WorldWideScience

Sample records for sediment slurry samples

  1. Determination of As, Bi and Se in acidified slurries of marine sediment, soil and coal samples by hydride generation electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreda-Pineiro, J.; Lopez-Mahia, P.; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S.; Fernandez-Fernandez, E.; Prada-Rodriguez, D. [University of La Coruna, La Coruna (Spain). Faculty of Science, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    Ir-treated graphite tubes were used for preconcentration and atomisation of the As, Bi and Se hydrides generated from acidified slurries of marine sediment, soil and coal samples. A batch mode generation system was used for the hydride generation. The variables affecting the acidified slurry preparation procedure (assisted by ultrasonic energy) and the hydride generation/trapping/atomisation processes were studied by using a Plackett-Burman design. The sensitivity (characteristic masses of 65, 75 and 100 pg, for As, Bi and Se, respectively) and precision (RSD% lower than 10%) obtained were adequate for As, Bi and Se determination in slurry samples. The accuracy of the method was verified by analysing PACS-1 (Marine Sediment), GBW-07401 (Soil) and NIST SRM 1632c (Coal) certified reference materials.

  2. Slurry sampling high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for direct beryllium determination in soil and sediment samples after elimination of SiO interference by least-squares background correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husáková, Lenka; Urbanová, Iva; Šafránková, Michaela; Šídová, Tereza

    2017-12-01

    In this work a simple, efficient, and environmentally-friendly method is proposed for determination of Be in soil and sediment samples employing slurry sampling and high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-ETAAS). The spectral effects originating from SiO species were identified and successfully corrected by means of a mathematical correction algorithm. Fractional factorial design has been employed to assess the parameters affecting the analytical results and especially to help in the development of the slurry preparation and optimization of measuring conditions. The effects of seven analytical variables including particle size, concentration of glycerol and HNO 3 for stabilization and analyte extraction, respectively, the effect of ultrasonic agitation for slurry homogenization, concentration of chemical modifier, pyrolysis and atomization temperature were investigated by a 2 7-3 replicate (n = 3) design. Using the optimized experimental conditions, the proposed method allowed the determination of Be with a detection limit being 0.016mgkg -1 and characteristic mass 1.3pg. Optimum results were obtained after preparing the slurries by weighing 100mg of a sample with particle size < 54µm and adding 25mL of 20% w/w glycerol. The use of 1μg Rh and 50μg citric acid was found satisfactory for the analyte stabilization. Accurate data were obtained with the use of matrix-free calibration. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of two certified reference materials (NIST SRM 2702 Inorganics in Marine Sediment and IGI BIL-1 Baikal Bottom Silt) and by comparison of the results obtained for ten real samples by slurry sampling with those determined after microwave-assisted extraction by inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-ICP-MS). The reported method has a precision better than 7%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rheological Characterization of Unusual DWPF Slurry Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopman, D. C.

    2005-01-01

    A study was undertaken to identify and clarify examples of unusual rheological behavior in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulant slurry samples. Identification was accomplished by reviewing sludge, Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product simulant rheological results from the prior year. Clarification of unusual rheological behavior was achieved by developing and implementing new measurement techniques. Development of these new methods is covered in a separate report, WSRC-TR-2004-00334. This report includes a review of recent literature on unusual rheological behavior, followed by a summary of the rheological measurement results obtained on a set of unusual simulant samples. Shifts in rheological behavior of slurries as the wt. % total solids changed have been observed in numerous systems. The main finding of the experimental work was that the various unusual DWPF simulant slurry samples exhibit some degree of time dependent behavior. When a given shear rate is applied to a sample, the apparent viscosity of the slurry changes with time rather than remaining constant. These unusual simulant samples are more rheologically complex than Newtonian liquids or more simple slurries, neither of which shows significant time dependence. The study concludes that the unusual rheological behavior that has been observed is being caused by time dependent rheological properties in the slurries being measured. Most of the changes are due to the effect of time under shear, but SB3 SME products were also changing properties while stored in sample bottles. The most likely source of this shear-related time dependence for sludge is in the simulant preparation. More than a single source of time dependence was inferred for the simulant SME product slurries based on the range of phenomena observed. Rheological property changes were observed on the time-scale of a single measurement (minutes) as well as on a time scale of hours

  4. Chromium in marine sediment samples from the Ria de Arousa (Galicia, NW of Spain): analysis of the total content in slurries by ETAAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazos-Capeans, P.; Barciela-Alonso, M.C.; Bermejo-Barrera, A.; Bermejo-Barrera, P

    2004-10-25

    The study attempts to measure the total chromium content in sediments of all the Ria de Arousa (Galicia, NW Spain). The method was developed by analysing slurries by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The metal determination was carried out optimising the electrothermal programme and the concentration of magnesium nitrate as a chemical modifier. What was aimed to be achieved is a general explanation of the chromium content along the estuary because there could be a chromium sink in this marine environment. Results obtained were between 43.4{+-}1.7 {mu}g g{sup -1} and 184.6{+-}26.9 {mu}g g{sup -1} from the end of the Ulla river to the Atlantic Ocean, most of them higher than the background reference levels.

  5. Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples

  6. Development of Alternative Rheological Measurements for DWPF Slurry Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopman, D. c.

    2005-01-01

    Rheological measurements are used to evaluate the fluid dynamic behavior of Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, slurry samples. Measurements are currently made on non-radioactive simulant slurries using two state-of-the-art rheometers located at the Aiken County Technical Laboratory, ACTL. Measurements are made on plant samples using a rheometer in the Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNL, Shielded Cells facility. Low activity simulants or plant samples can be analyzed using a rheometer located in a radioactive hood in SRNL. Variations in the rheology of SB2 simulants impacted the interpretation of results obtained in a number of related studies. A separate rheological study was initiated with the following four goals: (1) Document the variations seen in the simulant slurries, both by a review of recent data, and by a search for similar samples for further study. (2) Attempt to explain the variations in rheological behavior, or, failing that, reduce the number of possible causes. In particular, to empirically check for rheometer-related variations. (3) Exploit the additional capabilities of the rheometers by developing new measurement methods to study the simulant rheological properties in new ways. (4) Formalize the rheological measurement process for DWPF-related samples into a series of protocols. This report focuses on the third and fourth goals. The emphasis of this report is on the development and formalization of rheological measurement methods used to characterize DWPF slurry samples. The organization is by rheological measurement method. Progress on the first two goals was documented in a concurrent technical report, Koopman (2005). That report focused on the types and possible causes of unusual rheological behavior in simulant slurry samples. It was organized by the sample being studied. The experimental portion of this study was performed in the period of March to April 2004. A general rheology protocol for routine DWPF slurry samples, Koopman

  7. Development of Alternative Rheological Measurements for DWPF Slurry Samples (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. c.

    2005-09-01

    Rheological measurements are used to evaluate the fluid dynamic behavior of Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, slurry samples. Measurements are currently made on non-radioactive simulant slurries using two state-of-the-art rheometers located at the Aiken County Technical Laboratory, ACTL. Measurements are made on plant samples using a rheometer in the Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNL, Shielded Cells facility. Low activity simulants or plant samples can be analyzed using a rheometer located in a radioactive hood in SRNL. Variations in the rheology of SB2 simulants impacted the interpretation of results obtained in a number of related studies. A separate rheological study was initiated with the following four goals: (1) Document the variations seen in the simulant slurries, both by a review of recent data, and by a search for similar samples for further study. (2) Attempt to explain the variations in rheological behavior, or, failing that, reduce the number of possible causes. In particular, to empirically check for rheometer-related variations. (3) Exploit the additional capabilities of the rheometers by developing new measurement methods to study the simulant rheological properties in new ways. (4) Formalize the rheological measurement process for DWPF-related samples into a series of protocols. This report focuses on the third and fourth goals. The emphasis of this report is on the development and formalization of rheological measurement methods used to characterize DWPF slurry samples. The organization is by rheological measurement method. Progress on the first two goals was documented in a concurrent technical report, Koopman (2005). That report focused on the types and possible causes of unusual rheological behavior in simulant slurry samples. It was organized by the sample being studied. The experimental portion of this study was performed in the period of March to April 2004. A general rheology protocol for routine DWPF slurry samples, Koopman

  8. Multivariate optimization for molybdenum determination in environmental solid samples by slurry extraction-ETAAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felipe-Sotelo, M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of A Coruna, Campus de A Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Cal-Prieto, M.J. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of A Coruna, Campus de A Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Carlosena, A. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of A Coruna, Campus de A Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: alatzne@udc.es; Andrade, J.M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of A Coruna, Campus de A Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Fernandez, E. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of A Coruna, Campus de A Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Prada, D. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of A Coruna, Campus de A Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain)

    2005-11-30

    A direct procedure to determine molybdenum in environmental solid samples (coal fly ash, sediment, soil and urban dust) by slurry extraction-electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (SE-ETAAS) employing multivariate optimization is presented. Sample mass, ultrasonic power, HNO{sub 3} concentration and HCl concentration were the most important variables affecting the extraction of Mo, as Plackett-Burman designs put forward. Time of agitation revealed not significant (within the 10-100 s range), thanks to the focused ultrasonic agitation program employed throughout (using a USS-100 probe). Two Simplex, a regular and a modified one, were carried out to simultaneously optimize the HNO{sub 3} and HCl concentrations. Both Simplex converged to 14% (v/v) HCl and 10% (v/v) HNO{sub 3}. Sample mass was studied by means of a univariate procedure (optimum at 50 mg). Furnace programs were studied using wall atomization with and without BaF{sub 2} as modifier, yielding similar results. Quantitative extraction was obtained, with good accuracy (ca. 90% recovery) and precision (R.S.D. < 9%), evaluated using five CRMs (coal fly ash SRM1633a, urban dust SRM1649a, marine sediments BCSS1 and PACS1, soil GBW07401). The limit of detection of the method was 0.1 {mu}g g{sup -1} (20 mg/1 mL slurry) and the characteristic mass was 9.5 {+-} 1.7 pg. Main advantages of the slurry extraction procedure are that it can be implemented directly on the autosampler cups, and that it is inexpensive and fast.

  9. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Jeffry

    2007-02-13

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  10. Impact of pig slurry amendments on phosphorus, suspended sediment and metal losses in laboratory runoff boxes under simulated rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, C J; Fenton, O; Wilson, P; Healy, M G

    2012-12-30

    Losses of phosphorus (P) when pig slurry applications to land are followed by a rainfall event or losses from soils with high P contents can contribute to eutrophication of receiving waters. The addition of amendments to pig slurry spread on high P Index soils may reduce P and suspended sediment (SS) losses. This hypothesis was tested at laboratory-scale using runoff boxes under simulated rainfall conditions. Intact grassed soil samples, 100 cm-long, 22.5 cm-wide and 5 cm-deep, were placed in runoff boxes and pig slurry or amended pig slurry was applied to the soil surface. The amendments examined were: (1) commercial grade liquid alum (8% Al(2)O(3)) applied at a rate of 0.88:1 [Al:total phosphorus (TP)] (2) commercial-grade liquid ferric chloride (38% FeCl(3)) applied at a rate of 0.89:1 [Fe:TP] and (3) commercial-grade liquid poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) (10% Al(2)O(3)) applied at a rate of 0.72:1 [Al:TP]. The grassed soil was then subjected to three rainfall events (10.3 ± 0.15 mm h(-1)) at time intervals of 48, 72, and 96 h following slurry application. Each sod received rainfall on 3 occasions. Results across three rainfall events showed that for the control treatment, the average flow weighted mean concentration (FWMC) of TP was 0.61 mg L(-1), of which 31% was particulate phosphorus (PP), and the average FWMC of SS was 38.1 mg L(-1). For the slurry treatment, there was an average FWMC of 2.2 mg TP L(-1), 47% of which was PP, and the average FWMC of SS was 71.5 mg L(-1). Ranked in order of effectiveness from best to worst, PAC reduced the average FWMC of TP to 0.64 mg L(-1) (42% PP), FeCl(3) reduced TP to 0.91 mg L(-1) (52% PP) and alum reduced TP to 1.08 mg L(-1) (56% PP). The amendments were in the same order when ranked for effectiveness at reducing SS: PAC (74%), FeCl(3) (66%) and alum (39%). Total phosphorus levels in runoff plots receiving amended slurry remained above those from soil only, indicating that, although incidental losses could be mitigated

  11. Characterization of the March 2017 Tank 15 Waste Removal Slurry Sample (Combination of Slurry Samples HTF-15-17-28 and HTF-15-17-29)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-09

    Two March 2017 Tank 15 slurry samples (HTF-15-17-28 and HTF-15-17-29) were collected during the second bulk waste removal campaign and submitted to SRNL for characterization. At SRNL, the two samples were combined and then characterized by a series of physical, elemental, radiological, and ionic analysis methods. Sludge settling as a function of time was also quantified. The characterization results reported in this document are consistent with expectations based upon waste type, process knowledge, comparisons between alternate analysis techniques, and comparisons with the characterization results obtained for the November 2016 Tank 15 slurry sample (the sample collected during the first bulk waste removal campaign).

  12. Sample vial inserts: A better approach for sampling heterogeneous slurry samples in the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.; Goode, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    A convenient and effective new approach for analyzing DWPF samples involves the use of inserts with volumes of 1.5--3 ml placed in the neck of 14 ml sample vials. The inserts have rims that conform to the rim of the vials so that they sit straight and stable in the vial. The DWPF tank sampling system fills the pre-weighed insert rather than the entire vial, so the vial functions only as the insert holder. The shielded cell operator then removes the vial cap and decants the insert containing the sample into a plastic bottle, crucible, etc., for analysis. Inert materials such as Teflon, plastic, and zirconium are used for the insert so it is unnecessary to separate the insert from the sample for most analyses. The key technique advantage of using inserts to take DWPF samples versus filling sample vials is that it provides a convenient and almost foolproof way of obtaining and handling small volumes of slurry samples in a shielded cell without corrupting the sample. Since the insert allows the entire sample to be analyzed, this approach eliminates the errors inherent with subsampling heterogeneous slurries that comprise DWPF samples. Slurry samples can then be analyzed with confidence. Analysis times are dramatically reduced by eliminating the drying and vitrification steps normally used to produce a homogeneous solid sample. Direct dissolution and elemental analysis of slurry samples are achieved in 8 hours or less compared with 40 hours for analysis of vitrified slurry samples. Comparison of samples taken in inserts versus full vials indicate that the insert does not significantly affect sample composition

  13. Using orthogonal design to determine optimal conditions for biodegradation of phenanthrene in mangrove sediment slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian Lin; Au, Kwai Chi; Wong, Yuk Shan; Tam, Nora Fung Yee

    2010-04-15

    In the present paper, the effects of four factors, each at three levels, on biodegradation of phenanthrene, a 3-ring PAH, in contaminated mangrove sediment slurry were investigated using the orthogonal experimental design. The factors and levels were (i) sediment types (clay loam, clayey and sandy); (ii) different inoculums (Sphingomonas sp., a mixture of Sphingomonas sp. and Mycobacterium sp., and without inoculum); (iii) presence of other PAHs (fluorene, pyrene, and none); and (iv) different salinities (5, 15 and 25 ppt). Variance analysis based on the percentages of Phe biodegradation showed that the presence of other PAHs had little effect on phenanthrene biodegradation. The kinetics of phenanthrene biodegradation in all experiments was best fitted by the first order rate model. The highest first order rate constant, k value was 0.1172 h(-1) with 97% Phe degradation; while the lowest k value was 0.0004 and phenanthrene was not degraded throughout the 7-d experiment. The p values of k for the four factors followed the same trend as that for the biodegradation percentage. Difference analysis revealed that optimal phenanthrene biodegradation would take place in clay loam sediment slurry at low salinity (5 to 15 ppt) with the inoculation of both Sphingomonas sp. and Mycobacterium sp. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of mercury in sewage sludge by direct slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baralkiewicz, Danuta; Gramowska, Hanka; Kozka, MaIgorzata; Kanecka, Anetta

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) method was elaborated to the determination of Hg in sewage sludge samples with the use of KMnO 4 +Pd modifier. The minimum sample amount required for slurry preparation with respect to sample homogeneity was evaluated by weighting masses between 3 and 30 mg directly into the autosampler cups. Validation of the proposed method was performed with the use of Certified Reference Materials of sewage sludge, CRM 007-040 and CRM 144R. Two sewage sludge samples from Poznan (Poland) city were analysed using the present direct method and a method with sample digestion, resulting in no difference within statistical error

  15. Discussion of parameters associated with the determination of arsenic by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry in slurried environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassileva, E.; Baeten, H.; Hoenig, M. [Centre for Veterinary and Agrochemical Research (CERVA), Tervuren (Belgium)

    2001-01-01

    A slurry sampling - fast program procedure has been developed for the determination of arsenic in plants, soils and sediments by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Efficiencies of various single and mixed modifiers for thermal stabilization of arsenic and for a better removal of the matrix during pyrolysis step were compared. The influence of the slurry concentration, amounts of modifier and parameters of the pyrolysis step on the As integrated absorbance signals have been studied and a comparison between fast and conventional furnace programs was also made. The ultrasonic agitation of the slurry followed by a fast electrothermal program using an Ir/Mg modifier provides the most consistent performance in terms of precision and accuracy. The reliability of the whole procedure has been compared with results obtained after application of a wet digestion method with an HF step and validated by analyzing eleven certified reference materials. Arsenic detection and quantitation limits expressed on dry sample matter were about 30 and 100 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, respectively. (orig.)

  16. Slurry feed variability in West Valley's melter feed tank and sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fow, C.L.; Kurath, D.E.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Bauer, B.P.

    1989-04-01

    The present plan for disposal of high-level wastes at West Valley is to vitrify the wastes for disposal in deep geologic repository. The vitrification process involves mixing the high-level wastes with glass-forming chemicals and feeding the resulting slurry to a liquid-fed ceramic melter. Maintaining the quality of the glass product and proficient melter operation depends on the ability of the melter feed system to produce and maintain a homogeneous mixture of waste and glass-former materials. To investigate the mixing properties of the melter feed preparation system at West Valley, a statistically designed experiment was conducted using synthetic melter feed slurry over a range of concentrations. On the basis of the statistical data analysis, it was found that (1) a homogeneous slurry is produced in the melter feed tank, (2) the liquid-sampling system provides slurry samples that are statistically different from the slurry in the tank, and (3) analytical measurements are the major source of variability. A statistical quality control program for the analytical laboratory and a characterization test of the actual sampling system is recommended. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. Soft-sediment deformation structures in cores from lacustrine slurry deposits of the Late Triassic Yanchang Fm. (central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Renchao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fine-grained autochthonous sedimentation in the deep part of a Late Triassic lake was frequently interrupted by gravity-induced mass flows. Some of these mass flows were so rich in water that they must have represented slurries. This can be deduced from the soft-sediment deformation structures that abound in cores from these lacustrine deposits which constitute the Yanchang Fm., which is present in the Ordos Basin (central China.

  18. Slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for steelmaking flue dust analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coedo, A. G.; Dorado, T.; Padilla, I.; Maibusch, R.; Kuss, H.-M.

    2000-02-01

    A commercial atomic absorption graphite furnace (AAGF), with a self-made adapter and valve system, was used as a slurry sampling cell for electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS). The system was applied to the determination of As, Sn, Sb, Se, Te, Bi, Cd, V, Ti and Mo in steelmaking flue dusts. Experimental conditions with respect to ETV and ICP-MS operating parameters were optimized. Compared to aqueous solutions, slurry samples were found to present better analyte transport. Microgram amounts of Rh were used to reduce the difference in analyte response in sensitivity for aqueous solutions of the tested analytes. No such increasing effect was observed for slurry samples and aqueous standards. An added quantity of Rh acting as modifier/carrier resulted in an increase for the same analytes in matrix-slurry solutions, even the addition of an extra Rh quantity has resulted in a decrease in the signals. The effect of Triton X-100 (used as a dispersant agent) on analyte intensity and precision was also studied. External calibration from aqueous standards spiked with 100 μg ml -1 Rh was performed to quantified 0.010 g/100 ml slurry samples. Results are presented for a certified reference electrical arc furnace flue dust (EAF): CRM-876-1 (Bureau of Analysis Samples Ltd., Cleveland, UK), a reference sample of coke ashes X-3705 (from AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany), and a representative sample of EAF flue dust from a Spanish steelmaking company (CENIM-1). For the two reference materials an acceptable agreement with certificate values was achieved, and the results for the CENIM sample matched with those obtained from conventional nebulization solution.

  19. The use of slurry sampling for the determination of manganese and copper in various samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokman, Nilgun

    2007-01-01

    Manganese and copper in multivitamin-mineral supplements and standard reference materials were determined by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Slurries were prepared in an aqueous solution containing Triton X-100. The effects of different parameters such as ratio of solid to liquid phase volume, total slurry volume and addition of Triton X-100 as a dispersant on the analytical results were investigated. The graphite furnace programs were optimized for slurry sampling depending on the analytes and their concentrations in the samples. The linear calibration method with aqueous standard solutions was used for the quantification. At optimum experimental conditions, R.S.D. values were below 5%. The analytes were determined in the limits of 95% confidence level with respect to certified values in coal and soil standard reference materials and to those found by wet-digestion in multivitamin-mineral supplements. Detection limits (3δ) for Mn and Cu were 0.10 μg L -1 and 1.82 μg L -1 for 10 μL coal standard reference material slurry, respectively

  20. Tank Farm WM-182 and WM 183 Heel Slurry Samples PSD Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas

    2000-09-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of INTEC Tank Farm WM-182 and WM-183 heel slurry samples were performed using a modified Horiba LA-300 PSD analyzer at the RAL facility. There were two types of testing performed: typical PSD analysis, and setting rate testing. Although the heel slurry samples were obtained from two separate vessels, the particle size distribution results were quite similar. The slurry solids were from approximately a minimum particle size of 0.5 mm to a maximum of 230 mm-with about 90% of the material between 2-to-133 mm, and the cumulative 50% value at approximately 20 mm. This testing also revealed that high frequency sonication with an ultrasonic element may break-up larger particles in the WM-182 and WM-183 tank from heel slurries. This finding represents useful information regarding ultimate tank heel waste processing. Settling rate testing results were also fairly consistent with material from both vessels in that it appears that most of the mass of solids settle to an agglomerated, yet easily redispersed layer at the bottom. A dispersed and suspended material remained in the "clear" layer above the settled layer after about one-half an hour of settling time. This material had a statistical mode of approximately 5 mm and a maximum particle size of 30 mm.

  1. Chemical modifiers for direct determination of cobalt in coal combustion residues by ultrasonic slurry-sampling-ETAAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felipe-Sotelo, M.; Carlosena, A.; Fernandez, E.; Lopez-Mahia, P.; Muniategui, S.; Prada, D. [Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Univ. of La Coruna (Spain)

    2001-12-01

    Five modifiers were tested for the direct determination of cobalt in coal fly ash and slag by ultrasonic slurry-sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (USS-ETAAS).The furnace temperature programs and the appropriate amount for each modifier were optimized to get the highest signal and the best separation between the atomic and background signals. Nitric acid (0.5% v/v) was the most adequate chemical modifier for cobalt determination, selecting 1450 C and 2100 C as pyrolysis and atomization temperatures, respectively. This modifier also acts as liquid medium for the slurry simplifying the procedure. The remaining modifiers enhanced the background signal, totally overlapped with cobalt peak. The method optimized gave a limit of detection of 0.36 {mu}g g{sup -1}, a characteristic mass of 13{+-}1 pg and an overall-method precision which is highly satisfactory (<7%, RSD). The method was validated by analyzing two certified coal fly ash materials, and satisfactory recoveries were obtained (83-90%) and no statistical differences were observed between the experimental and the certified cobalt concentrations. Additionally, certified sediment, soil and urban particulate matter were assayed; again good results were obtained. The developed methodology was used to determine cobalt in several coal combustion residues from five Spanish power plants. (orig.)

  2. Slurry sampling in serum blood for mercury determination by CV-AFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda, Pedro R.; Gil, Raul A.; Moyano, Susana; De Vito, Irma; Martinez, Luis D.

    2009-01-01

    The heavy metal mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxin known to have a serious health impact even at relatively low concentrations. A slurry method was developed for the sensitive and precise determination of mercury in human serum blood samples by cold vapor generation coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS). All variables related to the slurry formation were studied. The optimal hydrochloric concentration and tin(II) chloride concentration for CV generation were evaluated. Calibration within the range 0.1-10 μg L -1 Hg was performed with the standard addition method, and compared with an external calibration. Additionally, the reliability of the results obtained was evaluated by analyzing mercury in the same samples, but submitted to microwave-assisted digestion method. The limit of detection was calculated as 25 ng L -1 and the relative standard deviation was 3.9% at levels around of 0.4 μg L -1 Hg

  3. Determination of Cd and Pb in food slurries by GFAAS using cryogenic grinding for sample preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, D. Jr.; Barbosa, F. Jr.; Tomazelli, A.C.; Krug, F.J. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil); Nobrega, J.A. [Departamento de Quimica, UFSCar, Sao Carlos (Brazil); Arruda, M.A.Z. [Instituto de Quimica, UNICAMP, Campinas (Brazil)

    2002-06-01

    A simple method combining slurry sampling after cryogenic grinding and the use of a permanent modification of the integrated platform inside the transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA) was proposed for the determination of Cd and Pb in foods. Potentialities of the cryogenic grinding were evaluated for grinding different materials of difficult homogenization such as high fat and high fiber tissues. Animal and vegetal samples were cut into small pieces and ground in liquid nitrogen for 2 min. Slurries were prepared directly in the autosampler cup after cryogenic grinding by transferring an exact amount of homogeneous powdered material (5-20 mg) to the cup, followed by 1.00 mL of 0.2% (v/v) HNO{sub 3} containing 0.04% (v/v) Triton X-100 and sonication for 30 s, before transferring into the platform previously coated with 250 {mu}g W and 200 {mu}g Rh. Use of a tungsten carbide-rhodium permanent modifier combined with NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} conventional modifier improves tube lifetime and increases the pyrolysis temperature for Cd. Homogeneity tests, carried out by comparing the between- and within-batch precision for each kind of sample, showed no significant differences at the 95% confidence level, indicating good homogeneity for 5-20 mg masses. Detection limits were 3.3 ng g{sup -1} Cd and 75 ng g{sup -1} Pb for 1% m/v slurries. Results for determination of Cd and Pb in foods slurries were in agreement with those obtained with digested samples, since no statistical differences were found by the paired t-test at the 95% level. (orig.)

  4. Analysis of biological slurry samples by total x-ray fluorescence after in situ microwave digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue-Meru, M.P.; Capote, T.; Greaves, E.

    2000-01-01

    Biological slurry samples were analyzed by total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) after an in situ microwave digestion procedure on the quartz reflector. This method lead to the removal of the matrix by the digestion and permits the enrichment of the analites by using sample amounts higher than those normally used in TXRF for the thin layer requirement since the organic matrix is removed. In consequence, the pre-concentration of sample is performed and the detection capability is increased by a quasi direct method. The samples analyzed were the international IAEA blood standard, the SRM bovine liver 1577-a standard and fresh onion tissues. Slurries were prepared in three ways: a.- weighing a sample amount on the reflector and adding suprapure nitric acid and internal standard followed by microwave digestion, b.-weighing a sample amount and water with an appropriate concentration of the internal standard in an Eppendorf vial, taking then an aliquot to the quartz reflector for microwave digestion with suprapure nitric acid, c.- weighing a sample amount of fresh tissue, homogenising with high speed homegenator to obtain a slurry sample which can be diluted in an ependorf vial with water an the internal standard. Then an aliquot is taken to the reflector for microwave digestion with suprapure nitric acid. Further details of sample preparation procedures will be discussed during presentation. The analysis was carried out in a Canberra spectrometer using the Kalpha lines of the Ag and Mo tubes. The elements Ca, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Mn, Rb, Br, Sr were determined. The effect of the preparation procedure was evaluated by the accuracy and precision of the results for each element and the percent of recovery. (author)

  5. Hepatitis E Virus (Genotype 3) in Slurry Samples from Swine Farming Activities in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, G; Della Libera, S; Brambilla, M; Bisaglia, C; Pisani, G; Ciccaglione, A R; Bruni, R; Taffon, S; Equestre, M; Iaconelli, M

    2017-06-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emergent causative agent of acute hepatitis, transmitted by fecal-oral route. Infection with HEV is a global cause for morbidity and mortality throughout the world: it mainly causes large outbreaks in endemic areas and sporadic autochthonous cases in industrialized countries where HEV infections seem to be an emergent zoonotic disease. Infection of porcine livestock and its relationship with the human cases have been demonstrated. The present study describes an investigation on the prevalence and diversity of HEV in pig slurry in Italy. Slurry samples (24) were collected from ten farms located in North Italy during 2015 and analyzed for HEV, using four broad-range nested PCR assays targeting ORF1 (MTase), ORF2 (capsid) genes, and ORF2/3 regions. Overall, 18 samples (75%) were positive for HEV RNA, and characterized as genotype 3. Nine samples could be subtyped by ORF2 sequencing: Eight belonged to subtype 3f, while one sequence could not be characterized by blast analysis and phylogenetic analysis and may actually represent a new subtype. Furthermore, similarity of 99% was found between 3f Italian HEV sequences of human and swine origins. Real-Time PCR assay was also performed, in order to obtain quantitative data on positive samples. Two swine slurry samples were positive, containing 600 and 1000 UI per mL of sewage. The results of this study show that HEV strains belonging to zoonotic genotype 3 are widely present in swine excreta, and have high degree of identity with strains detected in autochthonous HEV cases. Improving swine farming operations safety and increasing operators' awareness of the zoonotic potential connected with the handling of swine effluents turn out to be key points in order to reduce the environmental and sanitary problem represented by the possible dissemination of HEV to water bodies.

  6. Sampling marine sediments for radionuclide monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papucci, C.

    1997-01-01

    A description of the most common devices used for sampling marine sediments are reported. The systems are compared to evidence their intrinsic usefulness, for collecting samples in different environmental conditions or with different scientific objectives. Perturbations and artifacts introduced during the various steps of the sampling procedure are also reviewed, and suggestions are proposed for obtaining and preserving, as much as possible, the representativeness of the sediment samples. (author)

  7. Slurry sampling in serum blood for mercury determination by CV-AFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, Pedro R. [Departmento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Instituto de Quimica San Luis (INQUISAL-CONICET), Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina)], E-mail: paranda@unsl.edu.ar; Gil, Raul A. [Departmento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Instituto de Quimica San Luis (INQUISAL-CONICET), Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina)], E-mail: ragil@unsl.edu.ar; Moyano, Susana [Departmento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina)], E-mail: smoyano@unsl.edu.ar; De Vito, Irma [Departmento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina)], E-mail: devito@unsl.edu.ar; Martinez, Luis D. [Departmento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Instituto de Quimica San Luis (INQUISAL-CONICET), Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina)], E-mail: ldm@unsl.edu.ar

    2009-01-30

    The heavy metal mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxin known to have a serious health impact even at relatively low concentrations. A slurry method was developed for the sensitive and precise determination of mercury in human serum blood samples by cold vapor generation coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS). All variables related to the slurry formation were studied. The optimal hydrochloric concentration and tin(II) chloride concentration for CV generation were evaluated. Calibration within the range 0.1-10 {mu}g L{sup -1} Hg was performed with the standard addition method, and compared with an external calibration. Additionally, the reliability of the results obtained was evaluated by analyzing mercury in the same samples, but submitted to microwave-assisted digestion method. The limit of detection was calculated as 25 ng L{sup -1} and the relative standard deviation was 3.9% at levels around of 0.4 {mu}g L{sup -1} Hg.

  8. The kinetics of reductive dehalogenation of a set of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic sediment slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peijnenburg, W; Eriksson, L; de Groot, A; Sjöström, M; Verboom, H

    1998-01-01

    Disappearance rate constants are reported for the reductive transformation of 17 halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic sediment-water samples. Statistical experimental design in combination with multivariate chemical characterization of their chemical properties was used to select the compounds. Degradation followed pseudo first-order kinetics through at least two half-lives for 15 of the 17 compounds. Of all the compounds investigated, 1,2,3-trichloropropane and dichloromethane were unique in that they were dehalogenated according to zero-order kinetics. Reductive dehalogenation was the sole transformation reaction taking place.

  9. Systematic sampling for suspended sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Abstract - Because of high costs or complex logistics, scientific populations cannot be measured entirely and must be sampled. Accepted scientific practice holds that sample selection be based on statistical principles to assure objectivity when estimating totals and variances. Probability sampling--obtaining samples with known probabilities--is the only method that...

  10. Characterization of the tank 51 alternate reductant sludge batch 9 slurry sample (HTF-51-15-130)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-01

    Tank 51 slurry sample HTF-51-15-130 was collected following sludge washing at the Tank Farm. The sample was received at SRNL and then characterized in preparation for qualification of the alternate reductant Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) flowsheet. In this characterization, densities, solids distribution, elemental constituents, anionic constituents, carbon content, and select radioisotopes were quantified.

  11. 100 Area Columbia River sediment sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, S.G.

    1993-01-01

    Forty-four sediment samples were collected from 28 locations in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to assess the presence of metals and man-made radionuclides in the near shore and shoreline settings of the Hanford Site. Three locations were sampled upriver of the Hanford Site plutonium production reactors. Twenty-two locations were sampled near the reactors. Three locations were sampled downstream of the reactors near the Hanford Townsite. Sediment was collected from depths of 0 to 6 in. and between 12 to 24 in. below the surface. Samples containing concentrations of metals exceeding the 95 % upper threshold limit values (DOE-RL 1993b) are considered contaminated. Contamination by arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc was found. Man-made radionuclides occur in all samples except four collected opposite the Hanford Townsite. Man-made radionuclide concentrations were generally less than 1 pCi/g

  12. 100 Area Columbia River sediment sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S.G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-08

    Forty-four sediment samples were collected from 28 locations in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to assess the presence of metals and man-made radionuclides in the near shore and shoreline settings of the Hanford Site. Three locations were sampled upriver of the Hanford Site plutonium production reactors. Twenty-two locations were sampled near the reactors. Three locations were sampled downstream of the reactors near the Hanford Townsite. Sediment was collected from depths of 0 to 6 in. and between 12 to 24 in. below the surface. Samples containing concentrations of metals exceeding the 95 % upper threshold limit values (DOE-RL 1993b) are considered contaminated. Contamination by arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc was found. Man-made radionuclides occur in all samples except four collected opposite the Hanford Townsite. Man-made radionuclide concentrations were generally less than 1 pCi/g.

  13. Determination of Lead in Water Samples by GFAAS after Collection on Montmorillonite with Slurry Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Ece; Tinas, Hande; Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a highly accurate, fast and practical separation/enrichment technique is described to determine the Pb in tap water samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. For this purpose, at first, Pb was collected on montmorillonite by batch technique, the supernatant was decanted and the solid phase was slurried in a mixture of 0.1% Triton X-114 and 0.1 mol L -1 HNO 3 then directly introduced into graphite furnace without elution. Since the elution step was not applied, the method was simpler and faster compared to conventional techniques. The risks of elution step on the precision and recovery were eliminated. Up to 50-fold enrichment could be obtained by this method. The limit of detection (3δ, N = 10) and characteristic concentration of the method for Pb were 0.46 and 1.13 μg L -1 , respectively. In addition, the Pb in water samples (tap and river) collected from different regions of Turkey were determined.

  14. Contamination of biological samples by ingested sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flegal, A.R.; Martin, J.H.

    1977-04-01

    An inorganic residue, presumed to be ingested sediment, was found in the rocky intertidal gastropods Tegula funebralis and Acmaea scabra and the estuarcopepods Acartia tonsa and A. clausi. When expressed as a percentage of the sample weight, this residue fraction often correlated significantly with the elemental concentrations measured in the organisms.

  15. X-ray fluorescent emission analysis of slurried samples of particulate solids: application to thorium and uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudgens, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    Problems of sample preparation can be avoided by analyzing the solids as slurries. A sealed sample cell with a belt-driven stirrer was constructed for use with the GE XRD-3 spectrometer. A problem arose owing to radiolytic gas; an open, bottom-window cell would solve the problem. A ThO 2 analysis was carried out; the ThO 2 assay was observed to increase with prolonged x-ray exposure

  16. Using Sulfate-Amended Sediment Slurry Batch Reactors to Evaluate Mercury Methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the methylated form, mercury represents a concern to public health primarily through the consumption of contaminated fish tissue. Research conducted on the methylation of mercury strongly suggests the process is microbial in nature and facilitated principally by sulfate-reducing bacteria. This study addressed the potential for mercury methylation by varying sulfate treatments and wetland-based soil in microbial slurry reactors with available inorganic mercury. Under anoxic laboratory conditions conducive to growth of naturally occurring sulfate-reducing bacteria in the soil, it was possible to evaluate how various sulfate additions influenced the methylation of inorganic mercury added to overlying water. Treatments included sulfate amendments ranging FR-om 25 to 500 mg/L (0.26 to 5.2 mM) above the soil's natural sulfate level. This study also provided an assessment of mercury methylation relative to sulfate-reducing bacterial population growth and subsequent sulfide production. Mercury methylation in sulfate treatments did not exceed that of the non-amended control during a 35-day incubation. However, increases in methylmercury concentration were linked to bacterial growth and sulfate reduction. A time lag in methylation in the highest treatment correlated with an equivalent lag in bacterial growth

  17. Advenella alkanexedens sp. nov., an alkane-degrading bacterium isolated from biogas slurry samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huimin; Zhou, Shan; Wang, Yanwei; Kong, Delong; Guo, Xiang; Zhu, Jie; Dong, Weiwei; Ruan, Zhiyong

    2016-02-01

    A novel aerobic bacterium, designated strain LAM0050 T , was isolated from a biogas slurry sample, which had been enriched with diesel oil for 30 days. Cells of strain LAM0050 T were gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming and coccoid-shaped. The optimal temperature and pH for growth were 30-35 °C and 8.5, respectively. The strain did not require NaCl for growth, but tolerated up to 5.3 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain LAM0050 T was a member of the genus Advenella , and was most closely related to Advenella faeciporci KCTC 23732 T , Advenella incenata CCUG 45225 T , Advenella kashmirensis DSM 17095 T and Advenella mimigardefordensis DSM 17166 T , with 98.1, 96.6, 96.6 and 96.3 % sequence similarity, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness between strain LAM0050 T and A. faeciporci KCTC 23732 T was 41.7 ± 2.4 %. The genomic DNA G+C content was 51.2 mol%, as determined by the T m method. The major fatty acids of strain LAM0050 T were C 16 : 0 , C 17 : 0 cyclo, summed feature 3 (C 16 : 1 ω7 c and/or C 16 : 1 ω6 c ) and summed feature 8 (C 18 : 1 ω7 c and/or C 18 : 1 ω6 c ). The predominant ubiquinone was Q-8. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidyglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine and four unidentified phospholipids. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic properties, strain LAM0050 T is suggested to represent a novel species of the genus Advenella , for which the name Advenella alkanexedens sp. nov., is proposed, the type strain is LAM0050 T ( = ACCC 06485 T  = JCM 30465 T ).

  18. Slurry walls and slurry trenches - construction quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletto, R.J.; Good, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Slurry (panel) walls and slurry trenches have become conventional methods for construction of deep underground structures, interceptor trenches and hydraulic (cutoff) barriers. More recently polymers mixed with water are used to stabilize the excavation instead of bentonite slurry. Slurry walls are typically excavated in short panel segments, 2 to 7 m (7 to 23 ft) long, and backfilled with structural materials; whereas slurry trenches are fairly continuous excavations with concurrent backfilling of blended soils, or cement-bentonite mixtures. Slurry trench techniques have also been used to construct interceptor trenches. Currently no national standards exist for the design and/or construction of slurry walls/trenches. Government agencies, private consultants, contractors and trade groups have published specifications for construction of slurry walls/trenches. These specifications vary in complexity and quality of standards. Some place excessive emphasis on the preparation and control of bentonite or polymer slurry used for excavation, with insufficient emphasis placed on quality control of bottom cleaning, tremie concrete, backfill placement or requirements for the finished product. This has led to numerous quality problems, particularly with regard to identification of key depths, bottom sediments and proper backfill placement. This paper will discuss the inspection of slurry wall/trench construction process, identifying those areas which require special scrutiny. New approaches to inspection of slurry stabilized excavations are discussed

  19. Introduction to suspended-sediment sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, K. Michael; Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of the amount and timing of sediment transport in streams is important to those directly or indirectly responsible for developing and managing water and land resources. Such data are often used to judge the health of watershed and the success or failure of activities designed to mitigate adverse impacts of sediment on streams and stream habitats. This training class presents an introduction to methods currently used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to sample suspended-sediment concentrations in streams. The presentation is narrated, but you control the pace of the presentation. If the computer you are using can view 'MPEG' videos you will be able to take advantage of videos interspersed in the presentation. A test, found at the end of the presentation, can be taken to assess how well you understood the training material. The class, which is registered as class SW4416 with the National Training Center of the USGS, should take two or three hours to complete. In order to use the presentation provided via this Web page, you will need to download a large disc images (linked below) and 'burn' it to a blank CD-ROM using a CD-ROM recorder on your computer. The presentation will only run on a Windows-based personal computer (PC). The presentation was developed using Macromedia Director MX 20041 and is contained in the file 'SIR05-5077.exe' which should autolaunch. If it does not, the presentation can be started by double-clicking on the file name. A sound card and speakers are necessary to take advantage of narrations that accompany the presentation. Text of narrations is provided, if you are unable to listen to narrations. Instructions for installing and running the presentation are included in the file 'Tutorial.htm', which is on the CD. 1 Registered Trademark: Macromedia Incorporated

  20. A novel slurry sampling analysis of lead in different water samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after coprecipitated with cobalt/pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baysal, A. [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Akman, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: akmans@itu.edu.tr; Calisir, F. [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-10-30

    A preconcentration/separation technique based on the coprecipitation of lead with cobalt/pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex (Co(PDC){sub 2}) and subsequently its direct slurry sampling determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was described. For this purpose, at first, lead was coprecipitated with cobalt/pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex formed using ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) as a chelating agent and cobalt as a carrier element. The supernatant was then separated and the slurry of the precipitate prepared in Triton X-100 was directly analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with respect to lead concentration. The effects of experimental conditions on coprecipitation of lead with gathering precipitate as well as homogeneity and stability of the slurry were investigated. After the optimization of experimental parameters, a 100-fold enrichment of the analyte with quantitative recovery (>90%) and high precision (<10% R.S.D.) were obtained. By using the proposed technique, the lead concentrations in heavy matrices of Certified Sea-water and wastewater samples could be practically and rapidly determined in the range of 95% confidence level. The detection limit of the described method for lead using sample-matching blanks was 1.5 ng/L (3{sigma}, N = 10)

  1. Nanometer-sized ceria-coated silica-iron oxide for the reagentless microextraction/preconcentration of heavy metals in environmental and biological samples followed by slurry introduction to ICP-OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dados, A; Paparizou, E; Eleftheriou, P; Papastephanou, C; Stalikas, C D

    2014-04-01

    A slurry suspension sampling technique is developed and optimized for the rapid microextraction of heavy metals and analysis using nanometer-sized ceria-coated silica-iron oxide particles and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Magnetic-silica material is synthesized by a co-precipitation and sol-gel method followed by ceria coating through a precipitation. The large particles are removed using a sedimentation-fractionation procedure and a magnetic homogeneous colloidal suspension of ceria-modified iron oxide-silica is produced for microextraction. The nanometer-sized particles are separated from the sample solution magnetically and analyzed with ICP-OES using a slurry suspension sampling approach. The ceria-modified iron oxide-silica does not contain any organic matter and this probably justifies the absence of matrix effect on plasma atomization capacity, when increased concentrations of slurries are aspirated. The As, Be, Mo, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Sb, Se and V can be preconcentrated by the proposed method at pH 6.0 while Mn, Cd, Co and Ni require a pH ≥ 8.0. Satisfactory values are obtained for the relative standard deviations (2-6%), recoveries (88-102%), enrichment factors (14-19) and regression correlation coefficients as well as detectability, at sub-μg L(-1) levels. The applicability of magnetic ceria for the microextraction of metal ions in combination with the slurry introduction technique using ICP is substantiated by the analysis of environmental water and urine samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sliding-spark spectrometry of sediment samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeyo, H; Flórían, K; Golloch, A; Vojtekovà, V

    2002-10-01

    Direct analysis of non-conducting solids and dielectric surface layers for elements at trace levels has been shown to be feasible by the new so-called sliding-spark spectroscopy, in which a discharge plasma is bound by, and propagates on, the surface of a dielectric sample matrix. By using a river sediment as a model matrix, bound in PVC to improve elemental atomization and excitation efficiency, as a result of the formation of volatile chlorides, the potential of the technique for environmental applications has been investigated by studying the characteristic UV-visible radiation emitted in the wavelength range 210-510 nm for the elements Fe, Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Co, V, Ti, and Mn. The radiation was detected by means of a CCD spectrometer and analysed for spectral line identification, selection, and the linearity of the spectral response, to determine whether this was suitable for establishing a calibration strategy for quantitative analysis using the sliding-spark source.

  3. Factors Effecting Adsorption of 137 Cs in Marine Sediment Samples in Marine Sediment Samples from the Upper Gulf of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saengkul, C.; Sawangwong, P.; Pakkong, P.

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of 137 Cs in sediment is a far more serious problem than in water because sediment is a main transport factor of 137 Cs to the aquatic environmental. Most of 137 Cs in water could be accumulated in sediment which has direct effect to benthos. This study focused on factors effecting the adsorption of 137Cs in marine sediment samples collected from four different estuary sites to assess the transfer direction of 137 Cs from water to sediment that the study method by treat 137 Cs into seawater and mixed with different sediment samples for 4 days. The result indicated that properties of marine sediment (cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic matter, clay content, texture, type of clay mineral and size of soil particle) had effects on 137 Cs adsorption. CEC and clay content correlated positively with the accumulation of 137 Cs in the marine sediment samples. On the other hand, organic matter in sediment correlated negatively with the accumulation of 137 Cs in samples. The study of environmental effects (pH and potassium) found that the 137 Cs adsorption decreased when concentration of potassium increased. The pH effect is still unclear in this study because the differentiation of pH levels (6, 7, 8.3) did not have effects on 137 Cs adsorption in the samples.

  4. Demonstrating Reliable High Level Waste Slurry Sampling Techniques to Support Hanford Waste Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Steven E.

    2013-11-11

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HL W) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOC must demonstrate the ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP Waste Acceptance Criteria and Data Quality Objectives. The sampling method employed must support both TOC and WTP requirements. To facilitate information transfer between the two facilities the mixing and sampling demonstrations are led by the One System Integrated Project Team. The One System team, Waste Feed Delivery Mixing and Sampling Program, has developed a full scale sampling loop to demonstrate sampler capability. This paper discusses the full scale sampling loops ability to meet precision and accuracy requirements, including lessons learned during testing. Results of the testing showed that the Isolok(R) sampler chosen for implementation provides precise, repeatable results. The Isolok(R) sampler accuracy as tested did not meet test success criteria. Review of test data and the test platform following testing by a sampling expert identified several issues regarding the sampler used to provide reference material used to judge the Isolok's accuracy. Recommendations were made to obtain new data to evaluate the sampler's accuracy utilizing a reference sampler that follows good sampling protocol.

  5. Study of cadmium, lead and tin distribution in surface marine sediment samples from Ria de Arousa (NW of Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barciela-Alonso, M.C.; Pazos-Capeans, P.; Regueira-Miguens, M.E.; Bermejo-Barrera, A.; Bermejo-Barrera, P

    2004-10-25

    In this work a study of the Cd, Pb and Sn content in marine surface sediment from the Ria de Arousa has been realised. For this, 21 sediment samples were taken in triplicate, lyophilised and sieved, and the fraction <63 {mu}m was taken for analysis. The samples were prepared in a form of slurries and analysed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentration ranges obtained were 90-990 {mu}g kg{sup -1} Cd, 26.5-91.3 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb and 5.0-20.8 {mu}g g{sup -1} Sn. The highest concentrations of these metals are in the inner part of the Ria, near to the port and urban nucleus such as Vilagarcia or Rianxo, and decrease toward the mouth of the Ria.

  6. Equilibrium sampling for a thermodynamic assessment of contaminated sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ) govern diffusive uptake and partitioning. Equilibrium sampling of sediment was introduced 15 years ago to measure Cfree, and it has since developed into a straightforward, precise and sensitive approach for determining Cfree and other exposure parameters that allow for thermodynamic assessment...... of the biota relative to the sediment. Furthermore, concentrations in lipid at thermodynamic equilibrium with sediment (Clip?Sed) can be calculated via lipid/silicone partition ratios CSil × KLip:Sil, which has been done in studies with limnic, river and marine sediments. The data can then be compared to lipid...... will focus at the latest developments in equilibrium sampling concepts and methods. Further, we will explain how these approaches can provide a new basis for a thermodynamic assessment of polluted sediments....

  7. Design of a gravity corer for near shore sediment sampling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.T.; Sonawane, A.V.; Nayak, B.U.

    For the purpose of geotechnical investigation a gravity corer has been designed and fabricated to obtain undisturbed sediment core samples from near shore waters. The corer was successfully operated at 75 stations up to water depth 30 m. Simplicity...

  8. Results for the Fourth Quarter 2012 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical and Radionuclide Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, Christopher J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-30

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2012 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC).1 Information from this characterization will be used by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: The concentration of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC Limits and Targets, unless noted in this section. Norpar 13 and Isopar L have higher detection limits5 compared with the Saltstone WAC1. The data provided in this report is based upon the concentrations in the sub-sample, and due to the limited solubility in aqueous solution, may not represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50. Diisooctyl adipate (or diisooctyl hexanedioate) was measured at 1.30E+00 mg/L in one of two replicate measurements conducted on an at-depth sample.a The organic analysis of the at-depth sample was conducted at the request of SRR.4 This analyte was below the detection limit in the surface sample. The low insoluble solids content increases the measurement uncertainty for insoluble species.

  9. Deltamethrin in sediment samples of the Okavango Delta, Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of samples for organic matter content showed percentage total organic carbon (% TOC) ranging between 0.19% and 8.21%, with samples collected from the pool having the highest total organic carbon. The concentrations of deltamethrin residues and the % TOC in sediment samples showed a similar trend with ...

  10. Simultaneous direct determination of aluminum, calcium and iron in silicon carbide and silicon nitride powders by slurry-sampling graphite furnace AAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Hirotsugu; Yada, Masako; Yoshida, Tomomi; Zhang, Qiangbin; Inoue, Sadanobu; Atsuya, Ikuo

    2004-03-01

    A fast and accurate analytical method was established for the simultaneous direct determination of aluminum, calcium and iron in silicon carbide and silicon nitride powders by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using a slurry sampling technique and a Hitachi Model Z-9000 atomic absorption spectrometer. The slurry samples were prepared by the ultrasonication of silicon carbide or silicon nitride powders with 0.1 M nitric acid. Calibration curves were prepared by using a mixed standard solution containing aluminum, calcium, iron and 0.1 M nitric acid. The analytical results of the proposed method for aluminum, calcium and iron in silicon carbide and silicon nitride reference materials were in good agreement with the reference values. The detection limits for aluminum, calcium and iron were 0.6 microg/g, 0.15 microg/g and 2.5 microg/g, respectively, in solid samples, when 200 mg of powdered samples were suspended in 20 ml of 0.1 M nitric acid and a 10 microl portion of the slurry sample was then measured. The relative standard deviation of the determination of aluminum, calcium and iron was 5 - 33%.

  11. Results for the Third Quarter 2014 Tank 50 WAC slurry sample: Chemical and radionuclide contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Charles L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-08

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2014 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time.1 Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  12. Results For The Fourth Quarter 2014 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the Calendar Year (CY) 2014 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  13. Results for the second quarter 2014 tank 50 WAC slurry sample chemical and radionuclide contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-09-04

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2014 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  14. Results For The Second Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, Christopher J.

    2013-07-31

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by Saltstone Facility Engineering (SFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  15. Results for the Third Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical and Radionuclide Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, Christopher J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-30

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time.1 Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: SRR WAC targets or limits were met for all analyzed chemical and radioactive contaminates unless noted in this section. 59Ni, 94Nb, 247Cm, 249Cf, and 251Cf are above the requested SRR target concentrations.2 However, they are below the detection limits established by SRNL.3 Norpar 13 and Isopar L have higher detection limits4 compared with the Saltstone WAC.1 The data provided in this report is based upon the concentrations in the sub-sample, and due to the limited solubility in aqueous solution, may not represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50. Finally, the low insoluble solids content increases the measurement uncertainty for insoluble species.

  16. Equilibrium sampling for a thermodynamic assessment of contaminated sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Mäenpää, Kimmo

    ) govern diffusive uptake and partitioning. Equilibrium sampling of sediment was introduced 15 years ago to measure Cfree, and it has since developed into a straightforward, precise and sensitive approach for determining Cfree and other exposure parameters that allow for thermodynamic assessment...... valid equilibrium sampling (method incorporated QA/QC). The measured equilibrium concentrations in silicone (Csil) can then be divided by silicone/water partition ratios to yield Cfree. CSil can also be compared to CSil from silicone equilibrated with biota in order to determine the equilibrium status...... of the biota relative to the sediment. Furthermore, concentrations in lipid at thermodynamic equilibrium with sediment (Clip?Sed) can be calculated via lipid/silicone partition ratios CSil × KLip:Sil, which has been done in studies with limnic, river and marine sediments. The data can then be compared to lipid...

  17. Use of aqueous slurries of coal fly ash samples for the direct determination of As, Sb, and Se by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreda-Pineiro, J.; Moscoso-Perez, C.; Lopez-Mahia, P.; Muniategui-Lorenzoa, S.; Fernandez-Fernandez, E.; Prada-Rodriguez, D. [University of La Coruna, La Coruna (Spain). Faculty of Science

    2006-01-15

    A highly sensitive and simple method was developed based on the continuous hydride generation of aqueous coal fly ash slurry samples and the direct atomic fluorescence detection of As, Sb, and Se. A 2{sup 8} x 3/64 Plackett-Burman design was used as the multivariate strategy for evaluation of the effects of several variables involved in hydride generation efficiency (HCl, NaBH{sub 4}, NaBH{sub 4} flow rate, particle size, and slurry concentration). In addition, measurement time was also considered. Slurry concentration was the significant variable for As, hydrochloric acid concentration for Sb determination; no significant variable was found for Se. Optimum values for the significant variables were selected by using univariate approaches. The precision obtained ({lt} 8.0 %) was adequate for the determination of several hydride-forming elements in coal fly ash samples. Since there was a matrix effect, the standard addition method was required. Accuracy was assessed by analyzing NIST 1633b Coal Fly Ash certified reference material. Detection limits within the range of 0.03-0.67 {mu} g g{sup -1} were achieved. The developed methods were applied to several coal fly ash samples obtained from a coal-fired power plant.

  18. Intercomparison of sediment sampling devices using artificial radionuclides in Baltic Sea sediments. The MOSSIE Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    During the last four decades Baltic Sea sediments have been an excellent object for research by radioecologists and other scientists studying sedimentation and other processes in sediments using artificial radionuclides deposited in sediment laminae of the seabed in chronological order. This is due to two major events which have caused significant radioactive fallout in the Baltic Sea region, leaving distinct markers in the corresponding layers of the sediments. One was the global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests in the late 1950s and early '60s, resulting in clear peaks of longlived radionuclides such as Cs -13 7, Sr -90 and certain transuranic elements (especially Pu -239,240 ) in the sediments. Another was the fallout from the accident at Chernobyl NPP, in the former USSR, in April 1986. Since the first radioactive clouds from Chernobyl travelled north and caused high deposition in the Baltic Sea region, the Baltic was the sea most affected by the accident. The main long-lived constituents in this fallout were Cs -137 and Cs -134 . These radioactive markers have since been utilised, e.g. in dating sediments and determining the sedimentation rate. The sedimentation rate (mm a -1 ) and sediment accumulation rate (g cm -2 a -1 ) vary widely in the Baltic Sea, depending on the area and local environmental factors there. The rates may even be different at sampling points situated very near to each other. A study carried out in 1995-1996 showed that the sedimentation rates varied between 0.2 and 29 mm a -1 at different soft-bottom sampling sites in the Baltic Sea, depending on the sedimentation itself and the method used for calculation. The corresponding accumulation rates of dry matter ranged from 0.006 to 0.90 g cm -2 a -1 . The importance of undisturbed, high-quality samples is especially pronounced in sedimentation rate studies. The loss of soft surface sediments during sampling can significantly affect the results, at least if the calculations are

  19. Direct As, Bi, Ge, Hg and Se(IV) cold vapor/hydride generation from coal fly ash slurry samples and determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreda-Pineiro, J.; Lopez-Mahia, P; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S.; Fernandez-Fernandez, E.; Prada-Rodriguez, D. [University of La Coruna, La Coruna (Spain). Faculty of Science, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    Direct cold vapor and hydride generation procedures for As, Bi, Ge, Hg and Se(IV) from aqueous slurry of coal fly ash samples have been developed by using a batch mode generation system. Ir-treated graphite tubes have been used as a preconcentration and atomization medium of the vapors generated. A Plackett-Burman experimental design has been used as a strategy for evaluation of the effects of several parameters affecting the vapor generation efficiency from solid particles, vapor trapping and atomization efficiency from Ir-treated graphite tubes. The effects of parameters such as hydrochloric acid and sodium tetrahydroborate, argon flow rate, trapping and atomization temperatures, trapping time, acid solution volume and mean particle size have been investigated. Optimum values of the parameters have been selected for the development of direct cold vapor/hydride generation methods from slurry particles. The accuracy of methods have been verified by using NIST-1633a coal fly ash certified reference material. Absolute detection limits of 11.5, 48.0, 600, 55.0 and 11.0 ng l{sup -1} for As, Bi, Ge, Hg and Se have been achieved, respectively. A particle size less than 50 {mu}m has shown to be adequate to obtain total cold vapor/hydride generation of metals content in the aqueous slurry particles.

  20. Slurry sampling flow injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of trace Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Ni; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Chen, Yen-Ling; Sahayam, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions in a single run. • Accurate analysis using isotope dilution and standard addition methods. • Vapor generation ICP-MS yielded superior detection limits compared to ETV-ICP-MS. • No sample dissolution increased sample through put. • Analysis of GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material for accuracy. - Abstract: A slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method has been developed for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions using flow injection (FI) vapor generation (VG) as the sample introduction system. A slurry containing 2% m/v lotion, 2% m/v thiourea, 0.05% m/v L-cysteine, 0.5 μg mL −1 Co(II), 0.1% m/v Triton X-100 and 1.2% v/v HCl was injected into a VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi without dissolution and mineralization. Because the sensitivities of the analytes in the slurry and that of aqueous solution were quite different, an isotope dilution method and a standard addition method were used for the determination. This method has been validated by the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material. The method was also applied for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in three cosmetic lotion samples obtained locally. The analysis results of the reference material agreed with the certified value and/or ETV-ICP-MS results. The detection limit estimated from the standard addition curve was 0.025, 0.1, 0.2, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.03 ng g −1 for Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi, respectively, in original cosmetic lotion sample

  1. Slurry sampling flow injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of trace Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Ni [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Jiang, Shiuh-Jen, E-mail: sjjiang@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Ling [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Sahayam, A.C. [National Centre for Compositional Characterisation of Materials (CCCM), Hyderabad (India)

    2015-02-20

    Highlights: • Determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions in a single run. • Accurate analysis using isotope dilution and standard addition methods. • Vapor generation ICP-MS yielded superior detection limits compared to ETV-ICP-MS. • No sample dissolution increased sample through put. • Analysis of GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material for accuracy. - Abstract: A slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method has been developed for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions using flow injection (FI) vapor generation (VG) as the sample introduction system. A slurry containing 2% m/v lotion, 2% m/v thiourea, 0.05% m/v L-cysteine, 0.5 μg mL{sup −1} Co(II), 0.1% m/v Triton X-100 and 1.2% v/v HCl was injected into a VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi without dissolution and mineralization. Because the sensitivities of the analytes in the slurry and that of aqueous solution were quite different, an isotope dilution method and a standard addition method were used for the determination. This method has been validated by the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material. The method was also applied for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in three cosmetic lotion samples obtained locally. The analysis results of the reference material agreed with the certified value and/or ETV-ICP-MS results. The detection limit estimated from the standard addition curve was 0.025, 0.1, 0.2, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.03 ng g{sup −1} for Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi, respectively, in original cosmetic lotion sample.

