WorldWideScience

Sample records for sediment task environmental

  1. Data summary for the near-shore sediment characterization task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program

    Levine, D.A.; Hargrove, W.W.; Campbell, K.R.; Wood, M.A.; Rash, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents the results of the Near-Shore Sediment Characterization Task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). The goals of the task were to (1) determine the extent to which near-shore surface sediments are contaminated by releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and (2) provide data for the Watts Bar Reservoir Interagency Permitting Group (WBRIPG) to evaluate the human health risks from exposure to sediments during and following dredging operations. The data collected for this task are also to be used in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RLTS) for the CR-ERP operable units (Lower Watts Bar and Clinch River) to characterize the human health risk associated with exposure to near-shore sediments throughout the Watts Bar Reservoir

  2. Contaminated sediment research task: SHC Task 3.61.3

    A poster presentation for the SHC BOSC review will summarize the research efforts under Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHC) in the Contaminated Sediment Task within the Contaminated Sites Project. For the Task, Problem Summary & Decision Context; Task O...

  3. Technical guidelines for environmental dredging of contaminated sediments

    2008-09-01

    This report provides technical guidelines for evaluating : environmental dredging as a sediment remedy component. This document : supports the Contaminated Sediment Remediation Guidance for : Hazardous Waste Sites, released by the U.S. Environmental ...

  4. Analysis of corrosive environmental factors of seabed sediment

    Unknown

    Seabed sediment; corrosion; environmental factors. 1. Introduction. The corrosion ... plays an important role in the corrosion behaviour of steel in sediment. Figure 2b shows the change in oxidation-reduction po- tential, Eh with distance from ...

  5. Ecotoxicological evaluation of sediments applied to environmental forensic investigation

    R. H. Alves

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the potential for using toxicity assays with sediment samples for the detection of water pollution caused by the discharge of tannery effluents into water bodies and its application to environmental forensic investigation. The study included ecotoxicological evaluation of sediments, survey of benthic organisms in the field, as well as chromium, cadmium and lead dosage which provided data for a sediment quality triad evaluation. The sediment samples showed acute and chronic toxicity to the bioindicators, low biodiversity of benthic macrofauna and high chromium concentration, reaching up to 4365 mg.Kg–1. A close relationship was observed between the separate results of ecotoxicological sediment evaluation and the sediment quality triad. The sediment ecotoxicological assessment proved to be applicable to tracking sources of contamination related to tanneries and similar activities in environmental forensics.

  6. Environmental protection, a task of chemical engineering

    Schlachter, H

    1980-12-01

    The environmental burden in air and water in Germany is surveyed. The terms 'eco-unobjectionable technology' and 'disposal technology' are then considered with the aid of examples. These are fundamental chemical engineering approaches for reducing or eliminating environmental burdens due to industrial production processes. 'Eco-unobjectionable processes' are those in which undesired pollutants are not even formed, i.e. when possible emissions are eliminated at source. If this is only partly possible, or impossible, then disposal measures are adopted. This means removal of unavoidable pollutants from waste gases and waste water, and the disposal of other wastes.

  7. Environmental protection - a permanent task in politics

    Laermann, K.H.

    1978-01-01

    The principles of practical environment politics can be summarized as follows: 1) Environmental policy measures do not necessarily induce restrictive effects on economic growth but also positive ones. 2) A serious conflict situation only presents itself, when with limited time available and short-term aims in mind hybernetic interrelations are disregarded and the views of an effluent society are hung onto. 3) Environmental protection measures are to be applied from the point of view of the national economy as a whole. (orig.) [de

  8. Assessing the environmental availability of uranium in soils and sediments

    Amonette, J.E.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Krupa, K.M.; Lindenmeier, C.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Soils and sediments contaminated with uranium pose certain environmental and ecological risks. At low to moderate levels of contamination, the magnitude of these risks depends not only on the absolute concentrations of uranium in the material but also on the availability of the uranium to drinking water supplies, plants, or higher organisms. Rational approaches for regulating the clean-up of sites contaminated with uranium, therefore, should consider the value of assessing the environmental availability of uranium at the site before making decisions regarding remediation. The purpose of this work is to review existing approaches and procedures to determine their potential applicability for assessing the environmental availability of uranium in bulk soils or sediments. In addition to making the recommendations regarding methodology, the authors have tabulated data from the literature on the aqueous complexes of uranium and major uranium minerals, examined the possibility of predicting environmental availability of uranium based on thermodynamic solubility data, and compiled a representative list of analytical laboratories capable of performing environmental analyses of uranium in soils and sediments.

  9. Assessing the environmental availability of uranium in soils and sediments

    Amonette, J.E.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Krupa, K.M.; Lindenmeier, C.W.

    1994-06-01

    Soils and sediments contaminated with uranium pose certain environmental and ecological risks. At low to moderate levels of contamination, the magnitude of these risks depends not only on the absolute concentrations of uranium in the material but also on the availability of the uranium to drinking water supplies, plants, or higher organisms. Rational approaches for regulating the clean-up of sites contaminated with uranium, therefore, should consider the value of assessing the environmental availability of uranium at the site before making decisions regarding remediation. The purpose of this work is to review existing approaches and procedures to determine their potential applicability for assessing the environmental availability of uranium in bulk soils or sediments. In addition to making the recommendations regarding methodology, the authors have tabulated data from the literature on the aqueous complexes of uranium and major uranium minerals, examined the possibility of predicting environmental availability of uranium based on thermodynamic solubility data, and compiled a representative list of analytical laboratories capable of performing environmental analyses of uranium in soils and sediments

  10. Sediment processes modelling below hydraulic mining: towards environmental impact mitigation

    Chalov, Sergey R.

    2010-05-01

    Placer mining sites are located in the river valleys so the rivers are influenced by mining operations. Frequently the existing mining sites are characterized by low contribution to the environmental technologies. Therefore hydraulic mining alters stream hydrology and sediment processes and increases water turbidity. The most serious environmental sequences of the sediment yield increase occur in the rivers populated by salmon fish community because salmon species prefer clean water with low turbidity. For instance, the placer mining in Kamchatka peninsula (Far East of Russia) which is regarded to be the last global gene pool of wild salmon Oncorhynchus threatens the rivers ecosystems. System of man-made impact mitigation could be done through the exact recognition of the human role in hydrological processes and sediment transport especially. Sediment budget of rivers below mining sites is transformed according to the appearance of the man-made non-point and point sediment sources. Non-point source pollution occurs due to soil erosion on the exposed hillsides and erosion in the channel diversions. Slope wash on the hillsides is absent during summer days without rainfalls and is many times increased during rainfalls and snow melting. The nearness of the sources of material and the rivers leads to the small time of suspended load increase after rainfalls. The average time of material intake from exposed hillsides to the rivers is less than 1 hour. The main reason of the incision in the channel diversion is river-channel straightening. The increase of channel slopes and transport capacity leads to the intensive incision of flow. Point source pollution is performed by effluents both from mining site (mainly brief effluents) and from settling ponds (permanent effluents), groundwater seepage from tailing pits or from quarries. High rate of groundwater runoff is the main reason of the technological ponds overfilling. Intensive filtration from channel to ponds because of

  11. Environmental management for dredging sediments - the requirement of developing nations.

    Manap, Norpadzlihatun; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research has characterized the effects of dredging, an underwater excavation process for navigational purposes or material extraction, and has shown its association with a number of chemical, physical and biological impacts. Due to this, much environmental management has been applied in the dredging industry in order to manage its detrimental effects. However, developing nations may have different approaches towards their dredging environmental management to compare to their companions with higher economic strength. Moreover, scientific evidence to make an informed decision is often lacking, hence affecting the number of research executed at these nations, limiting their efforts to preserve the environment. This paper reviews the dredging environmental impacts and its two important factors, dredging technology and sediment characteristic, that determine the magnitude of impacts through literature review, and discusses the need for a more integrated dredging environmental management to be developed for developing nations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental hardening of robots for nuclear maintenance and surveillance tasks

    Hintenlang, D.E.; Tulenko, J.S.; Wheeler, R.; Roy, T.

    1990-01-01

    The University of Florida, in cooperation with the Universities of Texas, Tennessee, and Michigan and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is developing an advanced robotic system for the US Department of Energy under the University Program for Robotics for Advanced Reactors. As part of this program, the University of Florida has been pursuing the development of environmentally hardened components so that autonomous robotic systems can successfully carry out their tasks under the most extreme expected environmental conditions. This requirement means that the designed robotic system with its onboard computer-based intelligence must be able to successfully complete tasks in toxic, radioactive, wet, temperature extremes, and other physically impairing environments. As part of this program, a study was carried out to determine the environmental conditions that should be set as the design criteria for robotic systems to maintain reasonable operations for nuclear plants in the course of maintenance, testing, and surveillance under all conditions, including plant upset. It was decided that Florida would build a combined environmental testing facility to test specific devices in high-radiation/high-temperature combined environments. This environmental test chamber has been built and successfully tested to over 250 degree F. This facility will provide some of the first combined temperatures/radiation data for many large-scale integrated components

  13. Hundred years of environmental change and phytoplankton ecophysiological variability archived in coastal sediments.

    Sofia Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Marine protist species have been used for several decades as environmental indicators under the assumption that their ecological requirements have remained more or less stable through time. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that marine protists, including several phytoplankton species, are in fact highly diverse and may quickly respond to changes in the environment. Predicting how future climate will impact phytoplankton populations is important, but this task has been challenged by a lack of time-series of ecophysiological parameters at time-scales relevant for climate studies (i.e. at least decadal. Here, we report on ecophysiological variability in a marine dinoflagellate over a 100-year period of well-documented environmental change, by using the sedimentary archive of living cysts from a Scandinavian fjord (Koljö Fjord, Sweden. During the past century, Koljö Fjord has experienced important changes in salinity linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO. We revived resting cysts of Pentapharsodinium dalei preserved in the fjord sediments and determined growth rates for 18 strains obtained from 3 sediment core layers at salinity 15 and 30, which represent extreme sea-surface conditions during periods of predominantly negative and positive NAO phases, respectively. Upper pH tolerance limits for growth were also tested. In general, P. dalei grew at a higher rate in salinity 30 than 15 for all layers, but there were significant differences among strains. When accounting for inter-strain variability, cyst age had no effect on growth performance or upper pH tolerance limits for this species, indicating a stable growth response over the 100-year period in spite of environmental fluctuations. Our findings give some support for the use of morphospecies in environmental studies, particularly at decadal to century scales. Furthermore, the high intra-specific variability found down to sediment layers dated as ca. 50 years-old indicates

  14. Environmental task for energy utilities. Reporting and supervision

    1999-01-01

    According to the Dutch Energy Distribution Law one of the tasks of energy distribution companies is to stimulate the efficient and environment-friendly use of energy. In order to be able to carry out this legal environmental task energy distribution companies can make use of a specific percentage of the energy tariff. The conditions are formulated in the so-called Environmental Action Plan (MAP, abbreviated in Dutch). The General Auditor in the Netherlands carried out an investigation into the public reporting activities of energy distribution companies with respect to the fore-mentioned legal task and supervision of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs in 1997. It is concluded that the supervision of the Ministry shows several inadequacies and that other interested parties would benefit from an improved reporting by the energy distribution companies. The first recommendation (to improve the supervision) is adopted by the Ministry. There is disagreement between the General Auditor and the Association of Energy Distribution Companies (EnergieNed) on the second recommendation. 9 refs

  15. Primary tasks of environmental improvement of the Aral Sea region

    Tauipbaev, S.T.; Turebaev, Sh.Kh.; Kusherbaev, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Main reasons of environmental crisis in Aral Sea region are analyzed. Primary tasks of its environmental improvement are planed: - creation of conditions of guarantee ensuring (by territory and time) for all water consumers of water resources of the Syr-Dariya and Amu Dariya rivers at the expense of increase of water system efficiency and organization of Water Union of Basin Countries; - acceptance of regional measures on good quality water supply for the Aral Sea region population, mainly at expense of underground water use; -fulfillment of primary measures for Aral Sea save, envisaging building of land dam separating the Small Aral: - solution of unemployment problem by capacity of strengthening of farm economy and rebirth of native business

  16. A Study on the Environmental Standard of Sediment on the Bottom of the Water

    Lee, Chang Hee; Yoo, Hye Jin [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    Sediment on the bottom of the water has been considered one of the water pollutants in the environmental management of Korea so treated as a management on pollutants, as you can see the examples in the dragging operation in the polluted sea area. To healthily maintain and conserve the water ecosystem including bottom living things in the water, sediment on the bottom of the water should be recognized as the independent medium, which should maintain the certain quality like the water, the atmosphere, and soil, rather than the source of water pollution. Such recognition means that the management of sediment on the bottom of the water should change the fragmentary goal, centered the post management focusing on the water management, to the ecosystematic goal including the bottom living things. In a point of the view, this study has a great significance to suggest not only the final goal for the management of sediment on the bottom of the water but also the necessity of developing the environmental standard of the sediment on the bottom of the water, which is a standard of the management or judgment in the actual managing the sediment on the bottom of the water - an estimation on the pollution of sediment, a removal of the polluted sediment, a purification of sediment, and an abandonment of the dragged sediment -, and the development measures. Considering the situation that even the basic scheme related to the management of sediment is not prepared in the Government level, the concept of the environmental standard of sediment, the foreign example of the environmental standard of sediment, the current state of the domestic sediment pollution, and the development scheme of the environmental standard in this study must be the important foundation to establish the management system of sediment in the Government level. 121 refs., 10 figs., 45 tabs.

  17. Mono Lake sediments preserve a record of recent environmental change

    Meixnerova, J.; Betts, M.; Westacott, S.; Ingalls, M.; Miller, L. G.; Sessions, A. L.; Trower, L.; Geobiology Course, A.

    2017-12-01

    H conditions. This process could help elucidate the previously reported dearth of bioavailable nitrogen in Mono Lake. We conclude that the unique chemistry allows the Mono Lake sediments to preserve both a record of environmental change and characteristic fingerprints that could be used to identify similar lake systems in the rock record.

  18. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: Their relations to environmental factors

    Fu, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Zhao, Changpo [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Luo, Yupeng [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Liu, Chunsheng, E-mail: liuchunshengidid@126.com [College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Kyzas, George Z. [Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Luo, Yin [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhao, Dongye [Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); An, Shuqing [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhu, Hailiang, E-mail: zhuhl@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Zhengzhou City had major effect on the pollution of the Jialu River. • TN, OP, TP and COD{sub Mn} in water drove heavy metals to deposit in sediments. • B-IBI was sensitive to the adverse effect of heavy metals in sediments. - Abstract: This work investigated heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China. Sediment samples were collected at 19 sites along the river in connection with field surveys and the total concentrations were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Sediment samples with higher metal concentrations were collected from the upper reach of the river, while sediments in the middle and lower reaches had relatively lower metal concentrations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis were used to evaluate the metal sources. The ecological risk associated with the heavy metals in sediments was rated as moderate based on the assessments using methods of consensus-based Sediment Quality Guidelines, Potential Ecological Risk Index and Geo-accumulation Index. The relations between heavy metals and various environmental factors (i.e., chemical properties of sediments, water quality indices and aquatic organism indices) were also studied. Nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in sediments showed a co-release behavior with heavy metals. Ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate and permanganate index in water were found to be related to metal sedimentation. Heavy metals in sediments posed a potential impact on the benthos community.

  19. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: Their relations to environmental factors

    Fu, Jie; Zhao, Changpo; Luo, Yupeng; Liu, Chunsheng; Kyzas, George Z.; Luo, Yin; Zhao, Dongye; An, Shuqing; Zhu, Hailiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Zhengzhou City had major effect on the pollution of the Jialu River. • TN, OP, TP and COD Mn in water drove heavy metals to deposit in sediments. • B-IBI was sensitive to the adverse effect of heavy metals in sediments. - Abstract: This work investigated heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China. Sediment samples were collected at 19 sites along the river in connection with field surveys and the total concentrations were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Sediment samples with higher metal concentrations were collected from the upper reach of the river, while sediments in the middle and lower reaches had relatively lower metal concentrations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis were used to evaluate the metal sources. The ecological risk associated with the heavy metals in sediments was rated as moderate based on the assessments using methods of consensus-based Sediment Quality Guidelines, Potential Ecological Risk Index and Geo-accumulation Index. The relations between heavy metals and various environmental factors (i.e., chemical properties of sediments, water quality indices and aquatic organism indices) were also studied. Nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in sediments showed a co-release behavior with heavy metals. Ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate and permanganate index in water were found to be related to metal sedimentation. Heavy metals in sediments posed a potential impact on the benthos community

  20. Analysis of corrosive environmental factors of seabed sediment

    The corrosivity of seabed sediment at spots at different distances from seashore was studied based on in situ investigations in the northern sea area of the Yellow River mouth. The results show that there is close relation between distance from seashore and corrosivity of seabed sediment.

  1. Final report for 105-N Basin sediment disposition task, phase 2 samples BOMPC8 and BOMPC9

    Esch, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    This document is the final report deliverable for Phase 2 analytical work for the 105-N Basin Sediment Disposition Task. On December 23, 1997, ten samples were received at the 222-S Laboratory as follows: two (2) bottles of potable water, six (6) samples for process control testing and two (2) samples for characterization. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Letter of Instruction for Phase 2 Analytical Work for the 105-N Basin Sediment Disposition Task (Logan and Kessner, 1997) (Attachment 7) and 105-N Basin Sediment Disposition Phase-Two Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) (Smith, 1997). The analytical results are included in Table 1. This document provides the values of X/Qs for the onsite and offsite receptors, taking into account the building wake and the atmospheric stability effects. X/Qs values for the potential fire accident were also calculated. In addition, the unit dose were calculated for the mixtures of isotopes

  2. Sediments of the western continental shelf of India - Environmental significance

    Guptha, M.V.S.

    The degree of fragmentation and colour of the skeletal fragments, colouration in benthic foraminifers have been studied in surficial sediment samples collected from forty stations from the continental shelf region between Ratnagiri in the south...

  3. Environmental Benefits of Restoring Sediment Continuity to the Kansas River

    2016-06-01

    quality and ecological effects of reservoir aging by sediment accumulation. The section titled “Downstream Channel Effects” cites specific ecological ...effects ( Wood and Armitage 1997; Karr and Yoder 2004). However, as noted by the National Research Council (2011), “Not all sediments and all rivers...National Research Council 2011). Dam construction , as discussed by Wohl et al. (2015), Juracek (2014), Kondolf et al. (2014), and the National Research

  4. Reliable quantification of phthalates in environmental matrices (air, water, sludge, sediment and soil): a review.

    Net, Sopheak; Delmont, Anne; Sempéré, Richard; Paluselli, Andrea; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2015-05-15

    Because of their widespread application, phthalates or phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are ubiquitous in the environment. Their presence has attracted considerable attention due to their potential impacts on ecosystem functioning and on public health, so their quantification has become a necessity. Various extraction procedures as well as gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry detection techniques are found as suitable for reliable detection of such compounds. However, PAEs are ubiquitous in the laboratory environment including ambient air, reagents, sampling equipment, and various analytical devices, that induces difficult analysis of real samples with a low PAE background. Therefore, accurate PAE analysis in environmental matrices is a challenging task. This paper reviews the extensive literature data on the techniques for PAE quantification in natural media. Sampling, sample extraction/pretreatment and detection for quantifying PAEs in different environmental matrices (air, water, sludge, sediment and soil) have been reviewed and compared. The concept of "green analytical chemistry" for PAE determination is also discussed. Moreover useful information about the material preparation and the procedures of quality control and quality assurance are presented to overcome the problem of sample contamination and these encountered due to matrix effects in order to avoid overestimating PAE concentrations in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: their relations to environmental factors.

    Fu, Jie; Zhao, Changpo; Luo, Yupeng; Liu, Chunsheng; Kyzas, George Z; Luo, Yin; Zhao, Dongye; An, Shuqing; Zhu, Hailiang

    2014-04-15

    This work investigated heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China. Sediment samples were collected at 19 sites along the river in connection with field surveys and the total concentrations were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Sediment samples with higher metal concentrations were collected from the upper reach of the river, while sediments in the middle and lower reaches had relatively lower metal concentrations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis were used to evaluate the metal sources. The ecological risk associated with the heavy metals in sediments was rated as moderate based on the assessments using methods of consensus-based Sediment Quality Guidelines, Potential Ecological Risk Index and Geo-accumulation Index. The relations between heavy metals and various environmental factors (i.e., chemical properties of sediments, water quality indices and aquatic organism indices) were also studied. Nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in sediments showed a co-release behavior with heavy metals. Ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate and permanganate index in water were found to be related to metal sedimentation. Heavy metals in sediments posed a potential impact on the benthos community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect Of Environmental Load On The Toxicity Of Bottom Sediments

    Šestinová Oľga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is devoted to Ecotoxicity tests, Terrestrial Plant Test (modification of OECD 208, Phytotoxkit microbiotest on Sinapis alba and chronic tests of Earthworm (Eisenia veneta, modification of OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals 317, Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes on polluted sediments. Earthworms can accelerate the removal of contaminants from soil. The study materials are river sediments, which were obtained from a monitoring station - the Water reservoir the Ružín No.1 particularly, the river Hornád, Hnilec and sample from sludge bed Rudňany. The samples of sediment were used to assess of the potential phytotoxic effect of heavy metals on higher plants. Total mortality was established in earthworms using chronic toxicity test after 7 and 28 exposure days. Based on the phytotoxicity testing, phytotoxic effects of the metals contaminated sediments from the sludge bed Rudňany on S. alba seeds was observed. The largest concentration differences were recorded in the sample R7 after 7 days earthworms exposure. The earthworms mortality was not influenced by sediment neither after 7 nor 28 exposure days The spectra of samples H, HO and R showed broad peak at 1 419 - 1 512 cm−1 characteristic for carbonate radical. In the spectra of the samples (R and R7 the vibration of C-H groups at 2 926 and 2 921 cm−1, respectively were also observed, demonstrating the presence of organic matter. Our research will continue with determination of metals concentration in earthworms.

  7. Combining Conflicting Environmental and Task Requirements in Evolutionary Robotics

    Haasdijk, E.W.

    2015-01-01

    The MONEE framework endows collective adaptive robotic systems with the ability to combine environment- and task-driven selection pressures: it enables distributed online algorithms for learning behaviours that ensure both survival and accomplishment of user-defined tasks. This paper explores the

  8. Fingerprinting of bed sediment in the Tay Estuary, Scotland: an environmental magnetism approach

    P. A. Jenkins

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediment fingerprinting is commonly used for sediment provenance studies in lakes, rivers and reservoirs and on hillslopes and floodplains. This investigation explores the mixing of terrestrial and marine-derived sediment in the Tay Estuary, Scotland, using mineral magnetic attributes for fingerprinting. Samples representative of the estuary sediments and of four sources (end-members were subjected to a suite of magnetic susceptibility and remanence measurements. Sediment samples from the beds of the Rivers Tay and Earn represented fluvial inputs while samples from the Angus and Fife coasts represented marine input. Multivariate discriminant and factor analysis showed that the sources could be separated on the basis of six magnetic parameters in a simple multivariate unmixing model to identify source contributions to estuarine bed sediments. Multi-domain magnetite signatures, characteristic of unweathered bedrock, dominate the magnetic measurements. Overall contributions of 3% from the River Earn, 17% from the River Tay, 29% from the Angus coast and 51% from the Fife coast source end-members, demonstrated the present-day regime of marine sediment derivation in the Tay Estuary. However, this conceals considerable spatial variability both along-estuary and in terms of sub-environments, with small-scale variations in sediment provenance reflecting local morphology, particularly areas of channel convergence. Keywords: bed sediment, environmental magnetism, fingerprinting, Tay Estuary, Scotland

  9. The SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme: Current activities and future key tasks

    Beylich, A. A.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Decaulne, A.

    2012-04-01

    geomorphologists, hydrologists, ecologists, permafrost scientists and glaciologists. SEDIBUD has developed manuals and protocols (SEDIFLUX Manual, available online, see below) with a key set of primary surface process monitoring and research data requirements to incorporate results from these diverse projects and allow coordinated quantitative analysis across the programme. Defined SEDIBUD key test sites provide data on annual climate conditions, total discharge and particulate and dissolved fluxes as well as information on other relevant surface processes. A number of selected key test sites is providing high-resolution data on climate conditions, runoff and sedimentary fluxes, which in addition to the annual data contribute to the SEDIBUD metadata database which is currently developed. Comparable datasets from different SEDIBUD key test sites are integrated and analysed to address key research questions as defined in the SEDIBUD Objective (available online, see below). Defined SEDIBUD key tasks for the coming years include (i) The continued generation and compilation of comparable longer-term datasets on contemporary sedimentary fluxes and sediment yields from SEDIBUD key test sites worldwide, (ii) The continued extension of the SEDIBUD metadata database with these datasets, (iii) The testing of defined SEDIBUD hypotheses (available online, see below) by using the datasets continuously compiled in the SEDIBUD metadata database. Detailed information on the I.A.G./A.I.G. SEDIBUD Programme, SEDIBUD meetings, SEDIBUD publications and SEDIBUD online documents and databases is available at the SEDIBUD website under http://www.geomorph.org/wg/wgsb.html.

  10. Visual Attention Allocation Between Robotic Arm and Environmental Process Control: Validating the STOM Task Switching Model

    Wickens, Christopher; Vieanne, Alex; Clegg, Benjamin; Sebok, Angelia; Janes, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Fifty six participants time shared a spacecraft environmental control system task with a realistic space robotic arm control task in either a manual or highly automated version. The former could suffer minor failures, whose diagnosis and repair were supported by a decision aid. At the end of the experiment this decision aid unexpectedly failed. We measured visual attention allocation and switching between the two tasks, in each of the eight conditions formed by manual-automated arm X expected-unexpected failure X monitoring- failure management. We also used our multi-attribute task switching model, based on task attributes of priority interest, difficulty and salience that were self-rated by participants, to predict allocation. An un-weighted model based on attributes of difficulty, interest and salience accounted for 96 percent of the task allocation variance across the 8 different conditions. Task difficulty served as an attractor, with more difficult tasks increasing the tendency to stay on task.

  11. The environmental state of Lake Ladoga sediments, Russia

    Pellinen, J.; Ristola, T.; Kukkonen, J.; Leppaenen, M.; Hoof, P.L. van; Robbins, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The authors collected sediments in the summer 1993 from Lake Ladoga for chemical analyses and toxicity tests to assess the state of the lake. The sediments were analyzed for heavy metals, fluorides, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and certain radionuclides related to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In general, the concentrations of toxic chemicals were low. Most chemicals were below the limit of detection. The range of the total concentration of 17 PCB congeners was from 6 to 30 ng/kg dw; the highest value was at the pulp and paper mill located in the northeastern shore of the lake (Pitkaeranta). The highest concentrations of Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb were 10, 42, 46, 36, 188, and 143 μg/g dw, respectively. Arsene was not detected at all and Cd only at one out of 12 sites studied. The toxicological testing with larvae of a midge, Chironomus riparius, and Daphnia magna resulted in only slight effects which may in part be related to different physical characteristics of the sediments rather than to toxic effects. The highest mortality was 75% at the deepest part of the lake (close to Valamo Island) which was believed to be the least polluted. The highest heavy metal concentrations and slow development of the larvae were observed for the same site. In the south of the lake at the Volhov Bay which receives effluents from forest and aluminum industry, the mortality was 10--50%

  12. Indigenising environmentalism - a task for the next millennium ...

    The issue of environmentalism global arising from perceived threat to the environment on all front and thus requiring attention of everyone. In as much as productive activities have contributed to environmental degradation, then it is necessary to address the processes. The environment as a concept however holds different ...

  13. Sedimentation

    Cliff R. Hupp; Michael R. Schening

    2000-01-01

    Sedimentation is arguably the most important water-quality concern in the United States. Sediment trapping is cited frequently as a major function of riverine-forested wetlands, yet little is known about sedimcntation rates at the landscape scale in relation to site parameters, including woody vegetation type, elevation, velocity, and hydraulic connection to the river...

  14. The effects of environmental support and secondary tasks on visuospatial working memory.

    Lilienthal, Lindsey; Hale, Sandra; Myerson, Joel

    2014-10-01

    In the present experiments, we examined the effects of environmental support on participants' ability to rehearse locations and the role of such support in the effects of secondary tasks on memory span. In Experiment 1, the duration of interitem intervals and the presence of environmental support for visuospatial rehearsal (i.e., the array of possible memory locations) during the interitem intervals were both manipulated across four tasks. When support was provided, memory spans increased as the interitem interval durations increased, consistent with the hypothesis that environmental support facilitates rehearsal. In contrast, when environmental support was not provided, spans decreased as the duration of the interitem intervals increased, consistent with the hypothesis that visuospatial memory representations decay when rehearsal is impeded. In Experiment 2, the ratio of interitem interval duration to intertrial interval duration was kept the same on all four tasks, in order to hold temporal distinctiveness constant, yet forgetting was still observed in the absence of environmental support, consistent with the decay hypothesis. In Experiment 3, the effects of impeding rehearsal were compared to the effects of verbal and visuospatial secondary processing tasks. Forgetting of locations was greater when presentation of to-be-remembered locations alternated with the performance of a secondary task than when rehearsal was impeded by the absence of environmental support. The greatest forgetting occurred when a secondary task required the processing visuospatial information, suggesting that in addition to decay, both domain-specific and domain-general effects contribute to forgetting on visuospatial working memory tasks.

  15. Model Projections of Future Fluvial Sediment Delivery to Major Deltas Under Environmental Change

    Darby, S. E.; Dunn, F.; Nicholls, R. J.; Cohen, S.; Zarfl, C.

    2017-12-01

    Deltas are important hot spots for climate change impacts on which over half a billion people live worldwide. Most of the world's deltas are sinking as a result of natural and anthropogenic subsidence and due to eustatic sea level rise. The ability to predict rates of delta aggradation is therefore critical to assessments of the extent to which sedimentation can potentially offset sea level rise, but our ability to make such predictions is severely hindered by a lack of insight into future trends of the fluvial sediment load supplied to their deltas by feeder watersheds. To address this gap we investigate fluvial sediment fluxes under future environmental change for a selection (47) of the world's major river deltas. Specifically, we employed the numerical model WBMsed to project future variations in mean annual fluvial sediment loads under a range of environmental change scenarios that account for changes in climate, socio-economics and dam construction. Our projections indicate a clear decrease (by 34 to 41% on average, depending on the specific scenario) in future fluvial sediment supply to most of the 47 deltas. These reductions in sediment delivery are driven primarily by anthropogenic disturbances, with reservoir construction being the most influential factor globally. Our results indicate the importance of developing new management strategies for reservoir construction and operation.

  16. Engineering Task Plan to Expand the Environmental Operational Envelope of Core Sampling

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan authorizes the development of an Alternative Generation and Analysis (AGA). The AGA will determine how to expand the environmental operating envelope during core sampling operations

  17. Environmental magnetic methods for detecting and mapping contaminated sediments in lakes

    Boyce, J. I.

    2009-05-01

    The remediation of contaminated sediments is an urgent environmental priority in the Great Lakes and requires detailed mapping of impacted sediment layer thickness, areal distribution and pollutant levels. Magnetic property measurements of sediment cores from two heavily polluted basins in Lake Ontario (Hamilton Harbour, Frenchman's Bay) show that concentrations of hydrocarbons (PAH) and a number of heavy metals (Pb, As, Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn, Cd, Fe) are strongly correlated with magnetic susceptibility. The magnetic susceptibility contrast between the contaminated sediment and underlying 'pre-colonial' sediments is sufficient to generate a total field anomaly (ca. 2-20 nT) that can be measured with a magnetometer towed above the lake bed. Systematic magnetic surveying (550 line km) of Hamilton Harbour using a towed marine magnetometer clearly identifies a number of well-defined magnetic anomalies that coincide with known accumulations of contaminated lake sediment. When calibrated against in-situ magnetic property measurements, the modeled apparent susceptibility from magnetic survey results can be used to classify the relative contaminant impact levels. The results demonstrate the potential of magnetic property measurements for rapid reconnaissance mapping of large areas of bottom contamination prior to detailed coring and sediment remediation.

  18. Environmental policy is a joint task of all European countries

    Pag-Kuhn, S.; Schmuck, O.

    1987-01-01

    The volume presents material illustrating European environmental policy and the situation in the various countries, and is intended among others for use as a teaching aid at school or in adult courses. A documentation of newspaper articles and other material is the center piece of the volume, arranged by environmental problems and cases, covering also basic text parts from the fields of law and politics. The six main subjects dealt with include: Pollution of the Rhine river, the Sandoz accident; - Nuclear power, Chernobyl and Cattenom; - Forest decline, acid rain and motor vehicle off-gas; - Toxic waste, Seveso and no end to be seen; - Agriculture and ecology; - Environmental impact statement, an EC Directive. The documentation has been selected so as to reflect a broad spectrum of political opinions. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. Characterizing Feedbacks Between Environmental Forcing and Sediment Characteristics in Fluvial and Coastal Systems

    Feehan, S.; Ruggiero, P.; Hempel, L. A.; Anderson, D. L.; Cohn, N.

    2016-12-01

    Characterizing Feedbacks Between Environmental Forcing and Sediment Characteristics in Fluvial and Coastal Systems American Geophysical Union, 2016 Fall Meeting: San Francisco, CA Authors: Scott Feehan, Peter Ruggiero, Laura Hempel, and Dylan Anderson Linking transport processes and sediment characteristics within different environments along the source to sink continuum provides critical insight into the dominant feedbacks between grain size distributions and morphological evolution. This research is focused on evaluating differences in sediment size distributions across both fluvial and coastal environments in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The Cascades' high relief is characterized by diverse flow regimes with high peak/flashy flows and sub-threshold flows occurring in relative proximity and one of the most energetic wave climates in the world. Combining analyses of both fluvial and coastal environments provides a broader understanding of the dominant forces driving differences between each system's grain size distributions, sediment transport processes, and resultant evolution. We consider sediment samples taken during a large-scale flume experiment that simulated floods representative of both high/flashy peak flows analogous to runoff dominated rivers and sub-threshold flows, analogous to spring-fed rivers. High discharge flows resulted in narrower grain size distributions while low flows where less skewed. Relative sediment size showed clear dependence on distance from source and the environments' dominant fluid motion. Grain size distributions and sediment transport rates were also quantified in both wave dominated nearshore and aeolian dominated backshore portions of Long Beach Peninsula, Washington during SEDEX2, the Sandbar-aEolian-Dune EXchange Experiment of summer 2016. The distributions showed spatial patterns in mean grain size, skewness, and kurtosis dependent on the dominant sediment transport process. The feedback between these grain size

  20. Environmental assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of the Santander Bay, Northern Spain.

    Viguri, J; Verde, J; Irabien, A

    2002-07-01

    Samples of intertidal surface sediments (0-2 cm) were collected in 17 stations of the Santander Bay, Cantabric Sea, Northern Spain. The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 16, were analysed by HPLC and MS detection. Surface sediments show a good linear correlation among the parameters of the experimental organic matter evaluation, where total carbon (TC) and loss on ignition (LOI) are approximately 2.5 and 5 times total organic carbon (TOC). A wide range of TOC from 0.08% to 4.1%, and a broad distribution of the sum of sigma16PAHs, from 0.02 to 344.6 microg/g d.w., which can be correlated by an exponential equation to the TOC, has been identified. A qualitative relationship may be established between the industrial input along the rivers and the concentration of sigma6PAHs in the sediments of the estuaries: Boo estuary (8404-4631 microg/g OC), Solia-San Salvador estuaries (305-113 microg/g OC) and Cubas estuary (31-32 microg/g OC). This work shows a dramatic change in the spatial distribution in the concentration of PAHs of intertidal surface sediments. The left edge of the Bay has the main traffic around the city and the major source of PAHs is from combustion processes and estuarine inputs, leading to medium values of PAHs in the sediments; the right edge of the Bay has much lesser anthropogenic activities leading to lower values of PAHs in sediments. The distribution of individual PAHs in sediments varies widely depending on their structure and molecular weight; the 4-6 ring aromatics predominate in polluted sediments due to their higher persistence. The isomer ratio does not allow any clear identification of the PAHs origin. Environmental evaluation according to Dutch guidelines and consensus sediment quality guidelines based on ecotoxicological data leads to the same conclusion, sediments in the Santander Bay show a very different environmental quality depending on the spatial position from heavily polluted/medium effects to non

  1. Late Holocene environmental reconstruction using cave sediments from Belize

    Polk, Jason S.; van Beynen, Philip E.; Reeder, Philip P.

    2007-07-01

    Cave sediments collected from Reflection Cave on the Vaca Plateau, Belize show variations in the δ13C values of their fulvic acids (FAs), which indicate periods of vegetation change caused by climatic and Maya influences during the late Holocene. The δ13C values range from - 27.11‰ to - 21.52‰, a shift of ˜ 5.59‰, which suggests fluctuating contributions of C 3 and C 4 plants throughout the last 2.5 ka, with C 4 plant input reflecting periods of Maya agriculture. Maya activity in the study area occurred at different intensities from ˜ 2600 cal yr BP until ˜ 1500 cal yr BP, after which agricultural practices waned as the Maya depopulated the area. These changes in plant assemblages were in response to changes in available water resources, with increased aridity leading to the eventual abandonment of agricultural areas. The Ix Chel archaeological site, located in the study area, is a highland site that would have been among the first agricultural settlements to be affected during periods of aridity. During these periods, minimal water resources would have been available in this highly karstified, well-drained area, and supplemental groundwater extraction would have been difficult due to the extreme depth of the water table.

  2. Technical Guidelines for Environmental Dredging of Contaminated Sediments

    2008-09-01

    material from barges to adjacent rehandling facilities or to move material relatively short distances. Conveyors can also be used to transfer ...by direct dumping or unloading into a chute or conveyor . Truck transport of treated material to landfills may also be considered. The material...environmental dredging for purposes of a feasibility study, remedial design , and implementation. The scope of this document is limited to the technical

  3. Chemical characteristics of urban stormwater sediments and implications for environmental management, Maricopa County, Arizona

    Parker, J.T.C.; Fossum, K.D.; Ingersoll, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    Investigations of the chemical characteristics of urban stormwater sediments in the rapidly growing Phoenix metropolitan area of Maricopa County, Arizona, showed that the inorganic component of these sediments generally reflects geologic background values. Some concentrations of metals were above background values, especially cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc, indicating an anthropogenic contribution of these elements to the sediment chemistry. Concentrations, however, were not at levels that would require soil remediation according to guidelines of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Arsenic concentrations generally were above recommended values for remediation at a few sites, but these concentrations seem to reflect geologic rather than anthropogenic factors. Several organochlorine compounds no longer in use were ubiquitous in the Phoenix area, although concentrations generally were low. Chlordane, DDT and its decay products DDE and DDD, dieldrin, toxaphene, and PCBs were found at almost all sites sampled, although some of the pesticides in which these compounds are found have been banned for almost 30 years. A few sites showed exceptionally high concentrations of organochlorine compounds. On the basis of published guidelines, urban stormwater sediments do not appear to constitute a major regional environmental problem with respect to the chemical characteristics investigated here. At individual sites, high concentrations of organic compounds - chlordane, dieldrin, PCBs, and toxaphene - may require some attention. The possible environmental hazard presented by low-level organochlorine contamination is not addressed in this paper; however, high levels of toxicity in urban sediments are difficult to explain. Sediment toxicity varied significantly with time, which indicates that these tests should be evaluated carefully before they are used for management decisions.Investigations of the chemical characteristics of urban stormwater sediments in the rapidly

  4. Prospective Environmental Risk Assessment for Sediment-Bound Organic Chemicals: A Proposal for Tiered Effect Assessment.

    Diepens, Noël J; Koelmans, Albert A; Baveco, Hans; van den Brink, Paul J; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J; Brock, Theo C M

    A broadly accepted framework for prospective environmental risk assessment (ERA) of sediment-bound organic chemicals is currently lacking. Such a framework requires clear protection goals, evidence-based concepts that link exposure to effects and a transparent tiered-effect assessment. In this paper, we provide a tiered prospective sediment ERA procedure for organic chemicals in sediment, with a focus on the applicable European regulations and the underlying data requirements. Using the ecosystem services concept, we derived specific protection goals for ecosystem service providing units: microorganisms, benthic algae, sediment-rooted macrophytes, benthic invertebrates and benthic vertebrates. Triggers for sediment toxicity testing are discussed.We recommend a tiered approach (Tier 0 through Tier 3). Tier-0 is a cost-effective screening based on chronic water-exposure toxicity data for pelagic species and equilibrium partitioning. Tier-1 is based on spiked sediment laboratory toxicity tests with standard benthic test species and standardised test methods. If comparable chronic toxicity data for both standard and additional benthic test species are available, the Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) approach is a more viable Tier-2 option than the geometric mean approach. This paper includes criteria for accepting results of sediment-spiked single species toxicity tests in prospective ERA, and for the application of the SSD approach. We propose micro/mesocosm experiments with spiked sediment, to study colonisation success by benthic organisms, as a Tier-3 option. Ecological effect models can be used to supplement the experimental tiers. A strategy for unifying information from various tiers by experimental work and exposure-and effect modelling is provided.

  5. Environmental control on anaerobic oxidation of methane in the gassy sediments of Eckernforde Bay (German Baltic)

    Treude, T.; Kruger, M.; Boetius, A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effect of seasonal environmental changes on the rate and distribution of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in Eckernforde Bay sediments (German Baltic Sea) and identified organisms that are likely to be involved in the process. Surface sediments were sampled during September...... of methane were measured in vitro. AOM changed seasonally within the upper 20 cm of the sediment, with rates being between 1 and 14 nmol cm(-3) d(-1). Its distribution is suggested to be controlled by oxygen and sulfate penetration, temperature, as well as methane supply, leading to a shallow AOM zone during...... AOM in Eckerntorde Bay. These archaea are known also from other marine methane-rich locations. However, they were not directly associated with sulfate-reducing bacteria. AOM is possibly mediated solely by these archaea that show a mesophilic physiology according to the seasonal temperature changes...

  6. Handbook for the assessment of soil erosion and sedimentation using environmental radionuclides

    Zapata, F.

    2002-01-01

    Soil erosion and sedimentation are major environmental and agricultural threats worldwide. There is an urgent need for obtaining reliable information on the rates of these processes to establish the magnitude of the problems and to underpin the selection of soil erosion/sedimentation control technologies, including assessment of their economic and environmental on-site and off-site impacts. The quest for alternative techniques for assessing soil erosion to complement existing classical methods directed attention to the use of environmental radionuclides. Including the latest research developments made in the refinement and standardization of the 137 Cs technique by 25 research groups worldwide and featuring the contributions of a selected team of leading experts in the field, this handbook provides a comprehensive coverage of the methodologies for using radionuclides, primarily 137Cs and 210Pb to establish rates and spatial patterns of soil redistribution and determine the geochronology of sediment deposits. This Handbook is an up-to-date resource for soil and environmental scientists, hydrologists, geomorphologists, geologists, agronomists, ecologists, and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines. (author)

  7. Radiometric and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) of environmental specimens: lacustrine sediments from Danube Delta

    Duliu, Octavian G.

    2002-01-01

    specificity analytical methods such as Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) could evidence more than 40 different elements at concentrations about ppm or lower. Unwanted events as atmospheric nuclear tests and Chernobyl accident discharged a great amount of radioactive 137 Cs that once fixed into sediments represents an excellent tracer for natural processes such as sediment transport, accumulation and redistribution during the last 40-50 years. For multielemental investigation of environmental samples such as soil, sediments, water or various minerals INAA is one of the most suitable technique. Presumably pollutants elements such as Cr, Co, Zn, As, Sb and Br as well as REE that could be easily determined by INAA are helpful indicators of the source as well as of the mechanism of deposition and incorporation of these components. Investigated in correlation with radiocesium distribution as well as some natural trace elements such as REE, Sc or Hf, their vertical profiles in sediments allows a rapid reconstruction of the history of recent pollution processes. Radiometric and INAA measurements have been performed 'in tandem' for sediments collected from different lakes located in both Fluvial (western part) and Fluvio-maritime (eastern part and the Razelm-Sinoe lacustrine complex) sections of the Danube Delta, i.e. Lung, Mesteru, Matita, Furtuna and Merhei as well as Razelm and Leahova, respectively. A review of these investigations concerning the vertical profiles of 4 major elements (Na, K, Ca and Fe), 15 trace elements (Rb, Cs, Ba, Sc, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Th, U, Hf and Ta) as well as of 6 potential pollutants (Zn, Cr, Co, As, Sb and Br) in four lakes (Lung, Furtuna, Mester and Matita) together with anthropogenic 134 Cs and 137 Cs is presented. All these results reveal the great potential of radiometric as well as INAA in environmental as well as in geological investigations. (author)

  8. Imprint of past and present environmental conditions on microbiology and biogeochemistry of coastal Quaternary sediments

    M. Beck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, North Sea tidal-flat sediments have been intensively studied down to a depth of 5 m below seafloor (mbsf. However, little is known about the biogeochemistry, microbial abundance, and activity of sulfate reducers as well as methanogens in deeper layers. In this study, two 20 m-long cores were retrieved from the tidal-flat area of Spiekeroog Island, NW Germany. The drill sites were selected with a close distance of 900 m allowing to compare two depositional settings: first, a paleo-channel filled with Holocene sediments and second, a mainly Pleistocene sedimentary succession. Analyzing these cores, we wanted to test to which degree the paleo-environmental imprint is superimposed by present processes.

    In general, the numbers of bacterial 16S rRNA genes are one to two orders of magnitude higher than those of Archaea. The abundances of key genes for sulfate reduction and methanogenesis (dsrA and mcrA correspond to the sulfate and methane profiles. A co-variance of these key genes at sulfate-methane interfaces and enhanced ex situ AOM rates suggest that anaerobic oxidation of methane may occur in these layers. Microbial and biogeochemical profiles are vertically stretched relative to 5 m-deep cores from shallower sediments in the same study area, but still appear compressed compared to deep sea sediments. Our interdisciplinary analysis shows that the microbial abundances and metabolic rates are elevated in the Holocene compared to Pleistocene sediments. However, this is mainly due to present environmental conditions such as pore water flow and organic matter availability. The paleo-environmental imprint is still visible but superimposed by these processes.

  9. Effects of engineered nano-titanium dioxide on pore surface properties and phosphorus adsorption of sediment: Its environmental implications

    Luo, Zhuanxi; Wang, Zhenhong; Wei, QunShan; Yan, Changzhou; Liu, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The attachment of Enano-TiO 2 to surface enhanced markedly sediment BET surface area and t-Plot external surface area. → The fill of Enano-TiO 2 into the micropores reduced significantly the sediment t-Plot micropore surface area. → Enano-TiO 2 could increase sediment phosphorus (P) adsorption maximum and decrease in sediment P binding energy. → P would be easily released because of the decreasing P binding energy of the sediment with elevated Enano-TiO 2 . - Abstract: Understanding the environmental safety and human health implications of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is of worldwide importance. As an important ENPs, engineered nano-TiO 2 (Enano-TiO 2 ) may have been substantially deposited in aquatic sediments because of its widely uses. Sediment pore surface properties would be thus significantly influenced due to the large surface area of Enano-TiO 2 . In this study, Enano-TiO 2 was found to greatly impact on sediment pore surface properties. The attachment of Enano-TiO 2 particles to sediment surfaces enhanced markedly BET specific surface area and t-Plot external specific surface area, and thereby increased sediment phosphorus (P) adsorption maximum (S max ). Contrarily, the fill of Enano-TiO 2 particles into the micropores of sediments could significantly reduce t-Plot micropore specific surface area, and cause slight decrease in sediment P binding energy (K). Clearly, P sorbed in sediment would be easily released because of the decreasing P binding energy of the sediment with elevated Enano-TiO 2 . Enano-TiO 2 would thus cause aggravated endogenous pollution in water if such sediment was re-suspended on disturbance. The results obtained in this study contribute to our increasing knowledge of how to regulate physicochemical behavior of pollutants in sediments under the influences of Enano-TiO 2 and/or similar ENPs.

  10. Nitrous Oxide Production and Fluxes from Coastal Sediments under Varying Environmental Conditions

    Ziebis, W.; Wankel, S. D.; de Beer, D.; Dentinger, J.; Buchwald, C.; Charoenpong, C.

    2014-12-01

    Although coastal zones represent important contributors to the increasing levels of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), it is still unclear which role benthic processes play and whether marine sediments represent sinks or sources for N2O, since interactions among closely associated microbial groups lead to a high degree of variability. In addition, coastal areas are extremely dynamic regions, often exposed to increased nutrient loading and conditions of depleted oxygen. We investigated benthic N2O fluxes and how environmental conditions affect N2O production in different sediments at 2 different geographical locations (German Wadden Sea, a California coastal lagoon). At each location, a total of 32 sediment cores were taken in areas that differed in sediment type, organic content and pore-water nutrient concentrations, as well as in bioturbation activity. Parallel cores were incubated under in-situ conditions, low oxygen and increased nitrate levels for 10 days. Zones of N2O production and consumption were identified in intact cores by N2O microprofiles at the beginning and end of the experiments. In a collaborative effort to determine the dominant sources of N2O, samples were taken throughout the course of the experiments for the determination of the isotopic composition of N2O (as well as nitrate, nitrite and ammonium). Our results indicate that both, nitrate addition and low oxygen conditions in the overlying water, caused an increase of subsurface N2O production in most sediments, with a high variability between different sediment types. N2O production in the sediments was accompanied by N2O consumption, reducing the fluxes to the water column. In general, organic rich sediments showed the strongest response to environmental changes with increased production and efflux of N2O into the overlying water. Bioturbation activity added to the complexity of N2O dynamics by an increase in nitrification-denitrification processes, as well as enhanced pore-water transport

  11. Sediment microbial activity and its relation to environmental variables along the eastern Gulf of Finland coastline

    Polyak, Yulia; Shigaeva, Tatyana; Gubelit, Yulia; Bakina, Ludmila; Kudryavtseva, Valentina; Polyak, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Sediment microbial activity and its relationship with the main environmental factors and pollutants were examined in the coastal area of the eastern Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea. The activity of two common oxidoreductase enzymes: dehydrogenase (DA) and catalase (CA) varied significantly between 13 study sites. In the Neva Bay the highest microbial activities (DA: 2.64 mg TFF (10 g- 1) day- 1, CA: 6.29 mg H2O2 g- 1) were recorded, while in the outer estuary the minimum values of dehydrogenase and catalase were measured. DA, CA, and abundances of culturable heterotrophic bacteria (CHB) were positively correlated with each other, while biomass of green opportunistic algae was independent of both microbial activities and CHB. Enzymatic activity was found to be strongly positively correlated with sediment particle size and organic matter content, but unrelated to the other studied environmental parameters (temperature, pH, and salinity). Principal components analysis (PCA), controlling for environmental variables, supported direct effects of metal and oil contamination on sediment microbial activity. Also it had shown the similar patterns for algal biomass and metals. Our results suggest that copper and hydrocarbons are the main anthropogenic variables influencing enzyme distribution along the eastern Gulf of Finland coastline.

  12. A regression model using sediment chemistry for the evaluation of marine environmental impacts associated with salmon aquaculture cage wastes

    Chou, C.L.; Haya, K.; Paon, L.A.; Moffatt, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to develop an approach for modelling changes of sediment chemistry related to the accumulation of aquaculture waste. Metal composition of sediment Al, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, and Zn; organic carbon and 2 =0.945 compared to R 2 =0.653 for the regression model using unadjusted EMP for assessing the environmental conditions

  13. Environmental Impact Of The Use Of Contaminated Sediments As Partial Replacement Of The Aggregate Used In Road Construction

    The Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC) is a waterway extensively polluted with heavy metals and petroleum. Since there are limited disposal options for the petroleum-contaminated sediments (PCSs) of the canal, the environmental impact of IHC dewatered sediment when used as partial repla...

  14. USGS environmental characterization of flood sediments left in the New Orleans area after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, 2005--Progress Report

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Lovelace, John K.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Furlong, Edward T.; Demas, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The flooding in the greater New Orleans area that resulted from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in September, 2005, left behind accumulations of sediments up to many centimeters thick on streets, lawns, parking lots, and other flat surfaces. These flood sediment deposits have been the focus of extensive study by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (LDEQ) due to concerns that the sediments may contain elevated levels of heavy metals, organic contaminants, and microbes. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is characterizing a limited number of flood sediment samples that were collected on September 15-16 and October 6-7, 2005, from the greater New Orleans area by personnel from the USGS Louisiana Water Science Center in Baton Rouge. Small samples (< 3 pints each) of wet to dry flood sediment were collected from 11 localities around downtown New Orleans on September 15, 2005, and two large samples (40 pints each) of wet flood sediment were collected from the Chalmette area on September 16. Twelve additional samples (8-10 pints each) were collected from New Orleans, Slidell, Rigolets, and Violet on October 6 and 7. The USGS characterization studies of these flood sediments are designed to produce data and interpretations regarding how the sediments and any contained contaminants may respond to environmental processes. This information will be of use to cleanup managers and DoI/USGS scientists assessing environmental impacts of the hurricanes and subsequent cleanup activities.

  15. [Calculation of environmental dredging depth of heavy sediments in Zhushan Bay of Taihu Lake metal polluted].

    Jiang, Xia; Wang, Wen-Wen; Wang, Shu-Hang; Jin, Xiang-Can

    2012-04-01

    Horizontal distribution of heavy metals in surface sediments of Zhushan Bay was investigated, and core sediment samples were collected in the representative area. Core sediments were divided into oxide layer (A), polluted layer (B), upper polluted transition layer(C1), lower polluted transition layer(C2) and normal mud layer(D) from top to bottom. The change of total contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb and contents of biological available Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb with depths were analyzed. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments was done by potential ecological risk index method. At last, environmental dredging depth was calculated. The results shows that the contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb are 30.56-216.58, 24.07-59.95, 16.71-140.30, 84.31-193.43, 3.39-22.30, 0.37-1.59, 0.00-0.80 and 9.67-99.35 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The average concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb are 79.74, 37.74, 44.83, 122.39, 10.39, 0.77, 0.14 and 40.08 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Heavy metals in the surface sediments of Zhushan Bay mainly distribute in the west bank and the estuaries of Taige canal, Yincun Port, and Huanshan River,and Cd pollution is relatively serious. There is an accumulative effect of heavy metals in Zhushan Bay, and the contents of biological available metals decrease with depths. Ecological risk grades of Cd in layer A and B are high, and the comprehensive potential ecological risk grades of each layer are in middle or low. The environmental dredging layers are A and B, and the average dredging depth is 0.39 m.

  16. Trace element fluxes in sediments of an environmentally impacted river from a coastal zone of Brazil.

    da Silva, Yuri Jacques Agra Bezerra; Cantalice, José Ramon Barros; Singh, Vijay P; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Piscoya, Victor Casimiro; Guerra, Sérgio M S

    2015-10-01

    Data regarding trace element concentrations and fluxes in suspended sediments and bedload are scarce. To fill this gap and meet the international need to include polluted rivers in future world estimation of trace element fluxes, this study aimed to determine the trace element fluxes in suspended sediment and bedload of an environmentally impacted river in Brazil. Water, suspended sediment, and bedload from both the upstream and the downstream cross sections were collected. To collect both the suspended sediment and water samples, we used the US DH-48. Bedload measurements were carried out using the US BLH 84 sampler. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). As and Hg were determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-FIAS). The suspended sediments contributed more than 99 % of the trace element flux. By far Pb and to a less extent Zn at the downstream site represents major concerns. The yields of Pb and Zn in suspended sediments were 4.20 and 2.93 kg km(2) year(-1), respectively. These yields were higher than the values reported for Pb and Zn for Tuul River (highly impacted by mining activities), 1.60 and 1.30 kg km(2) year(-1), respectively, as well as the Pb yield (suspended + dissolved) to the sea of some Mediterranean rivers equal to 3.4 kg km(2) year(-1). Therefore, the highest flux and yield of Pb and Zn in Ipojuca River highlighted the importance to include medium and small rivers-often overlooked in global and regional studies-in the future estimation of world trace element fluxes in order to protect estuaries and coastal zones.

  17. Effects of engineered nano-titanium dioxide on pore surface properties and phosphorus adsorption of sediment: its environmental implications.

    Luo, Zhuanxi; Wang, Zhenhong; Wei, Qunshan; Yan, Changzhou; Liu, Feng

    2011-09-15

    Understanding the environmental safety and human health implications of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is of worldwide importance. As an important ENPs, engineered nano-TiO(2) (Enano-TiO(2)) may have been substantially deposited in aquatic sediments because of its widely uses. Sediment pore surface properties would be thus significantly influenced due to the large surface area of Enano-TiO(2). In this study, Enano-TiO(2) was found to greatly impact on sediment pore surface properties. The attachment of Enano-TiO(2) particles to sediment surfaces enhanced markedly BET specific surface area and t-Plot external specific surface area, and thereby increased sediment phosphorus (P) adsorption maximum (S(max)). Contrarily, the fill of Enano-TiO(2) particles into the micropores of sediments could significantly reduce t-Plot micropore specific surface area, and cause slight decrease in sediment P binding energy (K). Clearly, P sorbed in sediment would be easily released because of the decreasing P binding energy of the sediment with elevated Enano-TiO(2). Enano-TiO(2) would thus cause aggravated endogenous pollution in water if such sediment was re-suspended on disturbance. The results obtained in this study contribute to our increasing knowledge of how to regulate physicochemical behavior of pollutants in sediments under the influences of Enano-TiO(2) and/or similar ENPs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Norwegian 1990 sediment data for the North Sea Task Force (NSTF) and the Joint Monitoring Group (JMG)

    Green, N.W.; Klungsoeyr, J.

    1994-12-31

    This report presents the 1990 sediment data compiled as part of the Norwegian contribution to the North Sea Task Force Monitoring Master Plan and the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP). The JMP is ordered under the Oslo and Paris Commissions, which were established to protect the marine environment against anthropogenic contamination. The stations monitored by Norway are spread over the Kattegat, Skagerrak, North Sea south to the Dogger Bank and the Faeroe Islands. The contaminants investigated are mainly selected metals, organochlorines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and the samples were collected by gravity cores and grab/box samplers. The raw data and the mean and standard deviations of parallel samples (if relevant) are presented. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. A task management system for compliance with health, safety, and environmental regulations

    Crump, J.J.; O'Gorman, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    Shell Western E and P Inc. (SWEPI) has developed a new computer system to help it comply with health, safety, and environmental (HS and E) regulations. It is a task management system that functions at the detailed inventory level. It schedules work, instructs operations, and records compliance status. This article discusses design and development of the system

  20. Conference-EC-US Task Force Joint US-EU Workshop on Metabolomics and Environmental Biotechnology

    PI: Lily Y. Young

    2009-06-04

    Since 1990, the EC-US Task Force on Biotechnology Research has been coordinating transatlantic efforts to guide and exploit the ongoing revolution in biotechnology and the life sciences. The Task Force was established in June 1990 by the European Commission and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. The Task Force has acted as an effective forum for discussion, coordination, and development of new ideas for the last 18 years. Task Force members are European Commission and US Government science and technology administrators who meet annually to enhance communication across the Atlantic, and to encourage collaborative research. Through sponsoring workshops, and other activities, the Task Force also brings together scientific leaders and early career researchers from both sides of the Atlantic to forecast research challenges and opportunities and to promote better links between researchers. Over the years, by keeping a focus on the future of science, the Task Force has played a key role in establishing a diverse range of emerging scientific fields, including biodiversity research, neuroinformatics, genomics, nanobiotechnology, neonatal immunology, transkingdom molecular biology, biologically-based fuels, and environmental biotechnology. The EC-US Task Force has sponsored a number of Working Groups on topics of mutual transatlantic interest. The idea to create a Working Group on Environmental Biotechnology research was discussed in the Task Force meeting of October 1993. The EC-US Working Group on Environmental Biotechnology set as its mission 'To train the next generation of leaders in environmental biotechnology in the United States and the European Union to work collaboratively across the Atlantic.' Since 1995, the Working Group supported three kinds of activities, all of which focus one early career scientists: (1) Workshops on the use of molecular methods and genomics in environmental biotechnology; (2) Short courses with theoretical

  1. The mechanical life of magnetotactic bacteria inside sediments: implications for paleo- and environmental magnetism

    Egli, Ramon; Mao, Xuegang

    2015-04-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are responsible for up to almost 100% of the magnetic signature of certain sediments through fossil reminders called magnetofossils. Besides being stable carriers of useful paleomagnetic signals, magnetofossils provide interesting environmental proxies that reflect MTB abundance variations due to nutrient supply and/or dilution by detrital/aeolian inputs. Unfortunately factors affecting MTB abundances in sediment are poorly known and based at best on extrapolations of observations on pure cultures. For example, MTB displacement models have been always based on the assumption that full alignment with the Earth magnetic field is possible, as observed in water. However, we recently found that the alignment of living MTB does not exceed few % inside sediments. This observation raises questions on the true nature of the biologic advantage of such bacteria over other motile organisms, and, ultimatively, on what is controlling their abundance in sediment. Here we report experiments that demonstrate the role of the Earth magnetic field in directing MTB to optimal living depths with the observed poor magnetic alignment. These exerments explain the apparent useless abundance of magnetosomes in certain MTB strains (e.g. M. Bavaricum) and reveal unexpected differences between strains with respect to their ability to cope with chemical signals and absent or reversed magnetic fields.

  2. Environmental assessment of coastal surface sediments at Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabia)

    Youssef, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al Kahtany, Khaled; Al Otiaby, Naif

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The present work deal with the environmental assessment of Tarut Island Coastal area. • Thirty eight surface sediments samples have been chemically analyzed. • Thirteen major and trace metals have been recorded. • The area of study is highly polluted with Arsenic and Mercury. - Abstract: Thirty eight surface sediments samples have been collected in the area around Tarut Island, Saudi Arabian Gulf to determine the spatial distribution of metals, and to assess the magnitude of pollution. Total concentrations of Fe, Mn, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, and Zn in the sediments were measured using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer). Nature of sediments and heavy metals distribution reflect marked changes in lithology, biological activities in Tarut bay. Very high arsenic concentrations were reported in all studied locations from Tarut Island. The concentrations of Mercury are generally high comparing to the reported values from the Gulf of Oman, Red Sea. The concentrations of As and Hg exceeded the wet threshold safety values (MEC, PEC) indicating possible As and Hg contamination. Dredging and land filling, sewage, and oil pollution are the most important sources of pollution in the study area

  3. Applications of dendrochronology and sediment geochronology to establish reference episodes for evaluations of environmental radioactivity

    Waugh, W.J.; Carroll, J.; Abraham, J.D.; Landeen, D.S. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, 2597 B 3/4 Road, Grand Junction, CO 81503 (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Dendrochronology and sediment geochronology have been used to demonstrate retrospective monitoring of environmental radioactivity at United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites. {sup 14}C in annual growth rings of sagebrush preserved the temporal and spatial patterns of {sup 14}C resulting from dispersion downwind of a nuclear fuel processing facility at the Hanford Site in Washington State. As far as 10 km downwind of the facility, {sup 14}C concentrations were significantly higher in growth rings formed during a fuel processing episode than in rings produced during preoperational or postoperational episodes. An episode of uranium mill tailings deposition in pond sediments at the Grand Junction Office in Colorado was reconstructed using {sup 210}Pb geochronology constrained by a marker of peak {sup 137}Cs fallout. Uranium concentrations in ponds sediments deposited after the processing episode provide a reasonable cleanup standard. These reference episodes of environmental radioactivity reconstructed from measurements taken within contaminated environments can improve or replace reference area data as baseline information for dose reconstructions, risk assessments, and the establishment of cleanup standards. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Applications of dendrochronology and sediment geochronology to establish reference episodes for evaluations of environmental radioactivity

    Waugh, W.J.; Carroll, J.; Abraham, J.D.; Landeen, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Dendrochronology and sediment geochronology have been used to demonstrate retrospective monitoring of environmental radioactivity at United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites. 14 C in annual growth rings of sagebrush preserved the temporal and spatial patterns of 14 C resulting from dispersion downwind of a nuclear fuel processing facility at the Hanford Site in Washington State. As far as 10 km downwind of the facility, 14 C concentrations were significantly higher in growth rings formed during a fuel processing episode than in rings produced during preoperational or postoperational episodes. An episode of uranium mill tailings deposition in pond sediments at the Grand Junction Office in Colorado was reconstructed using 210 Pb geochronology constrained by a marker of peak 137 Cs fallout. Uranium concentrations in ponds sediments deposited after the processing episode provide a reasonable cleanup standard. These reference episodes of environmental radioactivity reconstructed from measurements taken within contaminated environments can improve or replace reference area data as baseline information for dose reconstructions, risk assessments, and the establishment of cleanup standards. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Environmental legacy of copper metallurgy and Mongol silver smelting recorded in Yunnan Lake sediments.

    Hillman, Aubrey L; Abbott, Mark B; Yu, JunQing; Bain, Daniel J; Chiou-Peng, TzeHuey

    2015-03-17

    Geochemical measurements on well-dated sediment cores from Lake Er (Erhai) are used to determine the timing of changes in metal concentrations over 4500 years in Yunnan, a borderland region in southwestern China noted for rich mineral deposits but with inadequately documented metallurgical history. Our findings add new insight into the impacts and environmental legacy of human exploitation of metal resources in Yunnan history. We observe an increase in copper at 1500 BC resulting from atmospheric emissions associated with metallurgy. These data clarify the chronological issues related to links between the onset of Yunnan metallurgy and the advent of bronze technology in adjacent Southeast Asia, subjects that have been debated for nearly half a century. We also observe an increase from 1100 to 1300 AD in a number of heavy metals including lead, silver, zinc, and cadmium from atmospheric emissions associated with silver smelting. Culminating during the rule of the Mongols, known as the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 AD), these metal concentrations approach levels three to four times higher than those from industrialized mining activity occurring within the catchment today. Notably, the concentrations of lead approach levels at which harmful effects may be observed in aquatic organisms. The persistence of this lead pollution over time created an environmental legacy that likely contributes to known issues in modern day sediment quality. We demonstrate that historic metallurgical production in Yunnan can cause substantial impacts on the sediment quality of lake systems, similar to other paleolimnological findings around the globe.

  6. Preparation and characterization of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments for toxicity tests: toward more environmentally realistic nickel partitioning

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; May, Thomas W.; Ivey, Chris D.; Schlekat, Christian E.; Garman, Emily R.

