a higher

  17. Smart nanogels at the air/water interface: structural studies by neutron reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Katarzyna; Sun, Huihui; Campbell, Richard A.; Zarbakhsh, Ali; Resmini, Marina

    2016-02-01

    The development of effective transdermal drug delivery systems based on nanosized polymers requires a better understanding of the behaviour of such nanomaterials at interfaces. N-Isopropylacrylamide-based nanogels synthesized with different percentages of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as cross-linker, ranging from 10 to 30%, were characterized at physiological temperature at the air/water interface, using neutron reflectivity (NR), with isotopic contrast variation, and surface tension measurements; this allowed us to resolve the adsorbed amount and the volume fraction of nanogels at the interface. A large conformational change for the nanogels results in strong deformations at the interface. As the percentage of cross-linker incorporated in the nanogels becomes higher, more rigid matrices are obtained, although less deformed, and the amount of adsorbed nanogels is increased. The data provide the first experimental evidence of structural changes of nanogels as a function of the degree of cross-linking at the air/water interface.The development of effective transdermal drug delivery systems based on nanosized polymers requires a better understanding of the behaviour of such nanomaterials at interfaces. N-Isopropylacrylamide-based nanogels synthesized with different percentages of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as cross-linker, ranging from 10 to 30%, were characterized at physiological temperature at the air/water interface, using neutron reflectivity (NR), with isotopic contrast variation, and surface tension measurements; this allowed us to resolve the adsorbed amount and the volume fraction of nanogels at the interface. A large conformational change for the nanogels results in strong deformations at the interface. As the percentage of cross-linker incorporated in the nanogels becomes higher, more rigid matrices are obtained, although less deformed, and the amount of adsorbed nanogels is increased. The data provide the first experimental evidence of structural changes

  18. [Influence of submerged macrophytes on phosphorus transference between sediment and overlying water in the growth period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Zhi; Wang, Guo-Xiang; Yu, Zhen-Fei; Zhou, Bei-Bei; Chen, Qiu-Min; Li, Zhen-Guo

    2012-02-01

    In order to study the process of phosphorus transfer between sediment and overlying water, Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria natans were cultured in spring, Potamogeton crispus was cultured in winter. Changes of environmental factors and phosphorus concentrations in water and sediment were investigated. The results indicated that: submerged macrophytes could reduce all phosphorus fractions in the overlying water. Phosphorus concentrations in overlying water maintained in a relative low level in the growth period of submerged macrophytes. The concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) in overlying water of H. verticillata, V. natans and P. crispus were 0.03-0.05, 0.04-0.12, 0.02-0.11 mg x L(-1), respectively. All phosphorus fractions in sediment were reduced. The maximum value between submerged macrophyte and control of H. verticillata, V. natans and P. crispus were 35.34, 60.67 and 25.92 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Dissolved oxygen (DO), redox potential (Eh) and pH in overlying water increased (DO 10.0-14.0 mg x L(-1), Eh 185-240 mV, pH 8.0-11.0) in the submerged macrophytes groups. Submerged macrophytes increased Eh( -140 - -23 mV) and maintained pH(7.2-8.0) in neutral range. The results indicated that submerged macrophytes affected phosphorus transferring between sediment and overlying water through increasing DO, Eh and pH in overlying water, and Eh in sediment.

  19. Effect of resuspension on the release of heavy metals and water chemistry in anoxic and oxic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyung-Yup; Kim, Hong-Seok; Hwang, Inseong [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Two types of river sediments with contrasting characteristics (anoxic or oxic) were resuspended and the release of heavy metals and changes in water chemistry were investigated. During resuspension of the anoxic sediment, the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and redox potential of the water layer decreased abruptly within the first 1 min, followed by increases toward the end of the resuspension period. Heavy metals were released rapidly in the first 6 h, probably due to the oxidation of acid volatile sulfide (AVS) of the anoxic sediment, and then the aqueous phase concentrations of the heavy metals decreased due to resorption onto the sediment until the 12-h point. During resuspension of the oxic sediment, the DO concentration and redox potential remained relatively constant in the oxic ranges. The heavy metals were released from the oxic sediment gradually during a 24-h resuspension period. The temporal maximum concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, and Cd in the aqueous phases in both experiments frequently exceeded the USEPA water quality criteria or the water quality guidelines of Australia and New Zealand. This suggests that a resuspension event could bring about temporal water quality deterioration in the two sediment environments. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. On the complex non-linear interaction between bacteria and redox dynamics in sediments and its effects on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Vila, X.; Rubol, S.; Fernandez-Garcia, D.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the fact that the prognoses on the availability of resources related to different climate scenarios have been already formulated, the complex hydrological and biogeochemical reactions taking place in different compartments in natural environmental media are poorly understood, especially regarding the interactions between water bodies, and the reactions taking place at soil-water interfaces. Amongst them, the inter-relationship between hydrology, chemistry and biology has important implications in natural (rivers, lakes) and man-made water facilities (lagoons, artificial recharge pounds, reservoirs, slow infiltration systems, etc). The consequences involve environment, economic, social and health-risk aspects. At the current stage, only limited explanations are available to understand the implications of these relationships on ecosystem services, water quality and water quantity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to seek a full understanding of these physical-biogeochemical processes in water-bodies, sediments and biota and its implications in ecological and health risk. We present a soil column experiment and a mathematical model which aim to study the mutual interplay between water and bacteria activity in porous media, the corresponding dynamics and the feedback on nutrient cycling by using a multidisciplinary approach.

  1. Bacterial diversity and composition of an alkaline uranium mine tailings-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nurul H; Bondici, Viorica F; Medihala, Prabhakara G; Lawrence, John R; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Warner, Jeff; Korber, Darren R

    2013-10-01

    The microbial diversity and biogeochemical potential associated with a northern Saskatchewan uranium mine water-tailings interface was examined using culture-dependent and -independent techniques. Morphologically-distinct colonies from uranium mine water-tailings and a reference lake (MC) obtained using selective and non-selective media were selected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing and identification, revealing that culturable organisms from the uranium tailings interface were dominated by Firmicutes and Betaproteobacteria; whereas, MC organisms mainly consisted of Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria. Ion Torrent (IT) 16S rRNA metagenomic analysis carried out on extracted DNA from tailings and MC interfaces demonstrated the dominance of Firmicutes in both of the systems. Overall, the tailings-water interface environment harbored a distinct bacterial community relative to the MC, reflective of the ambient conditions (i.e., total dissolved solids, pH, salinity, conductivity, heavy metals) dominating the uranium tailings system. Significant correlations among the physicochemical data and the major bacterial groups present in the tailings and MC were also observed. Presence of sulfate reducing bacteria demonstrated by culture-dependent analyses and the dominance of Desulfosporosinus spp. indicated by Ion Torrent analyses within the tailings-water interface suggests the existence of anaerobic microenvironments along with the potential for reductive metabolic processes.

  2. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and surface sediments from Daya Bay, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J.L.; Maskaoui, K.

    2003-01-01

    Findings indicate an urgent need to establish a monitoring program for persistent organic pollutants in water and sediment. - Marine culture is thriving in China and represents a major component of the regional economy in coastal zones, yet the environmental quality of many of those areas has never been studied. This paper attempts to investigate the quality status of Daya Bay, a key aquaculture area in China. The levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in water and sediment samples of the bay. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs varied from 4228 to 29325 ng l -1 in water, and from 115 to 1134 ng g -1 dry weight in sediments. In comparison to many other marine systems studied, the PAH levels in Daya Bay waters were relatively high, and at six sites they were sufficiently high (>10 μg l -1 ) to cause acute toxicity. The PAH composition pattern in sediments suggest dominance by medium to high molecular weight compounds, and the ratio of certain related PAHs indicate important pyrolytic and petrogenic sources. Further analysis showed that the distribution coefficient (K D ) increased with the particular organic carbon content of sediments, consistent with the PAH partition theory. The organic carbon normalised distribution coefficient (K oc ) also increased with the compounds' octanol/water partition coefficient (K ow ), confirming the potential applicability of the linear free energy relationships in the modelling and prediction of PAH behaviour in marine environments

  3. Sediment-to-Water Partition Coefficients: the Influence of Physicochemical and Seasonal Factors in Eastern Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yankovich, Tamara L. [International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Shultz, Carmen; Hartwig, Dale; Wills, C. Anne [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada); Beresford, Nicholas A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Center, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Wood, Michael D. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Sediments often represent an important reservoir for contaminants, such as radionuclides and metals, in aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, lake, stream, and river sediments can potentially act as significant contributors to the total contaminant exposure and radiological doses received by wildlife. Exposure to contaminated sediments is dependent upon several factors. These include net contaminant inputs to a system through time, the physicochemical attributes of the system, the tendency of each contaminant to partition into the sediments relative to water, the spatial distribution of contaminants in the sediments, and the behaviour or life-style of the biota inhabiting a water body. Increased understanding of such factors and their interactions will lead to improved predictions of the radionuclide exposure received by aquatic biota, particularly benthic organisms. Despite the complexity and the dynamic nature of sediments in general, for practical purposes, in environmental impact assessments (EIAs), it is often assumed that radionuclide activity concentrations in various compartments are at steady state with respect to one another. Therefore, ratios can be used to estimate concentrations in one compartment given a known concentration in another. In the case of sediments, sediment-to-water partition coefficients (K{sub d}) are often applied to estimate the contaminant concentration sorbed to particulate matter relative to the concentration measured in the surface water. However, K{sub d} values often range by several orders of magnitude between sampling locations due to site-specific differences in physicochemical conditions in surface waters, seasonal factors, as well as differences in sediment attributes that can affect contaminant partitioning between the dissolved and particulate phases. Consequently, in conducting EIAs, it becomes necessary to either apply generic K{sub d} values that ensure contaminant concentrations in sediments to which biota are exposed are

  4. Laboratory isotopic behaviour (2H, 18O) of sediments pore water during evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciolzyk, A.; Bariac, T.; Klamecki, A.; Jusserand, C.

    1987-01-01

    Two bare sediments (sand and loam) wetted with water of known isotopic composition have been subjected to evaporation in laboratory conditions. An attempt of application of classical isotopic evaporation models for free waters with reducing reservoir has been made, the better fit implies: a)laminar conditions of the atmosphere in the sediment under evaporation; b) a similar isotopic composition of water vapor as the isotopic composition of the water vapor of the external atmosphere. Variation of ε K and δ V H implies a better knowledge of the complex mechanisms of the atmosphere behaviour in the pore path of porous media under evaporation [fr

  5. Phorbin steryl esters in Black Sea sediment traps and sediments: A preliminary evaluation of their paleooceanographic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Linda L.; Repeta, Daniel J.

    1994-10-01

    The distributions of pyropheophorbide- a steryl esters in one-year deployments of sediment traps at two locations in the Black Sea are described. In nearly all our trap samples, phorbin steryl esters (PSEs) contribute a significant portion of the total phorbin flux. The relative abundances of sterols esterified to pyropheophorbide- a varied throughout the year, and we suggest these changes result from the observed seasonal variation of phytoplankton species in the overlying water column. The distribution of free sterols in a one-year composite sediment trap sample closely approximates the distribution of sterols derived from the hydrolysis of sedimentary PSEs collected at an adjacent site. From these results, we suggest that the distribution of sedimentary PSE sterols provides a record of sterol deposition to the sediment-water interface. Esterification of sterols to pyropheophorbide- a apparently prevents the preferential removal of 4-desmethyl sterols relative to 4-methyl sterols, and the reduction of stenols to stanols during degradation. Analysis of PSEs in a gravity core covering the last 8-10 Kyr shows that the abundance and distribution of PSEs change with downcore variations in sedimentology. Detailed analysis of PSEs in sediments may, therefore, provide a means to evaluate paleooceanographic changes in phytoplankton community structure and sterol early diagenesis. The synthesis, NMR, CI-MS, and visible spectroscopic properties of four abundant PSEs found in the Black Sea are also described.

  6. Total mercury in water, sediments, and animals along the Indian Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sanzgiri, S.; Mesquita, A.; Kureishy, T.W.

    Total mercury (Hg) in water, sediments and animals along the coast of India is estimated. Water samples were collected on board of R.V. Gaveshani.The zooplankton samples were collected by Indian Ocean Standard Net and Heron Tranter nets of 500 mesh...

  7. Integration or segregation: how do molecules behave at oil/water interfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, F G; Richmond, G L

    2008-06-01

    It has been over 250 years since Benjamin Franklin, fascinated with the wave-stilling effect of oil on water, performed his famous oil-drop experiments; nevertheless, the behavior of water molecules adjacent to hydrophobic surfaces continues to fascinate today. In the 18th century, the calming of the seas seemed the most pertinent application of such knowledge; today, we understand that oil-on-water phenomena underlie a range of important chemical, physical, and biological processes, including micelle and membrane formation, protein folding, chemical separation, oil extraction, nanoparticle formation, and interfacial polymerization. Beyond classical experiments of the oil-water interface, recent interest has focused on deriving a molecular-level picture of this interface or, more generally, of water molecules positioned next to any hydrophobic surface. This Account summarizes more than a decade's work from our laboratories aimed at understanding the nature of the hydrogen bonding occurring between water and a series of organic liquids in contact. Although the common perception is that water molecules and oil molecules positioned at the interface between the immiscible liquids want nothing to do with one another, we have found that weak interactions between these hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules lead to interesting interfacial behavior, including highly oriented water molecules and layering of the organic medium that extends several molecular layers deep into the bulk organic liquid. For some organic liquids, penetration of oriented water into the organic layer is also apparent, facilitated by molecular interactions established at the molecularly thin region of first contact between the two liquids. The studies involve a combined experimental and computational approach. The primary experimental tool that we have used is vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy (VSFS), a powerful surface-specific vibrational spectroscopic method for measuring the molecular

  8. Occurrence and profiles of organic sun-blocking agents in surface waters and sediments in Japanese rivers and lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameda, Yutaka; Kimura, Kumiko; Miyazaki, Motonobu

    2011-01-01

    Sun-blocking agents including eight UV filters (UVF) and 10 UV light stabilizers (UVLS) were measured in water and sediment collected from 22 rivers, four sewage treatment plant effluents (STPE) and three lakes in Japan. Total sun blocking agents levels ranged from N.D. to 4928 ng/L and from 2.0 to 3422 μg/kg dry wt in surface water and in sediment, respectively. Benzyl salicylate, benzophenone-3, 2-ethyl hexyl-4-methoxycinnamte (EHMC) and octyl salicylate were dominant in surface water receiving wastewater effluents and STPE, although UV-328, benzophenone and EHMC were dominant in other surface water except background sites. Three UVF and nine UVLS were observed from all sediment and their compositions showed similar patterns with UV-328 and UV-234 as the most prevalent compounds. Homosalate, octocrylene, UV-326, UV-327, UV-328 and UV-234 were significantly correlated with Galaxolide in sediments. Concentrations of UV-327 and UV-328 also had strong correlation between those of UV-326 in sediment. - Highlights: → Total sun-blocking agents levels ranged from N.D. to 4928 ng/L in surface water from 29 sampling sites. → The maximum concentration of total sun-blocking agents was 3422 μg/kg dry wt. in sediment. → Residential wastewaters and STPE were considered to be potential sources of UVLS in river and lakes. → Most of sun-blocking agents in sediment were significantly correlated with HHCB. → UV-326 had a strong linear correlation between UV-327 as well as UV-328 in all sediment. - Occurrence of eight UV filters and 10 UV light stabilizers in surface water and sediment were investigated and characterized their compositions in water and sediment.

  9. [Dynamics of 95Zr in simulated marine water-sediment-organisms system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlin; Shi, Jianjun; Sun, Pingyue; Li, Mingyun

    2003-06-01

    To provide scientific evidence to evaluate the behavior of 95Zr in ocean ecosystem, the dynamic model of the transference, accumulation and disappearance of 95Zr among the simulated marine water, sediment and organisms was investigated using Nassarius semiplicatus and Boleophthalums pectinirostris as experimental stuffs. The result showed that 95Zr(Bq.g-1 or Bq.ml-1) in the marine water was decreased more than 90% in the first 4 h, and then descended gradually. 95Zr in sediment was increased in the peak in 48 h and then declined. The radioactivity percent of 95Zr in the shell and muslce of Nassarius semiplicatus was 68.7% and 31.30% respectively, while the radioactivity percent was 22.80%, 12.64%, 34.82%, 10.31%, 4.48%, 11.55% and 3.71%, respectively in the fill, fin, viscera, skull, skin, vertebra and muscle of Boleophthalmus pectinirostris. Nassarius semiplicatus had a greater concentrating capability of 95Zr than Boleophthalmus pectinirostris. The order of the 95Zr concentration was found to be sediment > Nassarius semiplicatus > water > Boleophthalmus pectinirostris. A dynamic model of closed four-compartment was constructed with exponent function.

  10. Identifying the Correlation between Water Quality Data and LOADEST Model Behavior in Annual Sediment Load Estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Shik Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Water quality samples are typically collected less frequently than flow since water quality sampling is costly. Load Estimator (LOADEST, provided by the United States Geological Survey, is used to predict water quality concentration (or load on days when flow data are measured so that the water quality data are sufficient for annual pollutant load estimation. However, there is a need to identify water quality data requirements for accurate pollutant load estimation. Measured daily sediment data were collected from 211 streams. Estimated annual sediment loads from LOADEST and subsampled data were compared to the measured annual sediment loads (true load. The means of flow for calibration data were correlated to model behavior. A regression equation was developed to compute the required mean of flow in calibration data to best calibrate the LOADEST regression model coefficients. LOADEST runs were performed to investigate the correlation between the mean flow in calibration data and model behaviors as daily water quality data were subsampled. LOADEST calibration data used sediment concentration data for flows suggested by the regression equation. Using the mean flow calibrated by the regression equation reduced errors in annual sediment load estimation from −39.7% to −10.8% compared to using all available data.

  11. Investigation of Composition of Particle Size in Sediments of Stormwater Sedimentation Tank

    OpenAIRE

    Daiva Laučytė; Regimantas Dauknys

    2011-01-01

    The main object for the storm water runoff treatment is to remove suspended solids before the storm water runoff is discharged into surface waters. Therefore the sedimentation tank is the most often used treatment facility. In order to optimise the sedimentation, the tendency of particle size distribution in bottom sediments must be known. Two similar size storm water runoff sedimentation tanks in Vilnius city were selected for the analysis of the particle size distribution in sediments. The ...

  12. Gases (CH4, CO2 and N2 and pore water chemistry in the surface sediments of Lake Orta, Italy: acidification effects on C and N gas cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald D. ADAMS

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Lake Orta, a subalpine, warm monomictic lake in northwestern Italy was heavily polluted from rayon factory discharges of ammonium and copper since 1926. In the 1950s accumulations of contaminants resulted in whole lake pHs of 3.8-4.0 from ammonium oxidation. Partial remediation started in the 1950s, but by 1985-89 the water remained acidified at pHs of 4.0. Artificial liming (14,500 t in 1989-90 resulted in improved water quality and substantial recovery of the biological community. Sediment gases, sampled in 1989 before liming, from the lake's four basins showed severe inhibition of methanogenesis (CH4 = 0.0-0.15 mM in the surface sediments (0.5-5 cm of the southern basin, location of the plant effluent, as compared to the deep central and northern basins (0.9-1.4 mM. Four years after liming, cores collected in 1994 near the 1989 southern basin sites showed a slight change in surface sediment methane (0.07-0.82 mM, yet suggested continual sediment toxicity, at least to carbon cycling through methanogenesis. Calculations of diffuse flux of CH4 at the sediment-water interface (SWI in 1989 were 6.6-7.4 mM m-2 day-1 for the central and northern basins and 0.13 for the southern basin. CH4 fluxes increased 16x to 2 mM m-2 day-1 in 1994 in the southern basin, possibly from remediation of near surface sediments. The impact of pollution on denitrification (formation of sediment N2 gas was not so obvious since two processes could counteract each other (high NO3 - stimulating denitrification versus possible negative effects from acidity and metals. The calculated flux of N2 from the southern basin sediments increased 5x four years after liming compared to the period of acidification, suggesting possible toxicity towards denitrifiers during the earlier period. Core overlying water (0.68 mM exhibited N2 concentrations close to saturation, while most surface sediments were twice as much (1.5 mM. Surface (0-6 cm sediment N2 was similar at most sites, with the

  13. Frozen Dynamics and Insulation of Water at the Lipid Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakulin, A.A.; Cringus, D.; Pshenichnikov, M.S.; Wiersma, D.A.; Corkum, P; DeSilvestri, S; Nelson, KA; Riedle, E

    2009-01-01

    2D IR correlation spectroscopy reveals extremely slow dynamics and splitting of the OH-stretching mode of water in anionic micelles. Water at the lipid interface behaves as if the molecules were isolated in a "frozen" environment.

