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Sample records for sediment quality assessment

  1. Incorporating Contaminant Bioavailability into Sediment Quality Assessment Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recently adopted sediment quality assessment framework for evaluating bay and estuarine sediments in the State of California incorporates bulk sediment chemistry as a key line of evidence(LOE) but does not address the bioavailability of measured contaminants. Thus, the chemis...

  2. Methods of assessment of stormwater sediments quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sałata Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration of heavy metal (cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel, lead and zinc in sediments collected from the stormwater treatment plant located in the urbanised catchment were investigated using geo-accumulation index and enrichment factor to determine metal accumulation and pollution status. Total metal concentrations varied widely in studied materials and the mean values were higher than their background values. The Igeo results indicate that tested sediments were uncontaminated with respect to Cd. The study area is moderately to strongly contaminated with Zn, Pb and Cu. The other elements are within the scope moderate contamination.

  3. APPLICATION OF SEDIMENT QUALITY GUIDELINES IN THE ASSESSMENT OF MANGROVE SURFACE SEDIMENT IN MENGKABONG LAGOON, SABAH, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Praveena, M. Radojevic, M. H. Abdullah, A. Z. Aris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous sediment quality guidelines developed to monitor the sediments. Sediment quality guidelines are very useful to screen sediment contamination by comparing sediment contaminant concentration with the corresponding quality guideline, provide useful tools for screening sediment chemical data to identify pollutants of concern and prioritise problem sites and relatively good predictors of contaminations. However, these guidelines are chemical specific and do not include biological parameters. Aquatic ecosystems, including sediments, must be assessed in multiple components (biological data, toxicity, physicochemistry by using intregrated approaches in order to establish a complete and comprehensive set of sediment quality guidelines. Numerous sediment quality guidelines Washington Department of Ecology Sediment Quality Guideline, Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council, Swedish Environmental Sediment Quality, Screening Quick Reference Table, Portuguese Legislation on the Classification of Dredged Materials in Coastal Zones and Interim Sediment Quality Guideline for Hong Kong have been applied to the Mengkabong lagoon mangrove sediment and discussed. The most appropriate guideline that meets the prioritization criteria consistent with international initiatives and regulations is interim sediment quality values for Hong Kong. The guideline verifies that all the metals are below the Interim Sediment Quality Value-low. However, site-specific, biological testing and ecological analysis of exisiting benthics community structure related to sediment contamination are needed for final decision making in the case of Mengkabong lagoon.

  4. Comparison of test specific sediment effect concentrations with marine sediment quality assessment guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.M.; MacDonald, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    As part of NOAA's National Status and Trends (NS and T) Bioeffects Assessment program and studies conducted by the National Biological Service, numerous sediment quality assessment surveys have recently been conducted along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the US using the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development tests with pore water. Additional toxicity tests were also conducted in conjunction with most of these studies. The areas that have been sampled include Boston harbor, Massachusetts; Charleston Harbor, Winyah Bay, and Savannah River, South Carolina; St. Simon Sound, Georgia; Biscayne Bay, Tampa Bay, Choctawhatchee Bay, Apalachicola Bay, St. Andrew Bay, and Pensacola Bay, Florida; Galveston Bay, Lavaca Bay, and Sabine Lake, Texas, and 200 stations in the vicinity of offshore oil and gas production platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. Sufficient data are now available from this series of surveys to calculate test specific sediment effect concentrations (SECs). Based on these recent studies, SECs were developed for the sea urchin porewater and amphipod tests and compared with existing marine sediment quality assessment guidelines

  5. Development, evaluation, and application of sediment quality targets for assessing and managing contaminated sediments in Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.D.; Carr, R.S.; Eckenrod, D.; Greening, H.; Grabe, S.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Janicki, S.; Janicki, T.; Lindskoog, R.A.; Long, E.R.; Pribble, R.; Sloane, G.; Smorong, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    Tampa Bay is a large, urban estuary that is located in west central Florida. Although water quality conditions represent an important concern in this estuary, information from numerous sources indicates that sediment contamination also has the potential to adversely affect aquatic organisms, aquatic-dependent wildlife, and human health. As such, protecting relatively uncontaminated areas of the bay from contamination and reducing the amount of toxic chemicals in contaminated sediments have been identified as high-priority sediment management objectives for Tampa Bay. To address concerns related to sediment contamination in the bay, an ecosystem-based framework for assessing and managing sediment quality conditions was developed that included identification of sediment quality issues and concerns, development of ecosystem goals and objectives, selection of ecosystem health indicators, establishment of metrics and targets for key indicators, and incorporation of key indicators, metrics, and targets into watershed management plans and decision-making processes. This paper describes the process that was used to select and evaluate numerical sediment quality targets (SQTs) for assessing and managing contaminated sediments. These SQTs included measures of sediment chemistry, whole-sediment and pore-water toxicity, and benthic invertebrate community structure. In addition, the paper describes how the SQTs were used to develop site-specific concentration-response models that describe how the frequency of adverse biological effects changes with increasing concentrations of chemicals of potential concern. Finally, a key application of the SQTs for defining sediment management areas is discussed.