    2013-01-01

    Two spiking methods were compared and nickel (Ni) partitioning was evaluated during a series of toxicity tests with 8 different freshwater sediments having a range of physicochemical characteristics. A 2-step spiking approach with immediate pH adjustment by addition of NaOH at a 2:1 molar ratio to the spiked Ni was effective in producing consistent pH and other chemical characteristics across a range of Ni spiking levels. When Ni was spiked into sediment having a high acid-volatile sulfide and organic matter content, a total equilibration period of at least 10 wk was needed to stabilize Ni partitioning. However, highest spiking levels evidently exceeded sediment binding capacities; therefore, a 7-d equilibration in toxicity test chambers and 8 volume-additions/d of aerobic overlying water were used to avoid unrealistic Ni partitioning during toxicity testing. The 7-d pretest equilibration allowed excess spiked Ni and other ions from pH adjustment to diffuse from sediment porewater and promoted development of an environmentally relevant, 0.5- to 1-cm oxic/suboxic sediment layer in the test chambers. Among the 8 different spiked sediments, the logarithm of sediment/porewater distribution coefficient values (log Kd) for Ni during the toxicity tests ranged from 3.5 to 4.5. These Kd values closely match the range of values reported for various field Ni-contaminated sediments, indicating that testing conditions with our spiked sediments were environmentally realistic.

  7. Sediment records of Yellow River channel migration and Holocene environmental evolution of the Hetao Plain, northern China

    Wang, Jingzhong; Wu, Jinglu; Pan, Baotian; Jia, Hongjuan; Li, Xiao; Wei, Hao

    2018-05-01

    The origin and evolution of lakes in the Hetao Plain, northern China, were influenced by climate variation, channel migration, and human activity. We analyzed a suite of sediment cores from the region to investigate Yellow River channel migration and environmental change in this region over the Holocene. Short sediment cores show that environmental indicators changed markedly around CE 1850, a time that corresponds to flood events, when large amounts of river water accumulated in the western part of the Hetao Plain, giving rise to abundant small lakes. Multiple sediment variables (environmental proxies) from two long cores collected in the Tushenze Paleolake area show that sediments deposited between 12.0 and 9.0 cal ka BP were yellow clay, indicative of fluvial deposition and channel migration. From 9.0 to 7.5 cal ka BP, sand was deposited, reflecting a desert environment. From 7.5 to 2.2 cal ka BP, however, the sediments were blue-gray clay that represents lacustrine facies of Lake Tushenze, which owes its origin to an increase in strength of the East Asian monsoon. At about 2.2 cal ka BP, the north branch of the Yellow River was flooded, and the Tushenze Paleolake developed further. Around 2.0 cal ka BP, the paleolake shrank and eolian sedimentation was recorded. The analyzed sediment records are consistent with the written history from the region, which documents channel migration and environmental changes in the Hetao Plain over the Holocene.

  8. Recent aquatic ecosystem response to environmental events revealed from 210Pb sediment profiles

    Mulsow, S.; Piovano, E.; Cordoba, F.

    2009-01-01

    The 210 Pb dating method was first introduced by , and since then has been applied to study sediment from lakes, estuaries and coastal marine environments. Hundreds of studies around the world have used 210 Pb as a geochronological tool in aquatic ecosystems. However little attention has been paid to the potential of this naturally occurring isotope as an environmental tracer of ecological events. Here we report three instances in which 210 Pb profiles measured on undisturbed sediment cores from lakes, rivers and fjords show us the potential of 210 Pb profile as a tracer of natural and anthropogenic processes. The methodology used here is a suite of techniques combining biogeochemistry (micro-electrodes), paleomagnetism (susceptibility), sediment characteristics (LOI) and visualization (SPI and X-ray) applied to the interpretation of 210 Pb profiles. We measured 210 Pb profiles on sediments from a river, Cruces River (Chile), which recorded a clear shift in the water chemistry caused by a pulp mill effluent to the river. Here metal mobilization and remobilization of the tracer may be the cause of the observed profile. We also measured 210 Pb profiles in sediment from two fjords of Southern Chile (Pillan and Renihue), the sudden deposition change of fresh 210 Pb with depth observed could very well be the result of bioturbation but it occurred in a seafloor area deprived of bioturbators. In this case, 210 Pb recorded the onset of aquaculture activities (fish farming) that took place two decades ago. Finally, 210 Pb profiles measured in two lakes in the 'pampa Argentina': Epecuen and Venado showed a particular shape with depth. These profiles apparently registered a sudden depositional event with recent 210 Pb material, probably related to strong shifts in precipitation and drought cycles in that part of the world. These three examples show that 210 Pb profiles provide valuable information not only on geochronology, but also related to natural and anthropogenic short

  9. Nitrogen Losses in Sediments of the East China Sea: Spatiotemporal Variations, Controlling Factors, and Environmental Implications

    Lin, Xianbiao; Liu, Min; Hou, Lijun; Gao, Dengzhou; Li, Xiaofei; Lu, Kaijun; Gao, Juan

    2017-10-01

    Global reactive nitrogen (N) has increased dramatically in coastal marine ecosystems over the past decades and caused numerous eco-environmental problems. Coastal marine sediment plays a critical role in N losses via denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and release of nitrous oxide (N2O). However, both the magnitude and contributions of denitrification, anammox, and N2O production in sediments still remain unclear, causing uncertainty in defining the N budget for coastal marine ecosystems. Here potential rates of N losses, and their contributions and controlling factors, were investigated in surface sediments during six cruises from 429 sites of the East China Sea. The potential rates of denitrification, anammox, and N2O production varied both spatially and seasonally, but the contribution of anammmox to total N2 production (%anammox) and N2O:N2 ratio only varied spatially. Both organic carbon and nitrate (NO3-) were important factors controlling N losses, N2O:N2 ratio, and %anammox. Our results also showed that marine organic carbon induced by eutrophication plays an important role in stimulating reactive N removal and increasing N2O production in warm seasons. The sediment N loss caused by denitrification, anammox, and N2O production in the study area were estimated at 2.2 × 106 t N yr-1, 4.6 × 105 t N yr-1, and 8 × 103 t N yr-1, respectively. Although sediments remove large quantities of reactive N, they act as an important source of N2O in this region influenced by NO3--laden rivers.

  10. Environmental impact of the Midia Port - Black Sea (Romania, on the coastal sediment quality

    Catianis Irina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of potential pollution sources, mainly from the upstream anthropogenic sources and port-related activities. The in-vestigated area covered a wide range of anthropogenic im-pacts (e.g., industrial wastes, storm water runoff, acciden-tal oil spills, intentional discharges and shipping activities. The quality of water and Sediments was assessed us-ing Standard methods, as physical-chemical parameters, chemistry and biology (microbiology, ecotoxicology aim-ing to figure the level of pollution and the effect of port-related activities. Seawater quality results agreed generally with environmental Standards. Though, in some samples the concentrations of sulphates (mg/1 and heavy metals (μg/1, as B, As and Se exceeded the recommended lim-its, without posing a serious environmental concern. Most of the surface sediment samples contain critical levels of hydrocarbons (C>12, (mg/kg, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ng/g and polychlorobiphenyls (ng/g. For some heavy metals (mg/kg, exchangeable concentrations were found to be very close or above the regulations. The signifi-cance of this study is incontestable taking into account the lack of previous relevant historical data of this area. In this sense, it was possible to indicate, in general, good environmental conditions, despite the industrial and concentrated local port-related activities in the investigated area.

  11. Secondary environmental impacts of remedial alternatives for sediment contaminated with hydrophobic organic contaminants.

    Choi, Yongju; Thompson, Jay M; Lin, Diana; Cho, Yeo-Myoung; Ismail, Niveen S; Hsieh, Ching-Hong; Luthy, Richard G

    2016-03-05

    This study evaluates secondary environmental impacts of various remedial alternatives for sediment contaminated with hydrophobic organic contaminants using life cycle assessment (LCA). Three alternatives including two conventional methods, dredge-and-fill and capping, and an innovative sediment treatment technique, in-situ activated carbon (AC) amendment, are compared for secondary environmental impacts by a case study for a site at Hunters Point Shipyard, San Francisco, CA. The LCA results show that capping generates substantially smaller impacts than dredge-and-fill and in-situ amendment using coal-based virgin AC. The secondary impacts from in-situ AC amendment can be reduced effectively by using recycled or wood-based virgin AC as production of these materials causes much smaller impacts than coal-based virgin AC. The secondary environmental impacts are highly sensitive to the dredged amount and the distance to a disposal site for dredging, the capping thickness and the distance to the cap materials for capping, and the AC dose for in-situ AC amendment. Based on the analysis, this study identifies strategies to minimize secondary impacts caused by different remediation activities: optimize the dredged amount, the capping thickness, or the AC dose by extensive site assessments, obtain source materials from local sites, and use recycled or bio-based AC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Non-halide sediments from the Loule diapir salt mine: characterization and environmental significance

    Ribeiro, Carlos; Terrinha, Pedro; Andrade, Alexandre; Fonseca, Bruno; Caetano, Miguel; Neres, Marta; Font, Eric; Mirão, José; Dias, Cristina; Rosado, Lúcia; Maurer, Anne-France; Manhita, Ana

    2017-04-01

    pyrolysis-GC-MS; (vi) determination of the carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic ratios of the organic matter; (vii) anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility to study it emplacement mode. The LD is deformed by a set of shear-zones and thrusts formed during the Cenozoic Alpine compression that are underlined by the presence of a fine grained, non-halide material, whose nature and characterization was also done, using the same analytical methods. The preliminary mineralogical and geochemical results show a clear pattern in the evolution of the environmental conditions of the sedimentation with influence on the availability of the dissolved cations. The three of the sediment package showed distinct organic carbon content reaching 4.42% in the black horizon, five times the values found in the adjacent layers. By using the rare earth elements as geochemical tracers of sediment provenance, shale normalised profiles suggest that sediment particles from the three layers have the same origin. However, the non-halide sediments retained in the shear zones showed a different profile with an increase of MREE and a positive Eu anomaly. This work was done in the scope of the MEDSALT - Uncovering the Mediterranean salt giant, COST action CA15103.

  13. Preliminary Three-Dimensional Simulation of Sediment and Cesium Transport in the Ogi Dam Reservoir using FLESCOT – Task 6, Subtask 2

    Onishi, Yasuo; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2014-03-28

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated a collaborative project on environmental restoration. In October 2013, the collaborative team started a task of three-dimensional modeling of sediment and cesium transport in the Fukushima environment using the FLESCOT (Flow, Energy, Salinity, Sediment Contaminant Transport) code. As the first trial, we applied it to the Ogi Dam Reservoir that is one of the reservoirs in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency’s (JAEA’s) investigation project. Three simulation cases under the following different temperature conditions were studied: • incoming rivers and the Ogi Dam Reservoir have the same water temperature • incoming rivers have lower water temperature than that of the reservoir • incoming rivers have higher water temperature than that of the reservoir. The preliminary simulations suggest that seasonal temperature changes influence the sediment and cesium transport. The preliminary results showed the following: • Suspended sand, and cesium adsorbed by sand, coming into the reservoirs from upstream rivers is deposited near the reservoir entrance. • Suspended silt, and cesium adsorbed by silt, is deposited farther in the reservoir. • Suspended clay, and cesium adsorbed by clay, travels the farthest into the reservoir. With sufficient time, the dissolved cesium reaches the downstream end of the reservoir. This preliminary modeling also suggests the possibility of a suitable dam operation to control the cesium migration farther downstream from the dam. JAEA has been sampling in the Ogi Dam Reservoir, but these data were not yet available for the current model calibration and validation for this reservoir. Nonetheless these preliminary FLESCOT modeling results were qualitatively valid and confirmed the applicability of the FLESCOT code to the Ogi Dam Reservoir, and in general to other reservoirs in

  14. Preparation Of Deposited Sediment Sample By Casting Method For Environmental Study

    Hutabarat, Tommy; Ristin PI, Evarista

    2000-01-01

    The preparation of deposited sediment sample by c asting m ethod for environmental study has been carried out. This method comprises separation of size fraction and casting process. The deposited sediment samples were wet sieved to separate the size fraction of >500 mum, (250-500) mum, (125-250) mum and (63-125) mum and settling procedures were followed for the separation of (40-63) mum, (20-40) mum, (10-20) mum and o C, ashed at 450 o C, respectively. In the casting process of sample, it was used polyester rapid cure resin and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) hardener. The moulded sediment sample was poured onto caster, allow for 60 hours long. The aim of this method is to get the casted sample which can be used effectively, efficiently and to be avoided from contamination of each other samples. Before casting, samples were grinded up to be fine. The result shows that casting product is ready to be used for natural radionuclide analysis

  15. Quality assurance task force, an interagency cooperative approach to assess quality of environmental data

    Albin, L.M.; Mooney, R.R.; Erickson, J.L.; Conklin, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    In 1985, the Washington State Legislature charged the Department of Social and Health Services' Office of Radiation Protection with reviewing, evaluating and improving environmental monitoring programs within the state. Special emphasis was placed on the Hanford Site in Richland. Government and private organizations involved in monitoring radiation effects on the environment were asked to advise and support the State of Washington. Together, these organizations formed the Environmental Radiation Quality Assurance Task Force for the Pacific Northwest. Data on radiation levels are collected by the various organizations and compared. If findings are not consistent, the Task Force investigates and makes recommendations for long-term solutions. Thus, a system of checks and balances is created, enhancing the credibility of the various monitoring programs. Efficiency in use of resources is increased because overlap and duplication by different monitoring agencies are minimized

  16. Environmental contamination of Gorganrood Water and Sediment in district of Gonbad-Kavoos City

    Giti Forghani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Rivers are the key resources for drinking and agricultural purposes and their quality assessment is very important. The chemical quality of surface waters is influenced by natural processes and anthropogenic activities (e.g. discharge of urban, agricultural and industrial wastewaters. Pollutants discharging into a river from both natural and anthropogenic sources are distributed between sediment and water. Thus, in evaluating the pollution condition of a water body, both sediment and water should be considered. Sediments are generally regarded as an important component of the total river systems, since they provide a bank of environmental information for both natural and anthropogenic pollution. Of the various pollutants, potentially toxic elements (PTEs are of environmental concern, because they are the most toxic, persistent and abundant pollutants that cab accumulate in aquatic habitats and their concentration increases through biomagnification. Regarding the importance of rivers in supply of water, the assessment of hydrochemical properties and PTEs concentration in water and sediment is very important. Gorganrood is an important river in Golestan province (NE of Iran, which plays an important role in providing water supply. This river recharges from Aladagh Mountains and discharges into Caspian Sea. The Gorganrood River is about 350 Km long and its drainage area is about 1025 Km2. This river trends E-W across the study area and is supplied by many tributaries. The average water discharge of Gorganrood in autumn and spring is 4.6 and 12.3 m3/sec, respectively. This river flows through the recent alluviums (silt, sand and clay. During the last years, various domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewaters in Gonbad-e-Kavoos district discharge into the Gorganrood. The wastewaters are constant polluting source for rivers. This study aimed to assess the quality of Gorganrood River water as well as the pollution of bed sediments at

  17. Planktonic foraminifera-derived environmental DNA extracted from abyssal sediments preserves patterns of plankton macroecology

    R. Morard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea sediments constitute a unique archive of ocean change, fueled by a permanent rain of mineral and organic remains from the surface ocean. Until now, paleo-ecological analyses of this archive have been mostly based on information from taxa leaving fossils. In theory, environmental DNA (eDNA in the sediment has the potential to provide information on non-fossilized taxa, allowing more comprehensive interpretations of the fossil record. Yet, the process controlling the transport and deposition of eDNA onto the sediment and the extent to which it preserves the features of past oceanic biota remains unknown. Planktonic foraminifera are the ideal taxa to allow an assessment of the eDNA signal modification during deposition because their fossils are well preserved in the sediment and their morphological taxonomy is documented by DNA barcodes. Specifically, we re-analyze foraminiferal-specific metabarcodes from 31 deep-sea sediment samples, which were shown to contain a small fraction of sequences from planktonic foraminifera. We confirm that the largest portion of the metabarcode originates from benthic bottom-dwelling foraminifera, representing the in situ community, but a small portion (< 10 % of the metabarcodes can be unambiguously assigned to planktonic taxa. These organisms live exclusively in the surface ocean and the recovered barcodes thus represent an allochthonous component deposited with the rain of organic remains from the surface ocean. We take advantage of the planktonic foraminifera portion of the metabarcodes to establish to what extent the structure of the surface ocean biota is preserved in sedimentary eDNA. We show that planktonic foraminifera DNA is preserved in a range of marine sediment types, the composition of the recovered eDNA metabarcode is replicable and that both the similarity structure and the diversity pattern are preserved. Our results suggest that sedimentary eDNA could preserve the ecological structure of

  18. Environmental geochemistry and sediment quality in Lake Pontchartrain: database development and review

    Manheim, Frank T.; Flowers, George C.; McIntire, Andrew G.; Marot, Marcie; Holmes, Charles

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports on preliminary results of a project to develop a comprehensive data base of chemical and environmental information on sediments from Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, and surrounding water bodies. The goal is to evaluate all data for reliability and comparability, and to make it widely accessible and useful to all users. Methods for processing heterogeneous, historical data follow previous methods employed in the Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay area. Data from 11 different data sets, encompassing about 900 total samples, have been entered to date. Questionable or anomalous data were noted in a minority of cases. Problems tend to follow distinct patterns and are relatively easy to identify. Hence, comparability of data has not proven to be the major obstacle to synthesis efforts that was anticipated in earlier years (NRC, 1989). Quality-controlled data sets show that the bulk of sediment samples in the more central parts of Lake Pontchartrain have values within normal background for heavy metals like Cu, Pb, and Zn. The same or lower concentrations were found in the vicinity of the Bonnet Carre Spillway, representing influx from the Mississippi River. Mean concentrations for Cu, Pb, and Zn were 17, 21, and 74 µg/g (total dissolution analyses), respectively. However, values as high as 267 µg/g Pb and comparable increases for other metal and organic contaminants are found in sediments within 2 km of the coastal strip of New Orleans. Additional sampling in such areas and in other inland coastal waterways is needed, since such levels are above the threshold for potential toxic effects on benthic organisms, according to effects-based screening criteria. The most contaminated sites, Bayou Trepagnier and Bayou Bonfouca, involve industrial areas where waste discharge has now been controlled or remediated, but where sediments may retain large concentrations of contaminants, e.g. tenths of a percent of Pb, Cr, and Zn or more for Bayou Trepagnier.

  19. Environmental effects of storage preservation practices: controlled flushing of fine sediment from a small hydropower reservoir.

    Espa, Paolo; Castelli, Elena; Crosa, Giuseppe; Gentili, Gaetano

    2013-07-01

    Sediment flushing may be effective in mitigating loss of reservoir storage due to siltation, but flushing must be controlled to limit the impact on the downstream environment. A reliable prediction of the environmental effects of sediment flushing is hindered by the limited scientific information currently available. Consequently, there may be some controversy as regards to management decisions, planning the work, and monitoring strategies. This paper summarizes the main results of a monitoring campaign on the stream below a small alpine hydropower reservoir subjected to annual flushing between 2006 and 2009. The removed sediment was essentially silt, and the suspended solid concentration (SSC) of the discharged water was controlled to alleviate downstream impact. Control was achieved through hydraulic regulation and mechanical digging, alternating daytime sediment evacuation, and nocturnal clear water release. The four operations lasted about two weeks each and had an average SSC of about 4 g L(-1). Maximum values of SSC were generally kept below 10 g L(-1). Downstream impact was quantified through sampling of fish fauna (brown trout) and macroinvertebrate in the final reach of the effluent stream. The benthic community was severely impaired by the flushing operations, but recovered to pre-flushing values in a few months. As expected, the impact on brown trout was heavier on juveniles. While data biasing due to fish removal and re-stocking cannot be ruled out, the fish community seems to have reached a state of equilibrium characterized by a lower density than was measured before the flushing operations.

  20. Environmental Enrichment Expedites Acquisition and Improves Flexibility on a Temporal Sequencing Task in Mice

    Darius Rountree-Harrison

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment (EE via increased opportunities for voluntary exercise, sensory stimulation and social interaction, can enhance the function of and behaviours regulated by cognitive circuits. Little is known, however, as to how this intervention affects performance on complex tasks that engage multiple, definable learning and memory systems. Accordingly, we utilised the Olfactory Temporal Order Discrimination (OTOD task which requires animals to recall and report sequence information about a series of recently encountered olfactory stimuli. This approach allowed us to compare animals raised in either enriched or standard laboratory housing conditions on a number of measures, including the acquisition of a complex discrimination task, temporal sequence recall accuracy (i.e., the ability to accurately recall a sequences of events and acuity (i.e., the ability to resolve past events that occurred in close temporal proximity, as well as cognitive flexibility tested in the style of a rule reversal and an Intra-Dimensional Shift (IDS. We found that enrichment accelerated the acquisition of the temporal order discrimination task, although neither accuracy nor acuity was affected at asymptotic performance levels. Further, while a subtle enhancement of overall performance was detected for both rule reversal and IDS versions of the task, accelerated performance recovery could only be attributed to the shift-like contingency change. These findings suggest that EE can affect specific elements of complex, multi-faceted cognitive processes.

  1. Effects of engineered nano-titanium dioxide on pore surface properties and phosphorus adsorption of sediment: Its environmental implications

    Luo, Zhuanxi [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Wang, Zhenhong [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Zhangzhou Normal University, Department of Chemistry and Environment Sciences, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Wei, QunShan [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Yan, Changzhou, E-mail: czyan@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu, Feng [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} The attachment of Enano-TiO{sub 2} to surface enhanced markedly sediment BET surface area and t-Plot external surface area. {yields} The fill of Enano-TiO{sub 2} into the micropores reduced significantly the sediment t-Plot micropore surface area. {yields} Enano-TiO{sub 2} could increase sediment phosphorus (P) adsorption maximum and decrease in sediment P binding energy. {yields} P would be easily released because of the decreasing P binding energy of the sediment with elevated Enano-TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Understanding the environmental safety and human health implications of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is of worldwide importance. As an important ENPs, engineered nano-TiO{sub 2} (Enano-TiO{sub 2}) may have been substantially deposited in aquatic sediments because of its widely uses. Sediment pore surface properties would be thus significantly influenced due to the large surface area of Enano-TiO{sub 2}. In this study, Enano-TiO{sub 2} was found to greatly impact on sediment pore surface properties. The attachment of Enano-TiO{sub 2} particles to sediment surfaces enhanced markedly BET specific surface area and t-Plot external specific surface area, and thereby increased sediment phosphorus (P) adsorption maximum (S{sub max}). Contrarily, the fill of Enano-TiO{sub 2} particles into the micropores of sediments could significantly reduce t-Plot micropore specific surface area, and cause slight decrease in sediment P binding energy (K). Clearly, P sorbed in sediment would be easily released because of the decreasing P binding energy of the sediment with elevated Enano-TiO{sub 2}. Enano-TiO{sub 2} would thus cause aggravated endogenous pollution in water if such sediment was re-suspended on disturbance. The results obtained in this study contribute to our increasing knowledge of how to regulate physicochemical behavior of pollutants in sediments under the influences of Enano-TiO{sub 2} and/or similar ENPs.

  2. Attribution Analyses of Impacts of Environmental Changes on Streamflow and Sediment Load in a Mountainous Basin, Vietnam

    Jie Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Located in the southeastern China and northern Vietnam, the Red River is an important international trans-boundary river that has experienced rapid deforestation and environmental changes over the past decades. We conducted attribution analysis of impacts of various environmental changes on streamflow and sediment load. The contribution of reclassified environmental changes to total change of the streamflow and sediment load was separated. Land cover change based on climate-induced and human-induced indicators were defined. We found that human-induced land cover change was the main factor affecting changes of the streamflow and sediment load. Changes of the land cover were more pronounced in the dry season than in the wet season whereas sediment load changed more in the wet season than in the dry season. In addition, changes in sediment load were mainly caused by human-induced land cover change and the changes of land cover were more influential on sediment load than on streamflow in the Red River basin.

  3. Properties of sediment-algae flocs as function of shear and environmental conditions : a laboratory study

    Deng, Z.; He, Q.; Chassagne, C.; Manning, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    It has been observed that flocculation in-situ is greatly influenced by biochemical parameters[De Lucas Pardo, 2014]. In our previous work [Deng, 2017], we have found that flocs observed in the Yangtze Estuary are composed of mixtures of sediment and algae. In particular we have shown that flocs can be composed solely of algae aggregates. Depending on their position in the water column, the composition of flocs changes, as more or less sediment can be part of the floc. The presence of algae (phytoplankton biomass) in a floc is linked to the measured chlorophyll α concentration [Uncles et al., 1998]. The Particle Size Distribution (PSD) found in-situ depends on parameters such as position in the water column and shear rate, and also seasons. We showed that the PSD found in-situ is similar to the one measured in the lab, for the same floc composition and environmental conditions. In the present work we extend the laboratory investigations by analysing the impact of the floc history on its PSD. The PSD can be bimodal after a grow-break-up-regrow phase, indicating that flocs growth process depend on a timescale that is larger than the timescale associated to the change in shear rate. We will discuss the behaviour of the parameters needed in the flocculation model we propose upon the relevant variables. The ultimate goal is to propose a model that can be implemented in large scale sediment transport models. ReferencesDe Lucas Pardo, M. (2014), Effect of biota on fine sediment transport processes: A study of Lake Markermeer, TU Delft, Delft University of Technology. Deng, Z. (2017), Algae effects on cohesive sediment flocculation: a case study based on field observation in Yangtze Estuary, China (submitted)Uncles, R., A. Easton, M. Griffiths, C. Harris, R. Howland, I. Joint, R. King, A. Morris, and D. Plummer (1998), Concentrations of suspended chlorophyll in the tidal Yorkshire Ouse and Humber Estuary, Science of The Total Environment, 210-211, 367-375, doi:10.1016/s

  4. Radiochronology of marine sediments and its application to the knowledge of the process of environmental pollution in coastal Cuban ecosystems

    Alonso-Hernández, Carlos M.; Díaz-Asencio, Misael; Gómez-Batista, Miguel; Bolaños-Alvares, Yoelvis; Muñoz-Caravaca, Alain; Morera-Gómez, Yasser

    2016-01-01

    The results achieved in the implementation of the radiochronology of marine sediments for the reconstruction of databases and knowledge of the evolution of environmental pollution in four coastal ecosystems of national significance are presented in this paper Fluxes of selected heavy metals and persistent organic compounds are discussed for the Cienfuegos and Havana bays and Sagua and La Coloma estuaries. Finally, is showed the effectiveness of radiochronology of sediments as a useful tool for environmental management and knowledge of temporal processes of pollution in the aquatic environment. (author)

  5. Investigation of environmental change on the Tega Lake based on lake sediment analysis. Pt. 2. Dating of sediment by the lead-210/cesium-137 method and environmental change detected by the diatom assemblage analysis

    Hamada, Takaomi

    1998-01-01

    Sediment collected in the Tega Lake was dated by lead-210/cesium-137 method and environmental change in the Tega Lake was investigated by analysis of diatom remain assemblages in the sediment. Dating of the lead-210/cesium-137 method proved that the surface 30 cm-thickness of sediment in the Tega Lake was deposited during the recent 50 years. Diatom remain assemblage change in the Hon-Tega Lake sediment started in the early half of 1960's and the changes is characterized decrease of Fragilaria construens, that does not prefer to inhabit eutrophic water, and increase of Cyclotella meneghiniana that prefers to inhabit eutrophic water. This diatom assemblage change indicates that the Tega Lake was eutrophicated, and probably suggests water pollution in the Tega Lake. It is detected that influence of residential development around the Tega Lake and reclaiming by drainage on the Tega Lake. (author)

  6. Environmental monitoring of Columbia River sediments: Grain-size distribution and contaminant association

    Blanton, M.L.; Gardiner, W.W.; Dirkes, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Based on the results of this study and literature review, the following conclusions can be made: Sediment grain size and TOC (total organic carbon) influence contaminant fate and transport (in general, sediments with higher TOC content and finer grain-size distribution can have higher contaminant burdens than sediments from a given river section that have less TOC and greater amounts of coarse-grained sediments). Physiochemical sediment characteristics are highly variable among monitoring sites along the Columbia River. Sediment grain characterization and TOC analysis should be included in interpretations of sediment-monitoring data.

  7. Environmental monitoring of Columbia River sediments: Grain-size distribution and contaminant association

    Blanton, M.L.; Gardiner, W.W.; Dirkes, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Based on the results of this study and literature review, the following conclusions can be made: Sediment grain size and TOC (total organic carbon) influence contaminant fate and transport (in general, sediments with higher TOC content and finer grain-size distribution can have higher contaminant burdens than sediments from a given river section that have less TOC and greater amounts of coarse-grained sediments). Physiochemical sediment characteristics are highly variable among monitoring sites along the Columbia River. Sediment grain characterization and TOC analysis should be included in interpretations of sediment-monitoring data

  8. Economic and environmental scheduling of smart homes with microgrid: DER operation and electrical tasks

    Zhang, Di; Evangelisti, Sara; Lettieri, Paola; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An MILP model is formulated for energy consumption scheduling among smart homes. • Environmental and economic aspects are both addressed. • The model is implemented on an example with data profiles from the UK. • Pareto-optimal curves between cost and CO_2 emissions are obtained. • Real-time pricing and critical peak pricing schemes are investigated. - Abstract: Microgrids are promising in reducing energy consumption and carbon emissions, compared with the current centralised energy generation systems. Smart homes are becoming popular for their lower energy cost and provision of comfort. Flexible energy-consuming household tasks can be scheduled co-ordinately among multiple smart homes to reduce economic cost and CO_2. However, the electricity tariff is not always positively correlated with CO_2 intensity. In this work, a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model is proposed to schedule the energy consumption within smart homes using a microgrid system. The daily power consumption tasks are scheduled by coupling environmental and economic sustainability in a multi-objective optimisation with ε-constraint method. The two conflicting objectives are to minimise the daily energy cost and CO_2 emissions. Distributed energy resources (DER) operation and electricity-consumption household tasks are scheduled based on electricity tariff, CO_2 intensity and electricity task time window. The proposed model is implemented on a smart building of 30 homes under three different price schemes. Electricity tariff and CO_2 intensity profiles of the UK are employed for the case study. The Pareto curves for cost and CO_2 emissions present the trade-off between the two conflicting objectives.

  9. Long-term environmental and health implications of morphological change and sediment transport with respect to contaminants

    Sneddon, Christopher; Copplestone, David; Tyler, Andrew; Hunter, Peter; Smith, Nick

    2014-05-01

    The EPSRC-funded Adaptation and Resilience of Coastal Energy Supply (ARCoES) project encompasses four research strands, involving 14 institutions and six PhD studentships. ARCoES aims to determine the threats posed to future energy generation and the distribution network by flooding and erosion, changing patterns of coastal sedimentation, water temperature and the distribution of plants and animals in the coastal zone. Whilst this research has direct benefits for the operation of coastal power stations, ARCoES aims to have a wider stakeholder engagement through assessing how the resilience of coastal communities may be altered by five hundred years of coastal evolution. Coastal evolution will have substantial implications for the energy sector of the North West of England as former waste storage sites are eroded and remobilised within the intertidal environment. The current intertidal environmental stores of radioactivity will also experience reworking as ocean chemistry changes and saltmarsh chronologies are reworked in response to rising sea levels. There is a duel requirement to understand mass sediment movement along the North West coast of England as understanding the sediment transport dynamics is key to modelling long term coastal change and understanding how the environmental store of radioactivity will be reworked. The University of Stirling is researching the long-term environmental and health implications of remobilisation and transport of contaminated sediments around the UK coastline. Using a synergy of hyperspectral and topographic information the mobilisation of sediment bound contaminants within the coastal environment will be investigated. Potential hazards posed by contaminants are determined by a set of environmental impact test criteria which evaluate the bio-accessibility and ionising dose of contaminants. These test criteria will be used to comment on the likely environmental impact of modelled sediment transport and anticipated changes in

  10. Buffering of suspended sediment transport in lowland river during low water stages: quantification in river Seine using environmental radionuclides

    Bonte, P.; Le Cloarec, M.F.; Dumoulin, J.P.; Sogon, S.; Tessier, L.; Mouchel, J.M.; Thomas, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study was undertaken to test the application of environmental radioactive tracers for estimating sediment mass and sediment residence time in rivers. A continuous sampling of the Seine river suspended matter (SM) using sediment traps was made during two months, between Paris and the estuary, along a 120 km long river section. The hydrological regime corresponded to the low water stage, where the SM transport is reduced. The measured tracers in the SM include short-lived natural ( 7 Be, 234 Th xs ) and artificial ( 131 I) radionuclides, as well as the longer-lived natural 210 Pb xs and its descendant the 210 Po. 137 Cs was used to check grain-size effects. A simple steady state model allowed us to estimate the total sediment mass, i.e. the SM, plus the resuspendable matter (RM), and the sediment residence time. Despite their different half-lives (8 to 53 days) and their different geochemical properties, consistent results were obtained with 131 I, 7 Be and 234 Th xs . The best estimate of the sediment mass present in the river is (24-41)·10 3 tons; it is essentially composed of the RM which is 10-17 times more abundant than the SM. In these hydrological conditions, the sediment residence time is quite long (1.6-2.8 months). (author) [es

  11. Characterization of sediment and sediment cores in harbour and shelf areas from the viewpoint of environmental changes

    Pham Duy Hien; Pham Ngoc Chuong; Nguyen Dieu Minh; Nguyen Kien Chinh

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of 35 elements in the sediment samples were determined by INAA, RNAA, PGNAA and polarography methods at the Dalat nuclear research reactor. The elemental compositions of the samples have been assesses taking into account the data on mineral compositions and grain size distributions. In general, the trace elements compositions of the collected bottom sediments are still of geochemical origin and rather similar to those of the alluvium (suspended matters) transported by rivers Red and Mekong. The concentrations of some ecologically relevant heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Pb, etc.) are more lower than those in some polluted estuaries in industrialized countries. Thus, the obtained data can be considered as a background reference allowing the assessment of any elemental concentration variations of anthropogenic origin in the future. The obtained analytical data shows that the cores drilled out at a distance 120 km from the estuaries of r. Mekong (9 o 34'N, 107 o 52'E) and under 50 m depth of water consist mostly of classic sediments (terrigenous origin). C-14 dating shows a sedimentation rate 0.5 m/1000 y. (author)

  12. Environmental Drivers of Benthic Flux Variation and Ecosystem Functioning in Salish Sea and Northeast Pacific Sediments.

    Rénald Belley

    Full Text Available The upwelling of deep waters from the oxygen minimum zone in the Northeast Pacific from the continental slope to the shelf and into the Salish Sea during spring and summer offers a unique opportunity to study ecosystem functioning in the form of benthic fluxes along natural gradients. Using the ROV ROPOS we collected sediment cores from 10 sites in May and July 2011, and September 2013 to perform shipboard incubations and flux measurements. Specifically, we measured benthic fluxes of oxygen and nutrients to evaluate potential environmental drivers of benthic flux variation and ecosystem functioning along natural gradients of temperature and bottom water dissolved oxygen concentrations. The range of temperature and dissolved oxygen encountered across our study sites allowed us to apply a suite of multivariate analyses rarely used in flux studies to identify bottom water temperature as the primary environmental driver of benthic flux variation and organic matter remineralization. Redundancy analysis revealed that bottom water characteristics (temperature and dissolved oxygen, quality of organic matter (chl a:phaeo and C:N ratios and sediment characteristics (mean grain size and porosity explained 51.5% of benthic flux variation. Multivariate analyses identified significant spatial and temporal variation in benthic fluxes, demonstrating key differences between the Northeast Pacific and Salish Sea. Moreover, Northeast Pacific slope fluxes were generally lower than shelf fluxes. Spatial and temporal variation in benthic fluxes in the Salish Sea were driven primarily by differences in temperature and quality of organic matter on the seafloor following phytoplankton blooms. These results demonstrate the utility of multivariate approaches in differentiating among potential drivers of seafloor ecosystem functioning, and indicate that current and future predictive models of organic matter remineralization and ecosystem functioning of soft-muddy shelf and

  13. Environmental Risk of Metal Mining Contaminated River Bank Sediment at Redox-Transitional Zones

    Sarah F. L. Lynch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse metal pollution from mining impacted sediment is widely recognised as a potential source of contamination to river systems and may significantly hinder the achievement of European Union Water Framework Directive objectives. Redox-transitional zones that form along metal contaminated river banks as a result of flood and drought cycles could cause biogeochemical changes that alter the behaviour of polyvalent metals iron and manganese and anions such as sulphur. Trace metals are often partitioned with iron, manganese and sulphur minerals in mining-contaminated sediment, therefore the dissolution and precipitation of these minerals may influence the mobility of potentially toxic trace metals. Research indicates that freshly precipitated metal oxides and sulphides may be more “reactive” (more adsorbent and prone to dissolution when conditions change than older crystalline forms. Fluctuations at the oxic-anoxic interface brought about through changes in the frequency and duration of flood and drought episodes may therefore influence the reactivity of secondary minerals that form in the sediment and the flux of dissolved trace metal release. UK climate change models predict longer dry periods for some regions, interspersed with higher magnitude flood events. If we are to fully comprehend the future environmental risk these climate change events pose to mining impacted river systems it is recommended that research efforts focus on identifying the primary controls on trace metal release at the oxic-anoxic interface for flood and drought cycles of different duration and frequency. This paper critically reviews the literature regarding biogeochemical processes that occur at different temporal scales during oxic, reducing and dry periods and focuses on how iron and sulphur based minerals may alter in form and reactivity and influence the mobility of trace metal contaminants. It is clear that changes in redox potential can alter the composition

  14. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Volume 4, Task 5, Operation of PFH on beneficiated shale, Task 6, Environmental data and mitigation analyses and Task 7, Sample procurement, preparation, and characterization: Final report, September 1987--May 1991

    1992-03-01

    The objective of Task 5 (Operation of Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydro-Retorting (PFH) on Beneficiated Shale) was to modify the PFH process to facilitate its use for fine-sized, beneficiated Eastern shales. This task was divided into 3 subtasks: Non-Reactive Testing, Reactive Testing, and Data Analysis and Correlations. The potential environment impacts of PFH processing of oil shale must be assessed throughout the development program to ensure that the appropriate technologies are in place to mitigate any adverse effects. The overall objectives of Task 6 (Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses) were to obtain environmental data relating to PFH and shale beneficiation and to analyze the potential environmental impacts of the integrated PFH process. The task was divided into the following four subtasks. Characterization of Processed Shales (IGT), 6.2. Water Availability and Treatment Studies, 6.3. Heavy Metals Removal and 6.4. PFH Systems Analysis. The objective of Task 7 (Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization) was to procure, prepare, and characterize raw and beneficiated bulk samples of Eastern oil shale for all of the experimental tasks in the program. Accomplishments for these tasks are presented.

  15. Comparison of environmental forcings affecting suspended sediments variability in two macrotidal, highly-turbid estuaries

    Jalón-Rojas, Isabel; Schmidt, Sabine; Sottolichio, Aldo

    2017-11-01

    The relative contribution of environmental forcing frequencies on turbidity variability is, for the first time, quantified at seasonal and multiannual time scales in tidal estuarine systems. With a decade of high-frequency, multi-site turbidity monitoring, the two nearby, macrotidal and highly-turbid Gironde and Loire estuaries (west France) are excellent natural laboratories for this purpose. Singular Spectrum Analyses, combined with Lomb-Scargle periodograms and Wavelet Transforms, were applied to the continuous multiannual turbidity time series. Frequencies of the main environmental factors affecting turbidity were identified: hydrological regime (high versus low river discharges), river flow variability, tidal range, tidal cycles, and turbulence. Their relative influences show similar patterns in both estuaries and depend on the estuarine region (lower or upper estuary) and the time scale (multiannual or seasonal). On the multiannual time scale, the relative contribution of tidal frequencies (tidal cycles and range) to turbidity variability decreases up-estuary from 68% to 47%, while the influence of river flow frequencies increases from 3% to 42%. On the seasonal time scale, the relative influence of forcings frequencies remains almost constant in the lower estuary, dominated by tidal frequencies (60% and 30% for tidal cycles and tidal range, respectively); in the upper reaches, it is variable depending on hydrological regime, even if tidal frequencies are responsible for up 50% of turbidity variance. These quantifications show the potential of combined spectral analyses to compare the behavior of suspended sediment in tidal estuaries throughout the world and to evaluate long-term changes in environmental forcings, especially in a context of global change. The relevance of this approach to compare nearby and overseas systems and to support management strategies is discussed (e.g., selection of effective operation frequencies/regions, prediction of the most

  16. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages in recent sediments of Visakhapatnam harbour, east coast of India: Influence of environmental characteristics

    DeSilva, M.S.; Anil, A.C.; Sawant, S.S.

    . There are 18 and 6 berths in the inner and outer harbour area with two moorings respectively. The climate in Visakhapatnam is governed by its location in the tropics and mainly affected by seasonal monsoons (south–west and north–east). There is inadequate... was classified based on geographic location and environmental characteristics into two zones; the inner (Stations 1–14) and outer (Stations 15–24) harbour stations (Fig. 1). 2.3. Sediment sampling, processing and analysis for dinocysts Sediment samples were...

  17. Molecular detection of Candidatus Scalindua pacifica and environmental responses of sediment anammox bacterial community in the Bohai Sea, China.

    Hongyue Dang

    Full Text Available The Bohai Sea is a large semi-enclosed shallow water basin, which receives extensive river discharges of various terrestrial and anthropogenic materials such as sediments, nutrients and contaminants. How these terrigenous inputs may influence the diversity, community structure, biogeographical distribution, abundance and ecophysiology of the sediment anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox bacteria was unknown. To answer this question, an investigation employing both 16S rRNA and hzo gene biomarkers was carried out. Ca. Scalindua bacteria were predominant in the surface sediments of the Bohai Sea, while non-Scalindua anammox bacteria were also detected in the Yellow River estuary and inner part of Liaodong Bay that received strong riverine and anthropogenic impacts. A novel 16S rRNA gene sequence clade was identified, putatively representing an anammox bacterial new candidate species tentatively named "Ca. Scalindua pacifica". Several groups of environmental factors, usually with distinct physicochemical or biogeochemical natures, including general marine and estuarine physicochemical properties, availability of anammox substrates (inorganic N compounds, alternative reductants and oxidants, environmental variations caused by river discharges and associated contaminants such as heavy metals, were identified to likely play important roles in influencing the ecology and biogeochemical functioning of the sediment anammox bacteria. In addition to inorganic N compounds that might play a key role in shaping the anammox microbiota, organic carbon, organic nitrogen, sulfate, sulfide and metals all showed the potentials to participate in the anammox process, releasing the strict dependence of the anammox bacteria upon the direct availability of inorganic N nutrients that might be limiting in certain areas of the Bohai Sea. The importance of inorganic N nutrients and certain other environmental factors to the sediment anammox microbiota suggests that these

  18. IEA-SHC Task 27: Environmental performance assessment of glazing and windows - context, overview, main concerns

    Chevalier, J.L. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, Sustainable Development Dept., Saint-Martin D' Heres (France); Krogh, H. [Danish Building and Urban Research, Energy and Indoor Climate Div., Hoersholm (Denmark); Tarantini, Mario [The Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment, Bologna (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    While all industrial sectors are integrating the environment concern into their culture and strategy, actors of the construction field seem to be torn between motivation and suspicion in front of this new topic. In most countries, the economic situation of the passed years for building was not suitable for investing in new long-term approaches, and the strong particularities of the building world appear as many complicating elements for introducing new concepts easily. But now the awareness for a sustainable development of all human activities is also growing in our sector, and it is time to take benefit of some favourable habits like the use of multi-criteria analysis: beyond performances, suitability for use, and durability, environmental quality criteria will just widen the actual scope of the technical assessment of building products. The first question is a double one : Who will use environmental criteria related to the building products, and for which purpose? Because actors in the field are many, we will have several distinct answers, which may call for different tools. In other industrial sectors, two approaches have been experimented: the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and the environmental labelling. Between LCA and green labels, several relevant tools are in development for the building products, each of them adapted to specific users and objectives, and most often of limited use in other contexts. A short review of the studies already performed on the environmental quality of glazing and windows revealed quite a small amount of available matter, and justifies the work undertaken within the programme of IEA/SHCP/Task 27, which will be presented in the third part of this paper. (au)

  19. ITER safety task NID-5a: ITER tritium environmental source terms - safety analysis basis

    Natalizio, A.; Kalyanam, K.M.

    1994-09-01

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project's (CFFTP) is part of the contribution to ITER task NID-5a, Initial Tritium Source Term. This safety analysis basis constitutes the first part of the work for establishing tritium source terms and is intended to solicit comments and obtain agreement. The analysis objective is to provide an early estimate of tritium environmental source terms for the events to be analyzed. Events that would result in the loss of tritium are: a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), a vacuum vessel boundary breach. a torus exhaust line failure, a fuelling machine process boundary failure, a fuel processing system process boundary failure, a water detritiation system process boundary failure and an isotope separation system process boundary failure. 9 figs

  20. FY 1993 task plans for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Shipler, D.B.

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate radiation doses from Hanford Site operations since 1944 to individuals and populations. The primary objective of work to be performed in FY 1993 is to complete the source term estimates and dose estimates for key radionuclides for the air and river pathways. At the end of FY 1993, the capability will be in place to estimate doses for individuals in the extended (32-county) study area, 1944--1991. Native American research will continue to provide input for tribal dose estimates. In FY 1993, the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) will decide whether demographic and river pathways data collection should be extended beyond FY 1993 levels. The FY 1993 work scopes and milestones in this document are based on the work plan discussed at the TSP Budget/Fiscal Subcommittee meeting on August 19--20, 1991. Table 1 shows the FY 1993 milestones; Table 2 shows estimated costs. The subsequent work scope descriptions are based on the milestones. This document and the FY 1992 task plans will form the basis for a contract with Battelle and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The 2-year dose reconstruction contract is expected to begin in February 1992. This contract will replace the current arrangement, whereby the US Department of Energy directly funds the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to conduct dose reconstruction work. In late FY 1992, the FY 1993 task plans will be more fully developed with detailed technical approaches, data quality objectives, and budgeted labor hours. The task plans will be updated again in July 1993 to reflect any scope, milestone, or cost changes directed during the year by the TSP. 2 tabs

  1. Environmental conditions outweigh geographical contiguity in determining the similarity of nifH-harboring microbial communities in sediments of two disconnected marginal seas

    Haixia Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ecological evidence suggests that heterotrophic diazotrophs fueled by organic carbon respiration in sediments play an important role in marine nitrogen fixation. However, fundamental knowledge about the identities, abundance, diversity, biogeography and controlling environmental factors of nitrogen-fixing communities in open ocean sediments is still elusive. Surprisingly, little is known also about nitrogen-fixing communities in sediments of the more research-accessible marginal seas. Here we report on an investigation of the environmental geochemistry and putative diazotrophic microbiota in the sediments of Bohai Sea, an eutrophic marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean. Diverse and abundant nifH gene sequences were identified and sulfate-reducing bacteria were found to be the dominant putative nitrogen-fixing microbes. Community statistical analyses suggested bottom water temperature, bottom water chlorophyll a content (or the covarying turbidity and sediment porewater Eh (or the covarying pH as the most significant environmental factors controlling the structure and spatial distribution of the putative diazotrophic communities, while sediment Hg content, sulfide content and porewater SiO32--Si content were identified as the key environmental factors correlated positively with the nifH gene abundance in Bohai Sea sediments. Comparative analyses between the Bohai Sea and the northern South China Sea identified a significant composition difference of the putative diazotrophic communities in sediments between the shallow-water (estuarine and nearshore and deep-water (offshore and deep-sea environments, and sediment porewater dissolved oxygen content, water depth and in situ temperature as the key environmental factors tentatively controlling the species composition, community structure and spatial distribution of the marginal sea sediment nifH-harboring microbiota. This confirms the ecophysiological specialization and niche differentiation

  2. Eruptive and environmental processes recorded by diatoms in volcanically-dispersed lake sediments from the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Harper, Margaret A.; Pledger, Shirley A.; Smith, Euan G. C.; Van Eaton, Alexa; Wilson, Colin J. N.

    2015-01-01

    Late Pleistocene diatomaceous sediment was widely dispersed along with volcanic ash (tephra) across and beyond New Zealand by the 25.4 ka Oruanui supereruption from Taupo volcano. We present a detailed analysis of the diatom populations in the Oruanui tephra and the newly discovered floras in two other eruptions from the same volcano: the 28.6 ka Okaia and 1.8 ka Taupo eruptions. For comparison, the diatoms were also examined in Late Pleistocene and Holocene lake sediments from the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ). Our study demonstrates how these microfossils provide insights into the lake history of the TVZ since the Last Glacial Maximum. Morphometric analysis of Aulacoseira valve dimensions provides a useful quantitative tool to distinguish environmental and eruptive processes within and between individual tephras. The Oruanui and Okaia diatom species and valve dimensions are highly consistent with a shared volcanic source, paleolake and eruption style (involving large-scale magma-water interaction). They are distinct from lacustrine sediments sourced elsewhere in the TVZ. Correspondence analysis shows that small, intact samples of erupted lake sediment (i.e., lithic clasts in ignimbrite) contain heterogeneous diatom populations, reflecting local variability in species composition of the paleolake and its shallowly-buried sediments. Our analysis also shows a dramatic post-Oruanui supereruption decline in Cyclostephanos novaezelandiae, which likely reflects a combination of (1) reorganisation of the watershed in the aftermath of the eruption, and (2) overall climate warming following the Last Glacial Maximum. This decline is reflected in substantially lower proportions of C. novaezelandiae in the 1.8 ka Taupo eruption deposits, and even fewer in post-1.8 ka sediments from modern (Holocene) Lake Taupo. Our analysis highlights how the excellent preservation of siliceous microfossils in volcanic tephra may fingerprint the volcanic source region and retain a valuable record

  3. Transport of poly(acrylic acid) coated 2-line ferrihydrite nanoparticles in saturated aquifer sediments for environmental remediation

    Xiang, Aishuang; Zhou, Sheng; Koel, Bruce E.; Jaffé, Peter R.

    2014-04-01

    Groundwater remediation using iron oxide and zero-valent iron nanoparticles (NPs) can be effective, but is limited in many applications due to the NP strong retention in groundwater-saturated porous media after injection, the passivation of the porous surface, and the high cost of nanomaterials versus macro scale iron. In this study, we investigated transport of bare and polymer-coated 2-line ferrihydrite NPs (30-300 nm) in saturated aquifer sediments. The influence of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) polymer coatings was studied on the colloidal stability and transport in sediments packed column tests simulating groundwater flow in saturated sediments. In addition, the influence of calcium cations was investigated by transport measurements using sediments with calcium concentrations in the aqueous phase ranging from 0.5 (typical for most sediments) to 2 mM. Measurements were also made of zeta potential, hydrodynamic diameter, polymer adsorption and desorption properties, and bio-availability of PAA-coated NPs. We found that NP transport through the saturated aquifer sediments was improved by PAA coating and that the transport properties could be tuned by adjusting the polymer concentration. We further discovered that PAA coatings enhanced NP transport, compared to bare NPs, in all calcium-containing experiments tested, however, the presence of calcium always exhibited a negative effect on NP transport. In tests of bioavailability, the iron reduction rate of the coated and bare NPs by Geobacter sulfurreducens was the same, which shows that the PAA coating does not significantly reduce NP Fe(III) bioavailability. Our results demonstrate that much improved transport of iron oxide NP can be achieved in saturated aquifer sediments by introducing negatively charged polyelectrolytes and optimizing polymer concentrations, and furthermore, these coated NPs retain their bioavailability that is needed for applications in bio-environmental remediation.

  4. The influence of environmental conditions on lead transfer from spent gunshot to sediments and water: Other routes for Pb poisoning.

    Binkowski, Łukasz J

    2017-11-01

    Lead (Pb) from spent gunshot and fishing sinkers is recognized as the main source of Pb poisoning among waterfowl. It is also suspected to directly pollute water and sediments, but no appropriate, comprehensive evaluation of this issue has so far been carried out. An experiment on Pb pellets in microcosms (n = 160) with two sediment types (mud and gravel), three water pH values (4, 7 and 9) and two wind levels (wind and windless simulation) was therefore run. Substantial differences in Pb transfer (measured with ICP-OES) between sediment types and pH levels of water were observed. Simulated wind conditions were a significant factor only for some variables and circumstances. The strongest Pb deposit to water and sediments occurred in mud microcosms with water of pH value of 4. Median pellet erosion during the experiment differed little between sediment types. The experiment revealed that Pb transfer from spent gunshot to the environment occurs only in specific environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental risk assessment of triclosan and ibuprofen in marine sediments using individual and sub-individual endpoints.

    Pusceddu, F H; Choueri, R B; Pereira, C D S; Cortez, F S; Santos, D R A; Moreno, B B; Santos, A R; Rogero, J R; Cesar, A

    2018-01-01

    The guidelines for the Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) recommend the use of standard ecotoxicity assays and the assessment of endpoints at the individual level to evaluate potential effects of PPCP on biota. However, effects at the sub-individual level can also affect the ecological fitness of marine organisms chronically exposed to PPCP. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the environmental risk of two PPCP in marine sediments: triclosan (TCS) and ibuprofen (IBU), using sub-individual and developmental endpoints. The environmental levels of TCS and IBU were quantified in marine sediments from the vicinities of the Santos submarine sewage outfall (Santos Bay, São Paulo, Brazil) at 15.14 and 49.0 ng g -1 , respectively. A battery (n = 3) of chronic bioassays (embryo-larval development) with a sea urchin (Lytechinus variegatus) and a bivalve (Perna perna) were performed using two exposure conditions: sediment-water interface and elutriates. Moreover, physiological stress through the Neutral Red Retention Time Assay (NRRT) was assessed in the estuarine bivalve Mytella charruana exposed to TCS and IBU spiked sediments. These compounds affected the development of L. variegatus and P. perna (75 ng g -1 for TCS and 15 ng g -1 for IBU), and caused a significant decrease in M. charruana lysosomal membrane stability at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.08 ng g -1 for TCS and 0.15 ng g -1 for IBU). Chemical and ecotoxicological data were integrated and the risk quotient estimated for TCS and IBU were higher than 1.0, indicating a high environmental risk of these compounds in sediments. These are the first data of sediment risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products of Latin America. In addition, the results suggest that the ERA based only on individual-level and standard toxicity tests may overlook other biological effects that can affect the health of marine organisms

  6. Environmental management technology demonstration and commercialization: Tasks 2, 3, 4, and 8. Semiannual report, October 1994--March 1995

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Ness, R.O. Jr.; Nowok, J.W.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.; Hurley, J.P.; Steadman, E.N.

    1995-05-01

    The objective of the Environmental Management program at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) is to develop, demonstrate, and commercialize technologies that address the environmental management needs of contaminated sites, including characterization, sensors, and monitoring; low-level mixed waste processing; material disposition technology; improved waste forms; in situ containment and remediation; and efficient separation technologies for radioactive wastes. Task 2 is the extraction and analysis of pollutant organics from contaminated solids using off-line supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and on-line SFE-infrared spectroscopy. Task 3, pyrolysis of plastics, has as its objectives to develop a commercial process to significantly reduce the volume of mixed-plastics-paper-resin waste contaminated with low-level radioactive material; concentrate contaminants in a collectible form; and determine the distribution and form of contaminants after pyrolysis of the mixed waste. Task 4, stabilization of vitrified wastes, has as its objectives to (1) demonstrate a waste vitrification procedure for enhanced stabilization of waste materials and (2) develop a testing protocol to understand the long-term leaching behavior of the stabilized waste form. The primary objective of Task 8, Management and reporting, is coordination of this project with other programs and opportunities. In addition, management oversight will be maintained to ensure that tasks are completed and coordinated as planned and that deliverables are submitted in a timely manner. Accomplishments to date is each task are described. 62 refs

  7. Bacterial community structure in response to environmental impacts in the intertidal sediments along the Yangtze Estuary, China.

    Guo, Xing-Pan; Lu, Da-Pei; Niu, Zuo-Shun; Feng, Jing-Nan; Chen, Yu-Ru; Tou, Fei-Yun; Liu, Min; Yang, Yi

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the characteristics of bacterial communities in intertidal sediments along the Yangtze Estuary and their responses to environmental factors. The results showed that bacterial abundance was significantly correlated with salinity, SO 4 2- and total organic carbon, while bacterial diversity was significantly correlated with SO 4 2- and total nitrogen. At different taxonomic levels, both the dominant taxa and their abundances varied among the eight samples, with Proteobacteria being the most dominant phylum in general. Cluster analysis revealed that the bacterial community structure was influenced by river runoff and sewerage discharge. Moreover, SO 4 2- , salinity and total phosphorus were the vital environmental factors that influenced the bacterial community structure. Quantitative PCR and sequencing of sulphate-reducing bacteria indicated that the sulphate reduction process occurs frequently in intertidal sediments. These findings are important to understand the microbial ecology and biogeochemical cycles in estuarine environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Carotenoids in the Gulf of Gdansk sediments- useful markers of environmental conditions in the past

    Krajewska, Magdalena; Szymczak-Żyła, Małgorzata; Kowalewska, Grażyna

    2017-04-01

    Carotenoids are a large group of natural compounds widespread in the aquatic environment. Most of carotenoids in sediments originate from phytoplankton, macroalgae, vascular plants and bacteria. Carotenoids undergo different reactions in water column and after deposition in sediments. Concentration and relative composition of pigments in sediments depend on such factors like primary production, phytoplankton taxonomy, sedimentation and accumulation rate, hydrological and post-depositional conditions. Because some pigments are unstable and can be degraded both by abiotic and biotic factors - in the presence of light, oxygen, herbivores or microorganisms activity, they provide information about conditions in water column and in sediments. They differ in stability and, due to that, carotenoids in marine sediments are indicators, not only of organic matter sources but also of pre- and post-depositional conditions. This work presents a concentration and distribution of selected carotenoids in recent (6 cores 0-20 cm) and deep (1 core, up to 400 cm) sediments of the Gulf of Gdansk- a highly eutrophic area of high primary production and high sedimentation rate. The sediments were collected during two cruises and analysed in framework of CLISED ('Climate Change Impact on Ecosystem Health- Marine Sediment Indicators') Polish- Norwegian research Project, grant no. 196128. Just after collection, the samples were frozen and kept in such a state until analysis in land laboratory. There, after extraction, carotenoids were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD). Sediment age has been defined using C-14 dating. Sediments contained parent carotenoids, markers of the main phytoplankton groups occurring in the Baltic, e.g. diatoms, green algae and cyanobacteria. B-carotene in sediments is a better, averaged, marker of primary production than chlorophyll- a and similarly stable one as sum of chloropigments-a. Presentation will focus on cyanobacteria and their

  9. Information from uranium and thorium isotopes recorded in lake bottom sediment - Lake Kawaguchi. Attempt to evaluate environmental changes

    Sakaguchi, A.; Yamamoto, M.; Shimizu, T.; Sasaki, K.; Koshimizu, S.

    2003-01-01

    Lake sediments, as well as ice cores and marine sediments, have been used to reveal past environmental changes caused by both natural and artificial events with local and global scales. Particles in the lake originate from soil and other suspended matter which are carried in from the inflowing water or from direct discharge (lithogenous particles), and they are also formed in the lake as a result of the growth, metabolism and death of plants and animals (autogenous particles). The settling particles contain U and Th isotopes due to lithogenous particles (soil), and adsorbed U to the particles. Thorium has an exceedingly low solubility in water and is very strongly adsorbed onto particles. If we can distinguish these two different components in the mixture of U due to lithogenous particles themselves and adsorption fractions, the former might provide useful information on past environmental changes by natural events, while the latter information on past environmental changes by artificial events. In this paper, we aimed to test the above hypothesis using data on U and Th isotopes of sediment cores (0- ca. 40 cm depth, covering periods of past several hundred years) from 3 points in Lake Kawaguchi of Fuji-Goko in Japan. By using model equation and results obtained from analysis, we distinguished U due to lithogenous and autogenous particles. And these depth profiles were compared with changes in the rainfall during the period of 1933 - 2001. Although the changes in the 238 U/ 232 Th ratios with depth for lithogenous particles and rainfall do not fluctuate synchronously, some parts of depth coincided with each other. The results suggest strongly that variation in the U and Th isotopic ratios separated by model might be helpful in tracing the past environmental changes in regional scale. To check the usefulness of this method, physical and chemical data such as grain size, grain density, water content and biogenic SiO 2 in the sediment will be further compared with the

  10. Check dam sediments: an important indicator of the effects of environmental changes on soil erosion in the Loess Plateau in China.

    Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Liding; Fu, Bojie; Lü, Yihe

    2014-07-01

    Check dam sediments document the process of soil erosion for a watershed. The main objectives of this research are as follows: first, to determine whether the sediments trapped in check dams can provide useful information about local erosion and the environment, and second, to obtain the extent to which they can be stratigraphically interpreted and correlated to the land use history of an area controlled by check dams. Particle size and the concentration of (137)Cs in sediments are the indicators used to study the effects of environmental changes on soil erosion in the Loess Plateau, China. A total of 216 soil samples were collected from four sediment profile cores at the Yangjuangou watershed check dam constructed in 1955 and fully silted with sediments by 1965. The results indicated that (137)Cs dating and sediment particle size can characterize the sediment deposition process. Silt makes up more than 50 % of the sediment; both the clay and silt sediment fractions decrease gradually in the upstream direction. The sediment profiles are characterized by three depositional layers. These layers suggest changes in the land use. The top layer showed tillage disturbance, with moderate sediments and new soil mixed from 0 to 20 cm. A transition stage from wetlands (characterized by vegetation such as bulrush) to cropland is inferred from sediments at depths of 20-85 cm. Below 85 cm, sedimentary layering is obvious and there is no tillage disturbance. At the downstream site, A0, the average rate of sediment deposition from 1958 to 1963 was approximately 6,125.4 t year(-1) km(-2). Because of their high time resolution, check dam sediments indicate the effects of environmental changes on soil erosion, and they can provide a multiyear record of the soil erosion evolution at the local scale in the middle reaches of the Yellow River.

  11. Environmental impact of ongoing sources of metal contamination on remediated sediments

    Knox, Anna Sophia, E-mail: anna.knox@srn.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Paller, Michael H., E-mail: michael.paller@srnl.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Milliken, Charles E., E-mail: charles.milliken@srnl.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Redder, Todd M., E-mail: tredder@limno.com [LimnoTech, Ann Arbor, Minnesota 48108 (United States); Wolfe, John R., E-mail: jwolfe@limno.com [LimnoTech, Ann Arbor, Minnesota 48108 (United States); Seaman, John, E-mail: seaman@srel.uga.edu [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A challenge to all remedial approaches for contaminated sediments is the continued influx of contaminants from uncontrolled sources following remediation. We investigated the effects of ongoing contamination in mesocosms employing sediments remediated by different types of active and passive caps and in-situ treatment. Our hypothesis was that the sequestering agents used in active caps and in situ treatment will bind elements (arsenic, chromium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, selenium, and zinc) from ongoing sources thereby reducing their bioavailability and protecting underlying remediated sediments from recontamination. Most element concentrations in surface water remained significantly lower in mesocosms with apatite and mixed amendment caps than in mesocosms with passive caps (sand), uncapped sediment, and spike solution throughout the 2520 h experiment. Element concentrations were significantly higher in Lumbriculus variegatus from untreated sediment than in Lumbriculus from most active caps. Pearson correlations between element concentrations in Lumbriculus and metal concentrations in the top 2.5 cm of sediment or cap measured by diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) sediment probes were generally strong (as high as 0.98) and significant (p < 0.05) for almost all tested elements. Metal concentrations in both Lumbriculus and sediment/cap were lowest in apatite, mixed amendment, and activated carbon treatments. These findings show that some active caps can protect remediated sediments by reducing the bioavailable pool of metals/metalloids in ongoing sources of contamination. - Graphical abstract: Conventional methods of remediating contaminated sediments may be inadequate for the protection of benthic organisms when ongoing sources of contamination are present. However, sediment caps with chemically active sequestering agents have the ability to reduce the bioavailable pool of metals in ongoing sources of contamination (red dots), reduce toxicity to

  12. Environmental impact of ongoing sources of metal contamination on remediated sediments

    Knox, Anna Sophia; Paller, Michael H.; Milliken, Charles E.; Redder, Todd M.; Wolfe, John R.; Seaman, John

    2016-01-01

    A challenge to all remedial approaches for contaminated sediments is the continued influx of contaminants from uncontrolled sources following remediation. We investigated the effects of ongoing contamination in mesocosms employing sediments remediated by different types of active and passive caps and in-situ treatment. Our hypothesis was that the sequestering agents used in active caps and in situ treatment will bind elements (arsenic, chromium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, selenium, and zinc) from ongoing sources thereby reducing their bioavailability and protecting underlying remediated sediments from recontamination. Most element concentrations in surface water remained significantly lower in mesocosms with apatite and mixed amendment caps than in mesocosms with passive caps (sand), uncapped sediment, and spike solution throughout the 2520 h experiment. Element concentrations were significantly higher in Lumbriculus variegatus from untreated sediment than in Lumbriculus from most active caps. Pearson correlations between element concentrations in Lumbriculus and metal concentrations in the top 2.5 cm of sediment or cap measured by diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) sediment probes were generally strong (as high as 0.98) and significant (p < 0.05) for almost all tested elements. Metal concentrations in both Lumbriculus and sediment/cap were lowest in apatite, mixed amendment, and activated carbon treatments. These findings show that some active caps can protect remediated sediments by reducing the bioavailable pool of metals/metalloids in ongoing sources of contamination. - Graphical abstract: Conventional methods of remediating contaminated sediments may be inadequate for the protection of benthic organisms when ongoing sources of contamination are present. However, sediment caps with chemically active sequestering agents have the ability to reduce the bioavailable pool of metals in ongoing sources of contamination (red dots), reduce toxicity to

  13. Reconstruction of late Quaternary marine and terrestrial environmental conditions of Northwest Africa and Southeast Australia : a multiple organic proxy study using marine sediments

    Alfama Lopes dos Santos, R.