  14. Investigation of heavy metals release from sediment with bioturbation/bioirrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Men, Bin; Yang, Xiaofang; Li, Yaxuan; Xu, Hui; Wang, Dongsheng

    2017-10-01

    Bioturbation/bioirrigation can affect the remobilization of metals from sediments. In this study, experiments were performed to examine the effect of bioturbation/bioirrigation by different organisms on cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) releasing from the spiked sediment. The diffusive gradient in thin films technique (DGT) revealed that at the end of exposure time, the labile heavy metals concentrations in the pore water for all metal and organisms combinations except Cu and chironomid larvae were much lower than that in the control group. However, the concentrations of heavy metals detected by the DGT were virtually indistinguishable among the treatments with tubificid, chironomid larvae and loach. The correlation analysis of heavy metals with iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) suggested that Cd, Zn and Pb were most likely bound as Fe-Mn oxidation form in the pore water, but Cu was in other forms. After 28 d of exposure, bioturbation/bioirrigation produced a significant release of particulate heavy metals into the overlying water, especially in the treatment with loach. The bioturbation/bioirrigation impact on the Pb remobilization was less than the other three heavy metals. The effects of bioturbaiton/bioirrigation on the heavy metals remobilization in the sediment were complex that with studying the heavy metals remobilization in the sediment and water interface, the biological indicators should be recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Air–water interface of submerged superhydrophobic surfaces imaged by atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Moosmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Underwater air retention of superhydrophobic hierarchically structured surfaces is of increasing interest for technical applications. Persistent air layers (the Salvinia effect are known from biological species, for example, the floating fern Salvinia or the backswimmer Notonecta. The use of this concept opens up new possibilities for biomimetic technical applications in the fields of drag reduction, antifouling, anticorrosion and under water sensing. Current knowledge regarding the shape of the air–water interface is insufficient, although it plays a crucial role with regards to stability in terms of diffusion and dynamic conditions. Optical methods for imaging the interface have been limited to the micrometer regime. In this work, we utilized a nondynamic and nondestructive atomic force microscopy (AFM method to image the interface of submerged superhydrophobic structures with nanometer resolution. Up to now, only the interfaces of nanobubbles (acting almost like solids have been characterized by AFM at these dimensions. In this study, we show for the first time that it is possible to image the air–water interface of submerged hierarchically structured (micro-pillars surfaces by AFM in contact mode. By scanning with zero resulting force applied, we were able to determine the shape of the interface and thereby the depth of the water penetrating into the underlying structures. This approach is complemented by a second method: the interface was scanned with different applied force loads and the height for zero force was determined by linear regression. These methods open new possibilities for the investigation of air-retaining surfaces, specifically in terms of measuring contact area and in comparing different coatings, and thus will lead to the development of new applications.

  16. Radioactivity and Natural Radio nuclides Distribution in River Water, Coastal Water, Sediment and Eichornia Crassipes (Mart) Sloms and Their Accumulation Factor at Surabaya Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Taftazani; Sumining; Muzakky

    2002-01-01

    Distribution of radioactivity and natural radionuclide in water, sediment and eichornia crassipes (mart) sloms from Surabaya river and coastal area have been evaluated. Five sampling locations were selected to represent fresh water and coastal water environment. The samples consist of water (fresh and coastal), bottom surface sediment and eichornia crassipes (mart) sloms The result showed that the gross-β activity from water environment were lower than the threshold value of Environmental Minister Act. Kep.02/MENKLH/I/1988 (1000 mBq/L) and indicated that β-radioecological quality of water were still good. But the activity of the gross-α of water environment were higher than the threshold value of Environmental Minister Act. Kep.02/MENKLH/I/1988 (100 mBq/L). The eichornia crassipes (mart) sloms (gross) activity were higher than water and sediment activities and indicated that transfer of radionuclides from water to sediment and organism can be detected in water environment. Two natural radionuclides can be identified by γ-Spectrometric technique, they were K-40 and TI-208. Generally the distribution factor F D were smaller than bioaccumulation factor F B . (author)

  17. Determination of alpha dose rate profile at the HLW nuclear glass/water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mougnaud, S., E-mail: sarah.mougnaud@cea.fr [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SECM, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Tribet, M.; Rolland, S. [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SECM, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Renault, J.-P. [CEA Saclay, NIMBE UMR 3685 CEA/CNRS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Jégou, C. [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SECM, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The nuclear glass/water interface is studied. • The way the energy of alpha particles is deposited is modeled using MCNPX code. • A model giving dose rate profiles at the interface using intrinsic data is proposed. • Bulk dose rate is a majoring estimation in alteration layer and in surrounding water. • Dose rate is high in small cracks; in larger ones irradiated volume is negligible. - Abstract: Alpha irradiation and radiolysis can affect the alteration behavior of High Level Waste (HLW) nuclear glasses. In this study, the way the energy of alpha particles, emitted by a typical HLW glass, is deposited in water at the glass/water interface is investigated, with the aim of better characterizing the dose deposition at the glass/water interface during water-induced leaching mechanisms. A simplified chemical composition was considered for the nuclear glass under study, wherein the dose rate is about 140 Gy/h. The MCNPX calculation code was used to calculate alpha dose rate and alpha particle flux profiles at the glass/water interface in different systems: a single glass grain in water, a glass powder in water and a water-filled ideal crack in a glass package. Dose rate decreases within glass and in water as distance to the center of the grain increases. A general model has been proposed to fit a dose rate profile in water and in glass from values for dose rate in glass bulk, alpha range in water and linear energy transfer considerations. The glass powder simulation showed that there was systematic overlapping of radiation fields for neighboring glass grains, but the water dose rate always remained lower than the bulk value. Finally, for typical ideal cracks in a glass matrix, an overlapping of irradiation fields was observed while the crack aperture was lower than twice the alpha range in water. This led to significant values for the alpha dose rate within the crack volume, as long as the aperture remained lower than 60 μm.

  18. Ion Transfer Voltammetry Associated with Two Polarizable Interfaces Within Water and Moderately Hydrophobic Ionic Liquid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Shiyu; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Jingdong

    2013-01-01

    An electrochemical system composed of two polarizable interfaces (the metallic electrode|water and water|ionic liquid interfaces), namely two‐polarized‐interface (TPI) technique, has been proposed to explore the ion transfer processes between water and moderately hydrophobic ionic liquids (W...... to an extremely narrow polarized potential window (ppw) caused by these moderately hydrophobic ionic components. In this article, we show that TPI technique has virtually eliminated the ppw limitation based on a controlling step of concentration polarization at the electrode|water interface. With the aid...

  19. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Profiles of Water and Sediment of Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun O. Adeniji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbon profiles of water and sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were assessed using standard analytical procedures. Water (from surface and bottom levels and sediment samples were collected from five locations in the bay from February to June 2016. Extraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons from the water and sediment samples collected was achieved using liquid-liquid and Soxhlet extraction techniques, respectively, followed by column clean up. Target compounds were analytically determined with gas chromatography–flame ionization detector (GC-FID and quantified by integrating the areas of both the resolved and unresolved components. Physicochemical properties of the water samples were also determined on site using a SeaBird 19plusV2 CTD SBE 55 device. Estimated limit of detection, limit of quantitation and relative standard deviation for the 35 n-alkane standards ranged from 0.06 to 0.13 μg/L, 0.30 to 0.69 μg/L and 3.61 to 8.32%, respectively. Results showed that total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH varied from 45.07 to 307 μg/L in the water and 0.72 to 27.03 mg/kg in the sediments. The mean concentrations of TPH in both the water and sediment samples from Algoa Bay revealed a slight level of pollution. The diagnostic indices used showed that the hydrocarbons in the area were from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Hence, there is need for adequate regulation and control of all activities contributing to the levels of petroleum hydrocarbon in the marine environment for the safety of human, aquatic and wild lives in the area.

  20. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Profiles of Water and Sediment of Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniji, Abiodun O; Okoh, Omobola O; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-10-20

    Petroleum hydrocarbon profiles of water and sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were assessed using standard analytical procedures. Water (from surface and bottom levels) and sediment samples were collected from five locations in the bay from February to June 2016. Extraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons from the water and sediment samples collected was achieved using liquid-liquid and Soxhlet extraction techniques, respectively, followed by column clean up. Target compounds were analytically determined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and quantified by integrating the areas of both the resolved and unresolved components. Physicochemical properties of the water samples were also determined on site using a SeaBird 19plusV2 CTD SBE 55 device. Estimated limit of detection, limit of quantitation and relative standard deviation for the 35 n -alkane standards ranged from 0.06 to 0.13 μg/L, 0.30 to 0.69 μg/L and 3.61 to 8.32%, respectively. Results showed that total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) varied from 45.07 to 307 μg/L in the water and 0.72 to 27.03 mg/kg in the sediments. The mean concentrations of TPH in both the water and sediment samples from Algoa Bay revealed a slight level of pollution. The diagnostic indices used showed that the hydrocarbons in the area were from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Hence, there is need for adequate regulation and control of all activities contributing to the levels of petroleum hydrocarbon in the marine environment for the safety of human, aquatic and wild lives in the area.

  1. Airflow measurements at a wavy air-water interface using PIV and LIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Marc P.; Veron, Fabrice

    2017-11-01

    Physical phenomena at an air-water interface are of interest in a variety of flows with both industrial and natural/environmental applications. In this paper, we present novel experimental techniques incorporating a multi-camera multi-laser instrumentation in a combined particle image velocimetry and laser-induced fluorescence system. The system yields accurate surface detection thus enabling velocity measurements to be performed very close to the interface. In the application presented here, we show results from a laboratory study of the turbulent airflow over wind driven surface waves. Accurate detection of the wavy air-water interface further yields a curvilinear coordinate system that grants practical and easy implementation of ensemble and phase averaging routines. In turn, these averaging techniques allow for the separation of mean, surface wave coherent, and turbulent velocity fields. In this paper, we describe the instrumentation and techniques and show several data products obtained on the air-side of a wavy air-water interface.

  2. Analysis of heavy metals concentration in water and sediment in the Hara biosphere reserve, southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, Mohsen; Mansouri, Borhan; Nabizadeh, Sahar; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza

    2014-02-01

    This study determined the concentration of heavy metals (Al, Cr, Cu, and Zn) in water and sediments at nine sites in the Hara biosphere reserve of southern Iran during the summer and winter 2010. Determination of Al, Cr, Cu, and Zn in water was carried out by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (Shimadzu, AA 610s) and in sediment by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin Elmer, AA3030). Results showed that the heavy metal concentrations in the water samples decreased in the sequence of Zn > Al > Cu > Cr, while in sediment samples were Cr > Zn > Cu > Al. Data analysis indicated that with the exception of Al, there was a Pearson's correlation coefficient between pH and Cu, Zn, and Cr at α = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.001 in sediment (in winter), respectively. There were also significant differences between heavy metals of Cr, Cu, and Zn during the two seasons (p < 0.001) in the water and sediment.

  3. A new macrofaunal limit in the deep biosphere revealed by extreme burrow depths in ancient sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobain, S L; Hodgson, D M; Peakall, J; Wignall, P B; Cobain, M R D

    2018-01-10

    Macrofauna is known to inhabit the top few 10s cm of marine sediments, with rare burrows up to two metres below the seabed. Here, we provide evidence from deep-water Permian strata for a previously unrecognised habitat up to at least 8 metres below the sediment-water interface. Infaunal organisms exploited networks of forcibly injected sand below the seabed, forming living traces and reworking sediment. This is the first record that shows sediment injections are responsible for hosting macrofaunal life metres below the contemporaneous seabed. In addition, given the widespread occurrence of thick sandy successions that accumulate in deep-water settings, macrofauna living in the deep biosphere are likely much more prevalent than considered previously. These findings should influence future sampling strategies to better constrain the depth range of infaunal animals living in modern deep-sea sands. One Sentence Summary: The living depth of infaunal macrofauna is shown to reach at least 8 metres in new habitats associated with sand injections.

  4. A sediment resuspension and water quality model of Lake Okeechobee

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R.T.; Martin, J.; Wool, T.; Wang, P.-F.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of sediment resuspension on the water quality of shallow lakes is well documented. However, a search of the literature reveals no deterministic mass-balance eutrophication models that explicitly include resuspension. We modified the Lake Okeeehobee water quality model - which uses the Water Analysis Simulation Package (WASP) to simulate algal dynamics and phosphorus, nitrogen, and oxygen cycles - to include inorganic suspended solids and algorithms that: (1) define changes in depth with changes in volume; (2) compute sediment resuspension based on bottom shear stress; (3) compute partition coefficients for ammonia and ortho-phosphorus to solids; and (4) relate light attenuation to solids concentrations. The model calibration and validation were successful with the exception of dissolved inorganic nitrogen species which did not correspond well to observed data in the validation phase. This could be attributed to an inaccurate formulation of algal nitrogen preference and/or the absence of nitrogen fixation in the model. The model correctly predicted that the lake is lightlimited from resuspended solids, and algae are primarily nitrogen limited. The model simulation suggested that biological fluxes greatly exceed external loads of dissolved nutrients; and sedimentwater interactions of organic nitrogen and phosphorus far exceed external loads. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated that parameters affecting resuspension, settling, sediment nutrient and solids concentrations, mineralization, algal productivity, and algal stoichiometry are factors requiring further study to improve our understanding of the Lake Okeechobee ecosystem.

  5. Visualization of an air-water interface on superhydrophobic surfaces in turbulent channel flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunseok; Park, Hyungmin

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, three-dimensional deformation of air-water interface on superhydrophobic surfaces in turbulent channel flows at the Reynolds numbers of Re = 3000 and 10000 is measured with RICM (Reflection Interference Contrast Microscopy) technique. Two different types of roughness feature of circular hole and rectangular grate are considered, whose depth is 20 μm and diameter (or width) is varied between 20-200 μm. Since the air-water interface is always at de-pinned state at the considered condition, air-water interface shape and its sagging velocity is maintained to be almost constant as time goes one. In comparison with the previous results under the laminar flow, due to turbulent characteristics of the flow, sagging velocity is much faster. Based on the measured sagging profiles, a modified model to describe the air-water interface dynamics under turbulent flows is suggested. Supported by City of Seoul through Seoul Urban Data Science Laboratory Project (Grant No 0660-20170004) administered by SNU Big Data Institute.

  6. Modeling chemical gradients in sediments under losing and gaining flow conditions: The GRADIENT code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boano, Fulvio; De Falco, Natalie; Arnon, Shai

    2018-02-01

    Interfaces between sediments and water bodies often represent biochemical hotspots for nutrient reactions and are characterized by steep concentration gradients of different reactive solutes. Vertical profiles of these concentrations are routinely collected to obtain information on nutrient dynamics, and simple codes have been developed to analyze these profiles and determine the magnitude and distribution of reaction rates within sediments. However, existing publicly available codes do not consider the potential contribution of water flow in the sediments to nutrient transport, and their applications to field sites with significant water-borne nutrient fluxes may lead to large errors in the estimated reaction rates. To fill this gap, the present work presents GRADIENT, a novel algorithm to evaluate distributions of reaction rates from observed concentration profiles. GRADIENT is a Matlab code that extends a previously published framework to include the role of nutrient advection, and provides robust estimates of reaction rates in sediments with significant water flow. This work discusses the theoretical basis of the method and shows its performance by comparing the results to a series of synthetic data and to laboratory experiments. The results clearly show that in systems with losing or gaining fluxes, the inclusion of such fluxes is critical for estimating local and overall reaction rates in sediments.

  7. MONITORING OF PHOSPHORUS CONTENT IN “WATER-PARTICULATE MATERIALS-BOTTOM SEDIMENTS SYSTEM” FOR RIVER PRUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE RUSU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of phosphorus content in “water-particulatematerials-bottom sediments system” for river Prut. Seasonal and spatialdynamics of phosphorus forms in water, particulate materials and bottomsediments of river Prut was elucidated. The scheme for determination ofphosphorus forms in water and particulate materials according to World HealthOrganization classification was evaluated. Additionally, this scheme was tested forestimation of phosphorus content in bottom sediments. The supplemented schemeallows the analysis of the phosphorus forms for the entirely system “water –particulate materials – bottom sediments”, extending possibilities for interpretationof phosphorus dynamics in natural waters.

  8. Comparative studies of metals in fish organs, sediments and water from Nigerian fresh water fish ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipinmoroti, K.O.; Oshodi, A.A.; Owolabi, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Fish samples (Illisha africana) were collected from six man-made fish pond in Edo and Ondo states, Nigeria. Some organs of the fish sediment and water from the fish habitat were analysed for Cd, Pb, Hg, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu and Cr, Physico-chemical properties of water samples from the ponds were also re-corded. The concentration of the metals varied in the sediment water as well as in different organs of the fish. However, chromium was absent in all the samples. The descending order of metal concentration in fish organs was: gills intestine, head and muscle. To avoid harmful accumulation of these metals in the human system, the gills and the intestine should preferably be discarded while processing fish for consumption. The head with a relatively high concentration of calcium might be useful in feed formulation. (author)

  9. Sorption of alkylphenols on Ebro River sediments: Comparing isotherms with field observations in river water and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Alicia; Endo, Satoshi; Gocht, Tilman; Barth, Johannes A.C.; Lacorte, Silvia; Barcelo, Damia; Grathwohl, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study reports sorption isotherms of the endocrine disruptors nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) in three sediment samples from the Ebro River basin (NE Spain), with organic carbon fractions (f OC ) ranging from 0.0035 to 0.082 g OC g -1 . All isotherms were fitted to the Freundlich model with slightly nonlinear exponents ranging from 0.80 to 0.94. The solubility of the compounds as well as the organic carbon (OC) content had the strongest influences on the sorption behavior of these compounds. Comparison of the laboratory-spiked samples with the native contamination of NP of 45 water and concurrent sediment samples resulted in reasonable matches between both data sets, even though the lowest concentrations in the field were not completely reached in laboratory tests. This good agreement indicates that sorption laboratory data can be extrapolated to environmental levels and therefore the distribution of nonylphenol between sediments and water can be predicted with a precision of one order of magnitude. Furthermore, laboratory experiments with simultaneous loading of NP and OP revealed negligible competition for sorption sites at low concentrations. - Laboratory sorption of nonylphenol compared to field concentrations showed good agreements

  10. Sorption of alkylphenols on Ebro River sediments: Comparing isotherms with field observations in river water and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Alicia [Center of Applied Geoscience, University of Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: anoqam@iiqab.csic.es; Endo, Satoshi; Gocht, Tilman [Center of Applied Geoscience, University of Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Barth, Johannes A.C. [Center of Applied Geoscience, University of Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Lacorte, Silvia [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barcelo, Damia [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Institut Catala de Recerca de l' Aigua (ICRA), Parc Cientific i Tecnologic de la Universitat de Girona, Pic de Peguera, 15, 17003 Girona (Spain); Grathwohl, Peter [Center of Applied Geoscience, University of Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    This study reports sorption isotherms of the endocrine disruptors nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) in three sediment samples from the Ebro River basin (NE Spain), with organic carbon fractions (f{sub OC}) ranging from 0.0035 to 0.082 g{sub OC} g{sup -1}. All isotherms were fitted to the Freundlich model with slightly nonlinear exponents ranging from 0.80 to 0.94. The solubility of the compounds as well as the organic carbon (OC) content had the strongest influences on the sorption behavior of these compounds. Comparison of the laboratory-spiked samples with the native contamination of NP of 45 water and concurrent sediment samples resulted in reasonable matches between both data sets, even though the lowest concentrations in the field were not completely reached in laboratory tests. This good agreement indicates that sorption laboratory data can be extrapolated to environmental levels and therefore the distribution of nonylphenol between sediments and water can be predicted with a precision of one order of magnitude. Furthermore, laboratory experiments with simultaneous loading of NP and OP revealed negligible competition for sorption sites at low concentrations. - Laboratory sorption of nonylphenol compared to field concentrations showed good agreements.

  11. Controlling the Accumulation of Water at Oil-Solid Interfaces with Gradient Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Yang, Qiaomu; Mei, Ran Andy; Cai, Meirong; Heng, Jerry Y Y; Yang, Zhongqiang

    2017-07-13

    In this work, we demonstrate a strategy to control the accumulation of water in the oil-solid interface using a gradient coating. Gradient chemistry on glass surface is created by vapor diffusion of organosilanes, leading to a range of contact angles from 110 to 20°. Hexadecane is placed on the gradient substrate as an oil layer, forming a "water/hexadecane/gradient solid substrate" sandwich structure. During incubation, water molecules spontaneously migrate through the micrometer-thick oil layer and result in the formation of micrometer-sized water droplets at the oil-solid interface. It turns out that water droplets at more hydrophobic regions tend to be closer to a regular spherical shape, which is attributed to their higher contact angle with the hydrophobic substrate. However, along the gradient from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, the water droplets gradually form more irregular shapes, as hydrophilic surfaces pin the edges of droplets to form a distorted morphology. It indicates that more hydrophilic surfaces containing more Si-OH groups lead to a higher electrostatic interaction with water and a higher growth rate of interfacial water droplets. This work provides further insights into the mechanism of spontaneous water accumulation at oil-solid interfaces and assists in the rational design for controlling such interfacial phenomenon.

  12. Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd concentrations in fish, water and sediment from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd concentrations in fish, water and sediment from the Azuabie Creek,. Port Harcourt. ... Heavy metal contamination in the aquatic ... Azuabie Creek and the associated water ..... Public in Tianjin, China via Consumption of.

  13. Effects of wind-wave disturbances on adsorption and desorption of tetracycline and sulfadimidine in water-sediment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qianjiahua; Huang, Zheng; Li, Shu; Wang, Yi; Liu, Yuqing; Luo, Ran; Shang, Jingge

    2018-05-28

    Wind-wave disturbances frequently disperse sediment particles into overlying water, which facilitates the adsorption and desorption of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Tetracycline (TC) and sulfadimidine (SM2) are common antibiotics that are frequently found in aquatic environments. This study utilized microcosms, comprising sediment and water from Lake Taihu, China, to examine the adsorption and desorption of TC and SM2 under different wind-wave disturbances in a shallow lake environment. The adsorption experiments were conducted with three different concentrations (1, 5, 10 mg/L) of TC and SM2 in the overlying water, and two different (background and strong) wind-wave conditions for 72 h. Subsequently, four microcosms were employed in a 12-h desorption study. Analysis of adsorption progress showed that TC concentration in the overlying water decreased quickly, while SM2 remained almost constant. In the desorption experiments, SM2 released to the overlying water was an order of magnitude greater than TC. These results indicate that sediment particles strongly adsorb TC but weakly adsorb SM2. Compared to background conditions, the strong wind-wave conditions resulted in higher concentrations of TC and SM2 in sediment and facilitated their migration to deeper sediment during adsorption, correspondingly promoting greater release of TC and SM2 from sediment particles into the overlying water during desorption.