  2. Levels of Cadmium in Soil, Sediment and Water Samples from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil, sediment and water samples collected from the catchment areas of some selected rivers and streams in Tarkwa and its environs were investigated for the levels of cadmium using the Atomic Absorption spectrophometric technique. From the results, it was observed that cadmium levels were generally higher than the ...

  3. Finding even more anthropogenic indicators in mildly prepared sediment samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevold, Renée; Odgaard, Bent Vad

    2016-01-01

    be worth the effort to prepare the NPP samples with as mild a preparation method as possible. We have mildly prepared NPP samples from a small forest hollow, Tårup Lund, Denmark. From the recovered NPP assemblages we attempt identifying anthropogenic indicators by comparing to the environmental information......NPPs in anthropogenic soils and archaeological samples are often numerous in types as well as in abundance. Preparing these soil samples with methods based on acid digestion holds the potential of severe bias leaving the NPP assemblages devoid of acid vulnerable NPPs. In many cases it might...... derived from sediment, pollen and macrofossil analyses. The sediment from the forest hollow encompasses environmental information from the last 6000 years, including a period of locally intense pastoral and/or agricultural activity during the Iron Age. Keywords: NPP diversity, forest hollow, anthropogenic...

  4. Apparatus for freeze drying of biologic and sediment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Freeze drying to obtain water from individual samples, though not complicated, usually requires considerable effort to maintain the cold traps on a 24-hr basis. In addition, the transfer of a sample from sample containers to freeze-dry flasks is usually made with some risk of contamination to the sample. If samples are large, 300 g to 600 g, usually several days are required to dry the samples. The use of an unattended system greatly improves personnel and drying efficiency. Commercial freeze dryers are not readily applicable to the problems of collecting water from individual samples, and lab-designed collectors required sample transfer and continual replenishment of the dry ice. A freeze-dry apparatus for collecting water from individual sediment and/or biological samples was constructed to determine the tritium concentrations in fish for dose calcaluations and the tritium distribution in sediment cores for water movement studies. The freeze, dry apparatus, which can handle eight samples simultaneously and conveniently, is set up for unattended 24-hr operation and is designed to avoid sample transfer problems

  5. On-stream analysis of iron ore slurry using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao; Yang, Xinyan; Zhu, Zhihao; Guo, Lianbo; Li, Xiangyou; Lu, Yongfeng; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2017-11-20

    On-stream analysis of the element content in ore slurry has important significance in the control of the flotation process and full use of raw materials. Therefore, techniques that can monitor the chemistry in slurries online are required. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is one of the potential approaches to online measurements due to its capability of in situ and real-time analysis. However, using LIBS for on-stream analysis of slurries is challenging due to the issues such as surface ripples, sample splashing, sedimentation, etc. To address these problems, we developed a slurry circulation system. The effects of slurry flow rate on LIBS spectra were investigated to achieve the optimal detecting surface for better repeatability of LIBS. The coefficient of determination R 2 of the calibration curve for Fe element is 0.982, and the limit of detection of Fe element was estimated to be 0.075 wt. % under the optimized experimental parameters. The results show that this slurry circulation system is applicable to the on-stream slurry analysis.

  6. Development of an Integrated Suspended Sediment Sampling System - Prototype Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerantzaki, Sofia; Moirogiorgou, Konstantia; Efstathiou, Dionissis; Giannakis, George; Voutsadaki, Stella; Zervakis, Michalis; Sibetheros, Ioannis A.; Zacharias, Ierotheos; Karatzas, George P.; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is characterized by a unique micro-climate and a complex geologic and geomorphologic environment caused by its position in the Alpine orogenesis belt. Unique features of the region are the temporary rivers that are dry streams or streams with very low flow for most of the time over decadal time scales. One of their key characteristics is that they present flashy hydrographs with response times ranging from minutes to hours. It is crucial to monitor flash-flood events and observe their behavior since they can cause environmental degradation of the river's wider location area. The majority of sediment load is transferred during these flash events. Quantification of these fluxes through the development of new measuring devices is of outmost importance as it is the first step for a comprehensive understanding of the water quality, the soil erosion and erosion sources, and the sediment and nutrient transport routes. This work proposes an integrated suspended sediment sampling system which is implemented in a complex semi-arid Mediterranean watershed (i.e. the Koiliaris River Basin of Crete) with temporary flow tributaries and karstic springs. The system consists of sensors monitoring water stage and turbidity, an automated suspended sediment sampler, and an online camera recording video sequence of the river flow. Water stage and turbidity are continuously monitored and stage is converted to flow with the use of a rating curve; when either of these variables exceeds certain thresholds, the pump of the sediment sampler initiates sampling with a rotation proportional to the stage (flow weighted sampling). The water passes through a filter that captures the sediment, the solids are weighted after each storm and the data are converted to a total sediment flux. At the same time, the online camera derives optical measurements for the determination of the two-dimensional river flow velocity and the spatial sediment distribution by analyzing the Hue

  7. Determination of 241Pu in nuclear waste slurries: a comparative study using LSC and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäggi, M; Röllin, S; Alvarado, J A Corcho; Eikenberg, J

    2012-02-01

    (241)Pu was determined in slurry samples from a nuclear reactor decommissioning project at the Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland). To validate the results, the (241)Pu activities of five samples were determined by LSC (TriCarb and Quantulus) and ICP-MS, with each instrument at a different laboratory. In lack of certified reference materials for (241)Pu, the methods were further validated using the (241)Pu information values of two reference sediments (IAEA-300 and IAEA-384). Excellent agreement with the results was found between LSC and ICP-MS in the nuclear waste slurries and the reference sediments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of Cu, Cd, Pb and Cr in yogurt by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry: A case study for Brazilian yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Camila Kulek; de Brito, Patrícia Micaella Klack; Dos Anjos, Vanessa Egéa; Quináia, Sueli Pércio

    2018-02-01

    A slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric method is proposed for the determination of trace elements such as Cu, Cr, Cd and Pb in yogurt. The main factors affecting the slurry preparation were optimized: nature and concentration of acid solution and sonication time. The analytical method was validated in-house by calibration, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, precision and accuracy test obtaining satisfactory results in all cases. The proposed method was applied for the determination of Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb in some Brazilian yogurt samples. For these samples, the concentrations ranged from 2.5±0.2 to 12.4±0.2ngg -1 ; 34±3 to 899±7ngg -1 ; <8.3 to 12±1ngg -1 ; and <35.4 to 210±16ngg -1 for Cd, Cu, Cr and Pb, respectively. The daily intake of Cd, Cu, Cr and Pb via consumption of these samples was estimated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sequential analyses of actinides in large-size soil and sediment samples with total sample dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Maoyi; Xing, Shan; Yang, Yonggang; Song, Lijuan; Ma, Yan; Wang, Yadong; Dai, Xiongxin; Happel, Steffen

    2018-07-01

    There is a growing demand for the determination of actinides in soil and sediment samples for environmental monitoring and tracing, radiological protection, and nuclear forensic reasons. A total sample dissolution method based on lithium metaborate fusion, followed by sequential column chromatography separation, was developed for simultaneous determination of Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in large-size environmental samples by alpha spectrometry and mass spectrometric techniques. The overall recoveries of both Pu and Am for the entire procedure were higher than 70% for large-size soil samples. The method was validated using 20 g of soil samples spiked with known amounts of 239 Pu and 241 Am as well as the certified reference materials IAEA-384 (Fangataufa Lagoon sediment) and IAEA-385 (Irish Sea sediment). All the measured results agreed very well with the expected values. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PROTOCOL FOR MONITORING AND PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE: SEDIMENT SAMPLING

    OpenAIRE

    Herr, Claudia; Gray, Nicholas F

    2017-01-01

    Sampling acid mine drainage (AMD) impacted sediments is complex requiring appropriate field sampling techniques to ensure representative samples which are both repeatable and reproducible. This report examines the important factors affecting sampling of riverine sediments. These include sample site location, field observations, representative sampling, sample collection techniques and sample preservation. A recommended sampling and processing protocol is presented for AMD impacted riverine...

  11. Direct As, Bi, Ge, Hg and Se(IV) cold vapor/hydride generation from coal fly ash slurry samples and determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; López-Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Fernández-Fernández, Esther; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío.

    2002-05-01

    Direct cold vapor and hydride generation procedures for As, Bi, Ge, Hg and Se(IV) from aqueous slurry of coal fly ash samples have been developed by using a batch mode generation system. Ir-treated graphite tubes have been used as a preconcentration and atomization medium of the vapors generated. A Plackett-Burman experimental design has been used as a strategy for evaluation of the effects of several parameters affecting the vapor generation efficiency from solid particles, vapor trapping and atomization efficiency from Ir-treated graphite tubes. The effects of parameters such as hydrochloric acid and sodium tetrahydroborate, argon flow rate, trapping and atomization temperatures, trapping time, acid solution volume and mean particle size have been investigated. The significant parameters obtained (trapping and atomization temperatures for As and Ge; trapping temperature and trapping time for Bi; argon flow rate and atomization temperature for Se) have been optimized by 2 2+star central composite design. For Hg, the trapping temperature has been also significant. Optimum values of the parameters have been selected for the development of direct cold vapor/hydride generation methods from slurry particles. The accuracy of methods have been verified by using NIST-1633a coal fly ash certified reference material. Absolute detection limits of 11.5, 48.0, 600, 55.0 and 11.0 ng l -1 for As, Bi, Ge, Hg and Se have been achieved, respectively. A particle size less than 50 μm has shown to be adequate to obtain total cold vapor/hydride generation of metals content in the aqueous slurry particles.

  12. Determination of trace elements in medicinal activated charcoal using slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with low vaporization temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chou; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Sahayam, A C

    2015-01-01

    The determination of Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb in medicinal activated charcoal by ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ICP-MS) was described. EDTA was used as the modifier to enhance the volatility of elements studied. The influences of instrument operating conditions and slurry preparation on the ion signals were studied. A relatively low vaporization temperature of 1000°C was used, which separated the analyte from the major matrix components that improved ion signals. The method has been applied to determine Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb in an NIST SRM 1633b Coal Fly Ash reference material and three brands of medicinal activated charcoal capsules using isotope dilution and standard addition calibration methods. The concentrations that are in ng g(-1) levels were in good agreement between different calibration methods. The precision between sample replicates was better than 7% with USS-ETV-ICP-MS technique. The method detection limit estimated from standard addition curves was 0.4, 0.3, 0.3, 0.3, 0.04 and 0.9 ng g(-1) for Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb, respectively, in original medicinal activated charcoal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A simple method for the multi-elemental analysis of organic fertilizer by slurry sampling and total reflection X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Luciene V; Nascentes, Clésia C

    2016-01-15

    A simple and fast method for the multi-elemental determination of 18 inorganic constituents (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb) in organic fertilizers employing slurry sampling and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is presented. A 2(3) factorial design with a central point was employed to optimize the slurry sampling procedure. The internal standard and instrumental conditions were optimized by univariate studies. The selectivity of the method to determining Se, As, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd was assessed. The accuracy was evaluated by the analysis of four standard reference materials (SRM). The recoveries varied from 72% to 114%. For most of the elements, good agreement was achieved between the certified value and the value measured in the SRM. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) ranged from 0.5% to 14%. The evaluated method was applied to the determination of analytes in the press cake of palm, castor, curcas, sunflower, fodder turnip, white lupin, rapeseed and pequi, and their potential to be used as organic fertilizer was evaluated in accordance with Brazilian legislation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative testing of slurry monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.; Anderson, M.S.; Van Essen, D.C.

    1998-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes that must be retrieved from underground storage tanks, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed to a final waste form. The wastes will be removed from the current storage tanks by mobilizing the sludge wastes and mixing them with the liquid wastes to create slurries. Each slurry would then be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. To reduce the risk of plugging a pipeline, the transport properties (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, particle size range) of the slurry should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be monitored and controlled within specified limits while the slurry transfer is in progress. The DOE issued a call for proposals for developing on-line instrumentation to measure the transport properties of slurries. In response to the call for proposals, several researchers submitted proposals and were funded to develop slurry monitoring instruments. These newly developed DOE instruments are currently in the prototype stage. Before the instruments were installed in a radioactive application, the DOE wanted to evaluate them under nonradioactive conditions to determine if they were accurate, reliable, and dependable. The goal of this project was to test the performance of the newly developed DOE instruments along with several commercially available instruments. The baseline method for comparison utilized the results from grab-sample analyses

  15. Short exposure to acetylene to distinguish between nitrifier and denitrifier nitrous oxide production in soil and sediment samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, R.A.; Boer, W. de; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    The contribution of nitrifiers and denitrifiers to the nitrous oxide production in slurries of calcareous silt loam and river bank sediment at different oxygen concentrations was determined using acetylene as nitrification inhibitor. The addition of 10 Pa acetylene resulted in inhibition of

  16. Short exposure to acetylene to distinguish between nitrifier and denitrifier nitrous oxide production in soil and sediment samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, R.A.; De Boer, W.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    The contribution of nitrifiers and denitrifiers to the nitrous oxide production in slurries of calcareous silt loam and river bank sediment at different oxygen concentrations was determined using acetylene as nitrification inhibitor. The addition of 10 Pa acetylene resulted in inhibition of nitrous

  17. Determination of gold and cobalt dopants in advanced materials based on tin oxide by slurry sampling high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, Daria G.; Eskina, Vasilina V.; Baranovskaya, Vasilisa B.; Vladimirova, Svetlana A.; Gaskov, Alexander M.; Rumyantseva, Marina N.; Karpov, Yuri A.

    2018-02-01

    A novel approach is developed for the determination of Co and Au dopants in advanced materials based on tin oxide using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS GFAAS) with direct slurry sampling. Sodium carboxylmethylcellulose (Na-CMC) is an effective stabilizer for diluted suspensions. Use Na-CMC allows to transfer the analytes into graphite furnace completely and reproducibly. The relative standard deviation obtained by HR CS GFAAS was not higher than 4%. Accuracy was proven by means inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in solutions after decomposition as a comparative technique. To determine Au and Co in the volume of SnO2, the acid decomposition conditions (HCl, HF) of the samples were suggested by means of an autoclave in a microwave oven.

  18. Intercomparison of radionuclide measurements in marine sediment sample IAEA-368

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Lopez, J.J.; Gastaud, J.; Parsi, P.; Vas, D.; Noshkin, V.

    1991-08-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a Pacific Ocean sediment sample, IAEA-368, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclides levels, are reported. The data from 89 laboratories representing 37 countries have been evaluated. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for 60 Co, 155 Eu, 210 7Pb, 226 Ra, 238 U, 238 Pu and 239+240 Pu (Reference date: 1 January 1990). Information values for 40 K, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th, 234 U, 235 U and 241 Am are also reported. (author)

  19. Intercomparison of radionuclide measurements in marine sediment sample IAEA-367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Lopez, J.J.; Gastaud, J.; Vas, D.; Noshkin, V.

    1991-08-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a Pacific Ocean sediment sample, IAEA-367, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclides levels, are reported. The data from 81 laboratories representing 37 countries have been evaluated. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for 60 Co, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239+240 Pu (Reference date: 1 January 1990). Information values for 155 Eu, 238 Pu, 241 Am, and 241 Pu are reported. Information values for the following natural radionuclides 40 K, 226 Ra, 228 Th, 230 Th, 234 U, 235 U and 238 U are also reported. (author)

  20. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Lanigan, David C.; Horton, Duane G.; Clayton, Ray E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Legore, Virginia L.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Parker, Kent E.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Serne, Jennifer N.; Last, George V.; Smith, Steven C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Zachara, John M.; Burke, Deborah Sd.

    2001-01-01

    The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is the first in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from RCRA borehole bore samples and composite samples. Intact cores from two RCRA boreholes (299-W22-48 and 299-W22-50) near the SX Tank Farm and four, large-quantity grab samples from outcrop sediment on and off the Hanford Site were sampled to better understand the fate of contaminants in the vadose zone beneath underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. Borehole and outcrop samples analyzed for this report are located outside the tank farms, and therefore may be considered standard or background samples from which to compare contaminated sediments within the tank farms themselves. This report presents our interpretation of the physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of the uncontaminated vadose zone sediments, and variations in the vertical distribution of these properties. The information presented in this report is intended to support preparation of the S-SX Field Investigation Report to be prepared by CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. as well as future remediation actions at the S-SX Tank Farm

  1. Investigation of chemical modifiers for the determination of lead in fertilizers and limestone using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman-effect background correction and slurry sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Aline R.; Becker, Emilene M.; Dessuy, Morgana B.; Vale, Maria Goreti R.; Welz, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    In this work, chemical modifiers in solution (Pd/Mg, NH4H2PO4 and NH4NO3/Pd) were compared with permanent modifiers (Ir and Ru) for the determination of lead in fertilizer and limestone samples using slurry sampling and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman-effect background correction. The analytical line at 283.3 nm was used due to some spectral interference observed at 217.0 nm. The NH4H2PO4 was abandoned due to severe spectral interference even at the 283.3-nm line. For Pd/Mg and NH4NO3/Pd the optimum pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were 900 °C and 1900 °C, respectively. For Ru and Ir, the integrated absorbance signal was stable up to pyrolysis temperatures of 700 °C and 900 °C, respectively, and up to atomization temperature of 1700 °C. The limit of detection (LOD) was 17 ng g- 1 using Pd/Mg and 29 ng g- 1 using NH4NO3/Pd. Among the permanent modifiers investigated, the LOD was 22 ng g- 1 Pb for Ir and 10 ng g- 1 Pb for Ru. The accuracy of the method was evaluated using the certified reference material NIST SRM 695. Although Ru provided lower LOD, which can be attributed to a lower blank signal, only the modifiers in solution showed concordant values of Pb concentration for the NIST SRM 695 and the most of analyzed samples. Moreover, the Pd/Mg modifier provided the highest sensitivity and for this reason it is more suitable for the determination of Pb in fertilizers samples in slurry; besides this it presented a better signal-to-noise ratio than NH4NO3/Pd.

  2. Equilibrium sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls in River Elbe sediments – Linking bioaccumulation in fish to sediment contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Sabine; Antoni, Catherine; Möhlenkamp, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Equilibrium sampling can be applied to measure freely dissolved concentrations (cfree) of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) that are considered effective concentrations for diffusive uptake and partitioning. It can also yield concentrations in lipids at thermodynamic equilibrium...... with the sediment (Clip⇔sed) by multiplying concentrations in the equilibrium sampling polymer with lipid to polymer partition coefficients. We have applied silicone coated glass jars for equilibrium sampling of seven ‘indicator’ polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment samples from ten locations along...... to apply equilibrium sampling for determining bioavailability and bioaccumulation potential of HOCs, since this technique can provide a thermodynamic basis for the risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments....

  3. Direct sampling during multiple sediment density flows reveals dynamic sediment transport and depositional environment in Monterey submarine canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, K. L.; Gales, J. A.; Paull, C. K.; Gwiazda, R.; Rosenberger, K. J.; McGann, M.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.; Parsons, D. R.; Barry, J.; Simmons, S.; Clare, M. A.; Carvajal, C.; Wolfson-Schwehr, M.; Sumner, E.; Cartigny, M.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment density flows were directly sampled with a coupled sediment trap-ADCP-instrument mooring array to evaluate the character and frequency of turbidity current events through Monterey Canyon, offshore California. This novel experiment aimed to provide links between globally significant sediment density flow processes and their resulting deposits. Eight to ten Anderson sediment traps were repeatedly deployed at 10 to 300 meters above the seafloor on six moorings anchored at 290 to 1850 meters water depth in the Monterey Canyon axial channel during 6-month deployments (October 2015 - April 2017). Anderson sediment traps include a funnel and intervalometer (discs released at set time intervals) above a meter-long tube, which preserves fine-scale stratigraphy and chronology. Photographs, multi-sensor logs, CT scans, and grain size analyses reveal layers from multiple sediment density flow events that carried sediment ranging from fine sand to granules. More sediment accumulation from sediment density flows, and from between flows, occurred in the upper canyon ( 300 - 800 m water depth) compared to the lower canyon ( 1300 - 1850 m water depth). Sediment accumulated in the traps during sediment density flows is sandy and becomes finer down-canyon. In the lower canyon where sediment directly sampled from density flows are clearly distinguished within the trap tubes, sands have sharp basal contacts, normal grading, and muddy tops that exhibit late-stage pulses. In at least two of the sediment density flows, the simultaneous low velocity and high backscatter measured by the ADCPs suggest that the trap only captured the collapsing end of a sediment density flow event. In the upper canyon, accumulation between sediment density flow events is twice as fast compared to the lower canyon; it is characterized by sub-cm-scale layers in muddy sediment that appear to have accumulated with daily to sub-daily frequency, likely related to known internal tidal dynamics also measured

  4. Nitrification limitation in animal slurries at high temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, H.C.; Derikx, P.J.L.; Have, ten P.J.W.; Vijn, T.K.

    1998-01-01

    Nitrification rates in two types of animal slurry were measured at temperatures between 20 and 60°C. The rates were assessed in rapid laboratory assays using samples from aeration tanks of large scale treatment plants for pig or veal-calf slurry. Maximum nitrification rates for the two slurries were

  5. Use of spatially distributed time-integrated sediment sampling networks and distributed fine sediment modelling to inform catchment management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, M T; Warburton, J; Bracken, L J; Reaney, S M; Emery, S B; Hirst, S

    2017-11-01

    Under the EU Water Framework Directive, suspended sediment is omitted from environmental quality standards and compliance targets. This omission is partly explained by difficulties in assessing the complex dose-response of ecological communities. But equally, it is hindered by a lack of spatially distributed estimates of suspended sediment variability across catchments. In this paper, we demonstrate the inability of traditional, discrete sampling campaigns for assessing exposure to fine sediment. Sampling frequencies based on Environmental Quality Standard protocols, whilst reflecting typical manual sampling constraints, are unable to determine the magnitude of sediment exposure with an acceptable level of precision. Deviations from actual concentrations range between -35 and +20% based on the interquartile range of simulations. As an alternative, we assess the value of low-cost, suspended sediment sampling networks for quantifying suspended sediment transfer (SST). In this study of the 362 km 2 upland Esk catchment we observe that spatial patterns of sediment flux are consistent over the two year monitoring period across a network of 17 monitoring sites. This enables the key contributing sub-catchments of Butter Beck (SST: 1141 t km 2 yr -1 ) and Glaisdale Beck (SST: 841 t km 2 yr -1 ) to be identified. The time-integrated samplers offer a feasible alternative to traditional infrequent and discrete sampling approaches for assessing spatio-temporal changes in contamination. In conjunction with a spatially distributed diffuse pollution model (SCIMAP), time-integrated sediment sampling is an effective means of identifying critical sediment source areas in the catchment, which can better inform sediment management strategies for pollution prevention and control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Collection and preparation of bottom sediment samples for analysis of radionuclides and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    The publication is the first in a series of TECDOCs on sampling and sample handling as part of the IAEA support to improve reliability of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) in Member State laboratories. The purpose of the document is to provide information on the methods for collecting sediments, the equipment used, and the sample preparation techniques for radionuclide and elemental analysis. The most appropriate procedures for defining the strategies and criteria for selecting sampling locations, for sample storage and transportation are also given. Elements of QA/QC and documentation needs for sampling and sediment analysis are discussed. Collection and preparation of stream and river bottom sediments, lake bottom sediments, estuary bottom sediments, and marine (shallow) bottom sediments are covered. The document is intended to be a comprehensive manual for the collection and preparation of bottom sediments as a prerequisite to obtain representative and meaningful results using NATs. Quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) is emphasized as an important aspect to ensure proper collection, transportation, preservation, and analysis since it forms the basis for interpretation and legislation. Although there are many approaches and methods available for sediment analyses, the scope of the report is limited to sample preparation for (1) analysis of radionuclides (including sediment dating using radionuclides such as Pb-210 and Cs-137) and (2) analysis of trace, minor and major elements using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as NAA, XRF and PIXE

  7. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Lanigan, David C.; Horton, Duane G.; Clayton, Ray E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Legore, Virginia L.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Parker, Kent E.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Serne, Jennifer N.; Last, George V.; Smith, Steven C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Zachara, John M.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-01-01

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.14, 4.16, 5.20, 5.22, 5.43, and 5.45. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is one in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) borehole bore samples and composite samples

  8. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Lanigan, David C.; Horton, Duane G.; Clayton, Ray E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Legore, Virginia L.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Parker, Kent E.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Serne, Jennifer N.; Last, George V.; Smith, Steven C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Zachara, John M.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.14, 4.16, 5.20, 5.22, 5.43, and 5.45. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is one in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) borehole bore samples and composite samples.

  9. Equilibrium sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls in River Elbe sediments--Linking bioaccumulation in fish to sediment contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Sabine; Antoni, Catherine; Möhlenkamp, Christel; Claus, Evelyn; Reifferscheid, Georg; Heininger, Peter; Mayer, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    Equilibrium sampling can be applied to measure freely dissolved concentrations (cfree) of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) that are considered effective concentrations for diffusive uptake and partitioning. It can also yield concentrations in lipids at thermodynamic equilibrium with the sediment (clip⇌sed) by multiplying concentrations in the equilibrium sampling polymer with lipid to polymer partition coefficients. We have applied silicone coated glass jars for equilibrium sampling of seven 'indicator' polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment samples from ten locations along the River Elbe to measure cfree of PCBs and their clip⇌sed. For three sites, we then related clip⇌sed to lipid-normalized PCB concentrations (cbio,lip) that were determined independently by the German Environmental Specimen Bank in common bream, a fish species living in close contact with the sediment: (1) In all cases, cbio,lip were below clip⇌sed, (2) there was proportionality between the two parameters with high R(2) values (0.92-1.00) and (3) the slopes of the linear regressions were very similar between the three stations (0.297; 0.327; 0.390). These results confirm the close link between PCB bioaccumulation and the thermodynamic potential of sediment-associated HOCs for partitioning into lipids. This novel approach gives clearer and more consistent results compared to conventional approaches that are based on total concentrations in sediment and biota-sediment accumulation factors. We propose to apply equilibrium sampling for determining bioavailability and bioaccumulation potential of HOCs, since this technique can provide a thermodynamic basis for the risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment samples from Bombay harbour, Dharamtar creek and Amba river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, S.A.; Dhaktode, S.S.; Kadam, A.N.

    The surface sediment samples were collected by van Veen grab sampler during premonsoon, monsoon and postmonsoon seasons from Bombay harbour, Dharamtar creek and Amba river estuary Moisture content of the samples ranges from 36 to 67.5...

  11. DEVELOPING AN EXCELLENT SEDIMENT RATING CURVE FROM ONE HYDROLOGICAL YEAR SAMPLING PROGRAMME DATA: APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preksedis M. Ndomba

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary findings on the adequacy of one hydrological year sampling programme data in developing an excellent sediment rating curve. The study case is a 1DD1 subcatchment in the upstream of Pangani River Basin (PRB, located in the North Eastern part of Tanzania. 1DD1 is the major runoff-sediment contributing tributary to the downstream hydropower reservoir, the Nyumba Ya Mungu (NYM. In literature sediment rating curve method is known to underestimate the actual sediment load. In the case of developing countries long-term sediment sampling monitoring or conservation campaigns have been reported as unworkable options. Besides, to the best knowledge of the authors, to date there is no consensus on how to develop an excellent rating curve. Daily-midway and intermittent-cross section sediment samples from Depth Integrating sampler (D-74 were used to calibrate the subdaily automatic sediment pumping sampler (ISCO 6712 near bank point samples for developing the rating curve. Sediment load correction factors were derived from both statistical bias estimators and actual sediment load approaches. It should be noted that the ongoing study is guided by findings of other studies in the same catchment. For instance, long term sediment yield rate estimated based on reservoir survey validated the performance of the developed rating curve. The result suggests that excellent rating curve could be developed from one hydrological year sediment sampling programme data. This study has also found that uncorrected rating curve underestimates sediment load. The degreeof underestimation depends on the type of rating curve developed and data used.

  12. Sampling method, storage and pretreatment of sediment affect AVS concentrations with consequences for bioassay responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, H.J. de [Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen (Netherlands); Centre for Ecosystem Studies, Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: marieke.delange@wur.nl; Griethuysen, C. van; Koelmans, A.A. [Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    Sediment treatment and sediment storage may alter sediment toxicity, and consequently biotic response. Purpose of our study was to combine these three aspects (treatment-toxicity-biotic response) in one integrated approach. We used Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) concentrations as a proxy of the disturbance of the sediment. AVS and Simultaneously Extracted Metal (SEM) concentrations were compared to bioassay responses with the freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate Asellus aquaticus. Storage conditions and sediment treatment affected AVS but not SEM levels. AVS can be used as a proxy for sediment disturbance. The best way to pretreat the sediment for use in a bioassay in order to maintain initial AVS conditions was to sample the sediment with an Ekman grab, immediately store it in a jar without headspace, and freeze it as soon as possible. In a survey using seven different sediments, bioassay responses of A. aquaticus were correlated with SEM and AVS characteristics. - Change in AVS is a good proxy for sediment disturbance and combined with SEM it can be used as a suitable predictor for biotic effects of sediment contamination.

  13. Ecotoxicological evaluation of industrial port of Venice (Italy) sediment samples after a decontamination treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libralato, Giovanni; Losso, Chiara; Arizzi Novelli, Alessandra; Citron, Marta; Della Sala, Stefano; Zanotto, Emanuele; Cepak, Franka; Volpi Ghirardini, Annamaria

    2008-01-01

    This work assesses the ecotoxicological effects of polluted sediment after a decontamination treatment process using a new sediment washing technique. Sediment samples were collected from four sites in Marghera Port industrial channels (Venice, Italy). Ecotoxicological evaluations were performed with Vibrio fischeri and Crassostrea gigas bioassays. Whole sediment and elutriate were deemed as the most suitable environmental matrices for this study. Toxicity scores developed in the Lagoon of Venice for V. fischeri on whole sediment and for C. gigas on elutriate were considered for the final ranking of samples. Ecotoxicological results showed that the treated sediment samples presented both acute and sub-chronic toxicities, which were mainly attributed to the presence of some remaining chemicals such as metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The acute toxicity ranged from low to medium, while the sub-chronic one from absent to very high, suggesting that treated sediments could not be reused in direct contact with seawater. - A sediment washing technique was assessed for port contaminated sediment remediation and reuse, indicating its reduced efficiency and the need for further improvements

  14. Parasitological stool sample exam by spontaneous sedimentation method using conical tubes: effectiveness, practice, and biosafety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steveen Rios Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous sedimentation is an important procedure for stool examination. A modification of this technique using conical tubes was performed and evaluated. METHODS: Fifty fecal samples were processed in sedimentation glass and in polypropylene conical tubes. Another 50 samples were used for quantitative evaluation of protozoan cysts. RESULTS: Although no significant differences occurred in the frequency of protozoa and helminths detected, significant differences in protozoan cyst counts did occur. CONCLUSIONS: The use of tube predicts a shorter path in the sedimentation of the sample, increases concentration of parasites for microscopy analysis, minimizes the risks of contamination, reduces the odor, and optimizes the workspace.

  15. Bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers: An effective adsorbent for solid phase extraction and slurry sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometric analysis of cadmium and lead in water, hair, food and cigarette samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Erkan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Ocsoy, Ismail [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Nanotechnology Research Center (ERNAM), Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Ozdemir, Nalan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa, E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey)

    2016-02-04

    Herein, the synthesis of bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers (BSA-NFs) through the building blocks of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and copper(II) ions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and their use as adsorbent for cadmium and lead ions are reported. The BSA-NFs, for the first time, were efficiently utilized as novel adsorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE) of cadmium and lead ions in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. The method is based on the separation and pre-concentration of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by BSA-NFs prior to determination by slurry analysis via flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The analytes were adsorbed on BSA-NFs under the vortex mixing and then the ion-loaded slurry was separated and directly introduced into the flame AAS nebulizer by using a hand-made micro sample introduction system to eliminate a number of drawbacks. The effects of analytical key parameters, such as pH, amount of BSA-NFs, vortexing time, sample volume, and matrix effect of foreign ions on adsorbing of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were systematically investigated and optimized. The limits of detection (LODs) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were calculated as 0.37 μg L{sup −1} and 8.8 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. The relative standard deviation percentages (RSDs) (N = 5) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were 7.2%, and 5.0%, respectively. The accuracy of the developed procedure was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (TMDA-53.3 Fortified Water, TMDA-70 Fortified Water, SPS-WW2 Waste Water, NCSDC-73349 Bush Branches and Leaves) and by addition/recovery analysis. The quantitative recoveries were obtained for the analysis of certified reference materials and addition/recovery tests. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of cadmium and lead in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. - Highlights: • The synthesis of bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers is reported. • The nanoflowers were utilized for solid phase microextraction of

  16. Equilibrium sampling of hydrophobic organic chemicals in sediments: challenges and new approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaefer, S.; Mayer, Philipp; Becker, B.

    2015-01-01

    ) are considered to be the effective concentrations for diffusive uptake and partitioning, and they can be measured by equilibrium sampling. We have thus applied glass jars with multiple coating thicknesses for equilibrium sampling of HOCs in sediment samples from various sites in different German rivers....... The coated glass jars were very convenient for routine monitoring campaigns since (1) equilibration times are minimized by the very thin coatings, (2) the equilibration is done in the laboratory and (3) equilibrium sampling is confirmed by equal analyte concentrations in various silicone coating thicknesses...... without tedious time-serious measurements. However, for some sediment samples analyte concentrations decreased towards thicker silicone coating possibly caused by depletion of the sediment or equilibrium partitioning not being attained. In this study, we investigated the application of sediment depletion...

  17. Direct generation of stibine from slurries and its determination by ETAAS using multivariate optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cal-Prieto, M.J.; Felipe-Sotelo, M.; Carlosena, A.; Andrade, J.M. [University of La Coruna, La Coruna (Spain). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2005-06-01

    A simple and fast analytical method combining slurry preparation, hydride generation, and trapping on iridium-treated graphite tubes is presented to determine Sb in soil samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-ETAAS). Chemometric optimization of the slurry preparation and generation of antimony was carried out (Plackett-Burman designs and Simplex optimizations). Slurries were prepared in 9 mol L{sup -1} HCl, and stibine was generated using 0.4 mol L{sup -1} HCl and 2.5% (m/v) NaBH{sub 4} (150 mL min{sup -1} Ar flow). Further, a heated quartz tube atomization system was used (HG-AAS). The slurry HG-ETAAS method was validated with nine certified reference materials: three soils, two sediments, two coal fly ashes, and two coals. The lowest LOD obtained was 0.08 mu g g{sup -1} and good overall precision was achieved (RSD < 79%). The coal samples required a previous ashing step (450{sup o}C, up to constant weight). The analyte extraction to the liquid phase was also studied.

  18. Bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers: An effective adsorbent for solid phase extraction and slurry sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometric analysis of cadmium and lead in water, hair, food and cigarette samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Erkan; Ocsoy, Ismail; Ozdemir, Nalan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-02-04

    Herein, the synthesis of bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers (BSA-NFs) through the building blocks of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and copper(II) ions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and their use as adsorbent for cadmium and lead ions are reported. The BSA-NFs, for the first time, were efficiently utilized as novel adsorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE) of cadmium and lead ions in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. The method is based on the separation and pre-concentration of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by BSA-NFs prior to determination by slurry analysis via flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The analytes were adsorbed on BSA-NFs under the vortex mixing and then the ion-loaded slurry was separated and directly introduced into the flame AAS nebulizer by using a hand-made micro sample introduction system to eliminate a number of drawbacks. The effects of analytical key parameters, such as pH, amount of BSA-NFs, vortexing time, sample volume, and matrix effect of foreign ions on adsorbing of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were systematically investigated and optimized. The limits of detection (LODs) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were calculated as 0.37 μg L(-)(1) and 8.8 μg L(-)(1), respectively. The relative standard deviation percentages (RSDs) (N = 5) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were 7.2%, and 5.0%, respectively. The accuracy of the developed procedure was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (TMDA-53.3 Fortified Water, TMDA-70 Fortified Water, SPS-WW2 Waste Water, NCSDC-73349 Bush Branches and Leaves) and by addition/recovery analysis. The quantitative recoveries were obtained for the analysis of certified reference materials and addition/recovery tests. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of cadmium and lead in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modern sedimentation patterns in Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Russia, derived from surface sediment and inlet streams samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Wennrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake El'gygytgyn/NE Russia holds a continuous 3.58 Ma sediment record, which is regarded as the most long-lasting climate archive of the terrestrial Arctic. Based on multi-proxy geochemical, mineralogical, and granulometric analyses of surface sediment, inlet stream and bedrock samples, supplemented by statistical methods, major processes influencing the modern sedimentation in the lake were investigated. Grain-size parameters and chemical elements linked to the input of feldspars from acidic bedrock indicate a wind-induced two-cell current system as major driver of sediment transport and accumulation processes in Lake El'gygytgyn. The distribution of mafic rock related elements in the sediment on the lake floor can be traced back to the input of weathering products of basaltic rocks in the catchment. Obvious similarities in the spatial variability of manganese and heavy metals indicate sorption or co-precipitation of these elements with Fe and Mn hydroxides and oxides. But the similar distribution of organic matter and clay contents might also point to a fixation to organic components and clay minerals. An enrichment of mercury in the inlet streams might be indicative of neotectonic activity around the lake. The results of this study add to the fundamental knowledge of the modern lake processes of Lake El'gygytgyn and its lake-catchment interactions, and thus, yield crucial insights for the interpretation of paleo-data from this unique archive.

  20. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  1. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air

  2. A method for disaggregating clay concretions and eliminating formalin smell in the processing of sediment samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1989-01-01

    A complete handling procedure for processing sediment samples is described. It includes some improvements of conventional methods. The fixed sediment sample is mixed with a solution of the alkaline detergent AJAX® (Colgate-Palmolive). It is kept at 80-900 C for 20-40 min. This treatment facilitat...... subsequent sorting as it disaggregates clay concretions and faecal pellets ·but leaves even fragile organisms clean and unaffected. The ammonia in the detergent eliminates the formalin smell....

  3. Consideration of bioavailability in the effect directed analysis of contaminated sediment samples

    OpenAIRE

    Bandow, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The scope of the presented PhD thesis is on the incorporation of bioavailability into effect directed analysis (EDA) of contaminated sediment samples. EDA has been successfully applied in the last years to identify key toxicants in environmental samples. One of the major challenges in EDA is how to consider bioavailability of investigated chemicals. By using crude sediment extracts and solvent dosing the ecotoxicological effects may be overestimated and prioritisation of fractions may be bias...

  4. Atrazine, triketone herbicides, and their degradation products in sediment, soil and surface water samples in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchanska, Hanna; Sajdak, Marcin; Szczypka, Kornelia; Swientek, Angelika; Tworek, Martyna; Kurek, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the sediment, soil and surface water contamination with selected popular triketone herbicides (mesotrione (MES) and sulcotrione(SUL)), atrazine (ATR) classified as a possible carcinogen and endocrine disrupting chemical, as well as their degradation products, in Silesia (Poland). Seventeen sediment samples, 24 soil samples, and 64 surface water samples collected in 2014 were studied. After solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE), analytes were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection (DAD). Ten years after the withdrawal from the use, ATR was not detected in any of the collected samples; however, its degradation products are still present in 41 % of sediment, 71 % of soil, and 8 % of surface water samples. SUL was determined in 85 % of soil samples; its degradation product (2-chloro-4-(methylosulfonyl) benzoic acid (CMBA)) was present in 43 % of soil samples. In 17 % of sediment samples, CMBA was detected. Triketones were detected occasionally in surface water samples. The chemometric analysis (clustering analysis (CA), single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA), N-Way ANOVA) was applied to find relations between selected soil and sediment parameters and herbicides concentration. In neither of the studied cases a statistically significant relationship between the concentrations of examined herbicides, their degradation products and soil parameters (organic carbon (OC), pH) was observed.

  5. Intercomparison of radionuclide measurements in marine sediment sample IAEA-135

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Gastaud, J.; Lopez, J.J.; Parsi, P.; Vas, D.

    1993-08-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a marine sediment from Irish Sea, IAEA-135, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclides levels, are reported. The data from 151 laboratories representing 51 countries have been evaluated. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for 40 K, 60 Co, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 154 Eu, 155 Eu, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 232 Th, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu (Reference date: 1 January 1992). Information values for 57 Co, 90 Sr, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 228 Th, 230 Th, 234 U, 235 U, 238 U and 241 Am are also reported. All values are expressed in Bq kg -1 dry weight. (author)

  6. Intercomparison of radionuclide measurements on marine sediment sample IAEA-300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Gastaud, J.; Lopez, J.J.; Parsi, P.; Vas, D.

    1994-09-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a sediment from Baltic Sea, IAEA-300, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclides' levels, are reported. The data from 159 laboratories representing 51 countries have been evaluated. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, 40 K, 60 Co, 125 Sb, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 155 Eu, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 228 Ra, 234 U, 238 U, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am. Information values for 54 Mn, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th, 235 U and 238 Pu are also reported. All values are given on the reference date of 1 January 1993 and expressed in Bq kg -1 dry weight. (author)

  7. Freon (CHF3)-assisted atomization for the determination of titanium using ultrasonic slurry sampling-graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (USS-GFAAS): a simple and advantageous method for solid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Alemayehu; Wibetoe, Grethe

    2004-06-01

    A simple and advantageous method for the determination of titanium using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with slurry sampling has been developed. Titanium is one of the refractory elements that form thermally stable carbides in the graphite tube, which leads to severe memory effects. Trifluoromethane (Freon-23) was applied in the purge gas during the atomization step or alternatively just prior to the atomization to successfully eliminate the problems of carbide formation and increase the lifetime of the furnace tube which could be used for more than 600 heating cycles. A flow rate of 40 mL min(-1) (5% of Freon in argon) was used to obtain symmetrical peaks with no tailing. However, when the gas flow rate was too high (250 mL min(-1)) the peak-tailing and memory effects reappeared. Ti was determined in various materials covering a wide range of concentrations, from 2.8 microg g(-1) to 12% (m/m) Ti. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analyzing certified reference materials (CRMs) or by comparing the results with those obtained using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) after decomposition of the samples. The materials analyzed were soil, plant, human hair, coal, urban particulate matters, toothpaste, and powdered paint.

  8. X RF measurement for sediment sample collected from the niles in Khartoum State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Aisha Abdelgader Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study to determine the concentration of element (K, Ca Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr) in sediment sample collected from thirty different sites from the three rivers in Khartoum state. X-ray fluorescence (X RF) was used to identify the element concentration. Validation of the equipment was done by measuring reference samples provided by IAEA. Iron was found to be the dominant element with concentration ranged between (13000 ppm) in the white nile to (101000 ppm) in the blue nile, Pb was found to be the lowest among the twelve elements measured with concentration ranged between (11.7 ppm) in the white nile to (28 ppm) in the river nile for all samples. In general there was no variation of the concentration of elements between the blue nile sediments and the river nile sediments and was found variation of concentration of elements between the white nile sediments and other two niles. (Author).

  9. 10Be measurements at MALT using reduced-size samples of bulk sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Kazuho; Oniyanagi, Itsumi; Wasada, Hiroshi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    In order to establish 10Be measurements on reduced-size (1-10 mg) samples of bulk sediments, we investigated four different pretreatment designs using lacustrine and marginal-sea sediments and the AMS system of the Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator (MALT) at The University of Tokyo. The 10Be concentrations obtained from the samples of 1-10 mg agreed within a precision of 3-5% with the values previously determined using corresponding ordinary-size (∼200 mg) samples and the same AMS system. This fact demonstrates reliable determinations of 10Be with milligram levels of recent bulk sediments at MALT. On the other hand, a clear decline of the BeO- beam with tens of micrograms of 9Be carrier suggests that the combination of ten milligrams of sediments and a few hundred micrograms of the 9Be carrier is more convenient at this stage.

  10. {sup 10}Be measurements at MALT using reduced-size samples of bulk sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, Kazuho, E-mail: kh@cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, 3, Bunkyo-chou, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8561 (Japan); Oniyanagi, Itsumi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, 3, Bunkyo-chou, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8561 (Japan); Wasada, Hiroshi [Institute of Geology and Paleontology, Graduate school of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3, Aramaki Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki [MALT, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    In order to establish {sup 10}Be measurements on reduced-size (1-10 mg) samples of bulk sediments, we investigated four different pretreatment designs using lacustrine and marginal-sea sediments and the AMS system of the Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator (MALT) at University of Tokyo. The {sup 10}Be concentrations obtained from the samples of 1-10 mg agreed within a precision of 3-5% with the values previously determined using corresponding ordinary-size ({approx}200 mg) samples and the same AMS system. This fact demonstrates reliable determinations of {sup 10}Be with milligram levels of recent bulk sediments at MALT. On the other hand, a clear decline of the BeO{sup -} beam with tens of micrograms of {sup 9}Be carrier suggests that the combination of ten milligrams of sediments and a few hundred micrograms of the {sup 9}Be carrier is more convenient at this stage.

  11. Quantifying recent erosion and sediment delivery using probability sampling: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Lewis

    2002-01-01

    Abstract - Estimates of erosion and sediment delivery have often relied on measurements from locations that were selected to be representative of particular terrain types. Such judgement samples are likely to overestimate or underestimate the mean of the quantity of interest. Probability sampling can eliminate the bias due to sample selection, and it permits the...

  12. Direct analysis of 210Pb in sediment samples: Self-absorption corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutshall, N.H.; Larsen, I.L.; Olsen, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    A procedure for the direct #betta#-ray instrumental analysis of 210 Pb in sediment samples is presented. The problem of dependence of self-absorption on sample composition is solved by making a direct transmission measurement on each sample. The procedure has been verified by intercalibrations and other tests. (orig.)

  13. A Comparison On Efficiency Of Sampling Techniques For Sediment Estimation In Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabkhedri, M.; Lai, F. S.; Akma, I. Noor; Roslan, M. K. Mohamad

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we compared the efficiency of adaptive cluster sampling against SALT (a special kind of probability proportion to size) and simple random sampling for estimating the suspended sediment yield in Gorgan-Rood River, Iran. About 300 sample sets, grouped in different sizes and replicates, were extracted from a five-year daily suspended sediment records, by three study sampling methods including adaptive, SALT and calendar-based. In the next step, total loads were estimated by appropriate sampling estimators; then the loads were compared among themselves and with observed total load as well. The results suggested that all three studied sampling techniques' average estimates showed satisfactory accuracy. However, adaptive and SALT were more precise than simple random sampling. SALT and adaptive cluster sampling obtained the optimum accuracy and precision with an average of almost weekly samplings. The result of this study may suggest the application of the adaptive cluster sampling in river monitoring programs.

  14. Using public participation to sample trace metals in lake surface sediments: the OPAL Metals Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S D; Rose, N L; Goldsmith, B; Bearcock, J M; Scheib, C; Yang, H

    2017-05-01

    Members of the public in England were invited in 2010 to take part in a national metals survey, by collecting samples of littoral sediment from a standing water body for geochemical analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first national sediment metals survey using public participation and reveals a snapshot of the extent of metals contamination in ponds and lakes across England. Hg, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations exceeding sediment quality guidelines for the health of aquatic biota are ubiquitous in ponds and lakes, not just in areas with a legacy of industrial activity. To validate the public sampling approach, a calibration exercise was conducted at ten water bodies selected to represent a range of lakes found across England. Sediment concentrations of Hg, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were measured in samples of soil, stream and littoral and deep water sediment to assess inputs. Significant differences between littoral sediment metal concentrations occur due to local variability, but also organic content, especially in upland, peat soil catchments. Variability of metal concentrations between littoral samples is shown to be low in small (complex inputs and variation in organic content of littoral samples have a greater variability. Collection of littoral sediments in small lakes and ponds, with or without voluntary participation, can provide a reliable sampling technique for the preliminary assessment of metal contamination in standing waters. However, the heterogeneity of geology, soils and history/extent of metal contamination in the English landscape, combined with the random nature of sample collection, shows that systematic sampling for evaluating the full extent of metal contamination in lakes is still required.

  15. Analytical approaches for determination of bromine in sediment core samples by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkova, Galina V; Aisueva, Tatyana S; Finkelshtein, Alexander L; Ivanov, Egor V; Shchetnikov, Alexander A

    2016-11-01

    Bromine has been recognized as a valuable indicator for paleoclimatic studies. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) methods were applied to study the bromine distributions in lake sediment cores. Conventional WDXRF technique usually requires relatively large mass of a sediment sample and a set of calibration samples. Some analytical approaches were developed to apply WDXRF to small sediment core samples in the absence of adequate calibration samples with a known Br content. The mass of a sample to be analyzed was reduced up to 200-300mg and the internal standard method with correction using fundamental parameters was developed for Br quantification. TXRF technique based on the direct analysis of a solid suspension using 20mg of sediment sample by internal standard method was additionally tested. The accuracy of the WDXRF and TXRF techniques was assessed by the comparative analysis of reference materials of sediments, soil and biological samples. In general, good agreement was achieved between the reference values and the measured values. The detection limits of Br were 1mg/kg and 0.4mg/kg for WDXRF and TXRF respectively. The results of the Br determination obtained with different XRF techniques were comparable to each other and used for paleoclimatic reconstructions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Prospects of obtaining samples of bottom sediments from subglacial lake Vostok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. И. Васильев

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proves the timeliness of obtaining and examining bottom sediments from subglacial Lake Vostok. Predictive geological section of Lake Vostok and information value of bottom sediments have been examined. Severe requirements towards environmental security of lake examinations and sampling of bottom sediments rule out the use of conventional drilling technologies, as they would pollute the lake with injection liquid from the borehole. In order to carry out sampling of bottom sediments from the subglacial lake, it is proposed to use a dynamically balanced tool string, which enables rotary drilling without any external support on borehole walls to transmit counter torque.     A theoretical analysis has been carried out to assess the operation of the tool string, which is a two-mass oscillatory electromechanical system of reciprocating and rotating motion (RRM with two degrees of freedom.

  17. Ice slurry accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, K.G.; Kauffeld, M.

    1998-06-01

    More and more refrigeration systems are designed with secondary loops, thus reducing the refrigerant charge of the primary refrigeration plant. In order not to increase energy consumption by introducing a secondary refrigerant, alternatives to the well established single phase coolants (brines) and different concepts of the cooling plant have to be evaluated. Combining the use of ice-slurry - mixture of water, a freezing point depressing agent (antifreeze) and ice particles - as melting secondary refrigerant and the use of a cool storage makes it possible to build plants with secondary loops without increasing the energy consumption and investment. At the same time the operating costs can be kept at a lower level. The accumulation of ice-slurry is compared with other and more traditional storage systems. The method is evaluated and the potential in different applications is estimated. Aspects of practically use of ice-slurry has been examined in the laboratory at the Danish Technological Institute (DTI). This paper will include the final conclusions from this work concerning tank construction, agitator system, inlet, outlet and control. The work at DTI indicates that in some applications systems with ice-slurry and accumulation tanks have a great future. These applications are described by a varying load profile and a process temperature suiting the temperature of ice-slurry (-3 - -8/deg. C). (au)

  18. Documentation of particle-size analyzer time series, and discrete suspended-sediment and bed-sediment sample data collection, Niobrara River near Spencer, Nebraska, October 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaepe, Nathaniel J.; Coleman, Anthony M.; Zelt, Ronald B.

    2018-04-06

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, monitored a sediment release by Nebraska Public Power District from Spencer Dam located on the Niobrara River near Spencer, Nebraska, during the fall of 2014. The accumulated sediment behind Spencer Dam ordinarily is released semiannually; however, the spring 2014 release was postponed until the fall. Because of the postponement, the scheduled fall sediment release would consist of a larger volume of sediment. The larger than normal sediment release expected in fall 2014 provided an opportunity for the USGS and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to improve the understanding of sediment transport during reservoir sediment releases. A primary objective was to collect continuous suspended-sediment data during the first days of the sediment release to document rapid changes in sediment concentrations. For this purpose, the USGS installed a laser-diffraction particle-size analyzer at a site near the outflow of the dam to collect continuous suspended-sediment data. The laser-diffraction particle-size analyzer measured volumetric particle concentration and particle-size distribution from October 1 to 2 (pre-sediment release) and October 5 to 9 (during sediment release). Additionally, the USGS manually collected discrete suspended-sediment and bed-sediment samples before, during, and after the sediment release. Samples were collected at two sites upstream from Spencer Dam and at three bridges downstream from Spencer Dam. The resulting datasets and basic metadata associated with the datasets were published as a data release; this report provides additional documentation about the data collection methods and the quality of the data.

  19. Linking Morphodynamic Response with Sediment Mass Balance: Issues of Scale, Geomorphic Setting, and Sampling Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, P. E.; Topping, D. J.; Schmidt, J. C.; Kaplinski, M. A.; Hazel, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    The sediment mass balance, or budget, is one of the most powerful and frequently used conceptual frameworks in fluvial geomorphology. Sediment budgets are used to evaluate the effects of streamflow regulation, inform the design of stream restoration projects, and anticipate the outcomes of dam removal, among other applications. In almost every case, the primary interest is the interaction between changes in the sediment budget and the morphodynamics of specific channel features that make up the components of the sediment budget. However, linkages between changes in specific morphologic features and changes in the sediment budget are not necessarily straightforward and are often poorly understood. In order for the sediment budget to be used as an effective tool, these linkages must be better quantified. A complete understanding of these linkages is usually hampered by sparse data. Measurements of morphologic change typically consist of some type of sampling scheme that requires extrapolation to the reach scale and adequate measurements of both sediment influx and efflux are rarely available. Our attempts to develop a monitoring program for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon that tracks changes in specific morphologic features, transfers in sediment storage among channel features, and changes in the sediment budget have yielded several insights: (1) changes in sediment storage can be highly localized with as much as 80% of changes in storage occurring within as little as 1% of a reach; (2) areas where large storage changes are likely may be predictable in the sense that the largest changes tend to occur in specific geomorphic settings; (3) magnitudes of changes are unpredictable because nearby features of the same general geomorphic type often respond differently due to differences in local hydraulics; (4) the morphology of a set of features at the time of measurement may be strongly affected by the antecedent flow regime, thereby confounding attempts to make

  20. Effectiveness of stream-sediment sampling along the Rio Ojo Caliente, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenrich-Verbeek, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    During 1976 a detailed geochemical study was conducted of the water and stream sediments in the tributaries of the Rio Ojo Caliente above the USGS gaging station 4 km below La Madera to determine: (1) the source of the anomaly in the water and (2) why the stream sediment samples did not contain a corresponding anomaly. The low uranium content of the stream sediments from these high uranium waters can be explained by (1) the presence of a ground water source for the uranium and (2) insufficient time for the uranium in the water to be adsorbed onto the sediments. Although a stream sediment anomaly in the streams containing high uranium waters can not be established with a size fraction less than 150 μm, enough uranium has been adsorbed by the fine fraction that a small local anomaly can be outlined using only the fraction size less than 90 μm. Thus, because adsorption appears to be a major control on the uranium in the fine fraction and detrital minerals control the uranium in the coarse fraction, if it is assumed that buried deposits are of prime importance because most surface deposits have been recognized, then sampling should be restricted to the fine fraction (less than 90 μm). Nevertheless, in a case where ground water is the contributing source for uranium, as was shown above by the low anomalous uranium values, even in the fine fraction, stream sediment sampling alone is not an effective technique for detecting uranium anomalies. This emphasizes the necessity of water sampling in conjunction with stream-sediment sampling

  1. 210 Pb fluxes in sediment layers sampled from Northern Patagonia lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Sanchez, R.; Arribere, M.; Rizzo, A.

    2003-01-01

    Unsupported 210 Pb fluxes were determined from sediment core inventories in lakes located in Northern Patagonia, Argentina. Total 210 Pb, 226 Ra, associated with supported 210 Pb, and 137 Cs specific activity profiles were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. Unsupported 210 Pb fluxes showed very low values when compared to other regions, with a 12 fold variation, ranging from 4 to 48 Bq m -2 x y -1 . The linear correlation observed between the 210 Pb fluxes and 137 Cs cumulative fluxes in sediment cores sampled from water bodies within a zone with similar precipitation demonstrated that both radioisotopes behave in the same manner in these systems concerning the processes occurred from fallout to sediment deposition, and that there are no appreciable local or regional sources of unsupported 210 Pb. Positive correlation of 210 Pb fluxes with organic matter contents of the uppermost sediment core layers was also observed. (author)

  2. Comparability of river suspended-sediment sampling and laboratory analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groten, Joel T.; Johnson, Gregory D.

    2018-03-06

    Accurate measurements of suspended sediment, a leading water-quality impairment in many Minnesota rivers, are important for managing and protecting water resources; however, water-quality standards for suspended sediment in Minnesota are based on grab field sampling and total suspended solids (TSS) laboratory analysis methods that have underrepresented concentrations of suspended sediment in rivers compared to U.S. Geological Survey equal-width-increment or equal-discharge-increment (EWDI) field sampling and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) laboratory analysis methods. Because of this underrepresentation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, collected concurrent grab and EWDI samples at eight sites to compare results obtained using different combinations of field sampling and laboratory analysis methods.Study results determined that grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis results were biased substantially low compared to EWDI sampling and SSC laboratory analysis results, respectively. Differences in both field sampling and laboratory analysis methods caused grab and TSS methods to be biased substantially low. The difference in laboratory analysis methods was slightly greater than field sampling methods.Sand-sized particles had a strong effect on the comparability of the field sampling and laboratory analysis methods. These results indicated that grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis methods fail to capture most of the sand being transported by the stream. The results indicate there is less of a difference among samples collected with grab field sampling and analyzed for TSS and concentration of fines in SSC. Even though differences are present, the presence of strong correlations between SSC and TSS concentrations provides the opportunity to develop site specific relations to address transport processes not captured by grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis methods.

  3. Mineralogical, optical, geochemical, and particle size properties of four sediment samples for optical physics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bice, K.; Clement, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy were used to investigate the mineralogical and chemical properties of the Calvert, Ball Old Mine, Ball Martin, and Jordan Sediments. The particle size distribution and index of refraction of each sample were determined. The samples are composed primarily of quartz, kaolinite, and illite. The clay minerals are most abundant in the finer particle size fractions. The chemical properties of the four samples are similar. The Calvert sample is most notably different in that it contains a relatively high amount of iron. The dominant particle size fraction in each sample is silt, with lesser amounts of clay and sand. The indices of refraction of the sediments are the same with the exception of the Calvert sample which has a slightly higher value.

  4. Slurry pump compatibility testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J.I.

    2000-01-01

    The SRTC/Materials Technology Section (MTS) performed an evaluation of the compatibility of four slurry pump materials of construction in high level waste supernate environments. These tests were performed because of recent binding of the pump shafts after exposure to supernate in Tank 8F

  5. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  6. How to Perform Precise Soil and Sediment Sampling? One solution: The Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabit, L.; Toloza, A.; Meusburger, K.; Alewell, C.; Iurian, A-R.; Owens, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Soil and sediment related research for terrestrial agrienvironmental assessments requires accurate depth incremental sampling to perform detailed analysis of physical, geochemical and biological properties of soil and exposed sediment profiles. Existing equipment does not allow collecting soil/sediment increments at millimetre resolution. The Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC), developed by the SWMCN Laboratory, allows much greater precision in incremental soil/sediment sampling. It facilitates the easy recovery of collected material by using a simple screw-thread extraction system (see Figure 1). The FISC has been designed specifically to enable standardized scientific investigation of shallow soil/sediment samples. In particular, applications have been developed in two IAEA Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs): CRP D1.20.11 on “Integrated Isotopic Approaches for an Area-wide Precision Conservation to Control the Impacts of Agricultural Practices on Land Degradation and Soil Erosion” and CRP D1.50.15 on “Response to Nuclear Emergencies Affecting Food and Agriculture.”