  6. Assessment of sediment quality in dredged and undredged areas of the Trenton Channel of the Detroit River, Michigan USA, using the sediment quality triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Giesy, John P.; Kubitz, Jody A.; Verbrugge, David A.; Coon, Thomas G.; Braselton, W. Emmett

    1996-01-01

    The “sediment quality triad” approach was used to assess the effects of dredging on the sediment quality of a new marina in the Trenton Channel of the Detroit River, and to evaluate spatial and temporal variation in sediment quality in the Trenton Channel. Samples were collected in November of 1993 (10 months after dredging) and characterized by chemical analysis, sediment bioassays, and assessment of benthic invertebrate communities. The three study components indicated little difference in sediment quality at dredged sites in the marina relative to nearby areas in the Trenton Channel, and little change in sediment quality of Trenton Channel sites relative to conditions reported in the mid-1980s. These results suggest that improvement in sediment quality in the Trenton Channel, due to dredging or natural processes, will depend on elimination of sediment “hot spots” and other upstream contaminant sources. Concentrations of chemical contaminants, especially metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, exceeded concentrations associated with effects on biota and were significantly correlated with results of sediment bioassays and characteristics of benthic communities. Laboratory sediment bioassays with Hyalella azteca andChironomus tentans produced better discrimination among sites with differing degrees of contamination than did characterization of benthic communities, which were dominated by oligochaetes at all sites in the marina and the Trenton Channel.

  7. Surface sediment quality relative to port activities: A contaminant-spectrum assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shen; Hong, Bing; Ma, Jun; Chen, Yongshan; Xi, Xiuping; Gao, Jingbo; Hu, Xiuqin; Xu, Xiangrong; Sun, Yuxin

    2017-10-15

    Ports are facing increasing environmental concerns with their importance to the global economy. Numerous studies indicated sediment quality deterioration in ports; however, the deterioration is not discriminated for each port activity. This study investigated a spectrum of contaminants (metals and organic pollutants) in surface sediments at 20 sampling points in Port Ningbo, China, one of the top five world ports by volume. The spectrum of contaminants (metals and organic pollutants) was quantified following marine sediment quality guidelines of China and USA and surface sediment quality was assessed according to thresholds of the two guidelines. Coupling a categorical matrix of port activities with the matrix of sedimentary contaminants revealed that contaminants were highly associated with the port operations. Ship repair posed a severe chemical risk to sediment. Operations of crude oil and coal loadings were two top activities related to organic pollutants in sediments while port operations of ore and container loadings discharged metals. Among the 20 sampling points, Cu, Zn, Pb, and DDT and its metabolites were the priority contaminants influencing sediment quality. Overall, surface sediments in Port Ningbo had relatively low environmental risks but ship repair is an environmental concern that must be addressed. This study provides a practical approach for port activity-related quality assessment of surface sediments in ports that could be applicable in many world sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. An evaluation of contaminated estuarine sites using sediment quality guidelines and ecological assessment methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, M; Key, P; Wirth, E; Leight, A K; Daugomah, J; Bearden, D; Sivertsen, S; Scott, G

    2006-10-01

    Toxic contaminants may enter estuarine ecosystems through a variety of pathways. When sediment contaminant levels become sufficiently high, they may impact resident biota. One approach to predict sediment-associated toxicity in estuarine ecosystems involves the use of sediment quality guidelines (ERMs, ERLs) and site-specific contaminant chemistry while a second approach utilizes site-specific ecological sampling to assess impacts at the population or community level. The goal of this study was to utilize an integrated approach including chemical contaminant analysis, sediment quality guidelines and grass shrimp population monitoring to evaluate the impact of contaminants from industrial sources. Three impacted sites and one reference site were selected for study. Grass shrimp populations were sampled using a push-netting approach. Sediment samples were collected at each site and analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. Contaminant levels were then compared to sediment quality guidelines. In general, grass shrimp population densities at the sites decreased as the ERM quotients increased. Grass shrimp densities were significantly reduced at the impacted site that had an ERM exceedance for chromium and the highest Mean ERM quotient. Regression analysis indicated that sediment chromium concentrations were negatively correlated with grass shrimp density. Grass shrimp size was reduced at two sites with intermediate levels of contamination. These findings support the use of both sediment quality guidelines and site-specific population monitoring to evaluate the impacts of sediment-associated contaminants in estuarine systems.

  9. Toxicities and risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments of Taihu Lake, China, based on sediment quality guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Han, Yuwei; Yang, Jinxi; Zhu, Lingyan; Zhong, Wenjue

    2017-12-01

    The occurrence, toxicities, and ecological risks of five heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni) in the sediment of Taihu Lake were investigated in this study. To evaluate the toxicities caused by the heavy metals, the toxicities induced by organic contaminants and ammonia in the sediments were screened out with activated carbon and zeolite. The toxicities of heavy metals in sediments were tested with benthic invertebrates (tubificid and chironomid). The correlations between toxicity of sediment and the sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) derived previously were evaluated. There were significant correlations (pheavy metals based on SQGs, indicating that threshold effect level (TEL) and probable effect level (PEL) were reliable to predict the toxicities of heavy metals in the sediments of Taihu Lake. By contrast, the method based on acid volatile sulfides (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), such as ∑SEM/AVS and ∑SEM-AVS, did not show correlations with the toxicities. Moreover, the predictive ability of SQGs was confirmed by a total predicting accuracy of 77%. Ecological risk assessment based on TELs and PELs showed that the contaminations of Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn in the sediments of Taihu Lake were at relatively low or medium levels. The risks caused by heavy metals in the sediments of northern bay of the lake, which received more wastewater discharge from upper stream, were higher than other area of the lake. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. USING THE SEDIMENT QUALITY TRIAD (SQT) APPROACH TO ASSESS SEDIMENTARY CONTAMINATION IN THE ANACOSTIA RIVER, WASHINGTON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using the Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) Approach to Assess Sedimentary Contamination in the Anacostia River, Washington, D.C. Velinsky, DJ*1, Ashley, JTF1,2, Pinkney, F.3, McGee, BL3 and Norberg-King, TJ.4 1Academy of Natural Sciences-PCER, Philadelphia, PA. 2Philadelphia Universi...