  14. Final hazard classification for N basin water filtration and sediment relocation operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarcik, D.J.; Kretzschmar, S.P.

    1996-02-01

    This document provides an auditable safety analysis and hazard classification for the filtration of basin water and the relocation of 105-N basin solids to the North Cask Pit within the basin complex. This report assesses the operation of the Water Filtration System and the Remotely Operated Sediment Extraction Equipment (ROSEE). These activities have an activity hazard classification of radiological. Inventories of potentially releasable nonradioactive hazardous materials are far below the reportable quantities of 40 CFR 302. No controls are required to maintain the releasable inventories of these materials below the reportable quantities. Descriptive material is included to provide a general understanding of the water filtration and sediment relocation processes. All equipment will be operated as described in work instructions and/or applicable procedures. Special controls associated with these activities are as follows: (1) A leak inspection of the ROSEE system shall be performed at least once every 5-hour period of sediment relocation operation. (2) A berm must be in place around the North Cask Pit to redirect a potential abovewater ROSEE system leak back to the basin

  15. Mathematical simulation of sediment and contaminant transport in surface waters. Annual report, October 1977--September 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Arnold, E.M.; Serne, R.J.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L.; Mayer, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Various pathways exist for exposure of humans and biota to radioactive materials released from nuclear facilities. Hydrologic transport (liquid pathway) is one element in the evaluation of the total radiation dose to man. Mathematical models supported by well-planned field data collection programs can be useful tools in assessing the hydrologic transport and ultimate fate of radionuclides. Radionuclides with high distribution coefficients or radionuclides in surface waters with high suspended sediment concentrations are, to a great extent, adsorbed by river and marine sediments. Thus, otherwise dilute contaminants are concentrated. Contaminated sediments may be deposited on the river and ocean beds creating a significant pathway to man. Contaminated bed sediment in turn may become a long-term source of pollution through desorption and resuspension. In order to assess migration and accumulation of radionuclides in surface waters, mathematical models must correctly simulate essential mechanisms of radionuclide transport. The objectives of this study were: (1) to conduct a critical review of (a) radionuclide transport models as well as sediment transport and representative water quality models in rivers, estuaries, oceans, lakes, and reservoirs, and (b) adsorption and desorption mechanisms of radionuclides with sediments in surface waters; (2) to synthesize a mathematical model capable of predicting short- and long-term transport and accumulation of radionuclides in marine environments

  16. Sediment filtration can reduce the N load of the waste water discharge - a full-scale lake experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Sanni L.; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Karvinen, Anu; Rissanen, Antti J.; Ropponen, Janne; Juntunen, Janne; Tiirola, Marja

    2016-04-01

    European commission has obliged Baltic states to reduce nitrate load, which requires high investments on the nitrate removal processes and may increase emissions of greenhouse gases, e.g. N2O, in the waste water treatment plants. We used ecosystem-scale experimental approach to test a novel sediment filtration method for economical waste water N removal in Lake Keurusselkä, Finland between 2014 and 2015. By spatially optimizing the waste water discharge, the contact area and time of nitrified waste water with the reducing microbes of the sediment was increased. This was expected to enhance microbial-driven N transformation and to alter microbial community composition. We utilized 15N isotope pairing technique to follow changes in the actual and potential denitrification rates, nitrous oxide formation and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) in the lake sediments receiving nitrate-rich waste water input and in the control site. In addition, we investigated the connections between observed process rates and microbial community composition and functioning by using next generation sequencing and quantitative PCR. Furthermore, we estimated the effect of sediment filtration method on waste water contact time with sediment using the 3D hydrodynamic model. We sampled one year before the full-scale experiment and observed strong seasonal patterns in the process rates, which reflects the seasonal variation in the temperature-related mixing patterns of the waste water within the lake. During the experiment, we found that spatial optimization enhanced both actual and potential denitrification rates of the sediment. Furthermore, it did not significantly promote N2O emissions, or N retention through DNRA. Overall, our results indicate that sediment filtration can be utilized as a supplemental or even alternative method for the waste water N removal.

  17. Sediment Quality and Comparison to Historical Water Quality, Little Arkansas River Basin, South-Central Kansas, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.

    2008-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variability in streambed-sediment quality and its relation to historical water quality was assessed to provide guidance for the development of total maximum daily loads and the implementation of best-management practices in the Little Arkansas River Basin, south-central Kansas. Streambed-sediment samples were collected at 26 sites in 2007, sieved to isolate the less than 63-micron fraction (that is, the silt and clay), and analyzed for selected nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), organic and total carbon, 25 trace elements, and the radionuclides beryllium-7, cesium-137, lead-210, and radium-226. At eight sites, streambed-sediment samples also were collected and analyzed for bacteria. Particulate nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon concentrations in the streambed sediment varied substantially spatially and temporally, and positive correlations among the three constituents were statistically significant. Along the main-stem Little Arkansas River, streambed-sediment concentrations of particulate nitrogen and phosphorus generally were larger at and downstream from Alta Mills, Kansas. The largest particulate nitrogen concentrations were measured in samples collected in the Emma Creek subbasin and may be related to livestock and poultry production. The largest particulate phosphorus concentrations in the basin were measured in samples collected along the main-stem Little Arkansas River downstream from Alta Mills, Kansas. Particulate nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon content in the water and streambed-sediment samples typically decreased as streamflow increased. This inverse relation may be caused by an increased contribution of sediment from channel-bank sources during high flows and (or) increased particle sizes transported by the high flows. Trace element concentrations in the streambed sediment varied from site to site and typically were less than threshold-effects guidelines for possible adverse biological effects

  18. Total nitrogen and suspended-sediment loads and identification of suspended-sediment sources in the Laurel Hill Creek watershed, Somerset County, Pennsylvania, water years 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Gellis, Allen C.; Galeone, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    Laurel Hill Creek is a watershed of 125 square miles located mostly in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, with small areas extending into Fayette and Westmoreland Counties. The upper part of the watershed is on the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection 303(d) list of impaired streams because of siltation, nutrients, and low dissolved oxygen concentrations. The objectives of this study were to (1) estimate the annual sediment load, (2) estimate the annual nitrogen load, and (3) identify the major sources of fine-grained sediment using the sediment-fingerprinting approach. This study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was done in cooperation with the Somerset County Conservation District. Discharge, suspended-sediment, and nutrient data were collected at two streamflow-gaging stations—Laurel Hill Creek near Bakersville, Pa., (station 03079600) and Laurel Hill Creek at Ursina, Pa., (station 03080000)—and one ungaged stream site, Laurel Hill Creek below Laurel Hill Creek Lake at Trent (station 03079655). Concentrations of nutrients generally were low. Concentrations of ammonia were less than 0.2 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and concentrations of phosphorus were less than 0.3 mg/L. Most concentrations of phosphorus were less than the detection limit of 0.02 mg/L. Most water samples had concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite less than 1.0 mg/L. At the Bakersville station, concentrations of total nitrogen ranged from 0.63 to 1.3 mg/L in base-flow samples and from 0.57 to 1.5 mg/L in storm composite samples. Median concentrations were 0.88 mg/L in base-flow samples and 1.2 mg/L in storm composite samples. At the Ursina station, concentrations of total nitrogen ranged from 0.25 to 0.92 mg/L in base-flow samples; the median concentration was 0.57 mg/L. The estimated total nitrogen load at the Bakersville station was 262 pounds (lb) for 11 months of the 2010 water year (November 2009 to September 2010) and 266 lb for the 2011 water year. Most of the total

  19. Simulating shock-bubble interactions at water-gelatin interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Stefan; Kaiser, Jakob; Bermejo-Moreno, Ivan; Adams, Nikolaus

    2016-11-01

    Biomedical problems are often driven by fluid dynamics, as in vivo organisms are usually composed of or filled with fluids that (strongly) affected their physics. Additionally, fluid dynamical effects can be used to enhance certain phenomena or destroy organisms. As examples, we highlight the benign potential of shockwave-driven kidney-stone lithotripsy or sonoporation (acoustic cavitation of microbubbles) to improve drug delivery into cells. During the CTR SummerProgram 2016 we have performed axisymmetric three-phase simulations of a shock hitting a gas bubble in water near a gelatin interface mimicking the fundamental process during sonoporation. We used our multi-resolution finite volume method with sharp interface representation (level-set), WENO-5 shock capturing and interface scale-separation and compared the results with a diffuse-interface method. Qualitatively our simulation results agree well with the reference. Due to the interface treatment the pressure profiles are sharper in our simulations and bubble collapse dynamics are predicted at shorter time-scales. Validation with free-field collapse (Rayleigh collapse) shows very good agreement. The project leading to this application has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant agreement No 667483).

  20. The Effects of Varying Salinity on Ammonium Exchange in Estuarine Sediments of the Parker River, Massachusetts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weston, Nathaniel B.; Giblin, Anne E; Banta, Gary Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of seasonal salinity changes on sediment ammonium (NH4+) adsorption and exchange across the sediment–water interface in the Parker River Estuary, by means of seasonal field sampling, laboratory adsorption experiments, and modeling. The fraction of dissolvedNH4+relative...... to adsorbedNH4+in oligohaline sediments rose significantly with increased pore water salinity over the season. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that small (∼3) increases in salinity from freshwater conditions had the greatest effect onNH4+adsorption by reducing the exchangeable pool from 69% to 14......% of the totalNH4+in the upper estuary sediments that experience large (0–20) seasonal salinity shifts.NH4+dynamics did not appear to be significantly affected bysalinity in sediments of the lower estuary where salinities under 10 were not measured. We further assessed the importance of salinity...

  1. Radiological assessment of dam water and sediments for natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiological assessment of dam water and sediments for natural radioactivity and its overall health detriments. ... No artificial gamma emitting radionuclide was detected in the samples. The projected ... However, the chances of radiological hazard to the health of human from radioactivity in the soil were generally low.

  2. Natural and artificial radionuclides in the Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tahawy, M.S.; Farouk, M.A.; Ibrahiem, N.M.; El-Mongey, S.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Concentration of natural and artificial radionuclides in Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water have been measured using γ spectrometers based on a hyper-pure Ge detector. The activity concentrations of 238 U series, 232 Th series and 40 K did not exceed 16.0, 15.5 and 500.0 Bq kg -1 dry weight for sediments. The activity concentration of 238 U series and 40 K did not exceed 0.6 and 18.0 Bq l -1 for stream water. (author)

  3. Natural and artificial radionuclides in the Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tahawy, M. S.; Farouk, M. A.; Ibrahiem, N. M.; El-Mongey, S. A. M.

    1994-07-01

    Concentration of natural and artificial radionuclides in Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water have been measured using γ spectrometers based on a hyper-pure Ge detector. The activity concentrations of 238U series, 232Th series and 40K did not exceed 16.0, 15.5 and 500.0 Bq kg-1 dry weight for sediments. The activity concentration of 238U series and 40K did not exceed 0.6 and 18.0 Bq 1-1 for stream water.

  4. Increased carbon uptake in marine sediment enabled by naturally occurring electrical conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M. E.; Cahoon, D. P.; Girguis, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) gradients are common across marine sediment-water interfaces and result from microbially-mediated reactions such as the oxidation of organic matter coupled to reduction of electron acceptors. Most microbes living in sediments do not have direct access to oxygen in their immediate environment, however it has recently been shown that sulfide-oxidizing microbes may employ extracellular electron transfer (EET) to couple the oxidation of sulfide in the anoxic zone to reduction of oxygen at the sediment-water interface located several centimeters away. However, no mechanisms for this observed phenomenon have been validated. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that conductive minerals in marine sediment (specifically pyrite) can couple spatially separated redox reactions such as anaerobic respiration and oxygen reduction. Marine sediment was amended with naturally occurring pyrite in varying concentrations (0, 2, 10 and 50 weight-percent) and then incubated with 10 μM 13C-labeled acetate. After six hours, the treatments with the greatest amount of added pyrite showed the greatest incorporation of acetate from the labeled pool. The fraction of labeled acetate incorporation more than doubled in the 10 and 50 weight-percent treatments compared to the control sediment. We also designed a circuit to investigate the electrical conductivity of the sediment treatments as a function of added pyrite. A potentiostat was used to establish a known voltage across a sediment column and current was measured. Resistance (the inverse of conductance) was calculated from a linear fit of current data over a range of voltages ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 V. The treatments with added pyrite had lower resistance than background sediment, with the lowest resistance corresponding to the 50% pyrite treatment. We also examined the effect of varying pyrite content on microbial community composition using massively parallel 16S rRNA sequencing. Microbial community analyses

  5. U- and Th-series nuclides in settling particles: implications to sediment transport through surface waters and interior ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarin, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Bay of Bengal is a unique ocean basin receiving large quantities of fresh water and sediment supply from several rivers draining the Indian subcontinent. The annual flux of suspended sediments discharged into the Bay of Bengal is one billion tons, about one-tenth of the global sediment discharge into the ocean. The water and sediment discharge to the Bay, show significant seasonal variation, with maximum transport coinciding with the SW-monsoon (July-September). Earlier studies on the distribution of clay minerals in sediments have led to the suggestion that the sediments of the western Bengal Fan are mainly derived from the Peninsular rivers, whereas rest of the Fan sediments is influenced by the Himalayan rivers. Settling fluxes of particulate matter through the water column of the Bay of Bengal show seasonal trends resulting from monsoon enhanced sediment supply via rivers and biological processes in the water column. It is, thus, important to understand the influence of the seasonally varying particle fluxes on the solute-particle interactions and chemical scavenging processes in the surface and deep waters of the Bay of Bengal. In this context, measurements of U- and Th-series nuclides in the settling particles are most relevant. The radionuclide fluxes ( 230 Th, 228 Th and 210 Pb) in the settling particles provide insight into the role of their removal by vertical particle flux and/or lateral transport (removal at the ocean boundaries). A study carried out in the Northern Bay of Bengal documents that the authigenic flux of 230 Th, as measured in sediment trap samples from deep waters, is balanced by its production in the overhead water column. The sediment mass flux, Al and 228 Th fluxes are similar in the settling particles through shallow and deep waters, suggesting predominant removal by vertical particle flux in the North Bay of Bengal. In the Central Bay, particulate mass, Al and 228 Th fluxes are higher in the trap material from deep waters relative

  6. Metal quantification in water and sediment samples of billings reservoir by SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, Sergio Arnaud; Moreira, Silvana; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de

    2007-01-01

    Billings is the largest reservoir water of the metropolitan Sao Paulo area, with approximately 100km 2 of water. Its basin hydrographic occupies more than 500km 2 in six cities. It concentrates the largest industrial park of South America and only its margins are busy for almost a million inhabitants. The quality of its waters is, therefore, constant of concern of the whole society. In this work the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) is applied for the identification and quantification of metals in waters and sediments of the Billings dam. A comparison of the levels of metals found with the maximum permissive limits established by the Brazilian legislation was made. The purpose of social context is to contribute for the preservation of the local springs and the rational use of its waters. For the field work they were chosen 19 collection points, included the margins and the central portion of the dam, in agreement with similar approaches the those adopted by the Company of Technology of Environmental Sanitation of Sao Paulo State (CETESB).The water and sediment samples, as well as the certified and standard samples, were analyzed at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, SP, Brazil. Results indicate that the water and the sediments of the reservoir have concentrations above the legal limits. (author)

  7. Metal quantification in water and sediment samples of billings reservoir by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, Sergio Arnaud; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mails: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; sergioarnaud@hotmail.com; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br

    2007-07-01

    Billings is the largest reservoir water of the metropolitan Sao Paulo area, with approximately 100km{sup 2} of water. Its basin hydrographic occupies more than 500km{sup 2} in six cities. It concentrates the largest industrial park of South America and only its margins are busy for almost a million inhabitants. The quality of its waters is, therefore, constant of concern of the whole society. In this work the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) is applied for the identification and quantification of metals in waters and sediments of the Billings dam. A comparison of the levels of metals found with the maximum permissive limits established by the Brazilian legislation was made. The purpose of social context is to contribute for the preservation of the local springs and the rational use of its waters. For the field work they were chosen 19 collection points, included the margins and the central portion of the dam, in agreement with similar approaches the those adopted by the Company of Technology of Environmental Sanitation of Sao Paulo State (CETESB).The water and sediment samples, as well as the certified and standard samples, were analyzed at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, SP, Brazil. Results indicate that the water and the sediments of the reservoir have concentrations above the legal limits. (author)

  8. Uranium concentrations in lake and stream waters and sediments from selected sites in the Susitna River Basin, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.E.

    1977-03-01

    During the summer of 1976, 141 water and 211 sediment samples were taken from 147 locations in the Susitna River basin in Alaska by the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska for the LASL. These samples were taken to provide preliminary information on the uranium concentrations in waters and sediments from the Susitna River basin and to test the analytical methods proposed for the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance for uranium in Alaska. The uranium determinations resulting from the fluorometric analysis of the water samples and the delayed-neutron counting of the sediment samples are presented. The low levels of uranium in the water samples, many of which were below the detectable limit of the LASL fluorometric technique, indicate that a more sensitive analytical method is needed for the analysis of Alaskan water samples from this area. An overlay showing numbered sample locations and overlays graphically portraying the concentrations of uranium in the water and sediment samples, all at 1:250,000 scale for use with existing USGS topographic sheets, are also provided as plates

  9. The occurrence of heavy metals and metal-resistant bacteria in water and bottom sediments of the Straszyn reservoir (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulbat Eliza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the distribution of selected heavy metals and metal–resistant bacteria in water and bottom sediments of the surface drinking water reservoir for Gdańsk. The following sequence of metals in regard to metal concentration in sediments can be written down: Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd. The evaluation of metals accumulation was performed using the Müller index, to indicate the bottom sediment's contamination and geochemical classification of sediment quality according to Polish standards. The Müller geochemical index was changing in a wide range: < 1–4.1. Although the maximum value of Müller's geochemical index determined for copper indicates that the sediment is ‘strongly contaminated’, in general the analysed bottom sediments were classified as the I and II category according to Polish geochemical standards. From the microbiological side a significant part of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from the bottom sediment and surface water (raw and treated water showed a resistance to 0.2 mM and 2 mM concentrations of zinc, copper and lead. The highest percentages of metal–resistant bacteria were recorded in the sediments of the reservoir (60%–88%. The share of metal–resistant strains in the raw water was significantly lower (34%–61%. The results indicate also that water treatment processes may contribute to the selection of resistant strains.

  10. Evaluation of heavy metals (Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg) in water, sediments and water lily (Eichornia crassipes) from Jose Antonio Alzate dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila P, P.

    1995-01-01

    Water, sediments and water lily (Eichornia crassipes) from the Jose Antonio Alzate Dam were analyzed in order to determine concentrations of chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and mercury. Mercury, lead, chromium and iron were found in concentrations above permissible limits in water, and in high concentrations in sediments. Cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc never were found in concentrations above permissible limits in water. The highest concentrations of heavy metals in water lily were found in the root. Accumulation factors decreased in the following order: Zn> Cr> Fe> Ni> Cu> Pb> Hg and Cd. Statistical differences (α < 0.5) between the collection samples dates was observed. High correlations between metals concentrations in superficial water, sediment and water hyacinth were also observed. These correlations could indicate that the heavy metals studied here, are originated from a natural source such as sediments or from an industrial source. (Author)

  11. Dating ice shelf edge marine sediments: A new approach using single-grain quartz luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, G.W.; Murray, A.S.; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    2010-01-01

    the Antarctic Peninsula, sediment-water-interface (“zero-age” analogs), silt-rich short cores were collected in 2001–2003, originally only for fine silt dating tests. Later access to suitable instrumentation also permitted testing the potential of single-grain quartz (SGQ) dating of sand grains from these cores...

  12. Contrasting watershed-scale trends in runoff and sediment yield complicate rangeland water resources planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Matthew D.; Marcantonio, Franco; Allison, Mead A.; McAlister, Jason; Wilcox, Bradford P.; Fox, William E.

    2016-06-01

    Rangelands cover a large portion of the earth's land surface and are undergoing dramatic landscape changes. At the same time, these ecosystems face increasing expectations to meet growing water supply needs. To address major gaps in our understanding of rangeland hydrologic function, we investigated historical watershed-scale runoff and sediment yield in a dynamic landscape in central Texas, USA. We quantified the relationship between precipitation and runoff and analyzed reservoir sediment cores dated using cesium-137 and lead-210 radioisotopes. Local rainfall and streamflow showed no directional trend over a period of 85 years, resulting in a rainfall-runoff ratio that has been resilient to watershed changes. Reservoir sedimentation rates generally were higher before 1963, but have been much lower and very stable since that time. Our findings suggest that (1) rangeland water yields may be stable over long periods despite dramatic landscape changes while (2) these same landscape changes influence sediment yields that impact downstream reservoir storage. Relying on rangelands to meet water needs demands an understanding of how these dynamic landscapes function and a quantification of the physical processes at work.

  13. [Variation of water DOC during the process of pre-pressure and coagulation sedimentation treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Jing; Cong, Hai-Bing; Xu, Ya-Jun; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Xin-Yue; Liu, Yu-Jiao

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to explore whether the pre-pressure and coagulation sedimentation process would result in algal cell disruption, leading to increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in water, based on which, the pressure application mode would be optimized and safe and efficient pre-pressure algae removal process would be obtained. The changes in DOC during the process of pre-pressure and preoxidation treatment, the distribution of molecular weight in water as well as the removal efficiency of algae, turbidity and DOC after coagulation and sedimentation were investigated. The results showed that the DOC in water did not increase but decreased, and the molecular weight decreased after treated with 0.5-0.8 MPa pressure. While KMnO4 and NaClO pre-oxidation both increased the DOC, in the meanwhile, the distribution of molecular weight showed no obvious change. After the pre-pressure coagulation and sedimentation process, the removal rate of algae was 96.23% and that of DOC was 29. 11%, which was by 10% - 30% higher than the rate of pre-oxidation coagulation and sedimentation process.