  7. Modern sedimentation patterns in Laguna de Medina, Southern Spain, derived from lake surface and soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    van ´t Hoff, Jasmijn; Schröder, Tabea; Reicherter, Klaus; Held, Peter; Melles, Martin

    2016-04-01

    In September 2014 and March 2015, a 25.66 m long sediment core (Co1313) was retrieved from the centre of Laguna de Medina, a small endorheic salt lake in Cádiz, SW Spain. This record covers the last 9.000 years, thus providing an unique archive for Holocene climatic and environmental changes with extraordinary high temporal resolution. For a better understanding of the palaeoenvironmental proxies to be analysed on the sediment core, the modern processes of sediment formation in the lake and its catchment under known environmental conditions were investigated on a set of 46 lake sediment surface samples and 32 soil surface sediment samples from the lake and the close surroundings, respectively. These samples were analysed for bulk mineralogy (XRD), chemical composition (XRF), grain-size distribution (laser scanner), and carbonate, total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen (TN) and sulphur (TS) contents (elemental analyser). Based on the mineralogical, geochemical and granulometrical data, the lake can be divided into four zones. The northern shore is characterized by particularly high quartz contents and coarse grain sizes. This reflects input from ancient terraces of the Guadalete River that are exposed in that area. The southern shore is characterised by high calcite contents due to sediment supply from the Cretaceous ´Capas rojaś, a series of Subbetic deep-water marl- and limestones. The southeastern and to a lesser extend the northwestern shores show particularly high dolomite contents, reflecting the Triassic dolomites outcroping in the southeastern catchment. The southeastern shore furthermore is also influenced by strong terrestrial input of the Triassic Keuper facies from the most important inlet, Arroyo Fuente Bermeja, as reflected by high contents of Ti, K, Al, Fe, Rb in the lake sediments. The last zone comprises only a small part of the western shore and is characterized by a relatively high gypsum amount. This does not reflect the geology in the catchment

  8. Study on the degradation of chitosan slurries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Martini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we measured the degradation rate of different chitosan slurries. Several parameters were monitored such as temperature (25 °C, 37 °C, 50 °C; chitosan concentration (1% and 2% (w/V; and polymer molecular weight. The samples were tested in dynamic sweep test mode. This test is able to provide a reliable estimation of viscosity variations of the slurries; in turn, these variations could be related to degradation rate of the system in the considered conditions. The resulting information is particularly important especially in applications in which there is a close relationship between physical properties and molecular structure.

  9. Presence of pesticide residues in water, sediment and biological samples taken from aquatic environments in Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to detect the presence of persistent pesticides in water, sediment and biological samples taken from aquatic environments in Honduras during the period 1995-98. Additionally, the LC 50 for 2 fungicides and 2 insecticides on post-larval Penaeus vannamei was determined in static water bioassays. A total of 80 water samples, 16 sediment samples and 7 biological samples (fish muscle tissue) were analyzed for detection of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticide residues. The results of sample analyses indicate a widespread contamination of Honduran continental and coastal waters with organochlorine pesticides. Most detections were of low ( 50 values and were therefore found to be much more toxic to the post-larval shrimp than the fungicides tridemorph and propiconazole. (author)

  10. Radiological assessment of coastal marine sediment and water samples, Karachi coast, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.M.; Mashiatullah, A.; Akram, M.; Sajjad, M.I.; Shafiq, M.; Javed, T.; Aslam, M.

    1999-04-01

    Concentrations of selective natural radionuclides (/sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, /sup 40/K) in shallow marine coastal sediments and sea water off Karachi coast, Pakistan, were measured with a hyper pure germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometer. Sediment and water samples were collected from polluted Layari and Malire River downstream (pre-out fall), Gizri Creek, Layari River out fall in Karachi harbor, Karachi Harbor/ Manora Channel Mains, as well as from open sea (South-East Coast and North-West Coast) within the 10m depth contour. No artificial radionuclides (e.g. /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 134/Cs were detected in both water and sediment samples at any of these locations. The activity of /sup 226/Ra in coastal river sediments is found below its limit of detection (<18.35 Bqkg/sup -1/). Activity of /sup 228/Ra in sediments off Karachi Coast ranges between 11.80 +- 3.60 to 37.27+- 4.31 Bqkg/sup -1/. The highest activity was found south of Nuclear Power Station (KANUPP) and the lowest activity was found in the vicinity of Oyster Rocks (open sea). The /sup 226/Ra activity ranges from 19.40+- 5.88 to 67.14 +- 10.02 Bqkg/sup -1/. The activity of /sup 228/Ra in sediments of Manora Channel, South-east Coast of Karachi and the North west coast of Karachi are also in agreement with the IAEA marine sediment standard namely: IAEA-135 (/sup 228/Ra = 36.7 +- 3 Bqkg/sup -1/). The activity of /sup 226/Ra for the South East Coast of Karachi and the North west coast of Karachi are also in agreement with the IAEA marine sediment standard namely: IAEA 135(/sup 226/Ra=23.9 +- 1.1 Bqkg/sup -1/) and Pacific Ocean sediment standard namely: IAEA-368 (/sup 226/Ra=21.4+- 1.1 Bqkg/sup -1/). The /sup 40/K activity in sea sediments varies from 197.7+- 44.24 to 941.90 +- 39.00 Bqkg-1). The highest activity is observed in the vicinity of Oyster Rocks (open sea) along the Clifton coast (South-East Cost of Karachi) and the lowest activity is found south of Nuclear Power Station (KANUPP) along the

  11. A Direct-Push Sample-Freezing Drive Shoe for Collecting Sediment Cores with Intact Pore Fluid, Microbial, and Sediment Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, B. A.; Trost, J.; Christy, T. M.; Mason, B.

    2015-12-01

    Abiotic and biological reactions in shallow groundwater and bottom sediments are central to understanding groundwater contaminant attenuation and biogeochemical cycles. The laminar flow regime in unconsolidated surficial aquifers creates narrow reaction zones. Studying these reaction zones requires fine-scale sampling of water together with adjacent sediment in a manner that preserves in situ redox conditions. Collecting representative samples of these narrow zones with traditional subsurface sampling equipment is challenging. For example, use of a basket type core catcher for saturated, non-cohesive sediments results in loss of fluid and sediments during retrieval. A sample-freezing drive shoe designed for a wire line piston core sampler allowed collection of cores with intact sediment, microbial, and pore fluid distributions and has been the basis for studies documenting centimeter-scale variations in aquifer microbial populations (Murphy and Herkelrath, 1996). However, this freezing drive shoe design is not compatible with modern-day direct push sampling rigs. A re-designed sample-freezing drive shoe compatible with a direct-push dual-tube coring system was developed and field-tested. The freezing drive shoe retained sediment and fluid distributions in saturated sediment core samples by freezing a 10 centimeter plug below the core sample with liquid CO­2. Core samples collected across the smear zone at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota, were successfully extracted without loss of fluid or sediment. Multiple core sections from different depths in the aquifer were retrieved from a single hole. This new design makes a highly effective sampling technology available on modern-day direct push sampling equipment to inform myriad questions about subsurface biogeochemistry processes. The re-design of the freezing drive shoe was supported by the USGS Innovation Center for Earth Sciences. References: Murphy, Fred, and W. N. Herkelrath. "A sample

  12. Semi-automatic surface sediment sampling system - A prototype to be implemented in bivalve fishing surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, Marta M.; Baptista, Paulo; Pereira, Fábio; Gaspar, Miguel B.

    2018-01-01

    In the current work we propose a new method to sample surface sediment during bivalve fishing surveys. Fishing institutes all around the word carry out regular surveys with the aim of monitoring the stocks of commercial species. These surveys comprise often more than one hundred of sampling stations and cover large geographical areas. Although superficial sediment grain sizes are among the main drivers of benthic communities and provide crucial information for studies on coastal dynamics, overall there is a strong lack of this type of data, possibly, because traditional surface sediment sampling methods use grabs, that require considerable time and effort to be carried out on regular basis or on large areas. In face of these aspects, we developed an easy and un-expensive method to sample superficial sediments, during bivalve fisheries monitoring surveys, without increasing survey time or human resources. The method was successfully evaluated and validated during a typical bivalve survey carried out on the Northwest coast of Portugal, confirming that it had any interference with the survey objectives. Furthermore, the method was validated by collecting samples using a traditional Van Veen grabs (traditional method), which showed a similar grain size composition to the ones collected by the new method, on the same localities. We recommend that the procedure is implemented on regular bivalve fishing surveys, together with an image analysis system to analyse the collected samples. The new method will provide substantial quantity of data on surface sediment in coastal areas, using a non-expensive and efficient manner, with a high potential application in different fields of research.

  13. Additional Sediment/Soil Sampling Conducted at the Little Sioux Bend Shallow Water Habitat Project Site during October 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    sediment/soil samples. The parameters that were analyzed in the laboratory for the collected sediment/soil samples are listed in Table 1. Table 1... Parameters analyzed in the laboratory for the collected sediment/soil samples. Parameter Method Detection Limit PHYSICAL AND AGGREGATE PROPERTIES...0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 - 2 2 - 4 4 - 6 6 - 8 8 - 10 Percent Compostion of Sediment/Soil Samples Collected at Site LS-D1 D ep th In te rv

  14. Phaeobacterium nitratireducens gen. nov., sp. nov., a phototrophic gammaproteobacterium isolated from a mangrove forest sediment sample

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nupur, P.; Srinivas, T.N.R.; Takaichi, S.; AnilKumar, P.

    A novel brown-coloured, Gram-negative-staining, rod-shaped, motile, phototrophic, purple sulfur bacterium, designated strain AK40T , was isolated in pure culture from a sediment sample collected from Coringa mangrove forest, India. Strain...

  15. Using bioavailability to assess contaminated sediment risk: Passive sampling and Pore Water Remedial Guidelines (PWRGs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosted by the Contaminated Sediment Forum, this half-day course will introduce the RPM to the use of passive samplers to assess bioavailability and in ecological risk assessment. Passive sampling devices (PSD) are a technology with growing acceptance for measuring porewater conce...

  16. Assessment of the Heavy Metal Pollution in the Sediment samples of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the levels of selected metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe and Pb) concentrations were measured by Flame Emission Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FL-AAS) in sediment (sludge) samples collected from 10 different Canals in and around the Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) area of Bangladesh. The analysis ...

  17. Preparation Of Deposited Sediment Sample By Casting Method For Environmental Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutabarat, Tommy; Ristin PI, Evarista

    2000-01-01

    The preparation of deposited sediment sample by c asting m ethod for environmental study has been carried out. This method comprises separation of size fraction and casting process. The deposited sediment samples were wet sieved to separate the size fraction of >500 mum, (250-500) mum, (125-250) mum and (63-125) mum and settling procedures were followed for the separation of (40-63) mum, (20-40) mum, (10-20) mum and o C, ashed at 450 o C, respectively. In the casting process of sample, it was used polyester rapid cure resin and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) hardener. The moulded sediment sample was poured onto caster, allow for 60 hours long. The aim of this method is to get the casted sample which can be used effectively, efficiently and to be avoided from contamination of each other samples. Before casting, samples were grinded up to be fine. The result shows that casting product is ready to be used for natural radionuclide analysis

  18. Comparing catchment sediment fingerprinting procedures using an auto-evaluation approach with virtual sample mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón, Leticia; Latorre, Borja; Gaspar, Leticia; Blake, William H; Smith, Hugh G; Navas, Ana

    2015-11-01

    Information on sediment sources in river catchments is required for effective sediment control strategies, to understand sediment, nutrient and pollutant transport, and for developing soil erosion management plans. Sediment fingerprinting procedures are employed to quantify sediment source contributions and have become a widely used tool. As fingerprinting procedures are naturally variable and locally dependant, there are different applications of the procedure. Here, the auto-evaluation of different fingerprinting procedures using virtual sample mixtures is proposed to support the selection of the fingerprinting procedure with the best capacity for source discrimination and apportionment. Surface samples from four land uses from a Central Spanish Pyrenean catchment were used i) as sources to generate the virtual sample mixtures and ii) to characterise the sources for the fingerprinting procedures. The auto-evaluation approach involved comparing fingerprinting procedures based on four optimum composite fingerprints selected by three statistical tests, three source characterisations (mean, median and corrected mean) and two types of objective functions for the mixing model. A total of 24 fingerprinting procedures were assessed by this new approach which were solved by Monte Carlo simulations and compared using the root mean squared error (RMSE) between known and assessed source ascriptions for the virtual sample mixtures. It was found that the source ascriptions with the highest accuracy were achieved using the corrected mean source characterisations for the composite fingerprints selected by the Kruskal Wallis H-test and principal components analysis. Based on the RMSE results, high goodness of fit (GOF) values were not always indicative of accurate source apportionment results, and care should be taken when using GOF to assess mixing model performance. The proposed approach to test different fingerprinting procedures using virtual sample mixtures provides an

  19. Determination of radioactivity levels and hazards of soil and sediment samples in Firtina Valley (Rize, Turkey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnaz, A.; Kuecuekoemeroglu, B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, TR 61080 (Turkey); Keser, R.; Okumusoglu, N.T.; Korkmaz, F. [Department of Physics, University of Rize, Rize, TR 53100 (Turkey); Karahan, G. [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center P.O. Box 1, Atatuerk Airport, Istanbul, TR 34381 (Turkey); Cevik, U. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, TR 61080 (Turkey)], E-mail: ugurc@ktu.edu.tr

    2007-11-15

    The natural radioactivity levels in soil and sediment samples of Firtina Valley have been determined. To our knowledge, there seems to be no information about radioactivity level in the Firtina Valley soils and sediments so far. For this reason, soil and sediment samples were collected along the Firtina Valley and analysis on the collected samples were carried out to determine {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs radioisotopes using high purity germanium detector. The activity concentrations obtained for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 214}Pb, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Ac, {sup 208}Tl, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs are given in the unit of Bq/kg. The results have been compared with other radioactivity measurements in different country's soils and sediments. The radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), the absorbed dose rate (D), the external hazard index (H{sub ex}), the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) and the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) were also calculated and compared with the international recommended values.

  20. A new collector for in situ pore water sampling in wetland sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Deng, Jiancai; Li, Qinqin; Hu, Liuming; Zhu, Jinge; Hang, Hongjuan; Hu, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    Currently available pore water samplers generally do not allow continuous monitoring of temporal variations in pore water composition. Therefore, a new type of pore water collector was designed and constructed. These collectors were constructed of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials, including PVC tubing with one end sealed and another end topped with a removable PVC screw-cap. A row of holes was drilled 10 cm from the sealed end of each collector. These new collectors were deployed in different layers of the sediment in a constructed wetland in Lake Taihu, China, to reveal variations in the nutrient composition of pore water with high spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically, the collectors were driven into the sediment, and the pore water flowed into the tubing via gravity. The pore water was then sampled from the PVC tubing using a portable vacuum pump, and then was taken to the lab within 20 min for analysis of the dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrient concentration. The DO concentration of the pore water was below the detection limit for all samples, indicating that the pore water was probably not influenced by the air and that the water in the collector tube was representative of the pore water. These findings suggest that the collector is capable of measuring the temporal and spatial variations in the nutrient concentrations in pore water. Furthermore, the inexpensive material, ease of construction, minimal disturbance to the sediment and applicability for wetland sediments are advantages of the collector presented here compared with traditional pore water sampling techniques.

  1. Assessment of metal concentrations in sediment samples from Billings Reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostelmann, Eleine

    2006-01-01

    The present study chemically characterized sediment samples from the Billings reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, in the Metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, by determining metal concentration and other elements of interest. The chosen chemical parameters for this characterization were Aluminum, Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Selenium and Zinco. These parameters are also used in the water quality index, with the exception of Selenium. The concentrations were determined through different analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, GFAAS and CVAAS), optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and neutron activation analysis. These analytical methodologies were assessed for precision, accuracy and detection and/or quantification limits for the sediment elements in question. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique for each element and its concentration were also discussed. From these assessments the most adequate technique was selected for the routine analysis of sediment samples for each element concentration determination. This assessment verified also that digestion in a closed microwave system with nitric acid is efficient for the evaluation of extracted metals of environmental interest. The analytical techniques chosen were equally efficient for metals determination. In the case of Cd and Pb, the FAAS technique was selected due to better results than ICP OES, as it does not present matrix interference. The concentration values obtained for metals As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) TEL and PEL values. (author)

  2. Assessment of metal concentrations in sediment samples from Billings reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostelmann, Eleine

    2006-01-01

    The present study chemically characterized sediment samples from the Billings reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, in the Metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, by determining metal concentration and other elements of interest. The chosen chemical parameters for this characterization were Aluminum, Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Selenium and Zinc. These parameters are also used in the water quality index, with the exception of Selenium. The concentrations were determined through different analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, GFAAS and CVAAS), optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and neutron activation analysis. These analytical methodologies were assessed for precision, accuracy and detection and/or quantification limits for the sediment elements in question. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique for each element and its concentration were also discussed. From these assessment the most adequate technique was selected for the routine analysis of sediment samples for each element concentration determination. This assessment verified also that digestion in a closed microwave system with nitric acid is efficient for the evaluation of extracted metals of environmental interest. The analytical techniques chosen were equally efficient for metals determination. In the case of Cd and Pb, the FAAS technique was selected due to better results than ICP OES, as it does not present matrix interference. The concentration values obtained for metals As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) TEL and PEL values. (author)

  3. Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff R. Hupp; Michael R. Schening

    2000-01-01

    Sedimentation is arguably the most important water-quality concern in the United States. Sediment trapping is cited frequently as a major function of riverine-forested wetlands, yet little is known about sedimcntation rates at the landscape scale in relation to site parameters, including woody vegetation type, elevation, velocity, and hydraulic connection to the river...

  4. Analysis of high-level radioactive slurries as a method to reduce DWPF turnaround times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.; Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Hay, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) samples as slurries rather than as dried or vitrified samples is an effective way to reduce sample turnaround times. Slurries can be dissolved with a mixture of concentrated acids to yield solutions for elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Slurry analyses can be performed in eight hours, whereas analyses of vitrified samples require up to 40 hours to complete. Analyses of melter feed samples consisting of the DWPF borosilicate frit and either simulated or actual DWPF radioactive sludge were typically within a range of 3--5% of the predicted value based on the relative amounts of sludge and frit added to the slurry. The results indicate that the slurry analysis approach yields analytical accuracy and precision competitive with those obtained from analyses of vitrified samples. Slurry analyses offer a viable alternative to analyses of solid samples as a simple way to reduce analytical turnaround times

  5. Uranium and plutonium containing particles in a sea sediment sample from Thule, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moring, M.; Ikäheimonen, T.K.; Pöllänen, R.

    2001-01-01

    Particles composed of radioactive materials and probably originating from US nuclear weapons were identified in sea sediment samples collected from Thule, Greenland in 1997. The weapons were destroyed close to the Thule Air Base in 1968 in an aeroplane crash, which dispersed radioactive materials...... in the environment. The presence of particulate radioactive materials in the sediment samples was revealed by combining gamma-spectrometry and autoradiography. Isolation and separation of a radioactive particle from a bulk sample were performed using autoradiography, phosphor plate imaging and scanning electron...... microscopy. Using X-ray microanalysis as well as alpha and beta activity analysis, U and weapons-grade Pu were detected in the granular, brittle particle....

  6. Results of elemental analyses of water and waterborne sediment samples from the Fairbanks NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.; Aamodt, P.L; Hill, D.E.

    1979-04-01

    During the late spring and then again in late summer, 1977, lake and stream water and bottom sediment samples were collected at a nominal density of one location every 16 km 2 from throughout the approximate 16,500-km 2 area of the Fairbanks NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. These samples were collected using standard procedures by investigators from the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, as part of a special Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) study to identify variance in total uranium contents related to natural factors such as seasonal changes, source types, and geologic/geographic environments. Histograms and statistical summaries of total uranium in a number of sample populations presented herein indicate that water samples collected in late summer have a mean uranium content that is slightly higher than the mean for waters collected in the spring. Dilution and/or evaporative concentration are possible causes for this difference. Sediment samples collected from streams and springs have a slightly higher mean uranium content than those collected from lakes, and this is consistent with HSSR data from other Alaskan areas. The Alaskan investigators will complete a detailed analysis of variance study of these data in the near future and a second open-file report will be forthcoming upon its completion

  7. Characteristics of hydrocarbons in sediment core samples from the northern Okinawa Trough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Chen, Shuai; Zeng, Zhigang; Pu, Xiaoqiang; Hou, Qinghua

    2017-02-15

    Sediment core samples from the northern Okinawa Trough (OT) were analyzed to determine abundances and distributions of hydrocarbons by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the n-alkanes in this sediment core conform to a bimodal distribution, and exhibit an odd-to-even predominance of high molecular weights compared to an even-to-odd predominance in low molecular weight n-alkanes with maxima at C 16 and C 18 . The concentrations of bitumen, alkanes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were higher in samples S10-07 than all others. Three maturity parameters as well as the ratios between parent phenanthrenes (Ps) and methylphenanthrenes (MPs) in samples S10-07 and S10-17 were higher. The distribution and composition of hydrocarbons in sample S10-07 suggest that one, or several, undetected hydrothermal fields may be present in the region of this sediment core. Results also suggest that volcanism may be the main reason for the observed distribution and composition of hydrocarbons in S10-17 sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs

  9. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  10. Ammonia abatement by slurry acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Hutchings, Nicholas J.; Hafner, Sasha D.

    2016-01-01

    Livestock production systems can be major sources of trace gases including ammonia (NH3), the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and odorous compounds such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Short-term campaigns have indicated that acidification of livestock slurry during in...... sections with 30-32 pigs with or without daily adjustment of slurry pH to below 6. Ammonia losses from reference sections with untreated slurry were between 9.5 and 12.4% of N excreted, and from sections with acidified slurry between 3.1 and 6.2%. Acidification reduced total emissions of NH3 by 66 and 71...

  11. Preconcentration and determination of heavy metals in water, sediment and biological samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirkhanloo Hamid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a simple, sensitive and accurate column preconcentration method was developed for the determination of Cd, Cu and Pb ions in river water, urine and sediment samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The procedure is based on the retention of the analytes on a mixed cellulose ester membrane (MCEM column from buffered sample solutions and then their elution from the column with nitric acid. Several parameters, such as pH of the sample solution, volume of the sample and eluent and flow rates of the sample were evaluated. The effects of diverse ions on the preconcentration were also investigated. The recoveries were >95 %. The developed method was applied to the determination of trace metal ions in river water, urine and sediment samples, with satisfactory results. The 3δ detection limits for Cu, Pb and Cd were found to be 2, 3 and 0.2 μg dm−3, respectively. The presented procedure was successfully applied for determination of the copper, lead and cadmium contents in real samples, i.e., river water and biological samples.

  12. 2010 Maule (Chile) and AD 1755 (Portugal) tsunami sediment samples: limitations of microtextural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro; Silva, Diogo; Figueirinhas, Leonor; Lario, Javier

    2017-04-01

    The innovative application of microtextural analysis to the study of sandy tsunamigenic sediments has been sparsely attempted over recent years. Despite having demonstrated potential as a provenance tool, its reliability as a discriminant proxy for these deposits is still a matter under discussion. This is mainly due to the subjectivity of the analysis that heavily relies on operator proficiency but also to specificities of the data set (e.g. post-depositional dissolution masking other microtextures). To address these issues, a double-blind simplified microtextural classification was tested by 3 independent observers, using more than 600 Scanning Electron Microscope images of sandy samples retrieved after the February 2010 Chilean tsunami. These were compared with approximately 15 AD 1755 tsunamigenic samples (app. 250 SEM images) retrieved from south Portugal. Comparison with a limited number of potential tsunami source sediment (beach and dune) was attempted to establish provenance relationships. Grains were classified into four main microtextural families (A-fresh surfaces, B- percussion marks, C- dissolution and D- adhering particles) according to its most recent microtextural imprint (A to D) thus indicating the last event responsible for microtextural imprints. In the Chilean samples the dominance of chemical marks (dissolution and adhering particles) was obvious. Combining these two microtextures, all samples presented results >69%. On the other hand, the Portuguese samples presented a much stronger presence of mechanical marks (e.g. percussion marks present up to 59%). Reasons behind different results in the Chilean and Portuguese samples raise serious questions regarding the application of microtextural analysis to the study of tsunami deposits. Nevertheless, the discrepancies observed can also be explain by a one or a combination of the following factors: different geomorphological setting (with the presence of dunes in the Portuguese case), higher

  13. Archival policies and collections database for the Woods Hole Science Center's marine sediment samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Brian J.; Kelsey, Sarah A.

    2007-01-01

    The Woods Hole Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been an active member of the Woods Hole research community, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for over 40 years. In that time there have been many projects that involved the collection of sediment samples conducted by USGS scientists and technicians for the research and study of seabed environments and processes. These samples were collected at sea or near shore and then brought back to the Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) for analysis. While at the center, samples are stored in ambient temperature, refrigerated and freezing conditions ranging from +2º Celsius to -18º Celsius, depending on the best mode of preparation for the study being conducted or the duration of storage planned for the samples. Recently, storage methods and available storage space have become a major concern at the WHSC. The core and sediment archive program described herein has been initiated to set standards for the management, methods, and duration of sample storage. A need has arisen to maintain organizational consistency and define storage protocol. This handbook serves as a reference and guide to all parties interested in using and accessing the WHSC's sample archive and also defines all the steps necessary to construct and maintain an organized collection of geological samples. It answers many questions as to the way in which the archive functions.

  14. Search for Martian fossil communities: Science strategies, sediment sites, and sample handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The strategy for locating and sampling possible fossilized Martian organisms benefits from our experience with fossil microbial ecosystems on Earth. Evidence of early life is typically preserved as stromatolites in carbonates and cherts, and as microfossils in cherts, carbonates and shales. Stromatolites, which are laminated flat or domal structures built by microbial communities, are very likely the oldest and most widespread relics of early life. These communities flourished in supratidal to subtidal coastal benthic environments, wherever sunlight was available and where incoming sediments were insufficient to bury the communities before they became established. A logical site for such communities on Mars might be those areas in an ancient lake bed which were furthest from sediment input, but were still sufficiently shallow to have received sunlight. Therefore, although some sites within Valles Marineris might have contained ponded water, the possibly abundant sediment inputs might have overwhelmed stromatolite-like communities. Localized depressions which acted as catchment basins for ancient branched valley systems might be superior sites. Perhaps such depressions received drainage which, because of the relatively modest water discharges implied for these streams, was relatively low in transported sediment. Multiple streams converging on a single basin might have been able to maintain a shallow water environment for extended periods of time.

  15. Report on water quality, sediment and water chemistry data for water and sediment samples collected from source areas to Melton Hill and Watts Bar reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaszewski, T.M.; Bruggink, D.J.; Nunn, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Contamination of surface water and sediments in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) system as a result of past and present activities by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and also activities by non-ORR facilities are being studied by the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). Previous studies have documented the presence of heavy metals, organics, and radionuclides in the sediments of reservoirs in the vicinity. In support of the CR-ERP, during the summer of 1991, TVA collected and evaluated water and sediment samples from swimming areas and municipal water intakes on Watts Bar Reservoir, Melton Hill Reservoir and Norris Reservoir, which was considered a source of less-contaminated reference or background data. Despite the numerous studies, until the current work documented by this report, relatively few sediment or water samples had been collected by the CR-ERP in the immediate vicinity of contaminant point sources. This work focused on water and sediment samples taken from points immediately downstream from suspected effluent point sources both on and off the ORR. In August and September, 1994, TVA sampled surface water and sediment at twelve locations in melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs

  16. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Heidi H; Enemark, Heidi L; Olsen, Annette; Amin, M G Mostofa; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-09-01

    The potential for the transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a 4-week period, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method, although recovery rates were low (vertical distribution of oocysts, with more oocysts recovered from soil columns added liquid slurry irrespective of the irrigation status. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether the application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for groundwater contamination compared to application of raw slurry.

  17. Debris flow rheology: Experimental analysis of fine-grained slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jon J.; Pierson, Thomas C.

    1992-01-01

    The rheology of slurries consisting of ≤2-mm sediment from a natural debris flow deposit was measured using a wide-gap concentric-cylinder viscometer. The influence of sediment concentration and size and distribution of grains on the bulk rheological behavior of the slurries was evaluated at concentrations ranging from 0.44 to 0.66. The slurries exhibit diverse rheological behavior. At shear rates above 5 s−1 the behavior approaches that of a Bingham material; below 5 s−1, sand exerts more influence and slurry behavior deviates from the Bingham idealization. Sand grain interactions dominate the mechanical behavior when sand concentration exceeds 0.2; transient fluctuations in measured torque, time-dependent decay of torque, and hysteresis effects are observed. Grain rubbing, interlocking, and collision cause changes in packing density, particle distribution, grain orientation, and formation and destruction of grain clusters, which may explain the observed behavior. Yield strength and plastic viscosity exhibit order-of-magnitude variation when sediment concentration changes as little as 2–4%. Owing to these complexities, it is unlikely that debris flows can be characterized by a single rheological model.

  18. Sorption of 17β-estradiol to pig slurry separates and soil in the soil-slurry environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M G Mostofa; Petersen, Søren O; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of freshwater by estrogens from manure applied to agricultural land is of grave concern because of the potentially harmful effects on aquatic life and human health. Recent developments in liquid manure (slurry) management include partial removal of particulate slurry dry matter (PSDM) by separation technologies, which may also remove parts of the estrogens and enhance infiltration of the slurry on field application and hence the interaction between estrogens and the soil matrix. This study investigated how 17β-estradiol (E2), a natural estrogen commonly found in pig manure, sorbs to agricultural soils, to different size fractions of pig slurry separates, and to soils amended with each size fraction to simulate conditions in the soil-slurry environment. A crude fiber fraction (SS1) was prepared by sieving (solids removed by an on-farm separation process. Three other size fractions (SS2 > SS3 > SS4) were prepared from the liquid fraction of the separated slurry by sedimentation and centrifugation. Sorption experiments were conducted in 0.01 mol L(-1) CaCl(2) and in natural pig urine matrix. Sorption in 0.01 mol L(-1) CaCl(2) was higher than that in pig urine for all solids used. Sorption of E2 to soil increased with its organic carbon content for both liquid phases. The solid-liquid partition coefficients of slurry separates were 10 to 30 times higher than those of soils, but the organoic carbon normalized partition coefficient values, reflecting sorption per unit organic carbon, were lower for slurry separates. Mixing slurry separates with soil increased the sorption of E2 to the solid phase significantly in the order: SS1 solid phase by increasing the sorption to suspended or dissolved organic matter. The study suggested that potentially 50 to 75% of E2 in slurry can be removed from the liquid fraction of slurry by physical separation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of

  19. Distribution of 137Cs in samples of ocean bottom sediments of the baltic sea in 1982-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedenov, L.I.; Flegontov, V.M.; Ivanova, L.M.; Kostandov, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    The concentration of Cs-137 in samples of ocean bottom sediments picked up in 1979 in the Gulf of Finland with a geological nozzle pipe varied within a wide interval of values. The results could indicate nonuniformity of the Cs-137 distribution in ocean bottom sediments as well as the penetration of significant amounts of Cs-137 to large depths. The main error resulted from the sampling technique employed because the upper part of the sediment could be lost. In 1982, a special ground-sampling device, with which the upper layer of sediments in the water layer close to the ocean bottom could be sampled, was tested in the Gulf of Finland and the Northeastern part of the Baltic Sea. The results of a layerwise determination of the Cs-137 concentration in samples of ocean bottom sediments of the Gulf of Finland and of the Baltic Sea are listed. The new soil-sampling device for picking samples of ocean sediments of undisturbed stratification will allow a correct determination of the radionuclide accumulation in the upper layers of ocean bottom sediments in the Baltic Sea

  20. Metal quantification in water and sediment samples of billings reservoir by SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, Sergio Arnaud; Moreira, Silvana; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de

    2007-01-01

    Billings is the largest reservoir water of the metropolitan Sao Paulo area, with approximately 100km 2 of water. Its basin hydrographic occupies more than 500km 2 in six cities. It concentrates the largest industrial park of South America and only its margins are busy for almost a million inhabitants. The quality of its waters is, therefore, constant of concern of the whole society. In this work the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) is applied for the identification and quantification of metals in waters and sediments of the Billings dam. A comparison of the levels of metals found with the maximum permissive limits established by the Brazilian legislation was made. The purpose of social context is to contribute for the preservation of the local springs and the rational use of its waters. For the field work they were chosen 19 collection points, included the margins and the central portion of the dam, in agreement with similar approaches the those adopted by the Company of Technology of Environmental Sanitation of Sao Paulo State (CETESB).The water and sediment samples, as well as the certified and standard samples, were analyzed at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, SP, Brazil. Results indicate that the water and the sediments of the reservoir have concentrations above the legal limits. (author)

  1. Metal quantification in water and sediment samples of billings reservoir by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, Sergio Arnaud; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mails: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; sergioarnaud@hotmail.com; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br

    2007-07-01

    Billings is the largest reservoir water of the metropolitan Sao Paulo area, with approximately 100km{sup 2} of water. Its basin hydrographic occupies more than 500km{sup 2} in six cities. It concentrates the largest industrial park of South America and only its margins are busy for almost a million inhabitants. The quality of its waters is, therefore, constant of concern of the whole society. In this work the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) is applied for the identification and quantification of metals in waters and sediments of the Billings dam. A comparison of the levels of metals found with the maximum permissive limits established by the Brazilian legislation was made. The purpose of social context is to contribute for the preservation of the local springs and the rational use of its waters. For the field work they were chosen 19 collection points, included the margins and the central portion of the dam, in agreement with similar approaches the those adopted by the Company of Technology of Environmental Sanitation of Sao Paulo State (CETESB).The water and sediment samples, as well as the certified and standard samples, were analyzed at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, SP, Brazil. Results indicate that the water and the sediments of the reservoir have concentrations above the legal limits. (author)

  2. Determination of 226Ra and 224Ra in sediments samples by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, M.; Moreno, H.P.; Manjon, G.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental procedure has been developed for a rapid determination of the activity concentration of 226 Ra and 224 Ra in sediments by liquid scintillation counting. The importance of the method lies in its application to the measurement of sediments where the Ra-isotopes activity concentration has been increased due to an anthropomorphic enhancement based on releases of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). A sample pre-treatment, including a digestion with aqua regia and a precipitation of hydroxides, was applied to samples before the radium extraction, which was made by co-precipitation with barium. Measurements were done in a low background scintillation spectrometer Quantulus 1220, which can separate and detect simultaneously α and β particles. Additionally, some improvements are suggested for a better α and β interference correction of the results. The obtaining of radiochemical yields is also improved using 133 Ba as tracer, which decays by emission of conversion electrons and γ-rays; the wide range of radiochemical yields obtained confirms the need of this analyses. The procedure has been applied to the measurement of riverbed sediments from an estuary in the south-west of Spain, affected in the past by direct and indirect phosphogypsum discharges

  3. Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, and concentrate sample media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granitto, Matthew; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    This database was initiated, designed, and populated to collect and integrate geochemical data from central Colorado in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessment, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessment, and medical geology. The Microsoft Access database serves as a geochemical data warehouse in support of the Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP) and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses determined by 70 analytical laboratory and field methods for 47,478 rock, sediment, soil, and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed either in the analytical laboratories of the USGS or by contract with commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects. In addition, geochemical data from 7,470 sediment and soil samples collected and analyzed under the Atomic Energy Commission National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program (henceforth called NURE) have been included in this database. In addition to data from 2,377 samples collected and analyzed under CCAP, this dataset includes archived geochemical data originally entered into the in-house Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database (used by the USGS from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s) and the in-house PLUTO database (used by the USGS from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s). All of these data are maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB and from the NURE database were used to generate most of this dataset. In addition, USGS data that have been excluded previously from the NGDB because the data predate earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons

  4. A novel method for sampling the suspended sediment load in the tidal environment using bi-directional time-integrated mass-flux sediment (TIMS) samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Emily A.; Monbureau, Elaine; Walters, Glenn W.; Elliott, Mark A.; McKee, Brent A.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.

    2017-12-01

    Identifying the source and abundance of sediment transported within tidal creeks is essential for studying the connectivity between coastal watersheds and estuaries. The fine-grained suspended sediment load (SSL) makes up a substantial portion of the total sediment load carried within an estuarine system and efficient sampling of the SSL is critical to our understanding of nutrient and contaminant transport, anthropogenic influence, and the effects of climate. Unfortunately, traditional methods of sampling the SSL, including instantaneous measurements and automatic samplers, can be labor intensive, expensive and often yield insufficient mass for comprehensive geochemical analysis. In estuaries this issue is even more pronounced due to bi-directional tidal flow. This study tests the efficacy of a time-integrated mass sediment sampler (TIMS) design, originally developed for uni-directional flow within the fluvial environment, modified in this work for implementation the tidal environment under bi-directional flow conditions. Our new TIMS design utilizes an 'L' shaped outflow tube to prevent backflow, and when deployed in mirrored pairs, each sampler collects sediment uniquely in one direction of tidal flow. Laboratory flume experiments using dye and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were used to characterize the flow within the sampler, specifically, to quantify the settling velocities and identify stagnation points. Further laboratory tests of sediment indicate that bidirectional TIMS capture up to 96% of incoming SSL across a range of flow velocities (0.3-0.6 m s-1). The modified TIMS design was tested in the field at two distinct sampling locations within the tidal zone. Single-time point suspended sediment samples were collected at high and low tide and compared to time-integrated suspended sediment samples collected by the bi-directional TIMS over the same four-day period. Particle-size composition from the bi-directional TIMS were representative of the array of

  5. Standard operating procedures for collection of soil and sediment samples for the Sediment-bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response (SCoRR) strategy pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Shawn C.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Jones, Daniel K.; Benzel, William M.; Griffin, Dale W.; Loftin, Keith A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Cohl, Jonathan A.

    2015-12-17

    An understanding of the effects on human and ecological health brought by major coastal storms or flooding events is typically limited because of a lack of regionally consistent baseline and trends data in locations proximal to potential contaminant sources and mitigation activities, sensitive ecosystems, and recreational facilities where exposures are probable. In an attempt to close this gap, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has implemented the Sediment-bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response (SCoRR) strategy pilot study to collect regional sediment-quality data prior to and in response to future coastal storms. The standard operating procedure (SOP) detailed in this document serves as the sample-collection protocol for the SCoRR strategy by providing step-by-step instructions for site preparation, sample collection and processing, and shipping of soil and surficial sediment (for example, bed sediment, marsh sediment, or beach material). The objectives of the SCoRR strategy pilot study are (1) to create a baseline of soil-, sand-, marsh sediment-, and bed-sediment-quality data from sites located in the coastal counties from Maine to Virginia based on their potential risk of being contaminated in the event of a major coastal storm or flooding (defined as Resiliency mode); and (2) respond to major coastal storms and flooding by reoccupying select baseline sites and sampling within days of the event (defined as Response mode). For both modes, samples are collected in a consistent manner to minimize bias and maximize quality control by ensuring that all sampling personnel across the region collect, document, and process soil and sediment samples following the procedures outlined in this SOP. Samples are analyzed using four USGS-developed screening methods—inorganic geochemistry, organic geochemistry, pathogens, and biological assays—which are also outlined in this SOP. Because the SCoRR strategy employs a multi-metric approach for sample analyses, this

  6. Characterization of Tank 51 Sludge Slurry Samples (HTF-51-17-67, -68, -69, -74, -75, and -76) in Support of Sludge Batch 10 Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-09

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Engineering (SRR-E) to provide sample characterization and analyses of Tank 51 sludge samples in support of Sludge Batch (SB) 10. The six Tank 51 sludge samples were sampled and delivered to SRNL in August of 2017. These six Tank 51 sludge samples, after undergoing physical characterizations which included rheology, weight percent total solid, dissolved solids and density measurements, were combined into one composite Tank 51 sample and analyzed for corrosion controls analytes, select radionuclides, chemical elements, density and weight percent total solids.

  7. Experience with an alternative form of samples for external quality assessment of urinary sediment (visual sample EQA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William Graham; Schwarz, Patrick; Illigen, Dirk; Fried, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Urinary sediment components are mainly unstable, especially in their original forms. This makes the use of such material in routine external quality assessment surveys (EQAS) almost impossible. The development of an alternative EQAS for urinary sediment using photomicrographs (visual-sample EQAS) is described here, together with results, improvements and future plans. The original survey allowed a free-text interpretation, which proved to be time consuming and impractical. The next phase included a multiple choice answer (one from five alternatives). The current version challenges the participant with a list of over 50 alternatives, together with a "not-in-the-list" possibility. Certain elements are always interpreted more correctly (examples: erythrocytes, squamous cells, renal epithelial cells, bacteria--above 90%) than others (examples: leukocytes, fat droplets, certain crystals--below 55%). Pictures are included which are atypical (for example: decoy cells, which must be interpreted correctly, other artefacts). Occasionally interesting structures are included, but which are not evaluated. The two-dimensional pictures often limited the interpretation possibilities, so that in such cases more than one answer was allowed. The possibility of "online microscopy" using staple pictures is at present in evaluation. The acceptance of this type of EQAS is seen by the number of participants, at present over 500 per survey, four surveys per year.

  8. Arsenic pollution and fractionation in sediments and mine waste samples from different mine sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larios, Raquel; Fernandez-Martinez, Rodolfo [Unidad de Espectroscopia, Division de Quimica, Departamento de Tecnologia, CIEMAT. Av. Complutense, 40, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Alvarez, Rodrigo [Dpto. de Explotacion y Prospeccion de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, ETS de Ingenieros de Minas, C/Independencia, 13, E-33004 Oviedo (Spain); Rucandio, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.rucandio@ciemat.es [Unidad de Espectroscopia, Division de Quimica, Departamento de Tecnologia, CIEMAT. Av. Complutense, 40, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-01

    A characterization of arsenic pollution and its associations with solid mineral phases in sediments and spoil heap samples from four different abandoned mines in Spain is performed. Three of them were mercury mines located in the same mining district, in the province of Asturias, and the other one, devoted to arsenic mining, is in the province of Leon. A sequential extraction procedure, especially developed for arsenic, was applied for the study of arsenic partitioning. Very high total arsenic concentrations ranging 300-67,000 mg{center_dot}kg{sup -1} were found. Arsenic fractionation in each mine is broadly in accordance with the mineralogy of the area and the extent of the mine workings. In almost all the studied samples, arsenic appeared predominantly associated with iron oxyhydroxides, especially in the amorphous form. Sediments from cinnabar roasted piles showed a higher arsenic mobility as a consequence of an intense ore treatment, posing an evident risk of arsenic spread to the surroundings. Samples belonging to waste piles where the mining activity was less intense presented a higher proportion of arsenic associated with structural minerals. Nevertheless, it represents a long-term source of arsenic to the environment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic fractionation in sediments from different mining areas is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A sequential extraction scheme especially designed for arsenic partitioning is applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As associations with mineral pools is in accordance to the mineralogy of each area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As distribution and mobility in each area depends on the extent of mining activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As occurs mainly associated with amorphous iron oxyhydroxides in all samples.

  9. Determination of methylmercury in marine sediment samples: Method validation and occurrence data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, Luis; Vassileva, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for MeHg determination at trace level in marine sediments is completely validated. • Validation is performed according to ISO-17025 and Eurachem guidelines. • The extraction efficiency of four sample preparation procedures is evaluated. • The uncertainty budget is used as a tool for evaluation of main uncertainty contributors. • Comparison with independent methods yields good agreement within stated uncertainty. - Abstract: The determination of methylmercury (MeHg) in sediment samples is a difficult task due to the extremely low MeHg/THg (total mercury) ratio and species interconversion. Here, we present the method validation of a cost-effective fit-for-purpose analytical procedure for the measurement of MeHg in sediments, which is based on aqueous phase ethylation, followed by purge and trap and hyphenated gas chromatography–pyrolysis–atomic fluorescence spectrometry (GC–Py–AFS) separation and detection. Four different extraction techniques, namely acid and alkaline leaching followed by solvent extraction and evaporation, microwave-assisted extraction with 2-mercaptoethanol, and acid leaching, solvent extraction and back extraction into sodium thiosulfate, were examined regarding their potential to selectively extract MeHg from estuarine sediment IAEA-405 certified reference material (CRM). The procedure based on acid leaching with HNO 3 /CuSO 4 , solvent extraction and back extraction into Na 2 S 2 O 3 yielded the highest extraction recovery, i.e., 94 ± 3% and offered the possibility to perform the extraction of a large number of samples in a short time, by eliminating the evaporation step. The artifact formation of MeHg was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC–ICP–MS), using isotopically enriched Me 201 Hg and 202 Hg and it was found to be nonexistent. A full validation approach in line with ISO 17025 and Eurachem guidelines was followed

  10. Sample collection: an overview of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    A Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) for uranium is currently being conducted throughout the conterminous United States and Alaska. The HSSR is part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This ambitious geochemical reconnaissance program is conducted by four national laboratories: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and Savannah River Laboratory. The program is based on an extensive review of world literature, reconnaissance work done in other countries, and pilot studies conducted by each laboratory. Sample-collection methods and sample density are determined to optimize the probability of detecting potential uranium mineralization. To achieve this aim, each laboratory has developed independent standardized field collection procedures that are designed for its section of the country. Field parameters such as pH, conductivity, climate, geography, and geology are recorded at each site. Most samples are collected at densities of one sample site per 10 to 23 km 2 . The HSSR program has helped to improve existing hydrogeochemical reconnaissance exploration techniques. In addition to providing industry with data that may help to identify potential uranium districts and to extend known uranium provinces, the HSSR also provides multi-element analytical data, which can be used in water quality, soil, sediment, environmental, and base-metal exploration studies

  11. Acute and chronic toxicity of sediment samples from Guanabara Bay (RJ during the rainy period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Alves Maranho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Guanabara Bay is a marine-estuarine environment of high ecological and socio-economic importance, subject to a variety of environmental impacts. Sediment is the eventual repository for most substances introduced into water bodies and may, therefore, provide an integrated measure of the environmental quality, which can be assessed by many different approaches. In this project, the quality of sediments from Guanabara Bay was evaluated by the ecotoxicological approach: whole-sediment toxicity tests, using Tiburonella viscana, and porewater, elutriate and sediment-water interface chronic toxicity tests, using embryos of Lytechinus variegatus, were applied. Sediments were collected at 14 sampling stations, distributed across the bay. Chronic tests showed significant toxicity in most of the sediment samples. Sediments from stations 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12 and 15 showed acute toxicity as well. The results of the different tests were well correlated, and their integration showed that the sediments analyzed were considered unsuitable for aquatic life, resulting in the environmental degradation of Guanabara Bay. In this context, the control of pollution sources and multi-purpose management are required to improve the environmental quality.A Baía de Guanabara é um ambiente marinho-estuarino de grande relevância ecológica e sócio-econômica, e sujeita a uma ampla gama de impactos ambientais. O sedimento é o principal destino para a maioria das substâncias introduzidas nos corpos d'água, podendo fornecer uma medida integrada da qualidade ambiental, a qual pode ser avaliada por várias abordagens. Neste projeto, a qualidade de sedimentos da Baía de Guanabara foi por uma abordagem ecotoxicológica, por meio de testes de toxicidade aguda de sedimento integral, utilizando Tiburonella viscana, e testes de toxicidade crônica de água intersticial, elutriato e interface sedimento-água, utilizando embriões de Lytechinus variegatus. Os sedimentos foram

  12. Sedimentation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rixen, T.; Guptha, M.V.S.; Ittekkot, V.

    through the water column but their trapping efficiency, and thus, their accuracy can be biased by hydrodynamic and biological effects (Lee et al., 1988; Gust et al., 1992; 1994). Scholten et al. (2001) showed that the 230 Thorium trapping efficiency... of sediment traps moored at different sites and water depths in eastern North Atlantic Ocean varies between 9 and 143%. In general, these trapping efficiencies increase with increasing water-depth (Scholten et al., 2001). By comparing data from various ocean...

  13. Chemical analysis and genotoxicity of high molecular mass PAH in sediment samples and biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarry, B.E.; Marvin, C.H.; Smith, R.W.; Bryant, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A normal phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) method was used to fractionate the organic extracts of prepared from coal tar-contaminated sediments from hamilton Harbor in Ontario and from Sydney Harbor in Nova Scotia into molecular mass classes. Each PAH fraction up to 302 amu was analyzed by GC-MS and fractions containing PAH with molecular masses greater than 302 amu were analyzed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) LC-MS.Each fraction was also subjected to Ames bioassays using a TA100-like strain of Salmonella typhimurium (YG1025 + S9). The 300/302 amu, 326/328 and 350/352 amu PAH fractions accounted for 25% of the total genotoxic response of the extract; these PAH constitute a substantial genotoxic burden. A number of 300, 302, 326, 350, 374 and 400 amu PAH were identified using APCI LC-MS and comparison with authentic standards. The non-polar aromatic extracts of bottom sediments, suspended sediments and zebra mussels from Hamilton Harbor were also examined by GC-MS, APCI LC-MS and genotoxicity bioassays. The profiles of the priority and high mass PAH in these samples were identical showing that all PAH up to and exceeding 400 amu were readily bioavailable to biota such as Zebra mussels. In addition, the pseudo faeces of the Zebra mussels and amphipod detritivores which fed on the pseudo faeces had chemical profiles identical to the Zebra mussels. Since many sport fish prize amphipods as food, this observation demonstrates a pathway for organic contaminants adsorbed to suspended sediments to enter the food chain of non-bottom-feeding fish in areas infested by Zebra mussels

  14. Advancing the Use of Passive Sampling in Risk Assessment and Management of Sediments Contaminated with Hydrophobic Organic Chemicals: Results of an International Ex Situ Passive Sampling Interlaboratory Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Michiel T O; van der Heijden, Stephan A; Adelman, Dave; Apell, Jennifer N; Burgess, Robert M; Choi, Yongju; Fernandez, Loretta A; Flavetta, Geanna M; Ghosh, Upal; Gschwend, Philip M; Hale, Sarah E; Jalalizadeh, Mehregan; Khairy, Mohammed; Lampi, Mark A; Lao, Wenjian; Lohmann, Rainer; Lydy, Michael J; Maruya, Keith A; Nutile, Samuel A; Oen, Amy M P; Rakowska, Magdalena I; Reible, Danny; Rusina, Tatsiana P; Smedes, Foppe; Wu, Yanwen

    2018-03-20

    This work presents the results of an international interlaboratory comparison on ex situ passive sampling in sediments. The main objectives were to map the state of the science in passively sampling sediments, identify sources of variability, provide recommendations and practical guidance for standardized passive sampling, and advance the use of passive sampling in regulatory decision making by increasing confidence in the use of the technique. The study was performed by a consortium of 11 laboratories and included experiments with 14 passive sampling formats on 3 sediments for 25 target chemicals (PAHs and PCBs). The resulting overall interlaboratory variability was large (a factor of ∼10), but standardization of methods halved this variability. The remaining variability was primarily due to factors not related to passive sampling itself, i.e., sediment heterogeneity and analytical chemistry. Excluding the latter source of variability, by performing all analyses in one laboratory, showed that passive sampling results can have a high precision and a very low intermethod variability (sampling, irrespective of the specific method used, is fit for implementation in risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments, provided that method setup and performance, as well as chemical analyses are quality-controlled.

  15. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  16. Slurry flow principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shook, C A; Brenner, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Slurry Flow: Principles and Practice describes the basic concepts and methods for understanding and designing slurry flow systems, in-plan installations, and long-distance transportation systems. The goal of this book is to enable the design or plant engineer to derive the maximum benefit from a limited amount of test data and to generalize operating experience to new situations. Design procedures are described in detail and are accompanied by illustrative examples needed by engineers with little or no previous experience in slurry transport.The technical literature in this field is extensive:

  17. Procedures for Handling and Chemical Analysis of Sediment and Water Samples,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    control program, beginning with sample collection. The three chemical tests that are described are: a. A short-term water leaching test (the standard...demand P, G 300 ml-2 Z 4 0 C 6 hr Chemical oxygen demand P, (3 200 ml H2S04 to pH < 2 7 days 4 °C PCB’s ( 2 Z 4°c Orranochlorine pesti- cides C I Z 40 C...the purpose of the study as discussed in Section 1. The elutriate test is a short-term, sediment- leaching procedure. It consists of agitating a known

  18. Assessment of selected contaminants in streambed- and suspended-sediment samples collected in Bexar County, Texas, 2007-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2011-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of sediment-associated contaminants are typically associated with urban areas such as San Antonio, Texas, in Bexar County, the seventh most populous city in the United States. This report describes an assessment of selected sediment-associated contaminants in samples collected in Bexar County from sites on the following streams: Medio Creek, Medina River, Elm Creek, Martinez Creek, Chupaderas Creek, Leon Creek, Salado Creek, and San Antonio River. During 2007-09, the U.S. Geological Survey periodically collected surficial streambed-sediment samples during base flow and suspended-sediment (large-volume suspended-sediment) samples from selected streams during stormwater runoff. All sediment samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and for organic compounds including halogenated organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Selected contaminants in streambed and suspended sediments in watersheds of the eight major streams in Bexar County were assessed by using a variety of methods—observations of occurrence and distribution, comparison to sediment-quality guidelines and data from previous studies, statistical analyses, and source indicators. Trace elements concentrations were low compared to the consensus-based sediment-quality guidelines threshold effect concentration (TEC) and probable effect concentration (PEC). Trace element concentrations were greater than the TEC in 28 percent of the samples and greater than the PEC in 1.5 percent of the samples. Chromium concentrations exceeded sediment-quality guidelines more frequently than concentrations of any other constituents analyzed in this study (greater than the TEC in 69 percent of samples and greater than the PEC in 8 percent of samples). Mean trace element concentrations generally are lower in Bexar County samples compared to concentrations in samples collected during previous studies in the Austin and Fort Worth, Texas, areas, but considering the relatively

  19. Physical properties, fuel characteristics and P-fertilizer production related to animal slurry and products from separation of animal slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Johnsen, Tina; Triolo, Jin Mi

    to high water content, suggesting a drying of the manure fibre would be favourable. The mean P concentration in the ashes was 112, 123, 157, and 51 g kg-1 for AD, pigs, mink and cattle respectively. Manure fibre ashes derived from cattle slurry and AD plants, which used feed with a high percentage...... from slurry separation and phosphorus (P) fertilizer production from recycling of the ash. Manure fibre has a positive calorific value and may be used as a CO2-neutral fuel for combustion. The ashes from combustion are rich in P, an essential fertilizer compound. The study is based on samples of animal...... of cattle slurry, contained too little P to be suitable for fertilizer production, as did pig slurry, to which sulphuric acid had been added prior to separation. Low solubility of P means the ashes should be treated before being used as a fertilizer. The acid consumption in a simple fertilizer production...

  20. A scuba diving direct sediment sampling methodology on benthic transects in glacial lakes: procedure description, safety measures, and tests results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    This work presents an in situ sediment sampling method on benthic transects, specifically intended for scientific scuba diver teams. It was originally designed and developed to sample benthic surface and subsurface sediments and subaqueous soils in glacial lakes up to a maximum depth of 25 m. Tests were conducted on the Sabocos and Baños tarns (i.e., cirque glacial lakes) in the Spanish Pyrenees. Two 100 m transects, ranging from 24.5 to 0 m of depth in Sabocos and 14 m to 0 m deep in Baños, were conducted. In each test, 10 sediment samples of 1 kg each were successfully collected and transported to the surface. This sampling method proved operative even in low visibility conditions (diving sampling tests were conducted in Sabocos and Truchas tarns. This sampling methodology can be easily adapted to accomplish underwater sampling campaigns in nonglacial lakes and other continental water or marine environments.

  1. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Enemark, Heidi L.; Olsen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    The potential for transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a four week period.......63) with the total number of oocysts found. Destructively sampling of the soil columns showed that type of slurry and irrigation played a role in the vertical distribution of oocysts, with more oocysts recovered from soil columns added liquid slurry irrespectively of irrigation status. Further studies are needed...

  2. The secondary slurry-zinc/air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierraalcazar, H. B.; Nguyen, P. D.; Mason, G. E.; Pinoli, A. A.

    1989-07-01

    The rechargeability of the slurry-Zn/air battery was demonstrated with a practical recharge cell that requires minimal hydraulic and mechanical energy for operation. A dendritic Zn was deposited on a Mg plate substrate from which it was easily, periodically and automatically scraped to regenerate dendritic Zn slurries. Excellent discharge results were obtained with the regenerated dendritic Zn slurry, comparable to those obtained with slurries made with mixtures of Zn powder. The dendritic Zn slurry allowed, however, twice the utilization of Zn.

  3. Certification of Trace Elements and Methyl Mercury Mass Fractions in IAEA-456 Marine Sediment Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of the IAEA Environment Laboratories is to assist Member States in the use of both stable and radioisotope analytical techniques to understand, monitor and protect the environment. In this context, the major impact of large coastal cities on marine ecosystems is an issue of prime concern for the IAEA and the IAEA Environment Laboratories. The marine pollution assessments required to understand such impacts depend on accurate knowledge of contaminant concentrations in various environmental compartments. The IAEA Environment Laboratories has been assisting national laboratories and regional laboratory networks since the early 1970s through the provision of a reference material programme for the analysis of radionuclides, trace elements and organic compounds in marine samples. Quality assurance, quality control and associated good laboratory practice are essential components of all marine environmental monitoring studies. Quality control procedures are commonly based on the analysis of certified reference materials and reference samples in order to validate analytical methods used in monitoring studies and to assess t h e reliability and comparability of measurement data. Data that are not based on adequate quality assurance and quality control can be erroneous, and their misuse can lead to poor environmental management decisions. A marine sediment sample with certified mass amount contents for aluminium, arsenic, cadmium chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, mercury, methyl mercury, manganese, nickel, vanadium and zinc was recently produced by the IAEA Environment Laboratories. This publication presents the sample preparation methodology, including material homogeneity and the stability study, the selection of laboratories, the evaluation of results from the certification campaign, and the assignment of property values and their associated uncertainty. As a result, certified values for mass fractions and associated expanded uncertainty were

  4. Organochlorine pesticides in sediment and biological samples from the coastal lagoons of Nicaragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, S.; Lacayo, M.; Picado, F.; Lopez, A.

    1999-01-01

    A study was carried out on the Pacific coast of Nicaragua to investigate the contamination of the coastal lagoons with residues of agricultural pesticides. Samples were taken during 1995 from the areas of Estero Real, Padre Ramos, Maderas Negras, Naranjo and Paso Caballos, and during 1996 from Aposentillo to Estero Barquito - Posoltega River. Analysis of the samples of sediment and aquatic life (fishes, oysters and bivalves) showed that they were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides. The pesticides found in the highest concentrations were toxaphene (1,734 μg.kg -1 ) and p,p-DDE (275 μg kg -1 ). These data indicate widespread contamination of the ecosystem with organochlorine pesticides in the main Pacific coastal lagoons of Nicaragua, resulting from intensive agricultural use of pesticides during the past decades. The contamination has been carried from the agricultural areas to the coastal lagoons by the rivers passing through the cultivated areas. (author)

  5. Medical ice slurry production device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Kenneth E [Palos Park, IL; Oras, John [Des Plaines, IL; Son, HyunJin [Naperville, IL

    2008-06-24

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

  6. Rheology of tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goren, I.D.; Martin, H.D.; McLain, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The rheological properties of tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry were determined. This nonradioactive slurry simulates the radioactive tetraphenylborate precipitate generated at the Savannah River Plant by the In-Tank Precipitation Process. The data obtained in this study was applied in the design of slurry pumps, transfer pumps, transfer lines, and vessel agitation for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and other High Level Waste treatment projects. The precipitate slurry behaves as a Bingham plastic. The yield stress is directly proportional to the concentration of insoluble solids over the range of concentrations studied. The consistency is also a linear function of insoluble solids over the same concentration range. Neither the yield stress nor the consistency was observed to be affected by the presence of the soluble solids. Temperature effects on flow properties of the slurry were also examined: the yield stress is inversely proportional to temperature, but the consistency of the slurry is independent of temperature. No significant time-dependent effects were found. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Inhibition of methane oxidation in slurry surface crust by inorganic nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Yun-Feng; Elsgaard, Lars; Petersen, Søren O

    2013-01-01

    in slurry surface crusts maintained activity at higher concentrations of NH4+ and NO3– than reported for MOB in soils and sediments, possibly showing adaptation to high N concentrations in the slurry environment. Yet, it appears that the effectiveness of surface crusts as CH4 sinks will depend on inorganic...... MOB in this environment interact with inorganic nitrogen (N). We studied inhibitory effects of ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3–) and nitrite (NO2–) on potential CH4 oxidation in a cattle slurry surface crust. Methane oxidation was assayed at salt concentrations up to 500 mM at 100 and 10,000 ppmv...