  11. Assessment of sediment quality collected from the Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Suhaimi Elias; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Siong, Wee Boon; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of source and sediment quality was carried out on marine sediments collected from the Tuanku Abdul Rahman National Park. Enrichment factors (EF), pollution load index (PLI) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) were used to identify the sources of pollution, degree of contamination and sediment quality, respectively. Elemental analyses of marine sediment samples were performed by using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Results from the Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park of Sabah indicated that most of the elements are considered to be from lithological or natural origin with EF values of less than 2 except for As (10 stations), Cr (3 stations), Lu (5 stations), Mg (2 stations), Sb (6 stations) and U (3 stations). For the sediment quality, most of the study area can be categorised as unpolluted for most of the elements (Igeo value < 2) except for As, Cr, Lu, Mg, Sb and U. A few study areas were slightly low contaminated with As, Cr, Lu, Mg, Sb and U. The contamination of As, Cr, Lu, Mg, Sb and U in the study area can be categorised as moderate with Igeo values ranged from 1 to 2. Meanwhile, the results of PLI value for sediment were ranged from 0.93 to 1.47 (PLI < 50) indicating there are not required to perform drastic rectification measures for the screening of the elements in the Tunku Abdul Rahman Park. Overall, assessment of the sediment quality at the Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park showed a few elements such as As, Cr, Lu, Mg, Sb and U were slightly enriched while most of the elements were similar to background values. (author)

  12. Sediment quality and ecorisk assessment factors for a major river system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, V.G.; Wagner, J.J.; Cutshall, N.H.

    1993-08-01

    Sediment-related water quality and risk assessment parameters for the Columbia River were developed using heavy metal loading and concentration data from Lake Roosevelt (river km 1120) to the mouth and adjacent coastal zone. Correlation of Pb, Zn, Hg, and Cd concentrations in downstream sediments with refinery operations in British Columbia suggest that solutes with K d 's > 10 5 reach about 1 to 5 μg/g per metric ton/year of input. A low-suspended load (upriver avg. <10 mg/L) and high particle-surface reactivity account for the high clay-fraction contaminant concentrations. In addition, a sediment exposure path was demonstrated based on analysis of post-shutdown biodynamics of a heavy metal radiotracer. The slow decline in sediment was attributed to resuspension, bioturbation, and anthropogenic disturbances. The above findings suggest that conservative sediment quality criteria should be used to restrict additional contaminant loading in the upper drainage basin. The issuance of an advisory for Lake Roosevelt, due in part to Hg accumulation in large sport fish, suggests more restrictive controls are needed. A monitoring strategy for assessing human exposure potential and the ecological health of the river is proposed

  13. The assessment of sediment screening risk in Venice Lagoon and other coastal areas using international sediment quality guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apitz, S.A.; Barbanti, A.; Bocci, M.; Delaney, E.; Bernstein, A.G.; Montobbio, L.

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies carried out in recent years have shown the presence of a wide range of contaminants in the Venice Lagoon. It is important to have a good understanding of the ecological quality of Venice Lagoon sediments, in order to: i) define and locate areas where a threat to the environment is present and therefore an intervention is needed (i.e. in situ assessment and management); and ii) define sustainable and environmentally correct ways of managing sediments which are to be dredged for navigational purposes or in relation to other interventions (i.e., ex situ management). Materials and Methods: To examine how various regional and international SQGs 'classed' screening risk in Venice Lagoon sediments, data on median contaminant levels in surface sediments in Venice Lagoon resulting from a literature review were compared to a range of local and international sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). Then data on sediment contaminant levels in various areas and sub-basins of Venice Lagoon (main Lagoon, Porto Marghera and Venice City Canals) and in other regional and international transitional and coastal ecosystems with various levels of human impact (urbanization and industrialization) were evaluated based upon a selected consensus-based SQG. Finally, screening sediment quality for all of Venice Lagoon was mapped and contoured, relative to this consensus-based SQG and briefly compared with direct toxicity measurement through a battery of bioassays. Results: SQGs allow the sediment areas to be put in terms of potential, or screening, risk. Although there were some differences depending upon which specific SQGs were applied, the Venice SQGs and other international SQGs provided the same general picture of screening risk in Venice Lagoon despite geographic differences. Venice Lagoon South has the lowest screening risk levels, Venice Lagoon Central/North has the highest (and is nearest to the Porto Marghera and Venice City Canals sites). Discussion: The Venice

  14. Assessment of heavy metal contamination and sediment quality in the Cimadur river, Banten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rina Mulyaningsih; Siti Suprapti

    2015-01-01

    River sediment quality assessment can be done by the calculation of pollution index. The existence of gold mining activities in Cikotok suspected to have an impact on Cimadur river quality degradation. Calculations pollution index by heavy metal Hg, As, Cr, Co and Zn contained in river sediment Cimadur Cikotok Banten have been performed. Sediment sampling has conducted at 9 locations along the Cimadur River. Quantification of heavy metals in the samples was done by using the neutron activation analysis technique. The result of assessment based on enrichment factor showed that there has been an increase in concentration of heavy metals Hg, As, Cr, Co and Zn due to anthropogenic factors. Based on the value of index geo accumulation it was known that the sampling location has been polluted, predominantly by Hg and As. Heavy metals contained in the sediments provide ecological risk to the environment with following order: Cr < Zn < As < Hg. Based on the value of pollution load index (PLI), all locations were polluted by heavy metals Hg, As, Cr, Co and Zn. The sources of heavy metals could be from natural rocks or gold mining activities. Evaluation based on potential ecological risk index, showed that heavy metal pollution will give impact of ecological risk to the surrounding environment from low level to high, so it is necessary to do environmental monitoring and management appropriate for reducing the pollution in that location. (author)