  14. Water and sediment dynamics in the context of climate change and variability (Cañete river, Peru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Miluska; Vanacker, Veerle; Huggel, Christian; Gutierrez, Ronald R.

    2017-04-01

    Water erosion is one of the main environmental problems in Peru. The elevated rates of soil erosion are related to the rough topography of the Andes, shallow soils, highly erosive climate and the inappropriate land use management. Agricultural activities are directly affected by the elevated soil erosion rates, either through reduced crop production and/or damage to irrigation infrastructure. Similarly, the development of water infrastructure and hydropower facilities can be negatively affected by high sedimentation rates. However, critical information about sediment production, transport and deposition is still mostly lacking. This paper focuses on sediment dynamics in the context of land use and climate change in the Peruvian Andes. Within the Peruvian Coastal Range, the catchment of the Cañete River is studied as it plays an important role in the social and economic development of the region, and due to its provision of water and energy to rural and urban areas. The lower part of the basin is an arid desert, the middle sub-humid part sustains subsistence agriculture, and the upper part of the basin is a treeless high-elevation puna landscape. Snow cover and glaciers are present at its headwaters located above 5000 m asl. The retreat of glaciers due to climate change is expected to have an impact on water availability, and the production and mobilization of sediment within the river channels. Likewise, climate variability and land cover changes might trigger an important increase of erosion and sediment transport rates. The methodology applied to face this issue is principally based on the analysis of sediment samples recollected in the basin in the period 1998 to 2001, and the application of a water and sediment routing model. The paper presents new data on the sensitivity of water infrastructure and hydropower facilities to climate-induced changes in sediment mobilization.

  15. Residual fluxes of water, salt and suspended sediment in the Beypore Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; Revichandran, C.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Josanto, V.

    The monthly trends of the residual fluxes of salt and water and the transportation of suspended sediments in the Beypore estuarine system, Kerala, India were examined. At the river mouth the water flux was directed seaward during the postmonsoon...

  16. Reduction in density of suspended - sediment - laden natural waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desa, E.; Desa, E.; Smith, D.; Peshwe, V.B.; VijayKumar, K.; Desa, J.A.E.

    to 0.4% - 4.5%) that of the density of the same water without suspended sediment. Teh values of peff in a given site differed from one tidal cycle to another (approx equal to 1.9%). These values varied slightly (less than 0.8%) from mid-tide to slack...

  17. Characterization of water and lake sediments in Laguna de Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Diego, Cherry Ann; Francisco, Pattrice Armynne; Navoa, Joshua Antonio; Johnson, Bryan; Dave, Harshil; Cryer, Karl; Panemanglor, Rajeev; Rama, Mariecar; Sucgang, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we studied elemental distributions of trace elements, dissolved oxygen and microbiological allotment (total plate count, Coliform, and E. coli) in sediment and surface water from 3 sites in Laguna de Bay. The measured parameters were associated with the quality of the water and to anthropogenic and geogenic processes taking place in the lake. In all cases sediment samples were collected and analyzed for elemental composition using an X-ray fluorescence technique. Water samples were collected and analyzed for nitrate, chloride, and sulfate ions using selective electrodes. Bicarbonate ions in the lake water were determined by titration. The microbial load (total plate count, total coliform and E,. Coli) were determined using Simplate. Field parameters such as pH and conductivity were likewise measured. Preliminary assumptions suggest that proximity to anthropogenic sources has substantially contributed to the combined loads of major ions pollution in the lake. Laguna de Bay is classified as Class C (DENR Administrative Order No. 34). For all the sites, the conductivity of the water were considerably elevated, which ranged from 929 to 933 uS/cm; Site 1 water exceeded the permissible range for pH for Class C water which is 6.5 to 8.5 for the support and rearing of fish. None of the lake waters exceeded the limits for the ions, chloride (set at 350 mg/L) and nitrate (set at 10 mg/L), for Class C water criteria. All the sites meet the dissolved oxygen, DO, criterion for Class C waters which is set at 5 mg/L. In terms of microbiological load, Site 1 had the least most probable number per ml of water, MPN/ml: total plate count (6720), Coliform (less that detection limit) and E. coli (less than LLD); Site 3 was the most contaminated: total plate count (greater than 70,000), Coliform(48768) and E. Coli (23808). X-ray fluorescence analyses of sediments allowed the determination of elements Na, Mg, Al, P, Si, Cl, K. Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Br, Rb

  18. Assessment of metals pollution in sediment cores from the Sabah-Sarawak coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Zaharudin Ahmad; Che Abdul Rahim Mohamed; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Norfaizal Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    The distribution, enrichment and pollution status of metals in sediment cores from the Sabah-Sarawak coastal waters were studied. Seven sediment cores were taken in July 2004 using a gravity box corer. The metals of Cu, Zn and Pb were analyzed by ICP-MS to assess the pollution status of the sediments. The sediment fine fraction and organic carbon content was also analyzed. Enrichment Factor (EF), Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) and Pollution Load Index (PLI) was calculated as criteria of possible contamination. The results showed that collected sediments were composed with clay, silt and sand as 12 - 74 %, 27 - 72 % and 0 - 20 %, respectively. Meanwhile, organic carbon contents were relatively low and constant over time, based on sediment depth profiles, and it did not exceed 5 % at any sampling station. The average metal concentrations in sediment cores at all sampling station were distributed in the ranges of 1.66 ± 1.36 - 6.61 ± 0.12 μgg -1 for Cu, 26.55 ± 1.04 - 57.94 ± 1.58 μgg -1 for Zn and 3.99 ± 0.10 - 14.48 ± 0.32 μgg -1 for Pb. According to calculations of EF, I geo and PLI, it can be concluded that concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb were not significantly affected by pollution from anthropogenic sources at the seven sampling locations. Thus, the metal content of Cu, Zn and Pb in sediment should not cause pollution problem to the marine environment of Sabah-Sarawak coastal waters and further response measures are not needed. (author)

  19. Mineral composition and heavy metal contamination of sediments originating from radium rich formation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzowski, Zbigniew; Michalik, Bogusław

    2015-03-01

    Radium rich formation water is often associated with fossil fuels as crude oil, natural gas and hard coal. As a result of fossil fuels exploitation high amount of such water is released into environment. In spite of the high radium content such waters create a serious radiation risk neither to humans nor biota directly. First and foremost due to very high mineralization they are not drinkable at all. But after discharge chemical and physical conditions are substantially changed and sediments which additionally concentrated radium are arising. Due to features of technological processes such phenomenon is very intensive in underground coal mining where huge volume of such water must be pumped into surface in order to keep underground galleries dry. Slightly different situation occurs in oil rigs, but finally also huge volume of so called process water is pumped into environment. Regardless their origin arising sediments often contain activity concentration of radium isotopes exceeding the clearance levels set for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) (Council Directive, 2013). The analysis of metals and minerals content showed that besides radioactivity such sediments contain high amount of metals geochemically similar to radium as barium, strontium and lead. Correlation analysis proved that main mechanism leading to sediment creation is co-precipitation radium with these metals as a sulfate. The absorption on clay minerals is negligible even when barium is not present in significant quantities. Owing to very low solubility of sulfates radium accumulated in this way should not migrate into environment in the neighborhood of a site where such sediment were deposited. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The main microelements and phosphorus content of sediments formed in a drinking water supply system

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Valentukeviciene; Ramune Zurauskiene; Jonas Satkunas

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the only source for drinking water supply in Lithuania. Twenty water intakes exploiting Quaternary aquifers are operating in Vilnius City. The main aim of this study was to characterize the heavy metal content of internal pipeline sediments in the water supply network. It also provides a new insight into the accumulation of phosphorus and its variation in pipeline sediments in the study area. The results of this research reflect the level of heavy metals that accumulated during...

  1. To prevent the occurrence of black water agglomerate through delaying decomposition of cyanobacterial bloom biomass by sediment microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Li; Jiang, He-Long; Cai, Hai-Yuan

    2015-04-28

    Settlement of cyanobacterial bloom biomass (CBB) into sediments in eutrophic lakes often induced the occurrence of black water agglomerate and then water quality deterioration. This study investigated the effect of sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) on CBB removal in sediments and related water pollution. Sediment bulking and subsequent black water from decomposition of settled CBB happened without SMFC, but were not observed over 100-day experiments with SMFC employment. While CBB in sediments improved power production from SMFC, the removal efficiency of organic matters in CBB-amended sediments with SMFC was significantly lower than that without SMFC. Pyrosequencing analysis showed higher abundances of the fermentative Clostridium and acetoclastic methanogen in CBB-amended bulk sediments without SMFC than with SMFC at the end of experiments. Obviously, SMFC operation changed the microbial community in CBB-amended sediments, and delayed the CBB degradation against sediment bulking. Thus, SMFC could be potentially applied as pollution prevention in CBB-settled and sensitive zones in shallow lakes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bovine insulin-phosphatidylcholine mixed Langmuir monolayers: behavior at the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, S; Blanco-Vila, N M; Vila-Romeu, N

    2011-08-04

    The behavior of the binary mixed Langmuir monolayers of bovine insulin (INS) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) spread at the air-water interface was investigated under various subphase conditions. Pure and mixed monolayers were spread on water, on NaOH and phosphate-buffered solutions of pH 7.4, and on Zn(2+)-containing solutions. Miscibility and interactions between the components were studied on the basis of the analysis of the surface pressure (π)-mean molecular area (A) isotherms, surface compression modulus (C(s)(-1))-π curves, and plots of A versus mole fraction of INS (X(INS)). Our results indicate that intermolecular interactions between INS and PC depend on both the monolayer state and the structural characteristics of INS at the interface, which are strongly influenced by the subphase pH and salt content. Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) was applied to investigate the peptide aggregation pattern at the air-water interface in the presence of the studied lipid under any experimental condition investigated. The influence of the lipid on the INS behavior at the interface strongly depends on the subphase conditions.

  3. Chemical quality of water and bottom sediment, Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge, Lahontan Valley, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thodal, Carl E.

    2017-12-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collected data on water and bottom-sediment chemistry to be used to evaluate a new water rights acquisition program designed to enhance wetland habitat in Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge and in Lahontan Valley, Churchill County, Nevada. The area supports habitat critical to the feeding and resting of migratory birds travelling the Pacific Flyway. Information about how water rights acquisitions may affect the quality of water delivered to the wetlands is needed by stakeholders and Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge managers in order to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach to wetlands management. A network of six sites on waterways that deliver the majority of water to Refuge wetlands was established to monitor the quality of streamflow and bottom sediment. Each site was visited every 4 to 6 weeks and selected water-quality field parameters were measured when flowing water was present. Water samples were collected at varying frequencies and analyzed for major ions, silica, and organic carbon, and for selected species of nitrogen and phosphorus, trace elements, pharmaceuticals, and other trace organic compounds. Bottom-sediment samples were collected for analysis of selected trace elements.Dissolved-solids concentrations exceeded the recommended criterion for protection of aquatic life (500 milligrams per liter) in 33 of 62 filtered water samples. The maximum arsenic criterion (340 micrograms per liter) was exceeded twice and the continuous criterion was exceeded seven times. Criteria protecting aquatic life from continuous exposure to aluminum, cadmium, lead, and mercury (87, 0.72, 2.5, and 0.77 micrograms per liter, respectively) were exceeded only once in filtered samples (27, 40, 32, and 36 samples, respectively). Mercury was the only trace element analyzed in bottom-sediment samples to exceed the published probable effect concentration (1,060 micrograms per kilogram).

  4. The Good, the Bad and the Ugly - Interacting Physical, Biogeochemical and Biolological Controls of Nutrient Cycling at Ecohydrological Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, S.; Baranov, V. A.; Lewandowski, J.; Blaen, P. J.; Romeijn, P.

    2016-12-01

    The interfaces between streams, lakes and their bed sediments have for a long time been in the research focus of ecohydrologists, aquatic ecologists and biogeochemists. While over the past decades, critical understanding has been gained of the spatial patterns and temporal dynamics in nutrient cycling at sediment-freshwater interfaces, important question remain as to the actual drivers (physical, biogeochemical and biological) of the often observed hot spots and hot moments of nutrient cycling at these highly reactive systems. This study reports on a combination of laboratory manipulation, artificial stream and field experiments from reach to river network scales to investigate the interplay of physical, biogeochemical and biological drivers of interface nutrient cycling under the impact of and resilience to global environmental change. Our results indicate that biogeochemical hotspots at sediment-freshwater interfaces were controlled not only by reactant mixing ratios and residence time distributions, but strongly affected by patterns in streambed physical properties and bioavailability of organic carbon. Lab incubation experiments revealed that geology, and in particular organic matter content strongly controlled the magnitude of enhanced streambed greenhouse gas production caused by increasing water temperatures. While these findings help to improve our understanding of physical and biogeochemical controls on nutrient cycling, we only start to understand to what degree biological factors can enhance these processes even further. We found that for instance chironomid or brittle star facilitated bioturbation in has the potential to substantially enhance freshwater or marine sediment pore-water flow and respiration. We revealed that ignorance of these important biologically controls on physical exchange fluxes can lead to critical underestimation of whole system respiration and its increase under global environmental change.

  5. Acid-base chemistry of frustrated water at protein interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Water molecules at a protein interface are often frustrated in hydrogen-bonding opportunities due to subnanoscale confinement. As shown, this condition makes them behave as a general base that may titrate side-chain ammonium and guanidinium cations. Frustration-based chemistry is captured by a quantum mechanical treatment of proton transference and shown to remove same-charge uncompensated anticontacts at the interface found in the crystallographic record and in other spectroscopic information on the aqueous interface. Such observations are untenable within classical arguments, as hydronium is a stronger acid than ammonium or guanidinium. Frustration enables a directed Grotthuss mechanism for proton transference stabilizing same-charge anticontacts. © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  6. Study of phosphate release from Bogor botanical gardens’ sediment into pore water using diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirta, A. P.; Saefumillah, A.; Foliatini

    2017-04-01

    Eutrophication is one of the environmental problems caused by the excessive nutrients in aquatic ecosystems. In most lakes, phosphate is a limiting nutrient for algae photosynthesis. Even though the concentration of phosphate from external loading into the water body has been reduced, eutrophication could still be occured due to internal mobilization of phosphate from the sediment pore water into the overlying water. Therefore, the released phosphate from sediments and their interaction in the pore water must be included in the monitoring of phosphate concentration in aquatic system. The released phosphate from sediment into pore water has been studied by DGT device with ferrihydrite as binding gel and N-N‧-methylenebisacrylamide as crosslinker. The results showed that DGT with 15% acrylamide; 0.1 % N-N‧-methylenebisacrylamide and ferrihydrite as binding gel was suitable for the measurement of the released phosphate from sediment into pore water. The result of the deployed DGT in oxic and anoxic conditions in seven days incubation showed the released phosphate process from the sediment into pore water was affected by incubation time and the existence of oxygen in the environment. The released phosphate from the sediment into pore water in anoxic condition has a higher value than oxic condition. The experimental results of the deployed DGT in natural sediment core at a depth of 1 to 15 cm from the surface of the water for 7 days showed that the sediment has a different phosphate mass profile based on depth. The concentration of phosphate tends to be increased with depth. The maximum CDGT of phosphate released in oxic and anoxic conditions at 7th day period of incubation are 29.23 μg/L at 14 cm depth and 30.19 μg/L at 8 cm depth, respectively.

  7. Contamination of water and sediments by obsolete pesticides at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediments and water from Vikuge State Farm, Coast Region, Tanzania, where, in 1986, a “donation” of 170 m3 of partially expired pesticides were stored in an open shed- which eventually collapsed, were analysed for 80 different pesticide residues and metabolites. DDT and HCH, two of the most persistent ...

  8. Mercury in sediment, water, and fish in a managed tropical wetland-lake ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malczyk, Evan A; Branfireun, Brian A

    2015-08-15

    Mercury pollution has not been well documented in the inland lakes or fishes of Mexico, despite the importance of freshwater fish as a source of protein in local diets. Total mercury and methylmercury in waters, sediments, and the commercial fish catch were investigated in Lake Zapotlán, Mexico. Concentrations of total and methylmercury were very high in runoff and wastewater inputs, but very low in sediments and surface waters of the open water area of the lake. Concentrations of total mercury in tilapia and carp were very low, consistent with the low concentrations in lake water and sediments. Particle settling, sorption, the biogeochemical environment, and/or bloom dilution are all plausible explanations for the significant reductions in both total mercury and methylmercury. Despite very high loading of mercury, this shallow tropical lake was not a mercury-impaired ecosystem, and these findings may translate across other shallow, alkaline tropical lakes. Importantly, the ecosystem services that seemed to be provided by peripheral wetlands in reducing mercury inputs highlight the potential for wetland conservation or restoration in Mexico. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Response of PAH-degrading genes to PAH bioavailability in the overlying water, suspended sediment, and deposited sediment of the Yangtze River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinghui; Xia, Na; Lai, Yunjia; Dong, Jianwei; Zhao, Pujun; Zhu, Baotong; Li, Zhihuang; Ye, Wan; Yuan, Yue; Huang, Junxiong

    2015-06-01

    The degrading genes of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) serve as indicators of in situ HOC degradation potential, and the existing forms and bioavailability of HOCs might influence the distribution of HOC-degrading genes in natural waters. However, little research has been conducted to study the relationship between them. In the present study, nahAc and nidA genes, which act as biomarkers for naphthalene- and pyrene-degrading bacteria, were selected as model genotypes to investigate the response of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading genes to PAH bioavailability in the overlying water, suspended sediment (SPS), and deposited sediment of the Yangtze River. The freely dissolved concentration, typically used to reflect HOC bioavailability, and total dissolved, as well as sorbed concentrations of PAHs were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase gene sequences of Gram-negative bacteria (PAH-RHD[GN]) were closely related to nahAc, nagAc, nidA, and uncultured PAH-RHD genes. The PAH-RHD[GN] gene diversity as well as nahAc and nidA gene copy numbers decreased in the following order: deposited sediment>SPS>overlying water. The nahAc and nidA gene abundance was not significantly correlated with environmental parameters but was significantly correlated with the bioavailable existing forms of naphthalene and pyrene in the three phases. The nahAc gene copy numbers in the overlying water and deposited sediment were positively correlated with freely dissolved naphthalene concentrations in the overlying and pore water phases, respectively, and so were nidA gene copy numbers. This study suggests that the distribution and abundance of HOC-degrading bacterial population depend on the HOC bioavailability in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sedimentation and aggregation of magnetite nanoparticles in water by a gradient magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedeva, I.; Bakhteeva, Yu.; Zhakov, S.; Revvo, A.; Byzov, I.; Uimin, M.; Yermakov, A.; Mysik, A.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetite (γ-Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles are promising effective sorbents for water cleaning of heavy metal, radionuclides, organic and biological materials. A good sorption capacity can be achieved due to their high specific surface area. Application of gradient magnetic fields helps to separate the magnetic nanoparticles from the water suspension, which is rather hard to do using the conventional mechanical filtration and sedimentation methods without coagulants. The sedimentation dynamics of magnetite nanoparticles with sizes of 10–20 nm in aqueous media in the presence of a gradient magnetic field was studied by optical and NMR relaxometry methods. The gradient magnetic field was produced by a series of strip permanent magnets with B ≤ 0.5 T, dB/dz ≤ 0.13 T/cm and in some cases enhanced by a steel grid with sharp edges (dB/dz ≤ 5 T/cm). Dynamic Light Scattering in the water suspension with different nanoparticle concentrations (c 0  = 0.1–1 g/l) revealed the characteristic features in the aggregate formation, which is reflected in the sedimentation behavior. The sedimentation rate of the nanoparticles in water and in magnetic fields is higher for less concentrated suspensions (c 0  = 0.1 g/l) than for more concentrated ones (c 0  = 1 g/l), which might be connected with the formation of a gel structures due to a strong magnetic attraction between ferromagnetic nanoparticles. In 180 min this resulted in the reduction of the iron concentration in water down to 0.4 mg/l, which is close to hygienic and environmental norms for drinking water and fishery

  11. Top down arsenic uncertainty measurement in water and sediments from Guarapiranga dam (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, M. G.; Lange, C. N.; Monteiro, L. R.; Furusawa, H. A.; Marques, J. R.; Stellato, T. B.; Soares, S. M. V.; da Silva, T. B. S. C.; da Silva, D. B.; Cotrim, M. E. B.; Pires, M. A. F.

    2018-03-01

    Total arsenic measurements assessment regarding legal threshold demands more than average and standard deviation approach. In this way, analytical measurement uncertainty evaluation was conducted in order to comply with legal requirements and to allow the balance of arsenic in both water and sediment compartments. A top-down approach for measurement uncertainties was applied to evaluate arsenic concentrations in water and sediments from Guarapiranga dam (São Paulo, Brazil). Laboratory quality control and arsenic interlaboratory tests data were used in this approach to estimate the uncertainties associated with the methodology.