    2012-01-01

    NW Africa and SE Australia are regions which are particularly vulnerable to climate change. In this thesis, organic proxies are used from marine sediment cores to reconstruct past environmental conditions from these areas. In sediments from NW Africa, the UK'37 showed an efficient proxy for sea

  14. Environmental whole-genome amplification to access microbial populations in contaminated sediments

    Abulencia, Carl B [Diversa Corporation; Wyborski, Denise L. [Diversa Corporation; Garcia, Joseph A. [Diversa Corporation; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Chen, Wenqiong [Diversa Corporation; Chang, Sherman H. [Diversa Corporation; Chang, Hwai W. [Diversa Corporation; Watson, David B [ORNL; Brodie, Eoin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Hazen, Terry [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Keller, Martin [ORNL

    2006-05-01

    Low-biomass samples from nitrate and heavy metal contaminated soils yield DNA amounts that have limited use for direct, native analysis and screening. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) using {phi}29 DNA polymerase was used to amplify whole genomes from environmental, contaminated, subsurface sediments. By first amplifying the genomic DNA (gDNA), biodiversity analysis and gDNA library construction of microbes found in contaminated soils were made possible. The MDA method was validated by analyzing amplified genome coverage from approximately five Escherichia coli cells, resulting in 99.2% genome coverage. The method was further validated by confirming overall representative species coverage and also an amplification bias when amplifying from a mix of eight known bacterial strains. We extracted DNA from samples with extremely low cell densities from a U.S. Department of Energy contaminated site. After amplification, small-subunit rRNA analysis revealed relatively even distribution of species across several major phyla. Clone libraries were constructed from the amplified gDNA, and a small subset of clones was used for shotgun sequencing. BLAST analysis of the library clone sequences showed that 64.9% of the sequences had significant similarities to known proteins, and 'clusters of orthologous groups' (COG) analysis revealed that more than half of the sequences from each library contained sequence similarity to known proteins. The libraries can be readily screened for native genes or any target of interest. Whole-genome amplification of metagenomic DNA from very minute microbial sources, while introducing an amplification bias, will allow access to genomic information that was not previously accessible.

  15. Environmental Whole-Genome Amplification to Access Microbial Diversity in Contaminated Sediments

    Abulencia, C.B.; Wyborski, D.L.; Garcia, J.; Podar, M.; Chen, W.; Chang, S.H.; Chang, H.W.; Watson, D.; Brodie,E.I.; Hazen, T.C.; Keller, M.

    2005-12-10

    Low-biomass samples from nitrate and heavy metal contaminated soils yield DNA amounts that have limited use for direct, native analysis and screening. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) using ?29 DNA polymerase was used to amplify whole genomes from environmental, contaminated, subsurface sediments. By first amplifying the genomic DNA (gDNA), biodiversity analysis and gDNA library construction of microbes found in contaminated soils were made possible. The MDA method was validated by analyzing amplified genome coverage from approximately five Escherichia coli cells, resulting in 99.2 percent genome coverage. The method was further validated by confirming overall representative species coverage and also an amplification bias when amplifying from a mix of eight known bacterial strains. We extracted DNA from samples with extremely low cell densities from a U.S. Department of Energy contaminated site. After amplification, small subunit rRNA analysis revealed relatively even distribution of species across several major phyla. Clone libraries were constructed from the amplified gDNA, and a small subset of clones was used for shotgun sequencing. BLAST analysis of the library clone sequences showed that 64.9 percent of the sequences had significant similarities to known proteins, and ''clusters of orthologous groups'' (COG) analysis revealed that more than half of the sequences from each library contained sequence similarity to known proteins. The libraries can be readily screened for native genes or any target of interest. Whole-genome amplification of metagenomic DNA from very minute microbial sources, while introducing an amplification bias, will allow access to genomic information that was not previously accessible.

  16. Electrodialytic remediation of sediments

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Sediments of harbors and freshwaters are regularly dredged for various reasons: maintenance of navigational depths, recovery of recreational locations, and even environmental recovery. In the past, sediments dredged from harbors have been dumped at sea, however, environmental regulations now, in ...

  17. Data for Barron et al. "Photoenhanced toxicity of weathered crude oil in sediment and water to larval zebrafish" submitted to the Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset contains fish mortality associated with various treatment of oil and dispersants in water accommodated fractions and sediment. The dataset also contains...

  18. Assessment of Land Use Change and Sedimentation Modelling on Environmental Health in Tropical River

    Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Sansena, T.; Bhaktikuld, K.; Roslan Umar; Asyaari Muhamad; Nor Azlina Abd Aziz; Nur Hishaam Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Sediments are defined as the organic and inorganic materials or solid fragments derived from the weathering processes of sand, pebbles, silt, mud and loess. The objective of this research is to forecast sediment volume in the Lam Phra Phloeng reservoir by using the Neuro-genetic Optimizer model to calculate the sediment volume from runoff, rainfall, and sediment volume data. The results from satellite imagery interpretation elucidated that from 2002 to 2005, forest area decreased approximately 50,220 km"2 or 36 %, and was converted to agricultural land. By applying the USLE equation, the soil erosion area was found to increase approximately 185,341 tons/ year between 2002 and 2005. This result illustrated that the impact of land use change greatly increased sedimentation volume. In applying the Neuro-genetic Optimizer model, the learning rate and momentum of this model was 0.9 and 0.1, respectively, and the initial weight value was ± 3. The model forecasted the annual sediment volume in the Lam Phra Phloeng reservoir in 2005 to be 49,855 tons with R"2 equals to 0.9994. The regression model, on the other hand, forecasted the sediment volume using the equation Y=198.48 x 1.1783 with R"2 equals to 0.9974, and the annual sediment volume was estimated to be 45,346 tons. The actual sediment volume in the reservoir in 2005 was obtained from The Royal Irrigation Department, which was found to be 48,697 tons. (author)

  19. FY 1991 Task plans for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate radiation doses from Hanford Site operations since 1944 to populations and individuals. The objectives of work in Fiscal Year (FY) 1991 are to analyze data and models used in Phase 1 and restructure the models to increase accuracy and reduce uncertainty in dose estimation capability. Databases will be expanded and efforts will begin to determine the appropriate scope (space, time, radionuclides, pathways and individuals/population groups) and accuracy (level of uncertainty in dose estimates) for the project. Project scope and accuracy requirements, once defined, can be translated into additional model and data requirements later in the project. Task plans for FY 1991 have been prepared based on activities approved by the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) in October 1990 and mid-year revisions discussed at the TSP planning/budget workshop in February 1991. The activities can be divided into two broad categories: (1) model and data development and evaluation, (2) project, technical and communication support. 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. Comparison of extraction techniques for isolation of steroid oestrogens in environmentally relevant concentrations from sediment

    Sadílek, Jan; Spálovská, P.; Vrana, B.; Vávrová, M.; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Šimek, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 11 (2016), s. 1022-1037 ISSN 0306-7319 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : microwave - assisted extraction * estrogens * sediment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2016

  1. Normalized rare earth elements in water, sediments, and wine: identifying sources and environmental redox conditions

    Piper, David Z.; Bau, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of the rare earth elements (REE) in surface waters and sediments, when normalized on an element-by-element basis to one of several rock standards and plotted versus atomic number, yield curves that reveal their partitioning between different sediment fractions and the sources of those fractions, for example, between terrestrial-derived lithogenous debris and seawater-derived biogenous detritus and hydrogenous metal oxides. The REE of ancient sediments support their partitioning into these same fractions and further contribute to the identification of the redox geochemistry of the sea water in which the sediments accumulated. The normalized curves of the REE that have been examined in several South American wine varietals can be interpreted to reflect the lithology of the bedrock on which the vines may have been grown, suggesting limited fractionation during soil development.

  2. Environmental and geochemical assessment of surface sediments on irshansk ilmenite deposit area

    Наталия Олеговна Крюченко

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is revealed the problem of pollution of surface sediments of Irshansk ilmenite deposit area of various chemical elements hazard class (Mn, V, Ba, Ni, Co, Cr, Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn. It is determined its average content in surface sediments of various functional areas (forest and agricultural land, flood deposits, reclaimed land, calculated geochemical criteria, so given ecological and geochemical assessment of area

  3. Environmental magnetism and application in the continental shelf sediments of India

    Alagarsamy, R.

    contamination in soils and sediments and in the investigation of the compositional properties of rocks, sediments and soils (Thompson and Oldfield, 1986; Walden et al., 1999; Maher and Thompson, 1999). Magnetic minerals in soils are derived either from... to the magnetic properties of soils. Accumulation of anthropogenic ferrimagnetic particles, originating during high temperature combustion of fossil fuels (e.g. Vassilev 1992; Dekkers and Pietersen 1992), results in significant enhancement of topsoil magnetic...

  4. Impacts of lake water environmental condition on bioavailable-phosphorus of surface sediments in Lixia River basin, China

    Y. Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioavailable-phosphorus (BAP fractions of the lake surface sediments (the upper 0−5cm depth and environmental indicators of the related lake water column were investigated in five lakes in Lixia River basin during three seasons in order to evaluate the impacts of environmental indicators of the water column on the BAP fractions of surface sediments. The concentration of BAP varied significantly in different seasons. Factor analysis was used to identify the factors which influence sedimentary BAP significantly in the different seasons. The results showed that AAP and Olsen-P were significantly affected by the chemical oxygen demand through the bacterial activity in summer. The high intensity of bacterial activity and density of algae, and low concentrations of NO3-N and dissolved oxygen under high temperature enhanced the BAP released from anaerobic sediment and significantly contributed to the eutrophication of the lake, especially in summer. In addition, macrophyte roots were beneficial to absorption of AAP and Olsen-P.

  5. Environmentally relevant concentrations of polyethylene microplastics negatively impact the survival, growth and emergence of sediment-dwelling invertebrates.

    Ziajahromi, Shima; Kumar, Anupama; Neale, Peta A; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2018-05-01

    Microplastics are a widespread environmental pollutant in aquatic ecosystems and have the potential to eventually sink to the sediment, where they may pose a risk to sediment-dwelling organisms. While the impacts of exposure to microplastics have been widely reported for marine biota, the effects of microplastics on freshwater organisms at environmentally realistic concentrations are largely unknown, especially for benthic organisms. Here we examined the effects of a realistic concentration of polyethylene microplastics in sediment on the growth and emergence of a freshwater organism Chironomus tepperi. We also assessed the influence of microplastic size by exposing C. tepperi larvae to four different size ranges of polyethylene microplastics (1-4, 10-27, 43-54 and 100-126 μm). Exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of microplastics, 500 particles/kg sediment , negatively affected the survival, growth (i.e. body length and head capsule) and emergence of C. tepperi. The observed effects were strongly dependent on microplastic size with exposure to particles in the size range of 10-27 μm inducing more pronounced effects. While growth and survival of C. tepperi were not affected by the larger microplastics (100-126 μm), a significant reduction in the number of emerged adults was observed after exposure to the largest microplastics, with the delayed emergence attributed to exposure to a stressor. While scanning electron microscopy showed a significant reduction in the size of the head capsule and antenna of C. tepperi exposed to microplastics in the 10-27 μm size range, no deformities to the external structure of the antenna and mouth parts in organisms exposed to the same size range of microplastics were observed. These results indicate that environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastics in sediment induce harmful effects on the development and emergence of C. tepperi, with effects greatly dependent on particle size. Copyright

  6. The combined use of the PLHC-1 cell line and the recombinant yeast assay to assess the environmental quality of estuarine and coastal sediments.

    Schnell, Sabine; Olivares, Alba; Piña, Benjamin; Echavarri-Erasun, Beatriz; Lacorte, Silvia; Porte, Cinta

    2013-12-15

    Sediment contamination poses a potential risk for both ecosystems and human health. Risk assessment is troublesome as sediments contain complex mixtures of toxicants, and traditional chemical analyses can neither provide information about potential hazards to organisms nor identify and measure all present contaminants. This work combines the use of the PLHC-1 cell line and the recombinant yeast assay (RYA) to assess the environmental quality of estuarine and coastal sediments. The application of multiple endpoints (cytotoxicity, generation of oxidative stress, presence of CYP1A inducing agents, micronucleus formation and estrogenicity) revealed that the organic extracts of those sediments affected by industrial activities or collected near harbours and untreated urban discharges showed significant cytotoxicity, micronuclei and CYP1A induction. The study highlights the usefulness of the applied bioassays to identify those sediments that could pose risk to aquatic organisms and that require further action to improve their environmental quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental health sciences center task force review on halogenated organics in drinking water.

    Deinzer, M; Schaumburg, F; Klein, E

    1978-06-01

    The disinfection of drinking water by chlorination has in recent years come under closer scrutiny because of the potential hazards associated with the production of stable chlorinated organic chemicals. Organic chemical contaminants are common to all water supplies and it is now well-established that chlorinated by-products are obtained under conditions of disinfection, or during tertiary treatment of sewage whose products can ultimately find their way into drinking water supplies. Naturally occurring humic substances which are invariably present in drinking waters are probably the source of chloroform and other halogenated methanes, and chloroform has shown up in every water supply investigated thus far.The Environmental Protection Agency is charged with the responsibility of assessing the public health effects resulting from the consumption of contaminated drinking water. It has specifically undertaken the task of determining whether organic contaminants or their chlorinated derivatives have a special impact, and if so, what alternatives there are to protect the consumer against bacterial and viral diseases that are transmitted through infected drinking waters. The impetus to look at these chemicals is not entirely without some prima facie evidence of potential trouble. Epidemiological studies suggested a higher incidence of cancer along the lower Mississippi River where the contamination from organic chemicals is particularly high. The conclusions from these studies have, to be sure, not gone unchallenged.The task of assessing the effects of chemicals in the drinking water is a difficult one. It includes many variables, including differences in water supplies and the temporal relationship between contamination and consumption of the finished product. It must also take into account the relative importance of the effects from these chemicals in comparison to those from occupational exposure, ingestion of contaminated foods, inhalation of polluted air, and many

  8. Reconstruction of Holocene environmental changes in Southern Kurils (North-Western Pacific) based on palaeolake sediment proxies from Shikotan Island

    Nazarova, Larisa; Grebennikova, Tatiana A.; Razjigaeva, Nadezhda G.; Ganzey, Larisa A.; Belyanina, Nina I.; Arslanov, Khikmat A.; Kaistrenko, Victor M.; Gorbunov, Aleksey O.; Kharlamov, Andrey A.; Rudaya, Natalia; Palagushkina, Olga; Biskaborn, Boris K.; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2017-12-01

    We investigated a well-dated sediment section of a palaeolake situated in the coastal zone of Shikotan Island (Lesser Kurils) for organic sediment-geochemistry and biotic components (diatoms, chironomids, pollen) in order to provide a reconstruction of the palaeoenvironmental changes and palaeo-events (tsunamis, sea-level fluctuations and landslides) in Holocene. During the ca 8000 years of sedimentation the changes in organic sediment-geochemistry and in composition of the diatoms and chironomids as well as the shifts in composition of terrestrial vegetation suggest that the period until ca 5800 cal yr BP was characterized by a warm and humid climate (corresponds to middle Holocene optimum) with climate cooling thereafter. A warm period reconstructed from ca 900 to at least ca 580 cal yr BP corresponds to a transition to a Nara-Heian-Kamakura warm stage and can be correlated to a Medieval Warm Period. After 580 cal yr PB, the lake gradually dried out and climatic signals could not be obtained from the declining lacustrine biological communities, but the increasing role of spruce and disappearance of the oak from the vegetation give evidences of the climate cooling that can be correlated with the LIA. The marine regression stages at the investigated site are identified for ca 6200-5900 (at the end of the middle Holocene transgression), ca 5500-5100 (Middle Jomon regression or Kemigawa regression), and ca 1070-360 cal yr BP (at the end of Heian transgression). The lithological structure of sediments and the diatom compositions give evidences for the multiple tsunami events of different strengths in the Island. Most remarkable of them can be dated at around ca 7000, 6460, 5750, 4800, 950 cal yr BP. The new results help to understand the Holocene environmental history of the Southern Kurils as a part of the Kuril-Kamchatka and Aleutian Marginal Sea-Island Arc Systems in the North-Western Pacific region.

  9. Assessment of environmentally available metals in sediment samples from water for public supply of the city of Palmas, Tocantis, Brazil

    Oliveira, Bruna Rafaela

    2012-01-01

    The sediments are an important compartment used as a tool for assessment of aquatic ecosystems quality, for indicating the presence of contaminants released continuously into the environment as a result of human activities. Among chemical substances discharged to surface water, there are metals that in undesirable amounts, can be toxic to biota. Due to the importance of sediment and of shortage of data of water quality of the Araguaia-Tocantins river system, the present study conducted an assessment of environmentally available metals in sediment samples from water for public supply of the city of Palmas, in Tocantins, Brazil. The concentrations of As, Cd, Pb and Se were analyzed by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS), Ag, Al, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Sb, Sc, Si, Ti, V and Zn were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) and Hg by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CVAAS). Two partial solubilization processes were performed for a comparative study, one with HCl 0,1 M and agitation at room temperature, considered a milder method for metal extraction from anthropogenic origin, and another with HNO 3 8 M and microwave heating, considered as an alternative to more complex methods of total digestion, since it provides a good evaluation of the total concentration of the elements. The sediment quality evaluation was realized by comparing the concentration values of the elements As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn with the quality guidelines (TEL and PEL) adopted by Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME), to thereby contribute to the environmental quality of the water of the Araguaia-Tocantins river system. (author)

  10. Environmental modeling and exposure assessment of sediment-associated pyrethroids in an agricultural watershed.

    Yuzhou Luo

    Full Text Available Synthetic pyrethroid insecticides have generated public concerns due to their increasing use and potential effects on aquatic ecosystems. A modeling system was developed in this study for simulating the transport processes and associated sediment toxicity of pyrethroids at coupled field/watershed scales. The model was tested in the Orestimba Creek watershed, an agriculturally intensive area in California' Central Valley. Model predictions were satisfactory when compared with measured suspended solid concentration (R(2 = 0.536, pyrethroid toxic unit (0.576, and cumulative mortality of Hyalella azteca (0.570. The results indicated that sediment toxicity in the study area was strongly related to the concentration of pyrethroids in bed sediment. Bifenthrin was identified as the dominant contributor to the sediment toxicity in recent years, accounting for 50-85% of predicted toxicity units. In addition, more than 90% of the variation on the annual maximum toxic unit of pyrethroids was attributed to precipitation and prior application of bifenthrin in the late irrigation season. As one of the first studies simulating the dynamics and spatial variability of pyrethroids in fields and instreams, the modeling results provided useful information on new policies to be considered with respect to pyrethroid regulation. This study suggested two potential measures to efficiently reduce sediment toxicity by pyrethroids in the study area: [1] limiting bifenthrin use immediately before rainfall season; and [2] implementing conservation practices to retain soil on cropland.

  11. Environmental hazards from natural hydrocarbons seepage: Integrated classification of risk from sediment chemistry, bioavailability and biomarkers responses in sentinel species

    Benedetti, Maura; Gorbi, Stefania; Fattorini, Daniele; D'Errico, Giuseppe; Piva, Francesco; Pacitti, Davide; Regoli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Potential effects of natural emissions of hydrocarbons in the marine environment have been poorly investigated. In this study, a multidisciplinary weight of evidence (WOE) study was carried out on a shallow seepage, integrating sediment chemistry with bioavailability and onset of subcellular responses (biomarkers) in caged eels and mussels. Results from different lines of evidence (LOEs) were elaborated within a quantitative WOE model which, based on logical flowcharts, provide synthetic indices of hazard for each LOE, before their integration in a quantitative risk assessment. Evaluations of different LOEs were not always in accordance and their overall elaboration summarized as Moderate the risk in the seepage area. This study provided first evidence of biological effects in organisms exposed to natural hydrocarbon emissions, confirming the limit of chemical characterization as stand-alone criteria for environmental quality assessment and the utility of multidisciplinary investigations to determine the good environmental status as required by Environmental Directives. -- Highlights: • Hazards from natural seepage were evaluated through a multidisciplinary WOE study. • Caged eels and mussels were chosen as bioindicator organisms. • Evaluations obtained from various LOEs were not always in accordance. • Biological effects of natural hydrocarbons release were demonstrated. • WOE approach could discriminate different levels of hazard in low impacted conditions. -- A multidisciplinary WOE study in a shallow coastal seepage summarized a Moderate level of risk based on integration of sediment chemistry with biological effects in caged organisms

  12. Environmental assessment of coastal surface sediments at Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabia).

    Youssef, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al Kahtany, Khaled; Al Otiaby, Naif

    2015-07-15

    Thirty eight surface sediments samples have been collected in the area around Tarut Island, Saudi Arabian Gulf to determine the spatial distribution of metals, and to assess the magnitude of pollution. Total concentrations of Fe, Mn, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, and Zn in the sediments were measured using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer). Nature of sediments and heavy metals distribution reflect marked changes in lithology, biological activities in Tarut bay. Very high arsenic concentrations were reported in all studied locations from Tarut Island. The concentrations of Mercury are generally high comparing to the reported values from the Gulf of Oman, Red Sea. The concentrations of As and Hg exceeded the wet threshold safety values (MEC, PEC) indicating possible As and Hg contamination. Dredging and land filling, sewage, and oil pollution are the most important sources of pollution in the study area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of environmental and anthropogenic factors at the bottom sediments in a Doce River tributary in Brazil.

    Dos Reis, Deyse Almeida; da Fonseca Santiago, Aníbal; Nascimento, Laura Pereira; Roeser, Hubert Mathias Peter

    2017-03-01

    In developing countries, it is uncommon to find watersheds that have been the object of detailed environmental studies. It makes the assessment of the magnitude of environmental impacts and pollution of these sites difficult. This research demonstrated ways to understand the dynamics of river bottom sediments contamination, even for watersheds with a lack of environmental data. Based on geochemical affinity, we conducted a comprehensive study on the concentration of metals and metalloids. Then, we discussed the probable origin of the concentration of these elements at the bottom sediment along the Matipó River. The Matipó River is an important tributary of the Doce River, which stood out in international headlines because of the mining tailing dam disaster in Mariana, Minas Gerais, in 2015. The bottom sediment samples were taken in 25 stations located along the basin in different seasonal periods. The results showed that copper ([Formula: see text] = 464.7 mg kg -1 ) and zinc ([Formula: see text] = 287.7 mg kg -1 ) probably have natural origin, despite of the high concentrations. Lead ([Formula: see text] = 28.0 mg kg -1 ), chromium ([Formula: see text] = 153.2 mg kg -1 ), and nickel ([Formula: see text] = 41.8 mg kg -1 ) also had high concentrations at some collecting stations, and this probably reflected the local natural conditions. The bedrock of the studying basin is dominantly composed of metabasalts and metatonalites interlayered with calcitic and dolomitic metalimestone. On the other hand, the concentration was worrisome in stations near human activities, possibly due to impacts caused by unsustainably agriculture and livestock.

  14. A study of environmental analysis of urban river sediments using activation analysis

    Tanaka, Y.; Kuno, A.; Matsuo, M.

    2003-01-01

    Sediments of the Kitajukkengawa River (Sumida-ku, Tokyo, Japan) were analyzed by activation analyses. Concentrations of 36 elements for each sample were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and neutron induced prompt gamma-ray analysis (PGA). Based on the correlation matrix between the elements in vertical distribution, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. The degree of chemical weathering of silicate minerals was highest in the middle layer of the Kitajukkengawa River sediment and that adsorbed amount of trace metals such as Cd and Cr was increased along with chemical weathering. (author)

  15. Environmental Effects of Sediment Transport Alteration and Impacts on Protected Species: Edgartown Tidal Energy Project

    Barrett, Stephen B; Schlezinger, David, Ph.D; Cowles, Geoff, Ph.D; Hughes, Patricia; Samimy,; Roland, I; and Terray, E, Ph.D.

    2012-12-29

    potential for biofouling and foundation scouring. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, cooperating with SMAST, developed an oceanographic model to predict changes in sediment transport as a result of the proposed tidal energy project. Provincetown Center for Coastal Studies prepared background material on protected species - including whales, seals, and sea turtles - in the project area and implemented an initial tagging program to record location specific information on seals and sea turtles. HMMH communicated research plans and findings with local stakeholder groups, state and federal resource agency staff, and the ocean power industry. The information is being used to prepare environmental permit applications and obtain approvals for project construction.

  16. Dating of sediments and determination of sedimentation rate. Proceedings

    Illus, E [ed.

    1998-08-01

    The Second NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research)/EKO-1 Seminar was held at the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) on April 2-3, 1997. The work of the NKS is based on 4-year programmes; the current programme having been planned for the years 1994-1997. The programme comprises 3 major fields, one of them being environmental effects (EKO). Under this umbrella there are 4 main projects. The EKO-1 project deals with marine radioecology, in particular bottom sediments and sediment processes. The programme of the second seminar consisted of 8 invited lecturers and 6 other scientific presentations. Dating of sediments and determination of sedimentation rate are important in all types of sedimentological study and model calculations of fluxes of substances in the aquatic environment. In many cases these tasks have been closely related to radioecological studies undertaken in marine and fresh water environments, because they are often based on measured depth profiles of certain natural or artificial radionuclides present in the sediments. During recent decades Pb-210 has proved to be very useful in dating of sediments, but some other radionuclides have also been successfully used, e.g. Pu-239,240, Am-241 and Cs-137. The difficulties existing and problems involved in dating of sediments, as well as solutions for resolving these problems are discussed in the presentations

  17. Dating of sediments and determination of sedimentation rate. Proceedings

    Illus, E.

    1998-01-01

    The Second NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research)/EKO-1 Seminar was held at the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) on April 2-3, 1997. The work of the NKS is based on 4-year programmes; the current programme having been planned for the years 1994-1997. The programme comprises 3 major fields, one of them being environmental effects (EKO). Under this umbrella there are 4 main projects. The EKO-1 project deals with marine radioecology, in particular bottom sediments and sediment processes. The programme of the second seminar consisted of 8 invited lecturers and 6 other scientific presentations. Dating of sediments and determination of sedimentation rate are important in all types of sedimentological study and model calculations of fluxes of substances in the aquatic environment. In many cases these tasks have been closely related to radioecological studies undertaken in marine and fresh water environments, because they are often based on measured depth profiles of certain natural or artificial radionuclides present in the sediments. During recent decades Pb-210 has proved to be very useful in dating of sediments, but some other radionuclides have also been successfully used, e.g. Pu-239,240, Am-241 and Cs-137. The difficulties existing and problems involved in dating of sediments, as well as solutions for resolving these problems are discussed in the presentations

  18. Siting of a low-level radioactive waste management facility - environmental assessment experiences of the Canadian siting task force

    Gorber, D.M.; Story, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    After public opposition to the plans for a low-level radioactive waste facility at one of two candidate areas at Port Hope, Canada the Environmental Assessment process was postponed, and an independent Siting Process Task Force was set-up to assess the most suitable technologies for LLRW disposal, the areas with the best potential in the province to use these technologies, and the most promising approaches to site selection. The Task Force recommended a five-phased siting process known as the 'Co-operative Siting Process', which was based on the voluntary participation of local communities and a collaborative, joint-planning style of decision making. An independent Siting Task Force was to be established to ensure that the principles of the recommended process was upheld. This siting process is still underway, and problems and successes that have been encountered are summarized in this contribution

  19. Environmental evidence of fossil fuel pollution in Laguna Chica de San Pedro lake sediments (Central Chile)

    Chirinos, L. [Centro de Ciencias Ambientales EULA-Chile, Universidad de Concepcion, PO Box 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)]. E-mail: lchirin@pucp.edu.pe; Rose, N.L. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London WG1HOAP (United Kingdom); Urrutia, R. [Centro de Ciencias Ambientales EULA-Chile, Universidad de Concepcion, PO Box 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Munoz, P. [Departamento de Biologia Marina, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo (Chile); Torrejon, F. [Centro de Ciencias Ambientales EULA-Chile, Universidad de Concepcion, PO Box 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Torres, L. [Departamento de Botanica, Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Cruces, F. [Departamento de Botanica, Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Araneda, A. [Centro de Ciencias Ambientales EULA-Chile, Universidad de Concepcion, PO Box 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Zaror, C. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)

    2006-05-15

    This paper describes lake sediment spheroidal carbonaceous particle (SCP) profiles from Laguna Chica San Pedro, located in the Biobio Region, Chile (36{sup o} 51' S, 73{sup o} 05' W). The earliest presence of SCPs was found at 16 cm depth, corresponding to the 1915-1937 period, at the very onset of industrial activities in the study area. No SCPs were found at lower depths. SCP concentrations in Laguna Chica San Pedro lake sediments were directly related to local industrial activities. Moreover, no SCPs were found in Galletue lake (38{sup o} 41' S, 71{sup o} 17.5' W), a pristine high mountain water body used here as a reference site, suggesting that contribution from long distance atmospheric transport could be neglected, unlike published data from remote Northern Hemisphere lakes. These results are the first SCP sediment profiles from Chile, showing a direct relationship with fossil fuel consumption in the region. Cores were dated using the {sup 21}Pb technique. - The lake sediment record of SCPs shows the record of fossil-fuel derived pollution in Central Chile.

  20. Simplifying modeling of nanoparticle aggregation-sedimentation behavior in environmental systems: A theoretical analysis

    Quik, J.T.K.; Meent, van de D.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Parameters and simplified model approaches for describing the fate of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are crucial to advance the risk assessment of these materials. Sedimentation behavior of ENPs in natural waters has been shown to follow apparent first order behavior, a ‘black box’ phenomenon that

  1. Environmental evidence of fossil fuel pollution in Laguna Chica de San Pedro lake sediments (Central Chile)

    Chirinos, L.; Rose, N.L.; Urrutia, R.; Munoz, P.; Torrejon, F.; Torres, L.; Cruces, F.; Araneda, A.; Zaror, C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes lake sediment spheroidal carbonaceous particle (SCP) profiles from Laguna Chica San Pedro, located in the Biobio Region, Chile (36 o 51' S, 73 o 05' W). The earliest presence of SCPs was found at 16 cm depth, corresponding to the 1915-1937 period, at the very onset of industrial activities in the study area. No SCPs were found at lower depths. SCP concentrations in Laguna Chica San Pedro lake sediments were directly related to local industrial activities. Moreover, no SCPs were found in Galletue lake (38 o 41' S, 71 o 17.5' W), a pristine high mountain water body used here as a reference site, suggesting that contribution from long distance atmospheric transport could be neglected, unlike published data from remote Northern Hemisphere lakes. These results are the first SCP sediment profiles from Chile, showing a direct relationship with fossil fuel consumption in the region. Cores were dated using the 21 Pb technique. - The lake sediment record of SCPs shows the record of fossil-fuel derived pollution in Central Chile

  2. Nitrogen Fixation in the Intertidal Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary: Occurrence and Environmental Implications

    Hou, Lijun; Wang, Rong; Yin, Guoyu; Liu, Min; Zheng, Yanling

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen fixation is a microbial-mediated process converting atmospheric dinitrogen gas to biologically available ammonia or other molecules, and it plays an important role in regulating nitrogen budgets in coastal marine ecosystems. In this study, nitrogen fixation in the intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was investigated using nitrogen isotope tracing technique. The abundance of nitrogen fixation functional gene (nifH) was also quantified. The measured rates of sediment nitrogen fixation ranged from 0.37 to 7.91 nmol N g-1 hr-1, while the abundance of nifH gene varied from 2.28 × 106 to 1.28 × 108 copies g-1 in the study area. The benthic nitrogen fixation was correlated closely to the abundance of nifH gene and was affected significantly by salinity, pH, and availability of sediment organic carbon and ammonium. It is estimated that sediment nitrogen fixation contributed approximately 9.3% of the total terrigenous inorganic nitrogen transported annually into the Yangtze estuarine and coastal environment. This result implies that the occurrence of benthic nitrogen fixation acts as an important internal source of reactive nitrogen and to some extent exacerbates nitrogen pollution in this aquatic ecosystem.

  3. Holocene environmental changes disclosed from anoxic fjord sediments by biomarkers and their radiocarbon content

    Smittenberg, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    The power and validity of compound-specific radiocarbon dating was evaluated using sediments from Saanich Inlet, Canada, in age ranging from recent to 5000 yr BP. Compounds characteristic of higher plants, phytoplankton and archaea, were isolated by preparative GC and

  4. Environmental record in detrital cave sediments in the Botovskaya and Dolganskaya Jama caves (Russian Federation)

    Lisá, Lenka; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Chadima, Martin; Hercman, H.; Oberhansli, H.; Osincev, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2006), A10273-A10273 ISSN 1029-7006. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly. 02.04.2006-07.04.2006, Vienna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave * sediments * micromorphology * magnetic properties * provenance Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.cosis.net/abstracts/EGU06/10273/EGU06-J-10273-2.pdf

  5. Utilization of cesium-137 environmental contamination from fallout in erosion and sedimentation studies

    Guimaraes, M.F. da; Pessenda, L.C.R.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Freire, O.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Ferraz, E.S.B.

    1988-01-01

    The radioactivity of cesium-137 from fallout in different soils profiles for erosion and sedimentation studies are described. The potential of this technique for hydrographic basin in Piracicaba/Sao Paulo is evaluated. Due to the existence of natural radionuclides in soil, with energy near to cesium-137, the soil samples are determined by a high-purity Ge detectors. (author)

  6. Environmental evolution records reflected by radionuclides in the sediment of coastal wetlands: A case study in the Yellow River Estuary wetland.

    Wang, Qidong; Song, Jinming; Li, Xuegang; Yuan, Huamao; Li, Ning; Cao, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Vertical profiles of environmental radionuclides ( 210 Pb, 137 Cs, 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 4 0 K) in a sediment core (Y1) of the Yellow River Estuary wetland were investigated to assess whether environmental evolutions in the coastal wetland could be recorded by the distributions of radionuclides. Based on 210 Pb and 137 Cs dating, the average sedimentation rate of core Y1 was estimated to be 1.0 cm y -1 . Vertical distributions of natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K) changed dramatically, reflecting great changes in sediment input. Concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K all had significant positive relationships with organic matter and clay content, but their distributions were determined by different factors. Factor analysis showed that 238 U was determined by the river sediment input while 226 Ra was mainly affected by the seawater erosion. Environmental changes such as river channel migrations and sediment discharge variations could always cause changes in the concentrations of radionuclides. High concentrations of 238 U and 226 Ra were consistent with high accretion rate. Frequent seawater intrusion decreased the concentration of 226 Ra significantly. The value of 238 U/ 226 Ra tended to be higher when the sedimentation rate was low and tide intrusion was frequent. In summary, environmental evolutions in the estuary coastal wetland could be recorded by the vertical profiles of natural radionuclides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Iron Oxide Minerals in Atmospheric Dust and Source Sediments-Studies of Types and Properties to Assess Environmental Effects

    Reynolds, R. L.; Goldstein, H. L.; Moskowitz, B. M.; Till, J. L.; Flagg, C.; Kokaly, R. F.; Munson, S.; Landry, C.; Lawrence, C. R.; Hiza, M. M.; D'Odorico, P.; Painter, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    Ferric oxide minerals in atmospheric dust can influence atmospheric temperatures, accelerate melting of snow and ice, stimulate marine phytoplankton productivity, and impact human health. Such effects vary depending on iron mineral type, size, surface area, and solubility. Generally, the presence of ferric oxides in dust is seen in the red, orange, or yellow hues of plumes that originate in North Africa, central and southwest Asia, South America, western North America, and Australia. Despite their global importance, these minerals in source sediments, atmospheric dust, and downwind aeolian deposits remain poorly described with respect to specific mineralogy, particle size and surface area, or presence in far-traveled aerosol compounds. The types and properties of iron minerals in atmospheric dust can be better understood using techniques of rock magnetism (measurements at 5-300 K), Mössbauer and high-resolution visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy; chemical reactivity of iron oxide phases; and electron microscopy for observing directly the ferric oxide coatings and particles. These studies can elucidate the diverse environmental effects of iron oxides in dust and can help to identify dust-source areas. Dust-source sediments from the North American Great Basin and Colorado Plateau deserts and the Kalahari Desert, southern Africa, were used to compare average reflectance values with a magnetic parameter (hard isothermal remanent magnetization, HIRM) for ferric oxide abundance. Lower reflectance values correspond strongly with higher HIRM values, indicating that ferric oxides (hematite or goethite, or both) contribute to absorption of solar radiation in these sediments. Dust deposited to snow cover of the San Juan Mountains (Colorado) and Wasatch Mountains (Utah) was used to characterize dust composition compared with properties of sediments exposed in source-areas identified from satellite retrievals. Results from multiple methods indicate that

  8. Environmental changes and the Migration Period in northern Germany as reflected in the sediments of Lake Dudinghausen

    Dreßler, Mirko; Selig, Uwe; Dörfler, Walter; Adler, Sven; Schubert, Hendrik; Hübener, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Paleolimnological techniques were used to identify environmental changes in and around Lake Dudinghausen (northern Germany) over the past 4800 yr. Diatom-inferred total phosphorus (DI-TP) changes identify four phases of high nutrient levels (2600-2200 BC, 1050-700 BC, 500 BC-AD 100 and AD 1850-1970). During these high DI-TP phases, fossil pollen, sediment geochemistry and archaeological records indicate human activities in the lake catchment. Although the same paleo-indicators suggest increased human settlement and agriculture activity during the late Slavonic Age, the Medieval Time and the Modern Time (AD 1000-1850), DI-TP levels were low during this period. In the sediments, iron and total phosphorus were high from ˜AD 100 to 1850, likely due to increased inflow of iron-rich groundwater into the lake. Increased iron input would have lead to a simultaneous binding and precipitation of phosphate in the upper sediment and overlying water column. As a result, anthropogenic impact on Lake Dudinghausen was masked by these phosphorus-controlling processes from AD 1000 to 1850 and was not evident by means of DI-TP. In accordance with fossil pollen, sediment geochemistry and limited archaeological records, DI-TP levels were low from AD 100-1000. Groundwater levels likely rose during this period as the climate gradually changed toward colder and/or moister conditions. Such climate change likely led to reduced settlement activities and forest regeneration in the catchment area. Our results are concordant with similar studies from central Europe which indicate rapid decreasing settlement activities from AD 100 to 1000.

  9. Archaeal and bacterial communities respond differently to environmental gradients in anoxic sediments of a California hypersaline lake, the Salton Sea.

    Swan, Brandon K; Ehrhardt, Christopher J; Reifel, Kristen M; Moreno, Lilliana I; Valentine, David L

    2010-02-01

    Sulfidic, anoxic sediments of the moderately hypersaline Salton Sea contain gradients in salinity and carbon that potentially structure the sedimentary microbial community. We investigated the abundance, community structure, and diversity of Bacteria and Archaea along these gradients to further distinguish the ecologies of these domains outside their established physiological range. Quantitative PCR was used to enumerate 16S rRNA gene abundances of Bacteria, Archaea, and Crenarchaeota. Community structure and diversity were evaluated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), quantitative analysis of gene (16S rRNA) frequencies of dominant microorganisms, and cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA. Archaea were numerically dominant at all depths and exhibited a lesser response to environmental gradients than that of Bacteria. The relative abundance of Crenarchaeota was low (0.4 to 22%) at all depths but increased with decreased carbon content and increased salinity. Salinity structured the bacterial community but exerted no significant control on archaeal community structure, which was weakly correlated with total carbon. Partial sequencing of archaeal 16S rRNA genes retrieved from three sediment depths revealed diverse communities of Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota, many of which were affiliated with groups previously described from marine sediments. The abundance of these groups across all depths suggests that many putative marine archaeal groups can tolerate elevated salinity (5.0 to 11.8% [wt/vol]) and persist under the anaerobic conditions present in Salton Sea sediments. The differential response of archaeal and bacterial communities to salinity and carbon patterns is consistent with the hypothesis that adaptations to energy stress and availability distinguish the ecologies of these domains.

  10. WAG 2 remedial investigation and site investigation site-specific work plan/health and safety checklist for the sediment transport modeling task

    Holt, V.L.; Baron, L.A.

    1994-05-01

    This site-specific Work Plan/Health and Safety Checklist (WP/HSC) is a supplement to the general health and safety plan (HASP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 remedial investigation and site investigation (WAG 2 RI ampersand SI) activities [Health and Safety Plan for the Remedial Investigation and Site Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ORNL/ER-169)] and provides specific details and requirements for the WAG 2 RI ampersand SI Sediment Transport Modeling Task. This WP/HSC identifies specific site operations, site hazards, and any recommendations by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) health and safety organizations [i.e., Industrial Hygiene (IH), Health Physics (HP), and/or Industrial Safety] that would contribute to the safe completion of the WAG 2 RI ampersand SI. Together, the general HASP for the WAG 2 RI ampersand SI (ORNL/ER-169) and the completed site-specific WP/HSC meet the health and safety planning requirements specified by 29 CFR 1910.120 and the ORNL Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) Program Manual. In addition to the health and safety information provided in the general HASP for the WAG 2 RI ampersand SI, details concerning the site-specific task are elaborated in this site-specific WP/HSC, and both documents, as well as all pertinent procedures referenced therein, will be reviewed by all field personnel prior to beginning operations

  11. Electron spin resonance as a high sensitivity technique for environmental magnetism: determination of contamination in carbonate sediments

    Crook, Nigel P.; Hoon, Stephen R.; Taylor, Kevin G.; Perry, Chris T.

    2002-05-01

    This study investigates the application of high sensitivity electron spin resonance (ESR) to environmental magnetism in conjunction with the more conventional techniques of magnetic susceptibility, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and chemical compositional analysis. Using these techniques we have studied carbonate sediment samples from Discovery Bay, Jamaica, which has been impacted to varying degrees by a bauxite loading facility. The carbonate sediment samples contain magnetic minerals ranging from moderate to low concentrations. The ESR spectra for all sites essentially contain three components. First, a six-line spectra centred around g = 2 resulting from Mn2+ ions within a carbonate matrix; second a g = 4.3 signal from isolated Fe3+ ions incorporated as impurities within minerals such as gibbsite, kaolinite or quartz; third a ferrimagnetic resonance with a maxima at 230 mT resulting from the ferrimagnetic minerals present within the bauxite contamination. Depending upon the location of the sites within the embayment these signals vary in their relative amplitude in a systematic manner related to the degree of bauxite input. Analysis of the ESR spectral components reveals linear relationships between the amplitude of the Mn2+ and ferrimagnetic signals and total Mn and Fe concentrations. To assist in determining the origin of the ESR signals coral and bauxite reference samples were employed. Coral representative of the matrix of the sediment was taken remote from the bauxite loading facility whilst pure bauxite was collected from nearby mining facilities. We find ESR to be a very sensitive technique particularly appropriate to magnetic analysis of ferri- and para-magnetic components within environmental samples otherwise dominated by diamagnetic (carbonate) minerals. When employing typical sample masses of 200 mg the practical detection limit of ESR to ferri- and para-magnetic minerals within a diamagnetic carbonate matrix is of the order of 1 ppm and 1 ppb

  12. Environmental controls on the speciation and distribution of mercury in surface sediments of a tropical estuary, India

    Chakraborty, P.; Babu, P.V.R.

    in the total Hg content in the sediments. Total organic carbon in the sediments played an important role in controlling Hg partitioning in the system. Uncomplexed Hg binding ligands were available in the sediments...

  13. Paleoenvironmental record in Lake Baikal sediments: Environmental changes in the last 160 ky

    Grygar, Tomáš; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Pruner, Petr; Swann, G.; Bezdička, Petr; Hradil, David; Lang, Kamil; Novotná, Kateřina; Oberhänsli, H.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 237, 2-4 (2006), s. 240-254 ISSN 0031-0182 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A028; GA AV ČR IAA3032401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : lake sediments * climate change * spectroscopy Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.822, year: 2006

  14. Source-to-sink sediment transfers, environmental engineering and hazard mitigation in the steep Var River catchment, French Riviera, southeastern France

    Anthony, Edward J.; Julian, Maurice

    1999-12-01

    Steep coastal margins are potentially subject to mass wasting processes involving notable landslide activity and sediment evacuation downstream by steep-gradient streams. Sediment transfer from short source-to-sink segments, coupled with mountain hydrological regimes, regulate patterns of river channel aggradation and coastal sediment supply in such geomorphic settings. On the steep French Riviera margin, sediment transfers from existing landslides or from various minor mass wasting processes to stream channels may result following bursts of heavy, concentrated rainfall. High-magnitude flooding and massive sediment transport downstream are generally related to unpredictable extreme rainfalls. Both mass movements and channel sediment storage pose serious hazards to downvalley settlements and infrastructure. A consideration of channel sediment storage patterns in the Var River catchment, the most important catchment in this area, highlights two important shortcomings relative to environmental engineering and hazard mitigation practices. In the first place, the appreciation of geomorphic processes is rather poor. This is illustrated by the undersized nature of engineering works constructed to mitigate hazards in the upstream bedload-dominated channels, and by the unforeseen effects that ten rock dams, constructed in the early 1970s, have had on downstream and coastal sediment storage and on sediment dispersal patterns and, consequently, valley flooding. Secondly, planners and environmental engineers have lacked foresight in valley and coastal management issues on this steep setting, notably as regards the reclaimed areas of the lower Var channel and delta liable to flooding. Urbanization and transport and environmental engineering works have progressively affected patterns of storage and transport of fine-grained sediments in the lower Var channel and delta. Meanwhile the problems raised by these changes have not been adequately addressed in terms of scientific

  15. Natural Environmental Hazards Reflected in High-Altitude Patagonian Lake Sediments (lake Caviahue, Argentina)

    Müller, Anne; Scharf, Burkhard; von Tümpling, Wolf; Pirrung, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Two 6-m long sediment cores drilled in the two basins of Lake Caviahue give new evidence of the impact of natural hazards such as ash fallouts linked to nearby volcanic eruptions in the ecologically sensitive environment of the high-altitude region of the Argentinan Patagonian Andes. The two cores show distinct signals of changes in autochthonous productivity and terrigenous input into the lake from ash fallout as well as from river load and shore erosion. Multiproxy records of the sediments indicate whether these changes can be related to volcanic activity. High values of magnetic susceptibility in the cores reflect periods of basaltic ash fallouts during eruptions of the nearby Copahue Volcano. The southern basin is located in the prevalent direction of ash fallouts and has been affected by these volcanic inputs more intensely than the northern basin of the lake. In contrast, sedimentation and authochthonous productivity in the northern basin are strongly affected by fluvial inputs such as suspended river load and acidic stream waters.

  16. Source, composition, and environmental implication of neutral carbohydrates in sediment cores of subtropical reservoirs, South China

    Duan, Dandan; Zhang, Dainan; Yang, Yu; Wang, Jingfu; Chen, Jing'an; Ran, Yong

    2017-09-01

    Neutral monosaccharides, algal organic matter (AOM), and carbon stable isotope ratios in three sediment cores of various trophic reservoirs in South China were determined by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and Finnigan Delta Plus XL mass spectrometry, respectively. The carbon isotopic compositions were corrected for the Suess effect. The concentrations of total neutral carbohydrates (TCHO) range from 0.51 to 6.4 mg g-1 at mesotrophic reservoirs, and from 0.83 to 2.56 mg g-1 at an oligotrophic reservoir. Monosaccharide compositions and diagnostic parameters indicate a predominant contribution of phytoplankton in each of the three cores, which is consistent with the results inferred from the corrected carbon isotopic data and C/N ratios. The sedimentary neutral carbohydrates are likely to be structural polysaccharides and/or preserved in sediment minerals, which are resistant to degradation in the sediments. Moreover, the monosaccharide contents are highly related to the carbon isotopic data, algal productivity estimated from the hydrogen index, and increasing mean air temperature during the past 60 years. The nutrient input, however, is not a key factor affecting the primary productivity in the three reservoirs. The above evidence demonstrates that some of the resistant monosaccharides have been significantly elevated by climate change, even in low-latitude regions.

  17. Source, composition, and environmental implication of neutral carbohydrates in sediment cores of subtropical reservoirs, South China

    D. Duan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Neutral monosaccharides, algal organic matter (AOM, and carbon stable isotope ratios in three sediment cores of various trophic reservoirs in South China were determined by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and Finnigan Delta Plus XL mass spectrometry, respectively. The carbon isotopic compositions were corrected for the Suess effect. The concentrations of total neutral carbohydrates (TCHO range from 0.51 to 6.4 mg g−1 at mesotrophic reservoirs, and from 0.83 to 2.56 mg g−1 at an oligotrophic reservoir. Monosaccharide compositions and diagnostic parameters indicate a predominant contribution of phytoplankton in each of the three cores, which is consistent with the results inferred from the corrected carbon isotopic data and C∕N ratios. The sedimentary neutral carbohydrates are likely to be structural polysaccharides and/or preserved in sediment minerals, which are resistant to degradation in the sediments. Moreover, the monosaccharide contents are highly related to the carbon isotopic data, algal productivity estimated from the hydrogen index, and increasing mean air temperature during the past 60 years. The nutrient input, however, is not a key factor affecting the primary productivity in the three reservoirs. The above evidence demonstrates that some of the resistant monosaccharides have been significantly elevated by climate change, even in low-latitude regions.

  18. Environmental and radiological pollution in creeks sediment and water from Duhok, Iraq

    Abdullah, K.M.S.

    2012-01-01

    The activity concentrations of terrestrial (/sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th and /sup 40/K) and anthropogenic gamma emitting radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs) have been measured in 28 creek water and sediment samples randomly selected in different locations of Duhok governorate. The governorate is located in the northwest Kurdistan region of Iraq. Determination of the human health risk from the three exposure pathways (External radiation, Inhalation and Ingestion) was carried out. In addition, the chemical analysis was performed for the 13 surface water samples for reliability of physical results. Gamma spectroscopy system with a shielded well type NaI(TI) detector used for 40000 sec per sample. The data analysis included elemental concentrations, air absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate and external hazard index (radium equivalent activity). The average of 49.81+-1.69 nGyh/sup -1/ in sediment and 21.19+-1.32 nGyh/sup -1/ in water samples were below the world average value of 57nGyh/sup -1/. The corresponding annual effective dose rates outdoor estimated for sediment and surface water were 61.13+-2.1 macro Svy/sup -1/ and 26.01+-1.62 macro Svy/sup -1/ respectively. The calculated external hazard indexes (Hex) 0.29+0.01 for sediment and 0.112+0.007 surface water samples. These values showed that all samples were well below the hazard limit of unity. The RESRAD-6.5 computer code was used to analyze the dose per unit release of a specified radionuclide and the health risk from the three exposure pathways. RESRAD code showed over estimation of the results of annual effective dose rates, even though the results were within the background level. The average value of activity concentrations of the radionuclides of sediment samples by the code was 0.108 mSvy/sup -1/ compared to our calculations. The probability of human cancer risk lifetime of a hypothetical contamination consisted of the highest value of the activity concentrations of terrestrial radionuclides and /sup 137/Cs

  19. Environmental geochemistry of 238U, 232Th, 40K and some heavy metals in River Nile sediments

    Siddeeg, S. M. B.

    2007-06-01

    Environmental geochemistry is concerned with the abundance, distribution, and mobility of chemical elements in surface materials at the surface of earth crust. This study aimed at better understanding of geochemical behavior of 238 U, 23 '2Th and 40 K in river sediments and some heavy elements with emphasis on Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb. The analysis was conducted for a total of 33 bulk sediment samples from White Nile, Blue Nile and River Nile within Khartoum, the samples were fractionated into seven grain sizes each (2000-1000, 1000-500, 500-250, 250-200, 200-125, 125-100 and > 100 μm), using high resolution gamma spectrometer for radionuclides measurements, whereas Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used for heavy metals analysis. On the average, the activity concentration of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K were 17.90±5.23, 16.38±5.34 and 379.82±107.76 Bq -1 Kg in White Nile, 19.56±5.04, 17.72±4.69, and 494.36±105.79 Bq -1 Kg in Blue Nile and 19.27±2.88, 17.48±2.78, 359.50±83.15 Bq -1 Kg in the River Nile sediments. Results revealed inverse relationship between activity concentration and grain size in White and Blue Nile, while the trend is not clear in the River Nile. In general, the variation of the measured values within single grain size was smaller in White Nile compare to Blue and River Nile sediments, and it was observed that the data are highly scattered in grain size (200-125μm). The ratio between 238 U/ 232 Th is grater than unity in the three rivers indicating that there is relative enrichment of 238 U in the surface sediments. The activity concentration of the fallout radionuclide 137 Cs is one order of magnitude lower in the White Nile sediments (0.89±0.96) Bq -1 Kg compared to values in the Blue Nile sediments (3.60±1.55) Bq -1 Kg. Comparison of the values obtained for natural radionuclides and the fallout radionuclide ( 137 Cs in the three sites with the global data reflect low and /or insignificant difference. For heavy metal

  20. Environmental impacts of nuclear power plants and the tasks of meteorology

    Rak, J.; Skulec, S.; Tomlain, J.

    1984-01-01

    The system of meteorological service is presented which is part of the nuclear power plant monitoring system. Tasks are described which the meteorological service fulfils in routine nuclear power plant operation and in case of accident. The meteorological service also studies the potential impacts of heat emissions and water effluents on the environment of nuclear power plants. (E.S.)

  1. Coccolith distribution patterns in South Atlantic and Southern Ocean surface sediments in relation to environmental gradients

    Boeckel, B.; Baumann, K.-H.; Henrich, R.

    2006-01-01

    affinities were ascertained. In general, Emiliania huxleyi is the most abundant species of the recent coccolith assemblages in the study region. However, the lower photic zone taxa, composed of Florisphaera profunda and Gladiolithus flabellatus often dominate the assemblages between 20°N and 30°S. If E....... huxleyi is excluded, Calcidiscus leptoporus and F. profunda become the most abundant species, each dominating discrete oceanographic regimes. While F. profunda is very abundant in the sediments underneath warmer, stratified surface waters with a deep nutricline, Calcidiscus leptoporus is encountered...

  2. Toxicological benchmarks for screening contaminants of potential concern for effects on sediment-associated biota: 1994 Revision. Environmental Restoration Program

    Hull, R.N.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-06-01

    Because a hazardous waste site may contain hundreds of chemicals, it is important to screen contaminants of potential concern for the ecological risk assessment. Often this screening is done as part of a Screening Assessment, the purpose of which is to evaluate the available data, identify data gaps, and screen contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by using a set of toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks are helpful in determining whether contaminants warrant further assessment or are at a level that requires no further attention. If a chemical concentration or the reported detection limit exceeds a proposed lower benchmark, more analysis is needed to determine the hazards posed by that chemical. If, however, the chemical concentration falls below the lower benchmark value, the chemical may be eliminated from further study. This report briefly describes three categories of approaches to the development of sediment quality benchmarks. These approaches are based on analytical chemistry, toxicity test and field survey data. A fourth integrative approach incorporates all three types of data. The equilibrium partitioning approach is recommended for screening nonpolar organic contaminants of concern in sediments. For inorganics, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has developed benchmarks that may be used for screening. There are supplemental benchmarks from the province of Ontario, the state of Wisconsin, and US Environmental Protection Agency Region V. Pore water analysis is recommended for polar organic compounds; comparisons are then made against water quality benchmarks. This report is an update of a prior report. It contains revised ER-L and ER-M values, the five EPA proposed sediment quality criteria, and benchmarks calculated for several nonionic organic chemicals using equilibrium partitioning

  3. Correlation between observation task performance and visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and environmental light in a simulated maritime study.

    Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Assmuss, Jörg; Høvding, Gunnar

    2018-03-25

    To examine the relevance of visual acuity (VA) and index of contrast sensitivity (ICS) as predictors for visual observation task performance in a maritime environment. Sixty naval cadets were recruited to a study on observation tasks in a simulated maritime environment under three different light settings. Their ICS were computed based on contrast sensitivity (CS) data recorded by Optec 6500 and CSV-1000E CS tests. The correlation between object identification distance and VA/ICS was examined by stepwise linear regression. The object detection distance was significantly correlated to the level of environmental light (p maritime environment may presumably be ascribed to the normal and uniform visual capacity in all our study subjects. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Effects of Different Types of Environmental Noise on Academic Performance and Perceived Task Difficulty in Adolescents With ADHD.

    Batho, Lauren P; Martinussen, Rhonda; Wiener, Judith

    2015-07-28

    To examine the effects of environmental noises (speech and white noise) relative to a no noise control condition on the performance and difficulty ratings of youth with ADHD (N = 52) on academic tasks. Reading performance was measured by an oral retell (reading accuracy) and the time spent reading. Writing performance was measured through the proportion of correct writing sequences (writing accuracy) and the total words written on an essay. Participants in the white noise condition took less time to read the passage and wrote more words on the essay compared with participants in the other conditions, though white noise did not improve academic accuracy. The participants in the babble condition rated the tasks as most difficult. Although white noise appears to improve reading time and writing fluency, the findings suggest that white noise does not improve performance accuracy. Educational implications are discussed. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  5. On diel variability of marine sediment backscattering properties caused by microphytobenthos photosynthesis: Impact of environmental factors

    Gorska, Natalia; Kowalska-Duda, Ewa; Pniewski, Filip; Latała, Adam

    2018-06-01

    The study has been motivated by the development of the hydroacoustic techniques for mapping and classifying the benthic habitats and for the research of the microbenthos photosynthesis in the semi-enclosed Baltic Sea, particularly sensitive to human activity. The investigation of the effect of the benthic microalgal photosynthesis on the echo signal from the Baltic sandy sediments is continuing. The study clarifies the impact of the abiotic and biotic factors on the diel variation of the backscattering caused by the benthic microalgal photosynthetic activity. Five multiday laboratory experiments, different in hydrophysical or biological conditions, were conducted. During each measurement series, the "day" (illumination) and "night" (darkness) conditions (L:D cycle) were simulated and the diel variations of the echo energy of the backscattered signal were analyzed. The hydroacoustic data were acquired along with measuring biological and biooptical parameters and oxygen concentration. The study demonstrated the impact of microphytobenthos photosynthesis on the backscattering properties of the marine sediment which is sensitive to the illumination level, benthic microalgal biomass and macrozoobenthos bioturbation.

  6. Study of environmental radioactivity in three important Italian rivers using sediment mineral organic detritus indicator

    Fontana, C.; Aebischer, M.L.; Musumeci, R.G.; Sogni, R.; Borio, R.; Bucci, S.; Giannardi, C.; Magnoni, M.; Margini, G.

    1997-01-01

    When studying radionuclides introduced into the environment because of accidental spillage of radioactive substances from the atmosphere into running water and rivers, as in the accident at Chernobyl, a series of measurements and a knowledge of appropriate indicators are needed in order to best use the information. Radionuclides enter the water in the following way: they fall directly onto the surface of the water and then spread and sink, forming sediment on the river bed. S.M.O.D., sediments mineral organic detritus, is an important matrix for research on contaminants present in running water.This has been demonstrated in Italy where repeated research was done in various portions of the Po River. The studies have shown that S.M.O.D. is a good indicator for many radionuclides, both of fission as in Cs-137, Cs-134, Sb-125, Ru-106, and activation as in Mn-54 and Co-60. S.M.O.D. reveals the spatial radio contamination both of a diffuse source present in the river as in the case of fall-out from the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl or of a specific source as in spillage from a nuclear power plant or from hospital or industrial waste.It has been shown that S.M.O.D. is also an efficient indicator for other kinds of containments like heavy metals and pesticides. The work carried out on three major rivers: the Po, the Arno and the Tiber. (authors)

  7. Over 100 years of environmental change recorded by foraminifers and sediments in Mobile Bay, Alabama, Gulf of Mexico, USA

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2012-12-01

    The marine microfauna of Mobile Bay has been profoundly influenced by the development and expansion of the primary shipping channel over the last ˜100 years. Foraminifers and sediments from seven box cores with excess lead-210 chronology document that channel dredging and spoil disposal have altered circulation, reduced estuarine mixing, changed sedimentation patterns, and caused a faunal turnover within the bay. Beginning in the late 1800s, changes in estuarine mixing allowed for greater low-pH freshwater influence in the bay, and ultimately began environmental changes that resulted in the loss of calcareous foraminifers. By the early 1900s, box cores throughout Mobile Bay record a ˜100-year trend of increasing calcareous test dissolution that continues to the present. Since the completion of the current shipping channel in the 1950s, restricted tidal flushing and increased terrestrial organic matter, documented by carbon-to-nitrogen ratios, stimulated an increase in agglutinated foraminiferal densities. However, in deeper areas of the bay, hypoxic water has negatively impacted the marine microfauna. Comparisons of the present-day foraminiferal assemblage with foraminifers collected in the early 1970s indicate that the continued biologic loss of calcareous foraminifers in the bay has allowed the introduction of a new agglutinated foraminiferal species into the bay.

  8. The EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) Process in Relation to the Proposed Naval Task Force at Everett, Washington,

    1983-01-01

    decision before filing the EA. Also, the transfer of fuel and arms and the change in economic and social enviromental effects warranted an EIS. Facts: The...must deal with many of the same environmental, social , and economic problems that are evident. The basing of a Naval Task Force in Puget Sound stems from...which involves unresolved conflicts e. V.V..4 President OMB Cirua * NEPA of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321) CEQ/EIS Guidelines 40 CFR 1500-1508 . 7 Excuiv Ordc

  9. Health and safety plan for operations performed for the Environmental Restoration Program. Task, OU 1-03 and OU 4-10 Track 2 investigations

    Trippet, W.A. II [IT Corp., (United States); Reneau, M.; Morton, S.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG&G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the EPR. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP.

  10. Paleomagnetism and environmental magnetism of GLAD800 sediment cores from Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho

    Heil, C.W.; King, J.W.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Reynolds, R.L.; Colman, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    A ???220,000-year record recovered in a 120-m-long sediment core from Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho, provides an opportunity to reconstruct climate change in the Great Basin and compare it with global climate records. Paleomagnetic data exhibit a geomagnetic feature that possibly occurred during the Laschamp excursion (ca. 40 ka). Although the feature does not exhibit excursional behavior (???40?? departure from the expected value), it might provide an additional age constraint for the sequence. Temporal changes in salinity, which are likely related to changes in freshwater input (mainly through the Bear River) or evaporation, are indicated by variations in mineral magnetic properties. These changes are represented by intervals with preserved detrital Fe-oxide minerals and with varying degrees of diagenetic alteration, including sulfidization. On the basis of these changes, the Bear Lake sequence is divided into seven mineral magnetic zones. The differing magnetic mineralogies among these zones reflect changes in deposition, preservation, and formation of magnetic phases related to factors such as lake level, river input, and water chemistry. The occurrence of greigite and pyrite in the lake sediments corresponds to periods of higher salinity. Pyrite is most abundant in intervals of highest salinity, suggesting that the extent of sulfidization is limited by the availability of SO42-. During MIS 2 (zone II), Bear Lake transgressed to capture the Bear River, resulting in deposition of glacially derived hematite-rich detritus from the Uinta Mountains. Millennial-scale variations in the hematite content of Bear Lake sediments during the last glacial maximum (zone II) resemble Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) oscillations and Heinrich events (within dating uncertainties), suggesting that the influence of millennial-scale climate oscillations can extend beyond the North Atlantic and influence climate of the Great Basin. The magnetic mineralogy of zones IV-VII (MIS 5, 6, and 7

  11. Environmental tasks of anthropogenic actions and climatic changes in pozo del Molle, Cordoba Argentina

    Mansilla, L.; Karlsson, A.; Ayala, R.

    2007-01-01

    This work was made in Pozo del Molle town, Rio Segundo, Cordoba. Argentina. The human impact added to climate changes, mainly the increase of precipitations, affects negatively in the environmental problems. In the area, in the last years, the problems that lead to the degradation of the environment were accentuated. The disposition of the final waste disposal has been determined through the following studies: analysis of the geological conditions of the area, consideration of the climatic situation, and the elevation and contamination the phreatic. Also an analysis about the rate of the habitant/day solid residual generation, the distance between the site where is located the urban solid residues and the town, the predominant winds and the vulnerability of the phreatic, which represents the greatest problem of the area, was made. It has been established the alternatives to carry out an appropriate environmental administration. Key words: human impact, climatic changes, environmental problems, phreatic, Pozo del Molle (Argentina). (author)

  12. Environmental aspects of PV power systems. Report on the IEA PVPS Task 1 Workshop

    Nieuwlaar, E.; Alsema, E.

    1997-12-01

    During normal operation, photovoltaic (PV) power systems do not emit substances that may threaten human health or the environment. In fact, through the savings in conventional electricity production they can lead to significant emission reductions. There are, however, several indirect environmental impacts related to PV power systems that require further consideration. The production of present generation PV power systems is relatively energy intensive, involves the use of large quantities of bulk materials and (smaller) quantities of substances that are scarce and/or toxic. During operation, damaged modules or a fire may lead to the release of hazardous substances. Finally, at the end of their useful life time PV power systems have to be decommissioned, and resulting waste flows have to be managed. An expert workshop was held as part of the International Energy Agency Photovoltaic Power Systems Implementing Agreement Programme, to address these environmental aspects of PV power systems. The objectives of the workshop were: (a) review/overview of issues and approaches regarding environmental aspects of PV power systems; (b) enhanced clarity and consensus regarding e.g. Energy Pay-Back Time; (c) identification of issues of environmental importance regarding PV power systems ('hot spots'); (d) identification of issues requiring further attention ('white spots'); and (e) establish a network of researchers working on PV environmental issues. 25 participants from Europe, the United States, Japan, and Australia attended the workshop, representing the researchers in the field of environmental aspects of PV systems, R ampersand D managers, industry and utilities. The environmental issues that are considered most relevant for PV power systems were identified in the workshop as well as the approaches that may be used to investigate them. The main environmental issues discussed at the workshop were: energy use; resource depletion (e.g. the resource availability for indium

  13. Study of environmental pollution and mineralogical characterization of sediment rivers from Brazilian coal mining acid drainage

    Silva, Luis F.O., E-mail: felipeqma@hotmail.com [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development – IPADH, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Fdez- Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Castro, Kepa [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Basque Country (EHU/UPV), P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development – IPADH, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Sampaio, Carlos H.; Brum, Irineu A.S. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Leão, Felipe B. de; Taffarel, Silvio R. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Madariaga, Juan M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Basque Country (EHU/UPV), P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)

    2013-03-01

    Acid drainage from coal mines and metal mining is a major source of underground and surface water contamination in the world. The coal mining acid drainage (CMAD) from mine contains large amount of solids in suspension and a high content of sulphate and dissolved metals (Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, etc.) that finally are deposited in the rivers. Since this problem can persist for centuries after mine abandonment, it is necessary to apply multidisciplinary methods to determine the potential risk in a determinate area. These multidisciplinary methods must include molecular and elemental analysis and finally all information must be studied statistically. This methodology was used in the case of coal mining acid drainage from the Tubarao River (Santa Catarina, Brazil). During molecular analysis, Raman Spectroscopy, electron bean, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been proven very useful for the study of minerals present in sediment rivers near this CMAD. The obtained spectra allow the precise identification of the minerals as jarosite, quartz, clays, etc. The elemental analysis (Al, As, Fe, K, Na, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ti, V, Zn, Ag, Co, Li, Mo, Ni, Se, Sn, W, B, Cr, Cu, Pb and Sr) was realised by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis) of these dates of concentration reveals the existence of different groups of samples with specific pollution profiles in different areas of the Tubarao River. Highlights: ► Increasing coal drainage sediments geochemical information will increase human health information in this area. ► Brazilian coal mining information will increase recuperation planning information. ► The nanominerals showed strong sorption ability to aqueous hazardous elements.