  15. Integrative assessment of sediment quality in lower basin affected by former mining in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnail, Estefanía; Buruaem, Lucas M; Morais, Lucas G; Araujo, Giuliana S; Abessa, Denis M S; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Ángel DelValls, T

    2017-06-13

    The Ribeira de Iguape River (Southeast Brazil) is metal contaminated by mining activities. Despite it has been cataloged as "in via of restoration" by the literature, this basin is still a sink of pollution in some segments of the fluvial system. This study aimed to assess the sediment quality in the lower part of the RIR basin. The employed approach was based on biological responses of the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea after 7-day exposure bioassays using as the reference site the Perequê Ecological Park. Toxic responses (burial activity and lethality) and biochemical biomarkers (GST, GR, GPx, LPO, MTs, AChE and DNA damage) were evaluated and then integrated with metal bioavailability and chemical concentrations to address the sediment quality in the area through the weight-of-evidence approach. A multivariate analysis identified linkages between biological responses and contamination. Results pointed that, despite being below the benchmarks of the US Environmental Protection Agency, there is slight metal contamination in the lower part of the basin which induces oxidative stress in C. fluminea; other toxic responses were sometimes attributed to As and Cr bioaccumulation. The sediment quality values (TEL-PEL values in mg/kg) were calculated for the current study for As (0.63-1.31), Cr (3.5-11.05), Cs (1.0-1.17), Cu (6.32-7.32), Ni (6.78-7.46), Ti (42.0-215), V (1.77-8.00). By comparison with other international guidelines, the sediment quality of the lower basin of the Vale de Ribeira does not identify a significant environmental risk.

  16. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Verification of Sediment Ecotoxicity Assessment Ring(SEA Ring)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the verification is to test the efficacy and ability of the Sediment Ecotoxicity Assessment Ring (SEA Ring) to evaluate the toxicity of contaminants in the sediment, at the sediment-water interface, and WC to organisms that live in those respective environments.

  17. Assessment of sediment quality based on toxic equivalent benzo[a]Pyrene concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, T.L.; Lee, K.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) as an indicator and its thresholds for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in sediments. The indicator, based on toxicity and carcinogenic effects, was selected to assess the marine environment and changes in marine environmental quality (MEQ) in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia. It was shown that the bioavailability of B[a]P and other PAHs is greatly affected by the quality and quantity of dissolved organic matter and organic carbon content. Two coal coke facilities were constructed on the shore of Sydney Harbour in the 19th century. For many years, the coke-ovens discharged toxic liquid effluent through the Tar Ponds into the harbour, contaminating the ground and surface water with arsenic, lead and other toxins. It also led to the accumulation of PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls. A recent assessment of PAH contamination of Sydney Harbour has focused on the exposure of organisms to contaminants as well as the biological effects on the organisms. All samples collected from the South Arm of Sydney Harbour exceeded the upper threshold of established regulatory guidelines. Samples from the Northwest Arm were within regulatory limits, suggesting that industrial and municipal sources were the primary sources of pollution. PAH concentrations were used to identify sediments that exceed effects thresholds based on MEQ guidelines. The results were compared to actual observations of biological effects. Toxic equivalency factors were established for B[a]P and other PAHs in order to estimate cumulative exposure levels. The concentrations can be compared to regulatory sediment quality guidelines established in Canada and the United States for the protection of marine life. 34 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs

  18. Integrated quality assessment of sediments from harbour areas in Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buruaem, Lucas Moreira; de Castro, Ítalo Braga; Hortellani, Marcos Antonio; Taniguchi, Satie; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Varella Petti, Mônica Angélica; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo de Souza; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Maranho, Luciane Alves; Davanso, Marcela Bergo; Nonato, Edmundo Ferraz; Cesar, Augusto; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia Veras; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Souza

    2013-09-01

    Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System is a highly populated coastal zone in Brazil and where it is located the major port of Latin America. Historically, port activities, industrial and domestic effluents discharges have constituted the main sources of contaminants to estuarine system. This study aimed to assess the recent status of sediment quality from 5 zones of Port of Santos by applying a lines-of-evidence approach through integrating results of: (1) acute toxicity of whole sediment and chronic toxicity of liquid phases; (2) grain size, organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes and butyltins; (3) benthic community descriptors. Results revealed a gradient of increasing contamination for metals and organic compounds, alongside with their geochemical carriers. Sediment liquid phases were more toxic compared to whole sediment. Low number of species and individuals indicated the impoverishment of benthic community. The use of site-specific sediment quality guidelines was more appropriate to predict sediment toxicity. The integration of results through Sediment Quality Triad approach and principal component analysis allowed observing the effects of natural stressors and dredging on sediment quality and benthic distribution. Even with recent governmental efforts to control, pollution is still relevant in Port of Santos and a threat to local ecosystems.