  12. Uranium and coexisting element behaviour in surface waters and associated sediments with varied sampling techniques used for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenrich-Verbeek, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    Optimum sampling methods in surface water and associated sediments for use in uranium exploration are being studied at thirty sites in Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona and Utah. For water samples, filtering is recommended to increase sample homogeneity and reproducibility because for most elements studied water samples which were allowed to remain unfiltered until time of analysis contained higher concentrations than field-filtered samples of the same waters. Acidification of unfiltered samples resulted in still higher concentrations. This is predominantly because of leaching of the elements from the suspended fraction. U in water correslates directly with Ca, Mg, Na, K, Ba, B, Li and As. In stream sediments, U and other trace elements are concentrated in the finer size fractions. Accordingly, in prospecting, grain size fractions less than 90 μm (170 mesh) should be analyzed for U. A greater number of elements (21) show a significant positive correlation with U in stream sediments than in water. Results have revealed that anomalous concentrations of U found in water may not be detected in associated sediments and vice versa. Hence, sampling of both surface water and coexisting sediment is strongly recommended

  13. Managing Water in the Rural-Urban Interface : the Key to Climate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing Water in the Rural-Urban Interface : the Key to Climate Change Resilient Cities ... cities - one in East and the other in West Africa - through better management ... Sustaining water use : stakeholders' strategies under different climate ...

  14. The Effect of Water Harvesting Techniques on Runoff, Sedimentation, and Soil Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seekh, Saleh H.; Mohammad, Ayed G.

    2009-07-01

    This study addressed the hydrological processes of runoff and sedimentation, soil moisture content, and properties under the effect of different water harvesting techniques (treatments). The study was conducted at three sites, representing environmental condition gradients, located in the southern part of the West Bank. For each treatment, the study evaluated soil chemical and physical properties, soil moisture at 30 cm depth, surface runoff and sedimentation at each site. Results showed that runoff is reduced by 65-85% and sedimentation by 58-69% in stone terraces and semi-circle bunds compared to the control at the semi-humid site. In addition, stone terraces and contour ridges significantly reduced the amount of total runoff by 80% and 73%, respectively, at the arid site. Soil moisture content was significantly increased by water harvesting techniques compared to the control in all treatments at the three study sites. In addition, the difference between the control and the water harvesting structures were higher in the arid and semi-arid areas than in the semi-humid area. Soil and water conservation, via utilization of water harvesting structures, is an effective principle for reducing the negative impact of high runoff intensity and subsequently increasing soil moisture storage from rainfall. Jessour systems in the valley and stone terraces were effective in increasing soil moisture storage, prolonging the growing season for natural vegetation, and decreasing the amount of supplemental irrigation required for growing fruit trees.

  15. The effect of water harvesting techniques on runoff, sedimentation, and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seekh, Saleh H; Mohammad, Ayed G

    2009-07-01

    This study addressed the hydrological processes of runoff and sedimentation, soil moisture content, and properties under the effect of different water harvesting techniques (treatments). The study was conducted at three sites, representing environmental condition gradients, located in the southern part of the West Bank. For each treatment, the study evaluated soil chemical and physical properties, soil moisture at 30 cm depth, surface runoff and sedimentation at each site. Results showed that runoff is reduced by 65-85% and sedimentation by 58-69% in stone terraces and semi-circle bunds compared to the control at the semi-humid site. In addition, stone terraces and contour ridges significantly reduced the amount of total runoff by 80% and 73%, respectively, at the arid site. Soil moisture content was significantly increased by water harvesting techniques compared to the control in all treatments at the three study sites. In addition, the difference between the control and the water harvesting structures were higher in the arid and semi-arid areas than in the semi-humid area. Soil and water conservation, via utilization of water harvesting structures, is an effective principle for reducing the negative impact of high runoff intensity and subsequently increasing soil moisture storage from rainfall. Jessour systems in the valley and stone terraces were effective in increasing soil moisture storage, prolonging the growing season for natural vegetation, and decreasing the amount of supplemental irrigation required for growing fruit trees.

  16. Distribution of Fe in waters and bottom sediments of a small estuarine catchment, Pumicestone Region, southeast Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaghati, Tania; Cox, Malcolm E.; Preda, Micaela

    2005-01-01

    Dissolved and extractable iron concentrations in surface water, groundwater and bottom sediments were determined for Halls Creek, a small subtropical tidally influenced creek. Dissolved iron concentrations were much higher in fresh surface waters and groundwater compared to the estuarine water. In bottom sediments, iron minerals were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD); of these, hematite (up to 11%) has formed by precipitation from iron-rich water in the freshwater section of the catchment. Pyrite was only identified in the estuarine reach and demonstrated several morphologies [identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)] including loosely and closely packed framboids, and the euhedral form. The forms of pyrite found in bottom sediments indicate in situ production and recrystallisation. In surface waters, pyrite was detected in suspended sediment; due to oxygen concentrations well above 50 μmol/l, it was concluded that framboids do not form in the water column, but are within resuspended bottom sediments or eroded from creek banks. The persistence of framboids in suspended sediments, where oxygen levels are relatively high, could be due to their silica and clay-rich coatings, which prevent a rapid oxidation of the pyrite. In addition to identifying processes of formation and transport of pyrite, this study has environmental significance, as this mineral is a potential source of bioavailable forms of iron, which can be a major nutrient supporting algal growth

  17. Environmental and radiological pollution in creeks sediment and water from Duhok, Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, K.M.S.

    2012-01-01

    The activity concentrations of terrestrial (/sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th and /sup 40/K) and anthropogenic gamma emitting radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs) have been measured in 28 creek water and sediment samples randomly selected in different locations of Duhok governorate. The governorate is located in the northwest Kurdistan region of Iraq. Determination of the human health risk from the three exposure pathways (External radiation, Inhalation and Ingestion) was carried out. In addition, the chemical analysis was performed for the 13 surface water samples for reliability of physical results. Gamma spectroscopy system with a shielded well type NaI(TI) detector used for 40000 sec per sample. The data analysis included elemental concentrations, air absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate and external hazard index (radium equivalent activity). The average of 49.81+-1.69 nGyh/sup -1/ in sediment and 21.19+-1.32 nGyh/sup -1/ in water samples were below the world average value of 57nGyh/sup -1/. The corresponding annual effective dose rates outdoor estimated for sediment and surface water were 61.13+-2.1 macro Svy/sup -1/ and 26.01+-1.62 macro Svy/sup -1/ respectively. The calculated external hazard indexes (Hex) 0.29+0.01 for sediment and 0.112+0.007 surface water samples. These values showed that all samples were well below the hazard limit of unity. The RESRAD-6.5 computer code was used to analyze the dose per unit release of a specified radionuclide and the health risk from the three exposure pathways. RESRAD code showed over estimation of the results of annual effective dose rates, even though the results were within the background level. The average value of activity concentrations of the radionuclides of sediment samples by the code was 0.108 mSvy/sup -1/ compared to our calculations. The probability of human cancer risk lifetime of a hypothetical contamination consisted of the highest value of the activity concentrations of terrestrial radionuclides and /sup 137/Cs

  18. Assessing riparian zone impacts on water and sediment movement: A new approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesstra, S.D.; Kondrlova, E.; Czaika, A.; Seeger, K.M.; Maroulis, J.

    2012-01-01

    The state of river channels and their riparian zones in terms of geomorphology and vegetation has a significant effect on water and sediment transport in headwater catchments. High roughness in natural rivers due to vegetation and geomorphological attributes generate drag on flowing water. This drag

  19. Internal nitrogen removal from sediments by the hybrid system of microbial fuel cells and submerged aquatic plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    Full Text Available Sediment internal nitrogen release is a significant pollution source in the overlying water of aquatic ecosystems. This study aims to remove internal nitrogen in sediment-water microcosms by coupling sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs with submerged aquatic plants. Twelve tanks including four treatments in triplicates were designed: open-circuit (SMFC-o, closed-circuit (SMFC-c, aquatic plants with open-circuit (P-SMFC-o and aquatic plants with closed-circuit (P-SMFC-c. The changes in the bio-electrochemical characteristics of the nitrogen levels in overlying water, pore water, sediments, and aquatic plants were documented to explain the migration and transformation pathways of internal nitrogen. The results showed that both electrogenesis and aquatic plants could facilitate the mineralization of organic nitrogen in sediments. In SMFC, electrogenesis promoted the release of ammonium from the pore water, followed by the accumulation of ammonium and nitrate in the overlying water. The increased redox potential of sediments due to electrogenesis also contributed to higher levels of nitrate in overlying water when nitrification in pore water was facilitated and denitrification at the sediment-water interface was inhibited. When the aquatic plants were introduced into the closed-circuit SMFC, the internal ammonium assimilation by aquatic plants was advanced by electrogenesis; nitrification in pore water and denitrification in sediments were also promoted. These processes might result in the maximum decrease of internal nitrogen with low nitrogen levels in the overlying water despite the lower power production. The P-SMFC-c reduced 8.1%, 16.2%, 24.7%, and 25.3% of internal total nitrogen compared to SMFC-o on the 55th, 82th, 136th, and 190th days, respectively. The smaller number of Nitrospira and the larger number of Bacillus and Pseudomonas on the anodes via high throughput sequencing may account for strong mineralization and denitrification in the

  20. Metal concentrations in intertidal water and surface sediment along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... The higher metal concentrations reported in sediment suggested that both ... the condition of the water column and health of benthic marine ... and fish processing facilities are situated on the western side of ... ated approximately 20 km north of Cape Town. .... caused such levels of metal input to the system.

  1. Microplastics Baseline Surveys at the Water Surface and in Sediments of the North-East Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Maes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microplastic contamination was determined in sediments of the Southern North Sea and floating at the sea surface of North West Europe. Floating concentrations ranged between 0 and 1.5 microplastic/m3, whereas microplastic concentrations in sediments ranged between 0 and 3,146 particles/kg dry weight sediment. In sediments, mainly fibers and spheres were found, whereas at the sea surface fragments were dominant. At the sea surface, concentrations of microplastics are lower and more variable than in sediments, meaning that larger sample sizes and water volumes are required to find detectable concentrations. We have calculated the widths of the confidence intervals (CI for different sample sizes, to give a first indication of the necessary sample size for a microplastic survey at the water surface. Higher concentrations of floating microplastics were found near estuaries. In sediments, estuaries and areas with a high organic carbon content were likely hotspots. Standardization of monitoring methods within marine regions is recommended to compare and assess microplastics pollution over time.

  2. The geochemistry of coprostanol in waters and surface sediments from Narragansett Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Lawrence A.; Latimer, James S.; Ellis, John T.; Quinn, James G.

    1992-05-01

    A geochemical study of coprostanol (5β-Cholestan-3β-ol) was undertaken, to examine the transport and fate of a compound of moderate polarity and reactivity in the marine environment, and also because of the interest in coprostanol for use as a sewage tracer. During 1985-86, 20 sites in Narragansett Bay, including the major point sources and rivers discharging into the bay estuary, were sampled at four different times. In addition, surface sediments from 26 stations in the bay were collected. The large number and diversity of samples allowed for an assessment of major inputs of sewage into the bay as well as the recent fate of sewage-derived particles in surface sediments. Results from the study revealed that 50% of the total particulate coprostanol entering the bay was discharged into the Providence River, primarily due to inputs from the wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) at Fields Point, as well as input from the Pawtuxet and Blackstone Rivers. In the lower bay, the Newport WWTF was the largest single source of coprostanol (37% of the total particulate coprostanol) to the bay. Effluent concentrations of coprostanol from secondary WWTFs were consistently lower than those of primary treatment facilities, demonstrating the usefulness of corporstanol as an indicator of treatment plant efficiency. The distribution of coprostanol in waters and surface sediments showed a gradient of decreasing concentration downbay. When coprostanol concentrations in surface sediments were normalized to organic carbon (OC) concentrations, elevated levels were seen only in the Providence River, with a more or less even distribution throughout the rest of the bay. Results also suggest that coprostanol degrades more rapidly in the water column compared to the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), however, it is relatively stable once it is buried in the sediments. Coprostanol concentrations in waters (0·02-0·22

  3. Natural radioactivity in waters and sediments from a Spanish mining river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Labajo, J.; Bolivar, J.P.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of several radionuclides from the U-series (U-isotopes, 230 Th, 226 Ra and 210 Po) and Th-series- ( 232T h and 228 Th) have been analyzed in the different phases (sediments, filtered waters and suspended matter) and at different sites of a mining river (Guadiamar river) located at SW of Spain. The variations observed between and within the different sites for the activity concentrations of several natural radionuclides (reflected also in the variations observed for several activity ratios) and their correlation with the heavy metal contamination in the sediments and with different physical- chemical parameters, have provided a very rich information about their behaviour in this aquatic system. Detectable enrichments in the U-isotopes concentrations in comparison with the concentrations of other natural radionuclides have been observed in sediments from a determined zone of the river (downstream the mines). This U in excess it is incorporated to the sediments by coprecipitation with the high amounts of heavy metals coming from the mines. This precipitation is produced due to the progressive neutralization of the waters (previously acidified due to the mining activities) in its running along the river. The results obtained in the analysis of the wastes produced in the mining activities induce us to reject the hypothesis that the origin of these U enrichments is related with their leaching from the minerals treated in the mines. The U in dissolution that is deposited in the commented zone of the riverbed has a natural origin. In this sense, it is well known the high solubility of this element, being their concentrations, even in not contaminated river waters, clearly higher than the concentrations of other natural radionuclides like Th- isotopes and 210 Po. The radiometric techniques used in this work were alpha-particle spectrometry for determination of U-isotopes, Th-isotopes and 210 Po, and gamma-ray spectrometry for 226 Ra measurements in

  4. Driving forces for adsorption of amphiphilic peptides to the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Ozge; Villa, Alessandra; Sayar, Mehmet; Hess, Berk

    2010-09-02

    We have studied the partitioning of amphiphilic peptides at the air-water interface. The free energy of adsorption from bulk to interface was calculated by determining the potential of mean force via atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. To this end a method is introduced to restrain or constrain the center of mass of a group of molecules in a periodic system. The model amphiphilic peptides are composed of alternating valine and asparagine residues. The decomposition of the free energy difference between the bulk and interface is studied for different peptide block lengths. Our analysis revealed that for short amphiphilic peptides the surface driving force dominantly stems from the dehydration of hydrophobic side chains. The only opposing force is associated with the loss of orientational freedom of the peptide at the interface. For the peptides studied, the free energy difference scales linearly with the size of the molecule, since the peptides mainly adopt extended conformations both in bulk and at the interface. The free energy difference depends strongly on the water model, which can be rationalized through the hydration thermodynamics of hydrophobic solutes. Finally, we measured the reduction of the surface tension associated with complete coverage of the interface with peptides.

  5. Atmospheric photochemistry at a fatty acid coated air/water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christian; Rossignol, Stéphanie; Passananti, Monica; Tinel, Liselotte; Perrier, Sebastien; Kong, Lingdong; Brigante, Marcello; Bianco, Angelica; Chen, Jianmin; Donaldson, James

    2017-04-01

    Over the past 20 years, interfacial processes have become increasingly of interest in the field of atmospheric chemistry, with many studies showing that environmental surfaces display specific chemistry and photochemistry, enhancing certain reactions and acting as reactive sinks or sources for various atmospherically relevant species. Many molecules display a free energy minimum at the air-water interface, making it a favored venue for compound accumulation and reaction. Indeed, surface active molecules have been shown to undergo specific photochemistry at the air-water interface. This presentation will address some recent surprises. Indeed, while fatty acids are believed to be photochemically inert in the actinic region, complex volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are produced during illumination of an air-water interface coated solely with a monolayer of carboxylic acid. When aqueous solutions containing nonanoic acid (NA) at bulk concentrations that give rise to just over monolayer NA coverage are illuminated with actinic radiation, saturated and unsaturated aldehydes are seen in the gas phase and more highly oxygenated products appear in the aqueous phase. This chemistry is probably initiated by triplet state NA molecules excited by direct absorption of actinic light at the water surface. As fatty acids covered interfaces are ubiquitous in the environment, such photochemical processing will have a significant impact on local ozone and particle formation. In addition, it was shown recently that a heterogeneous reaction between SO2 and oleic acid (OA; an unsaturated fatty acid) takes place and leads efficiently to the formation of organosulfur products. Here, we demonstrate that this reaction proceeds photochemically on various unsaturated fatty acids compounds, and may therefore have a general environmental impact. This is probably due to the chromophoric nature of the SO2 adduct with C=C bonds, and means that the contribution of this direct addition of SO2 could

  6. Impacts of Cropland Changes on Water Balance, Sediment and Nutrient Transport in Eden River, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yumei; Quinn, Paul; Liang, Qiuhua; Adams, Russell

    2017-04-01

    Water is the key to food and human life. Farming is the main part of economic and society in Eden, with approximately 2000 farms which covers 95% of under crops. However, with the growth of farming practice and global climate changes, Eden has presented great challenges and bringing uncertainty in the water quality caused by the agricultural diffuse pollution. This expected to reduce negative impacts of the water diffuse pollution from agriculture in Eden. Therefore, there is a high need to ensure effective water resource management to enhance water quality, to address the flow pathways and sediment transport in different farming practice and cropland changes. Hence we need to understand nutrient and the hydrological flow pathways from soil to Hillslope to channel. The aim of this research is to evaluate the impacts of different cropland changes on water balance, sediment and nutrient transport. By using the hydrological models Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Catchment Runoff Attenuation Flux Tool (CRAFT), it can show the sediment and nutrient export from the load for each flow pathways (overland flow, soil water flow and ground water flow). We will show results from a small research catchment (10km2) area to the whole of Eden (800km2) at a daily time step.

  7. Distribution of Radioisotopes between Phytoplankton, Sediment and Sea Water in a Dialysis Compartment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, R.; Duursma, E.K.

    1976-01-01

    The distribution of the radioisotopes 36 Cl, 54 Mn, 59 Fe, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 90 Sr, 106 Ru, 109 Cd, 110 mAg, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 147 Pm and 204 Tl between sea water, Mediterranean sediment in suspension, and the phytoplankton species Phaeodactylum tricornutum was studied by using a competitive technique in which the various phases were separated by dialysis membranes. The radioisotopes were introduced into the sea water compartment and the radionuclide uptake by sediment and phytoplankton occurred in the adjoining compartments after the isotopes had diffused through the membranes. The diffusion through membranes is time dependent and related to the hydrated ion radii of the elements in solution. Chelation of the elements by organic matter from sewage may hamper this diffusion, although the complexing molecules themselves can pass through the membrane. The laboratory experiments showed that the uptake of radionuclides by sediments and phytoplankton in suspension did not occur independently of each other but in competition relative to the different affinities to the sediment and phytoplankton and relative to the concentrations of the particulate materials themselves. On examination of the distribution coefficients, the isotopes 90Sr, 110m Ag, 204 Ti and in particular 109 Cd, had higher affinities towards Phaeodactylum tricornutum than towards the Mediterranean sediment. The isotopes 54 Mn, 60 Co and 137 Cs had lower distribution coefficients with the phytoplankton than with sediment and in the case of 59 Fe, 65 Zn, l06 Ru, l 4 Ce and 147 Pm, the distribution coefficients were similar for both phytoplankton and sediment. Taking into account that many more factors play a role in the natural aquatic environment, the distribution pattern between water, plankton and sediment in suspension can be approximated by calculating the percentage distribution in the 3 phases. Those percentages are dependent on 2 parameters, being the distribution coefficients and the concentrations of the

  8. Normalized rare earth elements in water, sediments, and wine: identifying sources and environmental redox conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, David Z.; Bau, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of the rare earth elements (REE) in surface waters and sediments, when normalized on an element-by-element basis to one of several rock standards and plotted versus atomic number, yield curves that reveal their partitioning between different sediment fractions and the sources of those fractions, for example, between terrestrial-derived lithogenous debris and seawater-derived biogenous detritus and hydrogenous metal oxides. The REE of ancient sediments support their partitioning into these same fractions and further contribute to the identification of the redox geochemistry of the sea water in which the sediments accumulated. The normalized curves of the REE that have been examined in several South American wine varietals can be interpreted to reflect the lithology of the bedrock on which the vines may have been grown, suggesting limited fractionation during soil development.

  9. Relationship between water chemistry and sediment mineralogy in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valette-Silver, J.N. (Univ. de Perpignan, France); Thompson, J.M.; Ball, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The chemical compositions of waters collected from the Cerro Prieto geothermal production wells and hydrothermal emanations are different. Compared to the Cerro Prieto well waters, the surficial waters generally contain significantly less potassium, slightly less calcium and chloride, and significantly more magnesium and sulfate. In comparison to the unaltered sediments, the changes in the mineralogy of the altered sediments appear to be controlled by the type of emanation (well, spring, mud pot, geyser, fumarole, or cold pool). However, an increase in quartz and potassium feldspar percentages seems to be characteristic of the majority of the sediments in contact with geothermal fluids. Preliminary attempts to model the chemical processes occurring in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field using chemical equilibrium calculations are reported. For this purpose the chemical compositions of thermal waters (well and surficial emanation) were used as input data to make calculations with SOLMNEQ and WATEQ2 computer programs. Then the theoretical mineral composition of altered sediments was predicted and compared to the mineralogy actually observed in the solid samples.