  14. Study of environmental pollution and mineralogical characterization of sediment rivers from Brazilian coal mining acid drainage

    Silva, Luis F.O.; Fdez- Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Castro, Kepa; Oliveira, Marcos L.S.; Sampaio, Carlos H.; Brum, Irineu A.S. de; Leão, Felipe B. de; Taffarel, Silvio R.; Madariaga, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Acid drainage from coal mines and metal mining is a major source of underground and surface water contamination in the world. The coal mining acid drainage (CMAD) from mine contains large amount of solids in suspension and a high content of sulphate and dissolved metals (Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, etc.) that finally are deposited in the rivers. Since this problem can persist for centuries after mine abandonment, it is necessary to apply multidisciplinary methods to determine the potential risk in a determinate area. These multidisciplinary methods must include molecular and elemental analysis and finally all information must be studied statistically. This methodology was used in the case of coal mining acid drainage from the Tubarao River (Santa Catarina, Brazil). During molecular analysis, Raman Spectroscopy, electron bean, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been proven very useful for the study of minerals present in sediment rivers near this CMAD. The obtained spectra allow the precise identification of the minerals as jarosite, quartz, clays, etc. The elemental analysis (Al, As, Fe, K, Na, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ti, V, Zn, Ag, Co, Li, Mo, Ni, Se, Sn, W, B, Cr, Cu, Pb and Sr) was realised by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis) of these dates of concentration reveals the existence of different groups of samples with specific pollution profiles in different areas of the Tubarao River. Highlights: ► Increasing coal drainage sediments geochemical information will increase human health information in this area. ► Brazilian coal mining information will increase recuperation planning information. ► The nanominerals showed strong sorption ability to aqueous hazardous elements

  15. Determination and environmental estimation of NORMs in marine sediment environment of offshore platforms

    Vegueria, Sergio F. Jerez

    2013-01-01

    The natural radioactive materials (NORM known as) are found in the earth's crust, and during the process of production of oil and gas are concentrated in the produced water and the fouling (scale) pipes used for extraction. The production of oil and gas from produced water comes, comprising: forming water (water naturally present in the well ); injection water , usually sea water previously injected into the well to maintaining the pressure while the oil is removed; and water condensed in some cases of gas production. A high radioactivity of 226 Ra (natural grade of 238 U) and 228 Ra (from the natural series of 232 Th) is detected in produced water due to the high solubility of radio in formation water as uranium and thorium, which are insoluble in this medium, remain the rock matrix. The study was conducted in the area of offshore oil production in the state of Rio de January and included the determination of uranium, 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 228 Ra in marine sediment near the points of discharge of produced water from oil platforms. After the pre-treatment and digestion of samples, the determination of the natural uranium was performed on a mass spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma (ICP -MS). The activities of 226 Ra and 228 Ra were determined by high resolution gamma spectrometry through 214 Bi and 228 Ac , respectively. And in the case of 210 Pb, a correction was made for self-absorption employing an external source of this radionuclide. The results showed that there is no impact in sediments in the vicinity of the studied platforms

  16. River sediment metal and nutrient variations along an urban-agriculture gradient in an arid austral landscape: implications for environmental health.

    Dalu, Tatenda; Wasserman, Ryan J; Wu, Qihang; Froneman, William P; Weyl, Olaf L F

    2018-01-01

    The effect of metals on environmental health is well documented and monitoring these and other pollutants is considered an important part of environmental management. Developing countries are yet to fully appreciate the direct impacts of pollution on aquatic ecosystems and as such, information on pollution dynamics is scant. Here, we assessed the temporal and spatial dynamics of stream sediment metal and nutrient concentrations using contaminant indices (e.g. enrichment factors, pollution load and toxic risk indices) in an arid temperate environment over the wet and dry seasons. The mean sediment nutrient, organic matter and metal concentration were highest during the dry season, with high values being observed for the urban environment. Sediment contaminant assessment scores indicated that during the wet season, the sediment quality was acceptable, but not so during the dry season. The dry season had low to moderate levels of enrichment for metals B, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mg, K and Zn. Overall, applying the sediment pollution load index highlighted poor quality river sediment along the length of the river. Toxic risk index indicated that most sites posed no toxic risk. The results of this study highlighted that river discharge plays a major role in structuring temporal differences in sediment quality. It was also evident that infrastructure degradation was likely contributing to the observed state of the river quality. The study contributes to our understanding of pollution dynamics in arid temperate landscapes where vast temporal differences in base flow characterise the riverscape. Such information is further useful for contrasting sediment pollution dynamics in aquatic environments with other climatic regions.

  17. Effects of environmental regulations on heavy metal pollution decline in core sediments from Manila Bay

    Hosono, Takahiro; Su, Chih-Chieh; Siringan, Fernando; Amano, Atsuko; Onodera, Shin-ichi

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the high-resolution heavy metal pollution history of Manila Bay using heavy metal concentrations and Pb isotope ratios together with 210 Pb dating to find out the effects of environmental regulations after the 1990s. Our results suggested that the rate of decline in heavy metal pollution increased dramatically from the end of the 1990s due to stricter environmental regulations, Administrative Order No. 42, being enforced by the Philippines government. The presented data and methodology should form the basis for future monitoring, leading to pollution control, and to the generation of preventive measures at the pollution source for the maintenance of environmental quality in the coastal metropolitan city of Manila. Although this is the first report of a reduction in pollution in Asian developing country, our results suggest that we can expect to find similar signs of pollution decline in other parts of the world as well.

  18. Uncertainty modelling and analysis of environmental systems: a river sediment yield example

    Keesman, K.J.; Koskela, J.; Guillaume, J.H.; Norton, J.P.; Croke, B.; Jakeman, A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Throughout the last decades uncertainty analysis has become an essential part of environmental model building (e.g. Beck 1987; Refsgaard et al., 2007). The objective of the paper is to introduce stochastic and setmembership uncertainty modelling concepts, which basically differ in the

  19. How to turn monotonous fossil-barren siliciclastic sediments to environmental archive?

    Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Mach, K.; Martinez, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, APR (2017) ISSN 1607-7962. [EGU General Assembly 2017. 23.04.2017-28.04.2017, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : environmental archive Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2017/EGU2017-2795.pdf

  20. Environmental impacts of abandoned dredged soils and sediments; available options for their handling, restoration and rehabilitation

    Ohimain, E.I.; Andriesse, W.; Mensvoort, van M.E.F.

    2004-01-01

    Aim and Background. In the process of creating safe navigable waterways for oil exploitation, the companies operating in the Niger Delta generate tons of sulfidic spoils. These are often deposited over bank, mostly upon fringing mangroves, and abandoned. This leads to a myriad of environmental

  1. Orienting in virtual environments: How are surface features and environmental geometry weighted in an orientation task?

    Kelly, Debbie M; Bischof, Walter F

    2008-10-01

    We investigated how human adults orient in enclosed virtual environments, when discrete landmark information is not available and participants have to rely on geometric and featural information on the environmental surfaces. In contrast to earlier studies, where, for women, the featural information from discrete landmarks overshadowed the encoding of the geometric information, Experiment 1 showed that when featural information is conjoined with the environmental surfaces, men and women encoded both types of information. Experiment 2 showed that, although both types of information are encoded, performance in locating a goal position is better if it is close to a geometrically or featurally distinct location. Furthermore, although features are relied upon more strongly than geometry, initial experience with an environment influences the relative weighting of featural and geometric cues. Taken together, these results show that human adults use a flexible strategy for encoding spatial information.

  2. Methods for environmental auditing: The task force on hazardous waste treatment

    Spann, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the types of environmental audits conducted in the United States; specifically, the transactional audit, the regulatory or enforcement audit, and the internal due diligence audit. The need for careful selection of a team of auditors with a mix of expertise and educational background is emphasized. Audit protocol is addressed, with emphasis on prior definition of purpose, information retrieval, cross-checking, and preparation of concise and candid audit reports

  3. Environmental heat stress enhances mental fatigue during sustained attention task performing: evidence from an ASL perfusion study.

    Qian, Shaowen; Li, Min; Li, Guoying; Liu, Kai; Li, Bo; Jiang, Qingjun; Li, Li; Yang, Zhen; Sun, Gang

    2015-03-01

    This study was to investigate the potential enhancing effect of heat stress on mental fatigue progression during sustained attention task using arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging. Twenty participants underwent two thermal exposures in an environmental chamber: normothermic (NT) condition (25°C, 1h) and hyperthermic (HT) condition (50°C, 1h). After thermal exposure, they performed a twenty-minute psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) in the scanner. Behavioral analysis revealed progressively increasing subjective fatigue ratings and reaction time as PVT progressed. Moreover, heat stress caused worse performance. Perfusion imaging analyses showed significant resting-state cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations after heat exposure. Specifically, increased CBF mainly gathered in thalamic-brainstem area while decreased CBF predominantly located in fronto-parietal areas, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and medial frontal cortex. More importantly, diverse CBF distributions and trend of changes between both conditions were observed as the fatigue level progressed during subsequent PVT task. Specifically, higher CBF and enhanced rising trend were presented in superior parietal lobe, precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, while lower CBF or inhibited rising trend was found in dorsolateral frontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, inferior parietal lobe and thalamic-brainstem areas. Furthermore, the decrease of post-heat resting-state CBF in fronto-parietal cortex was correlated with subsequent slower reaction time, suggesting prior disturbed resting-state CBF might be indicator of performance potential and fatigue level in following task. These findings may provide proof for such a view: heat stress has a potential fatigue-enhancing effect when individual is performing highly cognition-demanding attention task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Marine sediment cores database for the Mediterranean Basin: a tool for past climatic and environmental studies

    Alberico, I.; Giliberti, I.; Insinga, D. D.; Petrosino, P.; Vallefuoco, M.; Lirer, F.; Bonomo, S.; Cascella, A.; Anzalone, E.; Barra, R.; Marsella, E.; Ferraro, L.

    2017-06-01

    Paleoclimatic data are essential for fingerprinting the climate of the earth before the advent of modern recording instruments. They enable us to recognize past climatic events and predict future trends. Within this framework, a conceptual and logical model was drawn to physically implement a paleoclimatic database named WDB-Paleo that includes the paleoclimatic proxies data of marine sediment cores of the Mediterranean Basin. Twenty entities were defined to record four main categories of data: a) the features of oceanographic cruises and cores (metadata); b) the presence/absence of paleoclimatic proxies pulled from about 200 scientific papers; c) the quantitative analysis of planktonic and benthonic foraminifera, pollen, calcareous nannoplankton, magnetic susceptibility, stable isotopes, radionuclides values of about 14 cores recovered by Institute for Coastal Marine Environment (IAMC) of Italian National Research Council (CNR) in the framework of several past research projects; d) specific entities recording quantitative data on δ18O, AMS 14C (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) and tephra layers available in scientific papers. Published data concerning paleoclimatic proxies in the Mediterranean Basin are recorded only for 400 out of 6000 cores retrieved in the area and they show a very irregular geographical distribution. Moreover, the data availability decreases when a constrained time interval is investigated or more than one proxy is required. We present three applications of WDB-Paleo for the Younger Dryas (YD) paleoclimatic event at Mediterranean scale and point out the potentiality of this tool for integrated stratigraphy studies.

  5. Arresting Environmental Degradation Through Accelerated On-site Soil Sedimentation and Revegetation Using Microcatchments and Reseeding

    Mnene, W.N.; Wandera, F.P.; Lebbie, S.H.

    1999-01-01

    Degradation of arid and semi arid lands (ASALs) through denudation has been found to result in lowered capacity to support livestock, particularly under extensive production systems. After a Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) in Kajiado District, an opportunity was identified in the pastoral reserves grazing areas involving the combined use of monochromators (specifically pitting) and re seeding with adapted forage species. Treatments were imposed before the 1996 short rainy seasons. Data were collected on soil sedimentation as well as herbaceous cover and standing crop. Much of the soil deposit comprised of fine silt-clay in the pits and sand on the up-slope. No soil deposit was observed on the down-slope of the pits. This increased in subsequent rainy seasons. Although seeding was done by broadcasting to cover whole plots, establishment was only evident where it is pitted. Volunteer herbaceous vegetation expressed themselves and plant cover tended to also increase in freshly deposited soil from one wet season to another. Herbage was particularly dense on the crescents of the pits

  6. Sex differences in a landmark environmental re-orientation task only during the learning phase.

    Piccardi, Laura; Bianchini, Filippo; Iasevoli, Luigi; Giannone, Gianluca; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2011-10-10

    Sex differences are consistently reported in human navigation. Indeed, to orient themselves during navigation women are more likely to use landmark-based strategies and men Euclidean-based strategies. The difference could be due to selective social pressure, which fosters greater spatial ability in men, or biological factors. And the great variability of the results reported in the literature could be due to the experimental setting more than real differences in ability. In this study, navigational behaviour was assessed by means of a place-learning task in which a modified version of the Morris water maze for humans was used to evaluate sex differences. In using landmarks, sex differences emerged only during the learning phase. Although the men were faster than the women in locating the target position, the differences between the sexes disappeared in delayed recall. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Holocene environmental change in the Albertine Rift : sediment-based evidence from Virunga volcanoes

    McGlynn, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    The Albertine Rift is one of the most important conservation areas in tropical Africa, with exceptionally high levels of biodiversity (including rare and endemic montane flora and fauna) and high human population densities. Environmental changes in the Albertine Rift during the Holocene have been influenced both by long-term climate change and by human activity, although establishing clear cause-effect relationships is often problematic - particularly as this area is known to have had a long ...

  8. Assessment of heavy metal pollution from a Fe-smelting plant in urban river sediments using environmental magnetic and geochemical methods

    Zhang Chunxia, E-mail: cxzhang@mail.iggcas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19 Bei Tucheng Xilu, Chaoyang Dist., Beijing 100029 (China); Qiao Qingqing [State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19 Bei Tucheng Xilu, Chaoyang Dist., Beijing 100029 (China); Piper, John D.A. [Geomagnetism Laboratory, Department of Earth and Ocean Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Huang, Baochun [State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19 Bei Tucheng Xilu, Chaoyang Dist., Beijing 100029 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Environmental magnetic proxies provide a rapid means of assessing the degree of industrial heavy metal pollution in soils and sediments. To test the efficiency of magnetic methods for detecting contaminates from a Fe-smelting plant in Loudi City, Hunan Province (China) we investigated river sediments from Lianshui River. Both magnetic and non-magnetic (microscopic, chemical and statistical) methods were used to characterize these sediments. Anthropogenic heavy metals coexist with coarse-grained magnetic spherules. It can be demonstrated that the Pollution Load Index of industrial heavy metals (Fe, V, Cr, Mo, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu) and the logarithm of saturation isothermal remanent magnetization, a proxy for magnetic concentration, are significantly correlated. The distribution heavy metal pollution in the Lianshui River is controlled by surface water transport and deposition. Our findings demonstrate that magnetic methods have a useful and practical application for detecting and mapping pollution in and around modern industrial cities. - Highlights: > Assessment of heavy metal (HM) pollution in river sediment using magnetic and chemical methods. > HMs from an Fe-smelting plant coexist with coarse-grained magnetic spherules. > A linear correlation between the Pollution Load Index (PLI) of industrial HMs and a magnetic concentration parameter is demonstrated. > The distribution of HM pollution in river sediments is controlled by surface water flow and deposition. - Heavy metal (HM) contamination of river sediments from industrial input by surface water transport and deposition can be detected by using magnetic methods providing a convenient assessment of HM pollution in industrialized cities.

  9. Assessment of heavy metal pollution from a Fe-smelting plant in urban river sediments using environmental magnetic and geochemical methods

    Zhang Chunxia; Qiao Qingqing; Piper, John D.A.; Huang, Baochun

    2011-01-01

    Environmental magnetic proxies provide a rapid means of assessing the degree of industrial heavy metal pollution in soils and sediments. To test the efficiency of magnetic methods for detecting contaminates from a Fe-smelting plant in Loudi City, Hunan Province (China) we investigated river sediments from Lianshui River. Both magnetic and non-magnetic (microscopic, chemical and statistical) methods were used to characterize these sediments. Anthropogenic heavy metals coexist with coarse-grained magnetic spherules. It can be demonstrated that the Pollution Load Index of industrial heavy metals (Fe, V, Cr, Mo, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu) and the logarithm of saturation isothermal remanent magnetization, a proxy for magnetic concentration, are significantly correlated. The distribution heavy metal pollution in the Lianshui River is controlled by surface water transport and deposition. Our findings demonstrate that magnetic methods have a useful and practical application for detecting and mapping pollution in and around modern industrial cities. - Highlights: → Assessment of heavy metal (HM) pollution in river sediment using magnetic and chemical methods. → HMs from an Fe-smelting plant coexist with coarse-grained magnetic spherules. → A linear correlation between the Pollution Load Index (PLI) of industrial HMs and a magnetic concentration parameter is demonstrated. → The distribution of HM pollution in river sediments is controlled by surface water flow and deposition. - Heavy metal (HM) contamination of river sediments from industrial input by surface water transport and deposition can be detected by using magnetic methods providing a convenient assessment of HM pollution in industrialized cities.

  10. FY 1992 revised task plans for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Shipler, D.B.

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate radiation doses from Hanford Site operations since 1944 to populations and individuals. The primary objectives of work to be performed in FY 1992 is to determine the appropriate scope (space, time, and radionuclides, pathways and individuals/population groups) and accuracy (level of uncertainty in dose estimates) for the project. Another objective is to use a refined computer model to estimate Native American tribal doses and individual doses for the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study (HTDS). Project scope and accuracy requirements defined in FY 1992 can translated into model and data requirements that must be satisfied during FY 1993

  11. Modern environmental penal law in the light of the jurisdiction - review and tasks

    Rengier, R.

    1992-01-01

    The jurisdiction in modern environmental penal law has gone beyond just adopting the ecological tenets of the legislature: it has farthered their development, thus contributing substantially to an ecologically oriented understanding of the offences of water pollution and ecologically harmful waste disposal. This orientation has made prosecution more efficient and through its preventive effects has increased ecological awareness. A good example within the sphere of public interest are communal plant operators. In other areas such as private business and private households the preventive effect is not yet as apparent, but this will probably change in the course of time. (orig.) [de

  12. Reduced diversity and high sponge abundance on a sedimented Indo-Pacific reef system: implications for future changes in environmental quality.

    Abigail Powell

    Full Text Available Although coral reef health across the globe is declining as a result of anthropogenic impacts, relatively little is known of how environmental variability influences reef organisms other than corals and fish. Sponges are an important component of coral reef fauna that perform many important functional roles and changes in their abundance and diversity as a result of environmental change has the potential to affect overall reef ecosystem functioning. In this study, we examined patterns of sponge biodiversity and abundance across a range of environments to assess the potential key drivers of differences in benthic community structure. We found that sponge assemblages were significantly different across the study sites, but were dominated by one species Lamellodysidea herbacea (42% of all sponges patches recorded and that the differential rate of sediment deposition was the most important variable driving differences in abundance patterns. Lamellodysidea herbacea abundance was positively associated with sedimentation rates, while total sponge abundance excluding Lamellodysidea herbacea was negatively associated with rates of sedimentation. Overall variation in sponge assemblage composition was correlated with a number of variables although each variable explained only a small amount of the overall variation. Although sponge abundance remained similar across environments, diversity was negatively affected by sedimentation, with the most sedimented sites being dominated by a single sponge species. Our study shows how some sponge species are able to tolerate high levels of sediment and that any transition of coral reefs to more sedimented states may result in a shift to a low diversity sponge dominated system, which is likely to have subsequent effects on ecosystem functioning.

  13. Reduced Diversity and High Sponge Abundance on a Sedimented Indo-Pacific Reef System: Implications for Future Changes in Environmental Quality

    Powell, Abigail; Smith, David J.; Hepburn, Leanne J.; Jones, Timothy; Berman, Jade; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Bell, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Although coral reef health across the globe is declining as a result of anthropogenic impacts, relatively little is known of how environmental variability influences reef organisms other than corals and fish. Sponges are an important component of coral reef fauna that perform many important functional roles and changes in their abundance and diversity as a result of environmental change has the potential to affect overall reef ecosystem functioning. In this study, we examined patterns of sponge biodiversity and abundance across a range of environments to assess the potential key drivers of differences in benthic community structure. We found that sponge assemblages were significantly different across the study sites, but were dominated by one species Lamellodysidea herbacea (42% of all sponges patches recorded) and that the differential rate of sediment deposition was the most important variable driving differences in abundance patterns. Lamellodysidea herbacea abundance was positively associated with sedimentation rates, while total sponge abundance excluding Lamellodysidea herbacea was negatively associated with rates of sedimentation. Overall variation in sponge assemblage composition was correlated with a number of variables although each variable explained only a small amount of the overall variation. Although sponge abundance remained similar across environments, diversity was negatively affected by sedimentation, with the most sedimented sites being dominated by a single sponge species. Our study shows how some sponge species are able to tolerate high levels of sediment and that any transition of coral reefs to more sedimented states may result in a shift to a low diversity sponge dominated system, which is likely to have subsequent effects on ecosystem functioning. PMID:24475041

  14. Environmental monitoring and assessment of antibacterial metabolite producing actinobacteria screened from marine sediments in south coastal regions of Karnataka, India.

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Garka, Shruthi; Puttaswamy, Sushmitha; Shanbhogue, Shobitha; Devaraju, Raksha; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2017-06-01

    Assessment of the therapeutic potential of secondary metabolite producing microorganisms from the marine coastal areas imparts scope and application in the field of environmental monitoring. The present study aims to screen metabolites with antibacterial potential from actionbacteria associated with marine sediments collected from south coastal regions of Karnataka, India. The actinobacteria were isolated and characterized from marine sediments by standard protocol. The metabolites were extracted, and antibacterial potential was analyzed against eight hospital associated bacteria. The selected metabolites were partially characterized by proximate analysis, SDS-PAGE, and FTIR-spectroscopy. The antibiogram of the test clinical isolates revealed that they were emerged as multidrug-resistant strains (P ≤ 0.05). Among six actinobacteria (IS1-1S6) screened, 100 μl -1 metabolite from IS1 showed significant antibacterial activities against all the clinical isolates except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. IS2 demonstrated antimicrobial potential towards Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli. The metabolite from IS3 showed activity against Strep. pyogenes and E. coli. The metabolites from IS4, IS5, and IS6 exhibited antimicrobial activities against Ps. aeruginosa (P ≤ 0.05). The two metabolites that depicted highest antibacterial activities against the test strains were suggested to be antimicrobial peptides with low molecular weight. These isolates were characterized and designated as Streptomyces sp. strain mangaluru01 and Streptomyces sp. mangaloreK01 by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. This study suggests that south coastal regions of Karnataka, India, are one of the richest sources of antibacterial metabolites producing actinobacteria and monitoring of these regions for therapeutic intervention plays profound role in healthcare management.

  15. Spatiotemporal climatic, hydrological, and environmental variations based on records of annually laminated lake sediments from northern Poland

    Tylmann, W.; Blanke, L.; Kinder, M.; Loewe, T.; Mayr, C.; Ohlendorf, C.; Zolitschka, B.

    2009-12-01

    In northern Poland there is the unique opportunity to compare varved lake sediment records with distinct climatic trends along a 700 km long W-E transect. Annually laminated Holocene sediment sequences from Lake Lubinskie, Lake Suminko, Lake Lazduny, and Lake Szurpily were cored for high-resolution multiproxy climate and environmental reconstruction in the framework of the Polish-German project “Northern Polish Lake Research” (NORPOLAR). First results from a 139 cm long gravity core of Lake Lazduny (53°51.4’N, 21°57.3’E) document deposition of an organic (mean organic matter: 13.9%; mean biogenic opal: 9.8%) and highly carbonaceous gyttja (mean calcite content: 61.6%). The finely laminated sediment consists of biochemical varves. Pale spring/summer layers composed of autochthonous carbonates alternate with dark fall/winter layers made of organic and minerogenic detritus. The established chronology for the last 1500 calendar-years is based on thin section analysis supported by independent radiometric dating (C-14, Pb-210). Sedimentological, geochemical and stable isotope analyses were carried out with a decadal temporal resolution. Additionally, non-destructive and high-resolution XRF scanning data reveal a rhythmic variation in the Ca content that reflects seasonal calcite deposition. Redox-sensitive elements like Fe, Mn and S are interpreted to be the response to mean winter temperatures: colder winter temperatures → extended lake ice cover → intensification of meromixis → increased Fe/Mn ratio. In turn, these parameters can be linked to NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) variability, because a negative NAO is related to colder and drier conditions in northeastern Europe. Climate variability is also mirrored by the δ13C record of the endogenic calcite fraction. In mid-latitude lakes calcite precipitation is dominated by productivity-controlled consumption of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool. Thus the δ13C record potentially provides a

  16. Deepwater Horizon MC252 analytical data from the Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA) containing sediment chemistry data, tissue chemistry data, environmental quality and monitoring data, sample pre/post oiling analysis data, and Total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (TPAH) contaminants chemistry data from samples collected from 2010-03-07 to 2013-08-28 in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NCEI Accession 0163796)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Archival Information Package (AIP) contains Environmental Resource Management Application (ERMA) GIS layers that represent nearshore tissue and sediment...

  17. Speciation analysis of 129I, 137Cs, 232Th, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu in environmental soil and sediment

    Qiao, Jixin; Hansen, Violeta; Hou, Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    The environmental mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides are related to their physicochemical forms, namely species. We here present a speciation analysis of important radionuclides including 129I (also 127I), 137Cs, 232Th, 238U and plutonium isotopes (239Pu and 240Pu) in soil (IAEA-375......) and sediment (NIST-4354) standard reference materials and two fresh sediment samples from Øvre Heimdalsvatnet Lake, Norway. A modified sequential extraction protocol was used for the speciation analysis of these samples to obtain fractionation information of target radionuclides. Analytical results reveal...

  18. Environmental controls on the speciation and distribution of mercury in surface sediments of a tropical estuary, India

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Babu, P.V. Raghunadh

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Physico-chemical parameters of water column control Hg speciation in sediments. • Sediments from the middle of the estuary were contaminated by Hg. • Concentrations of Hg were less during the monsoon and post monsoon period. • Salinity, pH of water column may change Hg speciation of the bottom sediments. • TOC in sediments control Hg partitioning in the system. - Abstract: Distribution and speciation of mercury (Hg) in the sediments from a tropical estuary (Godavari estuary) was influenced by the changing physico-chemical parameters of the overlying water column. The sediments from the upstream and downstream of the estuary were uncontaminated but the sediments from the middle of the estuary were contaminated by Hg. The concentrations of Hg became considerably less during the monsoon and post monsoon period. Total Hg concentrations and its speciation (at the middle of the estuary) were dependent on the salinity of the overlying water column. However, salinity had little or no effect on Hg association with organic phases in the sediments at downstream. Increasing pH of the overlying water column corresponded with an increase in the total Hg content in the sediments. Total organic carbon in the sediments played an important role in controlling Hg partitioning in the system. Uncomplexed Hg binding ligands were available in the sediments

  19. FY 1992 task plans for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    1991-10-01

    Phase 1 of the HEDR Project was designed to develop and demonstrate a method for estimating radiation doses people may have received from Hanford Site operations since 1944. The method researchers developed relied on a variety of measured and reconstructed data as input to a modular computer model that generates dose estimates and their uncertainties. As part of Phase 1, researchers used the reconstructed data and computer model to calculate preliminary dose estimates for populations from limited radionuclides, in a limited geographical area and time period. Phase 1 ended in FY 1990. In February 1991, the TSP decided to shift the project planning approach away from phases--which were centered around completion of major portions of technical activities--to individual fiscal years (FYs), which span October of one year through September of the next. Therefore, activities that were previously designated to occur in phases are now designated in an integrated schedule to occur in one or more of the next fiscal years into FY 1995. Task plans are updated every 6 months. In FY 1992, scientists will continue to improve Phase 1 data and models to calculate more accurate and precise dose estimates. The plan for FY 1992 has been prepared based on activities and budgets approved by the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) at its meeting on August 19--20, 1991. The activities can be divided into four categories: (1) model and data evaluation activities, (2) additional dose estimates, (3) model and data development activities, and (4) technical and communication support. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Integrated Task Plans for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, FY 1992 through May 1994

    Shipler, D.B.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate radiation doses from Hanford Site operations since 1944 to populations and individuals. The primary objective of work to be performed through May 1994 is to (1) determine the project's appropriate scope (space, time, radionuclides, pathways and individuals/population groups), (2) determine the project's appropriate level of accuracy (level of uncertainty in dose estimates) for the project, (3) complete model and data development, and (4) estimate doses for the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study (HTDS), representative individuals, and special populations as described herein. The plan for FY 1992 through May 1994 has been prepared based on activities and budgets approved by the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) at its meetings on August 19--20, 1991, and April 23--25, 1992. The activities can be divided into four broad categories: (1) model and data evaluation activities, (2)additional dose estimates, (3) model and data development activities, and (4)technical and communication support

  1. Integrated task plans for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, June 1992 through May 1994

    Shipler, D.B.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate radiation doses from Hanford Site operations since 1944 to representative individuals. The primary objective of work to be performed through May 1994 is to determine the project's appropriate scope: space, time, radionuclides, pathways and representative individuals; determine the project's appropriate level of accuracy/level of uncertainty in dose estimates; complete model and data development; and estimate doses for the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study and representative individuals. A major objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate doses to the thyroid of individuals who were exposed to iodine-131. A principal pathway for many of these individuals was milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated by iodine-131 released into the air from Hanford facilities. The plan for June 1992 through May 1994 has been prepared based on activities and budgets approved by the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) at its meetings on January 7--9, 1993 and February 25--26, 1993. The activities can be divided into three broad categories: (1) computer code and data development activities, (2) calculation of doses, and (3) technical and communication support to the TSP and the TSP Native American Working Group (NAWG). The following activities will be conducted to accomplish project objectives through May 1994

  2. Health Physics Society Comments to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Reform Task Force.

    Ring, Joseph; Tupin, Edward; Elder, Deirdre; Hiatt, Jerry; Sheetz, Michael; Kirner, Nancy; Little, Craig

    2018-05-01

    The Health Physics Society (HPS) provided comment to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on options to consider when developing an action plan for President Trump's Executive Order to evaluate regulations for repeal, replacement, or modification. The HPS recommended that the EPA reconsider their adherence to the linear no-threshold (LNT) model for radiation risk calculations and improve several documents by better addressing uncertainties in low-dose, low dose-rate (LDDR) radiation exposure environments. The authors point out that use of the LNT model near background levels cannot provide reliable risk projections, use of the LNT model and collective-dose calculations in some EPA documents is inconsistent with the recommendations of international organizations, and some EPA documents have not been exposed to the public comment rule-making process. To assist in establishing a better scientific basis for the risks of low dose rate and low dose radiation exposure, the EPA should continue to support the "Million Worker Study," led by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement.

  3. Climate and environmental changes over the past 150 years inferred from the sediments of Chaiwopu Lake, central Tianshan Mountains, northwest China

    Ma, Long; Wu, Jinglu; Abuduwaili, Jilili

    2013-04-01

    We used a 55-cm sediment core from shallow Chaiwopu Lake in the central Tianshan Mountains of Xinjiang, northwest China, to investigate climate and environmental changes in this arid region over the past ~150 years. The core was dated using 137Cs. We compared temporal changes in several sediment variables with recent meteorological and tree-ring records. Organic matter had a positive correlation with the Palmer Drought Severity Index in the central Tianshan Mountains, and the δ13C of organic matter had a positive correlation with regional temperature. We applied constrained incremental sum-of-squares cluster analysis to element concentrations in the core and identified three distinct zones: (1) 55-46 cm, ~1860-1910, (2) 46-26 cm, ~1910-1952, and (3) 26-0 cm, 1952-present. Between 1880 and 1910 AD, following the Little Ice Age (LIA), the sediment environment was relatively stable, climate was cold and dry, and the lake water displayed high salinity, in contrast to conditions during the LIA. During the LIA, westerlies carried more water vapor into Central Asia when the North Atlantic Oscillation was in a negative phase, and encountered the enhanced Siberia High, which probably led to increased precipitation. In the period 1910-1950 AD, the lake was shallow and the regional climate was unstable, with high temperatures and humidity. In the last ~15-20 years, human activities caused an increase in sediment magnetic susceptibility, and heavy metal and total phosphorus concentrations in the sediment were substantially enriched. Mean annual temperature displays a warming trend over the past 50 years, and the lowest temperature was observed in the 1950s. There has been an increase in annual total precipitation since the 1990s. The combined influences of climate and human activity on the lake environment during this period were faithfully recorded in sediments of Chaiwopu Lake. This study provides a scientific basis for environmental management and protection.

  4. First High-Resolution Record of Late Quaternary Environmental Changes in the Amundsen Sea, West Antarctica, Revealed by Multi-proxy Analysis of Drift Sediments

    Horrocks, J.; Ó Cofaigh, C.; Lloyd, J. M.; Hillenbrand, C. D.; Kuhn, G.; Smith, J.; Ehrmann, W. U.; Esper, O.

    2015-12-01

    The Amundsen Sea sector of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is experiencing rapid mass loss and there is a pressing need to place the contemporary ice-sheet changes into a longer term context. The continental rise in this region is characterised by large sediment mounds that are shaped by westward flowing bottom currents and that resemble contouritic drifts existing offshore from the Antarctic Peninsula. Similar to the Antarctic Peninsula drifts, marine sediment cores from the poorly studied sediment mounds in the Amundsen Sea have the potential to provide reliable records of dynamical ice-sheet behaviour in West Antarctica and palaeoceanographic changes in the Southern Ocean during the Late Quaternary that can be reconstructed from their terrestrial, biogenic and authigenic components. Here we use multi-proxy data from three sediment cores recovered from two of the Amundsen Sea mounds to present the first high-resolution study of environmental changes on this part of the West Antarctic continental margin over the glacial-interglacial cycles of the Late Quaternary. Age constraints for the records are derived from biostratigraphy, AMS 14C dates and lithostratigraphy. We focus on the investigation of processes for drift formation, thereby using grain size and sortable silt data to reconstruct changes in bottom current speed and to identify episodes of current winnowing. Data on geochemical and mineralogical sediment composition and physical properties are used to infer both changes in terrigenous sediment supply in response to the advance and retreat of the WAIS across the Amundsen Sea shelf and changes in biological productivity that are mainly controlled by the duration of annual sea-ice coverage. We compare our data sets from the Amundsen Sea mounds to those from the well-studied Antarctic Peninsula drifts, thereby highlighting similarities and discrepancies in depositional processes and climatically-driven environmental changes.

  5. In-Stream Sediment Dynamics for predicted environmental concentration calculations of plant protection products in the FOCUSSW Scenarios

    Strehmel, Alexander; Erzgräber, Beate; Gottesbüren, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    The exposure assessment for the EU registration procedure of plant protection products (PPP), which is based on the 'Forum for the co-ordination of pesticide fate models and their use' (FOCUS), currently considers only periods of 12-16 months for the exposure assessment in surface water bodies. However, in a recent scientific opinion of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) it is argued that in a multi-year exposure assessment, the accumulation of PPP substances in river sediment may be a relevant process. Therefore, the EFSA proposed to introduce a sediment accumulation factor in order to account for enrichment of PPP substances over several years in the sediment. The calculation of this accumulation factor, however, would consider degradation in sediment as the only dissipation path, and does not take into account riverine sediment dynamics. In order to assess the influence of deposition and the possible extent of substance accumulation in the sediment phase, the hydraulic model HEC-RAS was employed for an assessment of in-stream sediment dynamics of the FOCUS stream scenarios. The model was parameterized according to the stream characteristics of the FOCUS scenarios and was run over a period of 20 years. The results show that with the distribution of grain sizes and the ranges of flow velocity in the FOCUS streams the main sediment process in the streams is transport. First modeling results suggest that about 80% of the eroded sediment mass from the adjacent field are transported to the downstream end of the stream and out of the system, while only about 20% are deposited in the river bed. At the same time, only about 30% of in-stream sediment mass stems from the adjacent field and is associated with PPP substance, while the remaining sediment consists of the substance-free base sediment concentration regarded in the scenarios. With this, the hydraulic modelling approach is able to support the development of a meaningful sediment accumulation factor by

  6. Cadmium mobility in sediments and soils from a coal mining area on Tibagi River watershed: Environmental risk assessment

    Galunin, Evgeny; Ferreti, Jeferson; Zapelini, Iago; Vieira, Isadora; Ricardo Teixeira Tarley, César [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rod. Celso Garcia Cid – PR 445, 86051-990 Londrina (Brazil); Abrão, Taufik [Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rod. Celso Garcia Cid – PR 445, 86051-990 Londrina (Brazil); Santos, Maria Josefa, E-mail: mjyabe@uel.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rod. Celso Garcia Cid – PR 445, 86051-990 Londrina (Brazil)

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • The cadmium sorption–desorption behavior on environmental samples was investigated. • The sorption decreased due to competition between Cd and protons in aqueous medium. • The experimental data were successfully adjusted to the Langmuir–Freundlich model. • The role of low-energy non-specific sites on the sample surfaces was elucidated. • The desorption rate and hysteresis index suggested a high risk of cadmium pollution. -- Abstract: The risk of cadmium contamination in the Tibagi River watershed (Parana State, Brazil) affected by past coal mining activities was assessed through sorption–desorption modeling for sediment and soil samples. The acidic character of the samples resulted in more competition between the cadmium ions and protons, thereby influencing the cadmium sorption–desorption. The sorption isotherms were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich single models and to the dual-site Langmuir–Freundlich (or Sips) model. The single-site models indicated a low-energy character of sorption sites on the sample sorption sites, whereas the dual-site model explained the availability of higher-affinity and lower-affinity non-specific sites. The correlation of the sorption and desorption constants with the physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the samples showed that the cadmium sorption behavior was significantly affected by the pH, point of zero charge, and also by the magnesium, aluminum, calcium and manganese amounts. Besides, the desorption rate and hysteresis index suggested a high risk of cadmium mobilization along the Tibagi River basin.

  7. Environmental occurrence and distribution of organic UV stabilizers and UV filters in the sediment of Chinese Bohai and Yellow Seas.

    Apel, Christina; Tang, Jianhui; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2018-04-01

    Organic UV stabilizers and UV filters are applied to industrial materials and cosmetics worldwide. In plastics they prevent photo-induced degradation, while in cosmetics they protect human skin against harmful effects of UV radiation. This study reports on the occurrence and distribution of organic UV stabilizers and UV filters in the surface sediment of the Chinese Bohai and Yellow Seas for the first time. In total, 16 out of 21 analyzed substances were positively detected. Concentrations ranged from sub-ng/g dw to low ng/g dw. The highest concentration of 25 ng/g dw was found for octocrylene (OC) in the Laizhou Bay. In the study area, characteristic composition profiles could be identified. In Korea Bay, the dominating substances were OC and ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS). All other analytes were below their method quantification limit (MQL). Around the Shandong Peninsula, highest concentrations of benzotriazole derivatives were observed in this study with octrizole (UV-329) as the predominant compound, reaching concentrations of 6.09 ng/g dw. The distribution pattern of UV-329 and bumetrizole (UV-326) were related (Pearson correlation coefficient r > 0.98, p « 0.01 around the Shandong Peninsula), indicating an identical input pathway and similar environmental behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of sedimentation field-flow fractionation-inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry for the characterization of environmental colloids

    Ranville, J.F.; Shanks, F.; Morrison, R.J.S.; Harris, T.; Doss, F.; Beckett, R.; Chittleborough, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    A relatively new hyphenated technique for the simultaneous size separation and elemental analysis of colloids has been further developed and applied to the characterization of soil colloids. Sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF) was directly interfaced to an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) to provide high-resolution sizing and elemental analysis of colloids in the range 0.05-1.0 μm. For this work our existing SdFFF instrument was modified by addition of an upgraded motor and software for centrifuge speed control and data collection. Analytical techniques were developed for the calibration and drift correction of the ICP-MS data collected during on-line SdFFF-ICP-MS analyses. Software was developed to allow off-line computation of drift-corrected, elemental concentrations across the colloid size range. SdFFF-ICP-MS examination of two colloid samples isolated from surface soil horizons showed significant enrichment in iron-containing phases in both the smaller and larger colloids relative to intermediate particle sizes (∼0.3 0.3 μm). These results demonstrate the utility of SdFFF-ICP-MS for examination of soil chemistry and mineralogy and suggests the technique will have application to other environmental and geochemical studies. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. Ecological risk evaluation of sediment core samples, Lake Tortum (Erzurum, NE Turkey using environmental indices

    Hakan Kaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the vertical distribution of heavy metals in a 72 cm-long core sample from Lake Tortum in order to shed light on the implications of potential ecological risks. Analysis was based on the use of environmental indices such as the Integrated Pollution Load Index (PLI and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PER. Results reveal that, except for Pb, Mn and Hg, the lowest concentrations of heavy metals occur at a core depth of between 2 cm and 20 cm for Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, As, Cd, Cr and Al. The highest concentration was found at sampling intervals of 36 cm and 50 cm, with the exception of Pb, Mn, Hg and Ni. The PLI values from bottom to top are less than 1 while the level with the nearest value to the background value lies at a depth between 24 cm and 26 cm. The PER index results suggest a low ecological risk level for Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Mn, Fe, As, Cr, and Al; however, Cd and Hg constitute an ecological threat to the lake ecosystem.

  10. Environmental impact of mining activity in Bor area as indicated by the distribution of heavy metals and bacterial population dynamics in sediment

    Filimon M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of inorganic pollution is pronounced in water adjacent to Bor Copper Smelter Complex (RTB Bor, Serbia, with Cu, Zn, Pb, and As being the main determinants of aquatic pollution pattern. Communities of microorganisms present in the sediments are mainly affected by heavy metal pollution. Some groups of bacteria can be considered pollution bio-indicators, due to their sensibility and ability to bioaccumulate heavy metals, thus contributing to reducing pollution. This study investigates the relationships between trace element accumulation and heterogeneity in sediment bacteria community structure found in water streams adjacent to the Bor Copper Smelter Complex (RTB Bor, Serbia. Our results showed no contamination with copper, zinc, nickel, iron, and chromium, but did show a low to moderate contamination with lead and a moderate to high contamination with arsenic in aquatic sediments within the area of interest. Spatial heterogeneity in sediment-associated bacterial communities did not relate significantly to location of sampling sites, except for iron reducing bacteria. Iron reducing bacteria and nitrifying bacteria were the best distinguishing groups of bacteria. However, only iron reducing bacteria were significantly influenced by sampling locations. The iron reducing bacteria has correlated negatively with the degree of sediment contamination with lead, and therefore, we suggest that this group of bacteria could serve as potential bio-indicators of inorganic water contamination in Bor RTB area.

  11. Holocene environmental changes in northern Lebanon as inferred from a multiproxy study on lacustrine-palustrine sediment

    Vidal, Laurence; Jenna, Hage-Hassen; Demory, François; Develle, Anne-Lise; van Campo, Elise; Elias, Ata

    2016-04-01

    The reconstruction of the Levantine post-glacial environmental evolution is essential to understand the interactions between variability of regional water cycle, dynamics of the global climate, and cultural evolution. We present a paleolacustrine record from the karstic Yammouneh basin (34.06N-34.09N; 36.0E-36.03E, 1360 m a.s.l.), located on the eastern flank of Mount Lebanon (northern Levant). Holocene sediments (retrieved from gully and a trenbch) (1.5 to 3.6 m thick) consist of pale lacustrine chalk interrupted by an ash layer and remarkable centimetric beds of ocher to dark brown silty clays used, in addition to 14C ages, as stratigraphical markers. Lacustrine biogenic remains are diversified and abundant (ostracods, gastropods, charophytes, chlorophyceae, plant debris…) all reflecting a freswater, generally shallow waterbody. We analysed the sediment mineralogy and geochemistry, TOM contents, magnetic properties, pollen and calcite oxygen isotope composition derived from ostracod shells. These sequences are compared to former data from 2 trenches and 1 core collected in different points of the basin (Daeron et al., 2007; Develle et al., 2009, 2010). A total of 42 AMS 14C dating (partly carbonized wood) provide a solid chronology from the YD to present. Results reveal the following main features : 1- intervals dominated by authigenic calcite suggest that the major water supply was the karstic springs, which still deliver Ca-rich water and low surface runoff; 2- the lake oxygen isotope composition has been impacted by the source isotope composition throughout the Holocene and by increased inland rainfall during the early Holocene; 3- a decideous oak forest, implying much more soil water availability than today, was developed around the lake from ca. 11.5 to 9.5 kyr (the very bad pollen preservation after 8.3 kyr reflects oxidation or frequent oscillations of the water level); 4- four paleosols evidenced from lithofacies and magnetic properties are identified

  12. Environmental assessment and nano-mineralogical characterization of coal, overburden and sediment from Indian coal mining acid drainage

    Madhulika Dutta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of environmental conditions is the major contributory factor to poor health and quality of life that hinders sustainable development in any region. Coal mining is one of the major industries that contribute to the economy of a country but it also impacts the environment. The chemical parameters of the coal, overburden, soil and sediments along with the coal mine drainage (CMD were investigated in order to understand the overall environmental impact from high sulphur coal mining at northeastern coalfield (India. It was found that the total sulphur content of the coal is noticeably high compared to the overburden (OB and soil. The volatile matter of the coal is sufficiently high against the high ash content of the soil and overburden. The water samples have a High Electrical Conductivity (EC and high Total Dissolve Solid (TDS. Lower values of pH, indicate the dissolution of minerals present in the coal as well as other minerals in the mine rejects/overburden. The chemical and nano-mineralogical composition of coal, soil and overburden samples was studied using a High Resolution-Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS, Selected-Area Diffraction (SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM/EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman and Ion-Chromatographic analysis, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. From different geochemical analysis it has been found that the mine water sample from Ledo colliery has the lowest pH value of 3.30, Tirap colliery samples have the highest electrical conductivity value of 5.40 ms cm−1. Both Ledo and Tirap coals have total sulphur contents within the range 3–3.50%. The coal mine water from Tirap colliery (TW-15B has high values of Mg2+ (450 ppm, and Br− (227.17 ppm. XRD analysis revealed the presence of minerals including quartz and hematite in the coals. Mineral analysis of coal mine overburden (OB indicates

  13. [Composition and Environmental Effects of LFOM and HFOM in "Incense-Ash" Sediments of West Lake, Hangzhou, China].

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Guang-wei; Zhu, Meng-yuan; Gong, Zhi-jun; Xu, Hai; Yang, Gui-jun

    2015-06-01

    To understand the organic matter pollution characteristic and its relationship with nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients in sediments of high organic matter type of urban shallow lakes, the organic matter content, light fraction organic matter (LFOM), heavy fraction organic matter (HFOM), and nitrogen and phosphorus contents were investigated in eight different regions of West Lake, Hangzhou. The results showed that, the organic matter content of the west lake sediment was 28-251 g x kg(-1), belonging to typical high organic matter sediment. The difference of organic matter content in different lake sediments was very big. The sediments located at the input site of water diversion engineering had significantly lower organic content than the rest regions. The LFOM content of West Lake sediment ranged 0.57-9.17 g x kg(-1), which averagely occupied 2.83% of the total organic matter, and the HFOM content ranged 5.35-347.41 g x kg(-1), which occupied more than 90% of the total organic matter. Compared to other shallow lakes located in China, sediments of West Lake had significantly high percentage of HFOM/LFOM ratio. But the HFOM content was obviously on the high side, reflecting the west lake as an urban lake with a long history, as well as high organic matter pollution load and sediment humification degree. Both the content and the ratio of LFOM/HFOM in sediment were related to nitrogen and phosphorus contents in sediment. This suggested that the composition of organic matter in West Lake sediments had potential control ability for the internal loading of N and P of the lake.

  14. A method of fingerprinting the sources of fluvial sediment using environmental radionuclides. A case study of Tsuzura river watershed

    Mizugaki, Shigeru; Onda, Yuichi; Fukuyama, Taijiro; Koga, Satoko; Hiramatsu, Shinya

    2006-01-01

    To study the fluvial sediment sources in forested watershed in Shikoku Island, Japan, the concentration of Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex and U decay series radionuclides were analyzed. The study area in the midstream of Shimanto River basin, located 700 km southwest of Tokyo. The 0.33 km 2 area watershed ranges in elevation from 170 m to 560 m above sea level. The soil sampling was conducted in hillslopes in various locations such as landslide scar, soil surface in unmanaged Hinoki (Chamacecyparis obtusa) plantation and unsealed forest road, and detailed sampling in the stream bed and bank was also conducted in several tributaries. Time-integrated suspended sediment sampler was adopted to obtain enough volume of sample to determine the radionuclides. The activities of Cs-137, Pb-210, Pb-214 and Bi-214 of soils and fluvial sediments were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Correction for the effect of particle size distribution and organic matter content on the radionuclides were conducted to compare the radionuclides concentration between the soils of potential suspended sediment sources and fluvial sediments. It was found that there were significant differences of Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex concentration between forest floor or runoff sediment and forest road or stream bank. The Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex concentration of suspended sediment varied among them, suggesting the possibility of fingerprinting the sources of fluvial sediment by Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex . (author)

  15. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 08: Evaluating sedimentation risks associated with fuel management

    William Elliot; Pete Robichaud

    2005-01-01

    This fact sheet describes the sources of sediment in upland forest watersheds in the context of fuel management activities. It presents the dominant forest soil erosion processes, and the principles behind the new sediment delivery interface developed to aid in erosion analysis of fuel management projects.

  16. Environmental complexity of a port: Evidence from circulation of the water masses, and composition and contamination of bottom sediments.

    Cutroneo, L; Carbone, C; Consani, S; Vagge, G; Canepa, G; Capello, M

    2017-06-15

    Ports are complex environments due to their complicated geometry (quays, channels, and piers), the presence of human activities (vessel traffic, shipyards, industries, and discharges), and natural factors (stream and torrent inputs, sea action, and currents). Taking these factors into consideration, we have examined the marine environment of a port from the point of view of the circulation of the water masses, hydrological characteristics, distribution of the sediment grain-size, mineralogical characteristics, and metal concentrations of the bottom sediments. Our results show that, in the case of the Port of Genoa (north-western Italy), the impact of human activities (such as a coal power-plant, oil depots, shipyards, dredging of the bottom sediments, etc.), natural processes (such as currents, fresh water and sediment inputs from the torrents), and the morphology of the basin, are important factors in the sediment, water, and metal distributions that have given rise to a complex environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Public comments and Task Force responses regarding the environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle

    1977-03-01

    This document contains responses by the NRC Task Force to comments received on the report ''Environmental Survey of the Reprocessing and Waste Management Portions of the LWR Fuel Cycle'' (NUREG-0116). These responses are directed at all comments, inclding those received after the close of the comment period. Additional information on the environmental impacts of reprocessing and waste management which has either become available since the publication of NUREG-0116 or which adds requested clarification to the information in that document

  18. Sensitive trace enrichment of environmental andiandrogen vinclozolin from natural waters and sediment samples using hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction.

    Lambropoulou, Dimitra A; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2004-12-17

    The presence of vinclozolin in the environment as far as the endocrine disruption effects in biota are concerned has raised interest in the environmental fate of this compound. In this respect, the present study attempts to investigate the feasibility of applying a novel quantitative method, liquid-phase microextraction (LPME), so as to determine this environmental andiandrogen in environmental samples such as water and sediment samples. The technique involved the use of a small amount (3 microL) of organic solvent impregnated in a hollow fiber membrane, which was attached to the needle of a conventional GC syringe. The extracted samples were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with electron-capture detection. Experimental LPME conditions such as extraction solvent, stirring rate, content of NaCl and pH were tested. Once LPME was optimized, the performance of the proposed technique was evaluated for the determination of vinclozolin in different types of natural water samples. The recovery of spiked water samples was from 80 to 99%. The procedure was adequate for quantification of vinclozolin in waters at levels of 0.010 to 50 microg/L (r> 0.994) with a detection limit of 0.001 microg/L (S/N= 3). Natural sediment samples from the Aliakmonas River area (Macedonia, Greece) spiked with the target andiandrogen compound were liquid-liquid extracted and analyzed by the methodology developed in this work. No significant interferences from the samples matrix were noticed, indicating that the reported methodology is an innovative tactic for sample preparation in sediment analysis, with a considerable improvement in the achieved detection limits. The results demonstrated that apart from analyte enrichment, the proposed LPME procedure also serves as clean-up method and could be successfully performed to determine trace amounts of vinclozolin in water and sediment samples.

  19. OU3 sediment dating and sedimentation rates

    Blair, R.B.; Wolaver, H.A.; Burger, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental Technologies at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFS) investigated the sediment history of Standley Lake, Great Western Reservoir, and Mower Reservoir using 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu global fall-out as dating indicators. These Colorado Front Range reservoirs have been the subject of study by various city, state and national agencies due to suspected Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant impacts. We performed sediment dating as part of the RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for Operable Unit 3. A sediment chronology profile assists scientist in determining the year of sedimentation for a particular peak concentration of contaminants. Radioisotope sediment dating for the three reservoirs indicated sedimentation rates of 0.7 to 0.8 in./yr. for Standley Lake (SL), 0.9 in./yr. for Great Western Reservoir (GWR), and 0.3 in./yr. in Mower Reservoir (MR). RFS sediment dating for Operable Unit 3 compared favorably with the Hardy, Livingston, Burke, and Volchok Standley Lake study. This report describes the cesium/plutonium sediment dating method, estimates sedimentation rates for Operable Unit 3 reservoirs, and compares these results to previous investigations

  20. Environmental magnetic and petroleum hydrocarbons records in sediment cores from the north east coast of Tamilnadu, Bay of Bengal, India.

    Venkatachalapathy, R; Veerasingam, S; Basavaiah, N; Ramkumar, T; Deenadayalan, K

    2011-04-01

    In this study, mineral magnetic properties and petroleum hydrocarbons were statistically analysed in four sediment cores (C1, A1, T1 and K1) from the north east coast of Tamilnadu, India to examine the feasibility of PHC concentrations assessment using magnetic susceptibility. The C1 and A1 cores reveal a clear horizon of increase in PHC above 35 and 50 cm respectively suggesting the excess anthropogenic loading occurred in the recent past. Magnetic properties which were enhanced in the upper part of the sediment cores were the result of ferrimagnetic minerals from anthropogenic sources. Factor analysis confirmed that the input of magnetic minerals and petroleum hydrocarbons in Chennai coastal sediments are derived from the same sources. The present study shows that instead of expensive and destructive PHC chemical methods, magnetic susceptibility is found to be a suitable, cheap and rapid method for detailed study of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in marine sediments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of Paleoredox Changes In Nw-pacific Deep-sea Sediments Using Environmental Magnetic In Combination With Geochemical-mineralogic Data

    Urbat, M.; Pletsch, T.

    The understanding of environmental and oceanic controls on deep-sea sediments in the NW Pacific Ocean (ODP Site 1149A, Nadezhda Basin) benefits from the inte- gration of environmental magnetic methodology with geochemical-mineralogic XRD (x-ray defraction) and XRF (x-ray fluorescence) data. Crucially, the inherently grad- ual diagenetic processes related to paleo-redox changes in the sediment column may be more sensitively monitored using the integration of non-magnetic and magnetic data, because they do reflect various aspects of the entire postdepositional alteration. The studied 32 m long quaternary interval at Hole ODP 1149A provides an expanded record of eolian dust supply from the Asian continent, siliceous plankton accumulation and varying contributions of both discrete ash layers and disperse ash to a truly deep- sea environment (Plank et al. 2000). Recurrent diagenetic intervals appear to be related to changes in the Ocean water circulation (Kuriosho current) and concomitant produc- tivity variations as a function of glacial-interglacial paleoclimatic changes. Diagenetic intervals correspond to paleo-redox boundaries, where suboxic conditions promoted the destruction of the primary magnetic signal (iron oxides) and the precipitation of rhodochrosite (MnCO3). We used simple normative calculations on the basis of of Al and Cr contents to discriminate between the major groups of components (terrigenous, volcanogenic, biogenic, diagenetic) in combination with our magnetic results. These results form the grounds for the discrimation and independent interpretation of the genetically various sediment components in the paleoceanograhic context.

  2. Geochemistry of stream sediments, water and U-Th radiation anomaly around Neyshabour Fyrouzeh mine and its environmental impact on people living nearby villages

    Karimpour, M. H.; Malekzadeh Shafaroudi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Fyrouzeh mine is located about 55 km northwest of Neyshabour in the Province of Khorasan Razavi. The exposed rocks are mainly volcanic and intrusive with intermediate composition and all of them are altered. This mine is the first type of IOCG recognized in Iran with Cu-Au-LREE-U. Besides Cu-Au-U, this area shows As, Mo, Zn and Th anomalies. Geochemical evaluation of stream sediment with regard to environmental concern revealed high Cu anomalies. Rocks show high uranium anomalies (up to 35 ppm) higher than the standard values (1 ppm). Airborne radiometric maps show high U and Th anomalies in a broad area. Ag, Hg and Mn show anomalies within the stream sediments. Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, Ni, Mn, Sb, Hg, and U content of both drinking and agricultural water are fortunately within the range of standard, only two samples have higher As content (more than 10 ppb). High level of U-Th radiation and contamination of stream sediment with respect to Cu, Hg, Ag, Mn and agricultural water to As are important environmental issues and people health therefore they need to be study.

  3. Effect of environmental conditions on variation in the sediment-water interface created by complex macrofaunal burrows on a tidal flat

    Koo, Bon Joo; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Hyun, Jung-Ho

    2007-11-01

    We quantified the increase in the sediment-water interface created by the burrowing activities of the resident macrofaunal community and its variation with respect to the physical conditions of the habitat on a tidal fat. We investigated environmental factors and dimensions of macrofaunal burrows with respect to tidal height and vegetation during spring and summer at three sites. A resin-casting method was used to quantify the dimensions of all burrows at each site. The dimensions of macrofaunal burrows varied both temporally and spatially and the increase in the sediment-water interface reached a maximum of 311%, ranging from 20 to 255% under different habitat conditions. The sediment-water interface depended on the duration of exposure resulting from tidal height, increased temperatures resulting from seasonality, and marsh plant density. Burrows were deeper and more expansive at both higher tidal levels and higher temperatures in summer. Burrow dimensions were sharply reduced with the disappearance of adult macrofauna in areas where the roots of the marsh plant Suaeda japonica were dense. The significance of this study lies in quantifying the burrow dimensions of the entire macrofaunal community, rather than just a single population, and confirming their spatial and temporal variation with respect to physical conditions of the habitat. Environmental factors responsible for variation in burrow dimensions are discussed.

  4. Different partition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon on environmental particulates in freshwater: Microplastics in comparison to natural sediment.

    Wang, Wenfeng; Wang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Microplastics pollution in the aquatic ecosystems has aroused increasing concerns in recent years. Though microplastics are known to sorb organic contaminants from water, the interaction mechanisms between microplastics and organic chemicals are not yet well understood. Here we investigated the partition characteristics of phenanthrene (Phe) in three mass-produced plastic particles, including polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinylchloride (PVC), and one natural sediment, as a comparison. The sorption kinetics of Phe onto microplastics and natural sediment were successfully described by the pseudo-second-order model (R 2 > 0.992), while the equilibrium data were best-fitted to the Langmuir isotherm (R 2 > 0.995). Compared with natural sediment, microplastics exhibited higher capacities for Phe which followed an order of PE > PS > PVC. As the aqueous concentration of pyrene (Pyr) increased, both uptakes and distribution coefficients (K d ) of Phe within the solids decreased, with natural sediment giving the largest decline. Although proportions of Phe desorbed from the contaminated microplastics were low, due to the high Phe uptake, microplastics released larger amounts of the sorbed Phe to water than the natural sediment during the desorption process. Given their minimal abundance relative to natural sediment, microplastics may play a less important role in the transport of organic pollutants in a natural aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of gold as monostandard for the determination of elemental concentrations in environmental SRMs and Ganga river sediments by the k0 method

    Ramakrishna, V.V.S.; Acharya, R.N.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Garg, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using the k 0 method by employing gold as monostandard has been used for the determination of 18 elements (As, Ba, Br, Cl, Cr, Co, Cs, Dy, Fe, Hf, Ga, In, La, Mn, Na, Rb, Sc and Th) in standard reference materials (SRMs) of environmental origin and four sediment samples collected from the Ganga river in northern parts of India. Data obtained for SRMs agree within ±5-10% with the certified values for most elements. Merits and demerits of the k 0 method are discussed. An attempt has been made to identify the sources of heavy metal pollutants in the sediment samples and study the mobility pattern for toxic heavy metals originating from the tanneries along with the river flow

  6. Evidence for Isostatic Emergence and Holocene Environmental Change Recorded in Chironomid Assemblages and Sediment Composition of Coastal Lake T1 in SW Greenland

    Berman, K.; Axford, Y.; Lasher, G. E.

    2017-12-01

    Multi-proxy analysis of a coastal lake in southwest Greenland near Nuuk provides evidence for regional environmental changes, including the timing of isostatic rebound and the temperature history of the area. T1 (informal name) is a small lake 50 km south of Nuuk, at 17.5 m elevation and currently isolated from glacial meltwater drainage. The lake's sediment record begins approximately 9500 cal years BP, when the site was submerged beneath sea level due to glacial isostatic depression following the Last Glacial Maximum. The record captures the transition of the environment from a submerged, glacially-influenced marine site to a non-glacially fed (and initially meromictic) freshwater lake 8600 cal years BP. Magnetic susceptibility, a proxy for sediment minerogenic content, decreased rapidly from 9500 to 8600 years BP, before abruptly stabilizing and remaining relatively low and steady for the rest of the record. The transition to a lacustrine environment was characterized by a rapid and relatively simultaneous increase in primary productivity (inferred from biogenic silica concentrations) and shift towards terrestrial versus marine sources of organic matter (inferred from carbon:nitrogen ratios and nitrogen isotopes) between 8700 and 8400 years BP. Together, these proxies and the presence of marine shells below the transition provide robust evidence for the transition from a marine environment to a freshwater lake in response to regional postglacial isostatic rebound. Within the Holocene, measures of bulk sediment composition (e.g., biogenic silica, loss-on-ignition and magnetic susceptibility) are relatively stable. Chironomid (Insecta: Diptera: Chironomidae) assemblages, which in some environments are quantitative proxies for summer temperature changes, show species-level shifts within the Holocene that will be interpreted in this presentation alongside indicators of landscape change including carbon:nitrogen ratios, bulk sediment spectral reflectance and bulk

  7. Environmental Risk Assessment Based on High-Resolution Spatial Maps of Potentially Toxic Elements Sampled on Stream Sediments of Santiago, Cape Verde

    Marina M. S. Cabral Pinto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical mapping is the base knowledge to identify the regions of the planet with critical contents of potentially toxic elements from either natural or anthropogenic sources. Sediments, soils and waters are the vehicles which link the inorganic environment to life through the supply of essential macro and micro nutrients. The chemical composition of surface geological materials may cause metabolic changes which may favor the occurrence of endemic diseases in humans. In order to better understand the relationships between environmental geochemistry and public health, we present environmental risk maps of some harmful elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in the stream sediments of Santiago, Cape Verde, identifying the potentially harmful areas in this island. The Estimated Background Values (EBV of Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and V were found to be above the Canadian guidelines for any type of use of stream sediments and also above the target values of the Dutch and United States guidelines. The Probably Effect Concentrations (PEC, above which harmful effects are likely in sediment dwelling organisms, were found for Cr and Ni. Some associations between the geological formations of the island and the composition of stream sediments were identified and confirmed by descriptive statistics and by Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The EBV spatial distribution of the metals and the results of PCA allowed us to establish relationships between the EBV maps and the geological formations. The first two PCA modes indicate that heavy metals in Santiago stream sediments are mainly originated from weathering of underlying bedrocks. The first metal association (Co, V, Cr, and Mn; first PCA mode consists of elements enriched in basic rocks and compatible elements. The second association of variables (Zn and Cd as opposed to Ni; second PCA mode appears to be strongly controlled by the composition of alkaline volcanic rocks and pyroclastic rocks. So, the

  8. Environmental impact of the largest petroleum terminal in SE Brazil: A multiproxy analysis based on sediment geochemistry and living benthic foraminifera.

    Wânia Duleba

    Full Text Available The Dutos e Terminais do Centro Sul (DTCS is one of the largest petroleum terminals of the South America located in the São Sebastião Channel (SSC on the southeastern Brazilian coast. The aims of this study were to compare the sediment quality near the DTCS with that of several sites in the SSC region including the Araçá (AR domestic sewage outfall and to assess the efficiency of the DTCS wastewater treatment plant. To achieve these goals, textural, geochemical, and living benthic foraminifera results were analyzed for the DTCS, AR, and SSC regions. Sediments in the DTCS area were silty with high concentrations of total organic carbon (1.7-2.4%, total nitrogen (0.2-0.3%, total sulfur (0.4-0.6%, and total (0.12-0.18% and inorganic phosphorous (0.07-0.11%. These values were higher than those in sediments collected in the SSC and Araçá regions. The sediments' concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the SSC and AR regions were lower than their corresponding probable effect levels (PELs. However, sediments near the DTCS were enriched with As, Cu, and Ni, whose concentrations exceeded their corresponding threshold effect levels (TELs. Around the DTCS outfall diffusers, living foraminiferal densities and diversities were lower than those for the other areas studied. In the DTCS area, it was necessary to search 50 to 190 cm3 of sediment to find 100 live specimens. In the SSC and Araçá areas, a maximum of 40 cm3 of sediment was enough to locate 100 live specimens. The lower density and diversity of living foraminifera around the DTCS than around the other areas illustrates the impact of the environmental stress caused by the presence of pollutants. These results indicate that the wastewater treatment plant efficiency is low and its discharge of pollutants from petrochemical waste liquids affects the benthic fauna around the DTCS in a potentially harmful manner.

  9. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  10. Dynamics of dissolved organic matter in riverine sediments affected by weir impoundments: Production, benthic flux, and environmental implications.