  19. Application of a new sediment contact test with Myriophyllum aquaticum and of the Aquatic Lemna test to assess the sediment quality of Lake Skadar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stesevic, D.; Sundic, D.; Mijovic, S. [Montenegro Univ., Podgorica (ME). Faculty of Sciences; Feiler, U.; Heininger, P. [Federal Institute of Hydrology, Koblenz (Germany); Erdinger, L. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Hygiene; Seiler, T.B.; Hollert, H. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Zoology; RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltforschung - Biologie V

    2007-10-15

    Goal, Scope and Background: Situated in the transboundary belt between Montenegro and Albania, the Lake Skadar is the largest freshwater reservoir in Southeastern Europe. Because of the wide range of endemic, rare or endangered plant and animal species it supports, Lake Skadar and its extensive adjacent wetlands are internationally recognised as a site of significance and importance (Ramsar site). Within the last 10 to 20 years, Lake Skadar was exposed to intensive pollution. For the assessment of the ecotoxic load of the sediments sampled in Lake Skadar, a triad approach was recently applied. Overall, a complex spectrum of ecotoxic loads was elucidated. The aim of the present study was to use plant-based bioassays for assessing the sediment quality of Lake Skadar in order to facilitate and complement the triad test battery. The newly developed sediment contact test with Myriophyllum aquaticum and the aquatic growth inhibition test with Lemna minor were applied to native sediments and pore water, respectively, allowing the investigation of different toxicity-effects caused by particle-bound pollutants as well as pollutants in the interstitial water. This investigation is the first application of the novel sediment contact test with Myriophyllum aquaticum to lake sediments. Materials and Methods: Sediment samples were taken from nine selected sites at Lake Skadar and investigated by the sediment contact assay with Myriophyllum aquaticum. The pore water was extracted from these sediment samples to be analysed in the aquatic growth inhibition test with Lemna minor. The results of the sediment contact tests were compared with each other and with those of the aquatic growth inhibition test. Results and Discussion: Both applied macrophyte biotests revealed distinct changes in the growth behaviour of the two macrophytes subsequent to the exposure to the investigated natural sediments of Lake Skadar. The Myriophyllum sediment contact test revealed significant toxicity in

  20. Biomarker responsiveness in different tissues of caged Ruditapes philippinarum and its use within an integrated sediment quality assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Gomez, Julia, E-mail: julia.ramosgomez@uca.es [UNITWIN/UNESCO/WiCoP, Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Cadiz, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus Universitario de Puerto Real, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Coz, Alberto; Viguri, Javier R. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Inorganica, ETSIIT, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda. los Castros, s/n 39005 Santander (Spain); Luque, Angel [Departamento de Biologia, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Gran Canaria, The Canary Islands (Spain); Martin-Diaz, M. Laura [UNITWIN/UNESCO/WiCoP, Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Cadiz, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus Universitario de Puerto Real, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Centro Andaluz de Ciencia y Tecnologia Marinas (CACYTMAR), Universidad de Cadiz, Campus Universitario de Puerto Real, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); DelValls, T. Angel [UNITWIN/UNESCO/WiCoP, Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Cadiz, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus Universitario de Puerto Real, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Biomarkers comprising activities of biotransformation enzymes (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase -EROD-, dibenzylfluorescein dealkylase -DBF-, glutathione S-transferase -GST), antioxidant enzymes (glutathione reductase -GR- and glutathione peroxidase -GPX), lipid peroxidation -LPO- and DNA strand breaks were analyzed in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum caged at Cadiz Bay, Santander Bay and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (LPGC) Port (Spain). Sediments were characterized. Digestive gland was the most sensitive tissue to sediment contamination. In Cadiz Bay, changes in LPO regarding day 0 were related with metals. In LPGC Port, DBF, EROD, and GST activity responses suggested the presence of undetermined contaminants which might have led to DNA damage. In Santander Bay, PAHs were related with EROD activity, organic and metal contamination was found to be associated with GR and GST activities and DNA damage presented significant (p < 0.05) induction. R. philippinarum was sensitive to sediment contamination at biochemical level. Biomarkers allowed chemical exposure and sediment quality assessment. - Highlights: > Ruditapes philippinarum is sensitive to sediment contamination at biochemical level. > Digestive gland biomarkers showed the best correlations with sediment contaminants. > Presence of potentially toxic chemicals not analyzed in this research was unmasked. > Multivariate analysis allowed the identification of toxic xenobiotic and possible sources. > Inner area of Santander Bay presented the highest sediment toxicity. - Integration of Ruditapes philippinarum biomarker results and sediment chemistry distinguished xenobiotic exposure and sediment toxicity in coastal areas of Spain.

  1. Biomarker responsiveness in different tissues of caged Ruditapes philippinarum and its use within an integrated sediment quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Gomez, Julia; Coz, Alberto; Viguri, Javier R.; Luque, Angel; Martin-Diaz, M. Laura; DelValls, T. Angel

    2011-01-01

    Biomarkers comprising activities of biotransformation enzymes (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase -EROD-, dibenzylfluorescein dealkylase -DBF-, glutathione S-transferase -GST), antioxidant enzymes (glutathione reductase -GR- and glutathione peroxidase -GPX), lipid peroxidation -LPO- and DNA strand breaks were analyzed in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum caged at Cadiz Bay, Santander Bay and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (LPGC) Port (Spain). Sediments were characterized. Digestive gland was the most sensitive tissue to sediment contamination. In Cadiz Bay, changes in LPO regarding day 0 were related with metals. In LPGC Port, DBF, EROD, and GST activity responses suggested the presence of undetermined contaminants which might have led to DNA damage. In Santander Bay, PAHs were related with EROD activity, organic and metal contamination was found to be associated with GR and GST activities and DNA damage presented significant (p < 0.05) induction. R. philippinarum was sensitive to sediment contamination at biochemical level. Biomarkers allowed chemical exposure and sediment quality assessment. - Highlights: → Ruditapes philippinarum is sensitive to sediment contamination at biochemical level. → Digestive gland biomarkers showed the best correlations with sediment contaminants. → Presence of potentially toxic chemicals not analyzed in this research was unmasked. → Multivariate analysis allowed the identification of toxic xenobiotic and possible sources. → Inner area of Santander Bay presented the highest sediment toxicity. - Integration of Ruditapes philippinarum biomarker results and sediment chemistry distinguished xenobiotic exposure and sediment toxicity in coastal areas of Spain.