  10. Oxide/water interfaces: how the surface chemistry modifies interfacial water properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre; Sprik, Michiel; Sulpizi, Marialore

    2012-01-01

    The organization of water at the interface with silica and alumina oxides is analysed using density functional theory-based molecular dynamics simulation (DFT-MD). The interfacial hydrogen bonding is investigated in detail and related to the chemistry of the oxide surfaces by computing the surface charge density and acidity. We find that water molecules hydrogen-bonded to the surface have different orientations depending on the strength of the hydrogen bonds and use this observation to explain the features in the surface vibrational spectra measured by sum frequency generation spectroscopy. In particular, ‘ice-like’ and ‘liquid-like’ features in these spectra are interpreted as the result of hydrogen bonds of different strengths between surface silanols/aluminols and water. (paper)

  11. Charge transfer effects of ions at the liquid water/vapor interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soniat, Marielle; Rick, Steven W., E-mail: srick@uno.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana 70148 (United States)

    2014-05-14

    Charge transfer (CT), the movement of small amounts of electron density between non-bonded pairs, has been suggested as a driving force for a variety of physical processes. Herein, we examine the effect of CT on ion adsorption to the water liquid-vapor interface. Using a CT force field for molecular dynamics, we construct a potential of mean force (PMF) for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cl{sup −}, and I{sup −}. The PMFs were produced with respect to an average interface and an instantaneous interface. An analysis of the PMF relative to the instantaneous surface reveals that the area in which the anions experience a free energy minimum is quite narrow, and the cations feel a steeply repulsive free energy near the interface. CT is seen to have only minor effects on the overall free energy profiles. However, the long-ranged effects of ions are highlighted by the CT model. Due to CT, the water molecules at the surface become charged, even when the ion is over 15 Å away from the surface.

  12. Microscopic Mechanisms of Dissolution-Precipitation at the Water-Manganese Mineral Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Y.; Martin, S. T.

    2006-12-01

    The fate and transport of metal contaminants in water are often affected by the manganese redox cycling and the accompanying dissolution and precipitation reactions. Direct microscopic observations of such dynamic reactions, however, are sparse. In this work, microscopic mechanisms of simultaneous dissolution and precipitation of manganese minerals is studied by atomic force microscope (AFM) at circumneutral pH. The effects of the substrate surface morphology, the substrate atomic structure, and the aqueous concentration of Mn2+ on the formation of Mn oxide islands are investigated. Under oxic conditions, Mn2+(aq) dissolved from MnCO3 surface is reacted with O2(aq) at circumneutral pH to form Mn oxide islands on the (10-14) surface of MnCO3. The Mn oxide islands grow heteroepitaxially. On terraces, rhombohedral islands form with 90° rotation relative to crystallographic axis of the underlying substrate, and with z-directional self-limitation. Comparison studies done with MgCO3 and CaCO3 show that the former also promotes heteroepitaxial growth whereas the latter does not. This difference is explained by the relative bond length mismatch between the structures of the carbonate substrates and the atomic structures of Mn oxide islands. A free energy model is also employed to explain why the heights of the Mn oxide islands self limit. Our results provide an improved understanding for the development of predictive models both of exchange across the sediment-water interfaces and the fate and transport of contaminants in aqueous environments.

  13. Investigation of Composition of Particle Size in Sediments of Stormwater Sedimentation Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Laučytė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The main object for the storm water runoff treatment is to remove suspended solids before the storm water runoff is discharged into surface waters. Therefore the sedimentation tank is the most often used treatment facility. In order to optimise the sedimentation, the tendency of particle size distribution in bottom sediments must be known. Two similar size storm water runoff sedimentation tanks in Vilnius city were selected for the analysis of the particle size distribution in sediments. The composite samples of drained storm water runoff sediments were collected at the sedimentation tanks located in the districts of Verkiai and Karoliniskes on the 2nd of June, 2008. The analyses of grain size distribution were performed according the standard ISO/TS 17892-4:2004. The results showed that the particles with the particle size of 1–2 mm were obtained up to 10 m from the inlet and the particles with the size of 0,01–0,05 mm mainly were obtained close to the outlet of sedimentation tank. It is recommended to divide the sedimentation tank in two parts in order to get proper management of sediments: the particles that size is 1–10 mm could be managed as waste from grit chambers and particles of smaller size could be managed as primary sludge.Article in Lithuanian

  14. Distribution and isotopic abundance of sulphur in recent marine sediments off southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, I R; Emergy, K O; Rittenberg, S C

    1963-01-01

    Analyses of sulphur compounds in basin sediments off southern California indicate that elemental sulphur, free sulphide, hydrotroilite, organic sulphur, sulphate and pyrite are present in quantities that vary with environment and depth in the sediments. Pyrite is generally the most abundant form, occurring in oxidizing as well as in reducing sediments and often constituting 90% of total sulphur. A material balance indicates that the total sulphur content is far in excess of the sulphate-sulphur initially trapped in the interstitial water. This evidence, together with failure to detect significant alternate sources, suggests that sulphate-sulphur is extracted from the overlying sea water at the sediment-water interface. Isotope measurements confirm many of the conclusions suggested by the quantitative chemical analyses. The show that biological sulphate reduction is the single most important process in the sulphur cycle. The sulphide released is converted to hydrotrolite and then to pyrite. Elemental and organic sulphur appear to be continually forming and reacting in the sediment column. The organic sulphur released from decaying organic matter apparently plays only a small role in the sulphur economy. Enrichment in S/sup 32/ ranging from 9 to 62% was measured in pyrite fragments, a spread similar to that previously observed in ancient sediments. Data from field and laboratory experiments were combined to determine rate of sulphate reduction, number of sulphate reducing bacteria and the amount of organic matter decomposed during sulphate reduction in the sediment, as well as rate of renewal of water in the basins. The results suggest that the methods used may have many applications for elucidating in situ rate processes.

  15. The T-TEL Method for Assessing Water, Sediment, and Chemical Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Genevieve; Oswald, Claire; Spence, Christopher; Wellen, Christopher

    2018-02-01

    The concept of connectivity has been the subject of a great deal of recent research and provided new insights and breakthroughs on runoff generation processes and watershed biogeochemistry. However, a consensus definition and cohesive mathematical framework that would permit the consistent quantification of hydrologic connectivity, the examination of the interrelationships between water and material (e.g., sediment and chemicals) connectivity, or rigorous study intercomparison, have not been presented by the water resource community. Building on previous conceptualizations and site-specific or process-specific metrics, this paper aimed to review the current state of science on hydrologic connectivity and its role in water-mediated connectivity of material such as solutes and sediment before introducing a conceptual and a mathematical connectivity assessment framework. These frameworks rely on the quantification of Time scales, Thresholds, Excesses and Losses related to water and water-mediated material transport dynamics and are referred to as the T-TEL method. Through a small case study, we show how the T-TEL method allows a wide range of properties to be quantified, namely the occurrence, frequency, duration, magnitude, and spatial extent of water and water-mediated material connectivity. We also propose a research agenda to refine the T-TEL method and ensure its usefulness for facilitating the research and management of connectivity in pristine and human-impacted landscapes.

  16. Studies of trace metals in fish, sediment and water from kpong reservior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yikpo, Wisdom Kwasi

    2014-06-01

    Water of good quality is indispensable to human survival on earth. The provision of potable water to both the rural and the urban populations is necessary to prevent health hazards. The aim of this research was to assess water quality with respect to physicochemical parameters and trace metals levels in the water, the sediment and the fish species from the Kpong Reservoir on the Lower Volta River. The water, the sediment and the fish samples were collected monthly for six (6) months from November 2011 to February 2012 (dry season) and from May to July 2012 ( wet season). The water, the sediment and the fish samples were analyzed for Hg, Se, Fe, Mn and Pb using Atomic Absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Mercury was determined using a cold vapour technique with the AAS equipped with a hydride generator. Selenium was also determined by hydride generation. A mixture of nitric acid (HNO3 65%), hydrochloric acid ( HCl 35%) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 30%) was used for complete oxidation of the organic sample in a fume chamber. The samples were loaded on a Milestone microwave Labstation ETHOS 900, INSTR:MLS -1200 MEGA. The results of this study showed that there were significant differences in concentrations of the physicochemical parameters between the two seasons. Domestic, municipal and Agricultural waste might have contributed to the release of higher contaminants into the sediment in both seasons. Coefficients of variation for the physicochemical parameters were below 50%, while iron and lead in addition to phosphate and sulphate were more than 50%. The mean concentration of trace metals in the water were 0.008 mg/L for Hg, 0.0035 mg/L for Se, 0.255 mg/L for Fe, 0.087 mg/L for Mn and 0.135 mg/L for Pb. Levels of all trace metals were below the WHO guideline values, except Pb which exceeded at 0.05 mg/L. Levels of nutrients were also below the WHO guideline value except phosphate which recorded a standard deviation of ±0.02 for the WHO guideline value of 0.3 mg/ L. The

  17. Modeling adsorption of cationic surfactants at air/water interface without using the Gibbs equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Chi M; Le, Thu N; Nguyen, Cuong V; Yusa, Shin-ichi

    2013-04-16

    The Gibbs adsorption equation has been indispensable in predicting the surfactant adsorption at the interfaces, with many applications in industrial and natural processes. This study uses a new theoretical framework to model surfactant adsorption at the air/water interface without the Gibbs equation. The model was applied to two surfactants, C14TAB and C16TAB, to determine the maximum surface excesses. The obtained values demonstrated a fundamental change, which was verified by simulations, in the molecular arrangement at the interface. The new insights, in combination with recent discoveries in the field, expose the limitations of applying the Gibbs adsorption equation to cationic surfactants at the air/water interface.

  18. Comparison of different water pollution control methods in decreaseing sediment load from peat mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeve, B.

    1997-11-01

    Different water treatment alternatives used to reduce sediment from peat mines were compared with a mathematical model. The simulation tested the benefit of different alternatives to reduce sediment transport during a simulated storm. Traditional structures such as bed ditch pipe barriers, sedimentation ponds were compared against new alternatives such as artificial floodplains, and peak runoff control structures. The results of simulations show that detention of peak discharge is the most efficient way to reduce sediment transport. When runoff peaks are reduced traditional sedimentation ponds seem to have a smaller effect on sediment transport; increased settling is achieved by using shallow settling basins such as artificial floodplains. (orig.) 21 refs.

  19. Comparison of different water pollution control methods in decreaseing sediment load from peat mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloeve, B.

    1997-01-01

    Different water treatment alternatives used to reduce sediment from peat mines were compared with a mathematical model. The simulation tested the benefit of different alternatives to reduce sediment transport during a simulated storm. Traditional structures such as bed ditch pipe barriers, sedimentation ponds were compared against new alternatives such as artificial floodplains, and peak runoff control structures. The results of simulations show that detention of peak discharge is the most efficient way to reduce sediment transport. When runoff peaks are reduced traditional sedimentation ponds seem to have a smaller effect on sediment transport; increased settling is achieved by using shallow settling basins such as artificial floodplains. (orig.) 21 refs

  20. Preliminary estimation of Lake El'gygytgyn water balance and sediment income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fedorov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern process studies of the hydrologic balance of Lake El'gygytgyn, central Chukotka, and the sediment income from the catchment were carried out during a field campaign in spring and summer 2003. Despite high uncertainties due to the limited data, the results provide important first estimates for better understanding the modern and past sedimentation processes in this basin. Formed ca. 3.6 million years ago as a result of a meteorite impact, the basin contains one of the longest paleoclimate records in the terrestrial Arctic. Fluvial activity is concentrated over the short snowmelt period (about 20 days in second part of June. Underground outflow plays a very important role in the water balance and predominates over surface outflow. The residence time of the lake water is estimated to be about 100 yr.

  1. Colonization of overlaying water by bacteria from dry river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazi, Stefano; Amalfitano, Stefano; Piccini, Claudia; Zoppini, Annamaria; Puddu, Alberto; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2008-10-01

    We studied the diversity, community composition and activity of the primary microbial colonizers of the water above freshly re-wetted sediments from a temporary river. Dried sediments, collected from Mulargia River (Sardinia, Italy), were covered with sterile freshwater in triplicate microcosms, and changes of the planktonic microbial assemblage were monitored over a 48 h period. During the first 9 h bacterial abundance was low (1.5 x 10(4) cells ml(-1)); it increased to 3.4 x 10(6) cells ml(-1) after 28 h and did not change thereafter. Approximately 20% of bacteria exhibited DNA de novo synthesis already after 9 h of incubation. Changes of the ratios of (3)H-leucine to (3)H-thymidine incorporation rates indicated a shift of growth patterns during the experiment. Extracellular enzyme activity showed a maximum at 48 h with aminopeptidase activity (430.8 +/- 22.6 nmol MCA l(-1) h(-1)) significantly higher than alkaline phosphatase (98.6 +/- 4.3 nmol MUF l(-1) h(-1)). The primary microbial colonizers of the overlaying water - as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis - were related to at least six different phylogenetic lineages of Bacilli and to Alphaproteobacteria (Brevundimonas spp. and Caulobacter spp.). Large bacterial cells affiliated to one clade of Bacillus sp. were rare in the dried sediments, but constituted the majority of the planktonic microbial assemblage and of cells with detectable DNA-synthesis until 28 h after re-wetting. Their community contribution decreased in parallel with a rise of flagellated and ciliated protists. Estimates based on cell production rates suggested that the rapidly enriched Bacillus sp. suffered disproportionally high loss rates from selective predation, thus favouring the establishment of a more heterogenic assemblage of microbes (consisting of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Cytophaga-Flavobacteria). Our results suggest that the primary microbial colonizers of the water above dried sediments are passively released

  2. Assessment of Water and Sediment Physical-Chemical Composition in the West Coast of Maracaibo Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Moronta-Riera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to determine the physical and chemical composition of the water streams and sediments of the Maracaibo Lake in three sampling areas located in Tía Juana, Lagunillas and Ceuta in order to know the level of contamination and assess water quality based on permissible values established by the 883 Decree. The results indicate that the overall hydrocarbon concentrations in the water and sediments are above permissible levels. It is concluded that petroleum prospection is the root cause of the lake contamination.

  3. Metal cycling during sediment early diagenesis in a water reservoir affected by acid mine drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Ester; Ayora, Carlos; Canovas, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    The discharge of acid mine drainage (AMD) into a reservoir may seriously affect the water quality. To investigate the metal transfer between the water and the sediment, three cores were collected from the Sancho Reservoir (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) during different seasons: turnover event......; oxic, stratified period; anoxic and under shallow perennially oxic conditions. The cores were sliced in an oxygen-free atmosphere, after which pore water was extracted by centrifugation and analyzed. A sequential extraction was then applied to the sediments to extract the water-soluble, monosulfide......, low crystallinity Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide, crystalline Fe(III)-oxide, organic, pyrite and residual phases. The results showed that, despite the acidic chemistry of the water column (pH

  4. 91-104 Bottom Sediment Chemistry, Nutrient Balance, and Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    (SiO2), aluminium oxide (Al2O3), ferric oxide (Fe2O3), calcium oxide (CaO), copper (Cu), phosphorus. (P) and organic carbon (C) was ... internal storage for incoming materials and can provide ..... of iron in the sediments should bind the phosphorus and limit the .... birds which heavily depend on the water bodies for food.

  5. Continuous water-quality and suspended-sediment transport monitoring in the San Francisco Bay, California, water years 2011–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Paul A.; Downing-Kunz, Maureen; Schoellhamer, David H.; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Weidich, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitors water quality and suspended-sediment transport in the San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay area is home to millions of people, and the bay teems with both resident and migratory wildlife, plants, and fish. Fresh water mixes with salt water in the bay, which is subject both to riverine and marine (tides, waves, influx of salt water) influences. To understand this environment, the USGS, along with its partners, has been monitoring the bay’s waters continuously since 1988. Several water-quality variables are of particular importance to State and Federal resource managers and are monitored at key locations throughout the bay. Salinity, which indicates the relative mixing of fresh and ocean waters in the bay, is derived from specific conductance measurements. Water temperature, along with salinity, affects the density of water, which causes gravity driven circulation patterns and stratification in the water column. Turbidity is measured using light-scattering from suspended solids in water, and is used as a surrogate for suspended-sediment concentration (SSC). Suspended sediment often carries adsorbed contaminants; attenuates sunlight in the water column; deposits on tidal marsh and intertidal mudflats, which can help sustain these habitats as sea level rises; and deposits in ports and shipping channels, which can necessitate dredging. Dissolved oxygen, which is essential to a healthy ecosystem, is a fundamental indicator of water quality, and its concentration is affected by water temperature, salinity, ecosystem metabolism, tidal currents, and wind. Tidal currents in the bay reverse four times a day, and wind direction and intensity typically change on a daily cycle: consequently, salinity, water temperature, suspendedsediment concentration, and dissolvedoxygen concentration vary spatially and temporally throughout the bay, and continuous measurements are needed to observe these changes. The purpose of this fact sheet

  6. Kinetics of trace metal removal from tidal water by mangrove sediments under different redox conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.N.; Machado, E.C.; Machado, W.; Bellido, A.V.B.; Bellido, L.F.; Osso, J.A.; Lopes, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    The extent in which redox conditions can affect the removal kinetics of 58 Co and 65 Zn from tidal water by mangrove sediments was evaluated in microcosm experiments, simulating a tidal flooding period of 6 h. The average half-removal time (t 1/2 ) of 58 Co from overlaying water was slightly higher (7.3 h) under an N 2 -purged water column than under an aerated water column (5.4 h). A lower difference was found for 65 Zn (1.9 h vs. 1.5 h, respectively). Average removals of 58 Co activities from water were 54.6% (N 2 treatment) and 43.5% (aeration treatment), whereas these values were 88.0% and 92.7% for 65 Zn, respectively. Very contrasting sorption kinetics of different radiotracers occurred, while more oxidising conditions favoured only a slightly higher removal. Average 58 Co and 65 Zn inventories within sediments were 30.4% and 18.8% higher in the aeration treatment, respectively. A stronger particle-reactive behaviour was found for 65 Zn that was less redox-sensitive and more efficiently removed by sediments than 58 Co. - Highlights: ► Radiotracer experiments evidenced the role of mangrove sediments in trapping trace metals. ► Very contrasting removal kinetics from tidal water were observed for 65 Zn and 58 Co. ► Nearly 40%–50% of 58 Co activities and nearly 90% of 65 Zn activities in overlying water were removed. ► 65 Zn showed a stronger particle-reactive behaviour than observed for 58 Co. ► 58 Co was more sensitive to redox conditions in tidal water than observed for 65 Zn

  7. Considerations and Optimization of Time-Resolved PIV Measurements near Complex Wind-Generated Air-Water Wave Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmeir, Matthew; Markfort, Corey

    2017-11-01

    Time Resolved PIV measurements are applied on both sides of air-water interface in order to study the coupling between air and fluid motion. The multi-scale and 3-dimensional nature of the wave structure poses several unique considerations to generate optimal-quality data very near the fluid interface. High resolution and dynamic range in space and time are required to resolve relevant flow scales along a complex and ever-changing interface. Characterizing the two-way coupling across the air-water interface provide unique challenges for optical measurement techniques. Approaches to obtain near-boundary measurement on both sides of interface are discussed, including optimal flow seeding procedures, illumination, data analysis, and interface tracking. Techniques are applied to the IIHR Boundary-Layer Wind-Wave Tunnel and example results presented for both sides of the interface. The facility combines a 30m long recirculating water channel with an open-return boundary layer wind tunnel, allowing for the study of boundary layer turbulence interacting with a wind-driven wave field.

  8. Simultaneous Investigation of Sediment Transport and Water Quality Parameters Using An In Situ Measurement Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochnow, J. V.

    Though quality of surface waters has improved remarkably over the last twenty years, the contaminant load of soft cohesive sediments remained comparatively unimproved. That is why the new European water framework directive addresses contaminant loaded sediments and postulates criteria for assessing sediment quality. Surveys into contaminated sediment behaviour have revealed adsorption/desorption characteristics of individual toxins. Biomonitoring of pollutant pressure on specific benthic organ- isms on the other hand can be useful to elucidate potential dangers to aquatic ecosys- tems. However, it is yet unknown how a given contaminant loaded sediment will re- spond to different hypercritical flow conditions in terms of release rates and partition- ing of xenobiotica. On this account a small in situ measuring device (EROSIMESS) was constructed, that features simultaneous determination of suspended sediment con- centration (optical turbidity meter), dissolved oxygen levels, pH and temperature (membrane probes) under predefined hydraulic conditions. Samples of the suspen- sion can be withdrawn for subsequent chemical analysis. Bottom shear stresses up to 5N/m2 can be generated by means of a propeller that resides in cylindrical perspex tube (erosion chamber) two centimeters above the sediment bed. Baffles on the in- ner wall of the cylinder prevent a solid body rotation of the suspension by creating additional turbulence and a second propeller straight beneath the concentration me- ter inhibits the development of a concentration gradient within the chamber. A small CCD-camera is used to control positioning of the device. It can be used in water- depths up to 5m. The control unit consists of a trigger box and an ordinary laptop computer running LabView. EROSIMESS has been successfully used in various stud- ies on contaminant release, eutrophication, and SOD (sediment oxygen demand) in rivers (Spree: Germany; Maun: UK), reservoirs (Heimbach, Haus Ley: Germany), and

  9. The role of clay minerals in the preservation of organic matter in sediments of Qinghai Lake, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bingsong; Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Lv, Guo; Eberl, Dennis D.; Li, Shanying; Kim, Jinwook

    2009-01-01

    The role of saline lake sediments in preserving organic matter has long been recognized. In order to further understand the preservation mechanisms, the role of clay minerals was studied. Three sediment cores, 25, 57, and 500 cm long, were collected from Qinghai Lake, NW China, and dissected into multiple subsamples. Multiple techniques were employed, including density fractionation, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), total organic carbon (TOC) and carbon compound analyses, and surface area determination. The sediments were oxic near the water-sediment interface, but became anoxic at depth. The clay mineral content was as much as 36.8%, consisting mostly of illite, chlorite, and halloysite. The TEM observations revealed that organic matter occurred primarily as organic matter-clay mineral aggregates. The TOC and clay mineral abundances are greatest in the mid-density fraction, with a positive correlation between the TOC and mineral surface area. The TOC of the bulk sediments ranges from 1 to 3% with the non-hydrocarbon fraction being predominant, followed by bitumen, saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbons, and chloroform-soluble bitumen. The bimodal distribution of carbon compounds of the saturated hydrocarbon fraction suggests that organic matter in the sediments was derived from two sources: terrestrial plants and microorganisms/algae. Depthrelated systematic changes in the distribution patterns of the carbon compounds suggest that the oxidizing conditions and microbial abundance near the water-sediment interface promote degradation of labile organic matter, probably in adsorbed form. The reducing conditions and small microbial biomass deeper in the sediments favor preservation of organic matter, because of the less labile nature of organic matter, probably occurring within clay mineral-organic matter aggregates that are inaccessible to microorganisms. These results have important implications for our

  10. Statistical modelling of variability in sediment-water nutrient and oxygen fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpetti, Natalia; Witte, Ursula; Heath, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Organic detritus entering, or produced, in the marine environment is re-mineralised to inorganic nutrient in the seafloor sediments. The flux of dissolved inorganic nutrient between the sediment and overlying water column is a key process in the marine ecosystem, which binds the biogeochemical sub-system to the living food web. These fluxes are potentially affected by a wide range of physical and biological factors and disentangling these is a significant challenge. Here we develop a set of General Additive Models (GAM) of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, phosphate, silicate and oxygen fluxes, based on a year-long campaign of field measurements off the north-east coast of Scotland. We show that sediment grain size, turbidity due to sediment re-suspension, temperature, and biogenic matter content were the key factors affecting oxygen consumption, ammonia and silicate fluxes. However, phosphate fluxes were only related to suspended sediment concentrations, whilst nitrate fluxes showed no clear relationship to any of the expected drivers of change, probably due to the effects of denitrification. Our analyses show that the stoichiometry of nutrient regeneration in the ecosystem is not necessarily constant and may be affected by combinations of processes. We anticipate that our statistical modelling results will form the basis for testing the functionality of process-based mathematical models of whole-sediment biogeochemistry.