    Chen, Meilian; Kim, Sung-Han; Jung, Heon-Jae; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Choi, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Huh, In-Ae; Hur, Jin

    2017-09-15

    In order to understand the characteristics and dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the sediment of rivers affected by impoundments, we examined the vertical profiles and the benthic fluxes of DOM in four different core sediments located at upstream sites of weirs in major rivers of South Korea. In three out of four sites, exponential accumulation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with depth was observed with the signature of seasonal variability. Except for the site displaying a below-detection limit of Fe(II), the general accumulation trends of DOC with depth was concurrent with the increases of Fe(II) and NH 4 + and the decrease of PO 4 3- , signifying a close linkage of the DOM dynamics with anaerobic respiration via iron reduction, an important early diagenesis pathway. The estimated benthic fluxes from the cores revealed that the sediments likely serve as DOC, chromophoric DOM (CDOM), and fluorescent DOM (FDOM) sources to the overlying water. The benthic effluxes based on DOC were comparable to the ranges previously reported in lake and coastal areas, and those of CDOM and FDOM showed even higher levels. These findings imply that impoundment-affected river systems would change the DOM composition of the overlying water, ultimately influencing the subsequent water treatment processes such as disinfection byproducts production and membrane fouling. A simple mass balance model indicated that the impoundment-affected river sediments may operate as a net carbon sink in the environments due to a greater extent of sedimentation compared to the estimated benthic efflux and sediment biological respiration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of the environmental impacts of the natural radioactivity presents in beach sand and Lake Sediment samples Idku, Behara, Egypt

    Fahmi, N.M.; El-Khatib, A.; Abd El-Salam, Y.M.; Naim, M.A.; Shalaby, M.H.; El-Gally, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Natural radionuclides belonging to 232 Th, 238 U decay chains, 40 K and 137 Cs in contents of beach sands and bottom sediments collected at various locations over Idku coast and Idku lake, respectively have been determined using low background computerized high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. A distribution map for each radionuclide distribution was presented for idku lake as well as radium equivalent and the external hazard index which resulted from the natural radionuclides in sediments are also calculated and tabulated for the analyzed samples.

  12. Environmental controls on the distribution of organic matter in recent sediments of the western continental margin of India

    Paropkari, A.L.; Rao, Ch.M.; Murty, P.S.N.

    trends along and across the shelf region. The C/N ratios suggest that the inner shelf sediments consist of an admixture of organic matter derived from detrital and marine sources. It is also indicated that the influence of the detrital organic matter...

  13. A cave response to environmental changes in the Late Pleistocene: a study of Budimirica Cave sediments, Macedonia

    Temovski, M.; Pruner, Petr; Hercman, H.; Bosák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 3 (2016), s. 307-316 ISSN 1330-030X Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : cave sediments * palaeoenvironmental changes * Late Pleistocene * Budimirica Cave * Macedonia Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.595, year: 2016 http://www. geologia -croatica.hr/ojs/index.php/GC

  14. Sediment Resuspension Data

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The full report on sediment resuspension in drinking water storage tanks and a link to an animation of results. This dataset is associated with the following...

  15. Public comments and Task Force responses regarding the environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle

    1977-03-01

    This document contains responses by the NRC Task Force to comments received on the report ''Environmental Survey of the Reprocessing and Waste Management Portions of the LWR Fuel Cycle'' (NUREG-0116). These responses are directed at all comments, inclding those received after the close of the comment period. Additional information on the environmental impacts of reprocessing and waste management which has either become available since the publication of NUREG-0116 or which adds requested clarification to the information in that document.

  16. Geochemical mapping using stream sediments in west-central Nigeria: Implications for environmental studies and mineral exploration in West Africa

    Lapworth, Dan J.; Knights, Katherine V.; Key, Roger M.; Johnson, Christopher C.; Ayoade, Emmanuel; Adekanmi, Michael A.; Arisekola, Tunde M.; Okunlola, Olugbenga A.; Backman, Birgitta; Eklund, Mikael; Everett, Paul A.; Lister, Robert T.; Ridgway, John; Watts, Michael J.; Kemp, Simon J.; Pitfield, Peter E.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of regional geochemical mapping using stream sediments from central and south-western Nigeria. A total of 1569 stream sediment samples were collected and 54 major and trace elements determined by ICP-MS and Au, Pd and Pt by fire assay. Multivariate statistical techniques (e.g., correlation analysis and principal factor analysis) were used to explore the data, following appropriate data transformation, to understand the data structure, investigate underlying processes controlling spatial geochemical variability and identify element associations. Major geochemical variations are controlled by source geology and provenance, as well as chemical weathering and winnowing processes, more subtle variations are a result of land use and contamination from anthropogenic activity. This work has identified placer deposits of potential economic importance for Au, REE, Ta, Nb, U and Pt, as well as other primary metal deposits. Areas of higher As and Cr (>2 mg/kg and >70 mg/kg respectively) are associated with Mesozoic and younger coastal sediments in SW Nigeria. High stream sediment Zr concentrations (mean >0.2%), from proximal zircons derived from weathering of basement rocks, have important implications for sample preparation and subsequent analysis due to interferences. Associated heavy minerals enriched in high field strength elements, and notably rare earths, may also have important implications for understanding magmatic processes within the basement terrain of West Africa. This study provides important new background/baseline geochemical values for common geological domains in Nigeria (which extend across other parts of West Africa) for assessment of contamination from urban/industrial land use changes and mining activities. Regional stream sediment mapping is also able to provide important new information with applications across a number of sectors including agriculture, health, land use and planning.

  17. Environmental impact of the largest petroleum terminal in SE Brazil: A multiproxy analysis based on sediment geochemistry and living benthic foraminifera

    Duleba, Wânia; Teodoro, Andreia C.; Debenay, Jean-Pierre; Gubitoso, Silas; Pregnolato, Leonardo Antônio; Lerena, Laura Misailidis; Prada, Silvio Miranda; Bevilacqua, José Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    The Dutos e Terminais do Centro Sul (DTCS) is one of the largest petroleum terminals of the South America located in the São Sebastião Channel (SSC) on the southeastern Brazilian coast. The aims of this study were to compare the sediment quality near the DTCS with that of several sites in the SSC region including the Araçá (AR) domestic sewage outfall and to assess the efficiency of the DTCS wastewater treatment plant. To achieve these goals, textural, geochemical, and living benthic foraminifera results were analyzed for the DTCS, AR, and SSC regions. Sediments in the DTCS area were silty with high concentrations of total organic carbon (1.7–2.4%), total nitrogen (0.2–0.3%), total sulfur (0.4–0.6%), and total (0.12–0.18%) and inorganic phosphorous (0.07–0.11%). These values were higher than those in sediments collected in the SSC and Araçá regions. The sediments’ concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the SSC and AR regions were lower than their corresponding probable effect levels (PELs). However, sediments near the DTCS were enriched with As, Cu, and Ni, whose concentrations exceeded their corresponding threshold effect levels (TELs). Around the DTCS outfall diffusers, living foraminiferal densities and diversities were lower than those for the other areas studied. In the DTCS area, it was necessary to search 50 to 190 cm3 of sediment to find 100 live specimens. In the SSC and Araçá areas, a maximum of 40 cm3 of sediment was enough to locate 100 live specimens. The lower density and diversity of living foraminifera around the DTCS than around the other areas illustrates the impact of the environmental stress caused by the presence of pollutants. These results indicate that the wastewater treatment plant efficiency is low and its discharge of pollutants from petrochemical waste liquids affects the benthic fauna around the DTCS in a potentially harmful manner. PMID:29432425

  18. US Environmental Protection Agency National Coastal Assessment for Hawaii 2002: Water Quality, Fish Taxon, Sediment Chemistry Data (NODC Accession 0061250)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2002, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) National Coastal Assessment (NCA), in conjunction with...

  19. Environmental Impact of the Helen, Research, and Chicago Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in the Upper Dry Creek Watershed, Lake County, California

    Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel; Brussee, Brianne E.

    2009-01-01

    The Helen, Research, and Chicago mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the southwestern part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Lake County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Dry Creek. The Helen Hg mine is the largest mine in the watershed having produced about 7,600 flasks of Hg. The Chicago and Research Hg mines produced only a small amount of Hg, less than 30 flasks. Waste rock and tailings have eroded from the mines, and mine drainage from the Helen and Research mines contributes Hg-enriched mine wastes to the headwaters of Dry Creek and contaminate the creek further downstream. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines and in Dry Creek. This report is made in response to the USBLM request to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Dry Creek. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines on April 19, 2001, during a storm event. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota at the Helen mine area and the upper part of Dry Creek was completed on July 15, 2003, during low-flow conditions. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in the water, sediment, and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

  20. Environmental chemical data for perishable sediments and soils collected in New Orleans, Louisiana, and along the Louisiana Delta following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, 2005

    Witt, Emitt C.; Shi, Honglan; Karstensen, Krista A.; Wang, Jianmin; Adams, Craig D.

    2008-01-01

    In October 2005, nearly one month after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, a team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and the Missouri University of Science and Technology deployed to southern Louisiana to collect perishable environmental data resulting from the impacts of these storms. Perishable samples collected for this investigation are subject to destruction or ruin by removal, mixing, or natural decay; therefore, collection is time-critical following the depositional event. A total of 238 samples of sediment, soil, and vegetation were collected to characterize chemical quality. For this analysis, 157 of the 238 samples were used to characterize trace element, iron, total organic carbon, pesticide, and polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations of deposited sediment and associated shallow soils. In decreasing order, the largest variability in trace element concentration was detected for lead, vanadium, chromium, copper, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury. Lead was determined to be the trace element of most concern because of the large concentrations present in the samples ranging from 4.50 to 551 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). Sequential extraction analysis of lead indicate that 39.1 percent of the total lead concentration in post-hurricane sediment is associated with the iron-manganese oxide fraction. This fraction is considered extremely mobile under reducing environmental conditions, thereby making lead a potential health hazard. The presence of lead in post-hurricane sediments likely is from redistribution of pre-hurricane contaminated soils and sediments from Lake Pontchartrain and the flood control canals of New Orleans. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.84 to 49.1 mg/kg. Although Arsenic concentrations generally were small and consistent with other research results, all samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Human Health Medium-Specific Screening Level of 0.39 mg/kg. Mercury concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 1.30 mg

  1. Use of Human Modeling Simulation Software in the Task Analysis of the Environmental Control and Life Support System Component Installation Procedures

    Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Virtual reality and simulation applications are becoming widespread in human task analysis. These programs have many benefits for the Human Factors Engineering field. Not only do creating and using virtual environments for human engineering analyses save money and time, this approach also promotes user experimentation and provides increased quality of analyses. This paper explains the human engineering task analysis performed on the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) space station rack and its Distillation Assembly (DA) subsystem using EAI's human modeling simulation software, Jack. When installed on the International Space Station (ISS), ECLSS will provide the life and environment support needed to adequately sustain crew life. The DA is an Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) that provides means of wastewater (primarily urine from flight crew and experimental animals) reclamation. Jack was used to create a model of the weightless environment of the ISS Node 3, where the ECLSS is housed. Computer aided drawings of the ECLSS rack and DA system were also brought into the environment. Anthropometric models of a 95th percentile male and 5th percentile female were used to examine the human interfaces encountered during various ECLSS and DA tasks. The results of the task analyses were used in suggesting modifications to hardware and crew task procedures to improve accessibility, conserve crew time, and add convenience for the crew. This paper will address some of those suggested modifications and the method of presenting final analyses for requirements verification.

  2. WAG 2 remedial investigation and site investigation site-specific work plan/health and safety checklist for the soil and sediment task

    Holt, V.L.; Burgoa, B.B.

    1993-12-01

    This document is a site-specific work plan/health and safety checklist (WP/HSC) for a task of the Waste Area Grouping 2 Remedial Investigation and Site Investigation (WAG 2 RI ampersand SI). Title 29 CFR Part 1910.120 requires that a health and safety program plan that includes site- and task-specific information be completed to ensure conformance with health- and safety-related requirements. To meet this requirement, the health and safety program plan for each WAG 2 RI ampersand SI field task must include (1) the general health and safety program plan for all WAG 2 RI ampersand SI field activities and (2) a WP/HSC for that particular field task. These two components, along with all applicable referenced procedures, must be kept together at the work site and distributed to field personnel as required. The general health and safety program plan is the Health and Safety Plan for the Remedial Investigation and Site Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ORNL/ER-169). The WP/HSCs are being issued as supplements to ORNL/ER-169

  3. Neutron activation analysis for environmental trace element research determination of elemental composition of sediments in the Sea of Galillee, Israel

    Lavi, N; Ne` eman, E; Brenner, S; Butenko, V [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Medical School

    1996-12-01

    The aims of this work were to: a) demonstrate the effectiveness of instrumental neutron activation analysis for determining the background concentrations of trace elements in the sediments collected from the Sea of Gallile. b) determine the advantage factors for epithermal neutron irradiation. c) determine the contribution of silicon to the total {sup 28}Al activity by the {sup 28}Si(n,p){sup 28}Al reaction. c) check the validity of the method by determining the elemental content of U.S. NBS Standard Reference Material SRM-1633a (fly ash). d) calculate the average enrichment factors for the elements in sediments . e) determine the concentrations of the artificial radionuclides {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs and the naturally occurring radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th (authors).

  4. Correlations between dioxin-like and indicators PCBs: Potential consequences for environmental studies involving fish or sediment

    Babut, M.; Miege, C.; Villeneuve, B.; Abarnou, A.; Duchemin, J.; Marchand, P.; Narbonne, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Among the numerous PCB congeners, most of the dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) need to be characterized by hyphenated techniques. It has been shown in several instances that these congeners are well related to the total PCB content in fish. We examined datasets collected mainly in France, on freshwater and marine fish and sediments. A statistical model linking DL- and indicator PCBs was developed for a dataset composed of freshwater fishes, and proved to predict well DL-PCBs from indicator PCBs in all other fish sets, including marine ones. Type II error rates remained low in almost all fish sets. A similar correlation was observed in sediments. Non-dioxin-like PCBs elicit various adverse effects and represent 95% of the total PCBs. A European guideline for them is needed; the correlation between DL- and indicator PCBs could help develop this standard in the future. - Dioxin-like PCBs in fish and maybe sediments are rather well predicted by indicator PCBs.

  5. Environmental Modeling, The Buffer Priority layers for Phosphorus / Sediment) Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer opportunities by subwatershed. Land use, hydrology, soil, and landscape characteristics were analyzed to rank buffer opportunities with high P/sed removal., Published in 2014, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR).

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Environmental Modeling dataset current as of 2014. The Buffer Priority layers for Phosphorus / Sediment) Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer opportunities...

  6. Environmental radiation levels in soil and sediment samples collected from floating water from a land runway resulting from heavy rains in the Jeddah region, KSA

    Mohery, M.; Baz, Shadiah; Kelany, Adel M.; Abdallah, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The natural radiation levels in soil and sediment samples collected from floating water from a land runway resulting from heavy rains in the Jeddah region as well as the activity in the population of its surrounding environments were studied. In the regions surrounding Jeddah, the movements of floating water may increase the concentration of radioactivity due to the movement of soil due to heavy rains. In addition, the technological development of industry, agriculture and other sources around the Jeddah region has increased environmental pollution, resulting in noticeable concentrations of radioactivity. The measured activity concentrations of 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 208 Tl, 40 K, 226 Ra and 228 Ra in the studied area suggest that they are within the world average for soils and sediments, except those for water sample no. 4; the concentration in this sample was five times higher than the world average concentration (this water is not consumable). Herein, the radioactivity concentrations that were obtained from the analysis of soil and sediment samples that were collected from the investigated area are discussed. Additionally, the absorbed dose rate (D), radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ), external hazard index (H ex ), annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) and annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) were evaluated. For the soil and sediment samples, the average radioactivity concentrations were determined for each site and are expressed in Becquerels per kilogram (Bq/kg) of dry weight, while for the measurement of both the 226 Ra and 228 Ra isotopes in the water samples, the activity concentration is expressed in picoCuries per liter (pCi/l). The obtained results were compared with other measurements from different countries. The movement of floating water around the Jeddah region increases the concentration of radioactivity due to the movement of soils with heavy rains. - Highlights: • The natural radiation levels in soil and sediment samples from floating

  7. Development and application of an innovative expert decision support system to manage sediments and to assess environmental risk in freshwater ecosystems.

    Dagnino, Alessandro; Bo, Tiziano; Copetta, Andrea; Fenoglio, Stefano; Oliveri, Caterina; Bencivenga, Mauro; Felli, Angelo; Viarengo, Aldo

    2013-10-01

    With the aim of supporting decision makers to manage contamination in freshwater environments, an innovative expert decision support system (EDSS) was developed. The EDSS was applied in a sediment quality assessment along the Bormida river (NW, Italy) which has been heavily contaminated by an upstream industrial site for more than a century. Sampling sites were classified by means of comparing chemical concentrations with effect-based target values (threshold and probable effect concentrations). The level of each contaminant and the combined toxic pressure were used to rank sites into three categories: (i) uncontaminated (8 sites), (ii) mildly contaminated (4) and (iii) heavily contaminated (19). In heavily contaminated sediments, an environmental risk index (EnvRI) was determined by means of integrating chemical data with ecotoxicological and ecological parameters (triad approach). In addition a sediment risk index (SedRI) was computed from combining chemical and ecotoxicological data. Eight sites exhibited EnvRI values ≥0.25, the safety threshold level (range of EnvRI values: 0.14-0.31) whereas SedRI exceeded the safety threshold level at 6 sites (range of SedRI values: 0.16-0.36). At sites classified as mildly contaminated, sublethal biomarkers were integrated with chemical data into a biological vulnerability index (BVI), which exceeded the safety threshold level at one site (BVI value: 0.28). Finally, potential human risk was assessed in selected stations (11 sites) by integrating genotoxicity biomarkers (GTI index falling in the range 0.00-0.53). General conclusions drawn from the EDSS data include: (i) in sites classified as heavily contaminated, only a few exhibited some significant, yet limited, effects on biodiversity; (ii) restrictions in re-using sediments from heavily contaminated sites found little support in ecotoxicological data; (iii) in the majority of the sites classified as mildly contaminated, tested organisms exhibited low response levels

  8. Influence of inter-annual environmental variability on chrysophyte cyst assemblages: insight from a 2-years sediment trap study in lakes from northern Poland

    Iván Hernández-Almeida

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative paleonvironmental studies using transfer functions are developed from training sets. However, changes in some variables (e.g., climatic can be difficult to identify from short-term monitoring (e.g., less than one year. Here, we present the study of the chrysophyte cyst assemblages from sediment traps deployed during two consecutive years (November 2011-November 2013 in 14 lakes from Northern Poland. The studied lakes are distributed along a W-E climatological gradient, with very different physical, chemical and morphological characteristics, and land-uses. Field surveys were carried out to recover the sediment trap material during autumn, along with the measurement of several environmental variables (nutrients, major water ions, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a. During the study, one year experienced mild seasonal changes in air temperature (November 2011-November 2012; TS1, typical of oceanic climate, while the other year was characterized by colder winter and spring (November 2012-November 2013; TS2, and higher summer temperatures, more characteristic of continental climate. Other environmental variables (e.g., nutrients did not show great changes between both years. Multivariate statistical analyses (RDA and DCA were performed on individual TS1 and TS2 datasets. Water chemistry and nutrients (pH, TN and TP explained the largest portion of the variance of the chrysophyte data for the individual years. However, analyses of the combined TS1 and TS2 datasets show that strong changes between summer and autumn (warm period, ice-free period with thermal stratification and winter and spring (cold period, ice-cover period play the most important role in the inter-annual variability in the chrysophyte assemblages. We show how inter-annual sampling maximizes ecological gradients of interest, particularly in regions with large environmental diversity, and low climatic variability. This methodology could help to identify

  9. Research and development of technologies for safe and environmentally optimal recovery and disposal of explosive wastes. Task 2, Preliminary impact assessment for environment, health and safety (EIA)

    Duijm, N.J.; Markert, F. [Risoe (Denmark); Larsen, S.G. [DEMEX A/S (Denmark)

    1998-09-01

    As described in the project proposal `Research and Development of Technologies for Safe and Environmentally optimal recovery and Disposal of Explosive Wastes`, dated 31. May 1996, the objective of Task 2, Preliminary Impact Assessment for Environment, Health and Safety, is to: Analyse the environmental impact of noise and emissions to air, water and soil; Assess the risk of hazards to workers` health and safety and to the public. Task 2, Preliminary Impact Assessment for Environment, Health and Safety (EIA), has been performed from August 1997 to September 1998. First, a methodology has been established, based on Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), to select the `best` technology on the basis of clearly defined objectives, including minimal impacts on environment, health and safety. This included a review of different types of explosive waste with a focus on the environment implications, identifying the issues relevant to defining the criteria or objectives with respect to environment and safety in the framework of explosive waste, as well as the preliminary definition of objectives for the final impact assessment. Second, the previously identified recovery and disposal technologies (Task 1) have been qualitatively assessed on the basis of the relevant objectives. This qualitative assessment includes also economic considerations and an attempt to rank the technologies in an MCDA framework. (au)

  10. Using diatom assemblages and sulphur in sediments to uncover the effects of historical mining on Lake Arnoux (Quebec, Canada: A retrospective of economic benefits versus environmental debt

    Paul Brian Hamilton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring changes in environmental conditions is increasingly important as the Canadian economic infrastructure ramps up exploration and mining development in the more inaccessible northern regions of Canada. Governments are concurrently assessing effects from past mining activities and absorbing the economic cost to society with on-going remediation and monitoring initiatives. The abandoned Aldermac mine in northwestern Quebec, mined from 1932–1943, is an excellent case study for assessing the state of environmental and economic effects of past mining operations. A paleolimnological approach, using diatoms as environmental proxies, was used to evaluate the spatial and temporal impacts on aquatic receiving environments. Based on the inferences drawn from diatom assemblages in Lake Arnoux, prior to mining activity, lake water pH was similar to that of surrounding lakes (circumneutral to weakly acidic. After mining operations terminated, changes in pH and alkalinity in Lake Arnoux coincided with distinct increases in sediment sulphur content. Across a 30- to 40-year span (circa 1940 to 1970s a significant decline in phytoplankton flora coincided with lake acidification and increased clarity of the water column. This resulted in an increase in the benthic diatom population (>90%, replacing the planktonic diatoms. Observed shifts in environmental proxies are concurrent with one, and possibly two, reported tailings pond breaches at the abandoned mine site. Adverse effects of the abandoned Aldermac mine on nearby ecosystems, combined with pressure from local citizens and environmental groups, forced responsible accountability for site restoration led by the Quebec government. Based on the historical period of economic growth, the financial benefits of the Aldermac mine were significant and justify the current pay-it-backward costs for environmental remediation. However, it has now been documented that the pay-it-backward model is not sustainable in

  11. The use of x-ray fluorescence technique (XRF) in the determination of trace elements in environmental study: a case study for sediments and soils

    Hamzah Mohamad

    1997-01-01

    A specific X-ray fluorescence technique (XRF) was developed to determine the concentrations of nine common and significant trace elements in sediments and soils, i.e. two of the common materials used in environmental studies. The elements are Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn. A total of 22 international reference materials of rocks, soils, minerals, ores and sediments were employed to construct nine calibration curves, all of which depict linear correlation of concentration-intensity, with correlation coefficients of 0.9 or better. The accuracy of determination is implied from the relative differences between the observed and suggested values in four reference materials: USGS SCO-1, shale; CCRMP SO-1, soil; CCRMP CO-2, soil; and SARM 42, soil. The determinations of four elements are considered as accurate, with relative errors of smaller than 10%; they are Fe (5%), Mn (6%), Cr (8%), and Cu (9%). Only a moderate accuracy has been achieved in the determinations of Ba (13%), Zn (18%) and V (21 %). Ni and Ph results are associated with larger errors. The developed technique is considered rapid, whereby nine elements in 30 samples in the form of pressed powder briquettes can be analysed in 8 hours. Without extrapolating the calibration curves, the method is suitable to analyse elements in soils and sediments in the following ranges of concentrations: Ba, 0-1500 ppm; Cr, 0-3000 ppm; Cu, 0-300 ppm; Fe, 0.7%; Mn, 0-1000 ppm; Ni, 0-300 ppm; Pb, 0-70 ppm; V, 0-300 ppm and Zn, 0-270 ppm

  12. Molecular Fingerprint and Dominant Environmental Factors of Nitrite-Dependent Anaerobic Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria in Sediments from the Yellow River Estuary, China.

    Pengze Yan

    Full Text Available Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo is performed by "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera" (M. oxyfera, which connects the carbon and nitrogen global nutrient cycles. In the present study, M. oxyfera-like bacteria sequences were successfully recovered from Yellow River Estuary sediments using specific primers for 16S rRNA and pmoA genes. A M. oxyfera-like sequences analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed greater diversity compared with the pmoA gene; the 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the Yellow River Estuary sediments belong to groups A as well as B and were mainly found in freshwater habitats. Quantitative PCR showed that 16S rRNA gene abundance varied from 9.28±0.11×10(3 to 2.10±0.13×10(5 copies g(-1 (dry weight, and the pmoA gene abundance ranged from 8.63±0.50×10(3 to 1.83±0.18×10(5 copies g(-1 (dry weight. A correlation analysis showed that the total organic carbon (TOC and ammonium (NH4(+ as well as the ratio of total phosphorus to total nitrogen (TP/TN influenced the M. oxyfera-like bacteria distribution in the Yellow River Estuary sediments. These findings will aid in understanding the n-damo bacterial distribution pattern as well as their correlation with surrounding environmental factors in temperate estuarine ecosystems.

  13. Environmental implications and spatial distribution of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in sediments from four harbours in the Egyptian Red Sea coast.

    El-Taher, Atef; Zakaly, Hesham M H; Elsaman, Reda

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of natural radionuclides concentrations ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K) in sediments collected from sea, rivers or ocean is significant to protect the sea water ecosystem and to human health from radiation. Thirty-three sample of sediment have been collected from four ports in the Red Sea coast, Egypt for investigation by gamma-ray spectrometer using NaI(Tl) detector. The average and range activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were 26(5-58), 19(4-33) and 458(16-2665)Bqkg -1 in Quseir Harbour, 30(14-53), 20(14-34) and 430(378-511)Bqkg -1 in Abu-Tartour Harbour. However, the average and range activity concentrations were 23(14-35), 21(15-32), and 602(327-821)Bqkg -1 in Touristic Harbour and 14(5-26), 13(2-23) and 489(36-950)Bqkg -1 in Hurghada harbour. These results were compared with reported ranges in the literature from other location in the world. The radiation hazard parameters; radium equivalent activity annual dose, external hazard were also calculated and compared with the recommended levels by UNSCEAR reports. Eight heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd) have been measured and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometer. The concentration for the investigated heavy metals overtakes the allowable limits recommended by the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Because there are no existing databases for the natural radioactivity in the sediment samples from Egyptian Red Sea ports, our results are a start to establishing a database for Red Sea harbours environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Temporal variation on environmental variables and pollution indicators in marine sediments under sea Salmon farming cages in protected and exposed zones in the Chilean inland Southern Sea.

    Urbina, Mauricio A

    2016-12-15

    The impacts of any activity on marine ecosystems will depend on the characteristics of the receptor medium and its resilience to external pressures. Salmon farming industry develops along a constant gradient of hydrodynamic conditions in the south of Chile. However, the influence of the hydrodynamic characteristics (weak or strong) on the impacts of intensive salmon farming is still poorly understood. This one year study evaluates the impacts of salmon farming on the marine sediments of both protected and exposed marine zones differing in their hydrodynamic characteristics. Six physico-chemical, five biological variables and seven indexes of marine sediments status were evaluated under the salmon farming cages and control sites. Our results identified a few key variables and indexes necessary to accurately evaluate the salmon farming impacts on both protected and exposed zones. Interestingly, the ranking of importance of the variables and the temporality of the observed changes, varied depending on the hydrodynamic characteristics. Biological variables (nematodes abundance) and environmental indexes (Simpson's dominance, Shannon's diversity and Pielou evenness) are the first to reflect detrimental impacts under the salmon farming cages. Then the physico-chemical variables such as redox, sulphurs and phosphorus in both zones also show detrimental impacts. Based on the present results we propose that the hydrodynamic regime is an important driver of the magnitude and temporality of the effects of salmon farming on marine sediments. The variables and indexes that best reflect the effects of salmon farming, in both protected and exposed zones, are also described. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Molecular Fingerprint and Dominant Environmental Factors of Nitrite-Dependent Anaerobic Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria in Sediments from the Yellow River Estuary, China.

    Yan, Pengze; Li, Mingcong; Wei, Guangshan; Li, Han; Gao, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) is performed by "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera" (M. oxyfera), which connects the carbon and nitrogen global nutrient cycles. In the present study, M. oxyfera-like bacteria sequences were successfully recovered from Yellow River Estuary sediments using specific primers for 16S rRNA and pmoA genes. A M. oxyfera-like sequences analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed greater diversity compared with the pmoA gene; the 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the Yellow River Estuary sediments belong to groups A as well as B and were mainly found in freshwater habitats. Quantitative PCR showed that 16S rRNA gene abundance varied from 9.28±0.11×10(3) to 2.10±0.13×10(5) copies g(-1) (dry weight), and the pmoA gene abundance ranged from 8.63±0.50×10(3) to 1.83±0.18×10(5) copies g(-1) (dry weight). A correlation analysis showed that the total organic carbon (TOC) and ammonium (NH4(+)) as well as the ratio of total phosphorus to total nitrogen (TP/TN) influenced the M. oxyfera-like bacteria distribution in the Yellow River Estuary sediments. These findings will aid in understanding the n-damo bacterial distribution pattern as well as their correlation with surrounding environmental factors in temperate estuarine ecosystems.

  16. Environmental Metabolic Footprinting (EMF) vs. half-life: a new and integrative proxy for the discrimination between control and pesticides exposed sediments in order to further characterise pesticides' environmental impact.

    Salvia, Marie-Virginie; Ben Jrad, Amani; Raviglione, Delphine; Zhou, Yuxiang; Bertrand, Cédric

    2017-06-28

    Pesticides are regularly used for a variety of applications and are disseminated throughout the environment. These substances may have significant negative impacts. To date, the half-life, t 1/2 , was often used to study the fate of pesticides in environmental matrices (water, soil, sediment). However, this value gives limited information. First, it does not evaluate the formation of by-products, resulting in the need for additional experiments to be performed to evaluate biodegradation and biotransformation products. T 1/2 also fails to consider the chemical's impact on biodiversity. Resilience time, a new and integrative proxy, was recently proposed as an alternative to t 1/2 , with the potential to evaluate all the post-application effects of the chemical on the environment. The 'Environmental Metabolic Footprinting' (EMF) approach, giving an idea of the resilience time, was used to evaluate the impact of botanicals on soil. The goal is to optimise the EMF to study the impact of a microbial insecticide, the Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), on sediment. The difficulty of this work lies in the commercial solution of Bti that is really complex, and this complexity yields chromatograms that are extremely difficult to interpret; t 1/2 cannot be used. No methodologies currently exist to monitor the impact of these compounds on the environment. We will test the EMF to determine if it is sensitive enough to tolerate such complex mixtures. A pure chemical insecticide, the α-cypermethrin, will be also studied. The article shows that the EMF is able to distinguish meta-metabolome differences between control and exposed (with Bti) sediments.

  17. Extension of the protection of the individual against environmental encroachments - a task for private and public law

    Ronellenfitsch, M.; Wolf, R.

    1986-01-01

    In the opinion of the author an substantial extension of the protection of the individual against environmental encroachments is not necessary. In many fields of law, for instance in the atomic law or the law for the protection against nuisance, the protection of the individual can be improved by minor corrections. In civil law the same improvement can be gained by an interpretation of existing provisions taking into account the requirements of environmental protection. (WG) [de

  18. The extension of the protection of the individual person against environmental pollution as a task for public law

    Breuer, R.

    1986-01-01

    The author has the opinion that an extension of protection of individuals against environmental pollution is not desirable in the field of fundamental rights. The atomic energy and radiation protection law extends the protection of individuals even further than to warding off a danger. An extension is limited by the structure and complexity of modern environmental pollution. The existing system of individual protection generally is sufficient, the author objects esspecially against the action of an association. (CW) [de

  19. A 15,400-year record of environmental magnetic variations in sub-alpine lake sediments from the western Nanling Mountains in South China: Implications for palaeoenvironmental changes

    Zhong, Wei; Wei, Zhiqiang; Shang, Shentan; Ye, Susu; Tang, Xiaowen; Zhu, Chan; Xue, Jibin; Ouyang, Jun; Smol, John P.

    2018-04-01

    A detailed environmental magnetic investigation has been performed on a sub-alpine sedimentary succession deposited over the past 15,400 years in Daping Swamp in the western Nanling Mountains of South China. Magnetic parameters reveal that fine grains of pseudo-single domain (PSD) magnetite or titanomagnetite are the dominant magnetic minerals in the lake sediments and surface soils collected from the catchment, which suggests that magnetic minerals in lake sediments mainly originated from surface soil erosion of the catchment. Variation of surface runoff caused by rainfall is interpreted as the main process for transportation of weathered soils into the lake. In the Last Deglacial period (LGP, 15,400-11,500 cal a BP), the influx of magnetic minerals of detrital material may have been significantly affected by the severe dry and cold conditions of the Last Glacial Maximum. Stabilised conditions of the catchment associated with increased vegetation coverage (e.g., 8000-4500 and 2500-1000 cal a BP) limited the input of magnetic minerals. Intensive soil erosion caused by increased human activity may have given rise to abnormal increases in multiple magnetic parameters after 1000 cal a BP. Because changes in runoff and vegetation coverage are closely related to Asian summer monsoon (ASM) intensity, the sedimentary magnetism of Daping Swamp provides another source of information to investigate the evolution of the ASM.

  20. Over 100 years of environmental change recorded by foraminifers and sediments in a large Gulf of Mexico estuary, Mobile Bay, AL, USA

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    The marine microfauna of Mobile Bay has been profoundly influenced by the development and expansion of the primary shipping channel over the last ˜100 years. Foraminifers and sediments from seven box cores with excess lead-210 chronology document that channel dredging and spoil disposal have altered circulation, reduced estuarine mixing, changed sedimentation patterns, and caused a faunal turnover within the bay. Beginning in the late 1800s, changes in estuarine mixing allowed for greater low-pH freshwater influence in the bay, and ultimately began environmental changes that resulted in the loss of calcareous foraminifers. By the early 1900s, box cores throughout Mobile Bay record a ˜ 100-year trend of increasing calcareous test dissolution that continues to the present. Since the completion of the current shipping channel in the 1950s, restricted tidal flushing and increased terrestrial organic matter, documented by carbon-to-nitrogen ratios, stimulated an increase in agglutinated foraminiferal densities. However, in deeper areas of the bay, hypoxic water has negatively impacted the marine microfauna. Comparisons of the present-day foraminiferal assemblage with foraminifers collected in the early 1970s indicate that the continued biologic loss of calcareous foraminifers in the bay has allowed the introduction of a new agglutinated foraminiferal species into the bay.

  1. Environmental magnetic studies on some Quaternary sediments of varied depositional settings in the Indian sub-continent

    Sangode, S.J.; Sinha, R.; Phartiyal, B.; Chauhan, O.S.; Mazari, R.K.; Bagati, T.N.; Suresh, N.; Mishra, S.; Kumar, R.; Bhattacharjee, P.

    susceptibility, high field hysteresis parameters and their ratios and bivariate plots. Besides applying the conventional models, new and multi-parametric environmental magnetic models for finer discrimination of the mineral magnetic assemblages (MMA) amongst...

  2. GPS positioning and desktop mapping. Applications to environmental monitoring. Report on task JNT B898 on the Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards

    Kansanaho, A.; Ilander, T.; Toivonen, H.

    1995-10-01

    Satellite navigation has been used for in-field applications by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety since 1993. Because of this experience, training in the use of GPS positioning and desktop mapping was chosen as a task under the Finnish Support programme to IAEA safeguards. A lecture and a field experiment was held in the training course on environmental monitoring at the IAEA headquarters in June 1995. Real-time mapping of the co-ordinates and storing information on sampling sites and procedures can make safeguards implementation more efficient and effective. Further software development are needed for these purposes. (author) (6 figs.)

  3. BENTHIC FORAMINIFERAL AND ITS ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION STUDIES BETWEEN THE TSUNAMIGENIC SEDIMENTS OF MANDAPAM AND TUTICORIN, SOUTH EAST COAST OF INDIA

    S. P. MOHAN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Mannar is a transitional zone between the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean proper and is connected with the Bay of Bengal through a shallow sill, the Palk Strait. The study area extends from Mandapam to Tuticorin on the southern coast of Tamil Nadu (India over a distance of 120 km. It is bound in the northeast by Rameshwaram Island, in the east by the Bay of Bengal, in the west by the Eastern and Western Ghats, and in the south by Tuticorin. A total of 36 sediment samples were collected from the beach (6 and the offshore (30 area in the study region. The offshore samples were collected at six transects keeping the stations at Mandapam (5 nos, Valinokkam (5 nos, Vaippar (5 nos, Vembar (5 nos, Kallar, (5 nos and Tuticorin (5 nos. Totally, 77 benthic foraminiferal species (Post-tsunami and varieties belonging to 39 genera, 13 families, 10 superfamilies and 4 suborders have been reported and illustrated. The following species are widely distributed in the pre and post-tsunami samples namely Spiroloculina communis, Quinqueloculina elongatum, Q.lamarckiana, Q. seminulum, Triloculina trigonula, Cibicides lobatululs, Ammonia beccarii, A. dentata, A.tepida, Elphidium crispum and Assilina ammonoides. Grain size studies shows the frequency curves vary from unimodal to bimodal in places of river discharge from the Vembar, Kallar, Vaippar and Tamiraparani, as a result of which an additional sub-population is deposited. At Mandapam and Tuticorin, the total species are increasing in the deeper depths whereas in Kallar there will be reverse trend which decreases with depth. Similarly, the living species also have the same trend at Vallinokkam. The scatter plot of salinity versus living species shows a positive correlation. The scatter plot of organic matter versus living species shows strong negative correlation and positive correlation with dead species showing a negative relation with the biomass. Further, the trend of organic matter vs. carbonate

  4. Health and Safety Plan for Operations Performed for the Environmental Restoration Program: Task, Characterization of Potential Waste Sources at Auxiliary Reactor Area-1 Operable Unit 5--07 site ARA-02

    Pickett, S.L.; Morton, S.L.

    1992-06-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the ERP. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP

  5. Health and Safety Plan for Operations Performed for the Environmental Restoration Program: Task, Characterization of Potential Waste Sources at Auxiliary Reactor Area-1 Operable Unit 5--07 site ARA-02

    Pickett, S.L.; Morton, S.L.

    1992-06-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the ERP. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP.

  6. Health and Safety Plan for Operations Performed for the Environmental Restoration Program: Task, Characterization of Potential Waste Sources at Auxiliary Reactor Area-1 Operable Unit 5--07 site ARA-02

    Pickett, S.L.; Morton, S.L.

    1992-06-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG&G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the ERP. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP.

  7. Multi criteria analysis in environmental management: Selecting the best stormwater erosion and sediment control measure in Malaysian construction sites

    Al-Hadu, Ibrahiem Abdul Razak; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Desa, Mohamed Nor Mohamed [Civil Engineering, Universiti Tenga Nasional, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad [Civil and Structural Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malyasia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Malaysia located in a tropical region which is interested with a heavy rainfall through the whole seasons of the year. Construction stages usually associated with soil disturbing due to land clearing and grading activities, this combined with the tropical climate in Malaysia, will generate an enormous amount of soil to be eroded and then deposited in the adjacent water bodies. There are many kinds of mitigation measures used so as to reduce the impact of erosion and sedimentation that are generated due to the stormwater in construction sites. This paper presents the application of Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) tool in choosing the best stormwater control measure by depending on specified criteria and criterion weight. The results obtained from the application of MCA in stormwater pollution control have many benefits to the contractors, consultants and decision makers by making them able to select the best control measure for every stage of construction.

  8. Tracking Lateglacial and early Holocene environmental change: a palaeolimnological study of sediment at Preluca Tiganului, NW Romania

    Angelica Feurdean

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Palaeoecological, palaeohydrological, and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Late Glacial and the early Holocene have been performed from sediment accumulated in a small former crater lake, in the GutâI Mountains, NW Romania. Pollen, lithology, mineral magnetic, and loss-on-ignition analyses in conjunction to radiocarbon dating have been use for this purpose. The data indicates that during the Late Glacial period, vegetation dynamics were likely driven by climatic fluctuations. The climate events during the Late Glacial are well mirrored in local vegetation assemblage development, and past lake level fluctuations. These climatic events recorded in south-eastern Europe, are well correlated with the climate events from the North Western Europe and Greenland ice core stratigraphy.

  9. Environmental evaluation near to a fuel vendor inside of the Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela. II: water quality, sediments and biota

    Rada, M.; Losada, F.

    2000-01-01

    A base line study was conducted reference in the coastal area near a Estacion de Servicio Nautica, located in Parque Nacional Morrrocoy, Venezuela, this is the second part of the investigation. Results from a physical and chemical characterization of the water and sediments of four sites located around the service station are presented. The physical and chemical factors measured in water included: temperature, salinity, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, saturation percentage of dissolved oxygen, pH, total suspended solids, transparency, oil and grease, total residual petroleum hydrocarbon, vanadium and lead, total coliform bacteria, and the presence of coliform bacteria. The factors measured in sediments included: granulometry, organic material, total carbonates, vanadium, lead, oil and grease, and total hydrocarbons. In addition, the amount of vanadium and lead in sample tissue from three species which are abundant and widely distributed in each site was measured in order to evaluate the potential of these species as bio-indicators. The water in the area where this study was conducted is shallow, warm, and thermally homogeneous, with high salinity and normal pH and dissolved oxygen. The supersaturation with oxygen in certain hours in sites adjacent to abundant underwater vegetation. The water is moderately turbid with a tendency towards less dissolved oxygen with increased depth. The estimated values of NMP/100 ml of the coliform fecal organisms is within legal limits even though the total number of water coliforms measured in Site 2 was ten times higher than in Site 1. This increase is associated with the proximity of Site 2 to an outflow of pre-treated sewage. The values of TRPH in the water collected from each site were low and very close to the detection limit (0.8 mg/l). Vanadium was not found, while lead was detected in 11 of the 12 samples. One sample had a concentration of three times the maximum baseline compared to the values measured for Site 1

  10. Desktop mapping using GPS. SAHTI - a software package for environmental monitoring. Report on task JNTB898 on the Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards

    Ilander, T; Kansanaho, A; Toivonen, H

    1996-02-01

    Environmental sampling is the key method of the IAEA in searching signatures of a covert nuclear programme. However, it is not always easy to know the exact location of the sampling site. The satellite navigation system, utilizing a small receiver (GPS) and a PC, allows to have independent positioning data easily. The present task on the Finnish Support Programme was launched to create software to merge information about sampling and positioning. The system is build above a desktop mapping software package. However, the result of the development goes beyond the initial goal: the software can be used to real- time positioning in a mobile unit utilizing maps that can be purchased or produced by the user. In addition, the system can be easily enlarged to visualize data in real time from mobile environmental monitors, such as a Geiger counter, a pressurized ionisation chamber of a gamma-ray spectrometer. (orig.) (7 figs.).

  11. Desktop mapping using GPS. SAHTI - a software package for environmental monitoring. Report on task JNTB898 on the Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards

    Ilander, T.; Kansanaho, A.; Toivonen, H.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental sampling is the key method of the IAEA in searching signatures of a covert nuclear programme. However, it is not always easy to know the exact location of the sampling site. The satellite navigation system, utilizing a small receiver (GPS) and a PC, allows to have independent positioning data easily. The present task on the Finnish Support Programme was launched to create software to merge information about sampling and positioning. The system is build above a desktop mapping software package. However, the result of the development goes beyond the initial goal: the software can be used to real- time positioning in a mobile unit utilizing maps that can be purchased or produced by the user. In addition, the system can be easily enlarged to visualize data in real time from mobile environmental monitors, such as a Geiger counter, a pressurized ionisation chamber of a gamma-ray spectrometer. (orig.) (7 figs.)

  12. Late Pleistocene to Holocene environmental changes as recorded in the sulfur geochemistry of coastal plain sediments, southwestern Taiwan

    Chen, Y.-G.; Liu, J.C.-L.; Shieh, Y.-N.; Liu, T.-K.

    2004-01-01

    A core, drilled at San-liao-wan in the southwestern coastal plain of Taiwan, has been analyzed for total sulfur contents, isotopic values, as well as ratios of pyritic sulfur to organic carbon. Our results demonstrate a close relationship between late Pleistocene sea-level change and the proxies generated in this study. The inorganic sulfur contents indicate that at our study site, the Holocene transgression started at ???11 ka and remained under seawater for thousands of years until the late Holocene, corresponding to a depth of 20 m in the study core. The uppermost 20 m of core shows relatively high total organic carbon (TOC) and ??34S of inorganic sulfur, suggesting a transitional environment such as muddy lagoon or marsh, before the site turned into a modern coastal plain. In the lower part of the core, at depths of 110-145 m (corresponding ages of ???12-30 ka), low sulfur contents are recorded, probably indicating fluvial sediments deposited during the oceanic isotope stage (OIS) 2, a sea-level lowstand. The lower part of the core, roughly within OIS 3, records at least two transgressions, although the transgressional signals may be somewhat obscured by subsequent weathering. The reworked origin of organic matter reported in previous studies is confirmed by our organic sulfur data; however, the marine organic source was periodically dominant. The modern high sulfate concentrations in pore water have no correlation to the other sulfur species in the sediments, probably indicating that the sulfate migrated into the site subsequent to early diagenesis. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle: a task force report

    Bishop, W.P.; Miraglia, F.J. Jr.

    1976-10-01

    This Supplement deals with the reprocessing and waste management portions of the nuclear fuel cycle for uranium-fueled reactors. The scope of the report is limited to the illumination of fuel reprocessing and waste management activities, and examination of the environmental impacts caused by these activities on a per-reactor basis. The approach is to select one realistic reprocessing and waste management system and to treat it in enough depth to illuminate the issues involved, the technology available, and the relationships of these to the nuclear fuel cycle in general and its environmental impacts

  14. Environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle: a task force report

    Bishop, W.P.; Miraglia, F.J. Jr. (eds.)

    1976-10-01

    This Supplement deals with the reprocessing and waste management portions of the nuclear fuel cycle for uranium-fueled reactors. The scope of the report is limited to the illumination of fuel reprocessing and waste management activities, and examination of the environmental impacts caused by these activities on a per-reactor basis. The approach is to select one realistic reprocessing and waste management system and to treat it in enough depth to illuminate the issues involved, the technology available, and the relationships of these to the nuclear fuel cycle in general and its environmental impacts.

  15. Petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical characterization of the Serrinha coal waste pile (Douro Coalfield, Portugal) and the potential environmental impacts on soil, sediments and surface waters

    Ribeiro, J. [Centro de Geologia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Ferreira da Silva, E. [GeoBioTec, Geobiosciences, Geotechnologies and Geoengineering Research Center, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Li, Z.; Ward, C. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales. Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Flores, D. [Departamento de Geociencias, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Territorio, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-09-01

    Serrinha is the largest coal waste pile resulting from mining activities in the Douro Coalfield, Portugal. The exploitation of anthracite in tens of small mines caused some environmental impacts, as is the case of the coal waste piles that exist in old mines and adjacent areas. The Serrinha waste pile is essentially made up of 2 million tonnes of shales and carbonaceous shales, deposited in a topographical depression over about 30 years. Despite the environmental restoration accomplished in the Serrinha waste pile, some environmental problems seem to persist. In this study a petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical characterization was done in order to recognize and understand these problems. The materials studied were coal waste, sediments and waters from the drainage system and decanting basins, soils from the surrounding areas, leachates from waste material and neoformed minerals formed at the bottom of the waste pile. The main lithologies (carbonaceous shale and lithic arenite) and coal from the Douro Coalfield were also analyzed. Petrographic analysis shows some evidence of weathering (on organic and inorganic matter) related to the time of exposure to the weathering agents and the easy access of air within the waste pile (due to both the poor compaction and the heterogeneity of the material). Mineralogically, the composition of coal waste material has contributions from both the coal and the associated lithologies. R-type cluster analysis of the waste pile material allows two distinct clusters to be identified. In the first cluster a sulfide fraction is represented by the association of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn, while Fe clustered with Al, Co, and Ti indicates that some of the Fe and the other elements are likely associated with silicate minerals such as clays. The second cluster, represented by Cr, V, Zr, Rb, REE, Mn, Li and Ba, probably represent a silicate fraction, perhaps detrital accessory minerals. The waste pile material, leachates, soils

  16. The role and tasks of industrial hygienists in occupational and environmental medicine and their code of ethics

    Jan Grzesik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers changes in occupational medicine in the last fifty years, describes industrial hygienists tasks and the reasons why their activities grew in importance. Also the needs of compliance with their own professional Code of Ethics are discussed. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, voted and accepted by the United Nations in 1948 changed the strategic target of occupational medicine. Since then the most important task became prevention of health damage caused by work, which should enable the employees to stay healthy throughout the whole period of professional activity. Before that the main target was to restore the health of employees injured by work. To make the used preventive measures to be effective, they must be selected appropriately to professional harmfulness posing threat to employees health. This requires to reveal all factors potentially harmful to health, which occur in the work-environment, to measure their concentrations or intensity, to determine the employees exposure to those factors and to estimate the level of the health risk, caused by this complex exposure. Contemporarily occupational medicine service encompass with its preventive supervision the municipal environments, because they become seriously polluted due to emission of harmful industrial pollutants what brings about a negative impact to health of exposed dwellers. Those activities, being to a large extent outside the scope of competence and tasks of doctors – specialists of occupational medicine, are performed by industrial hygienists, who the required knowledge and skills acquired during university studies on technical and natural faculties. This caused a substantial increase of the role of industrial hygienists in the present activity of occupational medicine service and simultaneously took into consideration the ethical aspects of the work of these professionals. Evaluation of the backbone and the scope of work drew attention not only to the

  17. Environmental Impact of Tributyltin-Resistant Marine Bacteria in the Indigenous Microbial Population of Tributyltin-Polluted Surface Sediments.

    Mimura, Haruo; Yagi, Masahiro; Yoshida, Kazutoshi

    2017-01-01

     We compared the TBT-resistant ability of resting cells prepared from isolates that formed colonies on nutrient agar plates containing 100 µM tributyltin (TBT) chloride, such as Photobacterium sp. TKY1, Halomonas sp. TKY2, and Photobacterium sp. NGY1, with those from taxonomically similar type strains. Photobacterium sp. TKY1 showed the highest ability among those three isolates. The number of surviving Photobacterium sp. TKY1 cells was hardly decreased after 1 h of exposure to 100 µM TBTCl, regardless of the number of resting cells in the range from 10 9.4 to 10 4.2 CFU mL -1 . In such an experimental condition, the maximum number of TBT molecules available to associate with a single cell was estimated to be approximately 6.0 x 10 11.8 . Resting cells prepared from type strains Photobacterium ganghwense JCM 12487 T and P. halotolerans LMG 22194 T , which have 16S rDNA sequences highly homologous with those of Photobacterium sp. TKY1, showed sensitivity to TBT, indicating that TBT-resistant marine bacterial species are not closely related in spite of their taxonomic similarity. We also estimated the impact of TBT-resistant bacterial species to indigenous microbial populations of TBT-polluted surface sediments. The number of surviving TBT-sensitive Vibrio natriegens ATCC 14048 T cells, 10 6.2±0.3 CFU mL -1 , was reduced to 10 4.4±0.4 CFU mL -1 when TBT-resistant Photobacterium sp. TKY1 cells, 10 9.1±0.2 CFU mL -1 , coexisted with 10 9.4±0.2 CFU mL -1 of V. natriegens ATCC 14048 T cells in the presence of 100 µM TBTCl. These results indicate that the toxicity of TBT to TBT-sensitive marine bacterial populations might be enhanced when a TBT-resistant marine bacterial species inhabits TBT-polluted surface sediments.

  18. Geochemistry of sediment moisture in the Badain Jaran desert: Implications of recent environmental changes and water-rock interaction

    Jin, Li; Edmunds, W. Mike; Lu, Zunli; Ma, Jinzhu

    2015-01-01

    Unsaturated zone pore water has the potential to record history of recharge, palaeoenvironment, pollution movement and water-rock interaction as it percolates through and moves towards the water table. In this study, two 6-m cores from the Badain Jaran desert (NW China) were collected to explore this potential using directly extracted moisture. Pore waters in these unsaturated zone sediments (1–5% moisture by wet weight) were directly extracted using immiscible liquid displacement and then analysed for major anions, cations and trace elements. Results show enrichment in pore water chemistry in the top 1–2 m where strong temperature and moisture fluxes occur. The enrichment in cations relative to chloride is primarily due to silicate mineral dissolution during infiltration. High nitrate and low iron concentrations indicate the overall oxidizing environment, which allows the mobility of oxyanions, such as uranium, arsenic and chromium. The trace elements show enrichment in the upper zone of fluctuation where chemical gradients are strong, but with lesser reaction lower in the profile. The calculated groundwater recharge rates using the chloride mass balance are negligible in this arid region between 1.5 and 3.0 mm/year. The modern rainfall infiltration signature contrasts with that of the underlying groundwater body, which has a distant, regional recharge signature. This reconnaissance study demonstrates the potential for a new geochemical approach to studying geochemical processes in the unsaturated sediments in semi-arid environments due to both natural and human influences. The use of directly extracted water, rather than extraction by dilution (elutriation), facilitates an improved understanding of hydrological and geochemical processes in the unsaturated zone and into the capillary fringe at the water table, because it avoids potential chemical changes induced during elutriation. - Highlights: • A new geochemical approach for the unsaturated zone study

  19. Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor Data

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor contains approximately 20,000 biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) from 20 locations (mostly Superfund sites) for...

  20. An environmental reconstruction of the sediment infill of the Bogota basin (Columbia) during the last 3 million years from abiotic and biotic proxies

    Torres, V.; Vandenberghe, J.; Hooghiemstra, H.

    2005-01-01

    The lacustrine sediments of the intramontane basin of Bogotá (4°N, 2550 m altitude) were collected in a 586-m deep core Funza-2. Absolute datings show sediment infill started c. 3.2 Ma and continued almost without interruptions as a result of the balance between tectonic subsidence and sediment

  1. Diatom Surface Sediment Assemblages from the Bering Sea Shelf: a Tossed Salad or Faithful Recorder of 50 Years of Environmental Change?

    Caissie, B.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Kanamaru-Shinn, K.

    2010-12-01

    Recent environmental change in the Bering Sea includes a shift from the negative to positive phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in 1976/77, a secondary shift in sea level pressure and sea surface temperatures in 1998, increasing sea surface temperatures, an earlier spring, an increase in the number of days that sea ice is present along the shelf-slope break, and a decrease in the number of days that sea ice is present in the Chukchi Sea and Arctic Ocean. These physical changes have manifest biological changes such as a northward migration of invertebrates and fish from the southern Bering Sea and shifts in the timing and duration of sea-ice related primary productivity and the spring bloom. We aim to see if diatom sediment assemblages are faithful recorders of these ecological changes in the Bering Sea or if bioturbation has essentially mixed today’s rapid change down core such that the signal is either muted or no longer apparent. Six continental shelf areas were examined in the Bering Sea ranging from northeast of St. Lawrence Island to the shelf-slope break in the south-central Bering Sea. Diatom assemblages from core tops collected as part of the PROBES program in the 1960s were compared to core tops taken nearby (7 m) multi-year ice so their decline may be related to the decrease in multi-year ice over the past 30 years. Additionally, in most cases, species diversity has declined over the past 50 years with Fragilariopsis oceanica and Fragilariopsis cylindrus accounting for a greater percentage of the sediment assemblages today. These two species are collectively considered indicators of seasonal sea ice; their relative abundance peaks when ice is present for 5 months per year. Ongoing down core analyses in these six areas will further reveal the nature of these assemblage changes.

  2. Radionuclide analysis of environmental field trial samples at STUK. Report on Task FIN A 847 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards

    Rantavaara, A.; Klemola, S.; Saxen, R.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Moring, M.

    1994-12-01

    Radionuclide determinations on seventeen field trial test samples were carried out for the International Atomic Energy Agency by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). All the samples, i.e., samples of sea water, grass and biota were analysed for gamma emitting nuclides. 3 H was determined in water, 90 Sr in grass and 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Am in biota samples. To avoid losses of radionuclides before gamma activity measurements, the sequence of treatments was adjusted considering the unknown radionuclide composition. The radionuclide contents found in the samples were roughly the same or lower than contents in same types of environmental samples in the Northern hemisphere. The ratios of Pu and Am nuclides in two of the biota samples referred to an origin other than the global atmospheric fallout. The work was carried out under Task FIN A 847 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards. (orig.) (21 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.)

  3. "FACILS 2014: Microbially-driven facilitation systems in environmental biotechnology" (hereafter "FACILS") presented here by the European Commission (EC)-United States (US) Task Force on Biotechnology Research

    Methe, Barbara

    2016-02-03

    As we enter the 21st century, the sustainability of the biosphere is a global challenge that can best be met with a global response. This includes how we train and promote our next generation of research scientists in the emerging arenas of genome-enabled biology and a bio-based economy. It is this fundamental issue that formed the motivation for designing and conducting a shortcourse entitled “FACILIS 2014: Microbially-driven facilitation systems in environmental biotechnology” (hereafter “FACILIS”) presented here by the European Commission (EC)-United States (US) Task Force on Biotechnology Research. This WG was established in 1994 under the umbrella of the US-EC Task Force on Biotechnology Research, a transatlantic collaborative group overseen by the US Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and the EC. The Environmental Biotechnology Working Group maintains several goals, including establishing research links between scientists in EU countries and the US and fostering the careers of junior scientists from both sides of the Atlantic to the global nature of scientific cooperation. To that end, a shortcourse was held at the University of Milan in Italy on July 12-25 2014 organized around cross-cutting themes of genomic science and designed to attract a stellar group of interdisciplinary early carrier researchers. A total of 22 students, 10 from the US and 12 from the EU participated. The course provided them with hands-on experience with the latest scientific methods in genomics and bioinformatics; using a format that combines lectures, laboratory research and field work with the final goal to enable researchers to finally turn data into knowledge.

  4. Deep nirS amplicon sequencing of San Francisco Bay sediments enables prediction of geography and environmental conditions from denitrifying community composition.

    Lee, Jessica A; Francis, Christopher A

    2017-12-01

    Denitrification is a dominant nitrogen loss process in the sediments of San Francisco Bay. In this study, we sought to understand the ecology of denitrifying bacteria by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) to survey the diversity of a denitrification functional gene, nirS (encoding cytchrome-cd 1 nitrite reductase), along the salinity gradient of San Francisco Bay over the course of a year. We compared our dataset to a library of nirS sequences obtained previously from the same samples by standard PCR cloning and Sanger sequencing, and showed that both methods similarly demonstrated geography, salinity and, to a lesser extent, nitrogen, to be strong determinants of community composition. Furthermore, the depth afforded by NGS enabled novel techniques for measuring the association between environment and community composition. We used Random Forests modelling to demonstrate that the site and salinity of a sample could be predicted from its nirS sequences, and to identify indicator taxa associated with those environmental characteristics. This work contributes significantly to our understanding of the distribution and dynamics of denitrifying communities in San Francisco Bay, and provides valuable tools for the further study of this key N-cycling guild in all estuarine systems. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Radionuclide analysis of environmental field trial samples at STUK/II. Second report on task FIN A 847 of the Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards

    Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M.; Klemola, S.

    1995-06-01

    Radionuclide determinations of 35 environmental samples of eight different materials were carried out for the International Atomic Energy Agency by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). All the samples were analysed for gamma emitting nuclides, 90 Sr, 238 Pu and 239 , 240 Pu. In most of the samples the found radionuclide contents were roughly at the same levels as in the same types of environmental samples in the northern hemisphere. However, some samples of grass, moss, lichen and sheep faeces showed exceptionally great contents of radionuclides measured. The maximum contents of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu and 239 , 240 Pu were found in the sam individual samples. The ratios of nuclide concentrations in these samples also deviated from ratios in other samples. This referred to an origin of these nuclides other than the global fallout. The work was a continuation to the study carried out under the Task FIN A 847 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguard. (orig.) (1 ref., 1 fig., 4 tabs.)

  6. Variability of PAHs and trace metals in the sediments in relation to environmental characteristics of the bottom layer in the middle Adriatic Sea

    Grilli, Federica; Frapiccini, Emanuela; Campanelli, Alessandra; Guicciardi, Stefano; Marini, Mauro; Marasovic, Ivona; Grbec, Branka; Skejić, Sanda; Ujević, Ivana; Lušić, Jelena

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the project PERSEUS (Policy-oriented marine Environmental Research in the Southern EUropean Seas), two interdisciplinary surveys were carried out in April 2013 and April 2014 in the middle Adriatic Sea along the Pescara-Sibenik transect (Jabuka Pits area) and Vieste-Split transect (Palagruza Sill area) with Croatian research vessel "Bios II" and the Italian research vessel "G. Dallaporta", respectively. The main objective of these research cruises was the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) in the Adriatic region for collecting physical, chemical and biological data in order to get a better understanding of whole Adriatic ecosystem. The two transects are already recognised as a key areas for the interception and the study of dense water modification (Zore-Armanda, 1963; Marini et al., 2006; Grilli et al., 2013). Due to seasonal circulation patterns, they are characterized by high temporal variability of the thermohaline structure (Grbec and Morović, 1997; Vilibić, et al., 2004) and other oceanographic parameters. Long term oceanographic records from the Middle Adriatic enable better understanding of the ecosystem response to changes of atmospheric and sea conditions through physical, chemical and biological processes (Marasović et al., 1995). Several oceanographic parameters relevant and useful for the ecosystem assessment of the two areas (temperature, salinity, density, fluorescence, oxygen, nutrients, chlorophyll, phyto- and zoo-plankton as well as selected pollutants , trace metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons-PAHs in sediments) were collected. In the present work, the variations of PAHs and trace metals concentration in the marine sediments are presented in relation to the physical and chemical characteristics of the bottom layer. A constant influx of metal induces more intense accumulation of anthropogenic metals, especially Cd, in sediment from Jabuka Pit, and the metal content slightly increases

  7. Factors controlling present-day tufa dynamics in the Monasterio de Piedra Natural Park (Iberian Range, Spain): depositional environmental settings, sedimentation rates and hydrochemistry

    Vázquez-Urbez, M.; Arenas, C.; Sancho, C.; Osácar, C.; Auqué, L.; Pardo, G.

    2010-07-01

    The tufa record and hydrochemical characteristics of the River Piedra in the Monasterio de Piedra Natural Park (NE Spain) were studied for 6 years. The mean discharge of this river was 1.22 m3/s. The water was supersaturated with calcium carbonate. The HCO3 -, Ca2+ and TDIC concentrations decreased along the 0.5-km-long studied stretch, whereas the calcite SI showed no systematic downstream or seasonal variation over the same stretch. Several sedimentary subenvironments exist in which four broad types of tufa facies form: (1) Dense laminated tufa (stromatolites), (2) Dense to porous, massive tufa, (3) Porous, coarsely laminated tufa with bryophytes and algae, and (4) Dense, hard, laminated deposits in caves. The half-yearly period thickness and weight of sediment accumulated on 14 tablets installed in several subenvironments showed that the deposition rate was greater in fast flowing river areas and in stepped waterfalls, and lower in slow flowing or standing river areas and in spray and splash areas. Mechanical CO2 outgassing is the main factor controlling calcite precipitation on the river bed and in waterfalls, but this process does not explain the seasonal changes in depositional rates. The deposition rates showed a half-yearly period pattern recorded in all fluvial subenvironments persistent over time (5.26 mm, 0.86 g/cm2 in warm periods; 2.26 mm, 0.13 g/cm2 in cool periods). Mass balance calculations showed higher calcite mass values in warm (21.58 mg/L) than in cool (13.68 mg/L) periods. This biannual variation is mainly attributed to the seasonal differences in temperature that caused changes in inorganic calcite precipitation rate and in biomass and the correlative photosynthetic activity. Tufa sedimentation was therefore controlled by both physicochemical and biological processes. The results of this study may help test depositional rates and their environmental controls and thus assess the climatic and hydrological significance of ancient tufas in semi

  8. Sediment problems in urban areas

    Guy, Harold P.

    1970-01-01

    A recognition of and solution to sediment problems in urban areas is necessary if society is to have an acceptable living environment. Soil erosion and sediment deposition in urban areas are as much an environmental blight as badly paved and littered streets, dilapidated buildings, billboard clutter, inept land use, and air, water, and noise pollution. In addition, sediment has many direct and indirect effects on streams that may be either part of or very remote from the urban environment. Sediment, for example, is widely recognized as a pollutant of streams and other water bodies.

  9. Rapid coastal survey of anthropogenic radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds in surficial marine sediments

    Noakes, J.E.; Noakes, S.E.; Dvoracek, D.K.; Culp, R.A.; Bush, P.B.

    1999-01-01

    A towed survey system, the GIMS/CS 3 , has been developed to enable the rapid measurement and mapping of a variety of physical and geochemical parameters in the surficial sediments of aquatic environments while the survey vessel is underway. With its capability for measuring radiometric, elemental and organic compound constituents of sediments, as well as bathymetry and water quality parameters, the GIMS/CS 3 provides a cost-effective means of performing reconnaissance determinations of contaminant distributions and environmental monitoring tasks over broad geographic regions

  10. Large-scale risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shoreline sediments from Saudi Arabia: Environmental legacy after twelve years of the Gulf war oil spill

    Bejarano, Adriana C., E-mail: ABejarano@researchplanning.co [Research Planning Inc., 1121 Park St., Columbia, SC 29201 (United States); Michel, Jacqueline [Research Planning Inc., 1121 Park St., Columbia, SC 29201 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    A large-scale assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the 1991 Gulf War oil spill was performed for 2002-2003 sediment samples (n = 1679) collected from habitats along the shoreline of Saudi Arabia. Benthic sediment toxicity was characterized using the Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmark Toxic Unit approach for 43 PAHs (ESBTU{sub FCV,43}). Samples were assigned to risk categories according to ESBTU{sub FCV,43} values: no-risk (<=1), low (>1-<=2), low-medium (>2-<=3), medium (>3-<=5) and high-risk (>5). Sixty seven percent of samples had ESBTU{sub FCV,43} > 1 indicating potential adverse ecological effects. Sediments from the 0-30 cm layer from tidal flats, and the >30-<60 cm layer from heavily oiled halophytes and mangroves had high frequency of high-risk samples. No-risk samples were characterized by chrysene enrichment and depletion of lighter molecular weight PAHs, while high-risk samples showed little oil weathering and PAH patterns similar to 1993 samples. North of Safaniya sediments were not likely to pose adverse ecological effects contrary to sediments south of Tanaqib. Landscape and geomorphology has played a role on the distribution and persistence in sediments of oil from the Gulf War. - Risk Assessment of PAHs in shoreline sediments 12 years after the Gulf War oil spill.