  2. Combining contamination indexes, sediment quality guidelines and multivariate data analysis for metal pollution assessment in marine sediments of Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Icart, Mirella; Pereira-Filho, Edenir Rodrigues; Lopes Fialho, Lucimar; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Alonso-Hernández, Carlos; Bolaños-Alvarez, Yoelvis; Pomares-Alfonso, Mario S

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the present work was to combine several tools for assessing metal pollution in marine sediments from Cienfuegos Bay. Fourteen surface sediments collected in 2013 were evaluated. Concentrations of As, Cu, Ni, Zn and V decreased respect to those previous reported. The metal contamination was spatially distributed in the north and south parts of the bay. According to the contamination factor (CF) enrichment factor (EF) and index of geoaccumulation (I geo ), Cd and Cu were classified in that order as the most contaminated elements in most sediment. Comparison of the total metal concentrations with the threshold (TELs) and probable (PELs) effect levels in sediment quality guidelines suggested a more worrisome situation for Cu, of which concentrations were occasional associated with adverse biological effects in thirteen sediments, followed by Ni in nine sediments; while adverse effects were rarely associated with Cd. Probably, Cu could be considered as the most dangerous in the whole bay because it was classified in the high contamination levels by all indexes and, simultaneously, associated to occasional adverse effects in most samples. Despite the bioavailability was partially evaluated with the HCl method, the low extraction of Ni (<3% in all samples) and Cu (<55%, except sample 3) and the relative high extraction of Cd (50% or more, except sample 14) could be considered as an attenuating (Ni and Cu) or increasing (Cd) factor in the risk assessment of those element. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The impact of sediment bioturbation by secondary organisms on metal bioavailability, bioaccumulation and toxicity to target organisms in benthic bioassays: Implications for sediment quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remaili, Timothy M.; Simpson, Stuart L.; Amato, Elvio D.; Spadaro, David A.; Jarolimek, Chad V.; Jolley, Dianne F.

    2016-01-01

    Bioturbation alters the properties of sediments and modifies contaminant bioavailability to benthic organisms. These naturally occurring disturbances are seldom considered during the assessment of sediment quality. We investigated how the presence (High bioturbation) and absence (Low bioturbation) of a strongly bioturbating amphipod within three different sediments influenced metal bioavailability, survival and bioaccumulation of metals to the bivalve Tellina deltoidalis. The concentrations of dissolved copper decreased and manganese increased with increased bioturbation. For copper a strong correlation was observed between increased bivalve survival (53–100%) and dissolved concentrations in the overlying water. Increased bioturbation intensity resulted in greater tissue concentrations for chromium and zinc in some test sediments. Overall, the results highlight the strong influence that the natural bioturbation activities from one organism may have on the risk contaminants pose to other organisms within the local environment. The characterisation of field-based exposure conditions concerning the biotic or abiotic resuspension of sediments and the rate of attenuation of released contaminants through dilution or readsorption may enable laboratory-based bioassay designs to be adapted to better match those of the assessed environment. - Highlights: • Bioturbation intensity modifies metal exposure and outcomes of sediment bioassays. • Sediment fluxes of Cu decrease and Mn and Zn increase with increased bioturbation. • Strong correlations between bioaccumulated and dissolved Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu and Ni. • Weak correlations between bioaccumulated and particulate metals. - This study investigated the impact of sediment bioturbation intensity on metal bioavailability and toxicity to aquatic organisms, and the implications of this to toxicity test design.

  4. The sediments of the Venice Lagoon (Italy) evaluated in a screening risk assessment approach: part I--application of international sediment quality guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apitz, Sabine E; Barbanti, Andrea; Bocci, Martina; Carlin, Anna; Montobbio, Laura; Bernstein, Alberto Giulio

    2007-07-01

    A number of studies carried out in recent years have shown the presence of a wide range of contaminants in the Venice Lagoon. It is important to have a good understanding of the ecological quality of Venice Lagoon sediments in order to 1) define and locate areas where a threat to the environment is present and therefore an intervention is needed (i.e., in situ assessment and management); and 2) define sustainable and environmentally correct ways of managing sediments that are to be dredged for navigational purposes or in relation to other interventions (i.e., ex situ management). This study reports on a critical comparison of chemical quality of sediments in Venice Lagoon and its subregions. Data on the Venice Lagoon were compiled from several studies conducted during the past decade on surface sediment contamination; temporal variation and risks for contaminants at depth were not addressed. The comparison of observed pollutant concentrations with local and internationally used sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) was used as a tool to benchmark different sites and for a tier I (screening) ecological risk assessment. Meaning and relevance of a number of SQGs are discussed, together with the options available for carrying out the comparison with sediment data. The screening of the Venice Lagoon sediment quality is discussed from a risk-assessment perspective and appropriate values for use in an in situ-ex situ management framework are suggested. Although there were some differences depending upon which specific SQGs were applied, different SQGs provided the same general picture of screening risk in Venice Lagoon: Although there are geographic differences, median levels for several contaminants in surface sediments exceeded a number of SQGs. Many contaminants exceed threshold effects SQGs, and Hg exceeds probable effects SQGs in most sub-basins except the southern Lagoon. Venice Lagoon south has the lowest screening risk levels, Venice Lagoon central/north has the

  5. Assessing the impact of preload on pyrite-rich sediment and groundwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikari-Yeboah, Ohene; Addai-Mensah, Jonas