  11. Adsorption of surface functionalized silica nanoparticles onto mineral surfaces and decane/water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metin, Cigdem O.; Baran, Jimmie R.; Nguyen, Quoc P.

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption of silica nanoparticles onto representative mineral surfaces and at the decane/water interface was studied. The effects of particle size (the mean diameters from 5 to 75 nm), concentration and surface type on the adsorption were studied in detail. Silica nanoparticles with four different surfaces [unmodified, surface modified with anionic (sulfonate), cationic (quaternary ammonium (quat)) or nonionic (polyethylene glycol (PEG)) surfactant] were used. The zeta potential of these silica nanoparticles ranges from −79.8 to 15.3 mV. The shape of silica particles examined by a Hitachi-S5500 scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is quite spherical. The adsorption of all the nanoparticles (unmodified or surface modified) on quartz and calcite surfaces was found to be insignificant. We used interfacial tension (IFT) measurements to investigate the adsorption of silica nanoparticles at the decane/water interface. Unmodified nanoparticles or surface modified ones with sulfonate or quat do not significantly affect the IFT of the decane/water interface. It also does not appear that the particle size or concentration influences the IFT. However, the presence of PEG as a surface modifying material significantly reduces the IFT. The PEG surface modifier alone in an aqueous solution, without the nanoparticles, yields the same IFT reduction for an equivalent PEG concentration as that used for modifying the surface of nanoparticles. Contact angle measurements of a decane droplet on quartz or calcite plate immersed in water (or aqueous nanoparticle dispersion) showed a slight change in the contact angle in the presence of the studied nanoparticles. The results of contact angle measurements are in good agreement with experiments of adsorption of nanoparticles on mineral surfaces or decane/water interface. This study brings new insights into the understanding and modeling of the adsorption of surface-modified silica nanoparticles onto mineral surfaces and

  12. Assessment of Cd, Cr and Pb Pollution in Sediment and Water of Gheshlagh River, Iran, in September 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Majnoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to evaluate the pollution levels of surface water with heavy metals including Pb, Cd and Cr in Gheshlagh River, western Iran. Methods: Water and sediment were sampled in five monitoring stations with three replicates in time along the river. The concentration of Cr, Pb and Cd in both water and sediment samples were measured with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (Australia, Varian 220. The Geoaccumulation Index and Pollution Load Index were employed to assess the pollution level of sediments with heavy metals. Results: The mean value of Cd, Cr, Pb in sediment samples were 0.69, 17.19 and 10.69 µgg-1 per dry weight, respectively. Water samples contained Cd, Cr and Pb concentration of 1.99, 1.45 and 12.92 µgL-1, respectively. The Geoaccumulation Index and Pollution Load Index indicates that the sediments were not polluted with Pb and Cr, and unpolluted to moderately contaminated with Cd in Gheshlagh River. Conclusion: This study concludes that the Gheshlagh River is threatened by heavy metals particularly Cd and Pb.

  13. A Monthly Water-Balance Model Driven By a Graphical User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Markstrom, Steven L.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes a monthly water-balance model driven by a graphical user interface, referred to as the Thornthwaite monthly water-balance program. Computations of monthly water-balance components of the hydrologic cycle are made for a specified location. The program can be used as a research tool, an assessment tool, and a tool for classroom instruction.

  14. Macrobenthic diversity and sediment-water exchanges of oxygen and ammonium: Example of two subtidal communities of the eastern English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tous Rius, Armonie; Denis, Lionel; Dauvin, Jean-Claude; Spilmont, Nicolas

    2018-06-01

    In organic-rich shallow habitats, benthic macrofauna is known to play a major role in the geochemical functioning of surficial sediments through its metabolism, as well as its bioirrigation and/or bioturbation activity. In this paper, the effects of benthic macrofauna on metabolic fluxes at the sediment-water interface were studied at four dates, from winter to late summer, on two major macrobenthic communities of the eastern English Channel (macrotidal system): the fine sand Abra alba community (2 stations) and the sandy gravel Ophiothrix fragilis community (1 station). Oxygen and ammonium fluxes showed temporal changes that could be attributed to the variation of sea water temperature. Once the effect of temperature removed (using Q10 = 2.5), the average fauna mediated fluxes (FFauna) represented respectively 77% and 76% of average total fluxes. Considering the whole dataset, species number and biomass showed a significant correlation with fauna mediated fluxes of O2 and NH4+, while the relationships with abundance were not significant. The species composition of the community might influence ecosystem functioning, but in the present study, functional groups have a very poor relationship with FFauna (O2) and FFauna (NH4+). Despite the presence of engineer species, establishing general and simple rules to link macrofaunal parameters to functional attributes remains very difficult, suggesting that communities rather followed the idiosyncrasy and rivet hypothesis.

  15. Organic Matter Remineralization Predominates Phosphorus Cycling in the Mid-Bay Sediments in the Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunendra, Joshi R.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Burdige, David J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Sparks, Donald L.; Jaisi, Deb P.

    2015-05-19

    The Chesapeake Bay, the largest and most productive estuary in the US, suffers from varying degrees of water quality issues fueled by both point and non–point source nutrient sources. Restoration of the bay is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources, their variable inputs and hydrological conditions, and complex interacting factors including climate forcing. These complexities not only restrict formulation of effective restoration plans but also open up debates on accountability issues with nutrient loading. A detailed understanding of sediment phosphorus (P) dynamics enables one to identify the exchange of dissolved constituents across the sediment- water interface and aid to better constrain mechanisms and processes controlling the coupling between the sediments and the overlying waters. Here we used phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ18Op) in concert with sediment chemistry, XRD, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on the sediment retrieved from an organic rich, sulfidic site in the meso-haline portion of the mid-bay to identify sources and pathway of sedimentary P cycling and to infer potential feedback effect on bottom water hypoxia and surface water eutrophication. Isotope data indicate that the regeneration of inorganic P from organic matter degradation (remineralization) is the predominant, if not sole, pathway for authigenic P precipitation in the mid-bay sediments. We interpret that the excess inorganic P generated by remineralization should have overwhelmed any bottom-water and/or pore-water P derived from other sources or biogeochemical processes and exceeded saturation with respect to authigenic P precipitation. It is the first research that identifies the predominance of remineralization pathway against remobilization (coupled Fe-P cycling) pathway in the Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, these results are expected to have significant implications for the current understanding of P cycling and benthic-pelagic coupling in the bay, particularly on the

  16. Evaluation of trace elements distribution in water, sediment, soil and cassava plant in Muria peninsula environment by NAA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muryono, H.; Sumining; Agus Taftazani; Kris Tri Basuki; Sukarman, A.

    1999-01-01

    The evaluation of trace elements distribution in water, sediment, soil and cassava plant in Muria peninsula by NAA method were done. The nuclear power plant (NPP) and the coal power plant (CPP) will be built in Muria peninsula, so, the Muria peninsula is an important site for samples collection and monitoring of environment. River-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava plant were choosen as specimens samples from Muria peninsula environment. The analysis result of trace elements were used as a contributed data for environment monitoring before and after NPP was built. The trace elements in specimens of river-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava plant samples were analyzed by INAA method. It was found that the trace elements distribution were not evenly distributed. Percentage of trace elements distribution in river-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava leaves were 0.00026-0.037% in water samples, 0.49-62.7% in sediment samples, 36.29-99.35% in soil samples and 0.21-99.35% in cassava leaves. (author)

  17. Evaluation of trace elements distribution in water, sediment, soil and cassava plant in Muria peninsula environment by NAA method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muryono, H.; Sumining; Agus Taftazani; Kris Tri Basuki; Sukarman, A. [Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Center, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    1999-10-01

    The evaluation of trace elements distribution in water, sediment, soil and cassava plant in Muria peninsula by NAA method were done. The nuclear power plant (NPP) and the coal power plant (CPP) will be built in Muria peninsula, so, the Muria peninsula is an important site for samples collection and monitoring of environment. River-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava plant were choosen as specimens samples from Muria peninsula environment. The analysis result of trace elements were used as a contributed data for environment monitoring before and after NPP was built. The trace elements in specimens of river-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava plant samples were analyzed by INAA method. It was found that the trace elements distribution were not evenly distributed. Percentage of trace elements distribution in river-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava leaves were 0.00026-0.037% in water samples, 0.49-62.7% in sediment samples, 36.29-99.35% in soil samples and 0.21-99.35% in cassava leaves. (author)

  18. Advanced Water Quality Modelling in Marine Systems: Application to the Wadden Sea, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, J.; Smits, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    There is an increasing demand for knowledge and models that arise from water management in relation to water quality, sediment quality (ecology) and sediment accumulation (ecomorphology). Recently, models for sediment diagenesis and erosion developed or incorporated by Delft Hydraulics integrates the relevant physical, (bio)chemical and biological processes for the sediment-water exchange of substances. The aim of the diagenesis models is the prediction of both sediment quality and the return fluxes of substances such as nutrients and micropollutants to the overlying water. The resulting so-called DELWAQ-G model is a new, generic version of the water and sediment quality model of the DELFT3D framework. One set of generic water quality process formulations is used to calculate process rates in both water and sediment compartments. DELWAQ-G involves the explicit simulation of sediment layers in the water quality model with state-of-the-art process kinetics. The local conditions in a water layer or sediment layer such as the dissolved oxygen concentration determine if and how individual processes come to expression. New processes were added for sulphate, sulphide, methane and the distribution of the electron-acceptor demand over dissolved oxygen, nitrate, sulphate and carbon dioxide. DELWAQ-G also includes the dispersive and advective transport processes in the sediment and across the sediment-water interface. DELWAQ-G has been applied for the Wadden Sea. A very dynamic tidal and ecologically active estuary with a complex hydrodynamic behaviour located at the north of the Netherlands. The predicted profiles in the sediment reflect the typical interactions of diagenesis processes.

  19. The trace element analysis in freshwater fish species, water and sediment in Iyidere stream (Rize-Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verep, Bulent; Mutlu, Cengiz; Apaydin, Gokhan; Cevik, Ugur

    2012-07-15

    Many environmental problems like dam construction, agricultural debris, flooding and industrial establishments threaten Iyidere stream (Rize, Turkey) on the southeastern coast of the Black Sea (Turkey). The trace element concentrations in water, fish and sediments in lyidere stream (Rize, Turkey) were investigated in this study. The concentration of six different elements in ten freshwater fish species and sediment was determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method. A radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence analysis using the method of multiple standard addition is applied for the elemental analysis of fish and sediments. Water samples for trace metals were analyzed using standard spectrophotometry methods. A qualitative analysis of spectral peaks showed that ten different freshwater fish samples (Chondrostoma colchicum, Chalcalburnus chalcoides, Salmo trutta labrax, Alburnoides bipunctatus, Leuciscus cephalus, Barbus taurus escherichia, Capoeta tinca, Neogobius kessleri, Rutilus frisii, Lampetra lanceolata) and sediment contained phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), chlorine (Cl), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and titanium (Ti). Heavy metals as toxic elements for biota (Pb, Cd, Hg, Zn and Mn etc.) were not detected in fish, water and sediments. Thus, It can be declared that freshwater fish of Iyidere does not contains health risks for consumers in terms of metal pollution.

  20. Atmospheric photochemistry at a fatty acid-coated air-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Stéphanie; Tinel, Liselotte; Bianco, Angelica; Passananti, Monica; Brigante, Marcello; Donaldson, D. James; George, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Although fatty acids are believed to be photochemically inert in the actinic region, complex volatile organic compounds are produced during illumination of an air-water interface coated solely with a monolayer of carboxylic acid. When aqueous solutions containing nonanoic acid (NA) at bulk concentrations that give rise to just over a monolayer of NA coverage are illuminated with actinic radiation, saturated and unsaturated aldehydes are seen in the gas phase, and more highly oxygenated products appear in the aqueous phase. This chemistry is probably initiated by triplet-state NA molecules excited by direct absorption of actinic light at the water surface. Because fatty acids-covered interfaces are ubiquitous in the environment, such photochemical processing will have a substantial impact on local ozone and particle formation.

  1. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  2. Runoff and sediment yield model for predicting nuclide transport in watersheds using BIOTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Wenzel, W.J.

    1990-09-01

    The environmental risk simulation model BIOTRAN was interfaced with a series of new subroutines (RUNOFF, GEOFLX, EROSON, and AQUIFER) to predict the movement of nuclides, elements, and pertinent chemical compounds in association with sediments through lateral and channel flow of runoff water. In addition, the movement of water into and out of segmented portions of runoff channels was modeled to simulate the dynamics of moisture flow through specified aquifers within the watershed. The BIOTRAN soil water flux subroutine, WATFLX, was modified to interface the relationships found in the SPUR model for runoff and sediment transport into channels with the particle sorting relationships to predict radionuclide enrichment and movement in watersheds. The new subroutines were applied specifically to Mortandad Canyon within Los Alamos National Laboratory by simultaneous simulation of eight surface vegetational subdivisions and associated channel and aquifer segments of this watershed. This report focuses on descriptions of the construction and rationale for the new subroutines and on discussing both input characteristics and output relationships to known runoff events from Mortandad Canyon. Limitations of the simplified input on model behavior are also discussed. Uranium-238 was selected as the nuclide for demonstration of the model because it could be assumed to be homogeneously distributed over the watershed surface. 22 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Assessment of Trace Metals Contamination of Surface Water and Sediment: A Case Study of Mvudi River, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua N. Edokpayi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Trace metals contamination of rivers and sediments remains a global threat to biodiversity and humans. This study was carried out to assess the variation pattern in trace metals contamination in Mvudi River water and sediments for the period of January–June 2014. Metal concentrations were analyzed using an inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer after nitric acid digestion. A compliance study for the water samples was performed using the guidelines of the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF of South Africa and the World Health Organization (WHO. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA sediment quality guidelines for marine and estuarine sediments and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment sediment guidelines (CCME for freshwater sediments were used to determine the possible toxic effects of the metals on aquatic organisms. pH (7.2–7.7 and conductivity (10.5–16.1 mS/m values complied with DWAF and WHO standards for domestic water use. Turbidity values in nephelometric turbidity units (NTU were in the range of 1.9–429 and exceeded the guideline values. The monthly average levels of trace metals in the water and sediments of Mvudi River were in the range of: Al (1.01–9.644 mg/L and 4296–5557 mg/kg, Cd (0.0003–0.002 mg/L and from below the detection limit to 2.19 mg/kg, Cr (0.015–0.357 mg/L and 44.23–149.52 mg/kg, Cu (0.024–0.185 mg/L and 13.22–1027 mg/kg, Fe (0.702–2.645 mg/L and 3840–6982 mg/kg, Mn (0.081–0.521 mg/L and 279–1638 mg/kg, Pb (0.002–0.042 mg/L and 1.775-4.157 mg/kg and Zn (0.031–0.261 mg/L and 14.481–39.88 mg/kg. The average concentrations of Al, Cr, Fe, Mn and Pb in the water samples exceeded the recommended guidelines of DWAF and WHO for domestic water use. High concentrations of Al and Fe were determined in the sediment samples. Generally, the concentrations of Cd, Cr and Cu in the sediments exceeded the corresponding effect range low

  4. Screening for microplastics in sediment, water, marine invertebrates and fish: method development and microplastic accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson, Therese; Vethaak, A.D.; Carney Almroth, Bethany; Ariese, Freek; van Velzen, M.J.M.; Hassellöv, Martin; Leslie, H.A.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of microplastics in biota and abiotic matrices are key elements of exposure and risk assessments for this emerging environmental pollutant. We investigated the abundance of microplastics in field-collected biota, sediment and water. An improved sediment extraction method, based on

  5. Conformation and Aggregation of LKα14 Peptide in Bulk Water and at the Air/Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgicdir, Cahit; Sayar, Mehmet

    2015-12-10

    Historically, the protein folding problem has mainly been associated with understanding the relationship between amino acid sequence and structure. However, it is known that both the conformation of individual molecules and their aggregation strongly depend on the environmental conditions. Here, we study the aggregation behavior of the model peptide LKα14 (with amino acid sequence LKKLLKLLKKLLKL) in bulk water and at the air/water interface. We start by a quantitative analysis of the conformational space of a single LKα14 in bulk water. Next, in order to analyze the aggregation tendency of LKα14, by using the umbrella sampling technique we calculate the potential of mean force for pulling a single peptide from an n-molecule aggregate. In agreement with the experimental results, our calculations yield the optimal aggregate size as four. This equilibrium state is achieved by two opposing forces: Coulomb repulsion between the lysine side chains and the reduction of solvent accessible hydrophobic surface area upon aggregation. At the vacuum/water interface, however, even dimers of LKα14 become marginally stable, and any larger aggregate falls apart instantaneously. Our results indicate that even though the interface is highly influential in stabilizing the α-helix conformation for a single molecule, it significantly reduces the attraction between two LKα14 peptides, along with their aggregation tendency.

  6. Genetic relatedness of faecal coliforms and enterococci bacteria isolated from water and sediments of the Apies River, Gauteng, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwanzala, Mutshiene Deogratias; Abia, Akebe Luther King; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Keshri, Jitendra; Momba, Ndombo Benteke Maggy

    2017-12-01

    To date, the microbiological quality of river sediments and its impact on water resources are not included in the water quality monitoring assessment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish genetic relatedness between faecal coliforms and enterococci isolated from the river water and riverbed sediments of Apies River to better understand the genetic similarity of microorganisms between the sediment and water phases. Indicator bacteria were subjected to a molecular study, which consisted of PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA gene using specific primers for faecal coliforms and enterococci, respectively. Results revealed that the Apies River had high faecal pollution levels with enterococci showing low to moderate correlation coefficient (r 2 values ranged from 0.2605 to 0.7499) compared to the faecal coliforms which showed zero to low correlation (r 2 values ranged from 0.0027 to 0.1407) indicating that enterococci may be better indicator than faecal coliforms for detecting faecal contamination in riverbed sediments. The phylogenetic tree of faecal coliforms revealed a 98% homology among their nucleotide sequences confirming the close genetic relatedness between river water and riverbed sediment isolates. The phylogenetic tree of the enterococci showed that Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are the predominant species found in both river water and riverbed sediments with bootstrap values of ≥99%. A high degree of genetic relatedness between sediment and water isolates indicated a possible common ancestry and transmission pathway. We recommend the microbial monitoring of riverbed sediments as it harbours more diverse microbial community and once resuspended may cause health and environmental problems.