  8. Development of ultra-lightweight slurries with high compressive strength for use in oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzart, J. Walter P. [Halliburton Company, Houston, TX (United States); Farias, A.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, Danilo; Fernandes, Thiago; Santos, Reened [Halliburton Energy Services Aberdeen, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Formations with low fracture gradients or depleted reservoirs often lead to difficult oil well cementing operations. Commonly employed cement slurries (14.0 to 15.8 lb/gal), generate an equivalent circulating density (ECD) higher than the fracture gradient and ultimately lead to formation damage, lost circulation and a decreased top of cement. Given the high price of oil, companies are investing in those and other wells that are difficult to explore. Naturally, lightweight cement slurries are used to reduce the ECD (10.0 to 14.0 lb/gal), using additives to trap water and stabilize the slurry. However, when the density reaches 11.0 lb/gal, the increase in water content may cause a change in characteristics. The focus of this study is extreme cases where it is necessary to employ ultra-lightweight cement slurries (5.5 to 10.0 lb/gal). Foamed slurries have been widely used, and the objective is to set an alternative by developing cement slurries containing uncompressible microspheres, aiming for a density of 7.5 lb/gal as well as high compressive strength. Another benefit in contrast to preparing foamed cement slurries is that there is no requirement for special equipment in the field. Routine laboratory tests such as fluid-loss control, sedimentation, thickening time, free water, compressive strength, and rheology (at room and high temperatures) were performed. Thus, it was concluded that the proposed cement slurries can be used in oil wells. (author)

  9. Determination of multi-element in marine sediment samples collected in Angola by the k0-NAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, M.C.P.; Ho Manh Dung; Cao Dong Vu; Nguyen Thi Sy; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Vuong Huu Tan

    2006-01-01

    The marine sediment samples were designed to collect in Angola for marine environmental pollution study. The k 0 -standardization method of neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) on Dalat research reactor has been developed to determine of multi-element in the Angola marine sediment samples. The samples were irradiated in cell 7-1 for short- and middle-lived nuclides and rotary specimen rack for long-lived nuclides. The irradiation facilities were characterized for neutron spectrum parameters and post-activated samples were measured on the calibrated gamma-ray spectrometers using HPGe detectors. The analytical results for 9 marine sediment samples with 27 elements: Al, As, Br, Ca, Ce,Cl, Co, Cs, Dy, Fe, Hf, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, U, V and Zn in term of mean concentration, standard deviation and their content range are shown in the report. The analytical quality assurance was done by analysis of a Japan's certified reference material namely marine sediment NMIJ-CRM-7302a. These preliminary results revealed that the k 0 -NAA technique on the Dalat research reactor is a good analytical technique for determination of multi-element in the marine sediment samples. Some heavy metals and trace elements determined in this work possibly connected to the human activities at the sampling region. (author)

  10. Results for the First, Second, and Third Quarter Calendar Year 2015 Tank 50H WAC slurry samples chemical and radionuclide contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-18

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the Calendar Year (CY) 2015 First, Second, and Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50H for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) & Saltstone Facility Engineering (D&S-FE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50H to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50H Waste Characterization System. Previous memoranda documenting the WAC analyses results have been issued for these three samples.

  11. High-resolution measurement and mapping of tungstate in waters, soils and sediments using the low-disturbance DGT sampling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Dong-Xing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Williams, Paul N. [Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL (United Kingdom); Xu, Hua-Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Li, Gang [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Luo, Jun, E-mail: esluojun@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Ma, Lena Q. [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • Two high-resolution diffusive gradients in thin-films samplers were characterized. • For the first time DGT was applied to study the bioavailability of W in soils. • 1D and 2D high resolution profiling of W fluxes across the SWI were obtained. • The apparent diffusion W fluxes across two micro-interfaces were calculated. - Abstract: Increasing tungsten (W) use for industrial and military applications has resulted in greater W discharge into natural waters, soils and sediments. Risk modeling of W transport and fate in the environment relies on measurement of the release/mobilization flux of W in the bulk media and the interfaces between matrix compartments. Diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) is a promising passive sampling technique to acquire such information. DGT devices equipped with the newly developed high-resolution binding gels (precipitated zirconia, PZ, or ferrihydrite, PF, gels) or classic/conventional ferrihydrite slurry gel were comprehensively assessed for measuring W in waters. {sup Ferrihydrite}DGT can measure W at various ionic strengths (0.001–0.5 mol L{sup −1} NaNO{sub 3}) and pH (4–8), while {sup PZ}DGT can operate across slightly wider environmental conditions. The three DGT configurations gave comparable results for soil W measurement, showing that typically W resupply is relatively poorly sustained. 1D and 2D high-resolution W profiling across sediment—water and hotspot—bulk media interfaces from Lake Taihu were obtained using {sup PZ}DGT coupled with laser ablation ICP–MS measurement, and the apparent diffusion fluxes across the interfaces were calculated using a numerical model.

  12. Certification of Trace Element Mass Fractions in IAEA-457 Marine Sediment Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the IAEA Environment Laboratories in Monaco (NAEL) is to help Member States understand, monitor and protect the marine environment. The major impact exerted by large coastal cities on marine ecosystems is therefore of great concern to the IAEA and its Environment Laboratories. Given that marine pollution assessments of such impacts depend on accurate knowledge of contaminant concentrations in various environmental compartments, the NAEL has assisted national laboratories and regional laboratory networks through its Reference Products for Environment and Trade programme since the early 1970s. Quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC) and associated good laboratory practice are essential components of all marine environmental monitoring studies. QC procedures are commonly based on the analysis of certified reference materials and reference samples in order to validate analytical methods used in monitoring studies and to assess reliability and comparability of measurement data. QA can be realized by participation in externally organized laboratory performance studies, also known as interlaboratory comparisons, which compare and evaluate analytical performance and measurement capabilities of participating laboratories. Data that are not based on adequate QA/QC can be erroneous and their misuse can lead to incorrect environmental management decisions. A marine sediment sample with certified mass fractions for Ag, Al, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sr, V and Zn was recently produced by the NAEL in the frame of a project between the IAEA and the Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology. This report describes the sample preparation methodology, the material homogeneity and stability study, the selection of laboratories, the evaluation of results from the certification campaign and the assignment of property values and their associated uncertainty. As a result, reference values for mass fractions and associated expanded

  13. Correlation of Heavy Element in Sea Water and Sediment Samples from Peninsula of Muria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosidi; Sukirno

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of heavy metals in marine environmental samples peninsula of Muria in the year 2004 has been carried out by using neutron activation analysis (NAA) method. The objective of this analysis is to know the distribution of heavy metals in the sea water and sediment, which accommodate the recent environmental data in supporting the license of site for the nuclear power plants (NPP). The result of the analysis show that there were only 5 observed elements found in sea water and sediment were Cd, Co, Cr, Sb and Sc. All of heavy metals from sea water (0.002 mg/l) are obviously lower than the threshold value established by environmental minister Act; Kep LH No 51/2004. From the observed data to use software of SPSS version 10, application of the Pearson correlation (r) shows that between Co with Sc was indicator show a highly positive significant correlation (r=0.928), between Cr with Sc was sufficiently positive high (r=0.756), between Cr with Cd was precisely (r=0.611) while Co with Sb shows the significantly low (r=0.429). (author)

  14. Soil and sediment sample analysis for the sequential determination of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, H; Levent, D; Barci, V; Barci-Funel, G; Hurel, C

    2008-02-15

    A new sequential method for the determination of both natural (U, Th) and anthropogenic (Sr, Cs, Pu, Am) radionuclides has been developed for application to soil and sediment samples. The procedure was optimised using a reference sediment (IAEA-368) and reference soils (IAEA-375 and IAEA-326). Reference materials were first digested using acids (leaching), 'total' acids on hot plate, and acids in microwave in order to compare the different digestion technique. Then, the separation and purification were made by anion exchange resin and selective extraction chromatography: transuranic (TRU) and strontium (SR) resins. Natural and anthropogenic alpha radionuclides were separated by uranium and tetravalent actinide (UTEVA) resin, considering different acid elution medium. Finally, alpha and gamma semiconductor spectrometer and liquid scintillation spectrometer were used to measure radionuclide activities. The results obtained for strontium-90, cesium-137, thorium-232, uranium-238, plutonium-239+240 and americium-241 isotopes by the proposed method for the reference materials provided excellent agreement with the recommended values and good chemical recoveries. Plutonium isotopes in alpha spectrometry planchet deposits could be also analysed by ICPMS.

  15. Investigation of erosion rates of field samples using FDOT's enhanced sediment erosion rate flume (SERF) : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The most common cause of bridge failure in : the United States is the scouring of sediments, : which are broadly classified as cohesionless : (sand and gravel) and cohesive (rock, clay, sandclay mixtures). For cohesionless sediments, : predicting sco...

  16. PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasson, K.T.; Evans, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy's, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBS. The onset of dechlorination activity can be accelerated by addition of nutritional amendments and inducers. After 15 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution, dechlorination has been observed under several working conditions. The best results show that the average chlorine content steadily dropped from 4.3 to 3.5 chlorines per biphenyl over a 15-week period

  17. Sediment Monitoring and Benthic Faunal Sampling Adjacent to the Barbers Point Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1986-2010 (NODC Accession 9900098)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic fauna and sediment in the vicinity of the Barbers Point (Honouliuli) ocean outfall were sampled from 1986-2010. To assess the environmental quality, sediment...

  18. Characterization of a stream sediment matrix material for sampling behavior in order to use it as a CRM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Donghui; Xiao Caijin; Ni Bangfa; Tian Weizhi; Zhang Yuanxun; Wang Pingsheng; Liu Cunxiong; Zhang Guiying

    2010-01-01

    Sampling behavior of multielements in a stream sediment matrix was studied with sample sizes in a range of 9 orders of magnitude by a combination of INAA, PIXE and SR-XRF. For accurately weighable sample sizes (>1 mg), sampling uncertainties for 16 elements are better than 1% by INAA. For sample sizes that cannot be accurately weighed (<1 mg), PIXE and SR-XRF were used and the effective sample sizes were estimated. Sampling uncertainties for seven elements are better than 1% at sample sizes of tenth mg level, and that for three elements are better than 10% on ng levels.

  19. Bed-Sediment Sampling and Analysis for Physical and Chemical Properties of the Lower Mississippi River near Memphis, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Robert A.; Wagner, Daniel M.; Evans, Dennis A.

    2010-01-01

    In February 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Memphis District, investigated the presence of inorganic elements and organic compounds in bed sediments of the lower Mississippi River. Selected sites were located in the navigation channel near river miles 737, 773, and 790 near Memphis, Tennessee. Bed-sediment samples were collected using a Shipek grab sampler mounted to a boom crane with a motorized winch. Samples then were processed and shipped to the U.S. Geological Survey Sediment Laboratory in Rolla, Missouri, the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colorado, and to TestAmerica Laboratory, Inc. in West Sacramento, California. Samples were analyzed for grain size, inorganic elements (including mercury), and organic compounds. Chemical results were tabulated and listed with sediment-quality guidelines and presented with the physical property results. All of the bed material samples collected during this investigation yielded concentrations that were less than the Consensus-Based Probable Effect Concentration guidelines. The physical properties were tabulated and listed using a standard U.S. Geological Survey scale of sizes by class for sediment analysis. All of the samples collected during this investigation indicated a percent composition mostly comprised of sand, ranging from less than 0.125 millimeters to less than 2 millimeters.

  20. Concentration of Antifouling Biocides and Metals in Sediment Core Samples in the Northern Part of Hiroshima Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noritaka Tsunemasa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of Ot alternative antifoulants in sediment is the focus of this research. Much research had been done on surface sediment, but in this report, the accumulation in the sediment core was studied. The Ot alternative antifoulants, Diuron, Sea-Nine211, and Irgarol 1051, and the latter’s degradation product, M1, were investigated in five samples from the northern part of Hiroshima Bay. Ot compounds (tributyltin (TBT and triphenyltin (TPT were also investigated for comparison. In addition, metal (Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn levels and chronology were measured to better understand what happens after accumulation on the sea floor. It was discovered that Ot alternative antifoulant accumulation characteristics in sediment were like Ot compounds, with the concentration in the sediment core being much higher than surface sediment. The concentration in sediment seems to have been affected by the regulation of Ot compounds in 1990, due to the concentration of Ot alternative antifoulants and Ot compounds at the survey point in front of the dock, showing an increase from almost the same layer after the regulation.

  1. Worldwide Interlaboratory Comparison on the Determination of Trace Elements in the IAEA-457 Marine Sediment Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of the IAEA Environment Laboratories is to assist Member States in the use of both stable and radioisotope analytical techniques to understand, monitor and protect the environment. In this context, the major impact of large coastal cities on marine ecosystems is an issue of primary concern for the IAEA and the IAEA Environment Laboratories. The marine pollution assessments required to understand such impacts depend on accurate knowledge of contaminant concentrations in various environmental compartments. Through the IAEA Environment Laboratories, the IAEA has been assisting national laboratories and regional laboratory networks since the early 1970s through the provision of a reference material programme for the analysis of radionuclides, trace elements and organic compounds in marine samples. Quality assurance and quality control are two fundamental requirements to ensure the reliability of analytical results. Data that are not based on adequate quality assurance and quality control can be erroneous, and their misuse can lead to poor environmental management decisions. In this regard, the IAEA has a long history of organizing interlaboratory studies, which have evolved to include an increasing array of potential contaminants in the marine environment. Relevant activities comprise global interlaboratory comparison, regional proficiency tests, the production of marine reference materials and the development of reference methods for trace elements and organic pollutants analysis in marine samples. This publication summarizes the results of the IAEA-457 interlaboratory comparison on the determination of trace elements in a marine sediment sample

  2. Redistribution and persistence of microorganisms and steroid hormones after soil-injection of swine slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Bech, Tina B.; Forslund, Anita

    2014-01-01

    were detected in the slurry slit, and a slow redistribution to the surrounding soil was observed. Overall recovery of estrogens was 0.0 to 6.6% in different samples. The study showed that the combination of soil and slurry properties determined the initial spreading of contaminants, and hence...

  3. Comparison of total Hg results in sediment samples from Rio Grande reservoir determine by NAA and CV AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, Robson L.

    2011-01-01

    The Rio Grande reservoir is located in the Metropolitan area of Sao Paulo and it is used for recreation purposes and as source water for drinking water production. During the last decades has been detected mercury contamination in the sediments of this reservoir, mainly in the eastern part, near the main affluent of the reservoir, in the Rio Grande da Serra and Ribeirao Pires counties. In the present study bottom sediment samples were collected in four different sites into four sampling campaigns during the period of September 2008 to January 2010. The samples were dried at room temperature, ground and passed through a 2 mm sieve. Total Hg determination in the sediment samples was carried out by two different analytical techniques: neutron activation analysis (NAA) and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS). The methodology validation, in terms of precision and accuracy, was performed by reference materials, and presented a recovery of 83 to 108%. The total Hg results obtained by both analytical techniques ranged from 3 to 71 mg kg-1 and were considered similar by statistical analysis, even though NAA technique furnishes the total concentration while CV AAS using the 3015 digestion procedure characterizes only the bioavailable Hg. These results confirm that both analytical techniques were suitable to detect the Hg concentration levels in the Rio Grande sediments studied. The Hg levels in the sediment of the Rio Grande reservoir confirm the anthropogenic origin for this element in this ecosystem. (author)

  4. A Novel Selective Deep Eutectic Solvent Extraction Method for Versatile Determination of Copper in Sediment Samples by ICP-OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağda, Esra; Altundağ, Huseyin; Tüzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, a simple, mono step deep eutectic solvent (DES) extraction was developed for selective extraction of copper from sediment samples. The optimization of all experimental parameters, e.g. DES type, sample/DES ratio, contact time and temperature were performed with using BCR-280 R (lake sediment certified reference material). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were found as 1.2 and 3.97 µg L -1 , respectively. The RSD of the procedure was 7.5%. The proposed extraction method was applied to river and lake sediments sampled from Serpincik, Çeltek, Kızılırmak (Fadl and Tecer region of the river), Sivas-Turkey.

  5. Analysis of sediment, water, and biological samples from the Bay Farm Borrow Area, San Francisco Bay, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thom, R.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The Bay Farm Borrow Area (BFBA) of San Francisco Bay, California, is under consideration as a dredged-material disposal site by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). As part of the analysis of the site, information is required on the quality of benthic biota, sediment, and water in the BFBA. The objective of this report was to provide data on infauna communities, sediment, and water chemistry from samples collected from the BFBA. The samples were collected, and the data will be analyzed by Science Applications International (SAIC). A total of four samples for sediment chemistry, four samples for water chemistry, and 7 samples for infauna communities were analyzed by the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL). Water analyses included tests for dissolved organic carbon, total suspended solids, four metals, butyltins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four phenols, and total phenol. Sediment samples were analyzed for percent solids, total organic carbon, total oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, grain size, 10 metals, butyltins, PCBs, chlorinated pesticides, PAHs, four phenols, and total phenol. The data along with controls and spike recovery analyses, are presented in tables, and the results are discussed in the text. The quality assurance/quality control criteria were met for the analyses as were the detection limits specified by the sponsor.

  6. Determination of TBT in water and sediment samples along the Argentine Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waisbaum, R G; Rodriguez, C; Nudelman, N Sbarbati

    2010-11-01

    Cases of imposex have been reported for some organisms living in areas of the Argentine Atlantic coast. Since this is one of the known effects of the anti-fouling agent tributyltin (TBT), quantitative determinations of organotins in samples of water and sediments collected from sites along the Argentine coast were carried out. Severe cases of imposex were first reported for two gastropod species living in the Mar del Plata area, and determinations of TBT in samples collected from this site gave extremely high values and showed a close correlation between the degree of imposex and TBT concentration. Recent investigations in the area have shown a significant decrease. Surveys were also conducted in sites that exhibit highly irregular coastal profiles to examine the relevance of physical environments. Alarming concentrations of TBT were determined in most of the sites where heavy boat traffic and/or marine activities occur, demonstrating the urgent need for regulations to avoid further input of TBT. Reports from other sites in South America reveal that this should be a subject of regional concern in order to avoid severe damage to the biodiversity of regional marine organisms.

  7. Relationships among slurry characteristics and gaseous emissions at different types of commercial Spanish pig farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becaccia, A.; Ferrer, P.; Ibañez, M.A.; Estellés, F.; Rodríguez, C.; Moset, V.; Blas, C. de; Calvet, P.; García-Rebollar, P.

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to analyse several factors of variation of slurry composition and to establish prediction equations for potential methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) emissions. Seventy-nine feed and slurry samples were collected at two seasons (summer and winter) from commercial pig farms sited at two Spanish regions (Centre and Mediterranean). Nursery, growing-fattening, gestating and lactating facilities were sampled. Feed and slurry composition were determined, and potential CH4 and NH3 emissions measured at laboratory. Feed nutrient contents were used as covariates in the analysis. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was evaluated as a predicting tool for slurry composition and potential gaseous emissions. A wide variability was found both in feed and slurry composition. Mediterranean farms had a higher pH (p<0.001) and ash (p=0.02) concentration than those located at the Centre of Spain. Also, type of farm affected ether extract content of the slurry (p=0.02), with highest values obtained for the youngest animal facilities. Results suggested a buffer effect of dietary fibre on slurry pH and a direct relationship (p<0.05) with fibre constituents of manure. Dietary protein content did not affect slurry nitrogen content but decreased (p=0.003) total and volatile solids concentration. Prediction models of potential NH3 emissions (R2=0.89) and CH4 yield (R2=0.61) were obtained from slurry composition. Predictions from NIRS showed a high accuracy for most slurry constituents (R2>0.90) and similar accuracy of prediction of potential NH3 and CH4 emissions (R2=0.84 and 0.68, respectively) to models using slurry characteristics, which can be of interest to estimate emissions from commercial farms and establish mitigation strategies or optimize biogas production. (Author)

  8. Preparatory studies for the on-line determination of zinc content in zinc ore slurries by radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donhoffer, D.K.

    1977-01-01

    Laboratory tests were carried out to prove the feasibility of determination of Zn-content in zinc ore slurries by isotope excited x-ray fluorescence. Matrix effects were investigated on dry samples. A slurry testloop was built and measurements on slurries were made. The results indicated that the measurement on Zn in ore slurries can be made with a precision of 0,05% Zn. A working equation for interpretation of the measurements is derived. (author)

  9. Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, mineral, and concentrate sample media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granitto, Matthew; Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Shew, Nora B.; Gamble, Bruce M.; Labay, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    The Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB) was created and designed to compile and integrate geochemical data from Alaska in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessments, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessments, and studies in medical geology. This Microsoft Access database serves as a data archive in support of present and future Alaskan geologic and geochemical projects, and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses. The analytical results were determined by 85 laboratory and field analytical methods on 264,095 rock, sediment, soil, mineral and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed in USGS laboratories or, under contracts, in commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects from 1962 to 2009. In addition, mineralogical data from 18,138 nonmagnetic heavy mineral concentrate samples are included in this database. The AGDB includes historical geochemical data originally archived in the USGS Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database, used from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s and the USGS PLUTO database used from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. All of these data are currently maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB were used to generate most of the AGDB data set. These data were checked for accuracy regarding sample location, sample media type, and analytical methods used. This arduous process of reviewing, verifying and, where necessary, editing all USGS geochemical data resulted in a significantly improved Alaska geochemical dataset. USGS data that were not previously in the NGDB because the data predate the earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons

  10. Influence of coal slurry particle composition on pipeline hydraulic transportation behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-an, Zhao; Ronghuan, Cai; Tieli, Wang

    2018-02-01

    Acting as a new type of energy transportation mode, the coal pipeline hydraulic transmission can reduce the energy transportation cost and the fly ash pollution of the conventional coal transportation. In this study, the effect of average velocity, particle size and pumping time on particle composition of coal particles during hydraulic conveying was investigated by ring tube test. Meanwhile, the effects of particle composition change on slurry viscosity, transmission resistance and critical sedimentation velocity were studied based on the experimental data. The experimental and theoretical analysis indicate that the alter of slurry particle composition can lead to the change of viscosity, resistance and critical velocity of slurry. Moreover, based on the previous studies, the critical velocity calculation model of coal slurry is proposed.

  11. Slurry erosion and abrasion of metal-ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagues, A.A.; Spencer, D.K.; Sethi, V.K.; Sargent, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Four coatings, including tungsten carbide wear-resistant and cobalt-base corrosion-resistant materials, were tested for abrasion and erosion performance in silica sand and in Alundum slurries. A 1018 carbon steel sample was also tested for comparison. The abrasion tests were conducted with a wet sand rubber wheel device, whereas a slurry jet impingement apparatus was used in the erosion tests. The results revealed that the abrasive wear performance improves dramatically as the coating hardness increases. By contrast, the erosion performance was not clearly related to the hardness of the materials tested. The wear mechanisms and the suitability of the test methods to evaluate coatings are discussed

  12. High temperature oxidation of slurry coated interconnect alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Åsa Helen

    performed on extra Sandvik alloys. The slurry coatings consisted of perovskite, spinel, corundum, and rutile oxides and they were both applied as single layer coatings and as dual layer coatings. Cross-sections of the oxidized samples were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy, SEM, and energy......In this project, high temperature oxidation experiments of slurry coated ferritic alloys in atmospheres similar to the atmosphere found at the cathode in an SOFC were conducted. From the observations possible interaction mechanisms between the slurry coatings and the growing oxide scale...... on the alloy surface were formulated. These mechanisms are a step towards deeper knowledge of how to design a coating/alloy combination with satisfactory performance in an SOFC-stack. A satisfactory performance entails a low growth rate of the forming oxide scale on the alloy surface and a low chromium content...

  13. Seasonal variations in the occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances in water, sediment and fish samples from Ebro Delta (Catalonia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignotti, Emanuela; Casas, Gemma; Llorca, Marta; Tellbüscher, Anil; Almeida, David; Dinelli, Enrico; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2017-12-31

    The main objective of this study was to assess the concentration levels and the seasonal variations of 13 poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in different compartments (water, sediments and fish) of the Ebro Delta (NE Spain) and surrounding coastal areas. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the most frequently detected compound in waters and sediments. Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the compounds found at the highest concentrations in water samples. On the other hand, sediments were more enriched in perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) (rangeWaters and sediments showed a different seasonal trend. While waters were characterised by a substantial constant level of PFASs over the year, sediments showed a progressive decrease from autumn to summer, revealing the great influence that environmental conditions exert on PFAS distribution in sediments. As regards fish samples, in spite of the ban of its production, PFOS was the most frequently detected compound in seawater fishes, in agreement with its high persistency, bioaccumulation and biomagnification. Moreover, PFASs showed to be more distributed in the skin rather than in muscle tissues. In addition, river fishes were characterised by very high PFAS levels (∑PFAS range from 63.8ng/g ww to 938ng/g ww), with perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids being more concentrated than sulfonates. The PFASs concentrations in water, sediment, and biota revealed that one of the studied sites, Isla de Buda was the most contaminated site of the Ebro Delta. These results are consistent with its location at the final part of the estuary, where many irrigation channels are collected together. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Upland and wetland vegetation establishment on coal slurry in northern Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeel, V.A.; Nawrot, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Since the Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory's (CWRL) Mined Land Reclamation Program's first establishment of a wetland on slurry in 1976, industry, state, and federal agency interest in reclamation alternatives for inactive slurry has increased. CWRL has been involved in pre-reclamation site characterization and monitoring for inactive slurry impoundments throughout Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, and Washington. Geochemical site characterization of three slurry impoundments at the AECI Bee Veer Mine located near Macon, Missouri began in April 1990. A substrate sampling grid was established for all slurry impoundments with a centerline orientated parallel to the discharge to decant flow pattern. Surface (0--6 in.) and subsurface (30--36 in.) slurry samples were collected annually and analyzed for acid-base balance, immediate acidity macro- and micro-nutrients, potential phytotoxic metallic ions and salts, and texture. Water table elevations and water quality were monitored quarterly from shallow (≤12 ft.) piezometers. General reclamation plans included annual (3 years) incremental limestone amendments (35--50 tons/acre) and direct vegetation establishment. Cool and warm season grasses dominate vegetation cover in upland habitats (slurry cell RDA1) while wetland habitats (palustrine emergent seasonally-permanently inundated) have been established in slurry cells (RDA2 and RDA3). Isolated hot spots continue to be amended with limestone and supplemental vegetation establishment is scheduled

  15. Indian Creek-AML: Coal slurry reclamation (Kansas case history)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witthar, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Black and Veatch, assisted by Jack Nawrot, developed conceptual and final designs and provided construction assistance to create grasslands and wetlands in order to reclaim an abandoned coal mine for the state of Kansas. The mine included spoils, a coal refuse dump, and slurry pond in the Indian Creek drainage basin in east central Kansas. The Indian Creek flowed from an off-site abandoned mine and through the coal slurry pond where its waters became more polluted. The intent of the reclamation project was to improve water quality and create a wildlife refuge. The coal refuse was covered and seeded with a diversity of vegetation including several grasses and legume. The slurry pond was developed into a series of large wetland cells to improve water quality. Prior to reclamation, the water leaving the site had a typical pH of 3.3, ranging from 2.4 to 5.6, an iron content which typically over 22 mg/L and ranging over 100 mg/L, and contained large amounts of coal slurry. The acid sediment in the slurry killed fish and caused visible damage to a new large concrete box culvert several miles downstream of the site. Post-reclamation water quality leaving the Indian Creek site showed immediate improvement even before vegetation was reestablished. The existing wetland treatment systems have been successfully treating water for over seven years with the pH of the water leaving the wetlands above 7 and soluble iron content less than 1 mg/L. Fish in the constructed wetlands support waterfowl which now nest onsite

  16. Equilibrium passive sampling as a tool to study polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Baltic Sea sediment pore-water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Susann-Cathrin; Hursthouse, Andrew; Mayer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) was applied to provide the first large scale dataset of freely dissolved concentrations for 9 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Baltic Sea sediment cores. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated glass fibers were used for ex-situ equilibrium sampling followed...

  17. Report on intercomparison IAEA/SD-N-2 of radionuclide measurements in marine sediment sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The material used in this exercise was a natural medium-grained marine sediment collected in a near-shore area of the North Sea in 1979. Concentrations of radionuclides are often at their detection thresholds in such samples which poses a considerable problem to analysts. In this report results of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Am, 40 K, 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 228 Th measurements submitted by the participants are presented and discussed. They constitute a data base from which reference values have been derived for the purpose of certification. The intercomparison has demonstrated that substantial progress has been made in low-level transuranic measurements in environmental materials. All reported results by gamma-spectroscopy were of high quality providing evidence that activity concentrations of a few millibecquerels per gram can be measured with no special problems if sufficient long counting time can be afforded. Other analytical techniques as alpha-spectrometry proved to yield reliable results when employed by experienced analysts

  18. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment samples of Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) installation area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Juliana C.; Martins, Elâine A.J.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria A.F., E-mail: elaine@ipen.br, E-mail: mecotrim@ipen.br, E-mail: mapires@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    RMB will be a nuclear reactor for research and production of radioisotopes. Its applications extend to agriculture, industry and the environment. With the changes that will occur in the study area by its construction, the flow of vehicles will increase. It is known that one of the largest anthropogenic sources of PAHs is from the burning of fossil fuels and biomass. The aim of this research was to identify and quantify 14 of the 16 majorities PAHs in the sediment samples at RMB installations area in a period before the enterprise construction, June 2017, using the methodology developed and validated by Brito, 2009. It was observed individual concentrations from 0.05 to 1.11 μg g{sup -1} in this first evaluation indicating that, although were found some PAHs concentrations above the established values by CONAMA and CETESB, this area still remains preserved. Pyrene was the compound that had the highest concentrations at different collecting points (1.11±0.03 and 1.09±0.02 μg g{sup -1}). Although were observed some PAHs concentrations above the established values by CONAMA and CETESB, the area is preserved. The study will provide previous information on PAHs concentrations in the area of the enterprise, providing information for the environmental impact study after the construction of the enterprise. (author)

  19. SLURRY NEBULIZATION ICP-OES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ABSTRACT. A method that involves analysis of bovine liver by slurry nebulization and ICP-OES has been developed. This method permits rapid and accurate determination of Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn in bovine liver. Aliquots of freeze-dried and powdered bovine liver sample were dispersed in 2.0 M HNO3 and sonicated to.

  20. Certification of Trace Element Mass Fractions in IAEA-458 Marine Sediment Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the IAEA Environment Laboratories (NAEL) is to help Member States understand, monitor and protect the marine environment. The major impact exerted by large coastal cities on marine ecosystems is therefore of great concern to the IAEA and its Environment Laboratories. Given that marine pollution assessments of such impacts depend on accurate knowledge of contaminant concentrations in various environmental compartments, the NAEL has assisted national laboratories and regional laboratory networks through its Reference Products for Environment and Trade programme since the early 1970s. Quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC) and associated good laboratory practice are essential components of all marine environmental monitoring studies. QC procedures are commonly based on the analysis of certified reference materials and reference samples in order to validate analytical methods used in monitoring studies and to assess reliability and comparability of measurement data. QA can be realized by participation in externally organized laboratory performance studies, also known as interlaboratory comparisons, which compare and evaluate the analytical performance and measurement capabilities of participating laboratories. Data that are not based on adequate QA/QC can be erroneous, and their misuse can lead to incorrect environmental management decisions. This report describes the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity and stability study, selection of laboratories, evaluation of results from the certification campaign and assignment of property values and their associated uncertainty. As a result, reference values for mass fractions and associated expanded uncertainty for 16 trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Sn, V and Zn) in marine sediment were established

  1. Evaluation and optimization of DNA extraction and purification procedures for soil and sediment samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D N; Bryant, J E; Madsen, E L; Ghiorse, W C

    1999-11-01

    We compared and statistically evaluated the effectiveness of nine DNA extraction procedures by using frozen and dried samples of two silt loam soils and a silt loam wetland sediment with different organic matter contents. The effects of different chemical extractants (sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS], chloroform, phenol, Chelex 100, and guanadinium isothiocyanate), different physical disruption methods (bead mill homogenization and freeze-thaw lysis), and lysozyme digestion were evaluated based on the yield and molecular size of the recovered DNA. Pairwise comparisons of the nine extraction procedures revealed that bead mill homogenization with SDS combined with either chloroform or phenol optimized both the amount of DNA extracted and the molecular size of the DNA (maximum size, 16 to 20 kb). Neither lysozyme digestion before SDS treatment nor guanidine isothiocyanate treatment nor addition of Chelex 100 resin improved the DNA yields. Bead mill homogenization in a lysis mixture containing chloroform, SDS, NaCl, and phosphate-Tris buffer (pH 8) was found to be the best physical lysis technique when DNA yield and cell lysis efficiency were used as criteria. The bead mill homogenization conditions were also optimized for speed and duration with two different homogenizers. Recovery of high-molecular-weight DNA was greatest when we used lower speeds and shorter times (30 to 120 s). We evaluated four different DNA purification methods (silica-based DNA binding, agarose gel electrophoresis, ammonium acetate precipitation, and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration) for DNA recovery and removal of PCR inhibitors from crude extracts. Sephadex G-200 spin column purification was found to be the best method for removing PCR-inhibiting substances while minimizing DNA loss during purification. Our results indicate that for these types of samples, optimum DNA recovery requires brief, low-speed bead mill homogenization in the presence of a phosphate-buffered SDS-chloroform mixture, followed

  2. Sorption kinetics of Cs and Sr in sediments of a Savannah River Site reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.A.

    1997-07-01

    Laboratory measurements of the sorption and desorption of 134 Cs and 85 Sr to sediments were conducted. These sediments were sampled from the profundal zone of Par Pond at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina. The isotopes 134 Cs and 85 Sr were used to trace the sorption properties of the main contaminants found in the reservoir which are 137 Cs and 90 Sr respectively. The sorption behavior of these two elements was studied using spiked sediment/water slurries of a known mass to volume ratio. The results reveal that Sr undergoes significant reversible sorption while a fraction of Cs irreversibly sorbs to the sediment. The calculated distribution coefficient Kd at equilibrium was (3 ± 0.6) x 10 3 for 134 Cs after 60 d and (1 ± 0.2) x 10 3 for 85 Sr after 7 d at pH ∼ 6 and slurry ratio of 1:1000 g/ml. The K d for 134 Cs ranged from 2 x 10 2 to 3 x 10 4 depending on pH and conductivity. The 85 Sr reached equilibrium in a few days, while 134 Cs reached an apparent equilibrium in 1--2 months. The K d for 134 Cs was a function of the slurry ratio, pH, conductivity, and contact time. These factors were interrelated since the sediments released ions to the slurry mixture which decreased the pH and increased the conductivity. A sorption isotherm measured for 134 Cs was linear at water concentrations from 60 mBq/ml to 20 Bq/ml. A kinetic model was proposed to describe the basic sorption of 134 Cs to Par Pond sediments under homogeneous laboratory conditions

  3. Sorption kinetics of Cs and Sr in sediments of a Savannah River Site reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, J.A.

    1997-07-01

    Laboratory measurements of the sorption and desorption of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 85}Sr to sediments were conducted. These sediments were sampled from the profundal zone of Par Pond at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina. The isotopes {sup 134}Cs and {sup 85}Sr were used to trace the sorption properties of the main contaminants found in the reservoir which are {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr respectively. The sorption behavior of these two elements was studied using spiked sediment/water slurries of a known mass to volume ratio. The results reveal that Sr undergoes significant reversible sorption while a fraction of Cs irreversibly sorbs to the sediment. The calculated distribution coefficient Kd at equilibrium was (3 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup 3} for {sup 134}Cs after 60 d and (1 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup 3} for {sup 85}Sr after 7 d at pH {approx} 6 and slurry ratio of 1:1000 g/ml. The K{sub d} for {sup 134}Cs ranged from 2 x 10{sup 2} to 3 x 10{sup 4} depending on pH and conductivity. The {sup 85}Sr reached equilibrium in a few days, while {sup 134}Cs reached an apparent equilibrium in 1--2 months. The K{sub d} for {sup 134}Cs was a function of the slurry ratio, pH, conductivity, and contact time. These factors were interrelated since the sediments released ions to the slurry mixture which decreased the pH and increased the conductivity. A sorption isotherm measured for {sup 134}Cs was linear at water concentrations from 60 mBq/ml to 20 Bq/ml. A kinetic model was proposed to describe the basic sorption of {sup 134}Cs to Par Pond sediments under homogeneous laboratory conditions.

  4. Sorption of radon-222 to natural sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.S.; Chin, Y.P.; Gschwend, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    The sorption of radon to sediments was investigated, since this may affect the use of porewater radon profiles for estimating bed irrigation rates. Batch experiments showed that radon has an organic-carbon-normalized sediment-water partition coefficient (K oc , L kg oc -1 ) of 21.1 ± 2.9 for a Boston Harbor sediment, 25.3 ± 2.1 for a Charles River sediment, and 22.4 ± 2.6 for a Buzzards Bay sediment. These values are in close agreement with predictions using radon's octanol-water partition coefficient (K ow ), which was measured to be 32.4 ± 1.5. Temperature and ionic strength effects on K oc were estimated to be small. Given rapid sorption kinetics, the authors suggest that slurry stripping techniques used by many investigators to measure 222 Rn in sediment samples collect both sorbed and dissolved radon. Sorption effects were included in a transport model to obtain revised estimates of irrigation rates from existing literature profiles. Irrigation rates had to be increased over previously reported values in proportion to the sediment organic matter content

  5. INAA and chemical analysis of water and sediments sampled in 1996 from the Romanian sector of the Danube river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelica, A.; Georgescu, I.I.; Oprica, M.H.I.; Borcia, C.

    1999-01-01

    Water and sediment samples collected during spring 1996 from 20 sampling sites of the Romanian sector of the Danube river and the Black Sea coast were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and by chemical methods to determine major, minor and trace element contents. The concentrations of 43 elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, Hg, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, W, Yb, Zr, Zn) were investigated by INAA at WWR-S reactor in Bucharest. Chemical methods were used to determine the content of P 2 O 5 and SiO 2 in sediments. For INAA, the water residues and sediment samples were irradiated at the WWR-S reactor in Bucharest at a neutron fluence rate of 2.3·10 12 cm -2 s -1 . As standards, reference materials IAEA-Soil 7 and WTM (sludge from city water treatment, from the Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques Kosice, Slovakia) as well as chemical compounds of Al, Ca, Mg, V were used. Mono-standard method was applied in the case of Ti and Sr (Cl and Zn as standards, respectively). By chemical methods, the amount of SiO 2 was determined in sediment samples after the treatment with concentrated HCl and residuum dis-aggregation by fusion (melting with a mixture of Na 2 CO 3 and K 2 CO 3 ). Phosphorus was determined by spectrophotometry with ammonium molybdate and by reduction with ascorbic acid. It can be seen that, both for water and sediment samples, the highest contents of Al, Co, Cs, Fe, Rb, and Sb were found at the sites located upstream the Portile de Fier dam: at Turnu Severin (for water) and Orsova (for sediments). Ag, Au, Ni, Yb, Zr were determined only in some of the water samples at the following concentration levels: ng L -1 (Au, Lu), tens of ng L -1 (Ag, Tb, Yb), hundreds of ng L -1 (Ag), μg L -1 (Ni, Zr), tens of μg L -1 (Ni, Ti). From a comparison with results of our previous studies for the Danube bottom sediments, no significant

  6. Geochemical analysis of soils and sediments, Coeur d'Alene drainage basin, Idaho: sampling, analytical methods, and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Stephen E.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Ikramuddin, Mohammed; Lindsay, James

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the locations, descriptions, analytical procedures used, and an inter-lab comparison of over 1100 geochemical analyses of samples of soil and sediment in and downstream of a major lead-zinc-silver mining district in the Coeur d'Alene (CdA) drainage basin of northern Idaho. The samples fall in 3 broad categories: (1) samples from vertical profiles of floodplain soils in the valley of the main stem of the CdA River (767 samples) and of the South Fork of the CdA River (38 samples), (2) size fractionated surficial samples of sediment bedload within the channel of the South Fork of the CdA River (68 samples), and (3) samples from vertical profiles of sediment bedload within the channel of the main stem of the CdA River (260 samples). Five different laboratories contributed geochemical data for this report. Four of the five laboratories employed analytical methods that require sample dissolution prior to analysis; one laboratory (US Geological Survey) used analytical instrumentation (energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence [EDXRF]) that is applied to pulverized samples. Some dissolution procedures use four acids (hydrochloric, nitric, perchloric, and hydrofluoric; Eastern Washington University [EWU] Geochemical Laboratory and XRAL Laboratories, Inc.), others use two acids (nitric acid and aqua regia; CHEMEX Labs, Inc.), and some use only concentrated nitric acid (ACZ Laboratories, Inc.). Most analyses of dissolved samples were done by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) or by ICP - MS (Mass Spectroscopy). Some analyses for Ag and K were done by Flame Atomic Absorption (FAA). Inter-laboratory comparisons are made for 6 elements: lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), iron

  7. Effects of Cattle Slurry Acidification on Ammonia and Methane Evolution during Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Andersen, Astrid; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    experiment sulfur was also added to slurry as the amino acid methionine in separate treatments. In each treatment 20-kg portions of slurry (n = 4) were stored for 95 d. All samples were subsampled nine to 10 times for determination of NH3 and CH4 evolution rates using a 2-L flow-through system. In all......Slurry acidification before storage is known to reduce NH3 emissions, but recent observations have indicated that CH4 emissions are also reduced. We investigated the evolution of CH4 from fresh and aged cattle slurry during 3 mo of storage as influenced by pH adjustment to 5.5 with sulfuric acid....... In a third storage experiment, cattle slurry acidified with commercial equipment on two farms was incubated. In the manipulation experiments, effects of acid and sulfate were distinguished by adding hydrochloric acid and potassium sulfate separately or in combination, rather than sulfuric acid. In one...

  8. Investigation of erosion rates of field samples using FDOT's enhanced sediment erosion rate flume (SERF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The first part of this project was to enhance and improve the Florida Department of Transportations : Sediment Erosion Rate Flume (SERF) device. Notable improvements include a pump repair, laser : system enhancement, installation of a digital vide...

  9. Equilibrium Sampling to Determine the Thermodynamic Potential for Bioaccumulation of Persistent Organic Pollutants from Sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnke, Annika; MacLeod, Matthew; Wickström, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Equilibrium partitioning (EqP) theory is currently the most widely used approach for linking sediment pollution by persistent hydrophobic organic chemicals to bioaccumulation. Most applications of the EqP approach assume (I) a generic relationship between organic carbon-normalized chemical...... concentrations in sediments and lipid-normalized concentrations in biota and (II) that bioaccumulation does not induce levels exceeding those expected from equilibrium partitioning. Here, we demonstrate that assumption I can be obviated by equilibrating a silicone sampler with chemicals in sediment, measuring...... chemical concentrations in the silicone, and applying lipid/silicone partition ratios to yield concentrations in lipid at thermodynamic equilibrium with the sediment (CLip⇌Sed). Furthermore, we evaluated the validity of assumption II by comparing CLip⇌Sed of selected persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic...

  10. Synthesis and characterization of cement slurries additives with epoxy resins - kinetics, thermodynamic and calorimetric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, A.M.G.; Andrade Junior, M.A.S.; Cestari, A.R.; Vieira, E.F.S.

    2010-01-01

    Cement has been used in the world, presenting a wide versatility. However, due to its chemical nature, it is subject to several types of chemical damages, especially for agents of acidic nature. With the purpose of increase its life-time, new cement slurries have been modified with the addition of specific additives. The objective of this work is to modify cement slurries with epoxy resins, which promote higher resistance of those materials in relation to acid attacks. Three cement slurries were synthesized with epoxy resins and a standard slurries, which was composed by cement and water. After 30 days of hydration, the samples were characterized by XDR, FTIR and thermal analysis (TG and DSC). The hydration processes of the cement slurries were studied by heat-conduction microcalorimetry. A kinetic study of HCl interaction with the new slurries were performed by the batch methodology at 25, 35, 45 e 55 deg C. It was verified that the addition of the polymers delayed the processes of hydration of the slurries, decreasing the flow of heat released as a function of the amount of added resin and, increased the resistance of those slurries to the acid attack. (author)

  11. Nitrate levels modulate denitrification activity in tropical mangrove sediments (Goa, India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, S.O.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    organic carbon (TOC) was determined by wet oxidation method with a precision of 0.01% (El Wakeel and Riley 1957). Labile organic matter The labile organic matter (LOM) was measured as a sum of proteins, carbohydrate and lipid content... and transferred aseptically to sterile 20 ml headspace vials. Three ml of sterilized ambient seawater from the sampling site was added to the sediment. This seawater used for slurry preparation was spiked with a KNO 3 solution to give final concentrations of 0...

  12. A simple screening method for the determination of 230Th in soil and sediment samples by gamma-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, J.C.; Rodriguez, P.B.; Tome, F.V.

    2001-01-01

    A simple and easy to perform method for the determination of 230 Th in soil and sediment samples using gamma-spectrometry is proposed and compared with the more usual procedure using alpha-particle spectrometry. The proposed method involves an efficiency calibration for the specific determination of this radionuclide instead of a complete calibration of the spectra. A single density parameter is introduced to correct the efficiencies obtained from the reference sources. The activities of 230 Th determined by gamma-spectrometry and alpha-particle spectrometry are compared. The minimum detectable activity values obtained are completely adequate for 230 Th determination in soil and sediment samples, in which 230 Th activities are usually fairly high. Thus, this procedure is intended as a very easy way to obtain the activity of this radionuclide in these types of samples, at least as a screening method before carrying out other more laborious procedures. (author)

  13. Comparison of the sample collection strategies for the investigation of pollution stage of some heavy metals in marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baysal A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, sampling collection strategies were compared for the determination of some heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ni and investigate their effects on the marine pollution. The sampling area is a natural bay using as a shipbuilding industries for three decades especially. To determine the permanent heavy metal pollution in this area, the sediment samples were taken different strategies; i the bay were divided square pieces which is 200 m length, and the samples were taken this distance (total 71 point, ii the samples were taken along the shore, then 200 m away the shore and 400 m away the shore (total 58 point. After the sample collection using ISO 5667-12 and EPA sampling procedure, the samples were prepared for the metal analysis. Acid treated samples were analyze by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. As a results both strategies were (are compared for investigation of some heavy metals pollution in marine sediment. The preliminary results were found between below LOD and 401.0 mg/kg for lead, and between 0.10 and 1005.0 mg/kg for chromium. Finally, the permanent heavy metal pollution is investigated in this bay.

  14. Coal slurries: An environmental bonus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basta, N.; Moore, S.; Ondrey, G.

    1994-01-01

    Developers and promoters of coal-water slurries and similar CWF (coal-water fuel) technologies have had a hard time winning converts since they unveiled their first commercial processes in the 1970s. The economic appeal of such processes, marginal at best, varies with the price of oil. Nevertheless, the technology is percolating, as geopolitics and environmental pressures drive new processes. Such fuels are becoming increasingly important to coal-rich, oil-poor nations such as China, as they attempt to build an onshore fuel supply. Meanwhile, improvements are changing the way coal-fired processes are viewed. Where air pollution regulations once discouraged the use of coal fuels, new coal processes have been developed that cut nitrous oxides (NOx) emissions and provide a use for coal fines, previously viewed as waste. The latest developments in the field were all on display at the 19th International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems, held in Clearwater, Fla., on March 21--24. At this annual meeting, sponsored by the Coal and Slurry Technology Association, (Washington, D.C.) and the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Dept. of Energy (PETC), some 200 visitors from around the work gathered to discuss the latest developments in coal slurry utilization--new and improved processes, and onstream plants. This paper presents highlights from the conference

  15. Solids transport formula in predictive model for pipe flow of slurry above deposit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2011), s. 89-106 ISSN 0272-6351 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/0383 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : bed friction * pipeline * pressure drop * sediment transport * slurry flow * stationary bed Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.545, year: 2011

  16. Two specialized delayed-neutron detector designs for assays of fissionable elements in water and sediment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Balagna, J.P.; Menlove, H.O.

    1976-01-01

    Two specialized neutron-sensitive detectors are described which are employed for rapid assays of fissionable elements by sensing for delayed neutrons emitted by samples after they have been irradiated in a nuclear reactor. The more sensitive of the two detectors, designed to assay for uranium in water samples, is 40% efficient; the other, designed for sediment sample assays, is 27% efficient. These detectors are also designed to operate under water as an inexpensive shielding against neutron leakage from the reactor and neutrons from cosmic rays. (Auth.)

  17. Interim report: Study of benzene release from Savannah River in-tank precipitation process slurry simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappe, K.G.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1997-09-01

    At the Savannah River Site, the in-tank precipitation (ITP) process uses sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) to precipitate radioactive cesium from alkaline wastes. During this process, potassium is also precipitated to form a 4-wt% KTPB/CsTPB slurry. Residual NaTPB decomposes to form benzene, which is retained by the waste slurry. The retained benzene is also readily released from the waste during subsequent waste processing. While the release of benzene certainly poses both flammability and toxicological safety concerns, the magnitude of the hazard depends on the rate of release. Currently, the mechanisms controlling the benzene release rates are not well understood, and predictive models for estimating benzene release rates are not available. The overall purpose of this study is to obtain quantitative measurements of benzene release rates from a series of ITP slurry stimulants. This information will become a basis for developing a quantitative mechanistic model of benzene release rates. The transient benzene release rate was measured from the surface of various ITP slurry (solution) samples mixed with benzene. The benzene release rate was determined by continuously purging the headspace of a sealed sample vessel with an inert gas (nitrogen) and analyzing that purged headspace vapor for benzene every 3 minutes. The following 75-mL samples were measured for release rates: KTPB slurry with 15,000 ppm freshly added benzene that was gently mixed with the slurry, KTPB slurry homogenized (energetically mixed) with 15,000 ppm and 5,000 ppm benzene, clear and filtered KTPB salt solution saturated with benzene (with and without a pure benzene layer on top of the solution), and a slurry sample from a large demonstration experiment (DEMO slurry) containing-benzene generated in situ

  18. Effect of addition of bottom ash on the rheological properties of fly ash slurry at varying temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K.; Kumar, S.; Gupta, M.; Garg, H. C.

    2016-09-01

    Presently, fly ash is transporting through slurry pipeline in the thermal power plant. Aim of the present investigation is to examine the rheological behaviour of finer particle (fly ash) slurry suspension with and without addition of coarser particles (bottom ash). Mixture of fly and bottom ash is taken with proportion of 9:1, 8:2 and 7:3 (by weight). The temperature of slurry suspension is varying from 25 to 40°C at solid concentration 30 % (by weight). Rheological tests are conducted with the variation of shear rate from 100 to 300 sec-1 for all slurry samples. Addition of coarse particles of bottom ash in finer particles of fly ash slurry, leads to improve the rheological characteristics of slurry suspension. The addition of bottom ash can result substantial saving in energy consumption with reduction in relative viscosity.

  19. Effects of storage time and straw content of cattle slurry on the mineralization of nitrogen and carbon in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Animal slurries are stored for a variable period of time before application in the field. The effect of cattle slurry storage time and temperature on the subsequent mineralization of C and N in soil was studied under laboratory conditions. Urine and faeces from a dairy cow were sampled separately...... net N immobilization in soil. Additional straw in the slurry caused increased net N immobilization only in the sandy loam soil. Following anaerobic storage, 8-14% of slurry C was released in gaseous form, and the net mineralization of slurry C after 12 weeks in soil amounted to 54-63%. The extra net...... mineralization of C in soil due to straw in slurry was equivalent to 76% of straw C, suggesting that the straw accelerated the mineralization of C derived from faeces, urine and/or soil....

  20. Evaluation of hybrid slurry resulting from the introduction of additives to mineral slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Drilled shaft construction often requires the use of drill slurry to maintain borehole stability during excavation : and concreting. Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) specifications require the use of mineral slurry : for all primary struct...

  1. Elemental analysis in bed sediment samples of Karnafuli estuarine zone in the Bay of Bengal by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, N.I.; Hossain, S.M.; Basunia, S.; Miah, R.U.; Rahman, M.; Sikder, D.H.; Chowdhury, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    The concentration of rare earths and other elements have been determined in the bed sediment samples of Karnafuli estuarine zone in the Bay of Bengal by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples and the standards soil-5, soil-7, coal fly ash and pond sediment were prepared and simultaneously irradiated for short and long time at the TRIGA Mark-II research reactor facility of Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka. The maximum thermal neutron flux was of the order of 10 13 n x cm -2 x s -1 . After irradiation the radioactivity of the product nuclides was measured by using a high resolution high purity germanium detector system. Analysis of γ-ray spectra and quantitative analysis of the elemental concentration were done via the software GANAAS. It has been possible to determine the concentration level of 27 elements including the rare earths La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Yb and uranium and thorium. (author)

  2. Sediment sampling of proposed dredge sites in the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q.; Lefkovitz, L.F.; Mayhew, H.L. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure the concentration of dioxins in sediment proposed to be dredged from the Lower Granite Reservoir near Lewiston, Idaho, and compare it to concentrations found at the reference sites. The area to be dredged is immediately adjacent to and downstream from an effluent discharge pipe belonging to the Potlatch Corporation`s pulp mill. Information provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) indicate the need to test for dioxins and furans in sediments of waters adjacent to and downstream of pulp mill effluents because of the by-product created through the chlorination process.

  3. Sediment sampling of proposed dredge sites in the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q.; Lefkovitz, L.F.; Mayhew, H.L. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure the concentration of dioxins in sediment proposed to be dredged from the Lower Granite Reservoir near Lewiston, Idaho, and compare it to concentrations found at the reference sites. The area to be dredged is immediately adjacent to and downstream from an effluent discharge pipe belonging to the Potlatch Corporation's pulp mill. Information provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) indicate the need to test for dioxins and furans in sediments of waters adjacent to and downstream of pulp mill effluents because of the by-product created through the chlorination process.

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Slurry Management Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    This report contains the results of Life Cycle Assessments of two slurry management technologies - acidification and decentred incineration. The LCA foundation can be used by the contributing companies for evaluating the environmental sustainability of a specific technology from a holistic Life...... Cycle perspective. Through this the companies can evaluate the environmental benefits and disadvantages of introducing a specific technology for slurry management. From a societal perspective the results can contribute to a clarification of which slurry management technologies (or combination...

  5. Occurrence of halogenated and organophosphate flame retardants in sediment and fish samples from three European river basins

    OpenAIRE

    Giulivo, Monica; Capri, Ettore; Kalogianni, Eleni; Milačič, Radmila; Majone, Bruno; Ferrari, Federico; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

    2017-01-01

    Classic (polybromodiphenyl ethers, PBDEs) and emerging halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) such as decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and halogenated norbornenes, as well as organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) were analysed in 52 sediments and 27 fish samples from three European river basins, namely the Evrotas (Greece), the Adige (Italy) and the Sava (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia). This is the first time that FR levels have been reported in these three European riv...

  6. Bacillus mangrovi sp. nov., isolated from a sediment sample from a mangrove forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vasundhera; Singh, Pradip Kumar; Korpole, Suresh; Tanuku, Naga Radha Srinivas; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar

    2017-07-01

    A facultatively anaerobic, endospore forming, alkali-tolerant, Gram-stain-positive, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain AK61T, was isolated from a sediment sample collected from Coringa mangrove forest, India. Colonies were circular, 1.5 mm in diameter, shiny, smooth, yellowish and convex with entire margins after 48 h growth at 30 °C. Growth occurred at 15-42 °C, with 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 6-9. AK61T was positive for amylase activity and negative for oxidase, catalase, aesculinase, caseinase, cellulase, DNase, gelatinase, lipase and urease activities. The fatty acids were dominated by branched types with iso- and anteiso- saturated fatty acids with a high abundance of iso-C14 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0; the cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid; and MK-7 was the major menaquinone. DNA-DNA hybridization between AK61T and Bacillus indicus MTCC 4374T and between AK61T and Bacillus indicus KCTC 3880 showed relatedness of 37.99 and 33.32 % respectively. The DNA G+C content of AK61T was 44 mol%. The results of a blast sequence similarity search based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that Bacillus cibi and Bacillus indicus were the nearest phylogenetic neighbours, with a pair-wise sequence similarity of 97.69 and 97.55 % respectively. The results of phylogenetic analysis indicated that AK61T was clustered with Bacillus idriensis and Bacillus indicus. On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic inference, AK61T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus mangrovi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AK61T (=JCM 31087T=MTCC 12015T=KCTC 33872T).

  7. RPP-WTP Slurry Wear Evaluation: Slurry Abrasivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duignan, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    This report deals with the task of evaluating wear in the cross-flow ultrafiltration system and specifically the need to define a representative slurry in order to obtain prototypic wear rates. The filtration system will treat many different wastes, but it is not practical to run a test for each one. This is especially true when considering that the planned period for testing is 2000 hours long and procurement of appropriate simulants is costly. Considering time and cost, one waste stream needs to be chosen to perform the wear test

  8. The influence of pyrolysis and matrix modifiers on determination of Cr and Pb in sediment samples by GFAAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risfidian Mohadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Influence of pyrolysis and matrix modifiers on determination of Cr and Pb in sediment samples using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry has been investigated. The sediment samples including three certified reference materials (CRMs are reported. Analyses were performed using microwave assisted dissolution. The matrix modifiers Mg(NO32, Pd+Mg(NO32 and NH4H2PO4were shown to be optimazed. The recovery for Cr and Pb in CRMs in the case of sample dissolution was found to be between 81 to 91% for Cr and 94 to 98% for Pb of the certified values, respectively. Keywords: Sediment, Pyrolysis, Matrix modifiers, Cr, Pb Abstrak (Indonesia: Pengaruh pirolisis dan matriks pengubah pada penentuan Cr dan Pb dalam sampel sedimen menggunakan tungku grafit spektroskopi serapan atom telah diteliti. Sampel sedimen termasuk tiga bahan referensi bersertifikat (CRMs dilaporkan dianalisis dengan menggunakan bantuan microwave ekstraktor. Matriks pengubah Mg(NO32, Pd+Mg(NO32 dan NH4H2PO4 telah digunakan dan menghasilkan nilai temu balik untuk Cr dan Pb dalam CRMs ditemukan antara 81-91% untuk Cr dan 94-98 % untuk Pb dari nilai sertifikat masing-masing. Katakunci: Sedimen, Pirolisis, Matrix modifiers, Cr, Pb

  9. Heterocyclic Aromatics in Petroleum Coke, Snow, Lake Sediments, and Air Samples from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Carlos A; Marvin, Chris; Muir, Derek; Harner, Tom; Martin, Jonathan; Zhang, Yifeng

    2017-05-16

    The aromatic fractions of snow, lake sediment, and air samples collected during 2011-2014 in the Athabasca oil sands region were analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatography following a nontargeted approach. Commonly monitored aromatics (parent and alkylated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dibenzothiophenes) were excluded from the analysis, focusing mainly on other heterocyclic aromatics. The unknowns detected were classified into isomeric groups and tentatively identified using mass spectral libraries. Relative concentrations of heterocyclic aromatics were estimated and were found to decrease with distance from a reference site near the center of the developments and with increasing depth of sediments. The same heterocyclic aromatics identified in snow, lake sediments, and air were observed in extracts of delayed petroleum coke, with similar distributions. This suggests that petroleum coke particles are a potential source of heterocyclic aromatics to the local environment, but other oil sands sources must also be considered. Although the signals of these heterocyclic aromatics diminished with distance, some were detected at large distances (>100 km) in snow and surface lake sediments, suggesting that the impact of industry can extend >50 km. The list of heterocyclic aromatics and the mass spectral library generated in this study can be used for future source apportionment studies.

  10. Gamma spectrometric determination of naturally occurring elements in sediment samples of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Sayed, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Determination of the naturally occurring elements 238 U( 226 Ra), 40 K, 232 Th( 228 Ra) and the fission product 137 Cs in sediments and water in two environmental systems in southern and northern parts of Egypt was made. These ecological systems represent main surface water system, supply drinking water to eastern part of Egypt, and the other is brackish water

  11. K1-95-HW, cruise report 1995: preliminary results. Phase III: sediment chemistry and biological sampling survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torresan, M.E.; Hampton, M.A.; Barber, J.H.; Wong, F.L.