  11. Large-scale risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shoreline sediments from Saudi Arabia: Environmental legacy after twelve years of the Gulf war oil spill

    Bejarano, Adriana C.; Michel, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    A large-scale assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the 1991 Gulf War oil spill was performed for 2002-2003 sediment samples (n = 1679) collected from habitats along the shoreline of Saudi Arabia. Benthic sediment toxicity was characterized using the Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmark Toxic Unit approach for 43 PAHs (ESBTU FCV,43 ). Samples were assigned to risk categories according to ESBTU FCV,43 values: no-risk (≤1), low (>1-≤2), low-medium (>2-≤3), medium (>3-≤5) and high-risk (>5). Sixty seven percent of samples had ESBTU FCV,43 > 1 indicating potential adverse ecological effects. Sediments from the 0-30 cm layer from tidal flats, and the >30-<60 cm layer from heavily oiled halophytes and mangroves had high frequency of high-risk samples. No-risk samples were characterized by chrysene enrichment and depletion of lighter molecular weight PAHs, while high-risk samples showed little oil weathering and PAH patterns similar to 1993 samples. North of Safaniya sediments were not likely to pose adverse ecological effects contrary to sediments south of Tanaqib. Landscape and geomorphology has played a role on the distribution and persistence in sediments of oil from the Gulf War. - Risk Assessment of PAHs in shoreline sediments 12 years after the Gulf War oil spill.

  12. Historical environmental pollution trend and ecological risk assessment of trace metals in marine sediments off Adyar estuary, Bay of Bengal, India.

    Veerasingam, S.; Venkatachalapathy, R.; Ramkumar, T.

    activities. The mean anthropogenic factor (AF) values for trace metals in core sediments decreased in the following order: Cr > Ni > Zn > Cu > Pb. The pollution load index (PLI) values in Adyar core sediments ranged from 1 to 1.25 with an average of 1...

  13. Large-scale risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shoreline sediments from Saudi Arabia: environmental legacy after twelve years of the Gulf war oil spill.

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Michel, Jacqueline

    2010-05-01

    A large-scale assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the 1991 Gulf War oil spill was performed for 2002-2003 sediment samples (n = 1679) collected from habitats along the shoreline of Saudi Arabia. Benthic sediment toxicity was characterized using the Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmark Toxic Unit approach for 43 PAHs (ESBTU(FCV,43)). Samples were assigned to risk categories according to ESBTU(FCV,43) values: no-risk (1 - 2 - 3 - 5). Sixty seven percent of samples had ESBTU(FCV,43) > 1 indicating potential adverse ecological effects. Sediments from the 0-30 cm layer from tidal flats, and the >30 - oiled halophytes and mangroves had high frequency of high-risk samples. No-risk samples were characterized by chrysene enrichment and depletion of lighter molecular weight PAHs, while high-risk samples showed little oil weathering and PAH patterns similar to 1993 samples. North of Safaniya sediments were not likely to pose adverse ecological effects contrary to sediments south of Tanaqib. Landscape and geomorphology has played a role on the distribution and persistence in sediments of oil from the Gulf War. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution, speciation, environmental risk, and source identification of heavy metals in surface sediments from the karst aquatic environment of the Lijiang River, Southwest China.

    Xu, Daoquan; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Ruijie; Guo, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Kefu

    2016-05-01

    The distribution and speciation of several heavy metals, i.e., As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn, in surface sediments from the karst aquatic environment of the Lijiang River, Southwest China, were studied comparatively. The mean contents of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn were 1.72, 38.07, 0.18, 51.54, and 142.16 mg/kg, respectively, which were about 1.5-6 times higher than their corresponding regional sediment background values. Metal speciation obtained by the optimized BCR protocol highlighted the bioavailable threats of Cd, Cu, and Zn, which were highly associated with the exchangeable fraction (the labile phase). Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that in sediments, As and Cr were mainly derived from natural and industrial sources, whereas fertilizer application might lead to the elevated level of Cd. Besides, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn were related to traffic activities. The effects-based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) showed that Hg, Pb, and Zn could pose occasional adverse effects on sediment-dwelling organisms. However, based on the potential ecological risk assessment (PER) and risk assessment code (RAC), Cd was the most outstanding pollutant and posed the highest ecological hazard and bioavailable risk among the selected metals. Moreover, the metal partitioning between water and sediments was quantified through the calculation of the pseudo-partitioning coefficient (K P), and result implied that the sediments in this karst aquatic environment cannot be used as stable repositories for the metal pollutants.

  15. Environmental impact of aquaculture-sedimentation and nutrient loadings from shrimp culture of the southeast coastal region of the Bay of Bengal.

    Das, Biplob; Khan, Yusuf Sharif Ahmed; Das, Pranab

    2004-01-01

    Nutrient loadings were measured for surface seawater and bottom sediments of semi-intensive and improved extensive shrimp culture pond, adjacent estuary, and fallow land in the south-east coastal region of Bangladesh during August, 2000-January, 2001 to evaluate the impact of shrimp culture. The mean levels of nutrients found in the pond surface water were 108.780 mg/L for CaCO3, 0.526 mg/L for NH4+ -N, 3.075 wt% for organic carbon, 7.00 mg/L for PO4-P, 5.57 mg/L for NO3-N, and 7.33 mg/L for chlorophyll-a. The maximum mean value of H2S (0.232 mg/L) was found in estuarine water. Nutrients loading were found to be decreased with distance from the shrimp farm discharge unit in estuarine water. The mean level of organic matter, total nitrogen, and organic carbon were found in higher concentrations in sediments of cultured pond compared to bottom soil of adjacent fallow land at the same elevation. Extractable Ca values were found in higher concentration (550.33 ppt) in adjacent fallow land, as the shrimps for molting in shrimp ponds use extractable Ca. The relation between seawater H2S value and sediment pH (r = - 0.94); sediment organic carbon and sediment pH values (r = -0.76), sediment total nitrogen and sediment pH (r = -0.74) were found to be highly negatively correlated. Whereas the relation between seawater H2S value and sediment total nitrogen (r = 0.92), water NH4+ -N and sediment pH (r = 0.66) were found to be positively correlated. The results revealed that load of nutrients at eutrophic level in estuarine water, and decrease of soil pH; leading to acid sulphate soil formation indicates a negative impact of shrimp culture.

  16. Sediment Transport

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2......, 4 and 5, respectively. It is not the intention of the book to give a broad review of the literature on this very wide topic. The book tries to pick up information which is of engineering importance. An obstacle to the study of sedimentation is the scale effect in model tests. Whenever small...

  17. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria. Part 6. The chronology of discharges of caesium-137, plutonium and americium-241 from BNFL Sellafield, as recorded in lake sediments

    Eakins, J D; Cambray, R S

    1985-04-01

    A study has been made of the radionuclide content of lake sediments from Cumbria in order to determine the history of discharges of /sup 137/Cs and actinides from the Sellafield works of British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). Sediment cores have been taken from Ullswater and Grasmere, which are remote from Sellafield, in order to establish the behaviour of nuclear weapon fallout nuclides. Cores have also been taken from Barfield Tarn, which is 19 km SE of Sellafield but close to the sea, and from Ponsonby and Harnsey Moss Tarns, close to Sellafield. All sediments were analysed for /sup 137/Cs and sup(239+240)Pu. Additional measurements of /sup 238/Pu and /sup 241/Am were made on samples from the closer tarns. The sediment cores were dated by the /sup 210/Pb method and, where appropriate, by the /sup 137/Cs technique also. The amounts of /sup 137/Cs and sup(239+240)Pu in sediments from Barfield Tarn could be accounted for by fallout from nuclear weapons, although the levels of /sup 241/Am were marginally greater. However in Harnsey Moss Tarn the levels of actinides indicated that they were derived mainly from material originally discharged to sea from Sellafield. Sediment from Ponsonby Tarn contained material derived mainly from discharges to atmosphere.

  18. Determination of Leachable Vanadium (V) in Sediment

    NICO

    A method for speciation of vanadium in solid samples was developed for quantification of ... Experimental ... Sediments for Trace Metals), obtained from the National Research ... Determination of vanadium is not a simple task using ET-AAS.

  19. Experimental methodology for assessing the environmental fate of organic chemicals in polymer matrices using column leaching studies and OECD 308 water/sediment systems: Application to tire and road wear particles.

    Unice, Kenneth M; Bare, Jennifer L; Kreider, Marisa L; Panko, Julie M

    2015-11-15

    Automobile tires require functional rubber additives including curing agents and antioxidants, which are potentially environmentally available from tire and road wear particles (TRWP) deposited in soil and sediment. A novel methodology was employed to evaluate the environmental fate of three commonly-used tire chemicals (N-cyclohexylbenzothiazole-2-sulfenamide (CBS), N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (6-PPD) and 1,3-diphenylguanidine (DPG)), using a road simulator, an artificial weathering chamber, column leaching tests, and OECD 308 sediment/water incubator studies. Environmental release factors were quantified for curing (f(C)), tire wear (f(W)), terrestrial weathering (f(S)), leaching from TRWP (f(L)), and environmental availability from TRWP (f(A)) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC/MS/MS) analyses. Cumulative fractions representing total environmental availability (F(T)) and release to water (FR) were calculated for the tire chemicals and 13 transformation products. F(T) for CBS, DPG and 6-PPD inclusive of transformation products for an accelerated terrestrial aging time in soil of 0.1 years was 0.08, 0.1, and 0.06, respectively (equivalent to 6 to 10% of formulated mass). In contrast, a wider range of 5.5×10(-4) (6-PPD) to 0.06 (CBS) was observed for F(R) at an accelerated age of 0.1 years, reflecting the importance of hydrophobicity and solubility for determining the release to the water phase. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the weathering factor, f(S), were observed when chemicals were categorized by boiling point or hydrolysis rate constant. A significant difference in the leaching factor, f(L), and environmental availability factor, f(A), was also observed when chemicals were categorized by log K(ow). Our methodology should be useful for lifecycle analysis of other functional polymer chemicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Soils and organic sediments

    Head, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The organic component of soils is basically made up of substances of an individual nature (fats, waxes, resins, proteins, tannic substances, and many others), and humic substances (Kononova, 1966). These are complex polymers formed from breakdown products of the chemical and biological degradation of plant and animal residues. They are dark coloured, acidic, predominantly aromatic compounds ranging in molecular weight from less than one thousand to tens of thousands (Schnitzer, 1977). They can be partitioned into three main fractions:(i) Humic acid, which is soluble in dilute alkaline solution, but can be precipitated by acidification of the alkaline extract.(ii) Fulvic acid, which is soluble in alkaline solution, but is also soluble on acidification.(iii) Humin that cannot be extracted from the soil or sediment by dilute acid or alkaline solutions. It has mostly been assumed that the humic and fulvic acid components of the soil are part of the mobile, or 'active' component, and the humin component is part of the 'passive' component. Other types of organic sediments are likely to contain chemical breakdown products of plant material, plant fragments and material brought in from outside sources. The outside material can be contemporaneous with sediment deposition, can be older material, or younger material incorporated into the sediment long after deposition. Recognition of 'foreign' material is essential for dating, but is not an easy task. Examples of separation techniques for humic and non humic components are evaluated for their efficiency

  1. Temporal dynamics of urbanization-driven environmental changes explored by metal contamination in surface sediments in a restoring urban wetland park

    Ma, Jun; Liu, Yi; Yu, Guangbin; Li, Hongbo [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Yu, Shen, E-mail: syu@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Jiang, Yueping [The Management Committee of the National Xixi Wetland Park, Hangzhou 310013 (China); Li, Guilin [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Lin, Jinchang [The Management Committee of the National Xixi Wetland Park, Hangzhou 310013 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Urban-rural distribution pattern of metals in sediment faded out with urbanization. • Urban emissions were identified as sources of metal elevation in surface sediment. • Metal level homogenization with urbanization posed a moderate risk to the public. - Abstract: Spatial patterns of metal distribution along urban-rural or multi-city gradients indicate that the urbanization process directly lead to metal enrichment and contamination in the environments. However, it has not yet looked at homogenization dynamics of an urban-rural gradient pattern over time with urbanization process in an area. This study monitored anthropogenic metals (Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in surface sediments from channels of a newly-opened National Wetland Park to elucidate the urbanization-driven dissolution of urban-rural gradient pattern between 2008 and 2011. Sixty-eight surface sediment samples were taken from these channels in July of both 2008 and 2011. Results showed that a spatial distribution pattern of total metal contents along the gradient of urbanization influence, evident in 2008, was homogenized in 2011 with the area development. The lead stable isotope ratio analysis identified anthropogenic Pb origins from vehicular exhausts, cements, and coal flying ashes, which elevated metal contents in the inner channels via atmospheric deposition. Specific hazard quotients of the metal contamination in surface sediment were also assessed and enhanced over time in the study wetland park. These findings suggest that emissions from traffic, construction, and energy generation contribute metal loadings in the urbanizing environment.

  2. Temporal dynamics of urbanization-driven environmental changes explored by metal contamination in surface sediments in a restoring urban wetland park

    Ma, Jun; Liu, Yi; Yu, Guangbin; Li, Hongbo; Yu, Shen; Jiang, Yueping; Li, Guilin; Lin, Jinchang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Urban-rural distribution pattern of metals in sediment faded out with urbanization. • Urban emissions were identified as sources of metal elevation in surface sediment. • Metal level homogenization with urbanization posed a moderate risk to the public. - Abstract: Spatial patterns of metal distribution along urban-rural or multi-city gradients indicate that the urbanization process directly lead to metal enrichment and contamination in the environments. However, it has not yet looked at homogenization dynamics of an urban-rural gradient pattern over time with urbanization process in an area. This study monitored anthropogenic metals (Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in surface sediments from channels of a newly-opened National Wetland Park to elucidate the urbanization-driven dissolution of urban-rural gradient pattern between 2008 and 2011. Sixty-eight surface sediment samples were taken from these channels in July of both 2008 and 2011. Results showed that a spatial distribution pattern of total metal contents along the gradient of urbanization influence, evident in 2008, was homogenized in 2011 with the area development. The lead stable isotope ratio analysis identified anthropogenic Pb origins from vehicular exhausts, cements, and coal flying ashes, which elevated metal contents in the inner channels via atmospheric deposition. Specific hazard quotients of the metal contamination in surface sediment were also assessed and enhanced over time in the study wetland park. These findings suggest that emissions from traffic, construction, and energy generation contribute metal loadings in the urbanizing environment.

  3. Sediment matrix characterization as a tool for evaluating the environmental impact of heavy metals in metal mining, smelting, and ore processing areas.

    Ružičková, Silvia; Remeteiová, Dagmar; Mičková, Vladislava; Dirner, Vojtech

    2018-02-21

    In this work, the matrix characterization (mineralogy, total and local chemical composition, and total organic (TOC) and inorganic carbon (TIC) contents) of different types of sediments from mining- and metallurgy-influenced areas and the assessment of the impact of the matrix on the association of potentially hazardous metals with the mineral phases of these samples, which affect their mobility in the environment, are presented. For these purposes, sediment samples with different origins and from different locations in the environment were analyzed. Anthropogenic sediments from metal-rich post-flotation tailings (Lintich, Slovakia) represent waste from ore processing, natural river sediments from the Hornád River (Košice, Slovakia) represent areas influenced predominantly by the metallurgical industry, and lake sediments from a water reservoir Ružín (inflow from the Hornád and Hnilec Rivers, Slovakia) represent the impact of the metallurgical and/or mining industries. The total metal contents were determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis, the local chemical and morphological microanalysis by scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and the TOC and TIC contents by infrared (IR) spectrometry. The mobility/bioavailability of Cu, Pb, and Zn in/from sediments at the studied areas was assessed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and acetic acid (AA) extraction and is discussed in the context of the matrix composition. The contents of selected potentially hazardous elements in the extracts were determined by the high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS).

  4. Million Hearts 2022: Understanding the Links between Environmental Pollutant Exposure and Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Events - Justus-Warren Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Task Force

    The webinar was requested by the Justus-Warren Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Task Force. From their website, “The task force was established in 1995 in North Carolina to provide statewide leadership for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. Meetings are...

  5. Geotechnical properties of surface sediments in the INDEX area

    Khadge, N.H.

    As a part of the environmental impact assessment studies, geotechnical properties of sediments were determined in the Central Indian Basin. The undrained shear strength and index properties of the siliceous sediments were determined on 20 box cores...

  6. Intercalibration of analytical methods on marine environmental samples. Results of MEDPOL II exercise for the intercomparison of trace element measurements on mussel tissue homogenate and marine sediment (MA-M-2/TM and SD-N-1/2/TM)

    1986-12-01

    Mussels and coastal sediments are often considered as pollution indicators of the marine environment. These intercalibration exercises were organised in order to check the analytical performances of environmental laboratories. The samples MA-M-2/TM of Mediterranean mussels and SD-N-1/2/TM of surface sediment from the Scheldt Estuary (North Sea) were analysed by 19 laboratories for determination of 15 elements: Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn. The analytical methods of atomic absorption spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis and voltametry were used in this intercomparison. For the mussel MA-M-2/TM, 65% of the reported coefficients of variation lie between 0 and 10%, 25% are between 10 and 20%, 9% between 20 and 30% and only 1% higher than 30%. In the case of the sediment SD-N-1/2/TM, 90% of the reported coefficients of variation lie between 0 and 10% and the remaining 10% are between 10 and 20%. The total number of outliers is moderate (9.2% of all results in the case of MA-M-2/TM and 3.0% in the case of SD-N-1/2/TM)

  7. Monitoring radioactive contamination in food, water sediments and other environmental samples in Egypt. Final report for the period 1 October 1992 - 31 July 1996

    Farouk, M.

    1996-09-01

    A detailed survey for radioactivity content was carried out in the following materials: 1) Raw (from quarries) and finished (e.g., bricks, cement, ceramic tiles) building materials originating in central Egypt; 2) soils and plants (particularly cattle fodder) in upper Egypt, including soil to plant transfer factors; 3) water, bottom sediments and shore sediments from Lake Nasser and its immediate surroundings; 4) water, fish, bottom and shore sediments from the Lake Quaran region; 5) soil, plant, drinking water, bottom and shore sediments from the Sinai Peninsula. The concentrations of the following radionuclides were measured: K-40, Cs-137, Ra-226, Th-232 and U-238. Samples were sealed in Marinelli beakers for 4 weeks to allow complete ingrowth of Rn-222 and daughters. High resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used to measure K-40 and Cs-137 directly and Ra-226, Th-232 and U-238 indirectly by means of daughter radioactivities. In addition, uranium measurements were also made after chemical decomposition of selected samples by laser fluorimetry and by alpha spectrometry techniques. The results were used for establishing a database of baseline radioactivity levels, for evaluating average doses to the population, for comparison with similar materials from other countries and for determining soil to plant transfer factors which can be used to estimate internal doses to the population. (author). Refs, figs, tabs

  8. A geochemical record of environmental changes in sediments from Sishili Bay, northern Yellow Sea, China: Anthropogenic influence on organic matter sources and composition over the last 100 years

    Wang, Yujue; Liu, Dongyan; Richard, Pierre; Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Increased TOC and TN in the sediment cores indicated a eutrophic trend since 1975. • Marine organic matter sources dominated in Sishili Bay. • Scallop culture displayed mitigation on eutrophication pressures in Sishili Bay. • Increased fertilizer use well matched eutrophic process in Sishili Bay in 1975. -- Abstract: Total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), δ 13 C and δ 15 N were measured in sediment cores at three sites in Sishili Bay, China, to track the impacts of anthropogenic activities on the coastal environment over the last 100 years. The increased TOC and TN in the upper section of sediment cores indicated a eutrophic process since 1975. In comparison, the TOC and TN in the sediment core near to a scallop aquaculture area displayed a much slower increase, indicating the contribution of scallop aquaculture in mitigating eutrophication. Combined information from δ 13 C, δ 15 N and TOC:TN indicated an increased terrestrial signal, although organic matter sources in Sishili Bay featured a mixture of terrestrial and marine sources, with phytoplankton being dominant. Increased fertilizer use since 1970s contributed to the eutrophic process in Sishili Bay since 1975, and increased sewage discharge from 1990s has added to this process

  9. Rock magnetic and geochemical record in a sediment core from the eastern Arabian Sea: Diagenetic and environmental implications during the late quaternary

    Rao, V.P; Kessarkar, P; Patil, S.K.; Ahmad, S.M.

    . The sediments are dominated by fine-grained magnetite, but intervals of 1.2-3.8 kaBP and 10-13.5 kaBP were subjected to diagenetic changes, resulting in the dissolution of fine-grained magnetites and enrichment of redox-sensitive trace elements (Cu, Ni, Zn, V...

  10. Changing environmental conditions in recent past — Reading through the study of geochemical characteristics, magnetic parameters and sedimentation rate of mudflats, central west coast of India

    Singh, K.T.; Nayak, G.N.; Fernandes, L.L.; Borole, D.V.; Basavaiah, N.

    ), +91 982 ak@unigoa.ac.in (G.N. Nayak). rights reserved.nt past — Reading through agnetic parameters and t coast of India a, D.V. Borole c, N. Basavaiah d matology, Palaeoecology ev ie r .com/ locate /pa laeorine sedimentation is usually a reasonably...

  11. Heavy metal contamination in sand and sediments near to disposal site of reject brine from desalination plant, Arabian Gulf: Assessment of environmental pollution.

    Alshahri, Fatimh

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in environment may cause series potential risk in the living system. This study was carried out to investigate heavy metal contamination in sand samples and sediments along the beach near to disposal site of reject brine from Alkhobar desalination plant, which is one of the oldest and largest reverse osmosis desalination plants in eastern Saudi Arabia, Arabian Gulf. Fourteen heavy metals (U, Ca, Fe, Al, Ti, Sr, Rb, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, As, and Zr) were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDX). The obtained data revealed that the concentrations of these metals were higher than the values in sediment and soil for other studies in Arabian Gulf. Furthermore, the mean values of Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, As, Sr, and Zr concentrations in sand and sediments were higher than the geochemical background values in shale. The contamination factor (CF), modified degree of contamination (mC d ) and pollution load index (PLI) were assessed. According to contamination factors (CF > 1), the results showed elevated levels of Cu, Cr, Mn, Zr, and As in all samples. The highest value of contamination factor was found for As. Based on PLI (PLI > 1), the values of all sampling sites indicate a localized pollution in the study area. Current study could be useful as baseline data for heavy metals in sand and sediments nearby a desalination plant.

  12. Task 23 - background report on subsurface environmental issues relating to natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Topical report, February 1, 1994--February 28, 1996

    Sorensen, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes information pertaining to environmental issues, toxicity, environmental transport, and fate of alkanolamines and glycols associated with natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Waste management associated with the operations is also discussed.

  13. Study of 137Cs e 60Co sorption in sediments from Saco de Piraquara de Fora, Angra dos Reis and its application for environmental monitoring

    Ferreira, Ingryd Marques

    2016-01-01

    Both the suspended solid particles and the bed sediments sorb radionuclides, released in water systems. Sorption is usually represented mathematically by the distribution coefficient that is based in equilibrium between phases. Here the adsorption/desorption kinetics of 60 Co and 137 Cs in sea water were simulated by batch equilibrium experiments with sediments in two points (PT - 01, PT - 02) from Saco de Piraquara de Fora inlet (SPF). For both radionuclides, partition coefficient values (Kd) for the sampling point PT - 02 (509 and 385 L/kg for 60 Co and 137 Cs, respectively) were higher than the values determined for PT - 01 one (426 and 182 L/kg for 137 Cs and 60 Co, respectively). The higher values of Kd of PT-02 reflects the higher CEC (71,4 cmolc.dm 3 ) and content of mud < 63 μm (87%) when compared to PT-01 (CEC of 39,5 cmol c .dm 3 ) and mud (55%). In comparison with the values reported in the literature, the found Kd values are low, which may be related to the predominance of kaolinite, which is a clay of low sorption capacity. The Kd values with an increase in temperature of 23 deg C to 27 deg C were similar ( 60 Co in PT-02 and 137 Cs in both sediment) or 27 ° C values were higher ( 60 Co the PT-01). With increasing temperature to 31 °C Kd values for the two radionuclides showed a decrease. However, increasing temperature increases the desorption of the two radionuclides for both sediments The sorption process is spontaneous and favorable for both sediments and the model of sorption can be fitted by both Freundlich and Langmuir sorption isotherms. The maximum amount of 60 Co that can be sorbed on sediments were 1,64 10 -5 moles/g (4,12 10 10 Bq/g) and 2,79 10 -5 moles/g (7,03 10 10 Bq/g) to PT-01 and PT-02, respectively, and of 137 Cs 1,99 10 -6 moles/g (9,70 10 8 Bq/g) and 6,60 10 -6 mol/g (2,87 10 9 Bq/g ) to PT-01 and PT-02. Two areas in SPF can potentially accumulate 137 Cs: sediments located near the effluent discharge and the area located north

  14. US Environmental Protection Agency National Coastal Assessment for American Samoa 2004: water quality, sediment grain, and chemistry data (NODC Accession 0000455)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2004, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) National Coastal Assessment (NCA), coordinated through the...

  15. Experimental methodology for assessing the environmental fate of organic chemicals in polymer matrices using column leaching studies and OECD 308 water/sediment systems: Application to tire and road wear particles

    Unice, Kenneth M.; Bare, Jennifer L.; Kreider, Marisa L.; Panko, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    Automobile tires require functional rubber additives including curing agents and antioxidants, which are potentially environmentally available from tire and road wear particles (TRWP) deposited in soil and sediment. A novel methodology was employed to evaluate the environmental fate of three commonly-used tire chemicals (N-cyclohexylbenzothiazole-2-sulfenamide (CBS), N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N′-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (6-PPD) and 1,3-diphenylguanidine (DPG)), using a road simulator, an artificial weathering chamber, column leaching tests, and OECD 308 sediment/water incubator studies. Environmental release factors were quantified for curing (f C ), tire wear (f W ), terrestrial weathering (f S ), leaching from TRWP (f L ), and environmental availability from TRWP (f A ) by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectroscopy (LC/MS/MS) analyses. Cumulative fractions representing total environmental availability (F T ) and release to water (F R ) were calculated for the tire chemicals and 13 transformation products. F T for CBS, DPG and 6-PPD inclusive of transformation products for an accelerated terrestrial aging time in soil of 0.1 years was 0.08, 0.1, and 0.06, respectively (equivalent to 6 to 10% of formulated mass). In contrast, a wider range of 5.5 × 10 −4 (6-PPD) to 0.06 (CBS) was observed for F R at an accelerated age of 0.1 years, reflecting the importance of hydrophobicity and solubility for determining the release to the water phase. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the weathering factor, f S , were observed when chemicals were categorized by boiling point or hydrolysis rate constant. A significant difference in the leaching factor, f L , and environmental availability factor, f A, was also observed when chemicals were categorized by log K ow . Our methodology should be useful for lifecycle analysis of other functional polymer chemicals. - Highlights: • Studied two vulcanization accelerators and an antioxidant additive used in tire tread

  16. Experimental methodology for assessing the environmental fate of organic chemicals in polymer matrices using column leaching studies and OECD 308 water/sediment systems: Application to tire and road wear particles

    Unice, Kenneth M., E-mail: ken.unice@cardno.com; Bare, Jennifer L.; Kreider, Marisa L.; Panko, Julie M.

    2015-11-15

    Automobile tires require functional rubber additives including curing agents and antioxidants, which are potentially environmentally available from tire and road wear particles (TRWP) deposited in soil and sediment. A novel methodology was employed to evaluate the environmental fate of three commonly-used tire chemicals (N-cyclohexylbenzothiazole-2-sulfenamide (CBS), N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N′-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (6-PPD) and 1,3-diphenylguanidine (DPG)), using a road simulator, an artificial weathering chamber, column leaching tests, and OECD 308 sediment/water incubator studies. Environmental release factors were quantified for curing (f{sub C}), tire wear (f{sub W}), terrestrial weathering (f{sub S}), leaching from TRWP (f{sub L}), and environmental availability from TRWP (f{sub A}) by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectroscopy (LC/MS/MS) analyses. Cumulative fractions representing total environmental availability (F{sub T}) and release to water (F{sub R}) were calculated for the tire chemicals and 13 transformation products. F{sub T} for CBS, DPG and 6-PPD inclusive of transformation products for an accelerated terrestrial aging time in soil of 0.1 years was 0.08, 0.1, and 0.06, respectively (equivalent to 6 to 10% of formulated mass). In contrast, a wider range of 5.5 × 10{sup −4} (6-PPD) to 0.06 (CBS) was observed for F{sub R} at an accelerated age of 0.1 years, reflecting the importance of hydrophobicity and solubility for determining the release to the water phase. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the weathering factor, f{sub S}, were observed when chemicals were categorized by boiling point or hydrolysis rate constant. A significant difference in the leaching factor, f{sub L}, and environmental availability factor, f{sub A,} was also observed when chemicals were categorized by log K{sub ow}. Our methodology should be useful for lifecycle analysis of other functional polymer chemicals. - Highlights: • Studied two vulcanization

  17. Proposal of industrialization process of dredged sediments

    Rachid Hadj Sadok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study will focus on life cycle assessment (LCA of dredged sediments in its environment from sediment extraction to waste treatment. This tool is part of an environmental management approach, to compare the environmental loads of the different stages of the life cycle of the same product and to deduce which stage of the scenario is the most polluting in environmental terms. Optimize the modeling of industrialization process of dredged sediments using the SimaPro 8.2.3 software to propose a model that is the most respectful of the environment. We will focus on the environmental impacts; we will try to propose the most environmentally friendly scenario to exploit these dredged sediments in the field of building construction.

  18. Environmental survey in the Tuul and Orkhon River basins of north-central Mongolia, 2010: metals and other elements in streambed sediment and floodplain soi

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Tillitt, Donald E.; May, Thomas W.; Choijil, J.; Komov, T.V.

    2013-01-01

    Streambed sediment and subsurface floodplain soil were sampled for elemental analyses from 15 locations in river basins of north-central Mongolia during August 2010. Our primary objective was to conduct a reconnaissance-level assessment of potential inputs of toxicologically important metals and metalloids to Lake Baikal, Russia, that might originate from mining and urban activities within tributaries of the Selenga River in Mongolia. Samples were collected in triplicate from all sites, then dried, and sieved to city of Ulaanbaatar, but those concentrations were considerably less than probable effects benchmarks. Historical and possibly present mining activities have led to considerable metal contamination in certain tributaries of the Orkhon River in north-central Mongolia; however, metals originating from those sources did not appear to be accumulating in sediments at our downstream-most sampling sites located near the border between Mongolia and Russia.

  19. A comparative study of ancient environmental DNA to pollen and macrofossils from lake sediments reveals taxonomic overlap and additional plant taxa

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    -eight of thirty-nine samples from the core yielded putative DNA sequences. Using a multiple assignment strategy on the trnL g-h DNA barcode, consisting of two different phylogenetic and one sequence similarity assignment approaches, thirteen families of plants were identified, of which two (. Scrophulariaceae......We use 2nd generation sequencing technology on sedimentary ancient DNA (. sedaDNA) from a lake in South Greenland to reconstruct the local floristic history around a low-arctic lake and compare the results with those previously obtained from pollen and macrofossils in the same lake. Thirty...... and Asparagaceae) are absent from the pollen and macrofossil records. An age model for the sediment based on twelve radiocarbon dates establishes a chronology and shows that the lake record dates back to 10,650calyrBP. Our results suggest that sedaDNA analysis from lake sediments, although taxonomically less...

  20. Lake sediment multi-taxon DNA from North Greenland records early post-glacial appearance of vascular plants and accurately tracks environmental changes

    Epp, L. S.; Gussarova, C.; Boessenkool, S.

    2015-01-01

    temperatures. Lake sediments contain DNA paleorecords of the surrounding ecosystems and can be used to retrieve a variety of organismal groups from a single sample. In this study, we analyzed vascular plant, bryophyte, algal (in particular diatom) and copepod DNA retrieved from a sediment core spanning...... phases, and distinct temporal changes in plant presence were recovered. The plant DNA was mostly in agreement with expected vegetation history, but very early occurrences of vascular plants, including the woody Empetrum nigrum, document terrestrial vegetation very shortly after glacial retreat. Our study...... core. Our DNA record was stratigraphically coherent, with no indication of leaching between layers, and our cross-taxon comparisons were in accordance with previously inferred local ecosystem changes. Authentic ancient plant DNA was retrieved from nearly all layers, both from the marine and the limnic...

  1. Biology task group

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The accomplishments of the task group studies over the past year are reviewed. The purposes of biological investigations, in the context of subseabed disposal, are: an evaluation of the dose to man; an estimation of effects on the ecosystem; and an estimation of the influence of organisms on and as barriers to radionuclide migration. To accomplish these ends, the task group adopted the following research goals: (1) acquire more data on biological accumulation of specific radionuclides, such as those of Tc, Np, Ra, and Sr; (2) acquire more data on transfer coefficients from sediment to organism; (3) Calculate mass transfer rates, construct simple models using them, and estimate collective dose commitment; (4) Identify specific pathways or transfer routes, determine the rates of transfer, and make dose limit calculations with simple models; (5) Calculate dose rates to and estimate irradiation effects on the biota as a result of waste emplacement, by reference to background irradiation calculations. (6) Examine the effect of the biota on altering sediment/water radionuclide exchange; (7) Consider the biological data required to address different accident scenarios; (8) Continue to provide the basic biological information for all of the above, and ensure that the system analysis model is based on the most realistic and up-to-date concepts of marine biologists; and (9) Ensure by way of free exchange of information that the data used in any model are the best currently available

  2. Holocene environmental change along the southern Cape coast of South Africa - Insights from the Eilandvlei sediment record spanning the last 8.9 kyr

    Wündsch, Michael; Haberzettl, Torsten; Cawthra, Hayley C.; Kirsten, Kelly L.; Quick, Lynne J.; Zabel, Matthias; Frenzel, Peter; Hahn, Annette; Baade, Jussi; Daut, Gerhard; Kasper, Thomas; Meadows, Michael E.; Mäusbacher, Roland

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates Holocene sediments from Eilandvlei, a coastal lake located within the Wilderness embayment at the southern Cape coast of South Africa. The evolution of the present estuarine/coastal lake system is reconstructed based on seismic data as well as a multi-proxy approach on a 30.5 m sediment core spanning the last 8.9 kyr. Geochemical (Ca, TOC/S, Br/TOC) and micropalaeontological data (diatoms, foraminifera) reflect changes in the degree of marine influence at the core site. The embayment likely developed via distinct phases of connectivity to the Indian Ocean caused by sea level changes and dune progradation. Marine conditions prevailed at the core site from 8900 to 4700 cal BP. The rapid sea level rise during the early Holocene caused the inundation of a palaeovalley that most likely had formed at lower sea levels during the Pleistocene. Towards the mid-Holocene the sea level exceeded its present height around 7500 cal BP creating a marine embayment. At 4700 cal BP, the embayment became distinctly more disconnected from the ocean turning into a lagoon system that persisted until 1200 cal BP. Subsequently, the marine influence further decreased and the present estuarine/coastal lake system was established. Grain size and geochemical data (Fe, Si/Al, chemical index of alteration (CIA)) further reflect changes in the deposition of terrigenous sediments at the core site. While the sedimentation of fine-grained (climatic conditions than today from 8900 to 7900 cal BP and 6400 to 3000 cal BP. In contrast, the periods between 7900-6400 cal BP and 3000 cal BP-present were likely characterized by high river discharge and thus, generally more rainfall. The reconstructed palaeoclimatic variations are discussed within the context of e.g., shifts in the position of the Antarctic sea ice extent and the mid-latitude westerly wind belt as well as changes in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  3. Environmental impacts of heavy metals, rare earth elements and natural radionuclides in marine sediment from Ras Tanura, Saudi Arabia along the Arabian Gulf.

    El-Taher, Atef; Alshahri, Fatimh; Elsaman, Reda

    2018-02-01

    Ras Tanura city is one of the most important cities in Saudi Arabia because of the presence of the largest and oldest oil refinery in the Middle East which was began operations in September 1945. Also its contains gas plant and two ports. The concentration of natural radionuclides, heavy metals and rare earth elements were measured in marine sediment samples collected from Ras Tanura. The specific activities of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs (Bq/kg) were measured using A hyper-pure Germanium detector (HPGe), and ranged from (20.4 ± 4.0-55.1 ± 9.9), (6.71 ± 0.7-46.1 ± 4.5), (3.51 ± 0.5-18.2 ± 1.5), (105 ± 4.4-492 ± 13) and from (0.33 ± 0.04-2.10 ± 0.4) for 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs respectively. Heavy metals and rare earth elements were measured using ICPE-9820 Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer. Also the frequency distributions for all radioactive variables in sediment samples were analyzed. Finally the radiological hazards due to natural radionuclides in marine sediment were calculated to the public and it's diagramed by Surfer program in maps. Comparing with the international recommended values, its values found to be within the international level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of the distributions in marine sediments of the fallout derived nuclides 55Fe and 239240Pu: a new approach to the chemistry of environmental radionuclides

    Labeyrie, L.D.; Livingston, H.D.; Bowen, V.T.

    1975-01-01

    We present data showing the distribution of 55 Fe radioactivity in marine sediment cores taken from a large range of water depths; these data are compared with the 239 , 240 Pu analyses of the same or similar cores. The report is preliminary in that only a small part of the world ocean has yet been studied. The results available suggest that, iron and plutonium move separately and that in the open Atlantic Ocean, 55 Fe has sedimented in association with a mixed population of particles, exhibiting a mean sinking rate of about 350 m per year. Part of the iron in coastal sediments is redissolved, probably by reduction associated with decaying organic matter; this process affects a higher proportion of the 55 Fe than of the total iron. The solubilized iron should reprecipitate, after return to the overlying water and oxidation, as microparticulates. These very fine particles, dispersed by currents, may translocate 55 Fe toward the open sea, only slowly becoming associated with larger, faster-sinking, mineral particles. It is suggested that this process may be important in the translocation of other insoluble trace elements, and even of part of the 239 , 240 Pu

  5. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  6. Determination of Leachable Vanadium (V) in Sediment

    NICO

    A method for speciation of vanadium in solid samples was developed for quantification of vanadium(+5) in solid samples of sediment Certified Reference Materials ... element in such environmental samples as soil, sediments and plants.3,4–5 Validation of the ... Sample Preparation for the Determination of. Vanadium(+5).

  7. Mercury in sediments of Ulhas estuary

    Ram, A.; Rokade, M.A.; Borole, D.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    Hg levels in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment of the Ulhas estuary are under considerable environmental stress due to the indiscriminate release of effluents from a variety of industries including chlor-alkali plants. Concentration...

  8. JV Task 92 - Alcoa/Retec SFE and SPME

    Steven Hawthorne

    2009-02-15

    This report summarizes the work performed by the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) under the U.S. Department of Energy Jointly Sponsored Research Program JV Task 92, which is a continuation of JV9. Successful studies performed in 1999 through the end of 2008 demonstrated the potential for using selective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method for measuring sediment pore water polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to mimic the bioavailability of PAHs from manufactured gas plant and aluminum smelter soils and sediments both in freshwater and saltwater locations. The studies that the EERC has performed with the commercial partners have continued to generate increased interest in both the regulatory communities and in the industries that have historically produced or utilized coal tar products. Both ASTM International and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have accepted the pore water method developed at the EERC as standard methods. The studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of our techniques in predicting bioavailability of PAHs from ca. 250 impacted and background field sediments and soils. The field demonstrations from the final years of the project continued to build the foundation data for acceptance of our methods by the regulatory communities. The JV92 studies provide the single largest database in the world that includes measures of PAH bioavailability along with biological end points. These studies clearly demonstrated that present regulatory paradigms based on equilibrium partitioning greatly overpredict bioavailability. These investigations also laid the foundation for present (non-JV) studies being applied to PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at EPA Superfund sites, investigations into PAH and PCB bioavailability at U.S Department of Defense sites, and the application of the techniques to investigating the bioavailability of chlorinated dioxins and furans from impacted

  9. A comparative study of ancient environmental DNA to pollen and macrofossils from lake sediments reveals taxonomic overlap and additional plant taxa

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Orlando, Ludovic; Olsen, Jesper; Andersen, Kenneth; Holm, Jakob; Funder, Svend; Willerslev, Eske; Kjær, Kurt H.

    2013-09-01

    We use 2nd generation sequencing technology on sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) from a lake in South Greenland to reconstruct the local floristic history around a low-arctic lake and compare the results with those previously obtained from pollen and macrofossils in the same lake. Thirty-eight of thirty-nine samples from the core yielded putative DNA sequences. Using a multiple assignment strategy on the trnL g-h DNA barcode, consisting of two different phylogenetic and one sequence similarity assignment approaches, thirteen families of plants were identified, of which two (Scrophulariaceae and Asparagaceae) are absent from the pollen and macrofossil records. An age model for the sediment based on twelve radiocarbon dates establishes a chronology and shows that the lake record dates back to 10,650 cal yr BP. Our results suggest that sedaDNA analysis from lake sediments, although taxonomically less detailed than pollen and macrofossil analyses can be a complementary tool for establishing the composition of both terrestrial and aquatic local plant communities and a method for identifying additional taxa.

  10. The presence of radioactive materials in soil, sand and sediment samples of Potenga sea beach area, Chittagong, Bangladesh: Geological characteristics and environmental implication

    Yasmin, Sabina; Barua, Bijoy Sonker; Uddin Khandaker, Mayeen; Kamal, Masud; Abdur Rashid, Md.; Abdul Sani, S. F.; Ahmed, H.; Nikouravan, Bijan; Bradley, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    Accurate quantification of naturally occurring radioactive materials in soil provides information on geological characteristics, possibility of petroleum and mineral exploration, radiation hazards to the dwelling populace etc. Of practical significance, the earth surface media (soil, sand and sediment) collected from the densely populated coastal area of Chittagong city, Bangladesh were analysed using a high purity germanium γ-ray spectrometer with low background radiation environment. The mean activities of 226Ra (238U), 232Th and 40K in the studied materials show higher values than the respective world average of 33, 36 and 474 Bq/kg reported by the UNSCEAR (2000). The deduced mass concentrations of the primordial radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K in the investigated samples are corresponding to the granite rocks, crustal minerals and typical rocks respectively. The estimated mean value of 232Th/238U for soil (3.98) and sediment (3.94) are in-line with the continental crustal average concentration of 3.82 for typical rock range reported by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). But the tonalites and more silicic rocks elevate the mean value of 232Th/238U for sand samples amounting to 4.69. This indicates a significant fractionation during weathering or associated with the metasomatic activity in the investigated area of sand collection.

  11. Stable lead isotopic characterisation of the historical record of environmental lead contamination in dated freshwater lake sediment cores from northern and central Scotland

    Eades, L.J.; Farmer, J.G. [Environmental Chemistry Unit, Department of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, EH9 3JJ, Scotland Edinburgh (United Kingdom); MacKenzie, A.B. [Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre, East Kilbride, G75 0QF, Scotland Glasgow (United Kingdom); Kirika, A.; Bailey-Watts, A.E. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, EH26 0QB, Scotland Penicuik (United Kingdom)

    2002-06-20

    Sediment cores from three Scottish freshwater lakes, Loch Ness in the remote north and Loch Lomond and the Lake of Menteith, much closer to the heavily populated and industrialised central belt, were analysed for 210Pb, 137Cs, Pb and stable Pb isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb). The radionuclide data were used to establish chronologies for the Loch Ness and Loch Lomond cores, but a chronology could not be developed for the Lake of Menteith core, in which the surface sediment had been subject to intense mixing. Although Pb concentrations generally started increasing during the mid-17th Century, a small peak occurred for Loch Ness in the early 16th Century, perhaps attributable to the influence of medieval mining and smelting in mainland Europe. Temporal trends in the pattern of Pb accumulation were similar for Loch Ness and both sites in Loch Lomond, with 40-50% of the anthropogenic Pb deposited prior to the 20th Century. Fluxes of anthropogenic Pb to the lake sediments peaked during the 1950s at all locations where chronologies could be established. The 5-fold increase in anthropogenic Pb inventory for the southern basin of Loch Lomond relative to Loch Ness reflected geographical proximity to the main polluting sources. The 206Pb/207Pb data for anthropogenic Pb in the sediments from Loch Ness and Loch Lomond exhibited largely similar trends related to five different time periods. Pre-1820, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio was close to that for coal (1.181). From 1820 to 1900, a fairly constant 206Pb/207Pb ratio of 1.17 probably resulted from a combination of emissions from the smelting of indigenous Pb ore (1.170) and coal burning (1.181) in Scotland, and industrial activity to the south in England, where Australian Pb of characteristically low 206Pb/207Pb ratio (1.04) was already in use. From 1901 to 1930, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio declined by <0.01, due to the increasing influence of Australian Pb. From 1931 to 1975/1985, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio of anthropogenic Pb declined by a

  12. Stable lead isotopic characterisation of the historical record of environmental lead contamination in dated freshwater lake sediment cores from northern and central Scotland.

    Eades, L J; Farmer, J G; MacKenzie, A B; Kirika, A; Bailey-Watts, A E

    2002-06-20

    Sediment cores from three Scottish freshwater lakes, Loch Ness in the remote north and Loch Lomond and the Lake of Menteith, much closer to the heavily populated and industrialised central belt were analysed for 210Pb, 137Cs, Pb and stable Pb isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb). The radionuclide data were used to establish chronologies for the Loch Ness and Loch Lomond cores, but a chronology could not be developed for the Lake of Menteith core, in which the surface sediment had been subject to intense mixing. Although Pb concentrations generally started increasing during the mid-17th Century, a small peak occurred for Loch Ness in the early 16th Century, perhaps attributable to the influence of medieval mining and smelting in mainland Europe. Temporal trends in the pattern of Pb accumulation were similar for Loch Ness and both sites in Loch Lomond, with 40-50% of the anthropogenic Pb deposited prior to the 20th Century. Fluxes of anthropogenic Pb to the lake sediments peaked during the 1950s at all locations where chronologies could be established. The 5-fold increase in anthropogenic Pb inventory for the southern basin of Loch Lomond relative to Loch Ness reflected geographical proximity to the main polluting sources. The 206Pb/207Pb data for anthropogenic Pb in the sediments from Loch Ness and Loch Lomond exhibited largely similar trends related to five different time periods. Pre-1820, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio was close to that for coal (1.181). From 1820 to 1900, a fairly constant 206Pb/207Pb ratio of approximately 1.17 probably resulted from a combination of emissions from the smelting of indigenous Pb ore (1.170) and coal burning (1.181) in Scotland, and industrial activity to the south in England, where Australian Pb of characteristically low 206Pb/207Pb ratio (1.04) was already in use. From 1901 to 1930, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio declined by <0.01, due to the increasing influence of Australian Pb. From 1931 to 1975/1985, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio of anthropogenic Pb

  13. Weight-of-evidence on environmental impact assessment of metal contaminated sediments in the São Francisco river (Três Marias - Minas Gerais - Brazil: a case study

    DF. Almeida

    Full Text Available The weight-of-evidence - WOE approach was used to assess the environmental impact of sediments contaminated by metals in the São Francisco river and one of its tributaries, Consciência creek, both affected by anthropic activities, in the region of Três Marias (Minas Gerais/Brazil. The assessment provided support to a risk management decision. The WOE was based on bulk metal analysis, AVS-SEM assays, elutriate tests, ecotoxicity assays, benthic community assessment and a comparison for the reference area. Brazilian legislation and other available literature were used as criteria to evaluate the lines of evidence. All samples, except for the reference area, presented some contamination. However, geochemical testing for bioavailability studies showed that toxicity is unlikely as suggested by the chemical results. Ecotoxicity and benthic structure studies provided further information to support decision making. Metal acid volatile sulfide formation mechanisms were identified, which can eventually attenuate metal toxicity observed. The removal of active sources of contamination (for example, from tailings dumps associated with Monitoring Natural Recovery could be sufficient to eventually lessen the risk of the biota in São Francisco river sediments.

  14. Robot task space analyzer

    Hamel, W.R.; Osborn, J.

    1997-01-01

    Many nuclear projects such as environmental restoration and waste management challenges involve radiation or other hazards that will necessitate the use of remote operations that protect human workers from dangerous exposures. Remote work is far more costly to execute than what workers could accomplish directly with conventional tools and practices because task operations are slow and tedious due to difficulties of remote manipulation and viewing. Decades of experience within the nuclear remote operations community show that remote tasks may take hundreds of times longer than hands-on work; even with state-of-the-art force- reflecting manipulators and television viewing, remote task performance execution is five to ten times slower than equivalent direct contact work. Thus the requirement to work remotely is a major cost driver in many projects. Modest improvements in the work efficiency of remote systems can have high payoffs by reducing the completion time of projects. Additional benefits will accrue from improved work quality and enhanced safety

  15. Mid- to Late Holocene environmental dynamics on the Yukon Coastal Plain and Herschel Island (Canada) – evidence from polygonal peatlands and lake sediment

    Wolter, Juliane

    2017-01-01

    The North American Arctic witnessed high-amplitude climatic change during the Early Holocene that resulted in regional-scale environmental change. These changes are well documented in the literature. The environmental impacts of moderate climatic oscillations during the Mid- to Late Holocene are less well understood, especially on the Yukon Coastal Plain, which is geographically and topographically isolated from the rest of the western Canadian Arctic. The region is currently experiencing inc...

  16. Somatic Arc protein expression in hippocampal granule cells is increased in response to environmental change but independent of task-specific learning.

    Cleland, J P; Willis, E F; Bartlett, P F; Vukovic, J

    2017-09-29

    Activated neurons express immediate-early genes, such as Arc. Expression of Arc in the hippocampal granule cell layer, an area crucial for spatial learning and memory, is increased during acquisition of spatial learning; however, it is unclear whether this effect is related to the task-specific learning process or to nonspecific aspects of the testing procedure (e.g. exposure to the testing apparatus and exploration of the environment). Herein, we show that Arc-positive cells numbers are increased to the same extent in the granule cell layer after both acquisition of a single spatial learning event in the active place avoidance task and exploration of the testing environment, as compared to naïve (i.e. caged) mice. Repeated exposure the testing apparatus and environment did not reduce Arc expression. Furthermore, Arc expression did not correlate with performance in both adult and aged animals, suggesting that exploration of the testing environment, rather than the specific acquisition of the active place avoidance task, induces Arc expression in the dentate granule cell layer. These findings thus suggest that Arc is an experience-induced immediate-early gene.

  17. APPLICATION OF SEDIMENT QUALITY GUIDELINES IN THE ASSESSMENT OF MANGROVE SURFACE SEDIMENT IN MENGKABONG LAGOON, SABAH, MALAYSIA

    S. M. Praveena, M. Radojevic, M. H. Abdullah, A. Z. Aris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous sediment quality guidelines developed to monitor the sediments. Sediment quality guidelines are very useful to screen sediment contamination by comparing sediment contaminant concentration with the corresponding quality guideline, provide useful tools for screening sediment chemical data to identify pollutants of concern and prioritise problem sites and relatively good predictors of contaminations. However, these guidelines are chemical specific and do not include biological parameters. Aquatic ecosystems, including sediments, must be assessed in multiple components (biological data, toxicity, physicochemistry by using intregrated approaches in order to establish a complete and comprehensive set of sediment quality guidelines. Numerous sediment quality guidelines Washington Department of Ecology Sediment Quality Guideline, Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council, Swedish Environmental Sediment Quality, Screening Quick Reference Table, Portuguese Legislation on the Classification of Dredged Materials in Coastal Zones and Interim Sediment Quality Guideline for Hong Kong have been applied to the Mengkabong lagoon mangrove sediment and discussed. The most appropriate guideline that meets the prioritization criteria consistent with international initiatives and regulations is interim sediment quality values for Hong Kong. The guideline verifies that all the metals are below the Interim Sediment Quality Value-low. However, site-specific, biological testing and ecological analysis of exisiting benthics community structure related to sediment contamination are needed for final decision making in the case of Mengkabong lagoon.

  18. Terrestrial environmental changes around the Gulf of Aden over the last 210 kyr deduced from the sediment n-alkane record: Implications for the dispersal of Homo sapiens

    Isaji, Yuta; Kawahata, Hodaka; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Murayama, Masafumi; Tamaki, Kensaku

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed long-chain (C25-C36) n-alkanes and pollen grains in sediments from the Gulf of Aden covering the last 212 kyr to reconstruct the surrounding terrestrial environment, a critical region for the dispersal of Homo sapiens. Substantial increases in the flux of n-alkanes during 200-185, 120-95, and 70-50 ka were interpreted to indicate enhanced vegetation biomass in the Arabian Peninsula and the northern part of the Horn of Africa or increase in lithogenic material inputs. Periods of enhanced n-alkane flux occurred during or immediately after pluvial episodes, indicating that the increased precipitation may have induced substantially enhanced vegetation biomass, creating favorable conditions for Homo sapiens. Additionally, vegetation may have increased due to moderate precipitation unrecorded by speleothems or in accordance with the lowering of sea level, indicating that the dispersal might have been possible even after the shift to an arid environment indicated by the speleothems.

  19. The changes in the composition of Cladocera community in bottom sediments of Lake Maloye Shibrozero (Zaonezhsky Peninsula) as a consequence of shifts of environmental and climatic conditions

    Ibragimova, A. G.; Frolova, L. A.; Subetto, D. A.; Belkina, N. A.; Potakhin, M. S.

    2018-01-01

    The study aims to explore the evolution of lakes of the boreal zone during the late- and postglacial time on the south-eastern periphery of the Fennoscandian crystalline shield since the last deglaciation. In order to reconstruct the past for virgin territories of the Zaonezhsky Peninsula current investigation on bottom sediments of Lake Maloye Shibrozero was conducted. Analyzes were performed using the new paleoindicator - subfossil remains of Cladocera (Cladocera, Branchiopoda). The 28 samples of bottom sediments were analyzed. It has been determined that discovered Cladocera remains belong to representatives of 6 families and 38 taxa. Species inhabiting Palaearctic zone are predominant in lake deposits; most of the identified subfossil remains are related to the pelagic species inhabiting the open part of the lake. According to the Lubarsky scale the dominant of Cladocera community is Bosmina (Eubosmina) cf. longispina. Secondary taxa are Chydorus sphaericus, Bosmina coregoni, Alonella nana, Alona guadrangularis, A. affinis, Chydorus gibbus. At a depth of 650-653 cm, a partial replacement of Bosmina (Eubosmina) cf. longispina by Bosmina coregoni takes place with a simultaneous increase in the significance of Chydorus sphaericus, which is used to be an indicator of eutrophication and increasing trophic status of the reservoir. Changes in Cladocera community could be attributed to decreasing the level of periglacial lake, as a result of which the Lake Maloye Shibrozero became a small isolated lake with the trend to trophic status increasing. Cold-water species were replaced by thermophilic ones with a further return to a cold-water fauna. In the upper layers of the column an increase of the number of phytophilous species is noted.

  20. River sediment (S-37)--a new analytical quality control material ensuring comparability of chlorinated hydrocarbon analysis during an international environmental study in China.

    Gawlik, B M; Martens, D; Henkelmann, B; Schramm, K W; Kettrup, A; Muntau, H

    2000-06-01

    A sediment reference material (S-37) was prepared as analytical quality control material to be used within an international project on polychlorinated hydrocarbon analysis in two Chinese rivers. The raw material was sampled during a cruise on Yangtse River and transported afterwards to the JRC Ispra for further processing. The material was treated according to the general principles applicable for candidate reference material production. After a thorough homogeneity study of the bulk the material was bottled. A total of 1,080 bottles each containing 50 g of dry sediment powder was obtained. Final homogeneity and stability testing proved the material to be fit for the purpose. Isotope dilution GC/MS was used to establish target values for pentachlorobenzene (1.17 +/- 0.08 ng/g), hexachlorobenzene (3.60 +/- 0.17 ng/g), octachlorostyrene (0.19 +/- 0.01 ng/g), pentachloroanisole (0.52 +/- 0.02 ng/g), alpha-HCH (0.70 +/- 0.05 ng/g), beta-HCH (1.38 +/- 0.18 ng/g), gamma-HCH (0.83 +/- 038 ng/g), 2,4'-DDT (0.36 +/- 0.04 ng/g), 2,4'-DDE (0.29 +/- 0.02 ng/g), 2,4'-DDD (0.49 +/- 0.02), 4,4'-DDT (3.42 +/- 0.47 ng/g), 4,4'-DDD (1.29 +/- 0.17 ng/g), PCB 28 (0.11 +/- 0.01 ng/g), PCB 52 (0.09 +/- 0.003 ng/g), PCB 101 (0.07 +/- 0.003 ng/g), PCB 138 (0.06 +/- 0.003 ng/g) and PCB 153 (0.06 +/- 0.003 ng/g). Furthermore, indicative values for major and minor constituents as well as for polychlorinated dibenzodioxines and -furanes were measured.

  1. Determination and environmental estimation of NORMs in marine sediment environment of offshore platforms; Determinacao e avaliacao ambiental de NORMs em sedimento marinho entorno de plataformas offshore

    Vegueria, Sergio F. Jerez, E-mail: sfjerez@vm.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Analitica; Godoy, Jose M., E-mail: rccampos@puc-rio.br, E-mail: jmgodoy@puc-rio.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The natural radioactive materials (NORM known as) are found in the earth's crust, and during the process of production of oil and gas are concentrated in the produced water and the fouling (scale) pipes used for extraction. The production of oil and gas from produced water comes, comprising: forming water (water naturally present in the well ); injection water , usually sea water previously injected into the well to maintaining the pressure while the oil is removed; and water condensed in some cases of gas production. A high radioactivity of {sup 226}Ra (natural grade of {sup 238}U) and {sup 228}Ra (from the natural series of {sup 232}Th) is detected in produced water due to the high solubility of radio in formation water as uranium and thorium, which are insoluble in this medium, remain the rock matrix. The study was conducted in the area of offshore oil production in the state of Rio de January and included the determination of uranium, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 228}Ra in marine sediment near the points of discharge of produced water from oil platforms. After the pre-treatment and digestion of samples, the determination of the natural uranium was performed on a mass spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma (ICP -MS). The activities of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra were determined by high resolution gamma spectrometry through {sup 214}Bi and {sup 228}Ac , respectively. And in the case of {sup 210}Pb, a correction was made for self-absorption employing an external source of this radionuclide. The results showed that there is no impact in sediments in the vicinity of the studied platforms.

  2. Potential Impact of Climate Change on Suspended Sediment Yield in NW Spain: A Case Study on the Corbeira Catchment

    M. Luz Rodríguez-Blanco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil losses and the subsequent sediment delivery constitute significant environmental threats. Climate change is likely to have an impact on the availability of water and therefore on sediment yield in catchments. In this context, quantifying the sediment response to an increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change is of utmost importance to the proper management of rural catchments. However, quantitative assessment of climate change impact remains a complex task. In this study, the potential medium (2031–2060 and long-term (2069–2098 impacts of projected changes of temperature, rainfall and CO2 concentration on sediment yield in a small rural catchment located in NW Spain were evaluated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model. Climate change scenarios were created using future climate data projected by regional climate models from the ENSEMBLES project and two CO2 concentration scenarios (550 and 660 ppm. The results showed that climate change would have a noticeable impact on suspended sediment if the forecast temperature, rainfall and CO2 concentration changes included in this study were met. Overall, suspended sediment is expected to decrease (2031–2060: −11%, 2069–2098: −8% compared to the baseline period (1981–2010, mainly due to decreased streamflow. However, an increase in sediment transport in winter is predicted, possibly associated with increased erosion in cultivated areas (11%–17%, suggesting that, at this time of the year, the effect of soil detachment prevails over sediment transport capacity. Consequently, management practices aimed at reducing soil erosion in cultivated areas should be carried out, because these are the main source of sediment in the study area.

  3. Chemistry of marine sediments

    Yen, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    Some topics considered are as follows: characterization of sediments in the vicinity of offshore petroleum production; thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis; composition of polluted bottom sediments in Great Lakes harbors; distribution of heavy metals in sediment fractions; recent deposition of lead off the coast of southern California; release of trace constituents from sediments resuspended during dredging operations; and migration of chemical constituents in sediment-seawater interfaces

  4. Interactive 4D Visualization of Sediment Transport Models

    Butkiewicz, T.; Englert, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal sediment transport models simulate the effects that waves, currents, and tides have on near-shore bathymetry and features such as beaches and barrier islands. Understanding these dynamic processes is integral to the study of coastline stability, beach erosion, and environmental contamination. Furthermore, analyzing the results of these simulations is a critical task in the design, placement, and engineering of coastal structures such as seawalls, jetties, support pilings for wind turbines, etc. Despite the importance of these models, there is a lack of available visualization software that allows users to explore and perform analysis on these datasets in an intuitive and effective manner. Existing visualization interfaces for these datasets often present only one variable at a time, using two dimensional plan or cross-sectional views. These visual restrictions limit the ability to observe the contents in the proper overall context, both in spatial and multi-dimensional terms. To improve upon these limitations, we use 3D rendering and particle system based illustration techniques to show water column/flow data across all depths simultaneously. We can also encode multiple variables across different perceptual channels (color, texture, motion, etc.) to enrich surfaces with multi-dimensional information. Interactive tools are provided, which can be used to explore the dataset and find regions-of-interest for further investigation. Our visualization package provides an intuitive 4D (3D, time-varying) visualization of sediment transport model output. In addition, we are also integrating real world observations with the simulated data to support analysis of the impact from major sediment transport events. In particular, we have been focusing on the effects of Superstorm Sandy on the Redbird Artificial Reef Site, offshore of Delaware Bay. Based on our pre- and post-storm high-resolution sonar surveys, there has significant scour and bedform migration around the

  5. [Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal]: Task 7.1, Strategic planning. Topical report, February 1, 1994--June 30, 1995

    1996-01-01

    The nations of East Central Europe regained their political and economic freedom in 1989, ending nearly a half century of centrally planned economies under the hegemony of the former Soviet Union (FSU). These nations are now emerging from economic conditions marked by price distortions and a focus on heavy industry, isolation from world markets, and a lack of occupational health and environmental safeguards. Economic recovery, environmental restoration, and political stability, as well as eventual entrance into the European Community (EC), require a reordering of policies and priorities, including those bearing on energy and the environment. This report, prepared as a background document for the Second International Conference on Energy and Environment to be held in Prague in November 1994, is composed of a summary table (Table 1) and supporting text and is intended to provide a concise review of issues related to energy and the environment for the Czech and Slovak Republics, Hungary, Poland, and Bulgaria. Organized by subject and country, Table 1 contains country profiles (Row A), information on the economy (Row B), primary energy consumption, environmental priorities, energy resources, production, and utilization (Rows C, D, F, G, H, and I), electrical generation and transmission (Rows J and K), district heating (Row L), briquettes (Row M), and environmental regulations (Row N). Pertinent policy goals, issues, and trends are noted. The reports is based largely on a review of documents published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as well as selected sources obtained from the countries of the region. Reference citations are keyed to information presented in Table 1

  6. Research and development of technologies for safe and environmentally optimal recovery and disposal of explosive wastes. Task 10, Impact assessment for environment, health and safety (EIA)

    Duijm, N.J.; Markert, F. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark)

    2000-03-01

    Modern technologies like high-pressure water washout and Fluidised Bed Combustion provide safe and environmentally acceptable solutions for demilitarisation. The environmental impact from the traditional techniques Open Burning and Open Detonation can be drastically reduced. High-pressure water washout in combination with Fluidised Bed Combustion and NO{sub x}-reduction using urea-injection is the best well-demonstrated technology considered in this study. This technology can be used for large/medium sized calibre munitions, but additional removal of NO{sub x} from the flue gases is required in order to comply with European emission standards. It has been made credible at existing Rotary Kilns used for hazardous waste in general can be used also for incineration of de-sensitised, down sized munitions (slurries), with a similar performance with respect to environmental and safety aspects as Fluidised Bed Combustion. Using a Closed Detonation chamber with flue-gas cleaning has important environmental advantages compared to Open Burning and Open Detonation, especially for small munitions (e.g. fuzes, antipersonnel mines, pyrotechnics). However, because Closed Detonation is labour-intensive and requires operation of complex, pressurised systems, it poses more risk on the personnel. For that reason, it is recommended to develop other systems to demilitarise small munitions. It appears that the air pollution emissions from transport of munitions to disposal facilities is significant compared to the process emissions of the 'cleanest' technologies. Similarly, risks related to transport (due to ordinary accidents involving trucks) are not dominating, but cannot be ignored compared to process risks. These considerations need to be included when comparing less sophisticated local or mobile facilities with central facilities having advanced flue gas cleaning. (au)

  7. Prioritization of sediment management alternatives using stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis

    Alvarez-Guerra, Manuel; Canis, Laure; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Viguri, Javier R.; Linkov, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Decision-making for sediment management is a complex task that requires the consideration of temporal and spatial impacts of several remedial alternatives as well as the associated economic, social and political impact. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is becoming increasingly recognized as an important environmental management tool that can be used to support the selection of suitable remediation alternatives and prioritization of management units in space and time. This paper proposes an MCDA framework for prioritizing sediment management alternatives. This framework involves identifying of a set of feasible options, as well as defining and evaluating criteria which integrate relevant technical, economic, social and environmental aspects of remedies. The methodology allows an explicit consideration of uncertainty in criteria scores and weights by assigning probability distributions and analyzing subsequent Monte-Carlo simulations. The consideration of different stakeholder simulated values is used to assess the robustness of alternative rankings and to guide the selection of remediation options. An application of this methodology to a case study in the Bay of Santander, Spain, is presented. An assessment is conducted for the case of unknown preferences as well as for hypothetical preferences profiles for four types of stakeholders: Idealist, Politician, Environmentalist and Balanced. The results are used to visualize stakeholder positions and potential disagreements, allowing for the identification of a group of least preferred alternatives for each stakeholder. Stakeholder involvement has the potential to ease the remedy selection process during all stages of the decision-making process and to eventually remedy implementation.