    2017-02-01

    Pyrite-rich sediments would, invariably, undergo redox reactions which would lead to acidic aqueous environment containing solubilized toxic metal species. When such sediments are subjected to preload, a technique employed by geotechnical engineers to improve the load-bearing capacity of highly compressible formation, transient flow of pore water, accompanied by acidity transfer, would occur as a response. Despite the concomitant environmental and socio-economic significance, to date, there has been limited interdisciplinary research on the underpinning geotechnical engineering and geo-environmental science issues for pyrite-rich sediments under preload. In this study, we investigate the effect of pyrite-rich sediment pore water transfer under preload surcharge on the receiving environment and the impact on the groundwater speciation and quality. Sediment samples were obtained at close depth intervals from boreholes established within pristine areas and those subjected to the preload application. Soil and pore water samples were subjected to solid/solution speciation, moisture contents, soil pH and the Atterberg Limits' analyses using standard analytical techniques and methods. Standpipes were also installed in the boreholes for groundwater sampling and in situ monitoring of water quality parameters. It is shown that the imposition of preload surcharge over pyritic sediment created a reducing environment rich in SO 4 2- , iron oxide minerals and organic matter. This reducing environment fostered organic carbon catabolism to generate excess pyrite and bicarbonate alkalinity, which would invariably impact adversely on soil quality and plant growth. These were accompanied by increase in pH, dissolved Al, Ca, Mg and K species beneath the surcharge.

  6. Preliminary Assessment of Silting and The Quality of Bottom Sediments in A Small Water Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bąk Łukasz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the degree of silting and pollution of bottom sediments in a small water reservoir Lubianka situated in Starachowice, Świętokrzyskie Province, with selected heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn, Hg. Catchment basin of the reservoir is forested in 92%. Other parts are covered by estates of detached houses, barren lands and green areas. Bathymetric measurements and analyses of trace elements in bottom sediments were made in 2012. After 28 years of exploitation, reservoir's basin accumulated 43 thousand cubic metres of sediments i.e. 4.7% of its initial volume. Mean annual silting rate was 0.17%. Due to the content of copper and chromium, bottom sediments were classified to the II category (sediments of average pollution according to geochemical standards. Concentrations of Pb, Cd and Hg in all analysed samples were below geochemical background. In a sample collected at the inlet to the reservoir, the TEL index for chromium was exceeded by 25.6%. In other samples the threshold values of the TEL and PEL indices were not exceeded.

  7. Field validation of a battery of biomarkers to assess sediment quality in Spanish ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Diaz, M.L. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Poligono Rio San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia, Poligono Rio San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)], E-mail: laura.martin@uca.es; Blasco, J. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia, Poligono Rio San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Sales, D. [Departamento Ciencias Ambientales y Tecnologia de los Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Poligono Rio San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); DelValls, T.A. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Poligono Rio San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2008-02-15

    Two marine invertebrates, the crab Carcinus maenas and the clam Ruditapes philippinarum, were used as bioindicator species to assess contamination when exposed in situ to sediment from different sites from four Spanish ports Cadiz (SW Spain), Huelva (SW Spain), Bilbao (NE Spain) and Pasajes (NE Spain). In an attempt to determine sediments toxicity, a combination of exposure biomarkers was analyzed in both species: metallothionein-like-proteins (MTLPs), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase activity (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR). In parallel, physical and chemical characterization of the different sediments was performed and biological responses related to the contaminants. Significant induction of MTLPs was observed when organisms were exposed to metal contaminated sediments (port of Huelva), and EROD and GPX activities after exposure to sediments containing organic compounds (port of Bilbao and Pasajes). No significant interspecies differences were observed in biomarker responses except for the GST and GR. - A battery of biomarkers shows exposure to metals and organic compounds.

  8. Field validation of a battery of biomarkers to assess sediment quality in Spanish ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Diaz, M.L.; Blasco, J.; Sales, D.; DelValls, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    Two marine invertebrates, the crab Carcinus maenas and the clam Ruditapes philippinarum, were used as bioindicator species to assess contamination when exposed in situ to sediment from different sites from four Spanish ports Cadiz (SW Spain), Huelva (SW Spain), Bilbao (NE Spain) and Pasajes (NE Spain). In an attempt to determine sediments toxicity, a combination of exposure biomarkers was analyzed in both species: metallothionein-like-proteins (MTLPs), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase activity (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR). In parallel, physical and chemical characterization of the different sediments was performed and biological responses related to the contaminants. Significant induction of MTLPs was observed when organisms were exposed to metal contaminated sediments (port of Huelva), and EROD and GPX activities after exposure to sediments containing organic compounds (port of Bilbao and Pasajes). No significant interspecies differences were observed in biomarker responses except for the GST and GR. - A battery of biomarkers shows exposure to metals and organic compounds

  9. Preliminary sediments quality assessment of the Midia Port aquatorium - Black Sea - Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catianis, I.; Ungureanu, C.; Stanica, A.

    2012-04-01

    This study shows the present environmental quality of superficial sediments within the aquatorium of an industrial harbor. These results help better understand the correlation between historical pollution and present environmental state of the harbor sediments and related environmental hazards in case of dredging. The study area is the Port of Midia, situated in Romania, western Black Sea coast. The port is located at the boundary between the Danube Delta coast (widest nature protected biosphere reserve in the EU) in the north - and the almost entirely human controlled coast - starting south of the port. Midia Harbor was first built in 1942, expanded during the late 1970`s, and currently operates as an oil and general merchandise terminal. This port receives a double impact of waters: brackish Black Sea waters, as well as Danube fresh waters arriving into the aquatorium through the inshore Danube - Black Sea Canal Lock. To understand the environmental status of the port aquatorium one sampling campaign was performed during August 2011. Samples were collected within the aquatorium and in in the surrounding area outside the harbor. For a better correlation with the particularities related to the transitions in water salinity, the aquatorium was divided into five sectors with specific characteristics: Cargo Terminal Area, Oil Terminal Enclosure Area, Ships Transit Area, Waste Oil Buffer Area and Marine Area. The following analyses were performed on water and sediment samples: physical and chemical characteristics of the waters (dissolved oxygen, temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salts, pH, redox potential, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, sulphates, heavy metals), bulk sediments (particle size, grain size distribution, mineralogy, organic matter and carbonates content, heavy minerals load, organic compounds) and microbiological and ecotoxicological assays. The grain size analysis reveals the prevalence of very fine-silt and silty-clay fractions, and