    1995-01-01

    Mamala Bay, off the south shore of the island of Oahu, has been used as a repository of dredged material primarily from Pearl and Honolulu Harbors for over a century. The U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are conducting an integrated study on the distribution and character of dredged materials as well as the effects of dredged material on the marine environment. A three phase study is providing information to evaluate the effects on seafloor substrate and the benthic fauna. The studies include geophysical profiling and imaging, bottom photography, sampling, chemical and physical analyses of sediment, and evaluations of the benthic population, population density, and adverse impacts to the benthic fauna. Phase 1, conducted in 1993, inventoried the seafloor via remote sensing. Sidescan sonar and subbottom profilers characterized the seafloor in and around the disposal sites, and the resulting products reveal the character and extent of the dredged material. These data were used to plan Phase 2 in 1994, a sampling program that employed subbottom profilers, video and still photography, and seafloor sampling to ground truth the sonar mosaic and identify the seafloor substrates responsible for the various acoustic signatures on the sonar images and subbottom profiles. Box coring provided the samples necessary to distinguish dredged material from native sediment, and for the chemical analyses used to determine contaminant concentrations. Phase 3 studies conducted in June of 1995 consisted of box core sampling for chemical and biological analyses. Specific studies include: infaunal taxonomy and population density, bioassay/bioaccumulation, sediment chemistry, and post-disposal resuspension and transport. The 1995 survey, conducted June 14 through 17, resulted in the collection of 39 box cores from 20 different stations. Multiple box cores were composited at 7 different locations occupied in 1994, to provide

  12. New plug flow slurry bioreactor for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamati, S.; Gosselin, C.; Bergeron, E.; Chenier, M.; Truong, T.V. [Sodexen Group, Laval, PQ (Canada); Bisaillon, J.G. [INRS-Inst. Armand-Frappier, Laval, PQ (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Sodexen Group has developed a new bioslurry bioreactor capable of efficiently and economically treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils and sediments. A pilot plug-flow reactor was constructed, and innovations included were specifically-designed Venturi jet aerators for improved mixing and and oxygen distribution, and the development of bacterial consortia selectively adapted to high molecular weight PAH soil matrices. Rapid biodegradation is provided due to enhanced mass transfer rates and better microorgamism/contaminant contact. Various soil mixtures were tested in a 200 L pilot, and recirculation of a 50% slurry solid concentration was obtained by the use of centrifugal pumps along with submerged aerators and water nozzles. Based on microcosm biodegradation results, specific bioenhancing agents were added to the slurry to optimize bacterial activity and increase substrate bioavailability. Collected volatile organic compounds were treated by a biofilter. The feasibility of operating the continuously fed plug-flow reactor at high slurry solid content was shown. The bioslurry reactor allowed adequate operational conditions and mass transfer rates. Initial operation tests showed that increasing the slurry solid content up to 50% required certain design modifications to move settled particles. These included the number, size, position and distribution of the aerators. Internal shape of the reactor was also changed to obtain adequate mixing and solid suspension. Obtained oxygen levels throughout the reactor showed the efficiency of the aeration system. Resulting PAH removal efficiencies ranged from 63-90% depending on PAH molecular weights. Residence times of about ten days were needed to attain this removal rate. A rapid biodegradation of 80-90% of the more readily-available 2- and 3- ring PHAs occurred. Overall removal rates of more sorbed 4- and 6- ring PHAs were lower, suggesting the need for longer residence times, improved

  13. The IAEA worldwide intercomparison exercises (1990-1997). Determination of trace elements in marine sediments and biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquery, M.; Carvalho, F.P.; Azemard, S.; Horvat, M.

    1999-01-01

    Four major worldwide intercomparison exercises for the determination of trace elements in various environmental matrices were completed by the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory since 1990: SD-M-2/TM, deep sea marine sediment; IAEA-350, tuna fish homogenate; IAEA-356, contaminated coastal sediment and IAEA-140, sea plant (Fucus sp.). These intercomparison exercises aim at enabling individual laboratories to monitor their performance. The results of these exercises allowed us to make an overall evaluation of the quality of data provided for environmental assessment and to identify the trends of analytical performance in the determination of trace elements over the years. The number of participants in each exercise varied between 68 and 130, and permits statistical evaluation of the performance for a number of elements. For each intercomparison exercise, the performance of the participant laboratories was assessed by comparing reported results with established reference values calculating 'Z-scores'. The results show that for each sample matrix, the values reported by some laboratories were far from satisfactory in the earlier exercises, in particular for Cd, Cr and Pb. Nevertheless, over time, a general improvement of performance can clearly be seen for all elements. Moreover, there was a noticeable increase in the number of laboratories with good performance in the two most recent exercises, observed both for biological and for sediment matrices. However, the determination of trace elements such as Cd, Cr, Pb and Hg in low level environmental samples still remains a major challenge to the analysts. For this reason and in order to assess the current performance of laboratories for low environmental levels of contaminants, the future intercomparison exercises will concentrate on low level sediment and fish samples

  14. Aerosol entrainment from a sparged non-Newtonian slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, Brad G.

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol measurements were conducted above a half-scale air sparged mixing tank filled with simulated waste slurry. Three aerosol size fractions were measured at three sampling heights at three different sparging rates using a filter based ambient air sampling technique. Aerosol concentrations in the head space above the closed tank demonstrated a wide range, varying between 97 ?g m-3 for PM2.5 and 5650 ?g m-3 for TSP. The variation in concentrations was a function of sampling heights, size fraction and sparging rate. Measured aerosol entrainment coefficients showed good agreement with existing entrainment models. The models evaluated generally over predicted the entrainment, but were within a factor of two of the measured entrainment. This indicates that the range of applicability of the models may be extendable to include sparged slurries with Bingham plastic rheological properties

  15. Final report on the sampling and analysis of sediment cores from the L-Area oil and chemical basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-08-01

    Nine vibracores were collected in the L-Area oil and chemical basin (904-83G) during late March and early April 1985. These cores were collected for analysis of the sludge on the basin floor and the underlying sediment. Several different field and laboratory analyses were performed on each three inch segment of all the cores. These included: (1) Sediment characterization; (2) Percent moisture; (3) Dry weight; (4) Spectral gamma analysis; (5) Gross alpha and beta analysis. Detailed chemical analysis were measured on selected intervals of 2 cores (LBC-5 and 6) for complete chemical characterization of the sediments. This sampling program was conducted to provide information so that a closure plan for the basin could be developed. This report describes the methods employed during the project and provide a hard copy of the analytical results from the sample analyses. Included in the appendices are copies of all field and laboratory notes taken during the project and copies of the gas chromatograms for the petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. All chemical results were also submitted on a 5-inch floppy disk.

  16. Optimizing sample pretreatment for compound-specific stable carbon isotopic analysis of amino sugars in marine sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, R.; Lin, Y.-S.; Lipp, J. S.; Meador, T. B.; Hinrichs, K.-U.

    2014-09-01

    Amino sugars are quantitatively significant constituents of soil and marine sediment, but their sources and turnover in environmental samples remain poorly understood. The stable carbon isotopic composition of amino sugars can provide information on the lifestyles of their source organisms and can be monitored during incubations with labeled substrates to estimate the turnover rates of microbial populations. However, until now, such investigation has been carried out only with soil samples, partly because of the much lower abundance of amino sugars in marine environments. We therefore optimized a procedure for compound-specific isotopic analysis of amino sugars in marine sediment, employing gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The whole procedure consisted of hydrolysis, neutralization, enrichment, and derivatization of amino sugars. Except for the derivatization step, the protocol introduced negligible isotopic fractionation, and the minimum requirement of amino sugar for isotopic analysis was 20 ng, i.e., equivalent to ~8 ng of amino sugar carbon. Compound-specific stable carbon isotopic analysis of amino sugars obtained from marine sediment extracts indicated that glucosamine and galactosamine were mainly derived from organic detritus, whereas muramic acid showed isotopic imprints from indigenous bacterial activities. The δ13C analysis of amino sugars provides a valuable addition to the biomarker-based characterization of microbial metabolism in the deep marine biosphere, which so far has been lipid oriented and biased towards the detection of archaeal signals.

  17. Review of samples of sediment, tailings, and waters adjacent to the Cactus Queen gold mine, Kern County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    The Cactus Queen Mine is located in the western Mojave Desert in Kern County, California. The Cactus Queen gold-silver (Au-Ag) deposit is similar to other Au-Ag deposits hosted in Miocene volcanic rocks that consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions. The volcanic rocks were emplaced onto a basement of Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks. A part of the Cactus Queen Mine is located on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Staff from the BLM initially sampled the mine area and documented elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in tailings and sediment. BLM then requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure and characterize As and other geochemical constituents in sediment, tailings, and waters on the part of the mine on Federal lands. This report is made in response to the request by the BLM, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to the potential removal of As-contaminated mine waste from the Cactus Queen Mine as a means of reducing As release and exposure to humans and biota. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of sediments, mine tailings, and surface waters at the Cactus Queen Mine on January 27, 2008. Our results provide a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

  18. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index applied to sediment samples from the Guarapiranga reservoir, Brazil, for metal and trace element assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme M.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.b, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Franklin, Robson L., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.b [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (EAAI/CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Inorganica e Radioatividade

    2011-07-01

    This study aims to assess sediment contamination by metals and other trace elements in five sampling points of the Guarapiranga Reservoir. Two collection campaigns were undertaken and the samples were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in order to determine the following elements: major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb , Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu). Soil samples were collected in the Guarapiranga Park, located next to the reservoir. Composite top soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in lines across the park at every 30m and were also analyzed by INAA. EF values was calculated using Sc as the conservative element for normalization purposes and soil from Guarapiranga region was used as background levels for the elements analyzed. EF > 1.5 were obtained for the elements As, Sb and Zn, with highest values for Zn (1.6sampling points near the water supply catchment point from the Water Treatment Agency of Sao Paulo State, indicating anthropogenic contribution. As for the other elements, a 0.5sediments can be classified as moderately contaminated. (author)

  19. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index applied to sediment samples from the Guarapiranga reservoir, Brazil, for metal and trace element assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme M.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I.; Franklin, Robson L.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to assess sediment contamination by metals and other trace elements in five sampling points of the Guarapiranga Reservoir. Two collection campaigns were undertaken and the samples were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in order to determine the following elements: major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb , Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu). Soil samples were collected in the Guarapiranga Park, located next to the reservoir. Composite top soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in lines across the park at every 30m and were also analyzed by INAA. EF values was calculated using Sc as the conservative element for normalization purposes and soil from Guarapiranga region was used as background levels for the elements analyzed. EF > 1.5 were obtained for the elements As, Sb and Zn, with highest values for Zn (1.6< EF<4.0), mainly at sampling points near the water supply catchment point from the Water Treatment Agency of Sao Paulo State, indicating anthropogenic contribution. As for the other elements, a 0.5< EF<1.0 was obtained, indicating that they mostly originate from crustal contribution. The Igeo Index was calculated using soil values as background or pristine values as well. For Zn, Igeo values (1.0< EF<2.0) were obtained, and, according to this criteria, these sediments can be classified as moderately contaminated. (author)

  20. Recent bottom sediments from Chukchi Sea, sampled northeast of Wrangel Island, indicate warmer climate (preliminary results)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vologina, Elena G.; Sturm, Michael; Kolesnik, Alexandr N.; Bosin, Alexandr A.

    2014-05-01

    A short sediment core (37 cm long) was collected in Chukchi Sea at water depth 100 m northeast of Wrangel Island within the framework of the Russian-American project RUSALCA. Coordinates of coring site: 72º32.54'N 175º58.70'W. The sediments consist of silty clay and clayey silt with small admixtures of sand. They contain diatoms and spiculae of sponges. The deposits are olive-gray to greenish-gray and show black spots and stripes of hydrotroilite. Magnetic susceptibility varies from 28-42•10-6 SI units, with minimum values (28-32•10-6 SI units) observed in the uppermost 0-2 cm of the core. The generally constant magnetic susceptibility and the homogeneous lithology indicate calm conditions during sedimentation. Recent sedimentation rates, measured by 210Pb, average 0.7 mm/year. Thus the age of the studied sediment column is up to 530 years old, which corresponds to the Late Holocene [1]. Contents of biogenic silica (Sibio), mainly from diatoms, change from 11.14-16.00 %. Maximum values are observed in the uppermost part of the core at 0-1 cm (14.44 %) and down-core at 35 cm (16.00 %). Minimum contents correspond to core depths of 4-7 cm, 32 cm and 36 cm. Concentration of organic carbon (Corg) and total nitrogen (Ntot) are generally well correlated with biogenic silica. Maximum contents are observed in the interval 0-1 cm (2.19 % Corg and 0.28 % Ntot), minimum concentrations at intervals 5-6 cm (1.63-1.67 % Corg, 0.20-0.21 % Ntot.) and 31-33 cm (1.35-1.60 % Corg, 0.17-0.20 % Ntot). Concentrations of Corg and Ntot are mainly constant between 7 and 30 cm. In general, contents of Ntot are very small in the sediments. C/N ratios vary between 9-10, indicating a predominance of autochthonous organic matter in the deposits. The interval 0-1 cm corresponds to about the last 14 years. The high nutrient concentrations within this interval are caused probably by the increase of biological productivity in the Chukchi Sea increased during this time. This could be caused by

  1. Rhodovulum mangrovi sp. nov., a phototrophic alphaproteobacterium isolated from a mangrove forest sediment sample

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nupur, P.; Srinivas, T.N.R.; Takaichi, S.; AnilKumar, P.

    ; Srinivas et al., 2012), aquaculture pond (Srinivas et al., 2007a), coastal sediments (Straub et al., 1999), mangrove forest (Anil Kumar et al., 2008a), and soda lakes (Kompantseva et al., 2010; Kompantseva et al., 2012). In the course of bacterial.... Mikrobiologiya 54, 974–982. Kompantseva, E. I., Komova, A. V. & Kostrikina, N. A. (2010). Rhodovulum steppense sp. nov., an obligately haloalkaliphilic purple nonsulfur bacterium widespread in saline soda lakes of Central Asia. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60...

  2. Multi-element analysis of sediments, coal samples and gemstones by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshminarayana, S.; Krishnarjuna Rao, I.; Thirumala Rao, B.V.; Naidu, T.Y.; Kasipathi, C.; Jagannadha Rao, M.; Newton Nathaniel, T.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2006-01-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is one of the best analytical methods for the determination of most of the Rare Earth Elements (REEs) and other trace elements. INAA is more effective for trace elemental analysis in the presence of other elements in varying matrices. Multi elemental analysis of the sediments of Gosthani River Estuary, Balacheruvu Backwaters, Kothagudem coal deposits and Chrysoberyl, chrysoberyl cat's eye and Alexandrite gemstones were carries out by INAA. (author)

  3. Investigating how fundamental parameters of XRF sample preparation and analysis affect the observed elemental concentration: an experiment using fluvial sediment from Sabah, Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higton, Sam; Walsh, Rory

    2015-04-01

    X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) is an important technique for measuring the concentrations of geochemical elements and inorganic contaminants adsorbed to sediments as an input to sediment tracing methods used to evaluate sediment transport dynamics in river catchments. In addition to traditional laboratory-based XRF instruments, the advent of increasingly advanced portable handheld XRF devices now mean that samples of fluvial sediment can be analysed in the field or in the laboratory following appropriate sample preparation procedures. There are limitations and sources of error associated with XRF sample preparation and analysis, however. It is therefore important to understand how fundamental parameters involved in sample preparation and analysis, such as sample compression and measurement exposure duration, affect observed variability in measurement results. Such considerations become important if the resulting measurement variability is high relative to the natural variability in element concentrations at a sample site. This paper deployed a simple experimental design to assess the impacts of varying a number of sample preparation and XRF analysis parameters on recorded measurements of elemental concentrations of the fine fraction (Sabah, Borneo; the core site is being used for research into multi-proxy sediment fingerprinting as part of the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems (SAFE) project. Some fundamental sample preparation procedures consistent with US EPA Method 6200 were applied to all sediment samples in order to explore key variables of interest. All sediment samples were air-dried to constant weight and sample quantity was sufficient to satisfy the assumption of 'infinite thickness' of sample. Standard plastic sample cups were used for both the Rigaku laboratory machine and the Niton portable XRF machine. A computer-controlled desktop laboratory stand was used in conjunction with the Niton handheld XRF analyser to ensure consistent repeated measurements

  4. Slurry discharge management-beach profile prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, R.; Nawrot, J.R. [Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-11-01

    Mine tailings dams are embankments used by the mining industry to retain the tailings products after the mineral preparation process. Based on the acid-waste stereotype that all coal slurry is acid producing, current reclamation requires a four foot soil cover for inactive slurry disposal areas. Compliance with this requirement is both difficult and costly and in some case unnecessary, as not all the slurry, or portions of slurry impoundments are acid producing. Reduced costs and recent popularity of wetland development has prompted many operators to request reclamation variances for slurry impoundments. Waiting to address slurry reclamation until after the impoundment is full, limits the flexibility of reclamation opportunities. This paper outlines a general methodology to predict the formation of the beach profile for mine tailings dams, by the discharge volume and location of the slurry into the impoundment. The review is presented under the perspective of geotechnical engineering and waste disposal management emphasizing the importance of pre-planning slurry disposal land reclamation. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Comparison and analysis of organic components of biogas slurry from eichhornia crassipes solms and corn straw biogas slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Li, Y. B.; Liu, Z. H.; Min, J.; Cui, Y.; Gao, X. H.

    2017-11-01

    Biogas slurry is one of anaerobic fermentations, and biomass fermentation biogas slurries with different compositions are different. This paper mainly presents through the anaerobic fermentation of Eichhornia crassipes solms biogas slurry and biogas slurry of corn straw, the organic components of two kinds of biogas slurry after extraction were compared by TLC, HPLC and spectrophotometric determination of nucleic acid and protein of two kinds of biogas slurry organic components, and analyzes the result of comparison.

  6. Improving the accuracy of sediment-associated constituent concentrations in whole storm water samples by wet-sieving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, W.R.; Bannerman, R.; Bowman, G.

    2007-01-01

    Sand-sized particles (>63 ??m) in whole storm water samples collected from urban runoff have the potential to produce data with substantial bias and/or poor precision both during sample splitting and laboratory analysis. New techniques were evaluated in an effort to overcome some of the limitations associated with sample splitting and analyzing whole storm water samples containing sand-sized particles. Wet-sieving separates sand-sized particles from a whole storm water sample. Once separated, both the sieved solids and the remaining aqueous (water suspension of particles less than 63 ??m) samples were analyzed for total recoverable metals using a modification of USEPA Method 200.7. The modified version digests the entire sample, rather than an aliquot, of the sample. Using a total recoverable acid digestion on the entire contents of the sieved solid and aqueous samples improved the accuracy of the derived sediment-associated constituent concentrations. Concentration values of sieved solid and aqueous samples can later be summed to determine an event mean concentration. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  7. Improving the accuracy of sediment-associated constituent concentrations in whole storm water samples by wet-sieving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, William R; Bannerman, Roger; Bowman, George

    2007-01-01

    Sand-sized particles (>63 microm) in whole storm water samples collected from urban runoff have the potential to produce data with substantial bias and/or poor precision both during sample splitting and laboratory analysis. New techniques were evaluated in an effort to overcome some of the limitations associated with sample splitting and analyzing whole storm water samples containing sand-sized particles. Wet-sieving separates sand-sized particles from a whole storm water sample. Once separated, both the sieved solids and the remaining aqueous (water suspension of particles less than 63 microm) samples were analyzed for total recoverable metals using a modification of USEPA Method 200.7. The modified version digests the entire sample, rather than an aliquot, of the sample. Using a total recoverable acid digestion on the entire contents of the sieved solid and aqueous samples improved the accuracy of the derived sediment-associated constituent concentrations. Concentration values of sieved solid and aqueous samples can later be summed to determine an event mean concentration.

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water, sediment, soil, and biological samples from different industrial areas in Zhejiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Junxia; Lin, Zhenkun; Lin, Kuangfei; Wang, Chunyan; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Changyuan; Lin, Junda; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Huang, Changjiang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examined PBDE concentrations in various matrices from different industrial areas. ► Elevated PBDE levels were found in areas with low-voltage electrical manufactures. ► Areas with e-waste recycling activities also had higher PBDE concentrations. ► PBDE content and composition in water samples varied from one area to another. ► PBDE composition in sediment/soil and biological samples was predominated by BDE-209. - Abstract: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used extensively in electrical and electronic products, but little is known about their distribution in the environment surrounding the manufacturing factories. This study reports PBDE contamination in various matrices from the location (Liushi, Zhejiang province) that produces more than 70% of the low-voltage electrical appliances in China. Additionally, PBDE contamination was compared with other industries such as the e-waste recycling business (Fengjiang) in the same region. Specifically, we measured seven PBDE congeners (BDEs – 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, and 209) in water, sediment, soil, plant, and animal tissues from four different areas in this region. The present study revealed elevated PBDE concentrations in all matrices collected from Liushi and Fengjiang in comparison with highly industrialized areas without significant PBDE contamination sources. In water samples, there were large variations of PBDE content and composition across different areas. In sediment/soil and biological samples, BDE-209 was the predominant congener and this could be due to the abundant usage of deca-BDE mixtures in China. Our findings provide the very first data on PBDE contamination in the local environments surrounding the electronics industry, and also reveal widespread PBDE contamination in highly industrialized coastal regions of China.

  9. The mechanics of wear in slurry dumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with the pumping of abrasive slurries which exposes machinery and parts to an exceedingly large number of modes of wear, probably representing all possible modes that can be conceived. The term ''slurry'' as defined implies that the abrasive solids are mixed with a liquid, usually water, which can combine with certain soluble elements from the solids or from the atmosphere to form an insidious combination of corrosion-abrasion. The various wear modes are described and exemplified with drawings and photographs. A discussion on wear reduction and operating practices is included. A brief description of the ASTM G75 Miller Number Test for slurry abrasivity and a proposed Slurry Abrasion Resistance Test for the effect of slurries on materials is included

  10. [Composition of marine sediment samples in the Costa Rica intertidal zones using X-Ray fluorescence analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Alfonso; Lizano, Omar G; Alfaro, Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Using an energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence analysis, simultaneous evaluation of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ge, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in 74 marine sediment samples from the Costa Rica intertidal zones was conducted. Samples were collected between June 1999 and December 2001, from Caribbean and Pacific beaches of Costa Rica. Calcium and iron showed the highest abundances and are indicators of the natural origin of the sediments. Calcium is associated with biogenic processes such as coral reefs near the sampling sites and iron indicates a terrigenous origin. In general, the beaches of the Caribbean and North Pacific regions showed the greatest concentration of calcium. This is indicative of the abundant reef structures near these beaches. The beaches of the Central and South Pacific show the greatest iron concentrations, indicating an important lithosphere contribution and/or little contribution of calcium carbonate due to the poor development of coralline structures near the sampling sites. Finally, the analyses did not show evidence of elements associated with anthropogenic pollution. Only a northern section of Puerto Viejo beach showed high concentrations of lead, zinc and titanium, perhaps associated with hydrothermal sources.

  11. Properties of slurries made of fast pyrolysis oil and char or beech wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The properties of slurries made of pyrolysis oil mixed with wood, char or ground char were investigated with respect to phase transitions, rheological properties, elemental compositions, and energy density. Also the pumping properties of the slurries were investigated at temperatures of 25, 40...... and 60 C and solid loadings from 0 to 20 wt%. The phase transitions of the wood slurry samples were observed at lower solid loadings compared to the char slurry samples. The apparent viscosity of the slurry samples was found to be considerably impacted by solid loading (0e20 wt%) and temperature (25e60 C......), especially in the phase transition region. The slurry viscosities with 20 wt% char loading, 20 wt% ground char loading and 15 wt% wood loading (at a shear rate of 100 s1) are 0.7, 1.0 and 1.7 Pa.s, respectively at 60 C and these values increases 1.2e1.4 times at 40 C and 3e4 times at 25 C. The wood, char...

  12. Assessment of environmentally available metals in sediment samples from water for public supply of the city of Palmas, Tocantis, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Bruna Rafaela

    2012-01-01

    The sediments are an important compartment used as a tool for assessment of aquatic ecosystems quality, for indicating the presence of contaminants released continuously into the environment as a result of human activities. Among chemical substances discharged to surface water, there are metals that in undesirable amounts, can be toxic to biota. Due to the importance of sediment and of shortage of data of water quality of the Araguaia-Tocantins river system, the present study conducted an assessment of environmentally available metals in sediment samples from water for public supply of the city of Palmas, in Tocantins, Brazil. The concentrations of As, Cd, Pb and Se were analyzed by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS), Ag, Al, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Sb, Sc, Si, Ti, V and Zn were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) and Hg by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CVAAS). Two partial solubilization processes were performed for a comparative study, one with HCl 0,1 M and agitation at room temperature, considered a milder method for metal extraction from anthropogenic origin, and another with HNO 3 8 M and microwave heating, considered as an alternative to more complex methods of total digestion, since it provides a good evaluation of the total concentration of the elements. The sediment quality evaluation was realized by comparing the concentration values of the elements As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn with the quality guidelines (TEL and PEL) adopted by Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME), to thereby contribute to the environmental quality of the water of the Araguaia-Tocantins river system. (author)

  13. Effect of red blood cell aggregation and sedimentation on optical coherence tomography signals from blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillin, M Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Tuchin, V V; Wang, R K; Myllylae, R

    2005-01-01

    In this work, Monte Carlo simulation is used to obtain model optical coherence tomography (OCT) signals from a horizontally orientated blood layer at different stages of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and sedimentation processes. The parameters for aggregating and sedimenting blood cells were chosen based on the data available from the literature and our earlier experimental studies. We consider two different cases: a suspension of washed RBCs in physiological solution (where aggregation does not take place) and RBCs in blood plasma (which provides necessary conditions for aggregation). Good agreement of the simulation results with the available experimental data shows that the chosen optical parameters are reasonable. The dependence of the numbers of photons contributing to the OCT signal on the number of experienced scattering events was analysed for each simulated signal. It was shown that the maxima of these dependences correspond to the peaks in the OCT signals related to the interfaces between the layers of blood plasma and blood cells. Their positions can be calculated from the optical thicknesses of the layers, and the absorption and scattering coefficients of the media

  14. A procedure for the rapid determination of Pu isotopes and Am-241 in soil and sediment samples by alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, comparable and 'fit for purpose' results are an essential requirement for any decision based on analytical measurements. For the analyst, the availability of tested and validated analytical procedures is a extremely important tool for production of such analytical measurements. For maximum utility, such procedures should be comprehensive, clearly formulated, and readily available to both the analyst and the customer for reference. Since 2004 the Environment Programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at the development of a set of procedures for the determination of radionuclides in terrestrial environmental samples. In this report, a rapid procedure for the determination of Pu and Am radionuclides in soil and sediment samples is described that can be used in emergency situations. The method provides accurate and reliable results for the activity concentrations of elevated levels of 239,240 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am in soil and sediment samples over the course of 24 hours. The procedure has been validated in accordance with ISO guidelines

  15. Strategies and equipment for sampling suspended sediment and associated toxic chemicals in large rivers - with emphasis on the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, R.H.; Stevens, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    A Lagrangian strategy for sampling large rivers, which was developed and tested in the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers of South America during the early 1980s, is now being applied to the study of toxic chemicals in the Mississippi River. A series of 15-20 cross-sections of the Mississippi mainstem and its principal tributaries is sampled by boat in downstream sequence, beginning upriver of St. Louis and concluding downriver of New Orleans 3 weeks later. The timing of the downstream sampling sequence approximates the travel time of the river water. Samples at each cross-section are discharge-weighted to provide concentrations of dissolved and suspended constituents that are converted to fluxes. Water-sediment mixtures are collected from 10-40 equally spaced points across the river width by sequential depth integration at a uniform vertical transit rate. Essential equipment includes (i) a hydraulic winch, for sensitive control of vertical transit rates, and (ii) a collapsible-bag sampler, which allows integrated samples to be collected at all depths in the river. A section is usually sampled in 4-8 h, for a total sample recovery of 100-120 l. Sampled concentrations of suspended silt and clay are reproducible within 3%.

  16. Transformations of TNT and related aminotoluenes in groundwater aquifer slurries under different electron-accepting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumholz, L R; Li, J; Clarkson, W W; Wilber, G G; Suflita, J M

    1997-01-01

    The transport and fate of pollutants is often governed by both their tendency to sorb as well as their susceptibility to biodegradation. We have evaluated these parameters for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and several biodegradation products. Slurries of aquifer sediment and groundwater depleted TNT at rates of 27, 7.7 and 5.9 microM day-1 under methanogenic, sulfate-reducing and nitrate-reducing conditions, respectively. Abiotic losses of TNT were determined in autoclaved controls. Abiotic TNT loss and subsequent transformation of the products was also observed. These transformations were especially important during the first step in the reduction of TNT. Subsequent abiotic reactions could account for all of the transformations observed in bottles which were initially nitrate-reducing. Other controls removed TNT reduction products at much slower rates than slurries containing live organisms. 2-Amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene was produced in all slurries but disappeared in methanogenic and in sulfate-reducing slurries within several weeks. This compound was converted to 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene in all slurries with subsequent removal of the latter from methanogenic and sulfate-reducing slurries, while it persisted in autoclaved controls and in the nitrate-reducing slurries. Aquifer slurries incubated with either 2,4- or 2,6-diaminotoluene showed losses of these compounds relative to autoclaved controls under nitrate-reducing conditions but not under sulfate-reducing or methanogenic conditions. These latter compounds are important as reduced intermediates in the biodegradation of dinitrotoluenes and as industrial chemicals. In experiments to examine sorption, exposure to landfill sediment resulted in losses of approximately 15% of diaminotoluene isomers and 25% of aminodinitrotoluene isomers from initial solution concentrations within 24 h. Isotherms confirmed that the diaminotoluenes were least strongly sorbed and the amino-dinitrotoluenes most strongly sorbed to this

  17. Oxygen transfer in slurry bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Y; Moo-Young, M

    1991-04-25

    The oxygen transfer in bioreactors with slurries having a yield stress was investigated. The volumetric mass transfer coefficients in a 40-L bubble column with simulated fermentation broths, the Theological properties of which were represented by the Casson model, were measured. Experimental data were compared with a theoretical correlation developed on the basis of a combination of Higbie's penetration theory and Kolmogoroff's theory of isotropic turbulence. Comparisons between the proposed correlation and data for the simulated broths show good agreement. The mass transfer data for actual mycelial fermentation broths reported previously by the authors were re-examined. Their Theological data was correlated by the Bingham plastic model. The oxygen transfer rate data in the mycelial fermentation broths fit the predictions of the proposed theoretical correlation.

  18. USAGE OF PLASTIC LITTER MADE FROM SEPARATED SLURRY IN FARM ANIMAL BREEDINGS ESPECIALLY IN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ŠOCH

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The observation was performed in two dairy cows´ herds of Holstein breeding stabled in brick buildings with loose box stabling system. The separated slurry was used as litter in one of the building, classical stabling regime with straw litter was used in the other one. The experiment ascertained a significant tendency to reduction of microorganisms and parasites quantity in separated slurry modified by biometric treatment through the method of managed composting process. There was quite a small quantity of microorganisms and parasites in samples taken from litter of separated slurry and only after three weeks a gradual proliferation of them began. From the viewpoint of the dairy cows´ state of health, the quantity and quality of their milk production, the cleanness of their body surface, the periods of their lying and other ascertained welfare parameters under given microclimatic conditions the application of separated slurry as plastic litter fully complied.

  19. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunlin, Walter A.; Gorski, Alan; Jaehnig, Leo J.; Moskal, Clifford J.; Naylor, Joseph D.; Parimi, Krishnia; Ward, John V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  20. Intercomparison of natural radionuclide measurements in marine sediment sample SD-N-1/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    This intercomparison exercise was organized with the aim of providing to the participating laboratories a possibility of testing the performance of their analytical methods and to acquire basic data for establishing reference values for a number of natural radionuclides in the sediment material SD-N-1/2 from the North Sea floor. In tables are presented results expressed in mBq.g -1 on potassium, uranium isotopes, thorium-232 with the respective decay products, thorium-230, radium-226 and lead-210. Altogether 98 laboratories from 42 Member States joined this intercomparison. The results show generally good agreement, but more analytical work is needed to improve the present status of the lead-210 certification. Gamma and alpha spectroscopy were the most frequently used as the analytical techniques

  1. Reductive Dechlorination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Marine Sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sowers, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    ... Community by Comparative Sequence Analysis of Genes Coding for 16S rRNA, Microbial Reductive Dechlorination of Aroclor 1260 in Anaerobic Slurries of Estuarine Sediments, Differential RFLP patterns of PCR...

  2. Feasibility Studies on Pipeline Disposal of Concentrated Copper Tailings Slurry for Waste Minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Pradipta Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2017-06-01

    The conventional lean phase copper tailings slurry disposal systems create pollution all around the disposal area through seepage and flooding of waste slurry water. In order to reduce water consumption and minimize pollution, the pipeline disposal of these waste slurries at high solids concentrations may be considered as a viable option. The paper presents the rheological and pipeline flow characteristics of copper tailings samples in the solids concentration range of 65-72 % by weight. The tailings slurry indicated non-Newtonian behaviour at these solids concentrations and the rheological data were best fitted by Bingham plastic model. The influence of solids concentration on yield stress and plastic viscosity for the copper tailings samples were discussed. Using a high concentration test loop, pipeline experiments were conducted in a 50 mm nominal bore (NB) pipe by varying the pipe flow velocity from 1.5 to 3.5 m/s. A non-Newtonian Bingham plastic pressure drop model predicted the experimental data reasonably well for the concentrated tailings slurry. The pressure drop model was used for higher size pipes and the operating conditions for pipeline disposal of concentrated copper tailings slurry in a 200 mm NB pipe with respect to specific power consumption were discussed.

  3. The state of benzene in TIP slurry using nuclear magnetic resonance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworjanyn, L.O.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements on In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) simulated potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) slurries at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have been completed. Most measurements were made on 4 wt percent KTPB slurry in 4 to 5 molar sodium salt solution. Liquid benzene was added volumetrically to the slurry in 25-mL vials and agitated to create a suspension. Earlier tests using dyed benzene showed that benzene remains suspended permanently in the slurry and the only visible change is overall slurry settling. Gentle vial agitation restores the original suspension state. To simulate in-situ uniformly dispersed benzene, benzene/KTPB samples were homogenized using a high speed rotor/stator biological homogenizer. Photomicrographs using homogenized samples containing dyed benzene showed no residual benzene droplets and fairly uniform coloration of the KTPB solids structure. All benzene concentration estimates are based on benzene addition since there is no available analytical method for benzene in slurry. Benzene losses could be significant, particularly at low concentrations and during homogenization

  4. The state of benzene in TIP slurry using nuclear magnetic resonance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dworjanyn, L.O.

    1997-11-14

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements on In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) simulated potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) slurries at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have been completed. Most measurements were made on 4 wt percent KTPB slurry in 4 to 5 molar sodium salt solution. Liquid benzene was added volumetrically to the slurry in 25-mL vials and agitated to create a suspension. Earlier tests using dyed benzene showed that benzene remains suspended permanently in the slurry and the only visible change is overall slurry settling. Gentle vial agitation restores the original suspension state. To simulate in-situ uniformly dispersed benzene, benzene/KTPB samples were homogenized using a high speed rotor/stator biological homogenizer. Photomicrographs using homogenized samples containing dyed benzene showed no residual benzene droplets and fairly uniform coloration of the KTPB solids structure. All benzene concentration estimates are based on benzene addition since there is no available analytical method for benzene in slurry. Benzene losses could be significant, particularly at low concentrations and during homogenization.

  5. Instrumentation to Monitor Transient Developing Periodic Flow in Newtonian Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.

    2014-08-03

    This paper describes measurement techniques developed and applied to characterize solids mobilization and mixing of Newtonian slurries that are subjected to transient, periodic, developing flows. Metrics to characterize mobilization and mixing are the just suspended velocity (UJS) and the cloud height (HC). Two ultrasonic instruments to characterize pulse jet mixing of slurries were developed and deployed to measure related metrics: the thickness of the settled bed (used to determine mobilization) and the concentration within the cloud as a function of elevation [C(Z)]. A second method, continuous sample extraction, characterization, and reinsertion was successfully used to measure average density and characterize the concentration within the cloud. Testing focused on mixing vessels using intermitent jet mixers oriented vertically downward. Descriptions of the instruments and instrument performance are presented. These techniques were an effective approach to characterize mixing phenomena, determine mixing energy required to fully mobilize vessel contents, and to determine mixing times for process evaluation.

  6. Fluidized bed incineration of a slurry waste from caprolactam production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cammarota, A.; D' Amore, M.; Donsi, G.; Massimilla, L.

    1980-08-01

    Caprolactam tails are a slurry waste produced in the SNIA process for the synthesis of caprolactam. They contain about 65% water, 25% ash and 10% combustible matter. The ashes are low melting, due to the presence of sodium compounds. The incineration of this waste is carried out at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C in beds of silica sand, using a laboratory scale apparatus with a 40 mm ID fluidization column. Variables investigated include sand particle size, slurry flow rate, bed temperature, bed height. The concentrations of CO/sub 2/ and CO are determined continuously in the flue gases. Bed solids are sampled periodically to determine the carbon content. Results of experiments show that the low temperature incineration on a bed of inert solids is a useful technique for the disposal of caprolactam tails. 8 refs.

  7. Corrosion inhibitors for water-base slurry in multiblade sawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. P.; Odonnell, T. P.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a water-base slurry instead of the standard PC oil vehicle was proposed for multiblade sawing (MBS) silicon wafering technology. Potential cost savings were considerable; however, significant failures of high-carbon steel blades were observed in limited tests using a water-based slurry during silicon wafering. Failures were attributed to stress corrosion. A specially designed fatigue test of 1095 steel blades in distilled water with various corrosion inhibitor solutions was used to determine the feasibility of using corrosion inhibitors in water-base MBS wafering. Fatigue tests indicate that several corrosion inhibitors have significant potential for use in a water-base MBS operation. Blade samples tested in these specific corrosion-inhibitor solutions exhibited considerably greater lifetime than those blades tested in PC oil.

  8. Study on establishing the X-ray fluorescence procedure for the determination of Mn, W and Sn in sediment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh Van Trung; Doan Thanh Son; Nguyen Xuan Chien; Le Hong Minh

    2004-01-01

    The small amount of elements such as Mn, W, Sn in sediment sample with concentration in the range of 100 to 500 ppm was simultaneously determined by using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The important parameters such as analytical X-lines, excited high voltage, tube current and detection limit was investigated and optimized. The data acquisition and data processing were done on a Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (ED-XRF) which was combined by the Compact generator CK-5 with Molybdenum anode, Mo secondary target, the GENIE-2000 and Win Axil software. Base on the calibration curve between the measured intensity of characteristic X-ray of Mn, W, Sn and the respective concentrations, the concentration of Mn, W, Sn was calculated accurately. The precision and accuracy of quantitative analysis were tested by secondary standardized reference material and by the analysis in comparison with the different analytical chemistry methods. The analytical procedures were set up and applied for the determination of Mn, W and Sn in Vietnam sediment samples with high precision and accuracy. (author)

  9. Passive sampling of DDT, DDE and DDD in sediments: accounting for degradation processes with reaction-diffusion modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcaciuc, A Patricia; Borrelli, Raffaella; Zaninetta, Luciano M; Gschwend, Philip M

    2018-01-24

    Passive sampling is becoming a widely used tool for assessing freely dissolved concentrations of hydrophobic organic contaminants in environmental media. For certain media and target analytes, the time to reach equilibrium exceeds the deployment time, and in such cases, the loss of performance reference compounds (PRCs), loaded in the sampler before deployment, is one of the common ways used to assess the fractional equilibration of target analytes. The key assumption behind the use of PRCs is that their release is solely diffusion driven. But in this work, we show that PRC transformations in the sediment can have a measurable impact on the PRC releases and even allow estimation of that compound's transformation rate in the environment of interest. We found that in both field and lab incubations, the loss of the 13 C 2,4'-DDT PRC from a polyethylene (PE) passive sampler deployed at the sediment-water interface was accelerated compared to the loss of other PRCs ( 13 C-labeled PCBs, 13 C-labeled DDE and DDD). The DDT PRC loss was also accompanied by accumulation in the PE of its degradation product, 13 C 2,4'-DDD. Using a 1D reaction-diffusion model, we deduced the in situ degradation rates of DDT from the measured PRC loss. The in situ degradation rates increased with depth into the sediment bed (0.14 d -1 at 0-10 cm and 1.4 d -1 at 30-40 cm) and although they could not be independently validated, these rates compared favorably with literature values. This work shows that passive sampling users should be cautious when choosing PRCs, as degradation processes can affect some PRC's releases from the passive sampler. More importantly, this work opens up the opportunity for novel applications of passive samplers, particularly with regard to investigating in situ degradation rates, pathways, and products for both legacy and emerging contaminants. However, further work is needed to confirm that the rates deduced from model fitting of PRC loss are a true reflection of DDT

  10. Characterization and Delivery of Hanford High-Level Radioactive Waste Slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thien, Michael G.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Lee, K. P.

    2014-11-15

    Two primary challenges to characterizing Hanford’s high-level radioactive waste slurry prior to transfer to a treatment facility are the ability to representatively sample million-gallon tanks and to estimate the critical velocity of the complex slurry. Washington River Protection Solutions has successfully demonstrated a sampling concept that minimizes sample errors by collecting multiple sample increments from a sample loop where the mixed tank contents are recirculated. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed and demonstrated an ultrasonic-based Pulse-Echo detection device that is capable of detecting a stationary settled bed of solids in a pipe with flowing slurry. These two concepts are essential elements of a feed delivery strategy that drives the Hanford clean-up mission.

  11. Barium carbonate sediment sampling for inorganic dissolved carbon using isotope mass ratio spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzaman Mohamad; Rohaimah Demanah; Juhari Mohd Yusof; Roslanzairi Mostapa

    2009-01-01

    This paperwork explain the method of water sampling to obtain the precipitate of BaCO 3 solutions that will be used to analyze 13 C from field work in Kelana Jaya, Selangor, Langkawi, Kedah and Taiping, Perak. The sampling involves collecting of water samples for groundwater from boreholes and surface water from canal, river, pond and ex-mining pond from several locations at the study sites. This study also elaborates the instruments and chemicals used. The main purpose of this sampling is to obtain the precipitate of BaCO 3 for 13 C analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). A correct sampling method according to standard is very important to ensure an accurate and precise result. With this, the data from the laboratory analysis result can be fully utilized to make the interpretation of the pollutants movement. (Author)

  12. Coal-CO[subscript 2] Slurry Feed for Pressurized Gasifiers: Slurry Preparation System Characterization and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Botero, Cristina; Herzog, Howard J.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.; Field, Randall

    2013-01-01

    Gasification-based plants with coal-CO[subscript 2] slurry feed are predicted to be more efficient than those with coal-water slurry feed. This is particularly true for high moisture, low rank coal such as lignite. Nevertheless, preparation of the CO[subscript 2] slurry is challenging and the losses associated with this process have not been accounted for in previous analyses. This work introduces the Phase Inversion-based Coal-CO[subscript 2] Slurry (PHICCOS) feeding system, in which coal-CO...

  13. A special core liner for sub-sampling of aqueous sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    contamination. The sub-sampling was completed in ~30 min with the assistance of only one person (Figure 4). It was observed during the sub-sampling that no sample Figure 1. Rings/sections of 1 cm size from acrylic liner. Figure 2. Special... Nodules (S&E)’. The anonymous reviewer is thanked for helpful comments on the manuscript; Mr Pramod Pawaskar for preparing the drawings and Mahesh Mochemadkar for on-board photography during test operation. Assistance provided by Nelita Fernandes...

  14. Raw data report of elemental analyses from hydrogeochemical and stream sediment samples taken near Sterling and Fort Morgan, Northeastern Colorado, December 1976 and January 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, J.C.

    1977-03-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected from 125 sites near Sterling and Fort Morgan, Colorado, from Dec. 20, 1976, to Jan. 15, 1977. The samples were analyzed for U using fluorometry and delayed-neutron counting, and for various elements using emission spectrometry, energy-dispersive x-ray fluorometry, and neutron activation analysis. Several parameters were measured at each sample site during the sampling. The data from each sample site and for the elemental analyses are included in this document

  15. Population fluctuation in soil meso- and macrofauna by the successive application of pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pig farming has increased in recent years, resulting in the production of a large quantity of liquid manure, which can be used as a source of organic fertiliser. The aim of this work was to determine the influence of pig slurry on the community of soil fauna in a system of direct seeding. The study was carried out in an experimental area in the town of Taquaruçu do Sul, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomised blocks in a (4 + 1 x 4 factorial scheme, comprising five fertilisation treatments, 0 (no fertiliser, 20, 40 and 80 m3 of pig slurry ha-1 and one additional treatment (mineral fertiliser, with four evaluations corresponding to the number of slurry application (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th application, and four replications. The soil fauna was sampled using PROVID traps. The following were evaluated: the relative frequency of the groups of soil fauna, the populations of springtails and mites, density, richness, Simpson's dominance index and the Shannon diversity index. The populations of mites and springtails, and indices of diversity, richness and dominance are influenced by the successive application of pig slurry. Successive applications of pig slurry increase the diversity of the soil fauna by reducing the population of organisms of the Order Collembola. Canonical correlation analysis showed an association between the number of springtails and 80 m3 of pig slurry ha-1 after the third application.

  16. Distribution and concentration evaluation of trace and rare earth elements in sediment samples of the Billings and Guarapiranga reservoir systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Larissa S.; Fávaro, Déborah I.T.; Ferreira, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    Concentration and distribution of trace and rare earth elements in bottom sediment samples collected in the Billings System (including Rio Grande and Guarapiranga Reservoirs) were assessed by using Instrumental Neutron Activation (INAA). To evaluate the sources of anthropogenic contamination the enrichment factor (FE) and the geoacumulation index (IGeo) were calculated using NASC and Guarapiranga Park Soil as Reference Values. Results were compared to the concentration guideline values established by CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment) environmental agency for As, Cr and Zn, and values in other published studies. Most points exceeded TEL values and, in some points, PEL values for these elements, indicating poor sediment quality in these reservoirs. In general terms, the elements As, Cr, Sb and Zn through EF and IGeo calculations present enrichment at all points analyzed, in both collection campaigns, except for the Rio Grande Reservoir points. The region where the reservoirs are located receive untreated sewage as well as pollution from urban occupation, industrial and mining activities, making it difficult to accurately identify the pollution sources. This study found higher concentrations of the elements analyzed in the Billings Reservoir, indicating a greater contamination level in relation to the other reservoirs. (author)

  17. Distribution and concentration evaluation of trace and rare earth elements in sediment samples of the Billings and Guarapiranga reservoir systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Larissa S.; Fávaro, Déborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (LAN-CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo(Brazil). Lab. de Análise por Ativação Neutrônica; Ferreira, Francisco J. [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (ELAI/CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Química Inorgânica

    2017-07-01

    Concentration and distribution of trace and rare earth elements in bottom sediment samples collected in the Billings System (including Rio Grande and Guarapiranga Reservoirs) were assessed by using Instrumental Neutron Activation (INAA). To evaluate the sources of anthropogenic contamination the enrichment factor (FE) and the geoacumulation index (IGeo) were calculated using NASC and Guarapiranga Park Soil as Reference Values. Results were compared to the concentration guideline values established by CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment) environmental agency for As, Cr and Zn, and values in other published studies. Most points exceeded TEL values and, in some points, PEL values for these elements, indicating poor sediment quality in these reservoirs. In general terms, the elements As, Cr, Sb and Zn through EF and IGeo calculations present enrichment at all points analyzed, in both collection campaigns, except for the Rio Grande Reservoir points. The region where the reservoirs are located receive untreated sewage as well as pollution from urban occupation, industrial and mining activities, making it difficult to accurately identify the pollution sources. This study found higher concentrations of the elements analyzed in the Billings Reservoir, indicating a greater contamination level in relation to the other reservoirs. (author)

  18. ForCenS, a curated database of planktonic foraminifera census counts in marine surface sediment samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siccha, Michael; Kucera, Michal

    2017-08-01

    Census counts of marine microfossils in surface sediments represent an invaluable resource for paleoceanography and for the investigation of macroecological processes. A prerequisite for such applications is the provision of data syntheses for individual microfossil groups. Specific to such syntheses is the necessity of taxonomical harmonisation across the constituent datasets, coupled with dereplication of previous compilations. Both of these aspects require expert knowledge, but with increasing number of records involved in such syntheses, the application of expert knowledge via manual curation is not feasible. Here we present a synthesis of planktonic foraminifera census counts in surface sediment samples, which is taxonomically harmonised, dereplicated and treated for numerical and other inconsistencies. The data treatment is implemented as an objective and largely automated pipeline, allowing us to reduce the initial 6,984 records to 4,205 counts from unique sites and informative technical or true replicates. We provide the final product and document the procedure, which can be easily adopted for other microfossil data syntheses.

  19. Daphnia magna Straus, 1820 response to sediment samples from a contaminated river ( Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Regina Terra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The Sinos River, a tributary of Guaíba Lake, is 200 km long from the headwaters to the mouth and is influenced by several sources of pollution. A study to learn more about conditions in this river was performed in the middle and lower reaches. The study evaluated the effects of sediment contamination by xenobiotics on the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna. METHODS: Eight sediment samples were collected per site from Dec/2007 to Aug/2009, as a substrate for 480 young cladocera (2-26 h old at the beginning of the trials in chronic toxicity tests (21 days. For this purpose, D. magna individuals were exposed to sediment and M4 culture medium, at a proportion of 1:4 (v:v using 50 mL beakers, kept at 20 ºC ± 2 ºC in 16h light:8h dark cycles. The test organisms came from lots with LC50-24h = 1.04 mgK2Cr2O7 ± 0.11 mg. Percentage survival and reproduction were considered to define acute and/or chronic responses. Duncan (p < 0.05 and T (p < 0.05 Tests, ANOVA and Spearman correlation of the biological data were used as statistical complementation. The Spearman correlation was also applied looking for dependencies between the rainfall measured at the sites and the biological parameters but there was no evidence of correlation. The presence of acute toxicity was diagnosed for the sample in which survival was less than 80%, and for chronic toxicity when the mean number of neonates was less than 20 daphniids. RESULTS: Reproductive delays were found coinciding with physical and chemical parameters, as well as the presence of metals at values that were not in accordance with the law. Statistical analysis suggested the predominance of point sources of contamination. An effect on survival was observed in 17% of the samples, and on reproduction in 87%. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that pollutants discharged into the Sinos River remain and can interfere in the equilibrium of the trophic network, since they increase mortality and diminish the

  20. Dose response of artificial irradiation of fluvial sediment sample for ESR dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunru; Yin Gongming; Gao Lu; Li Jianping; Han Fei; Lin Min

    2011-01-01

    ESR dating samples need be irradiated to obtain dose response curve and the equivalent dose. The artificial dose rate is about 1 x 10 -1 -1 x 10 2 Gy/min, whereas the natural dose rate is about 3 Gy/ka. Therefore, one must be sure whether the much higher artificial dose rate is suitable for the ESR dating study. In this paper, we use different artificial dose rate to irradiate the same fluvial sample and measure the quartz Al centre ESR signal under the same conditions. The dose response curves are compared, in an attempt to gain a preliminary knowledge on that problem and build a good foundation for our ESR dating studies on fluvial samples. (authors)

  1. Marine sediment sample pre-processing for macroinvertebrates metabarcoding: mechanical enrichment and homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Aylagas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabarcoding is an accurate and cost-effective technique that allows for simultaneous taxonomic identification of multiple environmental samples. Application of this technique to marine benthic macroinvertebrate biodiversity assessment for biomonitoring purposes requires standardization of laboratory and data analysis procedures. In this context, protocols for creation and sequencing of amplicon libraries and their related bioinformatics analysis have been recently published. However, a standardized protocol describing all previous steps (i.e. processing and manipulation of environmental samples for macroinvertebrate community characterization is lacking. Here, we provide detailed procedures for benthic environmental sample collection, processing, enrichment for macroinvertebrates, homogenization, and subsequent DNA extraction for metabarcoding analysis. Since this is the first protocol of this kind, it should be of use to any researcher in this field, having the potential for improvement.

  2. Nanofiber Enabled, Multi - Target Passive Sampling Device for Determination of the Freely Dissolved Sediment Pore Water Concentrations of Organic Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Concentrations of Organic Contaminants SERDP Project ER-2543 JUNE 2016 Dr. Andres Martinez Dr. David M. Cwiertny The University of Iowa...Soil Preparation and Uptake Experiments ................................................................................ 15 Contaminated Sediment...38 Contaminated Sediment Systems .......................................................................................... 41 Conclusions and

  3. Analyses of hydrocarbons in BLM sediment intercalibration sample from Santa Barbara basin and spiked with API South Louisiana crude oil. A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrington, J W; Tripp, B W; Sass, J

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary report is made of a BLM intercalibration sediment sample from the Santa Barbara basin spiked with South Louisiana crude oil. The two subsamples reported were analyzed by a procedure described in the appendix for which a separate abstract was written. Because of the high oil content of the sediment the usual thin layer chromatography procedure resulted in an overloaded plate. An appendix was indexed separately. (JSR)

  4. Preanalytics of urine sediment examination: effect of relative centrifugal force, tube type, volume of sample and supernatant removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunjevac, Amalija; Gabaj, Nora Nikolac; Miler, Marijana; Horvat, Anita

    2018-02-15

    Laboratories often modify procedures recommended by the European Urinalysis Guidelines for urine sediment analysis. The aim of this study was to compare the recommended protocol with our routine laboratory procedure and to evaluate the possible impact of modifications in the relative centrifugal force, type of tube, method of supernatant aspiration and urine volume on patient's results. Firstly, relative centrifugal force was investigated using 20 pairs of samples examined after centrifugation at 400xg and 1358xg. In phase two, 110 samples were examined, paired as: round bottom vs conical tube (N = 46), decanting vs suction of supernatant (N = 100) and 10 mL vs 5 mL of urine sample (N = 101). The number of erythrocytes, leukocytes and squamous epithelial cells was significantly lower after centrifugation at 400xg (P = 0.001, 0.002 and 0.004, respectively). The number of leukocytes was significantly lower in conical tubes (P = 0.010), after the suction of supernatant (P = 0.045) and in 5 mL urine (P urine (P urine. Lower results of leukocytes, erythrocytes, squamous cells and non-hyaline casts were recorded in recommended procedures (centrifugation at 400xg, suction of supernatant, conical tube, 5 mL of sample) than in routine procedure (centrifugation at 1358xg, decanting of supernatant, round bottom tube, 10 mL) used in our laboratory.

  5. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: Scientific rationale supporting use of freely dissolved concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Parkerton, Thomas F.; Adams, Rachel G.

    2014-01-01

    point using passive samplers with different surface to volume ratios. Sampling in the kinetic regime is also possible and generally involves the application of performance reference compounds for the calibration. Based on previous research on hydrophobic organic contaminants, it is concluded that Cfree...

  6. Certification of Mass Fractions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Organochlorines and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in IAEA-459 Marine Sediment Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication describes the production of certified reference material IAEA-459, which is produced following ISO Guides 34:2009 and 35:2006. This certified reference material is a sediment sample with certified mass fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorines and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. The assigned final values and their associated uncertainties were derived from robust statistics on the results provided by selected laboratories with demonstrated technical and quality competence, following the guidance given in the ISO Guides. The material is used for quality control and assessment of method performance for a number of organic analytes listed in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants as well as other pollutants listed as priority substances included in many environment monitoring programmes.

  7. Studies of coal slurries property; Slurry no seijo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, M.; Aihara, Y.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sakaki, T.; Shibata, M.; Hirosue, H. [Kyushu National Industrial Research Institute, Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It was previously found that the increase of slurry temperature provides a significant effect of slurry viscosity reduction for the coal slurry with high concentration of 50 wt%. To investigate the detailed influence of slurry temperature for the coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt%, influence of temperature on the successive change of apparent viscosity was observed at the constant shear rate. When the concentration of coal was increased from 45 wt% to 50 wt%, viscosity of the slurry was rapidly increased. When heated above 70{degree}C, the apparent viscosity decreased during heating to the given temperature, but it increased successively after reaching to the given temperature. The apparent viscosity showed higher value than that of the initial viscosity. The coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt% showed the fluidity of Newtonian fluid at the lower shear rate region, but showed the fluidity of pseudo-plastic fluid at the higher shear rate region. The slurry having high apparent viscosity by the successive change showed higher apparent viscosity with increasing the higher even by changing the shear rate. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  8. The effects of a spray slurry nozzle on copper CMP for reduction in slurry consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Da Sol; Jeong, Hae Do; Lee, Hyun Seop

    2015-01-01

    The environmental impact of semiconductor manufacturing has been a big social problem, like greenhouse gas emission. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a wet process which consumes chemical slurries, seriously impacts environmental sustain ability and cost-effectiveness. This paper demonstrates the superiority of a full-cone spray slurry nozzle to the conventional tube-type slurry nozzle in Cu CMP. It was observed that the spray nozzle made a weak slurry wave at the retaining ring unlike a conventional nozzle, because the slurry was supplied uniformly in broader areas. Experiments were implemented with different slurry flow rates and spray nozzle heights. Spray nozzle performance is controlled by the spray angle and spray height. The process temperature was obtained with an infrared (IR) sensor and an IR thermal imaging camera to investigate the cooling effect of the spray. The results show that the spray nozzle provides a higher Material removal rate (MRR), lower non-uniformity (NU), and lower temperature than the conventional nozzle. Computational fluid dynamics techniques show that the turbulence kinetic energy and slurry velocity of the spray nozzle are much higher than those of the conventional nozzle. Finally, it can be summarized that the spray nozzle plays a significant role in slurry efficiency by theory of Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL).

  9. The effects of a spray slurry nozzle on copper CMP for reduction in slurry consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Da Sol; Jeong, Hae Do [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Seop [Tongmyong University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The environmental impact of semiconductor manufacturing has been a big social problem, like greenhouse gas emission. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a wet process which consumes chemical slurries, seriously impacts environmental sustain ability and cost-effectiveness. This paper demonstrates the superiority of a full-cone spray slurry nozzle to the conventional tube-type slurry nozzle in Cu CMP. It was observed that the spray nozzle made a weak slurry wave at the retaining ring unlike a conventional nozzle, because the slurry was supplied uniformly in broader areas. Experiments were implemented with different slurry flow rates and spray nozzle heights. Spray nozzle performance is controlled by the spray angle and spray height. The process temperature was obtained with an infrared (IR) sensor and an IR thermal imaging camera to investigate the cooling effect of the spray. The results show that the spray nozzle provides a higher Material removal rate (MRR), lower non-uniformity (NU), and lower temperature than the conventional nozzle. Computational fluid dynamics techniques show that the turbulence kinetic energy and slurry velocity of the spray nozzle are much higher than those of the conventional nozzle. Finally, it can be summarized that the spray nozzle plays a significant role in slurry efficiency by theory of Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL).

  10. Determination and speciation of plutonium, americium, uranium, thorium, potassium and 137Cs in a Venice canal sediment sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Guerra, F.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C.; Degetto, S.