  7. Aqueous turbulence structure immediately adjacent to the air - water interface and interfacial gas exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binbin

    Air-sea interaction and the interfacial exchange of gas across the air-water interface are of great importance in coupled atmospheric-oceanic environmental systems. Aqueous turbulence structure immediately adjacent to the air-water interface is the combined result of wind, surface waves, currents and other environmental forces and plays a key role in energy budgets, gas fluxes and hence the global climate system. However, the quantification of turbulence structure sufficiently close to the air-water interface is extremely difficult. The physical relationship between interfacial gas exchange and near surface turbulence remains insufficiently investigated. This dissertation aims to measure turbulence in situ in a complex environmental forcing system on Lake Michigan and to reveal the relationship between turbulent statistics and the CO2 flux across the air-water interface. The major objective of this dissertation is to investigate the physical control of the interfacial gas exchange and to provide a universal parameterization of gas transfer velocity from environmental factors, as well as to propose a mechanistic model for the global CO2 flux that can be applied in three dimensional climate-ocean models. Firstly, this dissertation presents an advanced measurement instrument, an in situ free floating Particle Image Velocimetry (FPIV) system, designed and developed to investigate the small scale turbulence structure immediately below the air-water interface. Description of hardware components, design of the system, measurement theory, data analysis procedure and estimation of measurement error were provided. Secondly, with the FPIV system, statistics of small scale turbulence immediately below the air-water interface were investigated under a variety of environmental conditions. One dimensional wave-number spectrum and structure function sufficiently close to the water surface were examined. The vertical profiles of turbulent dissipation rate were intensively studied

  8. The impacts of indoor Amang processing to the quality of water and locally sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Samudi Yasir; Redzuwan Yahaya; Ismail Bahari; Wong, Siew Kim

    2007-01-01

    The impact of amang industry to the environment and community health has long been studied since the industry uses a large amount of water as well the accumulation of TENORM. A study was carried out to measure the water quality as well as the contents of radioactive substances and selected heavy metals in the water and sediments in the vicinity of an amang processing plant in Kampar, Perak, which is using a close water system. The sampling locations selected are; the natural pond, closed to the plant which supply the water for the processing (L1), a recycling concrete pond outside the plant (L2) and an affluent discharge point inside the plant (L3). The techniques of analysis used included in-situ measurement and laboratory analysis of water quality, direct counting of radioactivity ( 238 U and 232 Th) and chemical extraction for atomic absorption spectroscopy of heavy metals (zinc, lead, copper). Chemical extraction was carried out using potassium nitrate, sodium hydroxide, disodium ethylene-diamine tetra-acetic acid (Na 2 EDTA) and concentrated nitric acid solutions. the results show that the water quality indices for the natural pond are much better than at the effluent discharge point or the recycling concrete pond. The average 238 U and 232 Th concentrations were the highest in sediment samples at L3 (1110.5 ± 7.3 Bq/ Kg and 1966.6 ± 4.7 Bq/ kg respectively). For the water samples, the radioactivity was highest in the water sample collected at concrete pond (L2), which is 35.42 ± 1.63 Bq/ L ( 238 U) and 36.16 ± 1.02 Bq/ L ( 232 Th). The average value of extracted Pb (194.13 μg/ g) and Cu (9.71 μg/ g) was highest in the sediment from L3, while for Zn in sediment taken from L1 (38.78 μg/ g). In general, the water quality indices of L1 are better than L2 and L3. The closed water recycling system currently practiced by the amang processing plant has successfully contained the contamination to the environment caused by amang processing activities. (author)

  9. Bottom Sediment Chemistry, Nutrient Balance, and Water Birds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water bird characteristics, nutrient loadings, and the levels of bottom sediment silicon oxide (SiO2), aluminium oxide (Al2O3), ferric oxide (Fe2O3), calcium oxide (CaO), copper (Cu), phosphorus (P) and organic carbon (C) was studied in eight high altitude (2040-2640m) small shallow (0.065-0.249 km2; 0.9-3.1 m) ...

  10. Measuring water and sediment discharge from a road plot with a settling basin and tipping bucket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Black; Charles H. Luce

    2013-01-01

    A simple empirical method quantifies water and sediment production from a forest road surface, and is well suited for calibration and validation of road sediment models. To apply this quantitative method, the hydrologic technician installs bordered plots on existing typical road segments and measures coarse sediment production in a settling tank. When a tipping bucket...

  11. Enrichment of stream water with fecal indicator organisms from bottom sediments during baseflow periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are generally believed to be present in surface waters due solely to direct deposition of feces or through transport in runoff. However, emerging evidence points toward hyporheic exchange between sediment pore water and the overlying water column during baseflow peri...

  12. The impact of a hydroelectric power plant on the sediment load in downstream water bodies, Svartisen, northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogen, J; Bønsnes, T E

    2001-02-05

    When the Svartisen hydroelectric power plant was put into operation, extensive sediment pollution was observed in the downstream fjord area. This paper discusses the impact of the power plant and the contribution from various sources of sediment. Computation of the sediment load was based on samples collected one to four times per day. Grain size distribution analyses of suspended sediments were carried out and used as input in a routing model to study the movement of sediments through the system. Suspended sediment delivered to the fjord before the power station was constructed was measured as 8360 metric tons as an annual mean for a 12-year period. During the years 1995-1996 when the power plant was operating, the total suspended load through the power station was measured as 32609 and 30254 metric tons, respectively. Grain size distribution analyses indicate a major change in the composition of the sediments from 9% clay before the power plant was operative to 50-60% clay afterwards. This change, together with the increase in sediment load, is believed to be one of the main causes of the drastic reduction in secchi depths in the fjord. The effect of the suspended sediment load on the fjord water turbidity was evaluated by co-plotting secchi depth and power station water discharge. Measurements during 1995 and 1996 showed that at the innermost of these locations the water failed to attain the minimum requirement of 2 m secchi depth. In later years secchi depths were above the specified level. In 1997 and 1998 the conditions improved. At the more distal locality, the conditions were acceptable with only a few exceptions. A routing model was applied to data acquired at a location 2 km from the power station in order to calculate the contributions from various sediment sources. This model indicated that the contribution from reservoir bed erosion dominated in 1994 but decreased significantly in 1995. Future operation of the power station will mostly take place with

  13. Mercury transport between sediments and the overlying water of the St. Lawrence River area of concern near Cornwall, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delongchamp, Tania M., E-mail: tdelongchamp@intrinsikscience.co [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Ridal, Jeffrey J. [St. Lawrence River Institute of Environmental Sciences, 2 Belmont Street, Cornwall, Ontario, K6H 4Z1 (Canada); Lean, David R.S. [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Poissant, Laurier [Meteorological Service of Canada, Atmospheric Toxic Processes Section, Environment Canada, 105 McGill 7th floor (Youville), Montreal, Quebec H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Blais, Jules M., E-mail: jules.blais@uottawa.c [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    Contaminated sediments in the St. Lawrence River remain a difficult problem despite decreases in emissions. Here, sediment and pore water phases were analyzed for total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) and diffusion from the sediment to the overlying water was 17.5 +- 10.6 SE ng cm{sup -2} yr{sup -1} for THg and 3.8 +- 1.7 SE ng cm{sup -2} yr{sup -1} for MeHg. These fluxes were very small when compared to the particle-bound mercury flux accumulating in the sediment (183 +- 30 SE ng cm{sup -2} yr{sup -1}). Studies have reported that fish from the westernmost site have higher Hg concentrations than fish collected from the other two sites of the Cornwall Area of Concern, which could not be explained by differences in the Hg flux or THg concentrations in sediments, but the highest concentrations of sediment MeHg, and the greatest proportions of MeHg to THg in both sediment and pore water were observed where fish had highest MeHg concentrations. - Sediments in the St. Lawrence area of concern near Cornwall are a net sink for mercury.

  14. Levels of potentially toxic metals in water, sediment and peat from Wonderfonteinspruit, North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsaka, Ntumba C; McCrindle, Robert I; Ambushe, Abayneh A

    2018-04-30

    Environmental monitoring of the levels of potentially toxic metals is of importance because of possible adverse effects on living species. This study was conducted to assess the levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, U and V in water, sediment and peat samples collected from the region of Wonderfonteinspruit. Water samples were simply filtered and acidified with HNO 3 prior to analysis. Sediment and peat were oven-dried, ground, sieved and mineralised using a microwave digestion system. Concentrations of the selected elements in all samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A Zeeman mercury analyser was also used for quantification of Hg in the same sediment and peat samples. The method validation was carried out using SRM 1643e water and BCR 320R sediment certified reference materials. The results showed no significant difference at 95% level of confidence between the certified and measured values after using the Student's t-test. The levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V and U found in rivers and dams were lower than the tentative South African water quality range guideline for domestic and irrigation purposes. However, water from dams and certain rivers was unsuitable for irrigation and domestic use.

  15. Local scale marine modelling of Fukushima releases. Assessment of water and sediment contamination and sensitivity to water circulation description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periáñez, R.; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Min, Byung-Il

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► First simulations of Cs seabed sediment contamination after Fukushima releases. ► Effects of tides on dispersion patterns assessed: not significant. ► Two kinetic models for uptake/release reactions compared. ► Daily currents from two ocean models have been used. Results compared. ► Overall better results with JCOPE2 currents and 2-step kinetics. - Abstract: The dispersion of 137 Cs released from Fukushima nuclear power plant to the sea after the March 11th 2011 tsunami has been studied using numerical models. The 3D dispersion model consists of an advection/diffusion equation with terms describing uptake/release reactions between water and seabed sediments. The dispersion model has been fed with daily currents provided by HYCOM and JCOPE2 ocean models. Seabed sediment 137 Cs patterns obtained using both current data set have been compared. The impact of tides and of atmospheric deposition has been evaluated as well. It has been also found that a 2-step kinetic model (two consecutive reversible reactions) for describing water/sediment interactions produces better results than a 1-step model (one single reversible reaction).

  16. The evaluation of the equilibrium partitioning method using sensitivity distributions of species in water and soil or sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen P van; Verbruggen EMJ; Peijnenburg WJGM; ECO

    2002-01-01

    The equilibrium partitioning method (EqP-method) can be used to derive environmental quality standards (like the Maximum Permissible Concentration or the intervention value) for soil or sediment, from aquatic toxicity data and a soil/water or sediment/water partitioning coefficient. The validity of

  17. Mercury Exchange at the Air-Water-Soil Interface: An Overview of Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengman Fang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is made to assess the present knowledge about the methods of determining mercury (Hg exchange at the air-water-soil interface during the past 20 years. Methods determining processes of wet and dry removal/deposition of atmospheric Hg to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, as well as methods determining Hg emission fluxes to the atmosphere from natural surfaces (soil and water are discussed. On the basis of the impressive advances that have been made in the areas relating to Hg exchange among air-soil-water interfaces, we analyzed existing problems and shortcomings in our current knowledge. In addition, some important fields worth further research are discussed and proposed.

  18. Determination of the Relative Sediment Concentration in Water Bodies Using Remote Sensing Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Vargas Cuervo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies for the determination of the relative concentration of sediments (RCS in bodies of water such as rivers, marshes and river deltas require specialized equipment, field work and laboratory analyses of samples, all with high economic costs. Remote sensing, in regions of the optical electromagnetic spectrum, particularly in the visible range between 0.4 and 0.6 µm, shows radiometric contrasts associated with the relative concentration of sediments in water bodies. This work presents an analysis of the principal spectral, spatial and radiometric properties or characteristics of remote sensors for the determination of the relative concentration of sediments in bodies of water, a methodological process for its cartography at a given time or an established period of time. This cartography is based on digital processing of images rather than direct measurements in the field. Lastly, applications are presented for the delta coast of the southwestern area of the Colombian Caribbean between Barranquilla and Punta Piedra and in the lacustrine area of the Guajaro Reservoir and the Jobo and Capote Wetlands in the upper Canal del Dique, Colombia.

  19. A Coupled Model of the 1D River Network and 3D Estuary Based on Hydrodynamics and Suspended Sediment Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available River networks and estuaries are very common in coastal areas. Runoff from the upper stream interacts with tidal current from open sea in these two systems, leading to a complex hydrodynamics process. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the two systems as a whole to study the flow and suspended sediment transport. Firstly, a 1D model is established in the Pearl River network and a 3D model is applied in its estuary. As sufficient mass exchanges between the river network and its estuary, a strict mathematical relationship of water level at the interfaces can be adopted to couple the 1D model with the 3D model. By doing so, the coupled model does not need to have common nested grids. The river network exchanges the suspended sediment with its estuary by adding the continuity conditions at the interfaces. The coupled model is, respectively, calibrated in the dry season and the wet season. The results demonstrate that the coupled model works excellently in simulating water level and discharge. Although there are more errors in simulating suspended sediment concentration due to some reasons, the coupled model is still good enough to evaluate the suspended sediment transport in river network and estuary systems.

  20. Levels of trace metals in water and sediment from Tyume River and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher levels of Cd (0.038 ± 0.004 to 0.044 ± 0.003 mg/l) and Pb (0.021 ± 0.004 to 0.035 ± 0.001 mg/l) were found in the river water, which may be detrimental to the “health” of the aquatic ecosystem and the rural communities that utilise the river water for ... Key words: trace metals, water, sediment, farmland, Tyume River

  1. Reconstructing bottom water temperatures from measurements of temperature and thermal diffusivity in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesner, F.; Lechleiter, A.; Müller, C.

    2015-07-01

    Continuous monitoring of oceanic bottom water temperatures is a complicated task, even in relatively easy-to-access basins like the North or Baltic seas. Here, a method to determine annual bottom water temperature variations from inverse modeling of instantaneous measurements of temperatures and sediment thermal properties is presented. This concept is similar to climate reconstructions over several thousand years from deep borehole data. However, in contrast, the presented method aims at reconstructing the recent temperature history of the last year from sediment thermal properties and temperatures from only a few meters depth. For solving the heat equation, a commonly used forward model is introduced and analyzed: knowing the bottom water temperature variations for the preceding years and the thermal properties of the sediments, the forward model determines the sediment temperature field. The bottom water temperature variation is modeled as an annual cosine defined by the mean temperature, the amplitude and a phase shift. As the forward model operator is non-linear but low-dimensional, common inversion schemes such as the Newton algorithm can be utilized. The algorithms are tested for artificial data with different noise levels and for two measured data sets: from the North Sea and from the Davis Strait. Both algorithms used show stable and satisfying results with reconstruction errors in the same magnitude as the initial data error. In particular, the artificial data sets are reproduced with accuracy within the bounds of the artificial noise level. Furthermore, the results for the measured North Sea data show small variances and resemble the bottom water temperature variations recorded from a nearby monitoring site with relative errors smaller than 1 % in all parameters.

  2. Contrasting impacts of light reduction on sediment biogeochemistry in deep- and shallow-water tropical seagrass assemblages (Green Island, Great Barrier Reef).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrameyer, Verena; York, Paul H; Chartrand, Kathryn; Ralph, Peter J; Kühl, Michael; Brodersen, Kasper Elgetti; Rasheed, Michael A

    2018-05-01

    Seagrass meadows increasingly face reduced light availability as a consequence of coastal development, eutrophication, and climate-driven increases in rainfall leading to turbidity plumes. We examined the impact of reduced light on above-ground seagrass biomass and sediment biogeochemistry in tropical shallow- (∼2 m) and deep-water (∼17 m) seagrass meadows (Green Island, Australia). Artificial shading (transmitting ∼10-25% of incident solar irradiance) was applied to the shallow- and deep-water sites for up to two weeks. While above-ground biomass was unchanged, higher diffusive O 2 uptake (DOU) rates, lower O 2 penetration depths, and higher volume-specific O 2 consumption (R) rates were found in seagrass-vegetated sediments as compared to adjacent bare sand (control) areas at the shallow-water sites. In contrast, deep-water sediment characteristics did not differ between bare sand and vegetated sites. At the vegetated shallow-water site, shading resulted in significantly lower hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) levels in the sediment. No shading effects were found on sediment biogeochemistry at the deep-water site. Overall, our results show that the sediment biogeochemistry of shallow-water (Halodule uninervis, Syringodium isoetifolium, Cymodocea rotundata and C. serrulata) and deep-water (Halophila decipiens) seagrass meadows with different species differ in response to reduced light. The light-driven dynamics of the sediment biogeochemistry at the shallow-water site could suggest the presence of a microbial consortium, which might be stimulated by photosynthetically produced exudates from the seagrass, which becomes limited due to lower seagrass photosynthesis under shaded conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Climate change and the impact of increased rainfall variability on sediment transport and catchment scale water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, G. R.; Willgoose, G. R.; Cohen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Recently there has been recognition that changing climate will affect rainfall and storm patterns with research directed to examine how the global hydrological cycle will respond to climate change. This study investigates the effect of different rainfall patterns on erosion and resultant water quality for a well studied tropical monsoonal catchment that is undisturbed by Europeans in the Northern Territory, Australia. Water quality has a large affect on a range of aquatic flora and fauna and a significant change in sediment could have impacts on the aquatic ecosystems. There have been several studies of the effect of climate change on rainfall patterns in the study area with projections indicating a significant increase in storm activity. Therefore it is important that the impact of this variability be assessed in terms of catchment hydrology, sediment transport and water quality. Here a numerical model of erosion and hydrology (CAESAR) is used to assess several different rainfall scenarios over a 1000 year modelled period. The results show that that increased rainfall amount and intensity increases sediment transport rates but predicted water quality was variable and non-linear but within the range of measured field data for the catchment and region. Therefore an assessment of sediment transport and water quality is a significant and complex issue that requires further understandings of the role of biophysical feedbacks such as vegetation as well as the role of humans in managing landscapes (i.e. controlled and uncontrolled fire). The study provides a robust methodology for assessing the impact of enhanced climate variability on sediment transport and water quality.

  4. Graphical user interface for accessing water-quality data for the Devils Lake basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Damschen, William C.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2005-01-01

    Maintaining the quality of surface waters in the Devils Lake Basin in North Dakota is important for protecting the agricultural resources, fisheries, waterfowl and wildlife habitat, and recreational value of the basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local, State, and Federal agencies, has collected and analyzed water-quality samples from streams and lakes in the basin since 1957, and the North Dakota Department of Health has collected and analyzed water-quality samples from lakes in the basin since 2001. Because water-quality data for the basin are important for numerous reasons, a graphical user interface was developed to access, view, and download the historical data for the basin. The interface is a web-based application that is available to the public and includes data through water year 2003. The interface will be updated periodically to include data for subsequent years.

  5. Heavy metals in water, sediments and submerged macrophytes in ponds around the Dianchi Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhixiu; Yao, Lu; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Wenzhi

    2014-09-01

    Through retaining runoff and pollutants such as heavy metals from surrounding landscapes, ponds around a lake play an important role in mitigating the impacts of human activities on lake ecosystems. In order to determine the potential for heavy metal accumulation of submerged macrophytes, we investigated the concentrations of 10 heavy metals (i.e., As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in water, sediments, and submerged macrophytes collected from 37 ponds around the Dianchi Lake in China. Our results showed that both water and sediments of these ponds were polluted by Pb. Water and sediments heavy metal concentrations in ponds received urban and agricultural runoff were not significantly higher than those in ponds received forest runoff. This result indicates that a large portion of heavy metals in these ponds may originate from atmospheric deposition and weathering of background soils. Positive relationships were found among heavy metal concentrations in submerged macrophytes, probably due to the coaccumulation of heavy metals. For most heavy metals, no significant relationships were found between submerged macrophytes and their water and sediment environments. The maximum concentrations of Cr, Fe and Ni in Ceratophyllum demersum were 4242, 16,429 and 2662mgkg(-1), respectively. The result suggests that C. demersum is a good candidate species for removing heavy metals from polluted aquatic environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Oil spill in the Rio de la Plata estuary, Argentina: 1. Biogeochemical assessment of waters, sediments, soils and biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, J.C.; Barreda, A.; Bilos, C.; Cappelletti, N.; Demichelis, S.; Lombardi, P.; Migoya, M.C.; Skorupka, C.; Suarez, G.

    2005-01-01

    Aliphatic (ALI) and aromatic (ARO) hydrocarbon concentrations, composition and sources were evaluated in waters, sediments, soils and biota to assess the impact of ∼1000 tons of oil spilled in Rio de la Plata coastal waters. Total ALI levels ranged from 0.4-262 μg/l in waters, 0.01-87 μg/g in sediments, 5-39 μg/g in bivalves, 12-323 μg/g in macrophytes to 948-5187 μg/g in soils. ARO varied from non-detected 10 μg/l, 0.01-1.3 μg/g, 1.0-16 μg/g, 0.5-6.9 μg/g to 22-67 μg/g, respectively. Offshore (1, 5, 15 km) waters and sediments were little affected and contained low background hydrocarbon levels reflecting an effective wind-driven transport of the slick to the coast. Six months after the spill, coastal waters, sediments, soils and biota still presented very high levels exceeding baseline concentrations by 1-3 orders of magnitude. UCM/resolved aliphatic ratio showed a clear trend of increasing decay: coastal waters (3.3) n-C23) and petrogenic/pyrogenic relationship (methylated/unsubstitued PAH) discriminated the samples according to the different degree of impact. The following paper present the results of the study of the progress of hydrocarbon disappearance in sediments and soils 13 and 42 months after the spill. - The Oil spill impact the Rio de la Plata was evaluated by HRGC and multivariate techniques applied to waters, sediments and biota

  7. Arsenic mobility from anthropogenic impoundment sediments - Consequences of contamination to biota, water and sediments, Posa, Eastern Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, E.; Jurkovic, L.; Kordik, J.; Slaninka, I.; Jankular, M.; Majzlan, J.; Gottlicher, J.; Steininger, R. [Geological Survey of Slovak Republic, Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Environmental Geochemistry

    2009-11-15

    An impoundment located near the village of Posa, Slovakia, is a significant source of contamination with As originating from the deposited coal fly-ash. Waters penetrating the impoundment are enriched in As and other potentially toxic elements. As a consequence of the contamination, the Kyjov Brook and the Ondava River have been extensively polluted. The mobility and solid-state partitioning of As in the impoundment material and stream sediments were investigated using column leaching and batch extraction tests, and a five-step sequential extraction procedure. Moreover, to investigate the bioavailability of As, two native plant species (Typha latifolia, or cattail, and Phragmites australis, or common reed) growing at the site were collected and analyzed. The As concentrations in representative sediment and water samples ranged from 36.3 to 3210 mg/kg and from 4.05 to 613 {mu} g/L, respectively, both being many times above the background levels. Although a part of As was present in a readily soluble form (6.6%), the majority of As was mainly associated with Fe and Mn oxides (37%) and residual phases (51%). Combined results of the column leaching, batch extraction, and sequential extraction tests, as well as mineralogical analysis, indicated that As mobilisation potential from the sediments is likely controlled by Fe, Al and Mn oxides, and by pH. There was no influence of various anions (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sup 3-}, Cl{sup -} and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) on As mobility when present in aqueous solution at concentrations analogous to those in the water of the Kyjov Brook. Plants growing in the impoundment had As concentrations 10-100 times greater than d