  8. Research program on climatic and environmental problems. Summary of Norwegian climatic and ozone layer research in the last decade and important research tasks in the future

    Dahlin, Elin

    1999-04-01

    This report includes 44 abstracts, 21 lectures and 23 posters from a workshop arranged by the Norwegian Research Council, the Steering Group for the Norwegian research programme for changes in climate and ozone layer. The topics dealt with are: Results from the research, the greenhouse effect and its influence on the climate of today, the interactions between ocean and climate, pollution influence on ozone layer changes, the UV radiation effects and their influence on the environment, climatic modelling and forecasting, ecological problems related to climatic and environmental changes, the climatic influences of human energy utilisation and suggestions for future research

  9. Modern environmental penal law in the light of the jurisdiction - review and tasks. Das moderne Umweltstrafrecht im Spiegel der Rechtsprechung - Bilanz und Aufgaben

    Rengier, R.

    1992-01-01

    The jurisdiction in modern environmental penal law has gone beyond just adopting the ecological tenets of the legislature: it has farthered their development, thus contributing substantially to an ecologically oriented understanding of the offences of water pollution and ecologically harmful waste disposal. This orientation has made prosecution more efficient and through its preventive effects has increased ecological awareness. A good example within the sphere of public interest are communal plant operators. In other areas such as private business and private households the preventive effect is not yet as apparent, but this will probably change in the course of time. (orig.)

  10. [Status and actualization of tasks to improve the scientific-methodological and regulatory frameworks in the field of human ecology and environmental health].

    Rakhmanin, Iu A; Sinitsyna, O O

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary factors that affect the health of the population have been analyzed. There was shown the growing activity of chemical pollution of the environment. Therefore, in order to prevent the growth of negative health and environment consequences caused by increased levels of exposure to chemicals preventive potential for solutions of this complex problem and all strenuous efforts to assist possibly of the sound management of the chemicals should be enhanced. Problematic issues of harmonization of the Russian normative and guidance documents have been actualized. Perspective directions of science development in the field of human ecology and environmental health are suggested.

  11. Record of environmental and climatic changes in middle Pleistocene sediments from Łuków (eastern Poland on the basis of plant macroremains analysis

    Stachowicz-Rybka Renata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lacustrine sediments at the Łuków site bear a record of the Ferdynandovian interglacial, correlated with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 13-15, including two warm periods of interglacial rank (climatostratigraphic units Ferdynandovian 1 and 2 separated by cooling/glaciation (Ferdynandovian 1/2. On the basis of plant macroremains analysis, the type of local vegetation in the lake and its surroundings as well as changes in climate, trophic conditions and water level were reconstructed in detail. Ferdynandovian 1 was a time of development of tall sedge swamps. The presence of Najas marina and N. minor also suggests high levels of eutrophication, particularly in the younger part of the climatic optimum. The occurrence of Zannichellia palustris indicates habitats of variable water level and high salt content. In the terminocratic phase of Ferdynandovian 1, the communities showed the reoccurrence of Betula nana, B. humilis and Larix sp., the disappearance of thermophilous trees, and the intensification of succession processes linked to climate cooling. In the cool Ferdynandovian 1/2, Betula nana and Cenococcum geophilum increased their frequencies, most likely due to enhanced supply of mineral matter to the basin. During Ferdynandovian 2, the next climate warming of interglacial rank, communities of aquatic vegetation with the highest share of thermophilous taxa included the extinct Aldrowanda borysthenica, Brasenia borysthenica, and Scirpus atroviroides, as well as Cyperus glomeratus, a species not presently found in the flora of Poland. Another cooling in the Sanian 2 (Elsterian 2 glaciation is indicated by the development of peat communities, with numerous Carex sp., Menyanthes trifoliata, Eriophorum vaginatum, and Andromeda polifolia, accompanied by the extinct Carex paucifloroides, Caulinia macrosperma, and Potamogeton praemaackianus.

  12. Identification of Critical Erosion Prone Areas and Computation of Sediment Yield Using Remote Sensing and GIS: A Case Study on Sarada River Basin

    Sundara Kumar, P.; Venkata Praveen, T.; Anjanaya Prasad, M.; Santha Rao, P.

    2018-06-01

    The two most important resources blessed by nature to the mankind are land and water. Undoubtedly, these gifts have to be conserved and maintained with unflinching efforts from every one of us for an effective environmental and ecological balance. The efforts and energy of water resources engineers and conservationists are going in this direction to conserve these precious resources of nature. The present study is an attempt to develop suitable methodology to facilitate decision makers to conserve the resources and also reflects the cause mentioned above has been presented here. The main focus of this study is to identify the critical prone areas for soil erosion and computation of sediment yield in a small basin using Universal Soil Loss Equation and Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) respectively. The developed model has been applied on Sarada river basin which has a drainage area of 1252.99 km2. This river is located in Andhra Pradesh State (AP), India. The basin has been divided into micro basins for effective estimation and also for precise identification of the areas that are prone to soil erosion. Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems tools were used to generate and spatially organize the data that is required for soil erosion modeling. It was found that the micro basins with very severe soil erosion are consisting of hilly areas with high topographic factor and 38.01% of the study area has the rate erosion more than 20 t/ha/year and hence requires an immediate attention from the soil conservation point of view. In this study region, though there is one discharge measuring gauge station available at Anakapalli but there is no sediment yield gauging means available to compute the sediment yield. Therefore, to arrive at the suspended-sediment concentration was a challenge task. In the present study the sediment measurement has been carried out with an instrument (DH-48), sediment sampling equipment as per IS: 4890-1968, has been used

  13. Earth Surface Processes, Landforms and Sediment Deposits

    Bridge, John; Demicco, Robert

    Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits are intimately related - involving erosion of rocks, generation of sediment, and transport and deposition of sediment through various Earth surface environments. These processes, and the landforms and deposits that they generate, have a fundamental bearing on engineering, environmental and public safety issues; on recovery of economic resources; and on our understanding of Earth history. This unique textbook brings together the traditional disciplines of sedimentology and geomorphology to explain Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits in a comprehensive and integrated way. It is the ideal resource for a two-semester course in sedimentology, stratigraphy, geomorphology, and Earth surface processes from the intermediate undergraduate to beginning graduate level. The book is also accompanied by a website hosting illustrations and material on field and laboratory methods for measuring, describing and analyzing Earth surface processes, landforms and sediments.

  14. Sampling marine sediments for radionuclide monitoring

    Papucci, C.

    1997-01-01

    A description of the most common devices used for sampling marine sediments are reported. The systems are compared to evidence their intrinsic usefulness, for collecting samples in different environmental conditions or with different scientific objectives. Perturbations and artifacts introduced during the various steps of the sampling procedure are also reviewed, and suggestions are proposed for obtaining and preserving, as much as possible, the representativeness of the sediment samples. (author)

  15. Assessing ecorelevance of emerging chemicals in sediments

    Forbes, Valery E.; Selck, Henriette; Salvito, D.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of the Great Lakes and elsewhere has detected the presence of a wide variety of chemicals which has raised concern that these chemicals pose risks to resident species. Sediments are of particular interest due to their tendency to accumulate hydrophobic and persistent...... chemicals and because less is known about toxic effects of chemicals to sediment-feeding organisms than to pelagic species. Data collected on the polycyclic musks provides available evidence relevant to assessing exposure and effects in Great Lakes' sediments. Studies at Roskilde University demonstrate how...

  16. Preliminary Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System: Task 2.1.1: Evaluating Effects of Stressors – Fiscal Year 2010 Progress Report: Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    Anderson, Richard M.; Copping, Andrea E.; Van Cleve, Frances B.

    2010-11-15

    Possible environmental effects of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy development are not well understood, and yet regulatory agencies are required to make decisions in spite of substantial uncertainty about environmental impacts and their long-term effects. An understanding of risk associated with likely interactions between MHK installations and aquatic receptors, including animals, habitats, and ecosystems, can help reduce the level of uncertainty and focus regulatory actions and scientific studies on interactions of most concern. As a first step in developing the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), PNNL scientists conducted a preliminary risk screening analysis on three initial MHK cases - a tidal project in Puget Sound using Open Hydro turbines, a wave project off the coast of Oregon using Ocean Power Technologies point attenuator buoys, and a riverine current project in the Mississippi River using Free Flow turbines. Through an iterative process, the screening analysis revealed that top-tier stressors in all three cases were the effects of the dynamic physical presence of the device (e.g., strike), accidents, and effects of the static physical presence of the device (e.g., habitat alteration). Receptor interactions with these stressors at the four highest tiers of risk were dominated by marine mammals (cetaceans and pinnipeds) and birds (diving and non-diving); only the riverine case (Free Flow) included different receptors in the third tier (fish) and the fourth tier (benthic invertebrates). Although this screening analysis provides a preliminary analysis of vulnerability of environmental receptors to stressors associated with MHK installations, probability analysis, especially of risk associated with chemical toxicity and accidents such as oil spills or lost gear, will be necessary to further understand high-priority risks. Subject matter expert review of this process and results is required and is

  17. Offshore sediments record the history of onshore iron ore mining in Goa State, India

    Sebastian, T.; Nath, B.N.; Naik, Sangeeta; Borole, D.V.; Pierre, S.; Yazing, A.K.

    Environmental magnetic and geochemical analyses combined with 210Pb dating were carried out on a sediment core off Goa from Arabian Sea to reconstruct the sedimentation history of last three and a half centuries and to investigate the impact...

  18. A field study on phytoremediation of dredged sediment contaminated by heavy metals and nutrients: the impacts of sediment aeration.

    Wu, Juan; Yang, Lihua; Zhong, Fei; Cheng, Shuiping

    2014-12-01

    Compared to traditional chemical or physical treatments, phytoremediation has proved to be a cost-effective and environmentally sound alternative for remediation of contaminated dredged sediment. A field study was conducted in a sediment disposal site predominantly colonized by Typha angustifolia under different sediment moisture conditions to estimate the phytoremediation effects of dredged sediment. The moisture content was 37.30 % and 48.27 % in aerated and waterlogged sediment, respectively. Total nitrogen (TN) content was higher in the waterlogged sediment than in the aerated sediment. The total Cd contents were lower in aerated sediment, which was mainly resulted from the lower exchangeable fraction of Cd. The bioaccumulation of P, Cu and Pb in T. angustifolia was promoted by waterlogging, and the belowground tissue concentrations and accumulation factors (AFs) of Cu were higher than that of other metals, which can be explained by that Cu is an essential micronutrient for plants. Consistent with many previous studies, T. angustifolia showed higher metal levels in roots than in above-ground tissues at both the sediment conditions. Due to the improved biomass produced in the aerated sediment, the removals of nutrients and the metals by plant harvest were higher from aerated sediment than from waterlogged sediment. It was indicated that maintaining the dredged sediment aerated can avoid release risk and plant uptake of metals, while the opposite management option can promote phytoextraction of these contaminants.

  19. Optimization of environmental monitoring

    Winter, M.

    1986-01-01

    The routine work and tasks related to prevention in environmental monitoring of nuclear facilities range from low level methodology to the necessity of being likewise prepared to perform environmental impact measurements after nuclear incidents and accidents are presented [pt

  20. Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System Task 2.1.1.2: Evaluating Effects of Stressors Fiscal Year 2011 Progress Report - Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    Copping, Andrea E.; Blake, Kara M.; Anderson, Richard M.; Zdanski, Laura C.; Gill, Gary A.; Ward, Jeffrey A.

    2011-09-01

    Potential environmental effects of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy development are not well understood, and yet regulatory agencies are required to make decisions in spite of substantial uncertainty about environmental impacts and their long-term consequences. An understanding of risks associated with interactions between MHK installations and aquatic receptors, including animals, habitats, and ecosystems, can help define key uncertainties and focus regulatory actions and scientific studies on interactions of most concern. As a first step in developing the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), PNNL scientists conducted a preliminary risk screening analysis on three initial MHK cases. During FY 2011, two additional cases were added: a tidal project in the Gulf of Maine using Ocean Renewable Power Company TidGenTM turbines and a wave project planned for the coast of Oregon using Aquamarine Oyster surge devices. Through an iterative process, the screening analysis revealed that top-tier stressors in the two FY 2011 cases were the dynamic effects of the device (e.g., strike), accidents/disasters, and effects of the static physical presence of the device (e.g., habitat alteration). Receptor interactions with these stressors at the highest tiers of risk were dominated by threatened and endangered animals. Risk to the physical environment from changes in flow regime also ranked high. Peer review of this process and results will be conducted in early FY 2012. The ERES screening analysis provides an analysis of vulnerability of environmental receptors to stressors associated with MHK installations, probability analysis is needed to determine specific risk levels to receptors. “Risk” has two components: (1) The likelihood, or “probability”, of the occurrence of a given interaction or event, and (2) the potential “consequence” if that interaction or event were to occur. During FY 2011, the ERES screening

  1. The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment ...

    The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment transport of the Pra River. ... the relative contribution of surface and bank sediments to the fluvial sediment transport. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  2. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  3. Center for Contaminated Sediments

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Center for Contaminated Sediments serves as a clearinghouse for technology and expertise concerned with contaminated sediments. The...

  4. Geochemistry of sediments

    Nath, B.N.

    Considering the potential of elemental data in marine sediments as diagnostic tools of various geological and oceanographic processes, sediment geochemical data from the Indian Ocean region has been reviewed in this article. Emphasis is laid...

  5. Indicators: Sediment Enzymes

    Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.

  6. Vision for a worldwide fluvial-sediment information network

    Gray, J.R.; Osterkamp, W.R.

    2007-01-01

    The nations of the world suffer both from the deleterious effects of some natural and human-altered fluxes of fluvial sediment and a lack of consistent and reliable information on the temporal and spatial occurrence of fluvial sediments. Decades ago, this difficulty was unavoidable due to a lack of understanding of the magnitude and scope of environmental influences exerted by fluvial sediment coupled with a dearth of tools for monitoring and studying the data. Such is no longer the case.

  7. A comparison of sediment quality results with acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) ratio in Vojvodina (Serbia) sediments.

    Prica, M; Dalmacija, B; Roncević, S; Krcmar, D; Becelić, M

    2008-01-25

    The acid-volatile sulfide (AVS), simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), total metals, and pore-water metal concentrations were studied in Vojvodina (Serbia) sediments. In Serbia, there are no regulations concerning sediment quality standards and sediment management. Harmonization of legislation in the domain of environmental protection with EU requirements will increase the significance of the sediment issue. Sediment quality was assessed according to Dutch standards, but the results were also compared with Canadian and USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) guidelines for sediment quality. A comparison of the results based on different criteria for sediment quality assessment shows that they are sometimes contradictory. Therefore, a single approach to quality assessment may be insufficient. The Sigma[SEM]/[AVS] ratio was found to be greater than one at several locations that were already recognized as places of high risk based on Dutch standards. Some other samples had Sigma[SEM]/[AVS]AVS]>1 can cause increased toxicity because there are many other metal-binding phases in sediments. Metals that are associated with AVS may be released within sediments through storms, dredging activities, oxidation, etc., and may have adverse environmental impacts. This has to be taken into account during dredging, which is for some sediments necessary because the sediment is of class 4 (Dutch evaluation), because the dredging process will certainly increase the concentration of bioavailable heavy metals and disturb the sedimentation dynamics. The obtained results will be invaluable for future activities regarding dredging and sediment management in the country.

  8. Mixture design and treatment methods for recycling contaminated sediment

    Wang, Lei; Kwok, June S.H.; Tsang, Daniel C.W.; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Contaminated sediment can be recycled as fill material for site formation. • Thermal pretreatment of sediment permits non-load-bearing block application. • CO 2 curing enhances strength and reduces carbon footprint. • Inclusion of granular wastes reinforces the solidified sediment matrix. • Sediment blocks are useful resources for construction use. - Abstract: Conventional marine disposal of contaminated sediment presents significant financial and environmental burden. This study aimed to recycle the contaminated sediment by assessing the roles and integration of binder formulation, sediment pretreatment, curing method, and waste inclusion in stabilization/solidification. The results demonstrated that the 28-d compressive strength of sediment blocks produced with coal fly ash and lime partially replacing cement at a binder-to-sediment ratio of 3:7 could be used as fill materials for construction. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that hydration products (calcium hydroxide) were difficult to form at high sediment content. Thermal pretreatment of sediment removed 90% of indigenous organic matter, significantly increased the compressive strength, and enabled reuse as non-load-bearing masonry units. Besides, 2-h CO 2 curing accelerated early-stage carbonation inside the porous structure, sequestered 5.6% of CO 2 (by weight) in the sediment blocks, and acquired strength comparable to 7-d curing. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated substantial weight loss corresponding to decomposition of poorly and well crystalline calcium carbonate. Moreover, partial replacement of contaminated sediment by various granular waste materials notably augmented the strength of sediment blocks. The metal leachability of sediment blocks was minimal and acceptable for reuse. These results suggest that contaminated sediment should be viewed as useful resources

  9. Mixture design and treatment methods for recycling contaminated sediment

    Wang, Lei; Kwok, June S.H.; Tsang, Daniel C.W., E-mail: dan.tsang@polyu.edu.hk; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Contaminated sediment can be recycled as fill material for site formation. • Thermal pretreatment of sediment permits non-load-bearing block application. • CO{sub 2} curing enhances strength and reduces carbon footprint. • Inclusion of granular wastes reinforces the solidified sediment matrix. • Sediment blocks are useful resources for construction use. - Abstract: Conventional marine disposal of contaminated sediment presents significant financial and environmental burden. This study aimed to recycle the contaminated sediment by assessing the roles and integration of binder formulation, sediment pretreatment, curing method, and waste inclusion in stabilization/solidification. The results demonstrated that the 28-d compressive strength of sediment blocks produced with coal fly ash and lime partially replacing cement at a binder-to-sediment ratio of 3:7 could be used as fill materials for construction. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that hydration products (calcium hydroxide) were difficult to form at high sediment content. Thermal pretreatment of sediment removed 90% of indigenous organic matter, significantly increased the compressive strength, and enabled reuse as non-load-bearing masonry units. Besides, 2-h CO{sub 2} curing accelerated early-stage carbonation inside the porous structure, sequestered 5.6% of CO{sub 2} (by weight) in the sediment blocks, and acquired strength comparable to 7-d curing. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated substantial weight loss corresponding to decomposition of poorly and well crystalline calcium carbonate. Moreover, partial replacement of contaminated sediment by various granular waste materials notably augmented the strength of sediment blocks. The metal leachability of sediment blocks was minimal and acceptable for reuse. These results suggest that contaminated sediment should be viewed as useful resources.

  10. Review of Recent Literature Relevant to the Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Devices Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms – Fiscal Year 2011 Progress Report Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    Kropp, Roy K.

    2011-09-30

    A literature search was conducted by using the Web of Science® Databases component of the ISI Web of KnowledgeSM to identify recent articles that would be useful to help assess the potential environmental effects of renewable energy development in the ocean, with emphasis on marine mammals, seabirds, and fish. Several relatively recent general review articles that included possible effects of marine renewable energy devices on marine mammals and seabirds were examined to begin the search process (e.g., Boehlert et al. 2008; Thompson et al. 2008; Simas et al. 2009). From these articles, several general topics of potential environmental effects on marine mammals, seabirds, and fish were derived. These topics were used as the primary search factors. Searches were conducted with reference to the potential effects of offshore wind farms and MHK devices on marine mammals, seabirds, and fish. Additional sources were identified by cross-checking the Web of Science databases for articles that cited the review articles. It also became clear that often the potential effects were offered as hypotheses that often were not supported by the presentation of appropriate documentation. Therefore, the search was refined and focused on trying to obtain the necessary information to support or challenge a proposed potential effect to a specific concern. One of the expressed concerns regarding MHK devices is that placing wave parks in coastal waters could compromise the migration patterns of whales. Disruption of the annual migration of the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), which swims at least 30,000 km on its round trip from breeding grounds in Baja California to feeding areas in the Bering Sea, is of particular concern. Among the hypothesized effects on the migrating gray whales are increased predation risk by constricting migration corridor to between array and shore or by forcing the whales to swim into deeper waters, increased metabolic energy costs and delays in reaching the

  11. Heavy metal concentrations and toxicity in water and sediment from stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks

    Karlsson, Kristin; Viklander, Maria; Scholes, Lian N. L.; Revitt, D. Mike

    2010-01-01

    Sedimentation is a widely used technique in structural best management practices to remove pollutants from stormwater. However, concerns have been expressed about the environmental impacts that may be exerted by the trapped pollutants. This study has concentrated on stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks and reports on the accumulated metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and the associated toxicity to the bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The metal concentrations are compared with guidelin...

  12. An alternative method for the estimation of sedimentation rates using radiometric measurements in an intertidal region (sw of spain)

    Ligero, Rufino; Casas-Ruiz, Melquiades; Barrera, Manuel; Barbero, Luis

    2010-05-01

    The techniques for the direct measurement of the sedimentation rate are reliable but slow and imprecise, given that the time intervals of measurement cannot be very long. Consequently it is an extremely laborious task to obtain a representative map of the sedimentation rates and such maps are available for very few zones. However, for most environmental studies, it is very important to know the sedimentation rates. The high degree of accuracy of the gamma spectrometric techniques together with the application of the model describes in this work, has allowed the determination of the sedimentation rates in a wide spatial area such of the Bay of Cadiz to be obtained with precision and consuming considerably less time in comparison to the traditional techniques. Even so, the experimental conditions required for the sample cores are fairly restrictive, and although the radiological method provides a quantitative advance in measurement, the experimental difficulty in the execution of the study is not greatly diminished. For this reason, a second model has been derived based on the measurement of the inventory, which offers economies in time and financial cost, and which allows the sedimentation rate in a region to be determined with satisfactory accuracy. Furthermore, it has been shown that the application of this model requires a precise determination of 137Cs inventories. The sedimentation rates estimated by the 137Cs inventory method ranged from 0.26 cm/year to 1.72 cm/year. The average value of the sedimentation rate obtained is 0.59 cm/year, and this rate has been compared with those resulting from the application of the 210Pb dating technique. A good agreement between the two procedures has been found. From the study carried out, it has been possible for the first time, to draw a map of sedimentation rates for this zone where numerous physical-chemical, oceanographic and ecological studies converge, since it is situated in a region of great environmental interest

  13. Impact of total organic carbon (in sediments) and dissolved organic carbon (in overlying water column) on Hg sequestration by coastal sediments from the central east coast of India

    Chakrabortya, P.; Sharma, B.M.; Babu, P.V.R.; Yao, K.M.; Jaychandran, S.

    , 1991; Liu et al., 2006; Tack and Verloo, 1995). Mercury accumulates in sediment globally from many physical, chemical, biological, geological and anthropogenic environmental processes. Thus, sediment can be a good indicator of water quality of a...-Black method (Schumacher, 2002). This method has been widely used for the determination of total organic carbon in the soil and sediments. 3.0 Results and discussion The general description and texture analysis of the studied sediments are presented...

  14. Changes in metal contamination levels in estuarine sediments around India – An assessment

    Chakraborty, P.; Ramteke, D.; Chakraborty, S.; Nath, B.N.

    provides managers and decision-makers of environmental protection agency with a better scientific understanding for decision-making in controlling metal pollution in estuarine sediments around India....

  15. Screening of anthropogenic compounds in polluted sediments and soils

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Leer, E.W.B. de; Schuyl, P.J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The use of flash evaporation and pyrolysis gas chromatography- mass spectrometry as a fast screening procedure for anthropogenic substances In environmental samples is demonstrated by the analysis of polluted soil and sediment samples. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, haloorganics,

  16. BP Spill in the Gulf of Mexico Sediment Data

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In response to the BP oil spill, EPA monitored sediment near the spill. While emergency response data collection has ended, results continue to be available on this...

  17. Heavy metal speciation and their accumulation in sediments of Lake ...

    UFUOMA

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 5(4), pp. 280-298, April ..... present study gave higher values due to the effect of increasing ...... on The Heavy Metal. Pollution of Guanabara Bay Sediments and Evaluation of The.

  18. Sediment Sampling in Estuarine Mudflats with an Aerial-Ground Robotic Team

    Pedro Deusdado

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robotic team suited for bottom sediment sampling and retrieval in mudflats, targeting environmental monitoring tasks. The robotic team encompasses a four-wheel-steering ground vehicle, equipped with a drilling tool designed to be able to retain wet soil, and a multi-rotor aerial vehicle for dynamic aerial imagery acquisition. On-demand aerial imagery, properly fused on an aerial mosaic, is used by remote human operators for specifying the robotic mission and supervising its execution. This is crucial for the success of an environmental monitoring study, as often it depends on human expertise to ensure the statistical significance and accuracy of the sampling procedures. Although the literature is rich on environmental monitoring sampling procedures, in mudflats, there is a gap as regards including robotic elements. This paper closes this gap by also proposing a preliminary experimental protocol tailored to exploit the capabilities offered by the robotic system. Field trials in the south bank of the river Tagus’ estuary show the ability of the robotic system to successfully extract and transport bottom sediment samples for offline analysis. The results also show the efficiency of the extraction and the benefits when compared to (conventional human-based sampling.

  19. Sediment Sampling in Estuarine Mudflats with an Aerial-Ground Robotic Team

    Deusdado, Pedro; Guedes, Magno; Silva, André; Marques, Francisco; Pinto, Eduardo; Rodrigues, Paulo; Lourenço, André; Mendonça, Ricardo; Santana, Pedro; Corisco, José; Almeida, Susana Marta; Portugal, Luís; Caldeira, Raquel; Barata, José; Flores, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a robotic team suited for bottom sediment sampling and retrieval in mudflats, targeting environmental monitoring tasks. The robotic team encompasses a four-wheel-steering ground vehicle, equipped with a drilling tool designed to be able to retain wet soil, and a multi-rotor aerial vehicle for dynamic aerial imagery acquisition. On-demand aerial imagery, properly fused on an aerial mosaic, is used by remote human operators for specifying the robotic mission and supervising its execution. This is crucial for the success of an environmental monitoring study, as often it depends on human expertise to ensure the statistical significance and accuracy of the sampling procedures. Although the literature is rich on environmental monitoring sampling procedures, in mudflats, there is a gap as regards including robotic elements. This paper closes this gap by also proposing a preliminary experimental protocol tailored to exploit the capabilities offered by the robotic system. Field trials in the south bank of the river Tagus’ estuary show the ability of the robotic system to successfully extract and transport bottom sediment samples for offline analysis. The results also show the efficiency of the extraction and the benefits when compared to (conventional) human-based sampling. PMID:27618060

  20. Composite fingerprinting of suspended-sediments in Sorsogon , Philippines

    Ramirez, J.D.; Sta Maria, E.J.; Madrid, J.F.; Asa, A.D.D.; Aniago, R.J.; Bulos, A.D.; Zombrito, E.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment-related environmental problems pose a threat not only in land management sustainability but also in management of aquatic ecosystem. Sediments often serve as sinks of nutrients and contaminants that regularly recharge overlying waters and could trigger harmful algal blooms (HAB) together with unfavorable environment conditions. One HAB affected area in the southernmost tip of Luzon, Philippines is Sorsogon Bay. In Sorsogon Bay, the harvest and consumption ban was declared for several years due to the level of toxins in shellfish which exceeded the regulatory limit. Identification of sediment sources is useful tool in planning effective sediment management strategies. A method to determine possible sources of sediment-associated nutrients is sediment fingerprinting. It characterizes land-based sediment sources to derive estimates of the portions of suspended sediment originating from discrete upstream source areas. There are wide ranges of diagnostic properties which can be possible fingerprints such as mineralogic, mineral-magnetic, geochemical, organic, isotopic, physical and radiometric parameters. This study investigates on potential source of sediments from Sampaloc River using different chemical, radiometric and isotopic parameters, Range test and Kruskal-Wallis H-test were employed and indicated that the calcium, titanium, δ”1”3C signal, and to tal carbon content are possible fingerprint parameters that will identify the sources of sediments. Results of a mathematical mixing model showed that channel banks (81.0%) are the largest sediment load contributors in Sampaloc River, followed by cultivated areas (15.5%) and woodlands (3.5%). (author)

  1. The behavioural characteristics of sediment properties and their implications for sediment fingerprinting as an approach for identifying sediment sources in river basins

    Koiter, A. J.; Owens, P. N.; Petticrew, E. L.; Lobb, D. A.

    2013-10-01

    Sediment fingerprinting is a technique that is increasingly being used to improve the understanding of sediment dynamics within river basins. At present, one of the main limitations of the technique is the ability to link sediment back to their sources due to the non-conservative nature of many of the sediment properties. The processes that occur between the sediment source locations and the point of collection downstream are not well understood or quantified and currently represent a black-box in the sediment fingerprinting approach. The literature on sediment fingerprinting tends to assume that there is a direct connection between sources and sinks, while much of the broader environmental sedimentology literature identifies that numerous chemical, biological and physical transformations and alterations can occur as sediment moves through the landscape. The focus of this paper is on the processes that drive particle size and organic matter selectivity and biological, geochemical and physical transformations and how understanding these processes can be used to guide sampling protocols, fingerprint selection and data interpretation. The application of statistical approaches without consideration of how unique sediment fingerprints have developed and how robust they are within the environment is a major limitation of many recent studies. This review summarises the current information, identifies areas that need further investigation and provides recommendations for sediment fingerprinting that should be considered for adoption in future studies if the full potential and utility of the approach are to be realised.

  2. Impact assessment of oil spills on sediments in Vasyugan River Basin (Western Siberia)

    Vorobyov, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    Vasyugan River (more than 1100 km of length and 65000 km 2 of catchment totally) is right tributary of Ob River. Exploration and development of oil fields have provided in the area since 1970's. Long-term project for hydro-ecological investigation of Vasyugan River Basin was provided during 1992-2002. Main aim of the project was study of distribution and spatial dynamics of bottom invertebrate communities (population density, biomass) affected by oil contamination for tasks of environmental monitoring. Samples of sediments were assessed hydro-biologically (zoo-benthos) and chemically (petroleum hydrocarbons). Concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons (non-polar hydrocarbons) in bottom sediments in oil fields were significantly different depending on texture and organic matter content: detritus - 370 mg/kg; silt - 89 mg/kg; silty-sand - 37 mg/kg. The significant correlation between concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons and organic matter content in sediments was found (? = 0,94). Concentration of in bottom sediments depended on destination from and age of developed oil fields: 300 mg/kg (areas of oil fields developed more than 20 years); 77 mg/kg (areas of oil fields developed less than 10 years); 59 mg/kg (estuary of Vasyugan, 400 km far from main sources of contamination at least). Population of zoo-benthos is increasing depending on extension of destination from source of contamination. The phenomena can be explained by stream transport and accumulation of PAH. Population of oligochaeta and mollusks in sediments increase depending on extension from sources of contamination (p<0,05). (author)

  3. The effects of sediment and mercury mobilization in the South Yuba River and Humbug Creek Confluence Area, Nevada County, California: Concentrations, speciation, and environmental fate-Part 1: Field characterization

    Fleck, Jacob A.; Alpers, Charles N.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Hothem, Roger L.; Wright, Scott A.; Ellett, Kevin; Beaulieu, Elizabeth; Agee, Jennifer L.; Kakouros, Evangelos; Kieu, Le H.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Blum, Alex E.; May, Jason T.

    2011-01-01

    Millions of pounds of mercury (Hg) were deposited in the river and stream channels of the Sierra Nevada from placer and hard-rock mining operations in the late 1800s and early 1900s. The resulting contaminated sediments are relatively harmless when buried and isolated from the overlying aquatic environment. The entrained Hg in the sediment constitutes a potential risk to human and ecosystem health should it be reintroduced to the actively cycling portion of the aquatic system, where it can become methylated and subsequently bioaccumulated in the food web. Each year, sediment is mobilized within these fluvial systems during high stormflows, transporting hundreds of tons of Hg-laden sediment downstream. The State of California and resource-management agencies, including the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Forest Service, are concerned about additional disturbances, such as from suction gold dredging activities, which have the potential to mobilize Hg associated with buried sediment layers elevated in Hg that are otherwise likely to remain buried under normal storm conditions. The BLM initiated a study looking at the feasibility of removing Hg-contaminated sediment at the confluence of the South Yuba River and Humbug Creek in the northern Sierra Nevada of California by using standard suction-dredge technology. Additionally, the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) supported a comprehensive characterization of the intended dredge site. Together, the BLM and SWRCB supported a comprehensive characterization of Hg contamination at the site and the potential effects of sediment disturbance at locations with historical hydraulic mining debris on downstream environments. The comprehensive study consisted of two primary components: field studies and laboratory experiments. The field component, described in this report, had several study elements: 1) a preliminary, small-scale, in-stream dredge test; 2) comprehensive characterization of grain

  4. Prediction of bedload sediment transport for heterogeneous sediments in shape

    Durafour, Marine; Jarno, Armelle; Le Bot, Sophie; Lafite, Robert; Marin, François

    2015-04-01

    agreement is found for the non-uniform site between measured fluxes and predictions given by the Wu et al. (2000) model. However, some discrepancies still remain, especially for granules. Hundreds of pictures of grains composing the sediment cover and the bedload discharges are performed. Particle shapes are statistically characterized by three 2D coefficients (circularity, roundness and elongation) after an image processing with the ImageJ software. Present results show a preferential transport of the most circular sediment particles available for transport and reveal that the consideration of particle shape, through the integration of the circularity index in formulations, enhanced the estimations of bedload rates. A new adjustment of the Wu et al. (2000) formula is proposed, which improves significantly the model predictions, especially for granules. Durafour M, Jarno A, Le Bot S, Lafite R, Marin F (2014) Bedload transport for heterogeneous sediments. Environmental Fluid Mechanics. doi: 10.1007/s10652-014-9380-1

  5. Sediment supply to beaches

    Aagaard, Troels

    2014-01-01

    Many beaches have been built by an onshore supply of sand from the shoreface, and future long-term coastal evolution critically depends on cross-shore sediment exchange between the upper and the lower shorefaces. Even so, cross-shore sediment supply remains poorly known in quantitative terms...... and this reduces confidence in predictions of long-term shoreline change. In this paper, field measurements of suspended sediment load and cross-shore transport on the lower shoreface are used to derive a model for sediment supply from the lower to the upper shoreface at large spatial and temporal scales. Data...

  6. Sediment Core Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation and expertise for physical and geoacoustic characterization of marine sediments.DESCRIPTION: The multisensor core logger measures...

  7. The dirt on sediments

    Smith, Loren M.; Euliss, Ned H. "Chip"

    2010-01-01

    In the wetland science field, sediment deposition is often thought of as being beneficial especially when one thinks of coastal estuarine systems. For example, sediments deposited from streams and rivers are necessary to naturally build and maintain tidal marshes. These sediments come from eroded upland soils in the interior of the continent. When these sediments are diverted from natural coastal deposition areas, such as occurs from river channelization, we lose marshes through subsidence as is happening throughout coastal Louisiana. However, the value of eroded soils is all a matter of hydrogeomorphic perspective.

  8. Selenium in Reservoir Sediment from the Republican River Basin

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    1998-01-01

    Reservoir sediment quality is an important environmental concern because sediment may act as both a sink and a source of water-quality constituents to the overlying water column and biota. Once in the food chain, sediment-derived constituents may pose an even greater concern due to bioaccumulation. An analysis of reservoir bottom sediment can provide historical information on sediment deposition as well as magnitudes and trends in constituents that may be related to changes in human activity in the basin. The assessment described in this fact sheet was initiated in 1997 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR), U.S. Department of the Interior, to determine if irrigation activities have affected selenium concentrations in reservoir sediment of the Republican River Basin of Colorado, Kansas, and Nebraska.

  9. Cognitive task analysis

    Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Cognitive task analysis is defined as the extension of traditional task analysis techniques to yield information about the knowledge, thought processes and goal structures that underlie observable task performance. Cognitive task analyses are conducted for a wide variety of purposes, including the

  10. Assessment of environmentally available metals in sediment samples from water for public supply of the city of Palmas, Tocantis, Brazil; Avaliacao dos metais ambientalmente disponiveis em amostras de sedimento de pontos de captacao de agua para abastecimento publico de Palmas, TO, Brasil

    Oliveira, Bruna Rafaela

    2012-07-01

    The sediments are an important compartment used as a tool for assessment of aquatic ecosystems quality, for indicating the presence of contaminants released continuously into the environment as a result of human activities. Among chemical substances discharged to surface water, there are metals that in undesirable amounts, can be toxic to biota. Due to the importance of sediment and of shortage of data of water quality of the Araguaia-Tocantins river system, the present study conducted an assessment of environmentally available metals in sediment samples from water for public supply of the city of Palmas, in Tocantins, Brazil. The concentrations of As, Cd, Pb and Se were analyzed by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS), Ag, Al, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Sb, Sc, Si, Ti, V and Zn were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) and Hg by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CVAAS). Two partial solubilization processes were performed for a comparative study, one with HCl 0,1 M and agitation at room temperature, considered a milder method for metal extraction from anthropogenic origin, and another with HNO{sub 3} 8 M and microwave heating, considered as an alternative to more complex methods of total digestion, since it provides a good evaluation of the total concentration of the elements. The sediment quality evaluation was realized by comparing the concentration values of the elements As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn with the quality guidelines (TEL and PEL) adopted by Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME), to thereby contribute to the environmental quality of the water of the Araguaia-Tocantins river system. (author)

  11. Sediment unmixing using detrital geochronology

    Sharman, Glenn R.; Johnstone, Samuel A.

    2017-11-01

    Sediment mixing within sediment routing systems can exert a strong influence on the preservation of provenance signals that yield insight into the effect of environmental forcing (e.g., tectonism, climate) on the Earth's surface. Here, we discuss two approaches to unmixing detrital geochronologic data in an effort to characterize complex changes in the sedimentary record. First, we summarize 'top-down' mixing, which has been successfully employed in the past to characterize the different fractions of prescribed source distributions ('parents') that characterize a derived sample or set of samples ('daughters'). Second, we propose the use of 'bottom-up' methods, previously used primarily for grain size distributions, to model parent distributions and the abundances of these parents within a set of daughters. We demonstrate the utility of both top-down and bottom-up approaches to unmixing detrital geochronologic data within a well-constrained sediment routing system in central California. Use of a variety of goodness-of-fit metrics in top-down modeling reveals the importance of considering the range of allowable that is well mixed over any single best-fit mixture calculation. Bottom-up modeling of 12 daughter samples from beaches and submarine canyons yields modeled parent distributions that are remarkably similar to those expected from the geologic context of the sediment-routing system. In general, mixture modeling has the potential to supplement more widely applied approaches in comparing detrital geochronologic data by casting differences between samples as differing proportions of geologically meaningful end-member provenance categories.

  12. Factors Effecting Adsorption of 137 Cs in Marine Sediment Samples in Marine Sediment Samples from the Upper Gulf of Thailand

    Saengkul, C.; Sawangwong, P.; Pakkong, P.

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of 137 Cs in sediment is a far more serious problem than in water because sediment is a main transport factor of 137 Cs to the aquatic environmental. Most of 137 Cs in water could be accumulated in sediment which has direct effect to benthos. This study focused on factors effecting the adsorption of 137Cs in marine sediment samples collected from four different estuary sites to assess the transfer direction of 137 Cs from water to sediment that the study method by treat 137 Cs into seawater and mixed with different sediment samples for 4 days. The result indicated that properties of marine sediment (cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic matter, clay content, texture, type of clay mineral and size of soil particle) had effects on 137 Cs adsorption. CEC and clay content correlated positively with the accumulation of 137 Cs in the marine sediment samples. On the other hand, organic matter in sediment correlated negatively with the accumulation of 137 Cs in samples. The study of environmental effects (pH and potassium) found that the 137 Cs adsorption decreased when concentration of potassium increased. The pH effect is still unclear in this study because the differentiation of pH levels (6, 7, 8.3) did not have effects on 137 Cs adsorption in the samples.

  13. Results of chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation evaluations of dioxins, furans, and guaicol/organic acids in sediments from the Grays Harbor/Chehalis River area

    Word, J.Q.; Ward, J.A.; Squires, A.L.

    1990-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was requested by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Seattle District, to assist in planning and conducting sampling, toxicological tests, and chemistry evaluations on sediment samples collected from the Chehalis River in Grays Harbor, Washington. The objectives of the study were to investigate the toxicity and biological effects of sediments that might potentially contain dioxins, furans, and organic acids, as a result of industrial practices in the Grays Harbor area, on sensitive marine species. In addition to the toxicological tests conducted using standard bioassays, sediment chemistry tests were performed to determine levels of selected chemicals, and elutriates of sediments were tested chemically and biologically to determine contaminant mobility in water. Also, bioaccumulation measurements were made to determine chemical mobility in animal tissue. A joint task group, including representatives from the USACE, Washington Department of Ecology (WDOE), Washington Department of Natural Resources (WDNR), Washington Department of Fisheries (WDOF), and Region 9 of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) participated in designing the testing program and reviewing data produced by MSL. The results of this analysis will be included in a supplemental Environmental Assessment (EA) prepared by the USACE for the Grays Harbor Dredging Program, beginning in early 1990. 13 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  14. Effects of Sediment Chemical Properties on Phosphorus Release Rates in the Sediment-Water Interface of the Steppe Wetlands.

    He, Jing; Su, Derong; Lv, Shihai; Diao, Zhaoyan; Xie, Jingjie; Luo, Yan

    2017-11-22

    Rising temperature causes a process of phosphorus release, which can be characterized well using phosphorus release rates (V P ). The objective of the present study was to investigate the major factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates through a wetland habitat simulation experiment. The results showed that the V P of different wetland sediments were different and changed with the order of W-R (river wetland) > W-L (lake wetland) > W-M (grassy marsh wetland) > W-A (reservoir wetland). The main driving factors which influenced sediment phosphorus flux velocity in the sediment-water interface were sediment B-SO₄ 2- , B-MBN and A-MBP content. Path analysis and determination coefficient analysis indicated the standard multiple regression equation for sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment-water interface, and each main factor was Y = -0.105 + 0.096X₁ + 0.275X₂ - 0.010X₃ ( r = 0.416, p phosphorus release rates; X₁ is sediment B-SO₄ 2- content; X₂ is sediment B-MBN; and X₃ is sediment A-MBP content. Sediment B-SO₄ 2- , B-MBN and A-MBP content and the interaction between them were the main factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment-water interface. Therefore, these results suggest that soil chemical properties and microbial activities likely play an important role in phosphorus release rates in the sediment-water interface. We hope to provide effective scientific management and control methods for relevant environmental protection departments.

  15. Sediment acoustic index method for computing continuous suspended-sediment concentrations

    Landers, Mark N.; Straub, Timothy D.; Wood, Molly S.; Domanski, Marian M.

    2016-07-11

    Suspended-sediment characteristics can be computed using acoustic indices derived from acoustic Doppler velocity meter (ADVM) backscatter data. The sediment acoustic index method applied in these types of studies can be used to more accurately and cost-effectively provide time-series estimates of suspended-sediment concentration and load, which is essential for informed solutions to many sediment-related environmental, engineering, and agricultural concerns. Advantages of this approach over other sediment surrogate methods include: (1) better representation of cross-sectional conditions from large measurement volumes, compared to other surrogate instruments that measure data at a single point; (2) high temporal resolution of collected data; (3) data integrity when biofouling is present; and (4) less rating curve hysteresis compared to streamflow as a surrogate. An additional advantage of this technique is the potential expansion of monitoring suspended-sediment concentrations at sites with existing ADVMs used in streamflow velocity monitoring. This report provides much-needed standard techniques for sediment acoustic index methods to help ensure accurate and comparable documented results.

  16. Review on the quality of sediments from the stormwater drainage system in the urban area

    Nawrot Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main task of the stormwater drainage system (SDS is a safe drainage of rainwater and snowmelt from the urban area to the receiver. The flow of rain water in the drainage pipes is directly related with the formation of sediments in the whole stormwater system. In addition, pollutants from land runoff get adsorbed to the sediments. The sludge is mainly formed in those elements of SDS, wherein the flow conditions allow for sedimentation. This article provides an overview of the literature concerning the characteristics of sediments from SDS, with a particular focus on heavy metals in sediments deposited in the urban catchment area.

  17. Dynamics of Cohesive Sediments

    Johansen, Claus

    The present thesis considers the transport processes of cohesive sediments. The cohesive sediment used in the laboratory experiments was kaolinite, a clay mineral, in order to be able to reproduce the individual experiments. In the first part of the thesis, the theoretical considerations regarding...

  18. Toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments to benthic invertebrates-Spiking methodology, species sensitivity, and nickel bioavailability

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Ivey, Chris D.; Kunz, James L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Rudel, David

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes data from studies of the toxicity and bioavailability of nickel in nickel-spiked freshwater sediments. The goal of these studies was to generate toxicity and chemistry data to support development of broadly applicable sediment quality guidelines for nickel. The studies were conducted as three tasks, which are presented here as three chapters: Task 1, Development of methods for preparation and toxicity testing of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments; Task 2, Sensitivity of benthic invertebrates to toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments; and Task 3, Effect of sediment characteristics on nickel bioavailability. Appendices with additional methodological details and raw chemistry and toxicity data for the three tasks are available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2011/5225/downloads/.

  19. Total and methyl mercury, moisture, and porosity in Lake Michigan surficial sediment

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Total and methyl mercury, moisture content (%), and porosity were measured in Lake Michigan sediment by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Office of Research...

  20. Evaluation of clean-up agents for total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis in biota and sediments.

    Muijs, B.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    2009-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (oil) are common environmental contaminants. For risk assessment purposes, their concentrations in environmental matrixes, such as biota and soils/sediments are frequently determined by solvent extraction and subsequent analysis with gas chromatography (GC) equipped with flame

  1. Controls of Sediment Nitrogen Dynamics in Tropical Coastal Lagoons

    Enrich-Prast, Alex; Figueiredo, Viviane; Esteves, Francisco de Assis; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Sediment denitrification rates seem to be lower in tropical environments than in temperate environments. Using the isotope pairing technique, we measured actual denitrification rates in the sediment of tropical coastal lagoons. To explain the low denitrification rates observed at all study sites (<5 μmol N2 m-2 h-1), we also evaluated potential oxygen (O2) consumption, potential nitrification, potential denitrification, potential anammox, and estimated dissimilatory nitrate (NO3-) reduction to ammonium (NH4+; DNRA) in the sediment. 15NO3- and 15NH4+ conversion was measured in oxic and anoxic slurries from the sediment surface. Sediment potential O2 consumption was used as a proxy for overall mineralization activity. Actual denitrification rates and different potential nitrogen (N) oxidation and reduction processes were significantly correlated with potential O2 consumption. The contribution of potential nitrification to total O2 consumption decreased from contributing 9% at sites with the lowest sediment mineralization rates to less than 0.1% at sites with the highest rates. NO3- reduction switched completely from potential denitrification to estimated DNRA. Ammonium oxidation and nitrite (NO2-) reduction by potential anammox contributed up to 3% in sediments with the lowest sediment mineralization rates. The majority of these patterns could be explained by variations in the microbial environments from stable and largely oxic conditions at low sediment mineralization sites to more variable conditions and the prevalences of anaerobic microorganisms at high sediment mineralization sites. Furthermore, the presence of algal and microbial mats on the sediment had a significant effect on all studied processes. We propose a theoretical model based on low and high sediment mineralization rates to explain the growth, activity, and distribution of microorganisms carrying out denitrification and DNRA in sediments that can explain the dominance or coexistence of DNRA and

  2. Acute and chronic toxicity of sediment samples from Guanabara Bay (RJ) during the rainy period

    Maranho,Luciane Alves; Abreu,Ilene Matanó; Santelli,Ricardo Erthal; Cordeiro,Renato Campelo; Soares-Gomes,Abílio; Moreira,Lucas Buruaem; Morais,Rodofley Davino; Abessa,Denis Moledo de Sousa

    2010-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is a marine-estuarine environment of high ecological and socio-economic importance, subject to a variety of environmental impacts. Sediment is the eventual repository for most substances introduced into water bodies and may, therefore, provide an integrated measure of the environmental quality, which can be assessed by many different approaches. In this project, the quality of sediments from Guanabara Bay was evaluated by the ecotoxicological approach: whole-sediment toxicity te...

  3. Task demand, task management, and teamwork

    Braarud, Per Oeivind; Brendryen, Haavar

    2001-03-15

    The current approach to mental workload assessment in process control was evaluated in 3 previous HAMMLAB studies, by analysing the relationship between workload related measures and performance. The results showed that subjective task complexity rating was related to team's control room performance, that mental effort (NASA-TLX) was weakly related to performance, and that overall activity level was unrelated to performance. The results support the argument that general cognitive measures, i.e., mental workload, are weakly related to performance in the process control domain. This implies that other workload concepts than general mental workload are needed for valid assessment of human reliability and for valid assessment of control room configurations. An assessment of task load in process control suggested that how effort is used to handle task demand is more important then the level of effort invested to solve the task. The report suggests two main workload related concepts with a potential as performance predictors in process control: task requirements, and the work style describing how effort is invested to solve the task. The task requirements are seen as composed of individual task demand and team demand. In a similar way work style are seen as composed of individual task management and teamwork style. A framework for the development of the concepts is suggested based on a literature review and experiences from HAMMLAB research. It is suggested that operational definitions of workload concepts should be based on observable control room behaviour, to assure a potential for developing performance-shaping factors. Finally an explorative analysis of teamwork measures and performance in one study indicated that teamwork concepts are related to performance. This lends support to the suggested development of team demand and teamwork style as elements of a framework for the analysis of workload in process control. (Author)

  4. Cue Representation and Situational Awareness in Task Analysis

    Carl, Diana R.

    2009-01-01

    Task analysis in human performance technology is used to determine how human performance can be well supported with training, job aids, environmental changes, and other interventions. Early work by Miller (1953) and Gilbert (1969, 1974) addressed cue processing in task execution and recommended cue descriptions in task analysis. Modern task…

  5. Lipids of aquatic sediments, recent and ancient

    Eglinton, G.; Hajibrahim, S. K.; Maxwell, J. R.; Quirke, J. M. E.; Shaw, G. J.; Volkman, J. K.; Wardroper, A. M. K.

    1979-01-01

    Computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is now an essential tool in the analysis of the complex mixtures of lipids (geolipids) encountered in aquatic sediments, both 'recent' (less than 1 million years old) and ancient. The application of MS, and particularly GC-MS, has been instrumental in the rapid development of organic geochemistry and environmental organic chemistry in recent years. The techniques used have resulted in the identification of numerous compounds of a variety of types in sediments. Most attention has been concentrated on molecules of limited size, mainly below 500 molecular mass, and of limited functionality, for examples, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and alcohols. Examples from recent studies (at Bristol) of contemporary, 'recent' and ancient sediments are presented and discussed.

  6. Characterization of Dredged Sediments from Santander Bay

    Cortes, M.; Ibanez, R.; Viguri, J.R.; Irabien, A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the physico- chemical characterisation of Santander Bay (North Spain) inter-tidal sediments, with the determination of levels of selected organic compounds pollution. A sampling strategy has been developed based on characteristic parameters of the study. The physico-chemical seasonal characterisation of sediments has been performed by determination of waster content, Ph, density, humidity, lost on ignition (LOI), particle size distribution, and chemical analysis of three categories of organic compounds (VOCs,EOX and PAHs) selected for its ubiquity, persistence and high potential of environmental hazard. The EOX analysis give a picture of the total load of organo halogen compounds in the estuarine area and the VOC and ph values obtained, allow the characterization of sediments in two areas in function of the closeness to the urban and industrial activities

  7. How environmental magnetism can enhance the interpretational value of grain-size analysis: A time-slice study on sediment export to the NW African margin in Heinrich Stadial 1 and Mid Holocene

    Razik, S.; Dekkers, M.J.; Von Dobeneck, T.

    2014-01-01

    Sediment dynamics in limnic, fluvial and marine environments can be assessed by granulometric and rock-magnetic methodologies. While classical grain-size analysis by sieving or settling mainly bears information on composition and transport, the magnetic mineral assemblages reflect to a larger extent

  8. Development of a mathematical-statistical model for the analysis of sediments redox potential: An environmental pollution index; Sviluppo di un modello matematico-statistico per l`analisi del potenziale redox dei sedimenti

    Izzo, G; Rizzo, V [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Bella, A; Picci, M [Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dip. di Statistica e Probabilita` Applicata

    1996-07-01

    This work refers different depth redox potential measurement as well as a statistical analysis in Venice lagoon sediments. A mathematical model that links redox potential and detection depth has been carried out. From this model an inversion gradient has been determined. This parameter may been considered as different lagoon areas pollution index.

  9. Application of a calibrated/validated Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender model to assess sediment and nutrient delivery from the Wildcat Creek Mississippi River Basin Initiative – Cooperative Conservation Partnership

    The Wildcat Creek, a tributary to the Wabash River was identified by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) as a priority watershed for its high sediment and nutrient loading contributions to the Mississippi River. As part of the Mississippi River Basin Initiative (MRBI), the incorpo...

  10. Project Tasks in Robotics

    Sørensen, Torben; Hansen, Poul Erik

    1998-01-01

    Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics......Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics...

  11. Development of river sediment monitoring in Croatia

    Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Bilinski, Halka; Mlakar, Marina; Maldini, Krešimir

    2017-04-01

    have significant anthropogenic concentrations on several locations. With other studied elements situation is much better and anthropogenic influence is not so significant. Based on own research and experience and comparing them with existing sediment quality criteria worldwide, within the current phase of monitoring program it is aimed to propose threshold values for mentioned elements, what would be base for Croatian National legislative on sediment quality. [1] Prohić, E. and Juračić, M. (1989): Heavy metals in sediments - Problems concerning determination of the anthropogenic influence. Study in the Krka River Estuary, Eastern Adriatic Coast, Yugoslavia. Environmental Geology Water Science, 13(2), 145-151. [2] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S. (2005): Geochemistry of stream sediments in Kupa River drainage basin [In Croatian] / Doctoral thesis. University of Zagreb, Croatia. [3] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Maldini, K. (2015): Establishing of monitoring of river sediments in Croatia. Contaminated sediments: Environmental Chemistry, Ecotoxicology and Engineering - Program and Abstract Book, Congressi Stefano Franscini, Ascona, Switzerland, 73-73.

  12. Ejercicio interlaboratorio de bioensayos marinos para la evaluacion de la calidad ambiental de sedimentos costeros en Espana. II Ensayo de inhibicion dela bioluminiscencia para la evaluacion rapida de la toxicidad de sedimentos = Interlaboratory assessment of marine bioassays to evaluate the environmental quality of coastal sediments in Spain. II. Bioluminescence inhibition test for rapid sediment toxicity assessment

    Casado-Martinez, M.C.; Campisi, T.; Diaz, A.; Re, Lo R.; Obispo, R.; Postma, J.F.; Riba, I.; Sneekes, A.C.; Buceta, J.L.; DelValls, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Microtox (R) bioassay was tested in an interlaboratory study to evaluate the variability when using solid-phase samples. The exercise consisted of two consecutive phases each one carried out with six sediment samples from Spanish ports. Phase I included six laboratories that reported results for

  13. Task assignment and coaching

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching from a manager, the junior employee only has information about his past performance. Based on his past performance, a talented junior who has performed a difficult task sometimes decides to leave the...

  14. Functional Task Test (FTT)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; hide

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

  15. Task assignment and coaching

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching

  16. A multiscale approach to mapping seabed sediments.

    Benjamin Misiuk

    Full Text Available Benthic habitat maps, including maps of seabed sediments, have become critical spatial-decision support tools for marine ecological management and conservation. Despite the increasing recognition that environmental variables should be considered at multiple spatial scales, variables used in habitat mapping are often implemented at a single scale. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for using environmental variables at multiple scales for modelling and mapping seabed sediments. Sixteen environmental variables were derived from multibeam echosounder data collected near Qikiqtarjuaq, Nunavut, Canada at eight spatial scales ranging from 5 to 275 m, and were tested as predictor variables for modelling seabed sediment distributions. Using grain size data obtained from grab samples, we tested which scales of each predictor variable contributed most to sediment models. Results showed that the default scale was often not the best. Out of 129 potential scale-dependent variables, 11 were selected to model the additive log-ratio of mud and sand at five different scales, and 15 were selected to model the additive log-ratio of gravel and sand, also at five different scales. Boosted Regression Tree models that explained between 46.4 and 56.3% of statistical deviance produced multiscale predictions of mud, sand, and gravel that were correlated with cross-validated test data (Spearman's ρmud = 0.77, ρsand = 0.71, ρgravel = 0.58. Predictions of individual size fractions were classified to produce a map of seabed sediments that is useful for marine spatial planning. Based on the scale-dependence of variables in this study, we concluded that spatial scale consideration is at least as important as variable selection in seabed mapping.

  17. Review on the quality of sediments from the stormwater drainage system in the urban area

    Nawrot Nicole; Wojciechowska Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The main task of the stormwater drainage system (SDS) is a safe drainage of rainwater and snowmelt from the urban area to the receiver. The flow of rain water in the drainage pipes is directly related with the formation of sediments in the whole stormwater system. In addition, pollutants from land runoff get adsorbed to the sediments. The sludge is mainly formed in those elements of SDS, wherein the flow conditions allow for sedimentation. This article provides an overview of the literature c...

  18. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates):Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates

  19. Anaerobic biodegradation of hexazinone in four sediments

    Wang Huili; Xu Shuxia; Tan Chengxia; Wang Xuedong

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation of hexazinone was investigated in four sediments (L1, L2, Y1 and Y2). Results showed that the L2 sediment had the highest biodegradation potential among four sediments. However, the Y1 and Y2 sediments had no capacity to biodegrade hexazinone. Sediments with rich total organic carbon, long-term contamination history by hexazinone and neutral pH may have a high biodegradation potential because the former two factors can induce the growth of microorganisms responsible for biodegradation and the third factor can offer suitable conditions for biodegradation. The addition of sulfate or nitrate as electron acceptors enhanced hexazinone degradation. As expected, the addition of electron donors (lactate, acetate or pyruvate) substantially inhibited the degradation. In natural environmental conditions, the effect of intermediate A [3-(4-hydroxycyclohexyl)-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4(1H, 3H)dione] on anaerobic hexazinone degradation was negligible because of its low level.

  20. Lake sediment records of Quaternary climate change

    Moy, C.

    2012-01-01

    Lake sediment records provide an excellent means to reconstruct past climate and environmental change because they typically provide long, high-resolution and continuous archives of environmental change. Lake sediment records typically exhibit high sedimentation rates (centennial to millennial scale variability is common and annual resolution is possible in some sites), contain sedimentary components well-suited for a multi-proxy approach, multiple dating methods can be applied, tend to exhibit a broad geographic distribution, and are relatively accessible. Furthermore, a number of geochemical techniques can be applied to reconstruct components of the climate system based on the stable isotope geochemistry of carbonate or organic phases preserved and exposed in lacustrine sediment cores. Various stable isotope methods can be applied to lacustrine systems and these are a valuable tool that can be used to monitor physical processes (e.g. evaporation), vegetation dynamics within the watershed (C 3 vs C 4 plant distributions), biologic processes (aquatic productivity), all of which can be driven by a regional climate forcing. (author). 31 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Sediments and aquatic indicators

    1987-01-01

    Determinations of 90 Sr, certain gamma emitting nuclides and 239,240 Pu in bottom sediment in the Baltic Sea area and in sedimenting material and biota near the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power stations were continued in 1984 and 1985. In the bottom sediments of the deep Baltic basins, the total amounts of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and Pu were 8.5-80 Bq m -2 , 83-3200 Bq m -2 and 4.7-190 Bq m -2 , respectively. The ranges were about the same as in the earlier reports 1,2 . In sedimenting material and biota the conentrations of 90 Sr and 239,240 Pu were roughly the same as in 1983. The amounts and selection of reactor originated activation products were not changed in the vicinity of the two nuclear power stations. Small amounts of 137 Cs and 134 Cs released from the Loviisa nuclear power station were detected in 1985

  2. Offshore Surficial Sediment

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data layer (PAC_EXT.txt and PAC_PRS.txt) represents two of five point coverages of known sediment samples, inspections, and probes from the usSEABED data...

  3. Underwater Sediment Sampling Research

    2017-01-01

    impacted sediments was found to be directly related to the concentration of crude oil detected in the sediment pore waters . Applying this mathematical...Kurt.A.Hansen@uscg.mil. 16. Abstract (MAXIMUM 200 WORDS ) The USCG R&D Center sought to develop a bench top system to determine the amount of total...scattered. The approach here is to sample the interstitial water between the grains of sand and attempt to determine the amount of oil in and on

  4. Heavy metal concentrations and toxicity in water and sediment from stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks.

    Karlsson, Kristin; Viklander, Maria; Scholes, Lian; Revitt, Mike

    2010-06-15

    Sedimentation is a widely used technique in structural best management practices to remove pollutants from stormwater. However, concerns have been expressed about the environmental impacts that may be exerted by the trapped pollutants. This study has concentrated on stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks and reports on the accumulated metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and the associated toxicity to the bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The metal concentrations are compared with guidelines and the toxicity results are assessed in relation to samples for which metal concentrations either exceed or conform to these values. The water phase metal concentrations were highest in the ponds whereas the sedimentation tanks exhibited a distinct decrease towards the outlet. However, none of the water samples demonstrated toxicity even though the concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn exceeded the threshold values for the compared guidelines. The facilities with higher traffic intensities had elevated sediment concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn which increased towards the outlet for the sedimentation tanks in agreement with the highest percentage of fine particles. The sediments in both treatment facilities exhibited the expected toxic responses in line with their affinity for heavy metals but the role of organic carbon content is highlighted. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sedimentation rate in Ariake Sea

    Momoshima, Noriyuki; Nishio, Souma; Honza, Eiichi

    2004-01-01

    The Ariake Sea is a shallow and almost enclosed sea located in western Kyushu, Japan with an area of about 1,700 km 2 and the deepest up to 30 m at north area. The most inner part of the bay area is very shallow and during low tide big mudflats tideland appears and extends up to several km. The tidal range is the highest in Japan with a maximum of about 6 m. The area is one of Japan's most important area for fishery, with over 40% of the total seaweed production in Japan In the year 2001, due to environmental conditions, the seaweed population decreased substantially with a production drop of about 50%. This was caused by an earlier winter outbreak of red tide that affected the seaweed quality. One proposed cause for this decline might be the land reclamation project in the western part of Ariake Sea, Isahaya Bay. This project started in April 1997 were more than 3,000 ha of the bay where closed by a 7 km long seawall. Contaminated water is regularly discharged from the reservoir inside the dike, which have resulted in changes in water flows and perhaps a decrease in tidal range. In 2002, the gates at the dike were open for two months for a survey campaign and the seaweed harvest in the winter 2002-2003 was quite good. However, the problem may be linked to totally different causes, e.g. increase in industrial pollution discharge, chemicals used in the disinfection methods of washing seaweed, or change in water pH after the volcanic eruptions of the Unzen mountain in 1992 and 1993. The purpose of the research is to elucidate present condition of the Ariake Sea and past history using by radiometric methods, and obtained useful information will resolve the environmental status of Ariake Sea and give us answers way to save the Ariake Sea. Sea sediment cores were taken on board in 2003 at several points covering the Ariake sea. Two cores taken in inner area of the sea were sectioned at every 2 cm intervals and subjected to gamma spectrometry to determine sedimentation

  6. Solidification/stabilization of dredged marine sediments for road construction.

    Wang, Dong Xing; Abriak, Nor Edine; Zentar, Rachid; Xu, WeiYa

    2012-01-01

    Cement/lime-based solidification is an environmentally sound solution for the management of dredged marine sediments, instead of traditional solutions such as immersion. Based on the mineralogical composition and physical characteristics of Dunkirk sediments, the effects of cement and lime are assessed through Atterberg limits, modified Proctor compaction, unconfined compressive strength and indirect tensile strength tests. The variation of Atterberg limits and the improvement in strength are discussed at different binder contents. The potential of sediments solidified with cement or lime for road construction is evaluated through a proposed methodology from two aspects: I-CBR value and material classification. The test results show the feasibility of solidified dredged sediments for beneficial use as a material in road construction. Cement is superior to lime in terms of strength improvement, and adding 6% cement is an economic and reasonable method to stabilize fine sediments.

  7. The mobilisation of sediment by demersal otter trawls.

    O'Neill, F G; Summerbell, K

    2011-05-01

    The mobilisation of sediment by towed demersal fishing gears has been related to the release of nutrients, benthic infaunal mortality and the resuspension of phytoplankton cysts and copepod eggs. Hence, to understand the broader environmental and ecological implications of demersal fishing, it is important to be able to estimate accurately the amount of sediment put into the water column by towed gears. Experimental trials were carried out in the Moray Firth, Scotland, to measure the quantity of sediment remobilised by trawl gear components. It is demonstrated, for a given sediment type, that there is a relationship between the hydrodynamic drag of the gear element and the mass of sediment entrained behind it. A better understanding of this relationship and the hydrodynamic processes involved will lead to the development of accurate predictive models and aid the design of fishing gears of reduced impact. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rate of Loaded Sediments in Honda Bay, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines

    Joel Becira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A study in Honda Bay, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines was conducted to determine and compare the rate of loaded sediments of and among six sites in Honda Bay and during two seasons, and to discuss sedimentation rate in relation to selected environmental parameters commencing on April 2003 to November 2003.Results showed that the Babuyan River significantly contributed to the amounts of sediments being loaded to Honda Bay, Puerto Princesa City of which the amount of sediments loaded between the two sampling season and among the six sampling events had no significant difference. Sediment's color and texture affirmed the land-based activities in Babuyan and Mauyon watersheds, which eventually carried into the Bay during storm weather condition.The amount of trapped sediments in all stations is probably affected by the river's discharge capacity and the river's water velocity, although the duration sediment traps were mounted could also affect the measurement of sedimentation rate.

  9. Comprehensive evaluation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in surface soils and river sediments from e-waste-processing sites in a village in northern Vietnam: Heading towards the environmentally sound management of e-waste

    Go Suzuki; Masayuki Someya; Hidenori Matsukami; Nguyen Minh Tue; Natsuyo Uchida; Le Huu Tuyen; Pham Hung Viet; Shin Takahashi; Shinsuke Tanabe; Abraham Brouwer; Hidetaka Takigami

    2016-01-01

    The management of electronic waste (e-waste), which can be a source of both useful materials and toxic substances, depending on the processing method, is important for promoting material cycling. In this study, we used the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX) assay combined with gas chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry to evaluate the levels of dioxin-like compounds in surface soils and river sediments collected in and around an e-waste-proces...

  10. Environmental Impact Research Program. Transplanting of the Seagrasses Halodule wrightii, Syringodium filiforme, and Thalassia testudinum for Sediment Stabilization and Habitat Development in the Southeast Region of the United States.