    1998-01-01

    A sequential extraction method consisting of six operationally-defined fractions has been developed for determining the geochemical partitioning of natural (U, Th, 40 K) and anthropogenic (Pu, Am, 137 Cs) radionuclides in a 40-50 cm deep sediment sample collected in a Venice canal. Extraction chromatography was used for the chemical separation of a single radionuclide; the final recoveries were calculated by adding 232 U, 228 Th, 242 Pu and 243 Am as the yield tracers. After electrodeposition the alpha spectrometry was carried out. 137 Cs and 40 K were measured by gamma spectrometry. The total concentrations in the wet sample, obtained by a complete disgregation of the matrix by NaOH fusion, were the following: 239+240 Pu = 610 ± 80 mBq/kg, 238 Pu = 13 ± 5mBq/kg, 241 Am 200 ± 30 mBq/kg, 137 Cs = 6.9 ± 1.1 Bq/kg, U = 1.33 ± 0.14 ppm, Th = 2.69 ± 0.26 ppm, K = 0.72 ± 0.04 %. The mean ratio 238 Pu/ 239+240 Pu ( 0.02) shows a contamination due essentially to fall-out and U and Th alpha spectra indicate the natural origin of two elements. The absence of 134 Cs proves that the sediment was not affected by the Chernobyl fall-out. For the speciation, the following fractions were considered: water soluble, carbonates, Fe-Mn oxides, organic matter, acid soluble, residue. Pu (about 65%) and Am (about 90%) were present predominantly in the carbonate fraction; U was more distributed and about 30% appeared both in the carbonate fraction and in the residue; the majority of Th was present in the residue (about 67%); 40 K was totally present in the residue; and 137 Cs was found mostly in the acid soluble fraction (about 46%) and in the residue (about 40%)

  11. Review of samples of tailings, soils and stream sediment adjacent to and downstream from the Ruth Mine, Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    The Ruth Mine and mill are located in the western Mojave Desert in Inyo County, California (fig. 1). The mill processed gold-silver (Au-Ag) ores mined from the Ruth Au-Ag deposit, which is adjacent to the mill site. The Ruth Au-Ag deposit is hosted in Mesozoic intrusive rocks and is similar to other Au-Ag deposits in the western Mojave Desert that are associated with Miocene volcanic centers that formed on a basement of Mesozoic granitic rocks (Bateman, 1907; Gardner, 1954; Rytuba, 1996). The volcanic rocks consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions (fig. 2) that were emplaced into Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks (Troxel and Morton, 1962). The Ruth Mine is on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Tailings from the mine have been eroded and transported downstream into Homewood Canyon and then into Searles Valley (figs. 3, 4, 5, and 6). The BLM provided recreational facilities at the mine site for day-use hikers and restored and maintained the original mine buildings in collaboration with local citizen groups for use by visitors (fig. 7). The BLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure arsenic (As) and other geochemical constituents in soils and tailings at the mine site and in stream sediments downstream from the mine in Homewood Canyon and in Searles Valley (fig. 3). The request was made because initial sampling of the site by BLM staff indicated high concentrations of As in tailings and soils adjacent to the Ruth Mine. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings and soils adjacent to the Ruth Mine and stream sediments downstream from the mine on June 7, 2009. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

  12. As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb pressurized liquid extraction with acetic acid from marine sediment and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreda-Pineiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodriguez, Elia; Lopez-Mahia, Purificacion; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada-Rodriguez, Dario; Moreda-Pineiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Adela; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2006-01-01

    Rapid leaching procedures by Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) have been developed for As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb leaching from environmental matrices (marine sediment and soil samples). The Pressurized Liquid Extraction is completed after 16 min. The released elements by acetic acid Pressurized Liquid Extraction have been evaluated by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The optimum multi-element leaching conditions when using 5.0 ml stainless steel extraction cells, were: acetic acid concentration 8.0 M, extraction temperature 100 deg. C, pressure 1500 psi, static time 5 min, flush solvent 60%, two extraction steps and 0.50 g of diatomaceous earth as dispersing agent (diatomaceous earth mass/sample mass ratio of 2). Results have showed that high acetic acid concentrations and high extraction temperatures increase the metal leaching efficiency. Limits of detection (between 0.12 and 0.5 μg g -1 ) and repeatability of the over-all procedure (around 6.0%) were assessed. Finally, accuracy was studied by analyzing PACS-2 (marine sediment), GBW-07409 (soil), IRANT-12-1-07 (cambisol soil) and IRANT-12-1-08 (luvisol soil) certified reference materials (CRMs). These certified reference materials offer certified concentrations ranges between 2.9 and 26.2 μg g -1 for As, from 0.068 to 2.85 μg g -1 for Cd, between 26.4 and 90.7 μg g -1 for Cr, from 9.3 to 40.0 μg g -1 for Ni and between 16.3 and 183.0 μg g -1 for Pb. Recoveries after analysis were between 95.7 and 105.1% for As, 96.2% for Cd, 95.2 and 100.6% for Cr, 95.7 and 103% for Ni and 94.2 and 105.5% for Pb

  13. Cross validation of two partitioning-based sampling approaches in mesocosms containing PCB contaminated field sediment, biota, and activated carbon amendment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Wang, Alice P.; Gidley, Philip T

    2017-01-01

    The Gold Standard for determining freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree) of hydrophobic organic compounds in sediment interstitial water would be in situ deployment combined with equilibrium sampling, which is generally difficult to achieve. In the present study, ex situ equilibrium sampling wit...

  14. CEMENT SLURRIES FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS CEMENTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available During a well cementing special place belongs to the cement slurry design. To ensure the best quality of cementing, a thorough understanding of well parameters is essential, as well as behaviour of cement slurry (especially at high temperatures and application of proven cementing techniques. Many cement jobs fail because of bad job planning. Well cementing without regarding what should be accomplished, can lead to well problems (channels in the cement, unwanted water, gas or fluid production, pipe corrosion and expensive well repairs. Cementing temperature conditions are important because bot-tomhole circulating temperatures affect slurry thickening time, arheology, set time and compressive strength development. Knowing the actual temperature which cement encounters during placement allows the selection of proper cementing materials for a specific application. Slurry design is affected by well depth, bottom hole circulating temperature and static temperature, type or drilling fluid, slurry density, pumping time, quality of mix water, fluid loss control, flow regime, settling and free water, quality of cement, dry or liquid additives, strength development, and quality of the lab cement testing and equipment. Most Portland cements and Class J cement have shown suitable performances in geot-hermal wells. Cement system designs for geothermal wells differ from those for conventional high temperature oil and gas wells in the exclusive use of silica flour instead of silica sand, and the avoidance of fly ash as an extender. In this paper, Portland cement behaviour at high temperatures is described. Cement slurry and set cement properties are also described. Published in literature, the composition of cement slurries which were tested in geothermal conditions and which obtained required compressive strength and water permeability are listed. As a case of our practice geothermal wells Velika Ciglena-1 and Velika Ciglena-la are described.

  15. Arsenic, Antimony, Chromium, and Thallium Speciation in Water and Sediment Samples with the LC-ICP-MS Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Jabłońska-Czapla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical speciation is a very important subject in the environmental protection, toxicology, and chemical analytics due to the fact that toxicity, availability, and reactivity of trace elements depend on the chemical forms in which these elements occur. Research on low analyte levels, particularly in complex matrix samples, requires more and more advanced and sophisticated analytical methods and techniques. The latest trends in this field concern the so-called hyphenated techniques. Arsenic, antimony, chromium, and (underestimated thallium attract the closest attention of toxicologists and analysts. The properties of those elements depend on the oxidation state in which they occur. The aim of the following paper is to answer the question why the speciation analytics is so important. The paper also provides numerous examples of the hyphenated technique usage (e.g., the LC-ICP-MS application in the speciation analysis of chromium, antimony, arsenic, or thallium in water and bottom sediment samples. An important issue addressed is the preparation of environmental samples for speciation analysis.

  16. Arsenic, Antimony, Chromium, and Thallium Speciation in Water and Sediment Samples with the LC-ICP-MS Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłońska-Czapla, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Chemical speciation is a very important subject in the environmental protection, toxicology, and chemical analytics due to the fact that toxicity, availability, and reactivity of trace elements depend on the chemical forms in which these elements occur. Research on low analyte levels, particularly in complex matrix samples, requires more and more advanced and sophisticated analytical methods and techniques. The latest trends in this field concern the so-called hyphenated techniques. Arsenic, antimony, chromium, and (underestimated) thallium attract the closest attention of toxicologists and analysts. The properties of those elements depend on the oxidation state in which they occur. The aim of the following paper is to answer the question why the speciation analytics is so important. The paper also provides numerous examples of the hyphenated technique usage (e.g., the LC-ICP-MS application in the speciation analysis of chromium, antimony, arsenic, or thallium in water and bottom sediment samples). An important issue addressed is the preparation of environmental samples for speciation analysis. PMID:25873962

  17. Attenuation of groundwater contamination caused by cattle slurry: a plot-scale experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Periago, E.L. [Department of Vegetal Biology and Soil Science, Faculty of Sciences, As Lagoas (Spain); Delgado, A.N.; Diaz-Fierros, F. [Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    Infiltration of contaminants was investigated in a flat pasture plot Lolium perenne L. which received 250 m{sup 3}/ha of cattle slurry. Lysimeters and piezometers had previously been installed in the plot to sample groundwater at different depths. Water samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity.NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, orthophosphate, Cl{sup -}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+} and chemical oxygen demand (COD), and for faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci. Contaminant concentrations in water samples taken in lysimeters at a depth of 5 cm (2 h after slurry application) were already from 22% to 83% of raw slurry. After slurry application and after 150 mm of rainfall, contaminant concentrations in groundwater were in all depths less than 95% of those initially measured in the slurry. For all contaminants except Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, K{sup +} and COD, concentrations in groundwater measured before application were reached within 15 days. Mechanical retention was the principal mechanism of attenuation of microorganism and COD levels, whereas cations were attenuated by sorption to soil matrix. Dilution by rain water had less significant effects, accounting for about a tenfold reduction in contaminant levels. (author)

  18. Ecological risk evaluation of sediment core samples, Lake Tortum (Erzurum, NE Turkey using environmental indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the vertical distribution of heavy metals in a 72 cm-long core sample from Lake Tortum in order to shed light on the implications of potential ecological risks. Analysis was based on the use of environmental indices such as the Integrated Pollution Load Index (PLI and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PER. Results reveal that, except for Pb, Mn and Hg, the lowest concentrations of heavy metals occur at a core depth of between 2 cm and 20 cm for Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, As, Cd, Cr and Al. The highest concentration was found at sampling intervals of 36 cm and 50 cm, with the exception of Pb, Mn, Hg and Ni. The PLI values from bottom to top are less than 1 while the level with the nearest value to the background value lies at a depth between 24 cm and 26 cm. The PER index results suggest a low ecological risk level for Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Mn, Fe, As, Cr, and Al; however, Cd and Hg constitute an ecological threat to the lake ecosystem.

  19. Methane oxidation in pig and cattle slurry storages, and effects of surface crust moisture and methane availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, S.O.; Ambus, P.

    2006-01-01

    2 during incubation, while intact subsamples were used to characterize CH4 oxidation as a function of CH4 availability and moisture content. Methane oxidation was observed in all materials except for an expanded clay product (Leca) sampled from a pig slurry storage. Despite significant variation......Storages with liquid manure (slurry) may develop a surface crust of particulate organic matter, or an artificial crust can be established. Slurry storages are net sources of atmospheric methane (CH4), but a potential for bacterial oxidation of CH4 in surface crusts was recently suggested in a study...... of experimental storages. The present study was conducted to investigate methanotrophic activity under practical storage conditions. Surface crusts from slurry storages at two pig farms and four dairy farms were sampled in late autumn. Mixed samples (0-4 cm depth) were used to determine changes in CH4, O-2 and CO...

  20. Accelerated solvent extraction followed by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to ion trap LC/MS/MS for analysis of benzalkonium chlorides in sediment samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, I.; Furlong, E.T.

    2002-01-01

    Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) were successfully extracted from sediment samples using a new methodology based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by an on-line cleanup step. The BACs were detected by liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an electrospray interface operated in the positive ion mode. This methodology combines the high efficiency of extraction provided by a pressurized fluid and the high sensitivity offered by the ion trap MS/MS. The effects of solvent type and ASE operational variables, such as temperature and pressure, were evaluated. After optimization, a mixture of acetonitrile/water (6:4 or 7:3) was found to be most efficient for extracting BACs from the sediment samples. Extraction recoveries ranged from 95 to 105% for C12 and C14 homologues, respectively. Total method recoveries from fortified sediment samples, using a cleanup step followed by ASE, were 85% for C12BAC and 79% for C14-BAC. The methodology developed in this work provides detection limits in the subnanogram per gram range. Concentrations of BAC homologues ranged from 22 to 206 ??g/kg in sediment samples from different river sites downstream from wastewater treatment plants. The high affinity of BACs for soil suggests that BACs preferentially concentrate in sediment rather than in water.

  1. Applicability of solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography atomic emission detection (GC-MIP AED) for the determination of butyltin compounds in sediment samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpinteiro, J.; Rodriguez, I.; Cela, R. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain)

    2004-11-01

    The performance of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) applied to the determination of butyltin compounds in sediment samples is systematically evaluated. Matrix effects and influence of blank signals on the detection limits of the method are studied in detail. The interval of linear response is also evaluated in order to assess the applicability of the method to sediments polluted with butyltin compounds over a large range of concentrations. Advantages and drawbacks of including an SPME step, instead of the classic liquid-liquid extraction of the derivatized analytes, in the determination of butyltin compounds in sediment samples are considered in terms of achieved detection limits and experimental effort. Analytes were extracted from the samples by sonication using glacial acetic acid. An aliquot of the centrifuged extract was placed on a vial where compounds were ethylated and concentrated on a PDMS fiber using the headspace mode. Determinations were carried out using GC-MIP AED. (orig.)

  2. High-Performance Method for Determination of Pu Isotopes in Soil and Sediment Samples by Sector Field-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongtang; Zheng, Jian; Ni, Youyi; Men, Wu; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2017-02-21

    Plutonium is extensively studied in radioecology (e.g., soil to plant transfer and radiological assessment) and geochemistry (e.g., sediment dating). Here, we reported a new chemical separation method for rapid determination of Pu in soil and sediment samples, based on the following investigations: extraction behaviors of interfering elements (IEs, for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) measurement) on TEVA resin; decontamination of U using TEVA, UTEVA, and DGA resins; and the impact of coprecipitation on Pu determination. The developed method consists of four steps: HNO 3 leaching for Pu release; CaF 2 /LaF 3 coprecipitation for the removal of major metals and U; the proposed TEVA + UTEVA + DGA procedure for the removal of U, Pb, Bi, Tl, Hg, Hf, Pt, and Dy; and ICPMS measurement. The accuracy of this method in determining 239+240 Pu activity and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu and 241 Pu/ 239 Pu isotopic ratios was validated by analyzing five standard reference materials (soil, fresh water sediment, and ocean sediment). This method is characterized by its stable and high Pu recovery (90-97% for soil; 92-98% for sediment) and high decontamination factor of U (1.6 × 10 7 ), which is the highest reported for soil and sediment samples. In addition, the short analytical time of 12 h and the method detection limits, which are the lowest yet reported in literature, of 0.56 μBq g -1 (0.24 fg g -1 ) for 239 Pu, 1.2 μBq g -1 (0.14 fg g -1 ) for 240 Pu, and 0.34 mBq g -1 (0.09 fg g -1 ) for 241 Pu (calculated on the basis of a 1 g soil sample) allow the rapid determination of ultratrace level Pu in soil and sediment samples.

  3. Fate of polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated lake ecosystem: combining equilibrium passive sampling of sediment and water with total concentration measurements of biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäenpää, Kimmo; Leppänen, Matti T; Figueiredo, Kaisa; Mayer, Philipp; Gilbert, Dorothea; Jahnke, Annika; Gil-Allué, Carmen; Akkanen, Jarkko; Nybom, Inna; Herve, Sirpa

    2015-11-01

    Equilibrium sampling devices can be applied to study and monitor the exposure and fate of hydrophobic organic chemicals on a thermodynamic basis. They can be used to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activity ratios and to predict equilibrium partitioning concentrations of hydrophobic organic chemicals in biota lipids. The authors' aim was to assess the equilibrium status of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a contaminated lake ecosystem and along its discharge course using equilibrium sampling devices for measurements in sediment and water and by also analyzing biota. The authors used equilibrium sampling devices (silicone rubber and polyethylene [PE]) to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activities of PCBs in the water column and sediment porewater and calculated for both phases the corresponding equilibrium concentrations and chemical activities in model lipids. Overall, the studied ecosystem appeared to be in disequilibrium for the studied phases: sediment, water, and biota. Chemical activities of PCBs were higher in sediment than in water, which implies that the sediment functioned as a partitioning source of PCBs and that net diffusion occurred from the sediment to the water column. Measured lipid-normalized PCB concentrations in biota were generally below equilibrium lipid concentrations relative to the sediment (CLip ⇌Sed ) or water (CLip ⇌W ), indicating that PCB levels in the organisms were below the maximum partitioning levels. The present study shows the application versatility of equilibrium sampling devices in the field and facilitates a thermodynamic understanding of exposure and fate of PCBs in a contaminated lake and its discharge course. © 2015 SETAC.

  4. Escherichia coli contamination of lettuce grown in soils amended with animal slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, A N; Storm, C; Forslund, A; Baggesen, D L; Dalsgaard, A

    2013-07-01

    A pilot study was conducted to assess the transfer of Escherichia coli from animal slurry fertilizer to lettuce, with E. coli serving as an indicator of fecal contamination and as an indicator for potential bacterial enteric pathogens. Animal slurry was applied as fertilizer to three Danish agricultural fields prior to the planting of lettuce seedlings. At harvest, leaves (25 g) of 10 lettuce heads were pooled into one sample unit (n = 147). Soil samples (100 g) were collected from one field before slurry application and four times during the growth period (n = 75). E. coli was enumerated in slurry, soil, and lettuce on 3M Petrifilm Select E. coli Count Plates containing 16 mg/liter streptomycin, 16 mg/liter ampicillin, or no antimicrobial agent. Selected E. coli isolates (n = 83) originating from the slurry, soil, and lettuce were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to determine the similarity of isolates. The slurry applied to the fields contained 3.0 to 4.5 log CFU/g E. coli. E. coli was found in 36 to 54% of the lettuce samples, streptomycin-resistant E. coli was found in 10.0 to 18.0% of the lettuce samples, and ampicillin-resistant E. coli in 0 to 2.0% of the lettuce samples (the detection limit was 1 log CFU/g). The concentration of E. coli exceeded 2 log CFU/g in 19.0% of the lettuce samples. No E. coli was detected in the soil before the slurry was applied, but after, E. coli was present until the last sampling day (harvest), when 10 of 15 soil samples contained E. coli. A relatively higher frequency of E. coli in lettuce compared with the soil samples at harvest suggests environmental sources of fecal contamination, e.g., wildlife. The higher frequency was supported by the finding of 21 different PFGE types among the E. coli isolates, with only a few common PFGE types between slurry, soil, and lettuce. The frequent finding of fecal-contaminated lettuce indicates that human pathogens such as Salmonella and Campylobacter can be present and

  5. Contribution of Priority PAHs and POPs to Ah Receptor-Mediated Activities in Sediment Samples from the River Elbe Estuary, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Jens C.; Keiter, Steffen; Faßbender, Christopher; Higley, Eric B.; Rocha, Paula Suares; Brinkmann, Markus; Wahrendorf, Dierk-Steffen; Manz, Werner; Wetzel, Markus A.; Braunbeck, Thomas; Giesy, John P.; Hecker, Markus; Hollert, Henner

    2013-01-01

    The estuary of the River Elbe between Hamburg and the North Sea (Germany) is a sink for contaminated sediment and suspended particulate matter (SPM). One major concern is the effect of human activities on the hydrodynamics, particularly the intensive dredging activities in this area that may result in remobilization of sediment-bound pollutants. The aim of this study was to identify pollutants contributing to the toxicological risk associated with re-suspension of sediments in the Elbe Estuary by use of an effect-directed analysis that combines chemical and biological analyses in with specific fractionation techniques. Sediments were collected from sites along the Elbe Estuary and a site from a small harbor basin of the Elbe Estuary that is known to be polluted. The sixteen priority EPA-PAHs were quantified in organic extracts of sediments. In addition, dioxin equivalents of sediments were investigated by use of the 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase assay with RTL-W1 cells and the Ah receptor-mediated luciferase transactivation assay with H4IIE-luc cells. Quantification of the 16 priority PAHs revealed that sediments were moderately contaminated at all of the sites in the Elbe River Estuary (Sediments contained relatively small concentrations of dioxin equivalents (Bio-TEQ) with concentrations ranging from 15.5 to 322 pg/g dw, which were significantly correlated with dioxin equivalents calculated based on toxicity reference values and concentrations of PAH. The concentration of Bio-TEQ at the reference site exceeded 200,000 pg/g dw. In a potency balance the 16 PAHs explained between 47 and 118% of the Bio-TEQ in the luciferase assay, which can be explained by the constant input of PAHs bound to SPM from the upper course of the Elbe River into its estuary. Successful identification of a significant portion of dioxin-like activity to priority PAHs in complex environmental samples such as sediments has rarely been reported. PMID:24146763

  6. Toxicological evaluation of sediment samples spiked with human pharmaceutical products: Energy status and neuroendocrine effects in marine polychaetes Hediste diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranho, L A; André, C; DelValls, T A; Gagné, F; Martín-Díaz, M L

    2015-08-01

    There is a lack of studies about the ecotoxicology of pharmaceutical products on marine environment. To predict possible adverse effects of pharmaceutical products on benthic biota, polychaetes Hediste diversicolor were exposed for 14-days to pharmaceutical-spiked sediments under laboratory conditions. Carbamazepine (CBZ), ibuprofen (IBP) and propranolol (PRO) at concentrations of 500ngg(-1), 50ngg(-1), 5ngg(-1), 0.5ngg(-1) and 0.05ngg(-1), fluoxetine (FX) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) at concentrations of 100ngg(-1), 10ngg(-1), 1ngg(-1), 0.1ngg(-1) and 0.01ngg(-1), including environmental concentrations (underlined), were spiked in marine sediment samples. After the exposure, cellular energy status (total lipids content - TLP; and mitochondrial electron transport activity - MET), metabolism of monoamines (monoamine oxidase activity - MAO) and inflammation properties (cyclooxygenase activity - COX) were observed in polychaetes. CBZ increased TLP content and MET activity, and decreased MAO activity in polychaetes. IBP did not interfere on the TLP level, but on the MET and MAO activities (environmental concentrations). FX did not cause changes in the energy status. Therefore, environmental concentration diminished MAO activity. EE2 did not affect the energy status, however, MAO activity was significantly lower in polychaetes exposed to environmental concentration. PRO increased TLP level in polychaetes, but not MET activity. MAO activity was significantly lower for polychaetes exposed to environmental concentration. Except FX, all pharmaceuticals showed anti-inflammatory properties confirmed by the decrease of COX activity. Pharmaceutical products affected H. diversicolor physiology and health. As a benthic top predator, adverse effects on sea-worms can potentially culminate in ecosystem perturbations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of bacterial strains capable of desulphurisation in soil and sediment samples from Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniek, Douglas; Figueiredo, Débora; Pylro, Victor Satler; Duarte, Gabriela Frois

    2010-09-01

    The presence of sulphur in fossil fuels and the natural environment justifies the study of sulphur-utilising bacterial species and genes involved in the biodesulphurisation process. Technology has been developed based on the natural ability of microorganisms to remove sulphur from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon chains. This biotechnology aims to minimise the emission of sulphur oxides into the atmosphere during combustion and prevent the formation of acid rain. In this study, the isolation and characterization of desulphurising microorganisms in rhizosphere and bulk soil samples from Antarctica that were either contaminated with oil or uncontaminated was described. The growth of selected isolates and their capacity to utilise sulphur based on the formation of the terminal product of desulphurisation via the 4S pathway, 2-hydroxybiphenyl, was analysed. DNA was extracted from the isolates and BOX-PCR and DNA sequencing were performed to obtain a genomic diversity profile of cultivable desulphurising bacterial species. Fifty isolates were obtained showing the ability of utilising dibenzothiophene as a substrate and sulphur source for maintenance and growth when plated on selective media. However, only seven genetically diverse isolates tested positive for sulphur removal using the Gibbs assay. DNA sequencing revealed that these isolates were related to the genera Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas.

  8. Testing single-grain quartz OSL methods using sediment samples with independent age control from the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Roches d'Abilly site, Central France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, Andrew Sean; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2016-01-01

    We present quartz single-grain dose distributions for four well-bleached and unmixed sediment samples with independent age control (22–48 ka), from the archaeologically important Bordes-Fitte rockshelter at Roches d'Abilly, France. This site has previously been dated using 14C AMS dating and stan......We present quartz single-grain dose distributions for four well-bleached and unmixed sediment samples with independent age control (22–48 ka), from the archaeologically important Bordes-Fitte rockshelter at Roches d'Abilly, France. This site has previously been dated using 14C AMS dating...

  9. Results of submerged sediment core sampling and analysis on Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake: July 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Friday, G.P.

    1996-06-01

    Sediment cores from shallow and deep water locations in Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake were collected and analyzed in 1995 for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. This core analysis was conducted to develop a defensible characterization of contaminants found in the sediments of Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake. Mercury was the only nonradiological constituent with a nonestimated quantity that was detected above the U.S Environmental Protection Agency Region IV potential contaminants of concern screening criteria. It was detected at a depth of 0.3--0.6 meters (1.0--2.0 feet) at one location in L Lake. Cesium-137, promethium-146, plutonium-238, and zirconium-95 had significantly higher concentrations in Par Pond sediments than in sediments from the reference sites. Cobalt-60, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and strontium-90 had significantly higher concentrations in L-Lake sediments than sediments from the reference sites

  10. Development of a sample preparation method for the analysis of current-use pesticides in sediment using gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongli; Weston, Donald P; Ding, Yuping; Lydy, Michael J

    2010-02-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides have been implicated as the cause of sediment toxicity to Hyalella azteca in both agricultural and urban areas of California; however, for a subset of these toxic sediments (approximately 30%), the cause of toxicity remains unidentified. This article describes the analytical method development for seven additional pesticides that are being examined to determine if they might play a role in the unexplained toxicity. A pressurized liquid extraction method was optimized to simultaneously extract diazinon, methyl parathion, oxyfluorfen, dicofol, fenpropathrin, pyraclostrobin, and indoxacarb from sediment, and the extracts were cleaned using a two-step solid-phase extraction procedure. The final extract was analyzed for the target pesticides by gas chromatography/nitrogen-phosphorus detector (GC/NPD), and gas chromatography/electron capture detector (GC/ECD), after sulfur was removed by shaking with copper and cold crystallization. Three sediments were used as reference matrices to assess method accuracy and precision. Method detection limits were 0.23-1.8 ng/g dry sediment using seven replicates of sediment spiked at 1.0 ng/g dry sediment. Recoveries ranged from 61.6 to 118% with relative standard deviations of 2.1-17% when spiked at 5.0 and 50 ng/g dry sediment. The three reference sediments, spiked with 50 ng/g dry weight of the pesticide mixture, were aged for 0.25, 1, 4, 7, and 14 days. Recoveries of the pesticides in the sediments generally decreased with increased aging time, but the magnitude of the decline was pesticide and sediment dependent. The developed method was applied to field-collected sediments from the Central Valley of California.

  11. Bacterial antibiotic resistance levels in Danish farmland as a result of treatment with pig manure slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Gitte; Agersø, Yvonne; Halling-Sørensen, B.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to tetracycline, macrolides and streptomycin was measured for a period of 8 months in soil bacteria obtained from farmland treated with pig manure slurry. This was done by spread plating bacteria on selective media (Luria Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with antibiotics). To account...... for seasonal variations in numbers of soil bacteria, ratios of resistant bacteria divided by total count on nonselective plates were calculated. Soil samples were collected from four different farms and from a control soil on a fifth farm. The control soil was not amended with animal manure. The occurrence...... of tetracycline-resistant bacteria was elevated after spread of pig manure slurry but declined throughout the sampling period to a level corresponding to the control soil. Higher load of pig manure slurry yielded higher occurrence of tetracycline resistance after spreading; however, the tetracycline resistance...

  12. Radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry with high energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Halina; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Zimek, Zbigniew; Kałuska, Iwona; Skowron, Karolina Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    The research was carried out to assess the efficiency of radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry of different density using the high energy electron beam based on the inactivation rate of Salmonella ssp, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp and Ascaris suum eggs. The experiment was conducted with use of the linear electron accelerator Elektronika 10/10 in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw. The inoculated slurry samples underwent hygienization with high energy electron beam of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Numbers of reisolated bacteria were determined according to the MPN method, using typical microbiological media. Theoretical lethal doses, D 90 doses and hygienization efficiency of high energy electron beam were determined. The theoretical lethal doses for all tested bacteria ranged from 3.63 to 8.84 kGy and for A. suum eggs from 4.07 to 5.83 kGy. Salmonella rods turned out to be the most sensitive and Enterococcus spp were the most resistant to electron beam hygienization. The effectiveness or radiation hygienization was lower in cattle than in swine slurry and in thick than in thin one. Also the species or even the serotype of bacteria determined the dose needed to inactivation of microorganisms. - Highlights: ► The hygienic efficiency of electron beam against slurry was researched. ► The hygienization efficiency depended on the slurry characteristics and microorganism species. ► In most of the cases 7 kGy dose was sufficient for slurry hygienization. ► Dose below 1 kGy allowed for 90% elimination of microorganism population. ► The radiation hygienization is a good alternative for typical slurry treatment methods

  13. Continuous in-house acidification affecting animal slurry composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Maibritt; Cocolo, Giorgia; Jonassen, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    The emerging slurry acidification technology affects gaseous emissions, fertiliser value, biogas production and solid-liquid separation; however, maximising the advantages is difficult, as the effect of acidification on the slurry characteristics resulting in those observations remains unclarifie...

  14. Prospects for coal slurry pipelines in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The coal slurry pipeline segment of the transport industry is emerging in the United States. If accepted it will play a vital role in meeting America's urgent energy requirements without public subsidy, tax relief, or federal grants. It is proven technology, ideally suited for transport of an abundant energy resource over thousands of miles to energy short industrial centers and at more than competitive costs. Briefly discussed are the following: (1) history of pipelines; (2) California market potential; (3) slurry technology; (4) environmental benefits; (5) market competition; and (6) a proposed pipeline.

  15. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, Ramkrishna G.

    1986-01-01

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  16. Organic contaminants, trace and major elements, and nutrients in water and sediment sampled in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Ludtke, Amy S.; Mueller, David K.; Scott, Jonathon C.

    2012-01-01

    Beach water and sediment samples were collected along the Gulf of Mexico coast to assess differences in contaminant concentrations before and after landfall of Macondo-1 well oil released into the Gulf of Mexico from the sinking of the British Petroleum Corporation's Deepwater Horizon drilling platform. Samples were collected at 70 coastal sites between May 7 and July 7, 2010, to document baseline, or "pre-landfall" conditions. A subset of 48 sites was resampled during October 4 to 14, 2010, after oil had made landfall on the Gulf of Mexico coast, called the "post-landfall" sampling period, to determine if actionable concentrations of oil were present along shorelines. Few organic contaminants were detected in water; their detection frequencies generally were low and similar in pre-landfall and post-landfall samples. Only one organic contaminant--toluene--had significantly higher concentrations in post-landfall than pre-landfall water samples. No water samples exceeded any human-health benchmarks, and only one post-landfall water sample exceeded an aquatic-life benchmark--the toxic-unit benchmark for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) mixtures. In sediment, concentrations of 3 parent PAHs and 17 alkylated PAH groups were significantly higher in post-landfall samples than pre-landfall samples. One pre-landfall sample from Texas exceeded the sediment toxic-unit benchmark for PAH mixtures; this site was not sampled during the post-landfall period. Empirical upper screening-value benchmarks for PAHs in sediment were exceeded at 37 percent of post-landfall samples and 22 percent of pre-landfall samples, but there was no significant difference in the proportion of samples exceeding benchmarks between paired pre-landfall and post-landfall samples. Seven sites had the largest concentration differences between post-landfall and pre-landfall samples for 15 alkylated PAHs. Five of these seven sites, located in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama, had diagnostic

  17. Development of a simple desulfurization procedure for the determination of butyltins in complex sediment samples using gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, M; Valenzuela, A; Quiroz, W; Pinto, M; Flores, M; Pinochet, H

    2010-05-15

    In this study a rapid solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure was developed to minimize the effect of different sulfur species for the determination of butyltin in sediments. The organosulfur species and organotins were firstly retained on C8 cartridges and then organotins were selectively eluted and analyzed by gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detection (GC-PFPD). Optimal conditions for the SPE procedure were obtained using an experimental design approach. The method's accuracy was established by analyzing a certified reference material (CRM), BCR-646 freshwater sediment. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with the assigned values for butyltins. Finally, complex sediment samples collected from a Chilean harbor were analyzed using this methodology to demonstrate its analytical potential for the determination of butyltin in environmental samples.

  18. Results of sludge slurry pipeline pluggage tests. [Simulation of Radioactive Slurry Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazio, J.M.

    1987-02-06

    Test results of sludge slurry transport through the Interarea Transfer Line (IAL) Mock-up Facility showed little risk of plugging the interarea pipelines with sludge slurry. Plug-free operation of the pipeline was successfully demonstrated by worst case IAL operating scenarios. Pipeline pressure gradients were measured vs. flow rate for comparison with a computer model over a range of sludge slurry rheological properties. A mathematical computer model developed by L. M. Lee is included in this report which will predict pressure drop for Bingham plastic fluid flow in a pipeline. IAL pluggage situations and pumping requirements may be realized from this model. 4 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Transferring mixtures of chemicals from sediment to a bioassay using silicone-based passive sampling and dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustajärvi, Lukas; Eriksson-Wiklund, Ann-Kristin; Gorokhova, Elena; Jahnke, Annika; Sobek, Anna

    2017-11-15

    Environmental mixtures of chemicals consist of a countless number of compounds with unknown identity and quantity. Yet, chemical regulation is mainly built around the assessment of single chemicals. Existing frameworks for assessing the toxicity of mixtures require that both the chemical composition and quantity are known. Quantitative analyses of the chemical composition of environmental mixtures are however extremely challenging and resource-demanding. Bioassays may therefore serve as a useful approach for investigating the combined toxicity of environmental mixtures of chemicals in a cost-efficient and holistic manner. In this study, an unknown environmental mixture of bioavailable semi-hydrophobic to hydrophobic chemicals was sampled from a contaminated sediment in a coastal Baltic Sea area using silicone polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as an equilibrium passive sampler. The chemical mixture was transferred to a PDMS-based passive dosing system, and its applicability was demonstrated using green algae Tetraselmis suecica in a cell viability assay. The proportion of dead cells increased significantly with increasing exposure level and in a dose-response manner. At an ambient concentration, the proportion of dead cells in the population was nearly doubled compared to the control; however, the difference was non-significant due to high inter-replicate variability and a low number of replicates. The validation of the test system regarding equilibrium sampling, loading efficiency into the passive dosing polymer, stability of the mixture composition, and low algal mortality in control treatments demonstrates that combining equilibrium passive sampling and passive dosing is a promising tool for investigating the toxicity of bioavailable semi-hydrophobic and hydrophobic chemicals in complex environmental mixtures.

  20. Effect-directed analysis for estrogenic compounds in a fluvial sediment sample using transgenic cyp19a1b-GFP zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetter, Eva; Krauss, Martin; Brion, François; Kah, Olivier; Scholz, Stefan; Brack, Werner

    2014-09-01

    Xenoestrogens may persist in the environment by binding to sediments or suspended particulate matter serving as long-term reservoir and source of exposure, particularly for organisms living in or in contact with sediments. In this study, we present for the first time an effect-directed analysis (EDA) for identifying estrogenic compounds in a sediment sample using embryos of a transgenic reporter fish strain. In the tg(cyp19a1b-GFP) transgenic zebrafish strain, the expression of GFP (green fluorescent protein) in the brain is driven by an oestrogen responsive element in the promoter of the cyp19a1b (aromatase) gene. The selected sediment sample of the Czech river Bilina had already been analysed in a previous EDA using the yeast oestrogen screening assay and had revealed fractions containing estrogenic compounds. When normal phase HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) fractionation was used for the separation of the sediment sample, the biotest with transgenic fish embryos revealed two estrogenic fractions. Chemical analysis of candidate compounds in these sediment fractions suggested alkylphenols and estrone as candidate compounds responsible for the observed estrogenic effect. Alkylphenol concentrations could partially explain the estrogenicity of the fractions. However, xenoestrogens below the analytical detection limit or non-targeted estrogenic compounds have probably also contributed to the sample's estrogenic potency. The results indicated the suitability of the tg(cyp19a1b-GFP) fish embryo for an integrated chemical-biological analysis of estrogenic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biovailability of copper and zinc in pig and cattle slurries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubus, M.; Dach, J.; Starmans, D.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Slurry is an important source of macronutrients, micro-nutrients and organic matter. Despite the considerable fertilizer value of slurry, it may be abundant in amounts of copper and zinc originating from dietary. The study presents quantitative changes in copper and zinc in individual slurries (pig

  2. CATALYTIC RECOMBINATION OF RADIOLYTIC GASES IN THORIUM OXIDE SLURRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, L.E.

    1962-08-01

    A method for the coinbination of hydrogen and oxygen in aqueous thorium oxide-uranium oxide slurries is described. A small amount of molybdenum oxide catalyst is provided in the slurry. This catalyst is applicable to the recombination of hydrogen and/or deuterium and oxygen produced by irradiation of the slurries in nuclear reactors. (AEC)

  3. Development of a phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooher, J.P. [Adelphi Univ., Garden City, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Highly concentrated suspensions of coal particles in water or alternate fluids appear to have a wide range of applications for energy production. For enhanced implementation of coal slurry fuel technology, an understanding of coal slurry atomization as a function coal and slurry properties for specific mechanical configurations of nozzle atomizers should be developed.

  4. Chemical and physical properties affecting strontium distribution coefficients of surficial-sediment samples at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszewski, M.J.; Rosentreter, J.J.; Miller, Karl E.; Bartholomay, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, conducted a study to determine strontium distribution coefficients (K(d)s) of surficial sediments at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Batch experiments using synthesized aqueous solutions were used to determine K(d)s, which describe the distribution of a solute between the solution and solid phase, of 20 surficial-sediment samples from the INEEL. The K(d)s for the 20 surficial-sediment samples ranged from 36 to 275 ml/g. Many properties of both the synthesized aqueous solutions and sediments used in the experiments also were determined. Solution properties determined were initial and equilibrium concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and strontium, pH and specific conductance, and initial concentrations of potassium and sodium. Sediment properties determined were grain-size distribution, bulk mineralogy, whole-rock major-oxide and strontium and barium concentrations, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area. Solution and sediment properties were correlated with strontium K(d)s of the 20 surficial sediments using Pearson correlation coefficients. Solution properties with the strongest correlations with strontium K(d)s were equilibrium pH and equilibrium calcium concentration correlation coefficients, 0.6598 and -0.6518, respectively. Sediment properties with the strongest correlations with strontium K(d)s were manganese oxide (MnO), BET surface area, and the >4.75-mm-grain-size fraction correlation coefficients, 0.7054, 0.7022, and -0.6660, respectively. Effects of solution properties on strontium K(d)s were interpreted as being due to competition among similarly charged and sized cations in solution for strontium-sorption sites; effects of sediment properties on strontium K(d)s were interpreted as being surface-area related. Multivariate analyses of these solution and sediment properties resulted in r2 values of 0

  5. Biological validation of a sample preparation method for ER-CALUX bioanalysis of estrogenic activity in sediments using mixtures of xeno-estrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, C.J.; Houten, Y.K.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Brouwer, A.; Lamoree, M.H.; Legler, J.

    2006-01-01

    The combined estrogenic effects of mixtures of environmental pollutants in the in vitro ER-CALUX (chemical activated luciferase gene expression) bioassay were examined to biologically validate a sample preparation method for the analysis of estrogenic compounds in sediment. The method used

  6. Biolonical validation of a sample preparation method for ER-CALUX bioanalysis of estrogenic activity in sediment using mixtures of xeno-estrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, C.J.; Houten, Van Y.K.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Brouwer, A.; Lamoree, M.H.; Legler, J.

    2006-01-01

    The combined estrogenic effects of mixtures of environmental pollutants in the in vitro ER-CALUX (chemical activated luciferase gene expression) bioassay were examined to biologically validate a sample preparation method for the analysis of estrogenic compounds in sediment. The method used

  7. Sampling surface and subsurface particle-size distributions in wadable gravel-and cobble-bed streams for analyses in sediment transport, hydraulics, and streambed monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin Bunte; Steven R. Abt

    2001-01-01

    This document provides guidance for sampling surface and subsurface sediment from wadable gravel-and cobble-bed streams. After a short introduction to streams types and classifications in gravel-bed rivers, the document explains the field and laboratory measurement of particle sizes and the statistical analysis of particle-size distributions. Analysis of particle...

  8. Deep-water zooplankton in the Mediterranean Sea: Results from a continuous, synchronous sampling over different regions using sediment traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro, R.; Carugati, L.; Boldrin, A.; Calafat, A.; Canals, M.; Fabres, J.; Finlay, K.; Heussner, S.; Miserocchi, S.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.

    2017-08-01

    Information on the dynamics of deep-sea biota is extremely scant particularly for long-term time series on deep-sea zooplankton. Here, we present the results of a deep-sea zooplankton investigation over one annual cycle based on samples from sediment trap moorings in three sub-basins along the Mediterranean Sea. Deep-sea zooplankton assemblages were dominated by copepods, as in shallow waters, only in the Adriatic Sea (>60% of total abundance), but not in the deep Ionian Sea, where ostracods represented >80%, neither in the deep Alboran Sea, where polychaetes were >70%. We found that deep-sea zooplankton assemblages: i) are subjected to changes in their abundance and structure over time, ii) are characterized by different dominant taxa in different basins, and iii) display clear taxonomic segregation between shallow and near-bottom waters. Zooplankton biodiversity decreases with increasing water depth, but the equitability increases. We suggest here that variations of zooplankton abundance and assemblage structure are likely influenced by the trophic condition characterizing the basins. Our findings provide new insights on this largely unknown component of the deep ocean, and suggest that changes in the export of organic matter from the photic zone, such as those expected as a consequence of global change, can significantly influence zooplankton assemblages in the largest biome on Earth.

  9. Slurry Erosion Behavior of Destabilized and Deep Cryogenically Treated Cr-Mn-Cu White Cast Irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gupta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of destabilization treatment and destabilization followed by cryogenic treatment have been evaluated on the microstructural evolution and sand-water slurry erosion behavior of Cr-Mn-Cu white cast irons. The phase transformations after the destabilization and cryotreatment have been characterized by bulk hardness measurement, optical and scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis. The static corrosion rate has been measured in tap water (with pH=7 and the erosion-corrosion behavior has been studied by slurry pot tester using sand-water slurry. The test results indicate that the cryogenic treatment has a significant effect in minimizing the as-cast retained austenite content and transforming into martensitic and bainitic matrix embedded with ultra-fine M7C3 alloy carbides. In contrast, by conventional destabilization treatment retained austenite in the matrix are not fully eliminated. The slurry erosive wear resistance has been compared with reference to destabilized and cryotreated high chromium iron samples which are commonly employed for such applications. The cryotreated Cr-Mn-Cu irons have exhibited a comparable erosive wear performance to those of high chromium irons. Higher hardness combined with improved corrosion resistance result in better slurry erosion resistance.

  10. Underwater Sediment Sampling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Hanson, et al . Public | January 2017 5 REFERENCES Dollhopf, Ralph H, Faith A Fitzpatrick, Jeffery W. Kimble, Daniel M. Capone , Thomas P. Graan, Ronald...UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | A. Hanson, et al . Public | January 2017 N O T I C E This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of...Hanson, et al . Public | January 2017 Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. CG-D-04-17 2. Government Accession Number 3. Recipient’s

  11. Hurricane Katrina Sediment Sampling

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Hurricane Katrina made landfall in August 2005, causing widespread devastation along the Gulf Coast of the United States. EPA emergency response personnel worked...

  12. Evaluation of the Monroe Slurry Maker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    In early February, 2009, the Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT) installed a Monroe Slurry : Maker on one of its 2009 Volvo Wheelers (see Photos 1 and 2). This truck was equipped with a : Henderson Utility Body. An 18 gallon per minute spoo...

  13. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  14. Multielementar determination by neutron activation in sediment samples from Tartarugalzinho region, Amapa State, Brazil; Determinacao multielementar em amostras de sedimentos da regiao do Tartarugalzinho, Amapa, por ativacao neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, Maria C.; Favaro, Debora I.T.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Sonia M.B. de; Melfi, Adolfo J. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Fostier, Anne H. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Analitica; Guimaraes, Jean R.D. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica; Forti, Maria C. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    1999-11-01

    In the present work, sediment samples collected in the Tartarugalzinho region, State of Amapa, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentration of the elements As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr and the rare earth elements Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb could be determined. Analysis of the reference materials Buffalo River Sediment (NIST SRM 2704) and Soil 7 (IAEA) showed the accuracy and precision of the method. (author) 4 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  15. Geno-toxicity assay of sediment and water samples from the Upper Silesia post-mining areas, Poland by means of Allium-test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geras' kin, S.; Oudalova, A.; Michalik, B.; Dikareva, N.; Dikarev, V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology & Agroecology RAAS, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    Genotoxic potential of two environmental compartments (water and sediment) from the Upper Silesia Coal Basin (USCB), Poland were evaluated and compared by employing root meristem cells of Allium cepa. The clear genotoxic effect of water and sediment sampled was shown, with an important contribution of severe types of cytogenetic abnormalities. The most biologically relevant pollutants were revealed through multivariate statistical analysis of relationships between biological effects registered and the environment contamination. Overall, results of simultaneous use of conventional monitoring methods and biological tests suggested that contemporary levels of persistent pollutants in post-mining areas of the USCB may enhance the risk both for human health and biological components of natural ecosystems.

  16. Escherichia coli Contamination of Lettuce Grown in Soils Amended with Animal Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Storm, Christina; Forslund, Anita

    2013-01-01

    . coli. A relatively higher frequency of E. coli in lettuce compared with the soil samples at harvest suggests environmental sources of fecal contamination, e.g., wildlife. The higher frequency was supported by the finding of 21 different PFGE types among the E. coli isolates, with only a few common PFGE...... types between slurry, soil, and lettuce. The frequent finding of fecal-contaminated lettuce indicates that human pathogens such as Salmonella and Campylobacter can be present and represent food safety hazards.......A pilot study was conducted to assess the transfer of Escherichia coli from animal slurry fertilizer to lettuce, with E. coli serving as an indicator of fecal contamination and as an indicator for potential bacterial enteric pathogens. Animal slurry was applied as fertilizer to three Danish...

  17. Gas treatment of Cr(VI)-contaminated sediment samples from the North 60's pits of the chemical waste landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, E.C.; Amonette, J.E.

    1997-12-01

    Twenty sediment samples were collected at depths ranging from 5 to 100 ft (1.5 to 30 m) beneath a metal-contaminated plating-waste site and extensively characterized for Cr(VI) content and environmental availability. Three samples were selected for treatment with diluted gas mixtures with the objective of converting Cr(VI) to Cr(III), which is relatively nontoxic and immobile. These tests were designed to provide information needed to evaluate the potential application of gas injection as an in situ remediation technique. Gas treatment was performed in small columns (4.9-cm ID, 6.4- to 13.9-cm long) using 100 ppm (μL L -1 ) H 2 S or ethylene mixtures in N 2 . Treatment progress during the tests involving H 2 S was assessed by monitoring the breakthrough of H 2 S. Evaluation of H 2 S treatment efficacy included (1) water-leaching of treated and untreated columns for ten days, (2) repetitive extraction of treated and untreated subsamples by water, 0.01 M phosphate (pH 7) or 6 M HCl solutions, and (3) Cr K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy of treated and untreated subsamples. Results of the water-leaching studies showed that the H 2 S treatment decreased Cr(VI) levels in the column effluent by 90% to nearly 100%. Repetitive extractions by water and phosphate solutions echoed these results, and the extraction by HCl released only 35-40% as much Cr in the treated as in the untreated samples. Analysis by XANES spectroscopy showed that a substantial portion of the Cr in the samples remained as Cr(VI) after treatment, even though it was not available to the water and phosphate extracting solutions. These results suggest that this residual Cr(VI) is present in low solubility phases such as PbCrO 4 or sequestered in unreacted grain interiors under impermeable coatings formed during H 2 S treatment. However, this fraction is essentially immobile and thus unavailable to the environment

  18. Equilibrium Sampling of Persistent and Bioaccumulative Compounds in Soil and Sediment: Comparison of Two Approaches To Determine Equilibrium Partitioning Concentrations in Lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäenpää, Kimmo; Leppänen, Matti T.; Reichenberg, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    The equilibrium sampling in silicone is increasingly applied to measure freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activities within bioaccumulation research of hydrophobic organic chemicals. Two equilibrium methods were applied to PCBcontaminated soil and sediment, and directly calibrated...... with respect to equilibrium partitioning concentrations in lipids (Clipid,partitioning): (i) Solid phase microextraction in the headspace above the sample (HS-SPME) required optimization for its application to PCBs, and it was calibrated above external partitioning standards in olive oil. (ii) Equilibrium...

  19. Impact of offshore placer mining experiments (PLAMEX) on the sediment size and heavy minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A; Fernandes, D.

    for PLAMEX-I and II. The system included a dredge head, submersible pump, general test pump, data acquisi- tion system (DAS), global positioning system (GPS), dredge head lifting system and diesel generator set, all fitted on Pontoon (39 m length, 11 m... the dredge head. The sediment slurry was pumped out by a heavy duty vertical submersible pump mounted on the dredge head (Figure 3). The dredge head was immersed at ~8–10 m water Figure 2. Sampling stations off Paradip, Orissa. Test site (R-1) indi...

  20. Physical Characterization of Solid-Liquid Slurries at High Weight Fractions Using Optical and Ultrasonic Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, L.W.; Brodsky, A.M.; Panetta P.D.

    2005-01-01

    Remediation of highly radioactive waste is a major technical and programmatic challenge for the DOE. Rapid, on-line physical characterization of highly concentrated slurries is required for the safe and efficient remediation of 90 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (HLW), sodium bearing waste, and mixed waste. The research presented here, describes a collaborative effort between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) to directly address the need for rapid on-line characterization of the physical properties of HLW slurries during all phases of the remediation process, from in-tank characterization of sediments to monitoring of the concentration, particle size, and degree of agglomeration and gelation of slurries during transport. Near-surface characterization of the slurry flow in the particle size range from nanometer to micrometer is examined using optical low coherence reflectometry. Volumetric characterization at depths in the slurry flow, up to several centimeters in the particle size range from the micrometer to millimeter, is realized by utilizing ultrasonic backscatter and diffuses fields. One of the strengths, the teaming up of significant talents in both experimental and theoretical optics and in ultrasonics, provides a synergistic approach to integrate these complimentary techniques. One of the benefits of this combined approach is the physical characterization of HLW over a concentration and particle size range that is broader than can be achieved with today's technology. This will avoid a costly increase in waste stream volume due to excess dilution, and will lessen chance of plugging pipes that could shut down expensive processing lines

  1. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in core sediment samples in Gulf of Izmir, Aegean Sea, Turkey (by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal Yumun, Zeki; Kam, Erol; Kurt, Dilek

    2017-04-01

    Heavy metal and radionuclide analysis studies are crucial in explaining biotic and abiotic interactions in ecosystems. This type of analysis is highly needed in environments such as coastal areas, gulfs or lakes where human activities are generally concentrated. Sediments are one of the best biological indicators for the environment since the pollution accumulates in the sediments by descent to the sea floor. In this study, sediments were collected from the Gulf of Izmir (Eastern Aegean Sea, Turkey) considering the accumulated points of domestic and industrial wastes to make an anthropogenic pollution analysis. The core sediments had different depths of 0.00-30.00 m at four different locations where Karsiyaka, Bayrakli, Incialti and Cesmealti in the Gulf of Izmir. The purpose of the study was determining Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the drilling samples to assess their levels and spatial distribution in crucial areas of the Aegean Sea by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) with microwave digestion techniques. The heavy metal concentrations found in sediments varied for Cd: sediments were relatively unpolluted. The potential ecological risk assessment was not found in Cesmealti while Karsiyaka and Inciralti had higher levels in parts of investigating heavy metals. Keywords: Gulf of Izmir, heavy metals, ICP-OES, pollution, sediment.

  2. Yield Stress Reduction of Radioactive Waste Slurries by Addition of Surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MICHAEL, STONE

    2005-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford site are in the process of stabilizing millions of gallons of radioactive waste slurries remaining from production of nuclear materials for the Department of Energy (DOE). The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS is currently vitrifying the waste in borosilicate glass while the facilities at the Hanford site are in the design/construction phase. Both processes utilize slurry-fed joule heated melters to vitrify the waste slurries. The rheological properties of the waste slurries limit the total solids content that can be processed by the remote equipment during the pretreatment and melter feed processes. The use of a surface active agent, or surfactant, to increase the solids loading that can be fed to the melters would increase melt rate by reducing the heat load on the melter required to evaporate the water in the feed. The waste slurries are non-Newtonian fluids with rheological properties that were modeled using the Bingham Plastic mod el (this model is typically used by SRNL when studying the DWPF process1).The results illustrate that altering the surface chemistry of the particulates in the waste slurries can lead to a reduction in the yield stress. Dolapix CE64 is an effective surfactant over a wide range of pH values and was effective for all simulants tested. The effectiveness of the additive increased in DWPF simulants as the concentration of the additive was increased. No maxi main effectiveness was observed. Particle size measurements indicate that the additive acted as a flocculant in the DWPF samples and as a dispersant in the RPP samples

  3. Enhanced electroforced sedimentation of various solid- liquid systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... constant electric current density of zinc oxide and kaolin suspended in aqueous media with and without ... Dewatering by conventional ... Water. Sediment. Figure 1. Experimental set up. material, zinc oxide and kaolin were used. The slurry was kept until gravitational sedimentation was completed and ...

  4. Acidification of pig slurry effects on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions, nitrate leaching, and perennial ryegrass regrowth as estimated by N-urea flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyun Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study aimed to assess the nitrogen (N use efficiency of acidified pig slurry for regrowth yield and its environmental impacts on perennial ryegrass swards. Methods The pH of digested pig slurry was adjusted to 5.0 or 7.0 by the addition of sulfuric acid and untreated as a control. The pig slurry urea of each treatment was labeled with 15N urea and applied at a rate of 200 kg N/ha immediately after cutting. Soil and herbage samples were collected at 7, 14, and 56 d of regrowth. The flux of pig slurry-N to regrowth yield and soil N mineralization were analyzed, and N losses via NH3, N2O emission and NO3− leaching were also estimated. Results The pH level of the applied slurry did not have a significant effect on herbage yield or N content of herbage at the end of regrowth, whereas the amount of N derived from pig slurry urea (NdfSU was higher in both herbage and soils in pH-controlled plots. The NH4+-N content and the amount of N derived from slurry urea into soil NH4+ fraction (NdfSU-NH4+ was significantly higher in in the pH 5 plot, whereas NO3− and NdfSU-NO3− were lower than in control plots over the entire regrowth period. Nitrification of NH4+-N was delayed in soil amended with acidified slurry. Compared to non-pH-controlled pig slurry (i.e. control plots, application of acidified slurry reduced NH3 emissions by 78.1%, N2O emissions by 78.9% and NO3− leaching by 17.81% over the course of the experiment. Conclusion Our results suggest that pig slurry acidification may represent an effective means of minimizing hazardous environmental impacts without depressing regrowth yield.

  5. Effect of slurry mixture variation on the quality of biogas produced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the effect of slurry mixture variations on the quality of biogas produced from chicken droppings. Chicken droppings were anaerobically digested to generate biogas as a sustainable alternative energy source for rural household energy requirements, in place of firewood. Samples of the chicken dropping ...

  6. Predicting transport requirements for radioactive-waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motyka, T.; Randall, C.T.

    1983-01-01

    A method for predicting the transport requirements of radioactive waste slurries was developed. This method involved preparing nonradioactive sludge slurries chemically similar to the actual high-level waste. The rheological and settling characteristics of these synthetic waste slurries were measured and found to compare favorably with data on actual defense waste slurries. Pressure drop versus flow rate data obtained fom a 2-in. slurry test loop confirmed the Bingham plastic behavior of the slurry observed during viscometry measurements. The pipeline tests, however, yielded friction factors 30 percent lower than those predicted from viscometry data. Differences between the sets of data were attributed to inherent problems in interpreting accurate yield-stress values of slurry suspensions with Couette-type viscometers. Equivalent lengths of fittings were also determined and found to be less than that of water at a specified flow rate

  7. Waste Slurry Particle Properties for Use in Slurry Flow Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewett, J. R.; Conrads, T. J.; Julyk, L. J.; Reynolds, D. A.; Jensen, L.; Kirch, N. W.; Estey, S. D.; Bechtold, D. B.; Callaway III, W. S.; Cooke, G. A.; Herting, D. L.; Person, J. C.; Duncan, J. B.; Onishi, Y.; Tingey, J. M.

    2003-02-26

    Hanford's tank farm piping system must be substantially modified to deliver high-level wastes from the underground storage tanks to the Waste Treatment Plant now under construction. Improved knowledge of the physical properties of the solids was required to support the design of the modified system. To provide this additional knowledge, particle size distributions for composite samples from seven high-level waste feed tanks were measured using two different laser lightscattering particle size analyzers. These measurements were made under a variety of instrumental conditions, including various flow rates through the sample loop, various stirring rates in the sample reservoir, and before and after subjecting the particles to ultrasonic energy. A mean value over all the tanks of 4.2 {micro}m was obtained for the volume-based median particle size. Additional particle size information was obtained from sieving tests, settling tests and microscopic observations.

  8. Fate of polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated lake ecosystem: Combining equilibrium passive sampling of sediment and water with total concentration measurements of biota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäenpää, Kimmo; Leppänen, Matti T.; Figueiredo, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Equilibrium sampling devices can be applied to study and monitor the exposure and fate of hydrophobic organic chemicals on a thermodynamic basis. They can be used to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activity ratios and to predict equilibrium partitioning concentrations...... of hydrophobic organic chemicals in biota lipids. The authors' aim was to assess the equilibrium status of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a contaminated lake ecosystem and along its discharge course using equilibrium sampling devices for measurements in sediment and water and by also analyzing biota....... The authors used equilibrium sampling devices (silicone rubber and polyethylene [PE]) to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activities of PCBs in the water column and sediment porewater and calculated for both phases the corresponding equilibrium concentrations and chemical activities...

  9. Survival studies of a temperate and lytic bacteriophage in bovine faeces and slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambe, S; Burgess, C; Whyte, P; Bolton, D

    2016-10-01

    Cattle are the main reservoir of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC), food-borne pathogens that express verocytotoxins (vtx) encoded by temperate bacteriophage. Bovine faeces and unturned manure heaps can support the survival of VTEC and may propagate and transmit VTEC. This study investigated the survival of a vtx2 bacteriophage, φ24B ::Kan, in bovine faeces and slurry. The survival of an anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 lytic bacteriophage, e11/2, was examined in the same matrices, as a possible bio-control option for VTEC. Samples were inoculated with φ24B ::Kan and/or e11/2 bacteriophage at a concentration of 7-8 log10  PFU g(-1)  (faeces) or ml(-1) (slurry), stored at 4 and 14°C and examined every 2 days for 36 days. The ability of φ24B ::Kan to transduce E. coli cells was examined. Moreover, E. coli concentrations in the faeces and slurry were monitored throughout the experiment as were the pH and aw (faeces only). Both bacteriophages survived well in faeces and slurry. In addition, φ24B ::Kan was able to form lysogens. φ24B ::Kan and e11/2 phage can survive and remain infective in bovine faeces and slurry for at least 30 days under representative Irish temperatures. Bovine faeces and slurry may act as a reservoir for vtx bacteriophages. The survival of the anti-O157 phage suggests it may be a suitable bio-control option in these matrices. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Effects of pig slurry application on soil physical and chemical properties and glyphosate mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aparecida de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pig slurry applied to soil at different rates may affect soil properties and the mobility of chemical compounds within the soil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of rates of pig slurry application in agricultural areas on soil physical and chemical properties and on the mobility of glyphosate through the soil profile. The study was carried out in the 12th year of an experiment with pig slurry applied at rates of 0 (control, 50, 100 and 200 m³ ha-1 yr-1 on a Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (Hapludox soil. In the control, the quantities of P and K removed by harvested grains were replaced in the next crop cycle. Soil physical properties (bulk density, porosity, texture, and saturated hydraulic conductivity and chemical properties (organic matter, pH, extractable P, and exchangeable K were measured. Soil solution samples were collected at depths of 20, 40 and 80 cm using suction lysimeters, and glyphosate concentrations were measured over a 60-day period after slurry application. Soil physical and chemical properties were little affected by the pig slurry applications, but soil pH was reduced and P levels increased in the surface layers. In turn, K levels were increased in sub-surface layers. Glyphosate concentrations tended to decrease over time but were not affected by pig slurry application. The concentrations of glyphosate found in different depths show that the pratice of this application in agricultural soils has the potential for contamination of groundwater, especially when the water table is the surface and heavy rains occur immediately after application.

  11. Spatial distribution and risk assessment of radioactivity and heavy metal levels of sediment, surface water and fish samples from Lake Van, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sema Erenturk; Zeyneb Camtakan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, radioactivity levels of 228 lake water samples, 63 upper and depth sediment samples and 12 fish samples from Lake Van were investigated from 2005 to 2008 and the distribution patterns of the radionuclides were presented. Analysis included gross alpha-beta and total radium isotopes activities and uranium concentrations of the water, and gross alpha and gross beta activities and relevant 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K activity of the sediment and fish samples of the lake. Mean gross alpha, gross beta and radium isotopes activities of lake water were found 0.74 ± 0.46, 0.02 ± 0.01 and 0.06 ± 0.04 Bq/L, respectively. Mean gross alpha and beta activities in upper and depth sediments were found to be 41 ± 6 and 1,514 ± 74 Bq/kg; 77 ± 5 and 394 ± 24 Bq/kg at a 95 % confidence level, respectively. Mean activities of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K activity concentrations in upper and depth sediments were determined to be 225 ± 22, 70 ± 7 and 486 ± 39 Bq/kg; 174 ± 4, 63 ± 3 and 263 ± 25 Bq/kg, respectively. The mean gross alpha and beta, 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K activities in fish samples were established as 47 ± 18, 470 ± 12, 0.57 ± 0.220, 0.022 ± 0.006, 319 ± 11 Bq/kg, respectively. The transfer factor from lake water to fish tissues, annual intake by humans consuming fish, and annual committed effective doses were estimated and evaluated. (author)

  12. A comparison of four porewater sampling methods for metal mixtures and dissolved organic carbon and the implications for sediment toxicity evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Danielle; Brumbaugh, William G; MacDonald, Donald D

    2017-11-01

    Evaluations of sediment quality conditions are commonly conducted using whole-sediment chemistry analyses but can be enhanced by evaluating multiple lines of evidence, including measures of the bioavailable forms of contaminants. In particular, porewater chemistry data provide information that is directly relevant for interpreting sediment toxicity data. Various methods for sampling porewater for trace metals and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is an important moderator of metal bioavailability, have been employed. The present study compares the peeper, push point, centrifugation, and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) methods for the quantification of 6 metals and DOC. The methods were evaluated at low and high concentrations of metals in 3 sediments having different concentrations of total organic carbon and acid volatile sulfide and different particle-size distributions. At low metal concentrations, centrifugation and push point sampling resulted in up to 100 times higher concentrations of metals and DOC in porewater compared with peepers and DGTs. At elevated metal levels, the measured concentrations were in better agreement among the 4 sampling techniques. The results indicate that there can be marked differences among operationally different porewater sampling methods, and it is unclear if there is a definitive best method for sampling metals and DOC in porewater. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2906-2915. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  13. Aerosol entrainment from a sparged non-Newtonian slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brad G

    2006-08-01

    Previous bench-scale experiments have provided data necessary for the development of empirical models that describe aerosol entrainment from bubble bursting. However, previous work has not been extended to non-Newtonian liquid slurries. Design of a waste treatment plant on the Hanford Site in Washington required an evaluation of the applicability of these models outside of their intended range. For this evaluation, aerosol measurements were conducted above an air-sparged mixing tank filled with simulated waste slurry possessing Bingham plastic rheological properties. Three aerosol-size fractions were measured at three sampling heights and for three different sparging rates. The measured entrainment was compared with entrainment models. One model developed based on bench-scale air-water experiments agreed well with measured entrainment. Another model did not agree well with the measured entrainment. It appeared that the source of discrepancy between measured and modeled entrainment stemmed from application beyond the range of data used to develop the model. A possible separation in entrainment coefficients between air-water and steam-water systems was identified. A third entrainment model was adapted to match experimental conditions and fit a posteri to the experimental data, resulting in a modified version that resulted in estimated entrainment rates similar to the first model.

  14. A holder to rotate sample cells to avoid sedimentation in small-angle neutron scattering and ultra small-angle neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Anders; Hellsing, Maja S; Rennie, Adrian R

    2013-01-01

    Sedimentation, or creaming, of samples can significantly alter the amount of material in the beam during small-angle scattering experiments. Simple rotating mounts that ameliorate this effect are described and the design criteria are carefully discussed. A modular design permits simple adaptation to various instruments and different sample cells. Temperature control in the range 10 °C below ambient to about +40 °C has been implemented using air flow and a Peltier device. Example ultra small-angle neutron scattering data are shown that exploit the simplicity of the mounts and the capability to position several samples close together on a translation stage. (paper)

  15. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Edward L.

    1985-01-01

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  16. Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactor modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Y.; Gamwo, I.K.; Harke, F.W. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports experimental and theoretical results on hydrodynamic studies. The experiments were conducted in a hot-pressurized Slurry-Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). It includes experimental results of Drakeol-10 oil/nitrogen/glass beads hydrodynamic study and the development of an ultrasonic technique for measuring solids concentration. A model to describe the flow behavior in reactors was developed. The hydrodynamic properties in a 10.16 cm diameter bubble column with a perforated-plate gas distributor were studied at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.36 MPa, and at temperatures from 20 to 200{degrees}C, using a dual hot-wire probe with nitrogen, glass beads, and Drakeol-10 oil as the gas, solid, and liquid phase, respectively. It was found that the addition of 20 oil wt% glass beads in the system has a slight effect on the average gas holdup and bubble size. A well-posed three-dimensional model for bed dynamics was developed from an ill-posed model. The new model has computed solid holdup distributions consistent with experimental observations with no artificial {open_quotes}fountain{close_quotes} as predicted by the earlier model. The model can be applied to a variety of multiphase flows of practical interest. An ultrasonic technique is being developed to measure solids concentration in a three-phase slurry reactor. Preliminary measurements have been made on slurries consisting of molten paraffin wax, glass beads, and nitrogen bubbles at 180 {degrees}C and 0.1 MPa. The data show that both the sound speed and attenuation are well-defined functions of both the solid and gas concentrations in the slurries. The results suggest possibilities to directly measure solids concentration during the operation of an autoclave reactor containing molten wax.

  17. Pump transients in FGD slurry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce-Campos, C.D., Thoy, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the start-up transient of a limestone slurry system used for a power plant scrubber is discussed. Particular characteristics of these kind of systems are pointed out and incorporated into an ad-hoc numerical model. Three possible start-up scenarios are discussed and compared with field experimental data. The results illustrate well the importance of air pocket purging prior to system start-up

  18. Latex for selective flotation of coal slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyrlov, M.Ya.; Kovrizhko, L.F.; Nikitin, I.N.; Preobrazhenskii, B.P.

    1982-01-01

    The study relates to an attempt to develop a latex with reduced foam-formation for use in flotation of coal slurries. It was established that latex synthesised with paraffinate and more especially with a colophony emulsifier, should not give rise to excessive foaming during flotation. The mix formula and colloid-chemical properties of the two butadiene-styrene latices developed are described. 2 references.

  19. Identification of sulfur interferences during organotin determination in harbour sediment samples by sodium tetraethyl borate ethylation and gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Manuel; Lespes, Gäetane; De Gregori, Ida; Pinochet, Hugo; Potin-Gautier, Martine

    2004-08-13

    Because of the high toxicity of organotin compounds and the current regulation about their applications, analytical method usable in routine analysis is required. A speciation procedure based on NaBEt4 ethylation and GC-PFPD analysis has shown to be suitable for the organotin determination. Unfortunately, some matrix effects were observed during the analysis of harbour sediments from Chile. These effects were identified as the alkylation of elemental sulfur and the coelution between the organotin compounds and some dialkylsulfides. The re-optimization of GC parameters and application of solid phase microextraction (SPME) were proposed to solve these analytical problems. Certified reference materials and different harbour sediment samples were analysed in order to evaluate the suitability of the methods for organotin control in complex environment samples.

  20. Plant response to FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darmody, R.G.; Dunker, R.E. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steel, J.D. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The goal of this project is to test the feasibility of stabilizing coal slurry solids (CSS) wastes by directly seeding plants into the waste. This is not done conventionally because the waste can generate toxic amounts of sulfuric acid. Our approach is to neutralize the potential acidity by mixing fluidized bed combustion (FBC) waste into the slurry. If successful, this approach would both help dispose of FBC wastes while providing a more economical slurry stabilization technique. The project involves growing forage plants in CSS-FBC mixtures in the greenhouse. This is the first quarter of the project. We have designed the experiment, secured greenhouse space, purchased the seeds, collected and dried the FBC and CSS samples. The samples represent a typical range of properties. We retrieved two FBC and two CSS samples. One CSS sample appears to have a higher pyrite content than the other.

  1. REMOVAL EFFICIENCY OF ORGANIC MATTER OF PIG SLURRY WITH BIODIGESTERS IN YUCATAN STATE, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Trejo-Lizama

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the intensive pig production in the state of Yucatan, 62 biodigesters were installed in the last 10 years. However, the complexities of the anaerobic biodigestion enclose difficulties to reach the expected efficiency. The objective of the present study was to determine the removal efficiency of the organic matter in pig slurry using biodigesters in the state of Yucatan. There were visited 15 pig farms in the state of Yucatan to interview the farmer about the management of the farm and the waste disposal and to take samples of the influent of the collector of the pig slurry and the effluent of the biodigestor and evaluating the samples by laboratory analysis. The removal values found in the present study were 7 percentage points below the reference value of total volatile solids, which represent the organic matter fraction of the solids treated in the biodigestor. More than the 50 % of the farms evaluated were similar or higher than the parameters of reference. The removal efficiency of the organic matter in the pig slurry by biodigesters in the state of Yucatan is close to the reference values. However complementary treatments are necessary to continue the waste slurry treatment.

  2. Study of benzene release from Savannah River in-tank precipitation process slurry simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappe, K.G.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1998-08-01

    At the Savannah River Site, the in-tank precipitation (ITP) process uses sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) to precipitate radioactive cesium from alkaline wastes. During this process, potassium is also precipitated to form 4-wt% KTPB/CsTPB slurry. Residual NaTPB decomposes to form benzene, which is retained by the waste slurry. The retained benzene is also readily released from the waste during subsequent waste processing. While the release of benzene certainly poses flammability and toxicological safety concerns, the magnitude of the hazard depends on the rate of release. Currently, the mechanisms controlling the benzene release rates are not well understood, and predictive models for estimating benzene release rates are not available. The overall purpose of this study is to obtain quantitative measurements of benzene release rates from a series of ITP slurry simulants. This information will become a basis for developing a quantitative mechanistic model of benzene release rates. The transient benzene release rate was measured from the surface of various ITP slurry (solution) samples mixed with benzene. The benzene release rate was determined by continuously purging the headspace of a sealed sample vessel with an inert gas (nitrogen) and analyzing that purged headspace vapor for benzene every minute

  3. Marine sediments monitoring studies for trace elements with the application of fast temperature programs and solid sampling high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orani, Anna Maria; Han, Eunmi; Mandjukov, Petko; Vassileva, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Analytical procedure for the determination of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Co and Cr in marine sediment samples using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS AAS) and direct solid sample analysis has been developed. The application of fast programs in combination with direct solid sampling allows to eliminate the drying and pretreatment steps, however makes impossible the use of liquid standards for calibration. Iridium treated platforms were applied throughout the present study. Calibration technique based on the use of solid certified reference materials (marine sediments) similar to the nature of the analyzed sample and statistics of regression analysis were applied to the real sediment samples. The instrumental parameters were optimized in order to obtain reproducible and interference free analytical signals. The ISO-17025 requirements and Eurachem guidelines were followed in the validation of the proposed analytical procedure. Accordingly, blanks, selectivity, calibration, linearity, working range, trueness, repeatability reproducibility, limits of detection and quantification and expanded uncertainty (k = 2) for all investigated elements were assessed. Two different approaches for the estimation of measurement uncertainty were applied and obtained results compared. The major contributors to the combined uncertainty of the analyte mass fraction were found to be the homogeneity of the samples and the microbalance precision. The influence of sample particle sizes on the total combined uncertainty was also evaluated. Traceability to SI system of units of the obtained by the proposed analytical procedure results was demonstrated. Additionally, validation of the methodology developed was effectuated by the comparison of the obtained results with independent method e.g. ICP-MS with external calibration. The use of solid sampling HR CS AAS for the determination of trace elements in marine sediment matrix gives significant advantages

  4. Relations between continuous real-time turbidity data and discrete suspended-sediment concentration samples in the Neosho and Cottonwood Rivers, east-central Kansas, 2009-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Guy M.

    2014-01-01

    The Neosho River and its primary tributary, the Cottonwood River, are the primary sources of inflow to the John Redmond Reservoir in east-central Kansas. Sedimentation rate in the John Redmond Reservoir was estimated as 743 acre-feet per year for 1964–2006. This estimated sedimentation rate is more than 80 percent larger than the projected design sedimentation rate of 404 acre-feet per year, and resulted in a loss of 40 percent of the conservation pool since its construction in 1964. To reduce sediment input into the reservoir, the Kansas Water Office implemented stream bank stabilization techniques along an 8.3 mile reach of the Neosho River during 2010 through 2011. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Water Office and funded in part through the Kansas State Water Plan Fund, operated continuous real-time water-quality monitors upstream and downstream from stream bank stabilization efforts before, during, and after construction. Continuously measured water-quality properties include streamflow, specific conductance, water temperature, and turbidity. Discrete sediment samples were collected from June 2009 through September 2012 and analyzed for suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), percentage of sediments less than 63 micrometers (sand-fine break), and loss of material on ignition (analogous to amount of organic matter). Regression models were developed to establish relations between discretely measured SSC samples, and turbidity or streamflow to estimate continuously SSC. Continuous water-quality monitors represented between 96 and 99 percent of the cross-sectional variability for turbidity, and had slopes between 0.91 and 0.98. Because consistent bias was not observed, values from continuous water-quality monitors were considered representative of stream conditions. On average, turbidity-based SSC models explained 96 percent of the variance in SSC. Streamflow-based regressions explained 53 to 60 percent of the variance. Mean squared

  5. Characterizing landscape-scale erosion using 10Be in detrital fluvial sediment: Slope-based sampling strategy detects the effect of widespread dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusser, Lucas J.; Bierman, Paul R.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Portenga, Eric W.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2017-05-01

    Concentrations of in situ 10Be measured in detrital fluvial sediment are frequently used to estimate long-term erosion rates of drainage basins. In many regions, basin-averaged erosion rates are positively correlated with basin average slope. The slope dependence of erosion allows model-based erosion rate estimation for unsampled basins and basins where human disturbance may have biased cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in sediment. Using samples collected from southeastern North America, we demonstrate an approach that explicitly considers the relationship between average basin slope and erosion rate. Because dams and reservoirs are ubiquitous on larger channels in the field area, we selected 36 undammed headwater subbasins (average area 10.6 km2) from which we collected river sand samples and measured 10Be concentrations. We used these data to train a predictive model that relates average basin slope and 10Be-inferred erosion rate. Applying our model to 28 basins in the same region previously studied with 10Be, we find that the model successfully predicts erosion rates for basins of different sizes if they are undammed or if samples were collected >25 km downstream of dams. For samples collected closer to dams, measured erosion rates exceed modeled erosion rates for two-thirds of the samples. In three of four cases where paired samples were collected upstream of reservoirs and downstream of the impounding dam, 10Be concentrations were lower downstream. This finding has implications for detrital cosmogenic studies, whether or not samples were collected directly downstream of dams, because dams obstruct most major rivers around the world, effectively trapping sediment that originated upstream.

  6. Comparison of Raw Dairy Manure Slurry and Anaerobically Digested Slurry as N Sources for Grass Forage Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia E. Saunders

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a 3-year field study to determine how raw dairy slurry and anaerobically digested slurry (dairy slurry and food waste applied via broadcast and subsurface deposition to reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea affected forage biomass, N uptake, apparent nitrogen recovery (ANR, and soil nitrate concentrations relative to urea. Annual N applications ranged from 600 kg N ha−1 in 2009 to 300 g N ha−1 in 2011. Forage yield and N uptake were similar across slurry treatments. Soil nitrate concentrations were greatest at the beginning of the fall leaching season, and did not differ among slurry treatments or application methods. Urea-fertilized plots had the highest soil nitrate concentrations but did not consistently have greatest forage biomass. ANR for the slurry treatments ranged from 35 to 70% when calculations were based on ammonium-N concentration, compared with 31 to 65% for urea. Slurry ANR calculated on a total N basis was lower (15 to 40% due to lower availability of the organic N in the slurries. No consistent differences in soil microbial biomass or other biological indicators were observed. Anaerobically digested slurry supported equal forage production and similar N use efficiency when compared to raw dairy slurry.

  7. Low frequency aeration of pig slurry affects slurry characteristics and emissions of greenhouse gases and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Salvador; Hunt, John; Misselbrook, Tom H

    2017-07-01

    Low frequency aeration of slurries may reduce ammonia (NH 3 ) and methane (CH 4 ) emissions without increasing nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions. The aim of this study was to quantify this potential reduction and to establish the underlying mechanisms. A batch experiment was designed with 6 tanks with 1 m 3 of pig slurry each. After an initial phase of 7 days when none of the tanks were aerated, a second phase of 4 weeks subjected three of the tanks to aeration (2 min every 6 h, airflow 10 m 3  h -1 ), whereas the other three tanks remained as a control. A final phase of 9 days was established with no aeration in any tank. Emissions of NH 3 , CH 4 , carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and N 2 O were measured. In the initial phase no differences in emissions were detected, but during the second phase aeration increased NH 3 emissions by 20% with respect to the controls (8.48 vs. 7.07 g m -3  [slurry] d -1 , P < 0.05). A higher pH was found in the aerated tanks at the end of this phase (7.7 vs. 7.0 in the aerated and control tanks, respectively, P < 0.05). CH 4 emissions were 40% lower in the aerated tanks (2.04 vs. 3.39 g m -3  [slurry] d -1 , P < 0.05). These differences in NH 3 and CH 4 emissions remained after the aeration phase had finished. No effect was detected for CO 2 , and no relevant N 2 O emissions were detected during the experiment. Our results demonstrate that low frequency aeration of stored pig slurry increases slurry pH and increases NH 3 emissions.

  8. Biogas slurry pricing method based on nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-ai; Guo, Honghai; Yang, Zhengtao; Xin, Shurong

    2017-11-01

    In order to promote biogas-slurry commercialization, A method was put forward to valuate biogas slurry based on its nutrient contents. Firstly, element contents of biogas slurry was measured; Secondly, each element was valuated based on its market price, and then traffic cost, using cost and market effect were taken into account, the pricing method of biogas slurry were obtained lastly. This method could be useful in practical production. Taking cattle manure raw meterial biogas slurry and con stalk raw material biogas slurry for example, their price were 38.50 yuan RMB per ton and 28.80 yuan RMB per ton. This paper will be useful for recognizing the value of biogas projects, ensuring biogas project running, and instructing the cyclic utilization of biomass resources in China.

  9. Availability of phosphorus in cow slurry using isotopic labelling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongsakul, P.; Bertelsen, F.; Gissel-Nielsen, G.

    1988-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of cow slurry on P uptake by corn and to estimate the readily available P in the slurry by using an isotopic labelling techique. Water-soluble P in soil was increased and isotopic equilibrium of available P was attained after labelled slurry was mixed thoroughly throughout the soil. Labelled slurry applied at planting increased the P uptake by corn, whereas the same amount applied one week before harvest did not affect the P uptake. It was estimated that 46-54% of the total P uptake in plants is derived from the slurry. The readily available P (the L-value) in the slurry was at least 26 mg/kg which equals 3.7% of the total P. (author)

  10. Sulfur turnover and emissions during storage of cattle slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Andersen, Astrid J; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    Slurry acidification using sulfuric acid reduces ammonia emissions but also affects sulfur (S) cycling. Emission of sulfur is a source of malodor and reduces the sulfur fertilizer value of the slurry. We investigated the effect of sulfate and methionine amendments, alone or in combination...... of the compounds in fresh or aged slurry. Generally, addition of a sulfate increased the contribution from H2S dramatically, whereas acidification lowered the H2S contribution but increased that of MT. Thus, acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid may potentially produce more odor from S compounds than...... with acidification, on sulfur transformations in slurry and emissions of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) during storage of fresh and aged cattle slurry. When pH was lowered to 5.5 it resulted in an almost complete inhibition of sulfate reduction. There was a huge emission of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with addition...

  11. Comparison of fluvial suspended-sediment concentrations and particle-size distributions measured with in-stream laser diffraction and in physical samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Jonathan A.; Straub, Timothy D.; Curran, Christopher A.; Landers, Mark N.; Domanski, Marian M.

    2015-01-01

    Laser-diffraction technology, recently adapted for in-stream measurement of fluvial suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) and particle-size distributions (PSDs), was tested with a streamlined (SL), isokinetic version of the Laser In-Situ Scattering and Transmissometry (LISST) for measuring volumetric SSCs and PSDs ranging from 1.8-415 µm in 32 log-spaced size classes. Measured SSCs and PSDs from the LISST-SL were compared to a suite of 22 datasets (262 samples in all) of concurrent suspended-sediment and streamflow measurements using a physical sampler and acoustic Doppler current profiler collected during 2010-12 at 16 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in Illinois and Washington (basin areas: 38 – 69,264 km2). An unrealistically low computed effective density (mass SSC / volumetric SSC) of 1.24 g/ml (95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.45 g/ml) provided the best-fit value (R2 = 0.95; RMSE = 143 mg/L) for converting volumetric SSC to mass SSC for over 2 orders of magnitude of SSC (12-2,170 mg/L; covering a substantial range of SSC that can be measured by the LISST-SL) despite being substantially lower than the sediment particle density of 2.67 g/ml (range: 2.56-2.87 g/ml, 23 samples). The PSDs measured by the LISST-SL were in good agreement with those derived from physical samples over the LISST-SL's measureable size range. Technical and operational limitations of the LISST-SL are provided to facilitate the collection of more accurate data in the future. Additionally, the spatial and temporal variability of SSC and PSD measured by the LISST-SL is briefly described to motivate its potential for advancing our understanding of suspended-sediment transport by rivers.

  12. Organic contaminants, trace and major elements, and nutrients in water and sediment sampled in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Ludtke, Amy S.; Mueller, David K.; Scott, Jonathon C.

    2011-01-01

    Beach water and sediment samples were collected along the Gulf of Mexico coast to assess differences in contaminant concentrations before and after landfall of Macondo-1 well oil released into the Gulf of Mexico from the sinking of the British Petroleum Corporation's Deepwater Horizon drilling platform. Samples were collected at 70 coastal sites on the Gulf of Mexico between May 7 and July 7, 2010, to document baseline, "pre-landfall" conditions. A subset of these sites was resampled during October 4 to 14, 2010, after oil had made landfall on the Gulf of Mexico coast ("post-landfall") to determine if actionable concentrations of oil were present along shorelines.

  13. System and method for continuous solids slurry depressurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, Thomas Frederick; Steele, Raymond Douglas; Cordes, Stephen Michael

    2017-07-11

    A system includes a first pump having a first outlet and a first inlet, and a controller. The first pump is configured to continuously receive a flow of a slurry into the first outlet at a first pressure and to continuously discharge the flow of the slurry from the first inlet at a second pressure less than the first pressure. The controller is configured to control a first speed of the first pump against the flow of the slurry based at least in part on the first pressure, wherein the first speed of the first pump is configured to resist a backflow of the slurry from the first outlet to the first inlet.

  14. State of the art on phase change material slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, Ziad; Delahaye, Anthony; Huang Li; Trinquet, François; Fournaison, Laurence; Pollerberg, Clemens; Doetsch, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A bibliographic study on PCM slurries. ► Clathrate Hydrate slurry, Microencapsulated PCM Slurry, shape-stabilized PCM slurries and Phase Change Material Emulsions. ► Formation, thermo-physical, rheological, heat transfers properties and applications of these four PCS systems. ► The use of thermal energy storage and distribution based on PCM slurries can improve the refrigerating machine performances. - Abstract: The interest in using phase change slurry (PCS) media as thermal storage and heat transfer fluids is increasing and thus leading to an enhancement in the number of articles on the subject. In air-conditioning and refrigeration applications, PCS systems represent a pure benefit resulting in the increase of thermal energy storage capacity, high heat transfer characteristics and positive phase change temperatures which can occur under low pressures. Hence, they allow the increase of energy efficiency and reduce the quantity of thermal fluids. This review describes the formation, thermo-physical, rheological, heat transfer properties and applications of four PCS systems: Clathrate hydrate slurry (CHS), Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials Slurry (MPCMS), shape-stabilized PCM slurries (SPCMSs) and Phase Change Material Emulsions (PCMEs). It regroups a bibliographic summary of important information that can be very helpful when such systems are used. It also gives interesting and valuable insights on the choice of the most suitable PCS media for laboratory and industrial applications.

  15. Observations on microbial activity in acidified pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lars Ditlev Mørck; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Nielsen, Daniel Aagren

    2009-01-01

    Acidification of pig slurry to pH 5.5 is used as a measure to reduce ammonia emission from pits and storages. The slurry is acidified with sulphuric acid in a process tank and pumped back to the slurry pits or to a storage tank. We investigated the effect of acidification on microbial activity. O...... acidification are greatly reduced production rates and loss of sulphide and methane, and eliminated loss of ammonia. On the other hand, increased volatilization and loss of smelly fatty acids is to be expected.......Acidification of pig slurry to pH 5.5 is used as a measure to reduce ammonia emission from pits and storages. The slurry is acidified with sulphuric acid in a process tank and pumped back to the slurry pits or to a storage tank. We investigated the effect of acidification on microbial activity....... Oxygen consumption rate, methanogenesis and sulphate reduction were all reduced by more than 98% in the stored acidified slurry compared to untreated slurry. Despite higher sulphate concentration, the microbial metabolism was greatly compromised or absent in the acidified slurry. This could be explained...

  16. Analytical results and sample locality map for rock, stream-sediment, and soil samples, Northern and Eastern Coloado Desert BLM Resource Area, Imperial, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Harley D.; Chaffee, Maurice A.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In 1996-1998 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a geochemical study of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) 5.5 million-acre Northern and Eastern Colorado Desert Resource Area (usually referred to as the NECD in this report), Imperial, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, southeastern California (figure 1). This study was done in support of the BLM's Coordinated Management Plan for the area. This report presents analytical data from this study. To provide comprehensive coverage of the NECD, we compiled and examined all available geochemical data, in digital form, from previous studies in the area, and made sample-site plots to aid in determining where sample-site coverage and analyses were sufficient, which samples should be re-analyzed, and where additional sampling was needed. Previous investigations conducted in parts of the current study area included the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program studies of the Needles and Salton Sea 1? x 2? quadrangles; USGS studies of 12 BLM Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) (Big Maria Mountains, Chemehuevi Mountains, Chuckwalla Mountains, Coxcomb Mountains, Mecca Hills, Orocopia Mountains, Palen-McCoy, Picacho Peak, Riverside Mountains, Sheephole Valley (also known as Sheep Hole/Cadiz), Turtle Mountains, and Whipple Mountains); and USGS studies in the Needles and El Centro 1? x 2? quadrangles done during the early 1990s as part of a project to identify the regional geochemistry of southern California. Areas where we did new sampling of rocks and stream sediments are mainly in the Chocolate Mountain Aerial Gunnery Range and in Joshua Tree National Park, which extends into the west-central part of the NECD, as shown in figure 1 and figure 2. This report contains analytical data for 132 rock samples and 1,245 stream-sediment samples collected by the USGS, and 362 stream-sediment samples and 189 soil samples collected during the NURE program. All samples are from the Northern and Eastern Colorado

  17. Direct determination of beryllium in coal slurries using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with automatic injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraldsen, L.; Pougnet, M.A.B. (University of Cape Town (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1989-10-01

    A Perkin-Elmer autosampler (AS-40) was modified by incorporating magnetic stirring of the samples for the analysis of slurries. Platform atomisation and matrix modification were used for the determination of beryllium in three South African Reference Material coals SARMs 18, 19 and 20. The good precision and accuracy of the procedure are illustrated by the results obtained for the SARM samples. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Comparison of two microwave-assisted sample digestions of sediment and soils for trace metals using ICP-MS. HNO3 and HNO3/HF (P2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.; Vandervort, A.; Bloom, N.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Our goal was to develop an accurate and dependable digestion method for extracting trace metals from soil and sediment samples. This method would be applied to analytes at low concentrations in various sediments, including soil, contaminated soil, and marine sediment. Analysis was performed for a wide spectrum of trace metals (Ag, Al, As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hf, Ho, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Nd, Ni, Pb, Th, Ti, Tl, Sb, Se, Sm, Sn, Yb, and Zn) using an Elan 6000 ICP-MS (Perkin-Elmer). Two sample preparation procedures were adjusted and applied to three certified reference materials (CRM); NIST2709, NIST2710, and MESS-3. The first procedure involved digestion with 10 ml nitric acid (HNO3) at 180 o C for 25 min in a microwave (Milestone-ETHOS plus). The process included four acid blanks, one blank spike, three replicates of each CRM, and one matrix spike on each of the CRM. The second procedure involved digestion with 8 ml HNO3, and 4 ml hydrofluoric acid (HF) at 180 o C for 25 min in the microwave. Digestion included four acid blanks, one blank spike, three reps of each CRM, and one matrix spike on each of the CRM. Each method proved to be robust and accurate for different analytes. Rare earth elements worked particularly well using the HNO 3 digest. By utilizing both digestions, all trace metals examined were successfully and completely extracted. (author)

  19. Microwave assisted aqua regia extraction of thallium from sediment and coal fly ash samples and interference free determination by continuum source ETAAS after cloud point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeravali, Noorbasha N; Madhavi, K; Kumar, Sunil Jai

    2013-01-30

    A simple cloud point extraction method is described for the separation and pre-concentration of thallium from the microwave assisted aqua regia extracts of sediment and coal fly ash samples. The method is based on the formation of extractable species of thallium and its interaction with hydrophobic solubilizing sites of Triton X-114 micelles in the presence of aqua regia and electrolyte NaCl. These interactions of micelles are used for extraction of thallium from a bulk aqueous phase into a small micelles-rich phase. The potential chloride interferences are eliminated effectively, which enabled interference free determination of thallium from aqua regia extracts using continuum source ETAAS. The parameters affecting the extraction process are optimized. Under the optimized conditions, pre-concentration factor and limit of detection are 40 and 0.2 ng g(-1), respectively. The recoveries are in the range of 95-102%. A characteristic mass, 13 pg was obtained. The accuracy of the method is verified by analyzing certified reference materials such as NIST 1633b coal fly ash, NIST 1944 marine sediment and GBW 07312 stream sediments. The results obtained are in good agreement with the certified values and method is also applied to real samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of toxic and trace elements in human hair and sediment samples by reactor neutron activation analysis technique based-on the k-zero method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Manh Dung; Nguyen Mong Sinh; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Cao Dong Vu; Nguyen Thi Si

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of human hair can evaluate the degree of environmental pollutants exposure to human body, intakes of food and metabolism. Also, the analysis of sediment can aid in reconstructing the history of changes, understanding human impact on the ecosystem, and suggesting possible remedial strategies. The k o -standardization method of neutron activation analysis (k o -NAA) on research reactor is capable to play an important role as a main analytical technique with the advantages of sensitivity, precision, accuracy, multielement and routine for the sample object. Therefore, the project's aim is to build the k o -NAA procedures on the Dalat research reactor for the analysis of human hair and sediment samples. The K o -NAA procedure on the Dalat research reactor is able to determine of multielement: Ag, Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K Mg, Mn, Na, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, V and Zn in The human hair; and of multielement: As, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mn, Na Rb, Sb, Sc, Yb and Zn in the sediment. (author)

  1. Results of Sediment Sampling and Elutriate Testing at the Proposed Little Sioux Bend Shallow Water Habitat Project Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    caused by excess nutrients – originating from cities, farms , and industries in the Mississippi River Basin – which cause extensive growths of algae...because much of the topsoil portion of the sediment disposed of in the river has been heavily fertilized . 8 The NRC further assessed the situation...Chromium, Copper, Lead, Mercury, Nickel, Zinc)  Organochlorine Pesticide and PCB Scan (µg/kg)  Organochlorine Pesticide and PCB Scan (µg/L

  2. Results of Sediment Sampling and Elutriate Testing at the Proposed Glovers Point Shallow Water Habitat Project Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    hypoxia is primarily caused by excess nutrients – originating from cities, farms , and industries in the Mississippi River Basin – which cause extensive...the Missouri River because much of the topsoil portion of the sediment disposed of in the river has been heavily fertilized . The Nation Research...Total (mg/kg) (Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Lead, Mercury, Nickel, Zinc)  Organochlorine Pesticide and PCB Scan (µg/kg

  3. Results of Sediment Sampling and Elutriate Testing at the Proposed Middle Decatur Revetment Shallow Water Habitat Project Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    caused by excess nutrients – originating from cities, farms , and industries in the Mississippi River Basin – which 9 cause extensive growths...because much of the topsoil portion of the sediment disposed of in the river has been heavily fertilized . The National Research Council further assessed...Total X Zinc Total X PESTICIDES and PCBs Atrazine X X X Organochlorine Pesticide /PCB Scan X X X 13 Table 2. Geo-referenced

  4. Determination of particle size distribution of salt crystals in aqueous slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.G.

    1977-10-01

    A method for determining particle size distribution of water-soluble crystals in aqueous slurries is described. The salt slurries, containing sodium salts of predominantly nitrate, but also nitrite, sulfate, phosphate, aluminates, carbonate, and hydroxide, occur in radioactive, concentrated chemical waste from the reprocessing of nuclear fuel elements. The method involves separating the crystals from the aqueous phase, drying them, and then dispersing the crystals in a nonaqueous medium based on nitroethane. Ultrasonic treatment is important in dispersing the sample into its fundamental crystals. The dispersed crystals are sieved into appropriate size ranges for counting with a HIAC brand particle counter. A preponderance of very fine particles in a slurry was found to increase the difficulty of effecting complete dispersion of the crystals because of the tendency to retain traces of aqueous mother liquor. Traces of moisture produce agglomerates of crystals, the extent of agglomeration being dependent on the amount of moisture present. The procedure is applicable to particles within the 2 to 600 μm size range of the HIAC particle counter. The procedure provides an effective means for measuring particle size distribution of crystals in aqueous salt slurries even when most crystals are less than 10 μm in size. 19 figures

  5. Use of deep soil mixing as an alternate verticle barrier to slurry walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.D.

    1997-01-01

    Slurry walls have become an accepted subsurface remediation technique to contain contaminated zones. However, situations develop where conventional slurry wall excavation techniques are not suitable. The use of conventional containment wall construction methods may involve removal and disposal of contaminated soils, stability concerns and the risk of open excavations. For these reasons, other installation techniques have received further consideration. Deep Soil Mixing (DSM) has emerged as a viable alternative to conventional slurry wall techniques. In situations dictating limited soil removal for contamination or stability concerns, or where space is a limitation, DSM can be used for installation of the barrier. Proper installation of a DSM wall requires sufficient monitoring and sampling to evaluate the continuity, mixing effectiveness, permeability and key into the confining layer. This paper describes a case study where DSM was used to cross major highways to avoid open excavation, and along slopes to reduce stability concerns. The DSM barrier was tied to an existing conventional slurry wall that had been installed in more stable areas without highway traffic

  6. Collection, analysis, and age-dating of sediment cores from 56 U.S. lakes and reservoirs sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1992-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Callender, Edward; Mahler, Barbara J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Reconstructed Trends National Synthesis study collected sediment cores from 56 lakes and reservoirs between 1992 and 2001 across the United States. Most of the sampling was conducted as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The primary objective of the study was to determine trends in particle-associated contaminants in response to urbanization; 47 of the 56 lakes are in or near one of 20 U.S. cities. Sampling was done with gravity, piston, and box corers from boats and push cores from boats or by wading, depending on the depth of water and thickness of sediment being sampled. Chemical analyses included major and trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, cesium-137, and lead-210. Age-dating of the cores was done on the basis of radionuclide analyses and the position of the pre-reservoir land surface in the reservoir and, in a few cases, other chemical or lithologic depth-date markers. Dates were assigned in many cores on the basis of assumed constant mass accumulation between known depth-date markers. Dates assigned were supported using a variety of other date markers including first occurrence and peak concentrations of DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls and peak concentration of lead. A qualitative rating was assigned to each core on the basis of professional judgment to indicate the reliability of age assignments. A total of 122 cores were collected from the 56 lakes and age dates were assigned to 113 of them, representing 54 of the 56 lakes. Seventy-four of the 122 cores (61 percent) received a good rating for the assigned age dates, 28 cores (23 percent) a fair rating, and 11 cores (9 percent) a poor rating; nine cores (7 percent) had no dates assigned. An analysis of the influence of environmental factors on the apparent quality of age-dating of the cores concluded that the most important factor was the mass accumulation rate (MAR) of sediment: the

  7. Recommendations for rheological testing and modelling of DWPF melter feed slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadday, M.A. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    The melter feed in the DWPF process is a non-Newtonian slurry. In the melter feed system and the sampling system, this slurry is pumped at a wide range of flow rates through pipes of various diameters. Both laminar and turbulent flows are encountered. Good rheology models of the melter feed slurries are necessary for useful hydraulic models of the melter feed and sampling systems. A concentric cylinder viscometer is presently used to characterize the stress/strain rate behavior of the melter feed slurries, and provide the data for developing rheology models of the fluids. The slurries exhibit yield stresses, and they are therefore modelled as Bingham plastics. The ranges of strain rates covered by the viscometer tests fall far short of the entire laminar flow range, and therefore hydraulic modelling applications of the present rheology models frequently require considerable extrapolation beyond the range of the data base. Since the rheology models are empirical, this cannot be done with confidence in the validity of the results. Axial pressure drop versus flow rate measurements in a straight pipe can easily fill in the rest of the laminar flow range with stress/strain rate data. The two types of viscometer tests would be complementary, with the concentric cylinder viscometer providing accurate data at low strain rates, near the yield point if one exists, and pipe flow tests providing data at high strain rates up to and including the transition to turbulence. With data that covers the laminar flow range, useful rheological models can be developed. In the Bingham plastic model, linear behavior of the shear stress as a function of the strain rate is assumed once the yield stress is exceeded. Both shear thinning and shear thickening behavior have been observed in viscometer tests. Bingham plastic models cannot handle this non-linear behavior, but a slightly more complicated yield/power law model can

  8. Nutrients in soil layers under no-tillage after successive pig slurry applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cledimar Rogério Lourenzi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Successive applications of pig slurry to soils under no-tillage can increase the nutrient levels in the uppermost soil layers and part of the nutrients may be transferred to deeper layers. The objective was to evaluate the distribution of nutrients in the profile of a soil after 19 pig slurry applications under no-tillage for 93 months. The experiment was conducted from May 2000 to January 2008 in an experimental area of the Federal University of Santa Maria, southern Brazil, on a Typic Hapludalf. The treatments consisted of pig slurry applications (0, 20, 40 and 80 m³ ha-1 and at the end of the experiment, soil samples were collected (layers 0-2, 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, 8-10, 10-12, 12-14, 14-16, 16-18, 18-20, 20-25, 25-30, 30-35, 35-40, 40-50 and 50-60 cm. The levels of mineral N, available P and K and total N, P and K were evaluated. The 19 pig slurry applications in 93 months promoted migration of total N and P down to 30 cm and available P and K to the deepest layer analyzed. At the end of the experiment, no increase was observed in mineral N content in the deeper layers, but increased levels of available P and K, showing a transfer of N, P and K to layers below the sampled. This evidences undesirable environmental and economic consequences of the use of pig slurry and reinforces the need for a more rational use, i.e., applications of lower manure doses, combined with mineral fertilizers.

  9. Assessment of the spatial and temporal distribution of legacy persistent organic pollutants and recommendations for sample collection from the surficial sediments of estuaries and seas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lihong; Dai, Xuhong; Yu, Ang

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid economic development in China, environmental pollution has become a major concern, particularly pollution by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Thus, these pollutants must be monitored over the long term. In this study, we analyze the distribution levels and sources of POPs in the surficial sediments of Chinese estuaries and seas. Results showed that POPs in sediments significantly distribute spatially and temporally. Furthermore, POPs not only concentrate in densely populated cities, bays, and industrial areas, but also follow the natural distribution of and temporal changes in local industrial structures. Hence, we recommend sampling sites and frequencies to monitor POPs in China over the long term and to defer their analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of different ozonized slurry-ice treatments and superchilling storage (-1°C) on microbial spoilage of two important pelagic fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Gioacchino; Okpala, Charles Odilichukwu R; Vitale, Sergio; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Noto, Annamaria Di; Costa, Antonella; Di Bella, Calogero; Monaco, Daniela Lo

    2017-11-01

    Combining different preservative treatments for improving quality and safety of fishery products increasingly receives global research attention. Consistent with this pursuit, the current research was undertaken to determine the effects of different ozonized slurry-ice treatments and superchilling (-1°C) storage on microbial spoilage of European anchovy ( Eugraulis encrasicolus ) and sardine ( Sardina pilchardus ), which are two commercially important pelagic fish species. After the catch (within iced and control samples. Thus, combined slurry-ice and superchilling storage at Seq-T produced improved antimicrobial activity over One-T application. Largely, ozonized slurry-ice outcomes/results appear promising thanks to superchilling storage.

  11. RHEOLOGICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SIMULANT SB5 SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR-MELTER FEED TANK SLURRIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.

    2010-02-08

    (OH){sub 2} and Mn(OH){sub 2} caused the increase in yield stress. The low pH run exhibited as much as an order of magnitude greater B and Li (frit components) leachate concentrations in the supernate. At high pH a decrease of B leaching was found and this was attributed to adsorption onto Mg(OH){sub 2}. A second leaching experiment was performed without any sludge to deconvolute the leach rate behavior of Frit 418 from those of the SB5 sludge-Frit 418 system. At high pH, the sludgeless system demonstrated very fast leaching of all the frit components, primarily due to fast dissolution of the main component, silica, by hydroxide anion; various semiconductor studies have established this reactivity. Overall, the frit-water system exhibited greater leaching from a factor two to almost three orders of magnitude (varying by conditions and species). The slower leaching of the sludge system is possibly due to a greater ionic strength or smaller driving force. Another possible reason is a physical effect, coating of the frit particles with sludge; this would increase the mass transfer resistance to leaching. Based on this study, the cause of clogs in the melter feed loop is still unknown. A possible explanation is that the SME product, like the simulant, is too thin and could contribute to a loss of two-phase flow which could cause plugging of a restricted and poorly mixed zone like the melter feed loop. This is feasible since a previous study of a slurry showed an increase in resistance to flow at lower flow rates. Testing with a radioactive SME sample is underway and should help understand this potential mechanism.

  12. An integrated geochemical, geophysical and mineralogical study of river sediments in alpine area and soil samples near steel plant, in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, M. I.; Meisel, T.

    2012-04-01

    Concentration of nickel and chromium in any part of the ecosystem is important for environmental concerns in particular human health due to the reason that some species of them can cause health problem e.g. dermatitis and cancer. Sediment samples collected form a river Vordernberger Bach (Leoben, Austria) in an alpine region and soil samples collected in an area adjacent to steel production unit in same narrow valley were investigated. In previous studies a correlation between magnetic susceptibility values and concentration of nickel and chromium showed that a magnetic susceptibility meter can be used to point out the contaminated areas as in-situ device. The purpose of the whole study is to understand the real (point or diffuse, anthropogenic or geogenic) sources of contamination of soils, water and river sediments through heavy metal deposition. Unseparated, magnetic and non-magnetic fractions of soil samples were investigated for geochemical and mineralogical aspects with XRF, ICP-MS, EMPA, Multi-Functional Kappabridge (MFK1) and laser ablation coupled with ICP-MS. Mineralogical study of sediment samples for several sampling points with higher Ni and Cr content was performed. Sediment samples were sieved below 1.4 mm and then a concentrate of heavy minerals was prepared in the field through panning. Concentrated heavy minerals were then subjected for heavy liquid separation in the laboratory. Separated magnetic and non-magnetic fractions below 0.71/0.1 mm and density greater than 2.9 g/cm3 were selected for mineralogical investigation. The abundance of typical anthropogenic particles, e.g., spherical, tinder, roasted ores, iron and steel mill slag was observed under the microscope. Magnetite (mostly anthropogenic), maghemite, chromspinel, chromite (type I & II), (Ca,Al)-ferrite, wustite, apatite (anthropogenic), olivine mixed crystals, calcium silicate and spinel (anthropogenic) are found in magnetic fraction. Non-magnetic fractions contain hematite, siderite

  13. Biodegradation of organic compounds in vadose zone and aquifer sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopka, A.; Turco, R.

    1991-01-01

    The microbial processes that occur in the subsurface under a typical Midwest agricultural soil were studied. A 26-m bore was installed in November of 1988 at a site of the Purdue University Agronomy Research Center. Aseptic collections of soil materials were made at 17 different depths. Physical analysis indicated that the site contained up to 14 different strata. The site materials were primarily glacial tills with a high carbonate content. The N,P, and organic C contents of sediments tended to decrease with depth. Ambient water content was generally less than the water content, which corresponds to a -0.3-bar equivalent. No pesticides were detected in slurry incubations of up to 128 days. The sorption of atrazine and metolachlor was correlated with the clay content of the sediments. Microbial biomass (determined by direct microscopic count, viable count, and phospholipid assay) in the tills was lower than in either the surface materials or the aquifer located at 25 m. The biodegradation of glucose and phenol occurred rapidly and without a lag in samples from the aquifer capillary fringe, saturated zone, and surface soils. In contrast, lag periods and smaller biodegradation rates were found in the till samples. Subsurface sediments are rich in microbial numbers and activity. The most active strata appear to be transmissive layers in the saturated zone. This implies that the availability of water may limit activity in the profile

  14. Optimization of environmental parameters for biodegradation of alpha and beta endosulfan in soil slurry by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, M; Hussain, S; Saleem, M

    2008-02-01

    To determine optimal environmental conditions for achieving biodegradation of alpha- and beta-endosulfan in soil slurries following inoculation with an endosulfan degrading strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Parameters that were investigated included soil texture, soil slurry: water ratios, initial inoculum size, pH, incubation temperature, aeration, and the use of exogenous sources of organic and amino acids. The results showed that endosulfan degradation was most effectively achieved at an initial inoculum size of 600 microl (OD = 0 x 86), incubation temperature of 30 degrees C, in aerated slurries at pH 8, in loam soil. Under these conditions, the bacterium removed more than 85% of spiked alpha- and beta-endosulfan (100 mg l(-1)) after 16 days. Abiotic degradation in noninoculated control medium within same incubation period was about 16%. Biodegradation of endosulfan varied in different textured soils, being more rapid in course textured soil than in fine textured soil. Increasing the soil contents in the slurry above 15% resulted in less biodegradation of endosulfan. Exogenous application of organic acids (citric acid and acetic acid) and amino acids (L-methionine and L-cystein) had stimulatory and inhibitory effects, respectively, on biodegradation of endosulfan. The results of this study demonstrated that biodegradation of endosulfan by Ps. aeruginosa in soil sediments enhanced significantly under optimized environmental conditions. Endosulfan is a commonly used pesticide that can contaminate soil, wetlands and groundwater. Our study demonstrates that bioaugmentation of contaminated soils with an endosulfan degrading bacterium under optimized conditions provides an effective bioremediation strategy.

  15. Cattle slurry on grassland - application methods and nitrogen use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalor, S.T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cattle slurry represents a significant resource on grassland-based farming systems. The objective of this thesis was to investigate and devise cattle slurry application methods and strategies that can be implemented on grassland farms to improve the efficiency with which nitrogen (N) in

  16. Mass transfer in gas-liquid slurry reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas¿liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas¿liquid mass transfer coefficients

  17. Technical Development of Slurry Three-Dimensional Printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cho-Pei; Hsu, Huang-Jan; Lee, Shyh-Yuan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the technical development of slurry three-dimensional printer (3DP) which based on photo-polymerization and constrained surface method. Basically, slurry consists of ceramic powder, resin and photo-initiator. The light engines for solidifying the photo-curable slurry can be classified as laser, liquid crystal panel (LCD), digital light processing (DLP). The slurry can be reacted and solidified by selective ray according to the reaction spectrum of photo-initiator. Ceramic powder used in this study is zirconia oxide. Experimental results show that ceramic particle size affects the viscosity of slurry severely resulting in low accuracy and the occurrence of micro crack in the layer casting procedure. Therefore, the effect of particle size on the curability and accuracy of built green part is discussed. A single dental crown is proposed to be fabricated by these three light engines as a benchmark for comparison. In addition, the cost and the limitation are compared in the aspect of dental crown fabrication. Consequently, the lowest cost is LCD-type slurry 3DP system. DLP-type slurry 3DP can produce green body with the fastest fabrication time. The volumetric error of sintered part that made by these three fabrication methods is similar because the composition of slurry is the same.

  18. Interactions between soil texture and placement of dairy slurry application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia Andersen; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2011-01-01

    Land application of manure can exacerbate nutrient and contaminant transfers to the aquatic environment. This study examined the effect of injecting a dairy cattle (Bos taurus L.) manure slurry on mobilization and leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components across a range of agricultural...

  19. Interactions between soil texture and placement of dairy slurry application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia Andersen; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2011-01-01

    taurus L.) manure slurry. Surface application of slurry increased P leaching losses relative to baseline losses, but losses declined with increasing active flow volume. After elution of one pore volume, leaching averaged 0.54 kg P ha−1 from the loam, 0.38 kg P ha−1 from the sandy loam, and 0.22 kg P ha−1...

  20. Comparison of catalytic ethylene polymerization in slurry and gas phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daftaribesheli, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) with the annual consumption of 70 million tones in 2007 is mostly produced in slurry, gas-phase or combination of both processes. This work focuses on a comparison between the slurry and gas phase processes. Why does PE produced in theses two processes can show extremely different

  1. Drag reduction of dense fine-grained slurries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk; Štern, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2010), s. 261-270 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/1574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : kaolin slurry * drag reduction * experimental investigation * peptization * slurry rheology Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.553, year: 2010

  2. The Settling and Compaction of Nuclear Waste Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACLEAN, G.T.

    1999-11-15

    The settling and compaction of simulated and real nuclear waste slurries were extensively studied. Experiments were carried out with simulated wastes at laboratory and large-scale sizes, and the results compared. A model of settling was derived and a method developed to correlate and scale-up settling data for different slurries and vessel sizes.

  3. CFD simulation and experimental analysis of erosion in a slurry tank test rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Hans-Jörg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Erosion occurring in equipment dealing with liquid-solid mixtures such as pipeline parts, slurry pumps, liquid-solid stirred reactors and slurry mixers in various industrial applications results in operational failure and economic costs. A slurry erosion tank test rig is designed and was built to investigate the erosion rates of materials and the influencing parameters such as flow velocity and turbulence, flow angle, solid particle concentration, particles size distribution, hardness and target material properties on the material loss and erosion profiles. In the present study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD tool is used to simulate the erosion rate of sample plates in the liquid-solid slurry mixture in a cylindrical tank. The predictions were made in a steady state and also transient manner, applying the flow at the room temperature and using water and sand as liquid and solid phases, respectively. The multiple reference frame method (MRF is applied to simulate the flow behavior and liquid-solid interactions in the slurry tank test rig. The MRF method is used since it is less demanding than sliding mesh method (SM and gives satisfactory results. The computational domain is divided into three regions: a rotational or MRF zone containing the mixer, a rotational zone (MRF containing the erosion plates and a static zone (outer liquid zone. It is observed that changing the MRF zone diameter and height causes a very low impact on the results. The simulated results were obtained for two kinds of hard metals namely stainless steel and ST-50 under some various operating conditions and are found in good agreement with the experimental results.

  4. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  5. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  6. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  7. Bubble column apparatus for separating wax from catalyst slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neathery, James K.; Davis, Burtron H.

    2004-07-13

    Novel methods and devices for production of liquid hydrocarbon products from gaseous reactants are disclosed. In one aspect, a method for separating a liquid hydrocarbon, typically a wax, from a catalyst containing slurry is provided, comprising passing the slurry through at least one downcomer extending from an overhead separation chamber and discharging into the bottom of a slurry bubble column reactor. The downcomer includes a cross-flow filtration element for separating a substantially particle-free liquid hydrocarbon for downstream processing. In another aspect, a method for promoting plug-flow movement in a recirculating slurry bubble column reactor is provided, comprising discharging the recirculating slurry into the reactor through at least one downcomer which terminates near the bottom of the reactor. Devices for accomplishing the above methods are also provided.

  8. Fuel injection of coal slurry using vortex nozzles and valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Allen B.

    1989-01-01

    Injection of atomized coal slurry fuel into an engine combustion chamber is achieved at relatively low pressures by means of a vortex swirl nozzle. The outlet opening of the vortex nozzle is considerably larger than conventional nozzle outlets, thereby eliminating major sources of failure due to clogging by contaminants in the fuel. Control fluid, such as air, may be used to impart vorticity to the slurry and/or purge the nozzle of contaminants during the times between measured slurry charges. The measured slurry charges may be produced by a diaphragm pump or by vortex valves controlled by a separate control fluid. Fluidic circuitry, employing vortex valves to alternatively block and pass cool slurry fuel flow, is disclosed.

  9. Report on the results from the 3rd phase geochemical stream sediment and water sampling in the Vathyrema area (Drama Dept.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavropoulos, Athanasios; Alexiades, Theodore.

    1984-07-01

    Within the limits of the seven anomalous subareas discerned by geochemical stream sediment and water sampling (phase 2) in the P 7 uranium geochemical anomaly (Vathyrema, Drama) detailed geochemical and radiometric surveys aiming at the localization of more concrete anomalous sites have been carried out (phase 3). After having elaborated the histograms and cumulative frequency curves for uranium and γ-radiation and discerned the anomalous populations the construction of geochemical and radiometric maps for each anomalous site has been possible. Proposals for a further in depth investigation in this area are made. (author)

  10. Isotopic Composition of Carbon Dioxide Released from Confidence Hills Sediment as Measured by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, H. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Stern, J.; Archer, P., Jr.; Conrad, P.; Eigenbrode, J.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Jones, J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    In October 2014, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) "Curiosity" rover drilled into the sediment at the base of Mount Sharp in a location namsed Cionfidence Hills (CH). CH marked the fifth sample pocessed by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite since Curiosity arrived in Gale Crater, with previous analyses performed at Rocknest (RN), John Klein (JK), Cumberland (CB), and Windjana (WJ). Evolved gas analysis (EGA) of all samples has indicated H2O as well as O-, C- and S-bearing phases in the samples, often at abundances that would be below the detection limit of the CheMin instrument. By examining the temperatures at which gases are evolved from samples, SAM EGA data can help provide clues to the mineralogy of volatile-bearing phases when their identities are unclear to CheMin. SAM may also detect gases evolved from amorphous material in solid samples, which is not suitable for analysis by CheMin. Finally, the isotopic composition of these gases may suggest possible formation scenarios and relationships between phases. We will discuss C isotope ratios of CO2 evolved from the CH sample as measured with SAM's quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and draw comparisons to samples previously analyzed by SAM.

  11. Microbiota analysis of environmental slurry and its potential role as a reservoir of bovine digital dermatitis pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Isbrand, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    At present, very little information exists regarding what role the environmental slurry may play as an infection reservoir and/or route of transmission for bovine digital dermatitis (DD), a disease which is a global problem in dairy herds. To investigate, if DD-related bacteria belong to the indi......At present, very little information exists regarding what role the environmental slurry may play as an infection reservoir and/or route of transmission for bovine digital dermatitis (DD), a disease which is a global problem in dairy herds. To investigate, if DD-related bacteria belong......, the DD-associated Treponema spp. were only detected in samples from herds with reported problems of DD. These data indicate that treponemes involved in the pathogenesis of DD are not part of the normal environmental microflora in dairy herds without clinical DD and, consequently, that slurry...... slurry and, therefore, do not comprise an infection reservoir in healthy herds. This study applied next-generation sequencing technology to decipher the microbial compositions of environmental slurry of dairy herds with and without digital dermatitis....

  12. Multiphase Model of Semisolid Slurry Generation and Isothermal Holding During Cooling Slope Rheoprocessing of A356 Al Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prosenjit; Samanta, Sudip K.; Mondal, Biswanath; Dutta, Pradip

    2018-04-01

    In the present paper, we present an experimentally validated 3D multiphase and multiscale solidification model to understand the transport processes involved during slurry generation with a cooling slope. In this process, superheated liquid alloy is poured at the top of the cooling slope and allowed to flow along the slope under the influence of gravity. As the melt flows down the slope, it progressively loses its superheat, starts solidifying at the melt/slope interface with formation of solid crystals, and eventually exits the slope as semisolid slurry. In the present simulation, the three phases considered are the parent melt as the primary phase, and the solid grains and air as secondary phases. The air phase forms a definable air/liquid melt interface as the free surface. After exiting the slope, the slurry fills an isothermal holding bath maintained at the slope exit temperature, which promotes further globularization of microstructure. The outcomes of the present model include prediction of volume fractions of the three different phases considered, grain evolution, grain growth, size, sphericity and distribution of solid grains, temperature field, velocity field, macrosegregation and microsegregation. In addition, the model is found to be capable of making predictions of morphological evolution of primary grains at the onset of isothermal coarsening. The results obtained from the present simulations are validated by performing quantitative image analysis of micrographs of the rapidly oil-quenched semisolid slurry samples, collected from strategic locations along the slope and from the isothermal slurry holding bath.

  13. The Effect of pH on Slurry Erosion-Corrosion of Tungsten Carbide Overlays Alloyed with Ru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelwalani, Ndivhuwo B.; van der Merwe, Josias W.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Ru additions to WC-Fe overlays when exposed to low pH slurry erosion conditions. These overlays were applied through Plasma Transferred Arc, and the original bulk Ru powder concentrations varied from 0.5 to 5 wt.%. A slurry jet impingement erosion-corrosion test rig was used to evaluate wear, and electrochemical measurements were performed to characterize the corrosion properties. The slurry mixtures contained silica sand and synthetic mine water. The pH was varied between 3 and 6.5 for the slurry erosion tests and lowered further for the corrosion characterization. Samples were examined optically and with a scanning electron microscope using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to determine the phases present. For the slurry erosion-corrosion results at the pH of 6.5, addition of Ru did not show a decrease in erosion-corrosion rates. However, when the pH was decreased to 3, by the addition of HCl, Ru improved the resistance. From the electrochemistry, it was also clear that Ru additions improved the corrosion resistance, but more than 1 wt.% Ru was required. At very low pH levels, the presence of Ru was not able to prevent corrosion.

  14. The Effect of pH on Slurry Erosion-Corrosion of Tungsten Carbide Overlays Alloyed with Ru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelwalani, Ndivhuwo B.; van der Merwe, Josias W.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Ru additions to WC-Fe overlays when exposed to low pH slurry erosion conditions. These overlays were applied through Plasma Transferred Arc, and the original bulk Ru powder concentrations varied from 0.5 to 5 wt.%. A slurry jet impingement erosion-corrosion test rig was used to evaluate wear, and electrochemical measurements were performed to characterize the corrosion properties. The slurry mixtures contained silica sand and synthetic mine water. The pH was varied between 3 and 6.5 for the slurry erosion tests and lowered further for the corrosion characterization. Samples were examined optically and with a scanning electron microscope using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to determine the phases present. For the slurry erosion-corrosion results at the pH of 6.5, addition of Ru did not show a decrease in erosion-corrosion rates. However, when the pH was decreased to 3, by the addition of HCl, Ru improved the resistance. From the electrochemistry, it was also clear that Ru additions improved the corrosion resistance, but more than 1 wt.% Ru was required. At very low pH levels, the presence of Ru was not able to prevent corrosion.