    1987-07-01

    light energy transmission becomes insufficient so as to halt photosynthesis by the seagrasses , widespread mortality of the shoots often occurs. When the...TRANSPLANTING OF THE SEAGRASSES HALODULE WRIGHT/I, SYRINGODIUM FILIFORME, AND THALASSIA TESTUDINUM * - -FOR SEDIMENT STABILIZATION AND HABITAT DEVELOPMENT IN...ELEMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NO1EIRP 31632 ’-" 11 TITLE (Include Security Classfication) Transplanting of the Seagrasses Ha lodue wrightii, Syngodi 31

  11. Multivariate calibration-assisted high-performance liquid chromatography with dual UV and fluorimetric detection for the analysis of natural and synthetic sex hormones in environmental waters and sediments

    Pérez, Rocío L.; Escandar, Graciela M.

    2016-01-01

    A green method is reported based on non-sophisticated instrumental for the quantification of seven natural and synthetic estrogens, three progestagens and one androgen in the presence of real interferences. The method takes advantage of: (1) chromatography, allowing total or partial resolution of a large number of compounds, (2) dual detection, permitting selection of the most appropriate signal for each analyte and, (3) second-order calibration, enabling mathematical resolution of incompletely resolved chromatographic bands and analyte determination in the presence of interferents. Consumption of organic solvents for cleaning, extraction and separation are markedly decreased because of the coupling with MCR-ALS (multivariate curve resolution/alternating least-squares) which allows the successful resolution in the presence of other co-eluting matrix constituents. Rigorous IUPAC detection limits were obtained: 6–24 ng L"−"1 in water, and 0.1–0.9 ng g"−"1 in sediments. Relative prediction errors were 2–10% (water) and 1–8% (sediments). - Highlights: • A green and simple chromatographic method for endocrine disruptors is proposed. • Diode array and fluorescence detectors are simultaneously used. • Eleven sex hormones are determined in water and sediment samples. • Outstanding selectivity is attained with MCR-ALS second-order algorithm. - Liquid chromatography coupled to chemometrics allows one to selectively and sensitively quantitate eleven endocrine disruptors in challenging scenarios using a green analytical approach.

  12. Comparison of the distributions in marine sediments of the fall-out derived nuclides 55Fe and sup(239,240)Pu. A new approach to the chemistry of environmental radionuclides

    Labeyrie, L.D.; Livingston, H.D.; Bowen, V.T.

    1976-01-01

    Data are presented showing the distribution of 55 Fe radioactivity in marine sediment cores taken from a large range of water depths; these data are compared with the sup(239,240)Pu analyses of the same or similar cores. The report is preliminary in that only a small part of the world ocean has yet been studied. Evaluation of the results available suggests: First, that in a good deal of their marine geochemistry iron and plutonium move separately. Secondly, that in the open Atlantic Ocean 55 Fe has sedimented in association with a mixed population of particles, exhibiting a mean sinking rate of about 350m/a. Thirdly, part of the iron in coastal sediments is redissolved, probably by reduction associated with decaying organic matter; this process affects a higher proportion of the 55 Fe than of the total iron. The solubilized iron should reprecipitate, after return to the overlying water and oxidation, as microparticulates. These very fine particles, dispersed by currents, may translocate 55 Fe toward the open sea, only slowly becoming associated with larger, faster-sinking mineral particles. It is suggested that this process may be important in the translocation of other insoluble trace elements, and even of part of the sup(239,240)Pu. (author)

  13. Life cycle assessment for dredged sediment placement strategies.

    Bates, Matthew E; Fox-Lent, Cate; Seymour, Linda; Wender, Ben A; Linkov, Igor

    2015-04-01

    Dredging to maintain navigable waterways is important for supporting trade and economic sustainability. Dredged sediments are removed from the waterways and then must be managed in a way that meets regulatory standards and properly balances management costs and risks. Selection of a best management alternative often results in stakeholder conflict regarding tradeoffs between local environmental impacts associated with less expensive alternatives (e.g., open water placement), more expensive measures that require sediment disposal in constructed facilities far away (e.g., landfills), or beneficial uses that may be perceived as risky (e.g., beach nourishment or island creation). Current sediment-placement decisions often focus on local and immediate environmental effects from the sediment itself, ignoring a variety of distributed and long-term effects from transportation and placement activities. These extended effects have implications for climate change, resource consumption, and environmental and human health, which may be meaningful topics for many stakeholders not currently considered. Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) provides a systematic and quantitative method for accounting for this wider range of impacts and benefits across all sediment management project stages and time horizons. This paper applies a cradle-to-use LCA to dredged-sediment placement through a comparative analysis of potential upland, open water, and containment-island placement alternatives in the Long Island Sound region of NY/CT. Results suggest that, in cases dealing with uncontaminated sediments, upland placement may be the most environmentally burdensome alternative, per ton-kilometer of placed material, due to the emissions associated with diesel fuel combustion and electricity production and consumption required for the extra handling and transportation. These results can be traded-off with the ecosystem impacts of the sediments themselves in a decision-making framework. Published by

  14. Sediment oxygen demand in the lower Willamette River, Oregon, 1994

    Caldwell, James M.; Doyle, Micelis C.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of sediment oxygen demand (SOD) at the interface of the stream and stream bed was performed in the lower Willamette River (river mile 51 to river mile 3) during August, 1994, as part of a cooperative project with the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. The primary goals of the investigation were to measure the spatial variability of SOD in the lower Willamette River and to relate SOD to bottom-sediment characteristics.

  15. Special Issue ;Sediment cascades in cold climate geosystems;

    Morche, David; Krautblatter, Michael; Beylich, Achim A.

    2017-06-01

    This Editorial introduces the Special Issue on sediment cascades in cold climate geosystems that evolved from the eighth I.A.G./A.I.G. SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments; http://www.geomorph.org/sedibud-working-group/) workshop. The workshop was held from 1st to 4th September 2014 at the Environmental Research Station ;Schneefernerhaus; (http://www.schneefernerhaus.de/en/home.html) located at Mt. Zugspitze, the highest peak of Germany, (2962 m asl). Paper and poster presentations focused on observations, measurements and modeling of geomorphological processes in sediment cascades in cold climate geosystems. This resulting Special Issue brings together ten selected contributions from arctic and alpine environments.

  16. Measurement of uranium and thorium in marine sediments

    Denden, Ibtihel

    2009-01-01

    Lakes, oceans and seas accumulate sediments. These sediments constitute a file of the last environmental conditions going up in some cases to thousands of years. In our study, we consulted this file by analyzing radioisotopes of Uranium and Thorium that are included in a carrot of marine sediment taken from the south of Mediterranean Sea. When we applied the technique developed by the maritime environment's laboratory of Monaco, we found spectra with bad resolutions. For this reason, the optimization of this protocol appeared necessary. (Author).

  17. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates.

    Vicki J Hendrick

    Full Text Available The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura, the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus, showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa. With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally

  18. Use of spatially distributed time-integrated sediment sampling networks and distributed fine sediment modelling to inform catchment management.

    Perks, M T; Warburton, J; Bracken, L J; Reaney, S M; Emery, S B; Hirst, S

    2017-11-01

    Under the EU Water Framework Directive, suspended sediment is omitted from environmental quality standards and compliance targets. This omission is partly explained by difficulties in assessing the complex dose-response of ecological communities. But equally, it is hindered by a lack of spatially distributed estimates of suspended sediment variability across catchments. In this paper, we demonstrate the inability of traditional, discrete sampling campaigns for assessing exposure to fine sediment. Sampling frequencies based on Environmental Quality Standard protocols, whilst reflecting typical manual sampling constraints, are unable to determine the magnitude of sediment exposure with an acceptable level of precision. Deviations from actual concentrations range between -35 and +20% based on the interquartile range of simulations. As an alternative, we assess the value of low-cost, suspended sediment sampling networks for quantifying suspended sediment transfer (SST). In this study of the 362 km 2 upland Esk catchment we observe that spatial patterns of sediment flux are consistent over the two year monitoring period across a network of 17 monitoring sites. This enables the key contributing sub-catchments of Butter Beck (SST: 1141 t km 2 yr -1 ) and Glaisdale Beck (SST: 841 t km 2 yr -1 ) to be identified. The time-integrated samplers offer a feasible alternative to traditional infrequent and discrete sampling approaches for assessing spatio-temporal changes in contamination. In conjunction with a spatially distributed diffuse pollution model (SCIMAP), time-integrated sediment sampling is an effective means of identifying critical sediment source areas in the catchment, which can better inform sediment management strategies for pollution prevention and control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of sedimentation rate in Thane creek using 210Pb dating

    Sahu, S.K.; Bhangare, R.C.; Ajmal, P.Y; Tiwari, M.; Pandit, G.G.; Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    Sediments are good representatives of the geochemical history of a particular area. They can be regarded as good archives of environmental processes and their effects. Therefore, the study of sediments in coastal areas has great importance for the understanding of the interaction between human activities and marine systems. The sedimentation process can be correlated with time by assessing decays of radionuclides like 210 Pb, 137 Cs and 14 C in different layers of it. 210 Pb and its environmental cycle have been commonly used as environmental tracer in many environmental studies. For assessment of chronological history of pollution in the Mumbai region, sediment samples were collected from Thane creek and sedimentation rates were estimated by measurement of 210 Po activity which is in equilibrium with 210 Pb

  20. Transport Task Force Leadership, Task 4

    Callen, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    The Transport Task Force (TTF) was initiated as a broad-based US magnetic fusion community activity during the fall of 1988 to focus attention on and encourage development of an increased understanding of anomalous transport in tokamaks. The overall TTF goal is to make progress on Characterizing, Understanding and Identifying how to Reduce plasma transport in tokamaks -- to CUIR transport

  1. Sediment monitoring and benthic faunal sampling adjacent to the Sand Island ocean outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1986-2010 (NODC Accession 9900088)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic fauna and sediment in the vicinity of the Sand Island ocean outfall were sampled from 1986-2010. To assess the environmental quality, sediment grain size and...

  2. Sediment Monitoring and Benthic Faunal Sampling Adjacent to the Barbers Point Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1986-2010 (NODC Accession 9900098)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic fauna and sediment in the vicinity of the Barbers Point (Honouliuli) ocean outfall were sampled from 1986-2010. To assess the environmental quality, sediment...

  3. Waste area Grouping 2 Phase I remedial investigation: Sediment and Cesium-137 transport modeling report

    Clapp, R.B.; Bao, Y.S.; Moore, T.D.; Brenkert, A.L.; Purucker, S.T.; Reece, D.K.; Burgoa, B.B.

    1996-06-01

    This report is one of five reports issued in 1996 that provide follow-up information to the Phase I Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The five reports address areas of concern that may present immediate risk to public health at the Clinch River and ecological risk within WAG 2 at ORNL. A sixth report, on groundwater, in the series documenting WAG 2 RI Phase I results were part of project activities conducted in FY 1996. The five reports that complete activities conducted as part of Phase I of the Remedial Investigation (RI) for WAG 2 are as follows: (1) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Seep Data Assessment, (2) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Tributaries Data Assessment, (3) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Ecological Risk Assessment, (4) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Human Health Risk Assessment, (5) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Sediment and 137 Cs Transport Modeling In December 1990, the Remedial Investigation Plan for Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was issued (ORNL 1990). The WAG 2 RI Plan was structured with a short-term component to be conducted while upgradient WAGs are investigated and remediated, and a long-term component that will complete the RI process for WAG 2 following remediation of upgradient WAGs. RI activities for the short-term component were initiated with the approval of the Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). This report presents the results of an investigation of the risk associated with possible future releases of 137 Cs due to an extreme flood. The results are based on field measurements made during storms and computer model simulations

  4. Sediment impacts on marine sponges.

    Bell, James J; McGrath, Emily; Biggerstaff, Andrew; Bates, Tracey; Bennett, Holly; Marlow, Joseph; Shaffer, Megan

    2015-05-15

    Changes in sediment input to marine systems can influence benthic environments in many ways. Sponges are important components of benthic ecosystems world-wide and as sessile suspension feeders are likely to be impacted by changes in sediment levels. Despite this, little is known about how sponges respond to changes in settled and suspended sediment. Here we review the known impacts of sedimentation on sponges and their adaptive capabilities, whilst highlighting gaps in our understanding of sediment impacts on sponges. Although the literature clearly shows that sponges are influenced by sediment in a variety of ways, most studies confer that sponges are able to tolerate, and in some cases thrive, in sedimented environments. Critical gaps exist in our understanding of the physiological responses of sponges to sediment, adaptive mechanisms, tolerance limits, and the particularly the effect of sediment on early life history stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. "Photographing money" task pricing

    Jia, Zhongxiang

    2018-05-01

    "Photographing money" [1]is a self-service model under the mobile Internet. The task pricing is reasonable, related to the success of the commodity inspection. First of all, we analyzed the position of the mission and the membership, and introduced the factor of membership density, considering the influence of the number of members around the mission on the pricing. Multivariate regression of task location and membership density using MATLAB to establish the mathematical model of task pricing. At the same time, we can see from the life experience that membership reputation and the intensity of the task will also affect the pricing, and the data of the task success point is more reliable. Therefore, the successful point of the task is selected, and its reputation, task density, membership density and Multiple regression of task positions, according to which a nhew task pricing program. Finally, an objective evaluation is given of the advantages and disadvantages of the established model and solution method, and the improved method is pointed out.

  6. Board Task Performance

    Minichilli, Alessandro; Zattoni, Alessandro; Nielsen, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    identify three board processes as micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Specifically, we focus on effort norms, cognitive conflicts and the use of knowledge and skills as determinants of board control and advisory task performance. Further, we consider how two different institutional settings....... The findings show that: (i) Board processes have a larger potential than demographic variables to explain board task performance; (ii) board task performance differs significantly between boards operating in different contexts; and (iii) national context moderates the relationships between board processes...... and board task performance....

  7. Sedimentation problems and solutions

    Williams, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    Roseires Dam and reservoir are located in Sudan, Africa on the Blue Nile River. The hydropower from the reservoir provides approximately 80% of the power used in Sudan, thus having a tremendous economic impact on the country. The reservoir was first impounded in 1966 and has been filled annually since then. The Blue Nile has historically been known to carry heavy sediment loads which is associated with erosion from overgrazing in Ethiopia, the Blue Nile's headwaters. During the flood season, the dam's turbine intakes become blocked with debris and sediment. After a severe blockage in 1981, which prevented hydropower generation for several days, consultants from USAID were asked to make recommendations on reducing the sediment and debris impacts on reservoir operations. This led to debris clearing and dredging equipment acquisitions in 1982. In 1988, blockage occurred again during the flood season. This writer was asked by the World Bank to travel to Sudan, investigate the sediment and debris problems, examine the USAID recommendations, comment on potential sediment and debris problems associated with a proposed plan to raise the dam, make additional recommendations, and return to Sudan several times to determine the effectiveness of there recommendations. This paper discussed the results of the aforementioned activities and describes the new recommendations made by this writer

  8. The oceanic sediment barrier

    Francis, T.J.G.; Searle, R.C.; Wilson, T.R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Burial within the sediments of the deep ocean floor is one of the options that have been proposed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. An international research programme is in progress to determine whether oceanic sediments have the requisite properties for this purpose. After summarizing the salient features of this programme, the paper focuses on the Great Meteor East study area in the Northeast Atlantic, where most oceanographic effort has been concentrated. The geological geochemical and geotechnical properties of the sediments in the area are discussed. Measurements designed to determine the rate of pore water movement through the sediment column are described. Our understanding of the chemistry of both the solid and pore-water phases of the sediment are outlined, emphasizing the control that redox conditions have on the mobility of, for example, naturally occurring manganese and uranium. The burial of instrumented free-fall penetrators to depths of 30 m beneath the ocean floor is described, modelling one of the methods by which waste might be emplaced. Finally, the nature of this oceanic environment is compared with geological environments on land and attention is drawn to the gaps in our knowledge that must be filled before oceanic burial can be regarded as an acceptable disposal option. (author)

  9. Quantifying Construction Site Sediment Discharge Risk and Treatment Potential

    Ferrell, L.; Beighley, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    Dealing with soil erosion and sediment transport can be a significant challenge during the construction process due to the potentially large spatial and temporal extent and conditions of bare soils. Best Management Practices (BMP) are commonly used to eliminate or reduce offsite discharge of sediment. However, few efforts have investigated the time varying risk of sediment discharge from construction sites, which often have dynamic soil conditions and the potential for less than optimal BMP installations. The goal of this research is to improve the design, implementation and effectiveness of sediment and erosion control at construction sites using site specific, temporal distributions of sediment discharge risk. Sediment risk is determined from individual factors leading to sediment expert, such as rainfall frequency, the adequacy of BMP installations, and the extent and duration of bare soil conditions. This research specifically focuses on quantifying: (a) the effectiveness of temporary sediment and control erosion control BMPs in preventing, containing, and/or treating construction site sediment discharge at varying levels of "proper" installation, and (b) sediment discharge potential from construction sites during different phases of construction, (ex., disturbed earth operations). BMPs are evaluated at selected construction sites in southern California and at the Soil Erosion Research Laboratory (SERL) in the Civil and Environmental Engineering department at San Diego State University. SERL experiments are performed on a 3-m by 10-m tilting soil bed with soil depths up to 1 meter, slopes ranging from 0 to 50 percent, and rainfall rates up to 150 mm/hr (6 in/hr). BMP performance is assessed based on experiments where BMPs are installed per manufacture specifications, potential less than optimal installations, and no treatment conditions. Soil conditions are also varied to represent site conditions during different phases of construction (i.e., loose lifts

  10. Trace metal levels in sediments of Pearl Harbor (Hawaii)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Tamura, T.

    1986-09-01

    This study was conducted to measure the distribution of lead and other trace metals in the sediments of Pearl Harbon (Hawaii) to determine whether paint chips from vessels of the US Navy's Inactive Fleet have affected the environmental quality of Middle Loch. Sediment cores (ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 m long) were collected from Middle Loch near the Naval Inactive Ships Maintenance Facility and in an area of West Loch that is relatively isolated and unaffected by naval operations. Concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc averaged 180 μg/g, 49 μg/g, and 272 μg/g, respectively, in recent Middle Loch sediments. These concentrations are significantly higher than those in either historical Middle Loch sediments or recent West Loch sediments. However, except for lead, the concentrations in recent Middle Loch sediments are similar to those of older Middle Loch sediments, which indicates that the increase in trace metal contamination began before the onset of Inactive Fleet operations (about 1946). Increased trace metal levels in recent Middle Loch sediments might be expected to result from two potential sources: (1) sewage discharges and (2) paint from inactive vessels. Since paint contains elevated levels of lead and zinc but little copper, the elevated copper levels in Middle Loch sediments tend to implicate sewage as the source of trace metal contamination. Moreover, the lead:zinc ratio of recent Middle Loch sediments (0.18:1) is a factor of 10 lower than that measured in paint (2.1:1), and the Middle Loch lead:zinc ratio is not significantly greater than that measured in recent West Loch sediments (0.21:1). Hence, we suggest that sewage rather than paint is the major source of trace metal contamination of Middle Loch. This is consistent with the findings of a previous study by US navy personnel

  11. Methanotrophy in surface sediments of streams

    Bagnoud, Alexandre; Pramateftaki, Paraskevi; Peter, Hannes; Battin, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Because streams are often found to be supersaturated in methane (CH4), they are considered as atmospheric sources of this greenhouse gas. However, little is known about the processes driving CH4 cycling in these environments, i.e. production, consumption and fluxes. CH4 is thought to be produced in deeper anoxic sediments, before it migrates up to reach the oxic stream water, where it can be oxidized by methanotrophs. In order to gain insights into this process, we investigated 14 different streams across Switzerland. We characterized the chemistry of surface and sediment waters by measuring dissolved chemical profiles. We also sampled surface sediments and determined methanotrophic rates with laboratory incubations and Michaelis-Menten modeling. Interestingly, rates were strongly correlated with the CH4 concentrations in stream waters, rather than in sediment waters. This indicates that methantrophic populations feed on CH4 from the surface streamwater, even though CH4 concentrations are higher in the sediment waters. Methanotrophy rates were also correlated with Crenothrix counts (based on 16S rRNA sequencing), a strict methanotroph, while this latter was correlated with pmoA counts (based on quantitative PCR), a gene involved in methanotrophy. These results show that Crenothrix genera are the most active methanotrophs in surface sediments of streams, and can represent more than 2% of microbial communities. Remarkably, the dominating Crenothrix species was detected in all 14 samples. This work allows the assessment of in situ methanotrophic rates, of the environmental parameters driving this process, and of the microbial populations carrying it out, and thus brings useful insights about carbon cycling in streams.

  12. Downstream mixing of sediment and tracers in agricultural catchments: Evidence of changing sediment sources and fluvial processes?

    Ralph, Timothy; Wethered, Adam; Smith, Hugh; Heijnis, Henk

    2014-05-01

    Land clearance, soil tillage and grazing in agricultural catchments have liberated sediment and altered hydrological connectivity between hillslopes and channels, leading to increased sediment availability, mobilisation and delivery to rivers. The type and amount of sediment supplied to rivers is critical for fluvial geomorphology and aquatic ecosystem health. Contemporary sediment dynamics are routinely investigated using environmental radionuclides such as caesium-137 (Cs-137) and excess lead-210 (Pb-210ex), which can provide information regarding sediment source types and fluvial processes if sediment sources can be distinguished from one another and mixing models applied to representative samples. However, downstream transport, mixing and dilution of radionuclide-labelled sediment (especially from sources with low initial concentrations) can obliterate the tracer signal; sometimes before anything of geomorphological importance happens in the catchment. Can these findings be used as evidence of sediment source variations and fluvial processes when the limits of detection (of Cs-137 in particular) are being exceeded so rapidly downstream? Sediment sources and downstream sediment dynamics were investigated in Coolbaggie Creek, a major supplier of sediment to the Macquarie River in an agricultural catchment with temperate to semi-arid climate in Australia. Radionuclides were used to discriminate between the banks and gullies (Cs-137 1.45 +/- 0.47 Bq/kg; Pb-210ex 4.67 +/- 1.93 Bq/kg). Within the trunk stream, suspended sediment, organic matter and Cs-137 and Pb-210ex concentrations declined downstream. Results from a mixing model suggest that agricultural topsoils account for 95% of fine sediment entering the channel in the upper reach (200 m2) downstream, with channel expansion and gullies contributing fine sediment to the system. A lack of topsoil being supplied to the channel suggests minimal lateral connectivity between the catchment and the trunk stream in all

  13. Numerical modelling of near-bottom sediment transport: turbulence modulation, new process models and application to the Scheldt and the Belgian coast

    Bi, Q.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment transport due to fluid motion is a crucial process in many environmental and engineered systems. Therefore, understanding sediment transport is critical for predicting sediment movements and evaluating the short and/or long-term influence to the surface water systems. Despite the importance of sediment transport, the fundamental aspects involved are far from being completely understood. At the core of the problem is the complex interaction between a turbulent flow field and sediment ...

  14. Petrophysics of Palaeogene sediments

    Awadalkarim, Ahmed

    defined and understood this would benefit various areas in petroleum industry. The three studied litholgoies are relatively soft and weak sediments, but they are economically important especially in petroleum industry. Drilling through intervals of shale or siliceous ooze sediments could result in severe...... and very costly borehole instability problems which are closely connected with the "bulk properties" of shale. In practice, the main technological challenge is to keep the borehole sufficiently stable until casing is set. Knowing the real in-situ effective stress is crucial to understand and to predict...... related to borehole stability. This Ph.D. study stressed on the importance of using correct β value in estimation of vertical effective stress especially on deep-sea sediments. To assess the geomechanical stability and the stiffness of the three studied lithologies, their β was found and used to calculate...

  15. White Oak Creek embayment sediment retention structure design and construction

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Kimmell, B.L.; Page, D.G.; Wilkerson, R.B.; Hudson, G.R.; Kauschinger, J.L.; Zocolla, M.

    1994-01-01

    White Oak Creek is the major surface water drainage throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Samples taken from the lower portion of the creek revealed high levels of Cesium 137 and lower level of Cobalt 60 in near surface sediment. Other contaminants present in the sediment included: lead, mercury, chromium, and PCBs. In October 1990, DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) agreed to initiate a time critical removal action in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) to prevent the transport of the contaminated sediments into the Clinch River system. This paper discusses the environmental, regulatory, design, and construction issues that were encountered in conducting the remediation work

  16. Effects of Sediment Chemical Properties on Phosphorus Release Rates in the Sediment-Water Interface of the Steppe Wetlands

    Jing He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rising temperature causes a process of phosphorus release, which can be characterized well using phosphorus release rates (VP. The objective of the present study was to investigate the major factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates through a wetland habitat simulation experiment. The results showed that the VP of different wetland sediments were different and changed with the order of W–R (river wetland > W–L (lake wetland > W–M (grassy marsh wetland > W–A (reservoir wetland. The main driving factors which influenced sediment phosphorus flux velocity in the sediment–water interface were sediment B-SO42−, B-MBN and A-MBP content. Path analysis and determination coefficient analysis indicated the standard multiple regression equation for sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment–water interface, and each main factor was Y = −0.105 + 0.096X1 + 0.275X2 − 0.010X3 (r = 0.416, p < 0.01, n = 144, where Y is sediment phosphorus release rates; X1 is sediment B-SO42− content; X2 is sediment B-MBN; and X3 is sediment A-MBP content. Sediment B-SO42−, B-MBN and A-MBP content and the interaction between them were the main factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment–water interface. Therefore, these results suggest that soil chemical properties and microbial activities likely play an important role in phosphorus release rates in the sediment–water interface. We hope to provide effective scientific management and control methods for relevant environmental protection departments.

  17. Supporting complex search tasks

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    , is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...

  18. Task leaders reports

    Loriaux, E.F.; Jehee, J.N.T.

    1995-01-01

    Report on CRP-OSS Task 4.1.1. ''Survey of existing documentation relevant to this programme's goals'' and report on CRP-OSS Task 4.1.2. ''Survey of existing Operator Support Systems and the experience with them'' are presented. 2 tabs

  19. Sediment, water pollution indicators for heavy metals

    Cabaleiro, S.; Horn, A.

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of an aquatic system requires consideration of its dynamics: spatial and temporal variations of physical, chemical and biological. Heavy metals have peculiar behavior in the aquatic system and may not be available in the waters, but on sediments.The sub-basin of the Sarandi stream is responsible for the contamination of Pampulha Lake. The Instituto Mineiro das Águas – IGAM - uses tool for monitoring the quality of surface water for developing strategies for conservation, restoration and rational use of water resources. So through the indices: IQA ( Indice de qualidade de águas) Index of water quality, and TC- toxic contamination, reduces conflicts, implements the disciplining of the environmental economy.This study determined the monitoring of sediment and water of Sarandi Stream, so in the samples collected during dry and rainy seasons (2007- 2008) were analyzed heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Pb) and physical-chemical factors (conductivity, solids dissolved, temperature, turbidity). This allowed the determination of Hackanson factors of contamination and Muller Index geoaccumulation, indicating very high contamination in sediments regarding the elements Cr, Cu, and Cd, and high contamination for Pb, Zn, and Mn. The comparison with the indices of water quality- IQA (IGAM - 2006, 2007 and 2008), combined with exploratory data analysis and graphs of correlation between the variables indicated favorable conditions for metals contamination on water and sediment for these metals, besides allowing the identification of its source

  20. Soft-sediment mullions

    Ortner, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution I describe the appearance, formation and significance of soft-sediment mullions. I use several examples from synorogenic turbidites of the Alps and the Pyrenees to show their appearance in the field. Soft-sediment mullions are elongate, slightly irregular bulges at the base of coarse-grained clastic beds (sand to conglomerate), separated by narrow, elongate flames of fine-grained material (mud) protruding into the coarse-grained bed. Various processes may lead to the formation of such structures: (1) longitudinal furrows parallel to the sediment transport direction may form by spiral motion in flow rolls during sediment transport (Dzulinski, 1966; Dzulinski & Simpson, 1966). (2) Loading combined with downslope movement can produce elongate structures parallelling the dowslope direction (Anketell et al., 1970). (3) Soft-sediment mullions are oriented perpendicular or oblique to the downslope direction, and show evidence of bedding-parallel shortening. Thus, they resemble cuspate-lobate folds or mullions, which are well-known in ductile structural geology (e.g. Urai et al., 2001). Soft-sediment mullions have been observed in two cases: Either bedding-parallel shortening can be achieved by slump processes, or by active tectonic shortening. Slumping is characterized by an alternation of stretching and shortening (e.g. Ortner, 2007; Alsop & Marco 2014), and therefore mullions do overprint or are overprinted by normal faults. In active depositional systems that are subject to tectonic shortening growth strata will form, but sediments already deposited will be shortened during lithification. In some cases, the formation of soft-sediment mullions predates folding, but the most widespread expression of syn-lithification shortening seems to be soft-sediment mullions, that form in the inner arcs of fold hinges. In the examples documented so far, the size of soft-sediment mullions is dependent on the grain-size of the coarse-grained layer, in which the

  1. Quantifying trail erosion and stream sedimentation with sediment tracers

    Mark S. Riedel

    2006-01-01

    Abstract--The impacts of forest disturbance and roads on stream sedimentation have been rigorously investigated and documented. While historical research on turbidity and suspended sediments has been thorough, studies of stream bed sedimentation have typically relied on semi-quantitative measures such as embeddedness or marginal pool depth. To directly quantify the...

  2. Use Of Instruments For Environmental Marketing In Economic Activity Of Agricultural Enterprises

    Oleksiy Shkuratov; Irina Voronetska

    2012-01-01

    Improved marketing mechanism of agricultural enterprise through the introduction of environmental marketing. Grounded place, tasks and functions of environmental marketing in integrated environmental and economic management.

  3. Anthropopression markers in lake bottom sediments

    Nadolna, Anna; Nowicka, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Lakes are vulnerable to various types of anthropogenic disturbances. Responses of lake ecosystems to environmental stressors are varied and depend not only on the type of a factor but also on the lake natural resistance to degradation. Within the EULAKES project an evaluation of anthropogenic stress extent in a flow-through, postglacial, ribbon lake (Lake Charzykowskie) was carried out. It was assumed, that this impact manifests unevenly, depending on a type and degree of the pressure on the shore zones, water quality of tributaries, lake basin shape and dynamics of a water movement. It was stated, that anthropogenic markers are substances accumulated in bottom sediments as a result of allochthonous substances inflow from the catchment and atmosphere. Along the selected transects 105 samples from the top layer of sediments (about 20 cm) was collected representing the contemporary accumulation (about 15 years). The content of selected chemical elements and compounds was examined, including nutrients (TN and TP), heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, mercury, iron, and manganese) and pesticides (DDT, DDD, DDE, DMDT , γ-HCH). The research was conducted in the deepest points of each lake basin and along the research transects - while choosing the spots, the increased intensity of anthropogenic impact (ports, roads with heavy traffic, wastewater discharge zones, built-up areas) was taken into consideration. The river outlets to the lake, where there are ecotonal zones between limnic and fluvial environment, were also taken into account. Analysis of the markers distribution was carried out against the diversity of chemical characteristics of limnic sediments. Ribbon shape of the lake basin and the dominant wind direction provide an opportunity of easy water mixing to a considerable depth. Intensive waving processes cause removal of the matter from the littoral zone towards lake hollows (separated by the underwater tresholds), where the

  4. DOE high-level waste tank safety program Final report, Task 002

    1998-01-01

    The overall objective of the work on Task 002 was to provide LANL with support to the DOE High-Level Waste Tank Safety program. The objective of the work was to develop safety documentation in support of the unsafe tank mitigation activities at Hanford. The work includes the development of safety assessment and an environmental assessment. All tasks which were assigned under this Task Order were completed. Descriptions of the objectives of each task and effort performed to complete each objective are provided. The two tasks were: Task 2.1--safety assessment for instrumentation insertion; and Task 2.2--environmental assessment

  5. History through sediments: environmental, land use and technological change in the record of a temperate wetland (Las Tablas de Daimiel, central Spain); La historia a traves de los sedimentos: cambios climaticos y de uso del suelo en el registro reciente de un humedal mediterraneo (Las Tablas de Daimiel, Ciudad Real)

    Santisteban, J. I.; Mediavilla, R.; Gil Garcia, M. J.; Dominguez Castro, F.; Ruiz Zapata, M. B.

    2009-07-01

    The analysis of the sediments of a temperate wetland in central Spain (Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park) and their correlation to historical and documental data allows to interpret the environmental changes recorded in such sediments as due to the variable intensity human action in addition to the natural variability. Recorded events are related to land use changes that are caused by the socio economical circumstances of the surrounding human communities. Relative intensity and length of such impacts permits to estimate the duration of the anthropic events and the recovery ability of the natural system, evidencing that the intensity degree is determined by the technological capability to sustain a prolonged soil use. As a result, the Tablas de Daimiel National Park record has been divided in three periods: a natural period, when the impact of events is short and the environment is able to recover quickly, a pre industrial period, when changes are gradual but sustained, and an industrial period, when the sustained activity is so intense that the natural system is unable to recover. (Author) 34 refs.

  6. Historical variations of Bera Lake (Malaysia) sediments geochemistry using radioisotopes and sediment quality indices

    Mohammadreza Gharibreza; John Kuna Raj; Ismail Yusoff; Zainudin Othman; Wan Zakaria Wan Muhamad Tahir; Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    The Bera Lake basin is a lacustrine mire system and the largest natural lake in Peninsular Malaysia. Three cores were collected from the lake sediments in order to assess sediment quality and ecological risks for aquatic life and human health. An index analysis approach (C f , C d , E r , and IR) and fallout 210 Pb and 137 Cs radioisotopes were applied to assess the impacts of environmental evolutionary changes. Sediment chronology was determined using the Constant Rate of Supply model with the resultant ages verified by 137 Cs horizons. Although the general contamination factors indicate low risk conditions in Bera Lake the risks associated with individual layers ranged from moderate to considerable. Five deforestation phases can be identified in the dated sediment cores with distinct variations in heavy metal influxes since 1972. These phases are in excellent agreement with the dates of land clearance and development projects undertaken over the past four decades. This study has highlighted the capability of contamination factors and chronological methods in environmental evolutionary studies where catchments have experienced extensive land use changes. The destiny of heavy metal influxes into a lake can also be revealed using this methodology. (author)

  7. SULFIDE MINERALS IN SEDIMENTS

    The formation processes of metal sulfides in sediments, especially iron sulfides, have been the subjects of intense scientific research because of linkages to the global biogeochemical cycles of iron, sulfur, carbon, and oxygen. Transition metal sulfides (e.g., NiS, CuS, ZnS, Cd...

  8. Modeling chemical accumulation in sediment of small waterbodies accounting for sediment transport and water-sediment exchange processes over long periods.

    Patterson, David Albert; Strehmel, Alexander; Erzgräber, Beate; Hammel, Klaus

    2017-12-01

    In a recent scientific opinion of the European Food Safety Authority it is argued that the accumulation of plant protection products in sediments over long time periods may be an environmentally significant process. Therefore, the European Food Safety Authority proposed a calculation to account for plant protection product accumulation. This calculation, however, considers plant protection product degradation within sediment as the only dissipation route, and does not account for sediment dynamics or back-diffusion into the water column. The hydraulic model Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS; US Army Corps of Engineers) was parameterized to assess sediment transport and deposition dynamics within the FOrum for Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and their USe (FOCUS) scenarios in simulations spanning 20 yr. The results show that only 10 to 50% of incoming sediment would be deposited. The remaining portion of sediment particles is transported across the downstream boundary. For a generic plant protection product substance this resulted in deposition of only 20 to 50% of incoming plant protection product substance. In a separate analysis, the FOCUS TOXSWA model was utilized to examine the relative importance of degradation versus back-diffusion as loss processes from the sediment compartment for a diverse range of generic plant protection products. In simulations spanning 20 yr, it was shown that back-diffusion was generally the dominant dissipation process. The results of the present study show that sediment dynamics and back-diffusion should be considered when calculating long-term plant protection product accumulation in sediment. Neglecting these may lead to a systematic overestimation of accumulation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3223-3231. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  9. Varves in lake sediments - a review

    Zolitschka, Bernd; Francus, Pierre; Ojala, Antti E. K.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2015-06-01

    Downcore counting of laminations in varved sediments offers a direct and incremental dating technique for high-resolution climatic and environmental archives with at least annual and sometimes even seasonal resolution. The pioneering definition of varves by De Geer (1912) had been restricted to rhythmically deposited proglacial clays. One century later the meaning of 'varve' has been expanded to include all annually deposited laminae in terrestrial and marine settings. Under favourable basin configurations and environmental conditions, limnic varves are formed due to seasonality of depositional processes from the lake's water column and/or transport from the catchment area. Subsequent to deposition of topmost laminae, the physical preservation of the accumulating varved sequence requires the sustained absence of sediment mixing, for example via wave action or macrobenthic bioturbation. Individual (sub)laminae in varved lake sediments typically express contrasting colours, always differ in terms of their organic, chemical and/or mineralogical compositions, and often also differ with regard to grain-size. Various predominating climatic and depositional conditions may result in clastic, biogenic or endogenic (incl. evaporitic) varved sediments and their mixtures. To reliably establish a varve chronology, the annual character of laminations needs to be determined and verified in a multidisciplinary fashion. Sources and influences of possible errors in varve chronologies are best determined and constrained by repeated varve counts, and by including radioisotopes and correlation with historically documented events. A well-established varve chronology greatly enhances the scientific value of laminated limnic archives by securely anchoring the wealth of multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental information in the form of time-series for multidisciplinary investigations. Applications of varved records are discussed with special reference to advances since the 1980s. These span fields

  10. Metal assessment in sediments from the Guarapiranga Reservoir

    Coutinho, Suellen N.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Quináglia, Gilson A., E-mail: sncoutinho@usp.br, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br, E-mail: gquinaglia@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The study of the distribution of metals in sediments is very important from the point of view of environmental pollution once the sediment concentrates metals in aquatic systems and represents a relevant contamination monitor. The analysis of sediments has been used to evaluate the quality of aquatic systems in relation to the concentration of metals. This study aimed to assess sediment contamination by metals in the Guarapiranga Reservoir. Sediment and water samples were analyzed by ICP OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry) for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn and by CV AAS (Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry) for Hg. The sediment samples results were compared to TEL (Threshold Effect Level) and PEL (Probable Effect Level) guidance values and RRV (Reference Regional Values). Geoaccumulation Index (I{sub geo}) was calculated to evaluate metals pollution degree using reference values established for metals and metalloids in sediments from the Upper Tietê Basin and E{sub H}-pH diagrams were applied to explain chemical forms and bioavailability of toxic metals in sediment samples. In general, most of the analyzed elements exceeded TEL values and Cr, Cu and Zn exceeded RRV guidelines. The high concentrations of Cu found in this reservoir can be explained by the frequent application of CuSO{sub 4} algicide, mainly at sampling site S-03. The I{sub geo} indicated moderated polluted sediments by Zn and moderately to extremely polluted sediments by Cu, especially at S-03, in agreement with the TEL, PEL and RRV values comparison. These results may indicate potential risk of the reservoir water quality. (author)

  11. Metal assessment in sediments from the Guarapiranga Reservoir

    Coutinho, Suellen N.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Quináglia, Gilson A.

    2017-01-01

    The study of the distribution of metals in sediments is very important from the point of view of environmental pollution once the sediment concentrates metals in aquatic systems and represents a relevant contamination monitor. The analysis of sediments has been used to evaluate the quality of aquatic systems in relation to the concentration of metals. This study aimed to assess sediment contamination by metals in the Guarapiranga Reservoir. Sediment and water samples were analyzed by ICP OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry) for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn and by CV AAS (Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry) for Hg. The sediment samples results were compared to TEL (Threshold Effect Level) and PEL (Probable Effect Level) guidance values and RRV (Reference Regional Values). Geoaccumulation Index (I geo ) was calculated to evaluate metals pollution degree using reference values established for metals and metalloids in sediments from the Upper Tietê Basin and E H -pH diagrams were applied to explain chemical forms and bioavailability of toxic metals in sediment samples. In general, most of the analyzed elements exceeded TEL values and Cr, Cu and Zn exceeded RRV guidelines. The high concentrations of Cu found in this reservoir can be explained by the frequent application of CuSO 4 algicide, mainly at sampling site S-03. The I geo indicated moderated polluted sediments by Zn and moderately to extremely polluted sediments by Cu, especially at S-03, in agreement with the TEL, PEL and RRV values comparison. These results may indicate potential risk of the reservoir water quality. (author)

  12. Uranium in Aquatic Sediments; Where are the Guidelines?

    Iles, M., E-mail: michelle.iles@ewlsciences.com.au [Earth, Water and Life Sciences Pty Ltd, Darwin (Australia)

    2014-05-15

    Sediment data has been collected on and around the Ranger uranium mine for over 20 years. This included studies such as annual routine monitoring of metal concentrations, adsorption-desorption conditions, phase associations, transport mechanism, release potential, bioaccumulation and bioconcentration etc. Building on this, performance-based monitoring of the sediments from on-site water bodies was undertaken to ascertain the spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants as a basis to determine ecological risks associated with the sediments which in turn underpins closure planning. Highlights of these studies are interpreted using an ecological risk assessment approach. Ideally interpretation of aquatic sediment contamination in Australia is guided by the national guidelines for water quality and a weighted multiple lines of evidence approach whereby the chemistry of sediments is compared with reference and guideline values and predictions of bio-availability, and biological effects data allows cause and effect relationships to be derived. However, where uranium in aquatic sediments is concerned there is a lack of national (Australian) and international guidelines that are applicable to tropical sediments and the biological effects data available are limited or confounded by other variables. In the absence of clear uranium guidelines for sediments an internationally reported “Predicted No Effect Concentration” (PNEC) for uranium in temperate sediments was used as a “pseudo-guideline” value to identify sites with concentrations that might present an environmental risk and that should be further investigated. The applicability of the PNEC to the tropical Ranger site was understandably questioned by stakeholders and peers. The issues raised highlighted the need for international guidelines for uranium in aquatic sediments for tropical and temperate climates and an internationally accepted approach for deriving same. (author)

  13. Comprehensive evaluation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in surface soils and river sediments from e-waste-processing sites in a village in northern Vietnam: Heading towards the environmentally sound management of e-waste

    Go Suzuki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The management of electronic waste (e-waste, which can be a source of both useful materials and toxic substances, depending on the processing method, is important for promoting material cycling. In this study, we used the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX assay combined with gas chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry to evaluate the levels of dioxin-like compounds in surface soils and river sediments collected in and around an e-waste-processing village in northern Vietnam. The WHO-TEQs (Toxic equivalents of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs, and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs in soils collected in January 2012 ranged from 0.29 to 310 pg/g (median 2.9 pg/g, n = 32, and the WHO-TEQs in sediments ranged from 0.96 to 58 pg/g (median 4.4 pg/g, n = 8. Dioxin-like activities (CALUX-TEQs [2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalent] in soils collected in January 2012, 2013, and 2014 ranged from <30 to 4300 pg/g (median <30 pg/g, n = 96, and the activities in sediments ranged from <30 to 4000 pg/g (median 33 pg/g, n = 24. Dioxin-like compounds accumulated in samples collected around e-waste-processing areas such as open-burning sites and e-waste-processing workshops, and the compounds may be transported from their sources to surrounding areas over the course of several years. Some of the CALUX-TEQs, but not WHO-TEQs, values were higher than the maximum acceptable WHO-TEQs promulgated by various authorities, indicating that all dioxin-like compounds should be evaluated in samples collected from e-waste-processing areas. Our findings suggest that open burning and open storage of e-waste should be prohibited and that wastewater treatment should be implemented at each workshop to reduce contamination by dioxin-like compounds from e-waste.

  14. Environmental control on concretion-forming processes: Examples from Paleozoic terrigenous sediments of the North Gondwana margin, Armorican Massif (Middle Ordovician and Middle Devonian) and SW Sardinia (Late Ordovician)

    Dabard, Marie-Pierre; Loi, Alfredo

    2012-08-01

    Concretions of various compositions are common in the Paleozoic terrigenous successions of the north Gondwana margin. This study focuses on phosphatic (P) and siliceous (Si) concretions present in some successions of the Armorican Massif (NW France) and SW Sardinia (W Italy). It shows that they consist of mudstones, fine- to very fine-grained sandstones or shellbeds with a more or less abundant P-cement and form a continuum between a phosphatic end-member and a siliceous biogenic end-member. The P2O5 contents are ranging from 0.26% to 21.5% and are related to apatite. The SiO2 contents vary from 25% to 82% and are linked both to a terrigenous phase and to a biogenic silica phase. Concretions showing the lower P-contents (P2O5 5). Comparison with the surrounding sediments shows that all the concretions are enriched in chlorite and in Middle Rare Earth Elements (Las/Gds: 0.12-0.72) and some of them in Y (up to 974 ppm), Rare Earth Elements (more than 300 ppm) and Sr (260-880 ppm). The concretions with highest biogenic silica concentrations are contained in the outer shelf sediments whereas the other concretions are present from the proximal part of the inner shelf to the outer shelf. A genetic model in two stages is proposed. During early diagenesis, the dissolution of shells and degradation of organic matter progressively enrich the pore water in dissolved Si, Ca and P. When the suboxic zone is reached, P-precipitation begins, leading to the formation of protoconcretions. In shallow environments, the relative permeability of sediments and the winnowing or reworking of the upper few centimetres by bottom currents allow for suboxic conditions to be maintained, leading to P-rich concretion formation. In deeper environments, the anoxic zone is reached more rapidly, thereby preventing extensive phosphogenesis. Nevertheless in the protoconcretions the early P-cement preserves pore spaces from compaction. In the presence of biogenic siliceous particles, the fluids are

  15. U.S. Geological Survey ArcMap Sediment Classification tool

    O'Malley, John

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) ArcMap Sediment Classification tool is a custom toolbar that extends the Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) ArcGIS 9.2 Desktop application to aid in the analysis of seabed sediment classification. The tool uses as input either a point data layer with field attributes containing percentage of gravel, sand, silt, and clay or four raster data layers representing a percentage of sediment (0-100%) for the various sediment grain size analysis: sand, gravel, silt and clay. This tool is designed to analyze the percent of sediment at a given location and classify the sediments according to either the Folk (1954, 1974) or Shepard (1954) as modified by Schlee(1973) classification schemes. The sediment analysis tool is based upon the USGS SEDCLASS program (Poppe, et al. 2004).

  16. Ecotoxicological evaluation of industrial port of Venice (Italy) sediment samples after a decontamination treatment.

    Libralato, Giovanni; Losso, Chiara; Arizzi Novelli, Alessandra; Citron, Marta; Della Sala, Stefano; Zanotto, Emanuele; Cepak, Franka; Volpi Ghirardini, Annamaria

    2008-12-01

    This work assesses the ecotoxicological effects of polluted sediment after a decontamination treatment process using a new sediment washing technique. Sediment samples were collected from four sites in Marghera Port industrial channels (Venice, Italy). Ecotoxicological evaluations were performed with Vibrio fischeri and Crassostrea gigas bioassays. Whole sediment and elutriate were deemed as the most suitable environmental matrices for this study. Toxicity scores developed in the Lagoon of Venice for V. fischeri on whole sediment and for C. gigas on elutriate were considered for the final ranking of samples. Ecotoxicological results showed that the treated sediment samples presented both acute and sub-chronic toxicities, which were mainly attributed to the presence of some remaining chemicals such as metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The acute toxicity ranged from low to medium, while the sub-chronic one from absent to very high, suggesting that treated sediments could not be reused in direct contact with seawater.

  17. Operational considerations for implementing regional sediment management plans in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Underwood, Steven G.; Khalil, Syed M.; Byrnes, Mark R.; Steyer, Gregory D.; Raynie, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    Development of a comprehensive and stakeholder-driven Regional Sediment Management plan can provide the basis for long-term sustainable resource use and protection. This paper highlights three operational components that can positively influence sediment management at a regional scale, including (1) integration of an operational sediment budget, (2) development of a monitoring and adaptive management plan, and (3) development of a regional sediment availability and allocation program. These components seek to incorporate science and adaptive management through implementation of an organized and well-documented decision making process. They represent a coordinated framework that could serve as a guide for unifying financial investments in regional sediment management plans. Collectively, they establish an integrated process for addressing uncertainties about future system change in light of shrinking federal and state budgets, competing demands for sediment resources within riverine and marine waters, and policy considerations related to sediment/water use (e.g., navigation and commerce versus environmental management).

  18. Utilisation of Sepidrud dam basin sediments in fired clay bricks: laboratory scale experiment

    Jamshidi-Chenari, R.; Rabanifar, H.; Veiseh, S.

    2015-01-01

    The prevailing disposal methods for dam basin sediments are not free from the environmental pollution and the ecological imbalance. At present, a new way to treat the dredged sediments to manufacture bricks is being investigated, prioritizing waste recovery over its deposition in landfills. However, construction materials such as clay bricks must comply with the international and local standards. Considering the perpetual availability of the sediments, particle sizing and their chemical compo...

  19. A study of lead and cadmium speciation in some estuarine and coastal sediments

    Chakraborty, P.; Babu, P.V.R.; Sarma, V.V.

    ., Campbell, M., Weir, E., 2002, Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 3. Lead exposure. CMAJ 166, 1287–1292. Stohs, S.J., Bagchi, D., 1995, Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of metal ions. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 18... the kinetic speciation of Pb and Cd in the coastal and estuarine sediments of Bay of Bengal. Consider sediments samples of n different components, in which each component, M-Sediment i , exists in equilibrium with its dissociation products: the free metal...

  20. Radioactivity concentrations and their radiological significance in sediments of the Tema Harbour (Greater Accra, Ghana)

    Benjamin O. Botwe; Antonio Schirone; Ivana Delbono; Mattia Barsanti; Roberta Delfanti; Peter Kelderman; Elvis Nyarko; Piet N.L. Lens

    2017-01-01

    Studies on environmental radioactivity in tropical Africa are scarce. Therefore, a baseline study of natural (238U, 210Pb, 226Ra, 232Th, 228Ra, 228Th, 40K) and anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides was carried out on Tema Harbour (Greater Accra, Ghana) surface sediments and on their radiological significance. Grab surface sediment samples were collected from 21 stations within the Tema Harbour and their radioactivity concentrations measured by gamma spectrometry. The mean sediment radioactivity...

  1. Trace metal contamination in mangrove sediments, Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Farias,Cassia O.; Hamacher,Claudia; Wagener,Angela de Luca R.; Campos,Reinaldo C. de; Godoy,José M.

    2007-01-01

    The Guanabara Bay in Rio de Janeiro has undergone profound alterations of its natural environmental conditions. Metal concentration increase in sediments has been reported to be among these alterations. Trace-metal contamination and availability were studied in sediments of 3 mangrove areas of the bay. Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu and Al concentrations were determined in segments of sediment cores, after treatment with 1 mol L-1 HCl and with concentrated HNO3. Fe and Mn were determined in the leach wit...

  2. Radioactivity in soils and sediments in and adjacent to the Los Alamos area, 1974-1977

    Purtymun, W.D.; Peters, R.J.; Stoker, A.K.

    1980-02-01

    Soils and sediments are analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and total uranium as part of the continuing Environmental Monitoring Program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. This report documents the levels of radioactivity of radionuclides in soils and sediments in northern New Mexico from natural sources and worldwide fallout as well as at seven on-site soil and sediment stations which contain radioactivity contributed by the Laboratory for the period 1974 through 1977

  3. Arsenic enrichment in mangroves, and sediments along Karachi coast, Pakistan

    Rashida Parveen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the arsenic (As concentration in different parts of mangroves Avicennia marina and sediments in Karachi coastal area i.e. Korangi Creek , Manora, Kakapir and Sandspit. Methods: Sites are identified for sampling owing to their vicinity to industrial activities. Sandspit is targeted for its being devoid of industries. The hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS were used to analyse the concentration of arsenic in mangrove and sediment. Results: The high concentration of As was found in roots and middle aerial part as compared to the upper part of mangroves. The concentrations of As was found higher in sediments as compared to the mangroves. There is a seasonal variation of As enrichment in mangrove and sediments as dry seasons showed higher concentration while in rainy season dilution factors may be attributed to the low level of As. The concentration variation of As in sampling sites of mangroves and sediments following the trend i.e. Korangi Creek >Manora>Kakapir>Sandspit. The statistical analysis (Two way ANOVA of data exhibited no significant difference (P>0.05 for trace metals concentrations in mangrove as well as in sediments. Conclusions: It is obvious to conclude that As should be continuously monitored in different environmental segments. The data must correlate with geographical distribution of As, quantification in different species, their solubility and bioavailability to understand the possible factors responsible for environmental pollution. The present study will be helpful to improve water management resources.

  4. Generic cognitive adaptations to task interference in task switching

    Poljac, E.; Bekkering, H.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated how the activation of previous tasks interferes with the execution of future tasks as a result of temporal manipulations. Color and shape matching tasks were organized in runs of two trials each. The tasks were specified by a cue presented before a task run, cueing

  5. Chronic toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments: variation in toxicity among eight invertebrate taxa and eight sediments

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Ivey, Chris D.; Kunz, James L.; Kemble, Nile E.; Schlekat, Christian E.; Garman, Emily R.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the chronic toxicity of Ni-spiked freshwater sediments to benthic invertebrates. A 2-step spiking procedure (spiking and sediment dilution) and a 2-stage equilibration period (10 wk anaerobic and 1 wk aerobic) were used to spike 8 freshwater sediments with wide ranges of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS; 0.94–38 µmol/g) and total organic carbon (TOC; 0.42–10%). Chronic sediment toxicity tests were conducted with 8 invertebrates (Hyalella azteca, Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, Chironomus riparius, Chironomus dilutus, Hexagenia sp., Lumbriculus variegatus, Tubifex tubifex, and Lampsilis siliquoidea) in 2 spiked sediments. Nickel toxicity thresholds estimated from species-sensitivity distributions were 97 µg/g and 752 µg/g (total recoverable Ni; dry wt basis) for sediments with low and high concentrations of AVS and TOC, respectively. Sensitive species were tested with 6 additional sediments. The 20% effect concentrations (EC20s) for Hyalella and Gammarus, but not Hexagenia, were consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency benchmarks based on Ni in porewater and in simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) normalized to AVS and TOC. For Hexagenia, sediment EC20s increased at less than an equimolar basis with increased AVS, and toxicity occurred in several sediments with Ni concentrations in SEM less than AVS. The authors hypothesize that circulation of oxygenated water by Hexagenia led to oxidation of AVS in burrows, creating microenvironments with high Ni exposure. Despite these unexpected results, a strong relationship between Hexagenia EC20s and AVS could provide a basis for conservative site-specific sediment quality guidelines for Ni.

  6. Energy Efficient Task Light

    Logadottir, Asta; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this work is to develop a task light for office lighting that fulfils the minimum requirements of the European standard EN12464 - 1 : Light and lighting – Lighting of work places, Part 1: Indoor workplaces and the Danish standard DS 700 : Lys og belysning I arbejdsrum , or more...... specifically the requirements that apply to the work area and the immediate surrounding area. By providing a task light that fulfils the requirements for task lighting and the immediate surrounding area, the general lighting only needs to provide the illuminance levels required for background lighting...... and thereby a reduction in installed power for general lighting of about 40 % compared to the way illuminance levels are designed in an office environment in Denmark today. This lighting strategy is useful when the placement of the task area is not defined in the space before the lighting is design ed...

  7. Lake sediment records of Quaternary climate change

    Moy, C.

    2013-01-01

    Lake sediments are excellent archives of climate and environmental change. Lakes typically exhibit high sedimentation rates, contain sedimentary components well-suited for a multi-proxy approach, multiple dating methods can be applied, exhibit a broad geographic distribution, and are relatively accessible for study. Furthermore, a number of geochemical techniques can be applied to recontsruct components of the climate system based on the stable isotope geochemistry of carbonate or organic phases preserved and exposed in lacustrine sedimentary cores. Various stable isotope methods can be applied to lacustrine systems and these are a valuable tool that can be used to monitor physical processes (e.g. evaporation), vegetation dynamics within the watershed (C 3 vs C 4 plant distributions), biologic processes (aquatic productivity), all of which can be driven by a regional climate forcing. (author). 31 refs., 11 figs.

  8. Lake sediment records of Quaternary climate change

    Moy, C.

    2016-01-01

    Lake sediments are excellent archives of climate and environmental change. Lakes typically exhibit high sedimentation rates, contain sedimentary components well-suited for a multi-proxy approach, multiple dating methods can be applied, exhibit a broad geographic distribution, and are relatively accessible for study. Furthermore, a number of geochemical techniques can be applied to recontsruct components of the climate system based on the stable isotope geochemistry of carbonate or organic phases preserved and exposed in lacustrine sedimentary cores. Various stable isotope methods can be applied to lacustrine systems and these are a valuable tool that can be used to monitor physical processes (e.g. evaporation), vegetation dynamics within the watershed (C 3 vs C 4 plant distributions), biologic processes (aquatic productivity), all of which can be driven by a regional climate forcing. (author).

  9. Lake sediment records of Quaternary climate change

    Moy, C.

    2014-01-01

    Lake sediments are excellent archives of climate and environmental change. Lakes typically exhibit high sedimentation rates, contain sedimentary components well-suited for a multi-proxy approach, multiple dating methods can be applied, exhibit a broad geographic distribution, and are relatively accessible for study. Furthermore, a number of geochemical techniques can be applied to recontsruct components of the climate system based on the stable isotope geochemistry of carbonate or organic phases preserved and exposed in lacustrine sedimentary cores. Various stable isotope methods can be applied to lacustrine systems and these are a valuable tool that can be used to monitor physical processes (e.g. evaporation), vegetation dynamics within the watershed (C 3 vs C 4 plant distributions), biologic processes (aquatic productivity), all of which can be driven by a regional climate forcing. (author)

  10. Lake sediment records of Quaternary climate change

    Moy, C.

    2015-01-01

    Lake sediments are excellent archives of climate and environmental change. Lakes typically exhibit high sedimentation rates, contain sedimentary components well-suited for a multi-proxy approach, multiple dating methods can be applied, exhibit a broad geographic distribution, and are relatively accessible for study. Furthermore, a number of geochemical techniques can be applied to recontsruct components of the climate system based on the stable isotope geochemistry of carbonate or organic phases preserved and exposed in lacustrine sedimentary cores. Various stable isotope methods can be applied to lacustrine systems and these are a valuable tool that can be used to monitor physical processes (e.g. evaporation), vegetation dynamics within the watershed (C 3 vs C 4 plant distributions), biologic processes (aquatic productivity), all of which can be driven by a regional climate forcing. (author)

  11. Sedimentation process and design of settling systems

    De, Alak

    2017-01-01

    This book is designed to serve as a comprehensive source of information of sedimentation processes and design of settling systems, especially as applied to design of such systems in civil and environmental engineering. The book begins with an introduction to sedimentation as a whole and goes on to cover the development and details of various settling theories. The book traces the chronological developments of the comprehensive knowledge of settling studies and design of settling systems from 1889.A new concept of 'Velocity Profile Theorem', tool for settling problem analysis, has been employed to the analysis of the phenomenon of short circuiting. Complete theory of tube settling has been developed and its application to the computation of residual solids from the assorted solids through the same has been demonstrated. Experimental verification of the tube settling theory has also been presented. Field-oriented compatible design and operation methodology of settling system has been developed from the detailed...

  12. In situ erosion of cohesive sediment

    Williamson, H.J.; Ockenden, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in tidal power schemes and the effect of a tidal energy barrage on the environment. A large man-made environmental change, such as a barrage, would be expected to have significant effects on the sediment distribution and stability of an estuary and these effects need to be assessed when considering a tidal barrage project. This report describes the development of apparatus for in-situ measurements of cohesive sediment erosion on inter-tidal mudflats. Development of the prototype field erosion bell and field testing was commissioned on behalf of the Department of Trade and Industry by the Energy Technology Support Unit (ETSU). This later work commenced in August 1991 and was completed in September 1992. (Author)

  13. Environmental protection

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  14. Sediment problems in reservoirs. Control of sediment deposits

    Jacobsen, Tom

    1997-12-31

    When a reservoir is formed on a river, sediment will deposit in the reservoir. Such processes are unfortunate, for instance, for the implementation of hydroelectric energy. This thesis studies the problem of reservoir sedimentation and discusses methods of removing the sediments. Various aspects of reservoir sedimentation are discussed. Anthropogenic impacts seem to greatly affect the erosion processes. Temporal distribution is uneven, mainly because of the very large flood events. A world map showing the Reservoir Capacity: Annual Sediment Inflow ratio for reservoirs with volume equal to 10% of annual inflow has been prepared. The map shows that sedimentation is severe in the western parts of North and South America, eastern, southern and northern Africa, parts of Australia and most of Asia. The development of medium-sized reservoirs is difficult, as they are too large for conventional flushing technique and too small to store the sediment that accumulates during their economic lifetime. A computer model, SSIIM, was used with good results in a case study of two flood drawdown trials in Lake Roxburg, New Zealand. Two techniques have been developed that permits controlled suction of sediment and water into a pipe: the Slotted Pipe Sediment Sluicer (SPSS) and the Saxophone Sediment Sluicer (SSS). The techniques exploit the inflow pattern in through a slot in a pipe. An equation describing this inflow pattern was derived and verified experimentally. The SPSS is fixed near the reservoir bed, and sediment that deposits on top of it is removed in the sluicing process. The SSS sluices sediment from the surface of the sediment deposits. Some technical and economic conditions affecting the economics of sediment removal from reservoirs have been identified and studied. 79 refs., 112 figs., 14 tabs.

  15. A Guide for Using Geochemical Methods in Dredged Material, Sediment Tracking, and Sediment Budget Studies

    2017-06-26

    geochemical markers such as radioisotopes and stable isotopes, organic matter, and mineralogy/elemental composition are recognized and established methods ...further elucidate the original erosion source of accumulating sediment (Hoefs 2009). 2.3 Radioisotopes Radioisotopic dating is based on measuring the...ER D C TR -1 7- 3 Dredging Operations and Environmental Research Program A Guide for Using Geochemical Methods in Dredged Material

  16. Environmental magnetic and geochemical characteristics of ...

    In this study, environmental magnetic, heavy metal and statistical analyses were conducted on 21 surface sediments ... ful tool for the assessment of heavy metal contam- ... natural sinks of magnetic minerals and heavy ... environment, and.

  17. Phytoremediation as a management option for contaminated sediments in tidal marshes, flood control areas and dredged sediment landfill sites.

    Bert, Valérie; Seuntjens, Piet; Dejonghe, Winnie; Lacherez, Sophie; Thuy, Hoang Thi Thanh; Vandecasteele, Bart

    2009-11-01

    processes and vegetation development mainly determined by hydrology, over alluvial soils affected by overbank sedimentation (including flood control areas), to dredged sediment disposal facilities where hydrology and vegetation might be affected or managed by human intervention. This gradient is also a gradient of systems with highly variable soil and hydrological conditions in a temporal scale (tidal marshes) versus systems with a distinct soil development over time (dredged sediment landfill sites). In some circumstances (e.g. to avoid flooding or to ensure navigation) dredging operations are necessary. Management and remediation of contaminated sediments are necessary to reduce the ecological risks and risks associated with food chain contamination and leaching. Besides disposal, classical remediation technologies for contaminated sediment also extract or destroy contaminants. These techniques imply the sediment structure deterioration and prohibitive costs. On the contrary, phytoremediation could be a low-cost option, particularly suited to in situ remediation of large sites and environmentally friendly. However, phytoremediation is rarely included in the management scheme of contaminated sediment and accepted as a viable option. Phytoremediation is still an emerging technology that has to prove its sustainability at field scale. Research needs to focus on optimisations to enhance applicability and to address the economic feasibility of phytoremediation.

  18. Fine-grained sediment dispersal along the California coast

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2013-01-01

    Fine-grained sediment (silt and clay) enters coastal waters from rivers, eroding coastal bluffs, resuspension of seabed sediment, and human activities such as dredging and beach nourishment. The amount of sediment in coastal waters is an important factor in ocean ecosystem health, but little information exists on both the natural and human-driven magnitudes of fine-grained sediment delivery to the coastal zone, its residence time there, and its transport out of the system—information upon which to base environmental assessments. To help fill these information gaps, the U.S. Geological Survey has partnered with Federal, State, and local agencies to monitor fine-grained sediment dispersal patterns and fate in the coastal regions of California. Results of these studies suggest that the waves and currents of many of the nearshore coastal settings of California are adequately energetic to transport fine-grained sediment quickly through coastal systems. These findings will help with the management and regulation of fine-grained sediment along the U.S. west coast.

  19. Predicting pollutant concentrations in the water column during dredging operations: Implications for sediment quality criteria

    Wasserman, Julio Cesar; Wasserman, Maria Angélica V.; Barrocas, Paulo Rubens G.; Almeida, Aline Mansur

    2016-01-01

    The development of new dredging techniques that can reduce, or at least predict, the environmental impacts, is in high demand by governments in developing countries. In the present work, a new methodology was developed, to evaluate the level of metals contamination (i.e. cadmium, lead and zinc) of the water column, during a dredging operation. This methodology was used to evaluate the impacts of the construction of a new maritime terminal in Sepetiba Bay, Brazil. The methodology quantifies the amount of resuspended sediments and calculates the expected contaminants concentrations in the water column. The results indicated that sediment quality criteria were not compatible with water quality criteria, because the dredging of contaminated sediments does not necessarily yield contaminated water. It is suggested that the use of sediment quality criteria for dredging operations might be abandoned, and the methodology presented in this study applied to assess dredging's environmental impacts, predicting water contamination levels. - Graphical abstract: A graphic model showing transference of contaminants from the sediments to the water column. The dark sediment area represents the dredged sediments and the arrows emerging from them represent the resuspended sediments affecting the water column. - Highlights: •Developing countries demand for new dredging projects. •A new model evaluates concentrations of metals in the water, caused by dredging. •The model shows that water and sediment quality criteria are not compatible. •Local hydrodynamics have a strong influence on the contamination of the water. •Management of dredging operations reduces environmental contamination.

  20. Surface sediment quality relative to port activities: A contaminant-spectrum assessment.

    Yu, Shen; Hong, Bing; Ma, Jun; Chen, Yongshan; Xi, Xiuping; Gao, Jingbo; Hu, Xiuqin; Xu, Xiangrong; Sun, Yuxin

    2017-10-15

    Ports are facing increasing environmental concerns with their importance to the global economy. Numerous studies indicated sediment quality deterioration in ports; however, the deterioration is not discriminated for each port activity. This study investigat