  15. Improved Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The conversion of synthesis gas to hydrocarbons or alcohols involves highly exothermic reactions. Temperature control is a critical issue in these reactors for a number of reasons. Runaway reactions can be a serious safety issue, even raising the possibility of an explosion. Catalyst deactivation rates tend to increase with temperature, particularly of there are hot spots in the reactor. For alcohol synthesis, temperature control is essential because it has a large effect on the selectivity of the catalysts toward desired products. For example, for molybdenum disulfide catalysts unwanted side products such as methane, ethane, and propane are produced in much greater quantities if the temperature increases outside an ideal range. Slurry reactors are widely regarded as an efficient design for these reactions. In a slurry reactor a solid catalyst is suspended in an inert hydrocarbon liquid, synthesis gas is sparged into the bottom of the reactor, un-reacted synthesis gas and light boiling range products are removed as a gas stream, and heavy boiling range products are removed as a liquid stream. This configuration has several positive effects for synthesis gas reactions including: essentially isothermal operation, small catalyst particles to reduce heat and mass transfer effects, capability to remove heat rapidly through liquid vaporization, and improved flexibility on catalyst design through physical mixtures in addition to use of compositions that cannot be pelletized. Disadvantages include additional mass transfer resistance, potential for significant back-mixing on both the liquid and gas phases, and bubble coalescence. In 2001 a multiyear project was proposed to develop improved FT slurry reactors. The planned focus of the work was to improve the reactors by improving mass transfer while considering heat transfer issues. During the first year of the project the work was started and several concepts were developed to prepare for bench-scale testing. Power

  16. CFD Prediction of Erosion Wear in Centrifugal Slurry Pumps for Dilute Slurry Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Pagalthivarthi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses numerical prediction of erosion wear trends in centrifugal pump casing pumping dilute slurries. The casing geometry is considered two-dimensional. Discrete Phase Model (DPM in FLUENT 6.1® is utilized to obtain dilute slurry flow field through the pump casing employing two-way coupling. Standard k — ε model is used for turbulence. Effect of several operational parameters viz. pump flow rate, pump speed (RPM, particle diameter and various geometry conditions viz. tongue curvature, slope of the discharge pipe and casing width is studied. Qualitative trends of erosion wear is described for these operational and geometric parameters with an idea to lower the wear rates and to make the wear pattern along the casing wall as uniform as possible. For example, with increase in pump flow rate, wear rates tends to even out whereas with increased casing width, wear rates are found to decrease.

  17. A cell extraction method for oily sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eLappé

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons can be found in many different habitats and represent an important carbon source for microbes. As fossil fuels, they are also an important economical resource, through natural seepage or accidental release they can also be major pollutants. DNA-specific stains and molecular probes bind to hydrocarbons, causing massive background fluorescence and thereby hampering cell enumeration. The cell extraction procedure of Kallmeyer et al. (2008 separates the cells from the sediment matrix. In principle, this technique can also be used to separate cells from oily sediments, but it is not optimized for this application.Here we present a modified extraction method in which the hydrocarbons are removed prior to cell extraction. Due to the reduced background fluorescence the microscopic image becomes clearer, making cell identification and enumeration much easier. Consequently, the resulting cell counts from samples treated according to our new protocol are significantly higher than those treated according to Kallmeyer et al. (2008. We tested different amounts of a variety of solvents for their ability to remove hydrocarbons and found that n-hexane and – in samples containing more biodegraded oils – methanol, delivered the best results. However, as solvents also tend to lyse cells, it was important to find the optimum solvent to sample ratio, at which hydrocarbon extraction is maximised and cell lysis minimized. A ratio between slurry and solvent of 1:2 to 1:5 delivered the highest cell counts without lysing too many cells. The method provided reproducibly good results on samples from very different environments, both marine and terrestrial.

  18. Input and leaching potential of copper, zinc, and selenium in agricultural soil from swine slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, Jordi; Domínguez, Carmen; Salas-Vázquez, Dora I; Parera, Juan; Díez, Sergi; Bayona, Josep M

    2014-02-01

    Trace elements, such as copper, zinc, and selenium, used as feed additives were determined in samples of both fresh (N = 14) and anaerobically digested (N = 6) swine slurry collected on medium- to large-size farms in northeast Spain. Considering both fresh and anaerobically digested samples, mean concentrations of zinc (1,500 mg kg(-1) dry mass [dm]) were greater than those of copper (mean 239 mg kg(-1 )dm), and the selenium concentrations detected were even lower (mean 139 μg kg(-1) dm). Zinc concentrations were significantly greater in anaerobically digested samples, whereas no significant differences were found for copper or selenium. In addition, the leaching potential of zinc, copper, and selenium in cropped (lettuce heart) and uncropped experimental units subject to drip irrigation was assessed in a greenhouse experiment. Generally, the addition of swine slurry to soil (1.7 g kg(-1) dm) significantly increased zinc, copper, and selenium concentrations in leachates, which decreased in accordance with the volume of leachate eluted. Under the experimental conditions, the leaching potential of zinc and selenium was more strongly correlated with bulk parameters directly associated with the composition of the pig slurry (dissolved organic carbon, electrical conductivity, and ammonium), whereas copper mobility was more strongly associated with the crop root exudates. Although selenium has been shown to be mobile in soil, the selenium content found in the leachates did not pose any appreciable risk according to current drinking water standards.

  19. The presence of radioactive materials in soil, sand and sediment samples of Potenga sea beach area, Chittagong, Bangladesh: Geological characteristics and environmental implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Sabina; Barua, Bijoy Sonker; Uddin Khandaker, Mayeen; Kamal, Masud; Abdur Rashid, Md.; Abdul Sani, S. F.; Ahmed, H.; Nikouravan, Bijan; Bradley, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    Accurate quantification of naturally occurring radioactive materials in soil provides information on geological characteristics, possibility of petroleum and mineral exploration, radiation hazards to the dwelling populace etc. Of practical significance, the earth surface media (soil, sand and sediment) collected from the densely populated coastal area of Chittagong city, Bangladesh were analysed using a high purity germanium γ-ray spectrometer with low background radiation environment. The mean activities of 226Ra (238U), 232Th and 40K in the studied materials show higher values than the respective world average of 33, 36 and 474 Bq/kg reported by the UNSCEAR (2000). The deduced mass concentrations of the primordial radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K in the investigated samples are corresponding to the granite rocks, crustal minerals and typical rocks respectively. The estimated mean value of 232Th/238U for soil (3.98) and sediment (3.94) are in-line with the continental crustal average concentration of 3.82 for typical rock range reported by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). But the tonalites and more silicic rocks elevate the mean value of 232Th/238U for sand samples amounting to 4.69. This indicates a significant fractionation during weathering or associated with the metasomatic activity in the investigated area of sand collection.

  20. Testing of In-Line Slurry Monitors and Pulsair Mixers with Radioactive Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.

    1999-08-01

    Three in-line slurry monitoring instruments were demonstrated, tested, and evaluated for their capability to determine the transport properties of radioactive slurries. The instruments included the Endress + Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis meter for measuring density, the Lasentec M600P for measuring particle size distribution, and a prototype ultrasonic monitor that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory for measuring suspended solids concentration. In addition, the power consumption of the recirculation pump was monitored to determine whether this parameter could be used as a tool for in-line slurry monitoring. The Promass 63M and the M600P were also evaluated as potential indicators of suspended solids concentration. In order to use the Promass 63M as a suspended solids monitor, the densities of the fluid phase and the dry solid particle phase must be known. In addition, the fluid phase density and the dry solids density must remain constant, as any change will affect the correlation between the slurry density and the suspended solids concentration. For the M600P, the particle size distribution would need to remain relatively constant. These instruments were demonstrated and tested at the Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The testing of the instruments was conducted in parallel with the testing of a Pulsair mixing system, which was used to mix the contents of the selected tank. A total of six tests were performed. A submersible pump was positioned at two depths, while the Pulsair system was operated at three mixing rates.

  1. The relationship between land management, fecal indicator bacteria, and the occurrence of Campylobacter and Listeria spp. in water and sediments during synoptic sampling in the S. Fork Broad River Watershed, N.E. Georgia, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, J. K.; Molina, M.; Sidle, R. C.; Sullivan, K.; Oakley, B.; Berrang, M.; Meinersmann, R.

    2013-12-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens stored in the bed sediments of streams and rivers may be mobilized into the water column affecting overall water quality. Furthermore, land management may play an important role in the concentrations of FIB and the occurrence of pathogens in stream water and sediments. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between FIB and pathogens in stream water and sediment based on three land management-affected categories: agricultural, forest, and waters receiving treated municipal wastewater. Two synoptic sampling events were conducted under baseflow conditions (Campylobacter and Listeria spp. were measured in stream water and sediment samples collected at 15 locations (six agricultural (AG); six forested (FORS); and three receiving discharge from water pollution control plants (WPCP)) in the S. Fork Broad River watershed located in northeast Georgia, USA. Mean E. coli and E. faecalis concentrations were highest in the AG stream water samples (3.08 log MPN 100 mL -1 for E. coli and 3.07 log CFU 100 mL -1 for E. faecalis ) and lowest in the FORS water samples for E. coli (2.37 log MPN 100 mL -1 ) and WPCP water samples for E. faecalis (2.53 log CFU 100 mL -1 ). E. coli concentrations (2.74 log MPN 100 mL -1 ) in the WPCP streams were intermediate. Similar to water samples, E. coli concentrations were highest in the AG sediments (4.31 log MPN g -1 ), intermediate in the WPCP sediments (4.06 log MPN g -1 ), and lowest in the FORS sediments (3.46 log MPN g -1 ). In contrast to E. coli, E. faecalis concentrations were lower (1.10 to 1.31 log CFU g -1 ) and relatively more constant than E. coli in sediments over the three land management categories. Campylobacter was detected in 27% of the water samples and 8% of the sediment samples. The highest occurrence of Campylobacter detection was in the AG streams (15% of the water samples; 5% of the sediment samples). Listeria was detected in 76% of the water samples and

  2. An overview of the ecological half-life of the 137Cs radioisotope and a determination of radioactivity levels in sediment samples after Chernobyl in the Eastern Black Sea, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, Hasan; Sirin, Murat; Dalgic, Goktug; Cevik, Ugur

    2018-01-01

    A study which determined the activity concentration of 137Cs in sediments contaminated by effluents from the Chernobyl accident which had collected along the coast of the Eastern Black Sea region in Turkey was carried out in 1993. Marine sediment samples were collected in 2015 from the same fifteen sampling points, and the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were determined for the sediment samples. The activity concentrations ranged from 10.94-25.95, 12.14-33.05, 265.74-459.89 and 2.08-37.45 Bq kg- 1 for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs respectively. The results showed that there was a steep decline in 137Cs within the sediment at most of the sampling sites from the Eastern Black Sea region during the 22-year period, except for two sites at which the measured levels were much higher. This may be the result of the combined effects of radioactive contaminant entry into this area from rivers, environmental changes and nuclear testing between 1993 and 2015. Furthermore, the ecological half-life (EHL) of the 137Cs radionuclide was estimated for the sediment samples, and radiological hazard parameters such as the absorbed dose rate in air (D), the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) and the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) were calculated and compared with the international recommended values. It was shown that these sediments do not present any significant health risk for humans in this area.

  3. Physical Characterization of Solid-Liquid Slurries at High Weight Fractions Using Optical and Ultrasonic Methods. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, Lloyd W.

    2009-01-01

    Remediation of highly radioactive waste is a major technical and programmatic challenge for the DOE. Rapid, on-line physical characterization of highly concentrated slurries is required for the safe and efficient remediation of 90 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (HLW), sodium bearing waste, and mixed waste. The research presented here, describes a collaborative effort between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington to directly address the need for rapid on-line characterization of the physical properties of HLW slurries during all phases of the remediation process, from in-tank characterization of sediments to monitoring of the concentration, particle size, and degree of agglomeration and gelation of slurries during transport. Near-surface characterization of the slurry flow in the particle size range from nanometer to micrometer is examined using optical low coherence reflectometry. Volumetric characterization at depths in the slurry flow, up to several centimeters in the particle size range from the micrometer to millimeter, is realized by utilizing ultrasonic backscatter and diffuses fields. One of the strengths, the teaming up of significant talents in both experimental and theoretical optics (University of Washington) and in ultrasonics (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)) provides a synergistic approach to integrate these complimentary techniques. One of the benefits of this combined approach is the physical characterization of HLW over a concentration and particle size range that is broader than can be achieved with today's technology. This will avoid a costly increase in waste stream volume due to excess dilution, and will lessen chance of plugging pipes that could shut down expensive processing lines.

  4. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidaspow, D. [IIT Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this investigation is to convert a {open_quotes}learning gas-solid-liquid{close_quotes} fluidization model into a predictive design model. This model is capable of predicting local gas, liquid and solids hold-ups and the basic flow regimes: the uniform bubbling, the industrially practical churn-turbulent (bubble coalescence) and the slugging regimes. Current reactor models incorrectly assume that the gas and the particle hold-ups (volume fractions) are uniform in the reactor. They must be given in terms of empirical correlations determined under conditions that radically differ from reactor operation. In the proposed hydrodynamic approach these hold-ups are computed from separate phase momentum balances. Furthermore, the kinetic theory approach computes the high slurry viscosities from collisions of the catalyst particles. Thus particle rheology is not an input into the model.

  5. Environmental Consequences of Pig Slurry Treatment Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke

    Manure is a valuable fertiliser since it contains nutrients that are crucial for crop growth. Furthermore soil quality might be maintained or improved by the use of manure instead of mineral fertiliser, due to the presence of organic matter in manure. On the other hand, emissions to the environment...... occur during manure storage and after field application. The main emissions are ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, nitrate, phosphorus and odour. Slurry treatment technologies have been and are being developed in order to reduce the environmental impacts of manure. However, it is important...... and excluding biogenic carbon, marine and freshwater eutrophication potential, terrestrial acidification and eutrophication potential, and fossil resource depletion potential. The different types of treatment technologies showed varying environmental profiles, meaning that one type of technology was beneficial...

  6. Microstructural evaluation of oil well cementing slurries using alternative materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Maria D.M.; Melo, Dulce M.A.; Martinelli, Antonio E. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    n this work, cementing slurries were prepared with densities between 12.2 and 13.8 lb/gal with addition of clay materials (vermiculite and paligorskite) and pozzolans (metakaolin), comparing with neat reference slurries, from 15.6 to 15.8 lb/gal. The cements employed were the Portland G and ordinary Portland. These mixes were evaluated microstructurally through microhardness testing and acquisition of electronic images by ESEM and X-ray maps by EDS. A semi-quantitative analysis software was developed to identify phase distributions from the X-ray maps. It was found that the addition of metakaolin generated slurries with microhardness comparable to or superior to neat slurries, although a new phase was introduced in the hardened material. On the other hand, clay materials generated slurries with lower microhardness. It was observed in these cases a lower hydration degree, possibly due to water absorption by the clays' grains. One exception was the light slurry with paligorskite, which has an excess of water compared to the others. However, the higher water-cement ratio produced a lower microhardness due to the presence of voids, visible by ESEM. Clay inclusions also decreased the microhardness of the slurries. Based on these results, we can recommend metakaolin as the best performing addition to be further evaluated in the field. (author)

  7. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v and 1.95% (v/v respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v. Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR, while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent.

  8. Analysis of radium in sediment samples from the Rhine delta. Results over 1997; Radium in baggerspecie afkomstig uit het Rijnmondgebied. Resultaten over 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lembrechts, J.; Glastra, P.; Stoop, P

    1998-02-01

    Eighteen sediment samples, collected in the harbours and waterways of the Rhine delta in 1997, were analysed for their 226Ra content and grain-size distribution. The effect of the emissions from the phosphate-processing industries on the 226Ra content could be inferred on the basis of these data. As observed in previous monitoring campaigns, the influence of this industry is greatest in and nearby the first and second petroleum harbours. Increases in the 226Ra content of up to 211 Bq/kg were measured in comparison to background levels of 22 to 46 Bq/kg. Approximately 13% of the released 226Ra is deposited in the harbours and waterways. Samples collected once every year were found to reflect the long-term trend in the emissions. 6 refs.

  9. Application of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry for Reference Measurements of Cadmium. Copper, Mercury, Lead, Zinc and Methyl Mercury in Marine Sediment Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileva E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine sediment was selected as a test sample for the laboratory inter-comparison studies organized by the Environment Laboratoryes of the International Atomic Energy. The analytical procedure to establish the reference values for the Cd, Cu, Hg, Methyl Hg, Pb and Zn amount contents was based on Isotope Dilution Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ID ICP-MS applied as a primary method of measurement..The Hg and Methyl Hg determination will be detailed more specifically because of the problems encountered with this element, including sample homogeneity issues, memory effects and possible matrix effects during the ICP- MS measurement stage. Reference values, traceable to the SI, with total uncertainties of less than 2% relative expanded uncertainty (k=2 were obtained for Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb and around 5% for Hg and CH3Hg.

  10. Validation of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb measurements in soil and sediment samples through high resolution gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Danila Carrijo da Silva; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da; Bonifacio, Rodrigo Leandro; Guerrero, Eder Tadeu Zenun

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclides found in ore extraction waste materials are a great source of concern regarding public health and environmental safety. One technique to determine the concentration of substances is high resolution gamma ray spectrometry using HPGe. Validating a measurement technique is essential to warrant high levels of quality to any scientific work. The Laboratory of Pocos de Caldas of the Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy partakes into a Quality Management System project, seeking Accreditation under ISO/IEC 17025 through the validation of techniques of chemical and radiometric analysis of environmental samples from water, soil and sediment. The focus of the Radon Laboratory at LAPOC is validation of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb-210 concentration determinations in soil and sediment through a gamma spectrometer system. The stages of this validation process included sample reception and preparation, detector calibration and sample analyses. Dried samples were sealed in metallic containers and analyzed after radioactive equilibrium between Ra-226 and daughters Pb-214 and Bi-214. Gamma spectrometry was performed using CANBERRA HPGe detector and gamma spectrum software Genie 2000. The photo peaks used for Ra-226 determination were 609 keV and 1020 keV of Bi-214 and 351 keV of Pb-214. For the Ra-228 determination a photopeak of 911 keV was used from its short half-life daughter Ac-228 (T1/2 = 6.12 h). For Pb-210, the photopeak of 46.5 keV was used, which, due to the low energy, self-absorption correction was needed. Parameters such as precision, bias/accuracy, linearity, detection limit and uncertainty were evaluated for that purpose. The results have pointed to satisfying results. (author)

  11. Preparing polymeric matrix composites using an aqueous slurry technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor); Towell, Timothy W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An aqueous process was developed to prepare a consolidated composite laminate from an aqueous slurry. An aqueous poly(amic acid) surfactant solution was prepared by dissolving a poly(amic acid) powder in an aqueous ammonia solution. A polymeric powder was added to this solution to form a slurry. The slurry was deposited on carbon fiber to form a prepreg which was dried and stacked to form a composite laminate. The composite laminate was consolidated using pressure and was heated to form the polymeric matrix. The resulting composite laminate exhibited high fracture toughness and excellent consolidation.

  12. Use of radiation-induced polymers in cement slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, B.L.; Rhudy, J.S.; Gogarty, W.B.

    1976-01-01

    Water loss from cement slurries is reduced by incorporating within a cement slurry a polymer obtained as a product of radiation-induced polymerization of acrylamide and/or methacrylamide and acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, and/or alkali metal salts thereof. The polymerization is preferably carried out in 10-60 percent aqueous monomer solution with gamma radiation. The aqueous monomer solution preferably contains 25-99 percent acrylamide and 75-1 percent sodium acrylate. The polymer can be present in concentration of about 0.001 to about 3.0 weight percent, based on the aqueous phase of the slurry

  13. Inorganic As speciation and bioavailability in estuarine sediments of Todos os Santos Bay, BA, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatje, V.; Macedo, S.M.; Jesus, R.M. de; Cotrim, G.; Garcia, K.S.; Queiroz, A.F. de; Ferreira, S.L.C.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Total concentration of As at several stations along Todos os Santos Bay, was above TEL value. → At Subae and Paraguacu systems, As (V) was the dominant species, which is less toxic and less mobile than As (III). → Arsenic concentrations at Jaguaripe estuary were higher than in other estuaries and As (III) was the dominant species. → Relationship between As, Fe, Mn and sand indicated that As enrichment at Jaguaripe River is natural. → As concentrations in sediments and biota suggest that As is bioavailable and it is accumulating in marine organisms, which may impose human risks. → Slurry sampling showed to be a easy, accurate procedure to be used for As determination in estuarine samples. - Abstract: The spatial distribution of As (total As, As (III) and As (V)) in estuarine sediments from the main tributaries of Todos os Santos Bay, BA, Brazil, was evaluated under high and low flow conditions. The concentrations of As were determined using a slurry sampling procedure with hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). The highest concentrations were observed at estuary mouths, and exceeded conservative lower threshold value (Threshold Effects Level; TEL). Due to the oxic conditions and abundance of Mn and Fe (oxyhydr)oxides in the sediments, most inorganic arsenic in the Subae and Paraguacu estuaries was present as As (V). Nevertheless, the concentration of As (III) at several locations along the Jaguaripe River were also above the TEL value, suggesting that As may be toxic to biota. In the Subae estuary, antropogenic activities are the main source of As. At the Jaguaripe and at Paraguacu estuaries, nevertheless, natural sources of As need to be considered to explain the distribution patterns.

  14. High-speed wear testing of selected ceramics in abrasive slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismailov, Arnold; Levänen, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    Due to increased production speeds in modern process environments, the loading conditions in sliding contact applications have become more challenging. Therefore it is important to have good understanding of wear mechanisms in high-speed sliding conditions. A wear testing device was manufactured for the purpose of cost-efficient simulation of water-containing high-speed sliding conditions. Sliding speeds up to 40 meters per second can be achieved while abrasive-containing slurry is fed into the contact interface of material samples and a rubber coated drum. High-speed wear tests were run with three ceramic materials: silicon nitride, silicon carbide and partially stabilized zirconia. Wear behavior of these ceramics was analyzed as a function of sliding speed and slurry composition. Results indicate that in mild wear region increase in sliding speed reduced overall wear, whereas in severe wear conditions increasing speed accelerated wear. A transition from mild to severe wear was observed for silicon carbide when tested in alumina-containing slurry. For the materials that had high enough hardness, wear rates were dictated by the respective order of fracture toughness. Visual inspection of the worn samples supported the interpretation of wear mode transition

  15. Egyptian diatomite as high fluid loss squeeze slurry in sealing fractures and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Sabagh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lost circulation is the most costly mud related drilling problem, and induced fracture. Water slurry of diatomite is used as the high fluid loss squeeze slurry in the treatment of lost circulation and in decreasing fluid loss. Egypt has diatomite deposits, especially in El-Fayuom Depression. Fourteen samples were collected from Qasr El-Sagha at the northern shore of Birket Qarun. Samples were examined to identify the diatom species then subjected to X-ray fluorescence, XRD and grain size distribution tests. A total of 38 species related to 13 diatom genera were identified. Cocconeis, Epithemia and Rhopalodia were the predominant genera. The diatomaceous earth which acts as a filter aid material was tested with different additives; bentonite, lime, finely divided paper, polymer, barite and different concentrations with different types of lost circulation materials (LCM to form a high fluid loss squeeze slurry. As a result the required time for collecting the filtrate was decreased to be in the range of 50 s to 1 min and 49 s comparing with the international standard which recommended the filtrate should be collected maximum within 2–3 min.

  16. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  17. Survival of Salmonella spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in Vietnamese biogas digesters receiving pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Forslund, Anita; Madsen, Henry; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-09-01

    Small-scale biogas digesters are widely promoted worldwide as a sustainable technology to manage livestock manure. In Vietnam, pig slurry is commonly applied to biogas digesters for production of gas for electricity and cooking with the effluent being used to fertilize field crops, vegetables and fish ponds. Slurry may contain a variety of zoonotic pathogens, e.g. Salmonella spp., which are able to cause disease in humans either through direct contact with slurry or by fecal contamination of water and foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of Salmonella spp. and the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, E. coli, and spores of Clostridium perfringens in biogas digesters operated by small-scale Vietnamese pig farmers. The serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella spp. isolated were also established. The study was conducted in 12 farms (6 farms with and 6 farms without toilet connected) located in Hanam province, Vietnam. Sampling of pig slurry and biogas effluent was done during two seasons. Results showed that the concentration of enterococci, E. coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores was overall reduced by only 1-2 log10-units in the biogas digesters when comparing raw slurry and biogas effluent. Salmonella spp. was found in both raw slurry and biogas effluent. A total of 19 Salmonella serovars were identified, with the main serovars being Salmonella Typhimurium (55/138), Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (19/138), Salmonella Weltevreden (9/138) and Salmonella Rissen (9/138). The Salmonella serovars showed similar antimicrobial resistance patterns to those previously reported from Vietnam. When promoting biogas, farmers should be made aware that effluent should only be used as fertilizer for crops not consumed raw and that indiscriminate discharge of effluent are likely to contaminate water recipients, e.g. drinking water sources, with pathogens. Relevant authorities should promote safe animal manure management

  18. Effects of diel period and tow duration on estuarine fauna sampled with a beam trawl over bare sediment: Consequences for designing more reliable and efficient surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotherham, Douglas; Gray, Charles A.; Johnson, Daniel D.; Lokys, Paul

    2008-06-01

    The effects of diel period and tow duration (5, 10 and 20 min) on samples of estuarine fauna in a beam trawl, were tested over bare sediment in Tuggerah Lake (New South Wales, Australia). Mean catch rates (numbers of fish caught 5 min -1) were significantly larger at night for the total numbers of individuals and abundant, economically important species of fish and invertebrates (e.g. Gerres subfasciatus, Metapenaeus macleayi, Penaeus plebejus). Greater proportions of larger fish were also caught at night for some species (e.g. G. subfasciatus, Acanthopagrus australis, Rhabdosargus sarba), but not across all tow durations. Multivariate analyses detected dissimilarities in the composition and structure of assemblages between diel periods, which were driven by species caught predominately, or in larger proportions, at night. Short tows (5 min) were more efficient than longer tows (10 or 20 min) for sampling the diversity of species (i.e. most species were caught in the first 5 min of a tow). There were, however, no clear or consistent patterns relating to the effect of tow duration on the catch rates of other variables, the size ranges of abundant species, or the structure and composition of assemblages. Our data confirm that at night, bare sediment is an important habitat for a wide size- and species-range of estuarine fish and invertebrates. In future, more cost-effective and reliable information concerning these taxa would be achieved by sampling with the beam trawl at night, using tow durations of 5 min. We also highlight a problem inherent in the design of many studies of diel variation of fauna (i.e. the potential non-independence of data among day and night periods) and discuss its solution.

  19. Application of Long Distance Conveyance (LDC) of Dredged Sediments to Louisiana Coastal Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    will be defined as the evolution of a construction project using long-distance conveyance by pumping slurry (water and sediment) for coastal wetland...system. The LDC system (and respective elements as shown in Figure 1) was defined as the evolution of a construction project using LDC by pumping slurry...cuadra.cr.usgs.gov/Techrpt/84-09.pdf. Gough, L., and J. B. Grace. 1998. Effects of flooding, salinity, and herbivory on coastal plant communities

  20. Calibration of handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) equipment for optimum determination of elemental concentrations in sediment samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Piña, K Gabriela; Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel; González-Yajimovich, O

    2016-12-01

    Handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (XRFs) represent a more practical, efficient and economic tool to determine the elemental composition of solid inorganic and organic samples than conventional analytical techniques. The objective of this work was to demonstrate that handheld XRFs could be a precise, accurate and reliable tool to analyze up to 27 different elements. This objective was accomplished through the optimization of an empirical calibration curve that, in addition to include certified reference materials (CRM), it also introduced new approaches, such as the use of solid CRM mixtures and combinations of organic and inorganic matrices. These approaches significantly increased the number of calibration points and eliminated hiatuses in the calibration curve. Several factors were evaluated before construction of the calibration curve: incidence time of the X-ray beam, type of film through which the X-ray beams reach the samples, container type, minimum sample volume and sample moisture content. Results show that single elements can be analyzed with variable exposure times or, alternatively, multielemental analyses can be carried out with a constant exposure time (180s). Costs can be reduced by using Ziploc ® bags as sample containers, but the number of measurable elements drops from 27 to 21, while the possibility of contamination increases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Review of Innovative Sediment Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    dredging projects typically fall into two categories: (1) vehicular transport (e.g., dump trucks ), or (2) piped slurry transport systems . Truck hauling...this system is that, in theory, once sand is loaded into the dump trucks , it is contained until the final stockpile location at the end of the system ...ERDC/CHL CHETN-XIV-28 April 2013 Review of Innovative Sediment Delivery Systems by Thomas D. Smith PURPOSE. This Coastal and Hydraulic

  2. Synthesis and characterization of cement slurries additives with epoxy resins - kinetics, thermodynamic and calorimetric analysis; Sintese e caracterizacao de pastas de cimento aditivadas com resinas epoxi - analises cineticas, termodinamicas e calorimetricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, A.M.G.; Andrade Junior, M.A.S.; Cestari, A.R.; Vieira, E.F.S., E-mail: macleybiane@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Cement has been used in the world, presenting a wide versatility. However, due to its chemical nature, it is subject to several types of chemical damages, especially for agents of acidic nature. With the purpose of increase its life-time, new cement slurries have been modified with the addition of specific additives. The objective of this work is to modify cement slurries with epoxy resins, which promote higher resistance of those materials in relation to acid attacks. Three cement slurries were synthesized with epoxy resins and a standard slurries, which was composed by cement and water. After 30 days of hydration, the samples were characterized by XDR, FTIR and thermal analysis (TG and DSC). The hydration processes of the cement slurries were studied by heat-conduction microcalorimetry. A kinetic study of HCl interaction with the new slurries were performed by the batch methodology at 25, 35, 45 e 55 deg C. It was verified that the addition of the polymers delayed the processes of hydration of the slurries, decreasing the flow of heat released as a function of the amount of added resin and, increased the resistance of those slurries to the acid attack. (author)

  3. Effect of flotation on preparation of coal-water slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, K.; Laskowski, J.S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    In order to study the effect of flotation reagents on the properties of coal-water slurry, a sub-bituminous coal was cleaned via either forward flotation or reverse flotation. The froth product from the forward flotation, obtained with the use of diesel oil and MIBC, and the tailings of the reverse flotation, carried out with dextrin-tannic acid depressants and dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride collector, were used in the preparation of coal-water slurries. It was shown that while it was possible to obtain the coal-water slurry with a high-solids content from the coal rendered hydrophilic (tailings from the coal reverse flotation), in the case of the hydrophobic product (froth product from the forward flotation) a dispersing agent was required to obtain the coal-water slurry of the same high-solids content.

  4. Progress on radioactive waste slurry incineration with oxygen and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, M.; Hayashi, M.; Oda, I.; Nonaka, N.; Kuwayama, K.; Shigeta, T.

    1988-01-01

    The radioactive waste (radwaste) slurry generated from the nuclear power plant operation, such as spent ion-exchange resins (powdered, bead), fire-retardant oils including phosphate ester and concentrated laundry (by the wet method) liquid waste, has been stored in an untreated condition on the plant site. Recently, since the Condensate Filter Demineralizer (CFD) has been applied in advanced BWR plants, the discharged volume of untreated spent powered resin slurry has been increasing steadily. TEE and NCE have been developing an effective new volume reduction system to treat this radwaste slurry based on an innovative incineration concept. The new system is called the IOS process, the feature of which is incineration with oxygen and steam admixture instead of conventional air. The IOS process, which consists mainly of high heat load incineration with slurry atomization, and combustion gas cooling and condensation by the wet method, has several advantages which are summarized in this paper

  5. Impact of drilled shaft synthetic slurries on groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The overall objective of this project is to evaluate the effect of the aforementioned synthetic slurries on groundwater quality. The objective of Phase I (this report), however, was to conduct a comprehensive literature survey to gather data to evalu...

  6. Stream-sediment samples reanalyzed for major, rare earth, and trace elements from ten 1:250,000-scale quadrangles, south-central Alaska, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Shew, Nora B.; Labay, Keith A.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; O'Leary, Richard M.; Detra, David E.

    2010-01-01

    During the 1960s through the 1980s, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted reconnaissance geochemical surveys of the drainage basins throughout most of the Anchorage, Bering Glacier, Big Delta, Gulkana, Healy, McCarthy, Mount Hayes, Nabesna, Talkeetna Mountains, and Valdez 1:250,000-scale quadrangles in Alaska as part of the Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program (AMRAP). These geochemical surveys provide data necessary to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources on public and other lands, and provide data that may be used to determine regional-scale element baselines. This report provides new data for 366 of the previously collected stream-sediment samples. These samples were selected for reanalysis because recently developed analytical methods can detect additional elements of interest and have lower detection limits than the methods used when these samples were originally analyzed. These samples were all analyzed for arsenic by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS), for gold, palladium, and platinum by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after lead button fire assay separation (FA/ICP-MS), and for a suite of 55 major, rare earth, and trace elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-AES-MS) after sodium peroxide sinter at 450 degrees Celsius.

  7. Production of artifact methylmercury during the analysis of certified reference sediments: Use of ionic exchange in the sample treatment step to minimise the problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, Alejandra; Prieto, Ailette; Zuloaga, Olatz; Diego, Alberto de; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Production of artifact methylmercury (MeHg + ) during the analysis of two certified reference sediments, CRM-580 and IAEA-405, was investigated. Leaching of the analyte from the solid sample was achieved by ultrasound assisted acidic extraction. The aqueous leachate was either ethylated (NaBEt 4 ) or phenylated (NaBPh 4 ) using acetic/acetate or citric/citrate to buffer the solution. Preconcentration of the volatile compounds was carried out by extraction with an organic solvent (n-hexane) or solid phase microextraction (SPME). MeHg + was finally separated and detected by gas chromatography with atomic emission or mass spectrometry detection (GC-MIP-AED or GC-MS). In all the cases the concentrations obtained for MeHg + in the CRM-580 were significantly higher than the certified value. For the IAEA-405, however, the MeHg + concentration found was always statistically indistinguishable from the certified value. Experiments were also conducted with synthetic samples, such as aqueous mixtures of MeHg + and inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) or silica-gel spiked with both compounds. The methylation rates found (defined as the percentage of Hg 2+ present in the sample which methylates to give artifact MeHg + ) ranged from not observable (in certain synthetic aqueous mixtures) to 0.57% (analysis of CRM-580 under certain conditions). As the amount of Hg 2+ available in the sample seems to be the main factor controlling the magnitude of the artifact, several experiments were conducted using an ionic exchange resin (Dowex M-41) in order to minimise the concentration of this chemical in the reaction medium. First, a hydrochloric leachate of the sample was passed through a microcolumn packed with the exchanger. Second, the resin was mixed with the sample prior to extraction with HCl. In both cases, the predominant Hg 2+ species, HgCl 4 2- , was adsorbed on the resin, whereas MeHg + , mainly as MeHgCl, remained in solution. Following the second option, a new method to analyse MeHg + in

  8. Impact of sampling frequency on mean concentrations and estimated loads of suspended sediment in a Norwegian river: implications for water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarbøvik, Eva; Stålnacke, Per; Bogen, Jim; Bønsnes, Truls E

    2012-09-01

    Reliable estimates of mean concentrations and loads of pollutants in rivers have become increasingly important for management purposes, particularly with the implementation of the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD). Here, the Numedalslågen River (5500 km(2)) in southern Norway was used as a case study to evaluate the effects of sampling frequency on mean concentrations and estimated loads of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Daily monitoring data from five seasons (April/June-October/November 2001-2005) were analyzed, and three different load estimation techniques were tested: rating curves, linear interpolation, and the ratio method. The reliability of mean SPM concentrations improved with increasing sampling frequency, but even weekly sampling gave error rates as high as 70% in seasons with elevated sediment loads. Load estimates varied considerably depending on both the sampling frequency and the calculation method used. None of the methods provided consistently good results, but the lowest error rate was achieved when using the rating curve on data from fortnightly sampling and additional sampling during floods. Sampling at monthly intervals gave the highest error rates and cannot be recommended for any of the calculation methods applied here. SPM concentrations were correlated (r(2)>0.5) with arsenic, lead, nickel, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus in the Numedalslågen River. Therefore, the current findings may also have implications for substances other than SPM. The discussion considers examples from actual use of infrequently collected data, and it is advised that managers account for uncertainties in both concentration means and load estimates when assessing the state of a water body or planning mitigation measures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An inter-laboratory comparison of different analytical methods for the determination of monomethylmercury in various soil and sediment samples: A platform for method improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Balogh, Steven J; Nollet, Yabing H; Matsuyama, Akito; Fajon, Vesna; Horvat, Milena; Tomiyasu, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    An inter-laboratory study was conducted to compare results from different analytical methods for monomethylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in 17 soil and sediment samples. The samples were collected from mercury-contaminated areas, including Minamata Bay and Kagoshima Bay in Japan, the Idrija mercury mine in Slovenia, and an artisanal small-scale gold mining area in Indonesia. The Hg in these samples comes from several different sources: industrial waste from an acetaldehyde production facility, volcanic activity, Hg mining activity, and artisanal and small-scale gold mining activity (ASGM). MeHg concentrations in all the samples were measured in four separate laboratories, using three different determination methods: Kagoshima University (Japan), using high-performance liquid chromatography-chemiluminescence detection (HPLC-CL); National Institute for Minamata Disease (Japan), using gas chromatography-electron capture detection; and Metropolitan Council Environmental Services (USA) and Jozef Stefan Institute (Slovenia), both using alkylation-gas chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection. The methods gave comparable MeHg results for most of the samples tested, but for some samples, the results exhibited significant variability depending on the method used. The HPLC-CL method performed poorly when applied to samples with elevated sulfur concentrations, producing MeHg concentrations that were much lower than those from the other methods. Additional analytical work demonstrated the elimination of this sulfur interference when the method was modified to bind sulfur prior to the analytical step by using Hg 2+ as a masking agent. These results demonstrate the value of laboratory intercomparison exercises in contributing to the improvement of analytical methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Using Sieving and Unknown Sand Samples for a Sedimentation-Stratigraphy Class Project with Linkage to Introductory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videtich, Patricia E.; Neal, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Using sieving and sample "unknowns" for instructional grain-size analysis and interpretation of sands in undergraduate sedimentology courses has advantages over other techniques. Students (1) learn to calculate and use statistics; (2) visually observe differences in the grain-size fractions, thereby developing a sense of specific size…

  11. Sample preparation method for the ER-CALUX bioassay screening of (xeno-)estrogenic activity in sediment extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, C.J.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Kapiteijn, W.; Bakker, J.F.; Brouwer, A.; Lamoree, M.H.; Legler, J.; Klamer, H.J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The application of bioassays to assess the occurrence of estrogenic compounds in the environment is increasing in both a scientific and statutory context. The availability of appropriate validated methods for sample pre-treatment and analysis is crucial for the successful implementation of

  12. Resistance coefficient during ice slurry flow through pipe sudden constriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ł. Mika

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the adverse environmental effects of some commonly-used refrigerants, efforts are still underway to find new cooling mediumsthat would be safer to the ozone layer and would not increase the greenhouse effect. Ice slurry as a new ecological coolant suits theprocesses requiring the preservation of constant and equal temperature in the cooling process of the full section of the cooled solid. Thanks to that, ice slurry can find a wide potential application in such branches of industry, as heat treatment, materials engineering, or foundry. In this paper, flow systems which are commonly used in fittings elements such as diameter’s reductions in ice slurry pipelines, are experimentally investigated. In the study reported in this paper, the consideration was given to the specific features of the slurry flow in which the flow qualities depend mainly on the volume fraction of solid particles. The results of the experimental studies on the flow resistance, presented herein, enabled to determine the resistance coefficient during the ice slurry flow through the pipe sudden constriction. The volume fraction of solid particles in the slurry ranged from 5 to 30%. The recommended and non-recommended range of the Reynolds number for the ice slurry flow through the pipe sudden constriction were presented in this paper. The experimental studies were conducted on a few variants of the most common reductions of copper pipes. Further studies on the determination of the resistance coefficient in the remaining fittings elements of the pipeline were recommended in the paper as well as the further theoretical studies intended to determine the theoretical relations to calculate the resistance coefficient in all the fittings elements in the pipeline (on the basis of the experimental studies and to elaborate the calculation pattern of the entire ice slurry system.

  13. A study on the treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Gyeong Hwan; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Moon, J.S.; Jung, K.J.

    1998-12-01

    The influence of anionic flocculants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries has been investigated in a laboratory-scale vacuum filtration unit. Simultaneously the influence of certain surfactants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries with anionic flocculants has also been investigated. Test results show that the flocculated filter cake generally contains higher residual water than the unflocculated cake. The non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 was effective in reducing the moisture content of the cake

  14. Assessment of metal concentrations (Cu, Zn, and Pb) in seawater, sediment and biota samples in the coastal area of Eastern Black Sea, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, Hasan; Sirin, Murat; Dalgic, Goktug; Bayrak, Esra Yilmaz; Akdeniz, Aysel

    2017-09-15

    This study investigated the contents of Cu, Zn and Pb in seawater, sediment, different shell sizes of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and sea snail (Rapana venosa) samples collected from four different provinces of the Eastern Black Sea Region. With the exception of Zn, all the metal concentration values measured in the sea snail were observed to be higher than those of mussels in all stations. While the correlation between mussels and sea snail according to metal concentrations was found to be positive (p˂0.05), this relation was not observed between the other parameters, such as the shell sizes, salinity and pH (p˃0.05). Although the mean concentration values of Cu, Zn, and Pb for mussel and sea snail are significantly above the tolerable levels, the estimated daily intake values for mussel were below the daily intake recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a Long-term Sampling Network to Monitor Restoration Success in the Southwest Coastal Everglades: Vegetation, Hydrology, and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction and History Hurricane Andrew, a Category 5 storm, crossed the southern Florida peninsula on the morning of August 24, 1992 (Fig. 1). Following the storm, the National Park Service conducted an environmental damage assessment to gauge the storm's impacts on the natural resources of south Florida Park Service holdings (Pimm et al., 1994). Although hurricanes have impacted Park Service lands such as the Everglades in the past (Houston and Powell, 2003), no systematic, permanent sampling scheme has been established to monitor long-term recovery (or lack thereof) following disturbance. In October 1992, vegetation monitoring plots were established in heavily damaged areas of mangrove forest on the southwest coast of the Everlgades, along the Lostmans and Broad Rivers (Smith et al., 1994, see Fig. 2). As the permanent plot network was being established, funding was awarded for the South Florida Global Climate Change project (SOFL-GCC). This led to the establishment of a network of hydrological monitoring stations (Anderson and Smith, 2004). Finally, sediment elevation tables (SETs) were installed at many locations. SETs provide the means to measure very small changes (2 mm) in the sediment surface elevation accurately over time (Cahoon et al., 2002). We also set up marker horizons to measure accretion of sediment at each site (Smith and Cahoon, 2003). Sampling sites were located along three transects extending from upstream freshwater wetlands to downstream saltwater wetlands along the Shark, Lostmans and Chatham Rivers in Everglades National Park (Fig. 2). While we were developing our sampling network for basic scientific research needs, concern mounted over the health of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem and in particular over the influence of decreased freshwater flows (Smith et al., 1989). Ecosystem restoration planning was begun, resulting in the multi-agency, $8 billion Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). Our co-located sampling networks

  16. Determination of neodymium(III) ions in soil and sediment samples by a novel neodymium(III) sensor based on benzyl bisthiosemicarbazone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behmadi, Hossein [Department of Applied Chemistry, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zamani, Hassan Ali [Department of Chemistry, Quchan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Quchan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: haszamani@yahoo.com; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-12-31

    The PVC membrane, containing benzyl bisthiosemicarbazone (BTC) as a suitable ionophore, exhibited a Nernstian response for the Nd{sup 3+} ions over a wide concentration range between 1.0 x 10{sup -2} and 1 x 10{sup -6} M, with a detection limit of 6.2 x 10{sup -7} M in the pH range of 3.7-8.3. It demonstrated a fast response time (<10 s) and it could be used for at least 7 weeks without any major potential deviation. Furthermore, the electrode revealed high selectivity with respect to all the common alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions, including the members of the lanthanide family other than Nd{sup 3+}. Concerning its applications, it was effectively employed for the determination of neodymium ions in soil and sediment samples and its validation with CRM.

  17. Test of experimental set-ups for electrodialytic removal of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from different contaminated harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrøm, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different harbour sediments was investigated. Electrodialytic remediation experiments in laboratory scale were made with calcareous and non-calcareous harbour sediments. Two different experimental set-ups were used for the study, one with stirring...... of the sediment slurry, the other without stirring. The removal of heavy metals was highest in the non-calcareous sediment, where 94% Cd, 91% Zn and 73% Cu were removed after 24 days. The highest removal obtained for the calcareous sediment was 81% Cd, 76% Zn, 75% Pb and 53% Cu after 21 days, with stirred...... sediment slurry. Electrodialytic experiments without stirring of calcareous sediment gave high removals (84% Zn, 58% Pb and 48% Cu), but there were problems with precipitations in the sediment, which limited the removal. The stirred experiments gave the highest removals of heavy metals and the voltage...

  18. A Novel Type of Environmentally Friendly Slurry Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Xabier; Galetz, Mathias C.; Schütze, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A variety of commercial slurries are available to aluminize the surfaces of nickel-based superalloys; however, they have three main disadvantages. First, the phosphates and chromates or halides used as binders or to activate the diffusion species are environmentally harmful and toxic; second, the slurry coatings can only produce high-aluminum-activity coatings which form precipitate-rich coatings that are detrimental to adherence. Finally, these coatings are limited to the incorporation of aluminum and silicon, whereas the co-deposition of other elements such as chromium or cobalt has not been achieved so far. In this work, the limitations of slurry coatings have been overcome by carefully designing the powder composition and controlling the process to produce co-deposition coatings with chromium, cobalt, or nickel by using nontoxic water-based slurries. This also opens an effective way to control Al activity and to produce low-activity aluminized coatings for the first time when using the slurry technique. These results expand the application range of slurry coatings so they can also be applied under ambient atmosphere, making it possible to fully coat aero engine pieces or large-scale industrial components, providing all properties that are usually only achieved by using more complex and expensive methods such as chemical vapor deposition. Furthermore, these new coatings offer unique advantages that can be very favorable especially as a repairing technique.

  19. Experimental study on the rheological behaviour of coal ash slurries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assefa K.M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive experimental investigations were carried out to evaluate the rheological behaviour of fly ash (FA slurry without and with the addition of bottom ash (BA and BA slurry without and with the addition of FA. The FA slurries exhibited Bingham behaviour at solid mass concentrations ranging from 60–65% and mixing proportions from 10– 40%. A substantial reduction in yield stress was observed except for mixing proportion of 40% on which the yield stress and viscosity were increased drastically for all solid concentrations. Hence, it can be concluded that the yield stress and viscosity of FA slurry were very much influenced by adding BA up to the mixing proportion of 30%. The rheological behaviour of BA slurries with and without the addition of FA in proportions of 10–50% was investigated and exhibited Newtonian behaviours for solid mass concentrations ranging from 30–50% without and with the addition of FA. The viscosity increases with increasing the solid concentrations and proportion of FA. Based on these experimental data, a correlation was developed to predict the relative viscosity of BA slurries as a function of solid volume fraction and FA mass proportion of 0–50% and the RMSE and R2 values showed good agreement between the experimental and the predicted data.

  20. Evaluation of the concentration of toxic metals and rare ground elements in samples of sediments of the Billings and Guarapiranga systems reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Larissa de Souza

    2017-01-01

    The excessive urbanization process of the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region resulted in the loss of the natural characteristics of its water courses causing serious changes in flow and quality regimes. The objective of this study was evaluate the concentration of toxic metals, semi metals As, Sb and Se, and rare earth elements present in surface sediment samples collected at the Billings, Guarapiranga and Rio Grande Reservoirs. The Ag, Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se and Zn elements were analyzed using Optical Emission Spectrometry With Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP OES). Some major, trace and rare earth elements (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) were analyzed by the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) technique. The total Hg concentration was determined by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry technique (CVAAS). The validation of the methodologies was performed by means of the certified reference material analyses. To assess the sources of anthropogenic contamination, the enrichment factor (EF) and the geoaccumulation index (IGeo) were calculated. The results obtained for both techniques were compared with TEL and PEL oriented values established by CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment) and adopted by CETESB (Environmental Company of the Sao Paulo State). All sampling points showed concentration values for toxic metals >TEL and 2 points at Billings Reservoir (BILL02030 and 02100), values > PEL for As, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn, probably due to the entrance of the Pinheiros River waters and drainage basins of the Cocaia and Borore streams. The calculated EF and IGeo values indicated possible anthropogenic contamination for Sb and Se for the elements determined by ICP OES and As, Cr, Sb and Zn, obtained by INAA. The Billings reservoir presented, in general, the highest concentrations for the analyzed elements, indicating a poor quality of its sediments. This study confirms the need of a frequent

  1. Slurry analysis after lead collection on a sorbent and its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baysal, Asli; Tokman, Nilgun [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak-Istanbul (Turkey); Akman, Suleyman [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak-Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: akmans@itu.edu.tr; Ozeroglu, Cemal [Istanbul University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, 34320 Avcilar-Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-02-11

    In this study, in order to eliminate the drawbacks of elution step and to reach higher enrichment factors, a novel preconcentration/separation technique for the slurry analysis of sorbent loaded with lead prior to its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was described. For this purpose, at first, lead was collected on ethylene glycol dimethacrylate methacrylic acid copolymer (EGDMA-MA) treated with ammonium pyrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) by conventional batch technique. After separation of liquid phase, slurry of the sorbent was prepared and directly pipetted into graphite furnace of atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Optimum conditions for quantitative sorption and preparation of the slurry were investigated. A 100-fold enrichment factor could be easily reached. The analyte element in certified sea-water and Bovine-liver samples was determined in the range of 95% confidence level. The proposed technique was fast and simple and the risks of contamination and analyte loss were low. Detection limit (3{delta}) for Pb was 1.67 {mu}g l{sup -1}.

  2. Radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry with high energy electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Halina; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Zimek, Zbigniew; Kałuska, Iwona; Skowron, Karolina Jadwiga

    2013-06-01

    The research was carried out to assess the efficiency of radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry of different density using the high energy electron beam based on the inactivation rate of Salmonella ssp, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp and Ascaris suum eggs. The experiment was conducted with use of the linear electron accelerator Elektronika 10/10 in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw. The inoculated slurry samples underwent hygienization with high energy electron beam of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Numbers of reisolated bacteria were determined according to the MPN method, using typical microbiological media. Theoretical lethal doses, D90 doses and hygienization efficiency of high energy electron beam were determined. The theoretical lethal doses for all tested bacteria ranged from 3.63 to 8.84 kGy and for A. suum eggs from 4.07 to 5.83 kGy. Salmonella rods turned out to be the most sensitive and Enterococcus spp were the most resistant to electron beam hygienization. The effectiveness or radiation hygienization was lower in cattle than in swine slurry and in thick than in thin one. Also the species or even the serotype of bacteria determined the dose needed to inactivation of microorganisms.

  3. Chemical attributes of a Hapludox soil after nine years of pig slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton da Veiga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the pig slurry application effects on chemical attributes of a Hapludox soil managed under no-tillage system. Treatments consisted of 50, 100 and 200 m³ ha-1 per year of pig slurry application, and a control with replacement of P and K exported through harvested grains. Attributes related to soil chemical reaction, exchange complex, and nutrient contents were determined in soil samples collected in the ninth year of experimentation from 0 - 0.025, 0.025 - 0.05, 0.05 - 0.10, 0.10 - 0.20, 0.20 - 0.40 and 0.40 - 0.60 m soil depths. The continuous application of high doses of pig slurry on the Oxisol surface under no-tillage acidifies the soil and increases Al, P, Cu, and Zn contents down to 0.2-m depth, and K levels down to 0.6-m depth.

  4. Characterization methodology for re-using marble slurry in industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Graziella; Careddu, Nicola; Peretti, Roberto; Bortolussi, Augusto

    2017-04-01

    In the effort towards waste minimization and circular economy, natural stone waste is one of the foremost parameter to turn scientific community attention. At this time, calcium carbonate has a great importance in industrial fields and currently there is the necessity of appreciate the potential value of marble waste and convert it into marketable products. A large amount of residues is produced in ornamental stone sector with different dimension and particle size. The research focused on marble slurry, recovered at the end of the treatment plant in the filter-press section. The aim of this paper is to propose a defined way to characterize marble slurry, primarily composed of micronized particles, in order to obtain useful data to make a comparison with market specifications. In particular the proposed characterization methodology follows the indicated steps: Leaching test (TCLP) - Grain size distribution and bulk density - Mineralogical analyses - X-Ray diffraction - Chemical analysis - Loss on ignition - SEM determination - Colorimetric and bright analysis. Marble slurry samples, collected by different dimension stone treatment plants in Orosei marble district (Sardinia - Italy), were analyzed by physical, mineralogical and chemical determinations and the obtained data were evaluated for compatibility with the CaCO3 specifications required by a definite industrial sector, seeing as how CaCO3 product specifications vary depending on the utilization. The importance of this investigation is to characterize completely the "waste" that must apply for further uses and to identify the feasibility to substitute marketable micronized CaCO3 with marble slurry. Further goal is to enhance the environmental advantages of re-using stone waste by reducing marble waste landfills and by applying raw material substitution, in accordance with regulatory requirements, thus pursuing the objective to convert natural stone waste into by-product with a renewed environmental and economic

  5. Voluntary intake and digestibility by sheep of alfalfa ensiled at different moisture concentrations following fertilization with dairy slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J K; Coffey, K P; Coblentz, W K; Shanks, B C; Caldwell, J D; Muck, R E; Philipp, D; Borchardt, M A; Rhein, R T; Jokela, W E; Backes, E A; Bertram, M G; Smith, W B

    2018-04-03

    Dairy slurry is used commonly as an animal-sourced fertilizer in agronomic production. However, residual effects of slurry application on intake and digestibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage from subsequent harvests are not well known. The objective of this study was to determine if moisture concentration of alfalfa silage and timing of dairy slurry application relative to subsequent harvest affected intake and digestibility by sheep. Katahdin crossbred ewes (n = 18; 48 ± 5.3 kg) in mid-gestation were stratified by BW and allocated randomly in each of two periods to one of six treatments arranged in a two × three factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of recommended (RM; 46.8%) or low (LM; 39.7%) moisture at baling after either no slurry application (NS), slurry application to stubble immediately after removal of the previous cutting (S0), or slurry application 14 d after removal of the previous cutting (S14). Silages were chopped through a commercial straw chopper, packed into plastic trash cans, and then offered to ewes within 4 d of chopping. Period 1 of the intake and digestion study consisted of a 14-d adaptation followed by a 7-d fecal collection period. Period 2 followed period 1 after a 4-d rest and consisted of an 11-d adaptation followed by 7 d of fecal collection. Ewes were housed individually in 1.4 × 4.3-m pens equipped with rubber mat flooring. Feces were swept from the floor twice daily, weighed, and dried at 50 °C. Ewes had ad libitum access to water and were offered chopped silage for a minimum of 10% refusal (DM). Blood samples were collected immediately prior to feeding, and 4 and 8 h after feeding on the day prior to the end of each period. Organic matter intake (g/kg BW) and OM digestibility tended (P 0.17) across treatments. Therefore, moisture concentration of alfalfa silage within the range used in this study may not affect voluntary intake or digestibility, but slurry application may have an effect on digestible OM

  6. Determination of sulfur in coal and ash slurry by high-resolution continuum source electrothermal molecular absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakadi, Flávio V.; Rosa, Lilian R.; Veiga, Márcia A.M.S. da, E-mail: mamsveiga@ffclrp.usp.br

    2013-10-01

    We propose a procedure for the determination of sulfur in coal slurries by high resolution continuum source electrothermal molecular absorption spectrometry. The slurry, whose concentration is 1 mg mL{sup −1}, was prepared by mixing 50 mg of the sample with 5% v/v nitric acid and 0.04% m/v Triton X-100 and was homogenized manually. It sustained good stability. The determination was performed via CS molecular absorption at 257.592 nm, and the optimized vaporization temperature was 2500 °C. The accuracy of the method was ensured by analysis of certified reference materials SRM 1632b (trace elements in coal) and SRM 1633b (coal fly ash) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, using external calibration with aqueous standards prepared in the same medium and used as slurry. We achieved good agreement with the certified reference materials within 95% confidence interval, LOD of 0.01% w/w, and RSD of 6%, which confirms the potential of the proposed method. - Highlights: • HR-CS ET MAS as a technique to determine sulfur in coal and ash • Utilization of (coal and coal fly ash) slurry as a sample preparation • Simple and fast method, which uses external calibration with aqueous standards without chemical modifier.

  7. Air-injected slurry blasting tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will immobilize SRP high-level liquid waste in a borosilicate glass form. The molten waste glass at about 1050 0 C is poured into large (2-ft-dia, 10-ft-long) stainless steel canisters. During this operation the exterior of the canister reaches a temperature of up to 550 0 C and a thin oxide film is formed. This film traps radionuclide particles and must be removed to achieve the decontamination required before the canister leaves the DWPF canyon building. Air-injected frit slurry blasting has been chosen as the DWPF canister decontamination process based on results of tests with radioactively contaminated coupons. A small frit blaster in the Equipment Test Facility (ETF) has been used to optimize this process. Stainless steel coupons were heated at 600 0 C for 1 hour to simulate the canister oxide film. The coupons were weighed and then blasted at different parametric conditions. By weighing the coupons after blasting, the effects produced by each parameter could be compared and optimum parametric values determined

  8. Comparison of analytical methods used to determine 235U, 238U and 210Pb from sediment samples by alpha, beta and gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterbacka, P.; Klemola, S.; Salahel-Din, K.

    2009-01-01

    An intercomparison of the methodology (alpha, beta and gamma spectrometry) used for 238 U, 235 U and 210 Pb determination was carried out based on 38 sediment samples. The activity range of the samples varied from 10-700 Bq/kg for 210 Pb, 1-35 Bq/kg for 235 U and 10-800 Bq/ kg for 238 U. Results obtained using the three methods were not statistically different at high activity levels, but agreement between the results decreased at lower sample activity levels. For 210 Pb, the smallest difference was found between alpha and gamma spectrometry. A good correlation between results from alpha and gamma spectrometry was observed over the whole activity range. In beta spectrometry, the results were slightly higher than those obtained by alpha or gamma spectrometry due to the impurity of 228 Ra. In 238 U analysis, good correspondence was observed between 238 U determined by gamma and alpha spectrometry, particularly at higher 238 U activity concentrations over 100 Bq/kg. In 235 U analysis, attention needs to be paid to interference from 226 Ra and its reduction. (author)

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon behavior in bioactive soil slurry reactors amended with a nonionic surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han S; Weber, Walter J

    2005-02-01

    The effects of an ethoxylated sorbitan fatty ester nonionic surfactant (Tween 80) on the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined by using soil-free and dense-slurry (67% solids content, by wt) systems containing a creosote-contaminated field soil. The dispersed-micelle-phase PAHs in soil-free systems were not readily bioavailable to the mixed consortium of microbes indigenous to the creosote-contaminated soil. Instead, the microbes partially and preferentially utilized readily available portions of the surfactant as carbon sources (16-18% of the initial surfactant dose). This selective microbial attack resulted in destabilization of dispersed-phase micelles and significant decreases in molar solubilization ratio and micelle-water partition coefficient values. Remarkably high dosages (>20 g/L) of Tween 80 were required to enhance mobilization of the sorbed PAHs via micelle association because of the sorption of Tween 80 to the soil employed. The PAHs released from the destabilized micelles in soil-slurry systems either associated with sorbed-phase surfactants or readsorbed to soil organic matter too rapidly to be biologically accessed, even by the acclimated PAH-degrading microbes present. The work provides important new information and practical insights to surfactant solubilization and mobilization technology applications for the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils and sediments.

  10. Input and leaching potential of copper, zinc, and selenium in agricultural soil from swine slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Comas Baron, Jordi; Dominguez, Carmen; Salas Vazquez, Dora Isela; Parera, Joan; Díez, S.; Bayona, Josep Maria

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements, such as copper, zinc, and selenium, used as feed additives were determined in samples of both fresh (N = 14) and anaerobically digested (N = 6) swine slurry collected on medium- to large-size farms in northeast Spain. Considering both fresh and anaerobically digested samples, mean concentrations of zinc (1,500 mg kg(-1) dry mass [dm]) were greater than those of copper (mean 239 mg kg(-1) dm), and the selenium concentrations detected were even lower (mean 139 mu g kg(-1) dm). Z...

  11. Stability for a novel low-pH alkaline slurry during the copper chemical mechanical planarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guodong; Liu Yuling; Wang Chenwei; Liu Weijuan; Jiang Mengting; Yuan Haobo

    2014-01-01

    The stability of a novel low-pH alkaline slurry (marked as slurry A, pH = 8.5) for copper chemical mechanical planarization was investigated in this paper. First of all, the stability mechanism of the alkaline slurry was studied. Then many parameters have been tested for researching the stability of the slurry through comparing with a traditional alkaline slurry (marked as slurry B, pH = 9.5), such as the pH value, particle size and zeta potential. Apart from this, the stability of the copper removal rate, dishing, erosion and surface roughness were also studied. All the results show that the stability of the novel low-pH alkaline slurry is better than the traditional alkaline slurry. The working-life of