  10. Larval development ratio test with the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa as a new bioassay to assess marine sediment quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttino, Isabella; Vitiello, Valentina; Macchia, Simona; Scuderi, Alice; Pellegrini, David

    2018-03-01

    The copepod Acartia tonsa was used as a model species to assess marine sediment quality. Acute and chronic bioassays, such as larval development ratio (LDR) and different end-points were evaluated. As a pelagic species, A. tonsa is mainly exposed to water-soluble toxicants and bioassays are commonly performed in seawater. However, an interaction among A. tonsa eggs and the first larval stages with marine sediments might occur in shallow water environments. Here we tested two different LDR protocols by incubating A. tonsa eggs in elutriates and sediments coming from two areas located in Tuscany Region (Central Italy): Livorno harbour and Viareggio coast. The end-points analyzed were larval mortality (LM) and development inhibition (DI) expressed as the percentage of copepods that completed the metamorphosis from nauplius to copepodite. Aims of this study were: i) to verify the suitability of A. tonsa copepod for the bioassay with sediment and ii) to compare the sensitivity of A. tonsa exposed to different matrices, such as water and sediment. A preliminary acute test was also performed. Acute tests showed the highest toxicity of Livorno's samples (two out of three) compared to Viareggio samples, for which no effect was observed. On the contrary, LDR tests with sediments and elutriates revealed some toxic effects also for Viareggio's samples. Results were discussed with regards to the chemical characterization of the samples. Our results indicated that different end-points were affected in A. tonsa, depending on the matrices to which the copepods were exposed and on the test used. Bioassays with elutriates and sediments are suggested and LDR test could help decision-makers to identify a more appropriate management of dredging materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of stream bottom sediment quality in the vicinity of the Caldas uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Priscila E.S. de, E-mail: pge_13@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (ProAmb/UFOP), Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Ambiental; Filho, Carlos A.C.; Moreira, Rubens M.; Ramos, Maria E.A.F.; Dutra, Pedro H.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M., E-mail: cacf@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Silva, Nivaldo C., E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2015-07-01

    An evaluation of the quality of stream bottom sediments was performed in the surroundings of the Caldas Uranium Mining and Milling Facilities (UMMF), sited on Pocos de Caldas Plateau (southeastern Brazil), to verify whether the sediments in the water bodies downstream the plant, were impacted by effluents from a large waste rock pile, named Waste Rock Pile 4 (WRP4), and from the Tailings Dam (TD). In order to perform the research, twelve sampling stations were established in the watersheds around Caldas UMMF: the Soberbo creek, the Consulta brook, and the Taquari river. One of the stations was located inside the Bacia Nestor Figueiredo, a retention pond that receives effluents from WRP4, and another in a settling tank (D2) for radium, which receives the effluents from TD. A monitoring scheme has been developed, comprising four sampling campaigns in 2010 and 2011, and the samples were analyzed for selected metals-metalloids and radionuclides, using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy and Gamma-ray Spectrometry. The results suggest that effluents discharged from retention ponds to watercourses, causing an increase in the concentration of As, B, Ba, Cr, Mo, Mn, Pb, Zn, {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in sediments. Detailed investigation in sub-superficial layers is recommended at these locations to evaluate the need of implementing mitigation actions such as lining and constructing hydraulic barriers downstream the ponds. Actually, the UTM/Caldas operator is already implementing control measures. (author)

  12. Assessment of stream bottom sediment quality in the vicinity of the Caldas uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Priscila E.S. de; Silva, Nivaldo C.

    2015-01-01

    An evaluation of the quality of stream bottom sediments was performed in the surroundings of the Caldas Uranium Mining and Milling Facilities (UMMF), sited on Pocos de Caldas Plateau (southeastern Brazil), to verify whether the sediments in the water bodies downstream the plant, were impacted by effluents from a large waste rock pile, named Waste Rock Pile 4 (WRP4), and from the Tailings Dam (TD). In order to perform the research, twelve sampling stations were established in the watersheds around Caldas UMMF: the Soberbo creek, the Consulta brook, and the Taquari river. One of the stations was located inside the Bacia Nestor Figueiredo, a retention pond that receives effluents from WRP4, and another in a settling tank (D2) for radium, which receives the effluents from TD. A monitoring scheme has been developed, comprising four sampling campaigns in 2010 and 2011, and the samples were analyzed for selected metals-metalloids and radionuclides, using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy and Gamma-ray Spectrometry. The results suggest that effluents discharged from retention ponds to watercourses, causing an increase in the concentration of As, B, Ba, Cr, Mo, Mn, Pb, Zn, 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb in sediments. Detailed investigation in sub-superficial layers is recommended at these locations to evaluate the need of implementing mitigation actions such as lining and constructing hydraulic barriers downstream the ponds. Actually, the UTM/Caldas operator is already implementing control measures. (author)

  13. The combined use of the PLHC-1 cell line and the recombinant yeast assay to assess the environmental quality of estuarine and coastal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Sabine; Olivares, Alba; Piña, Benjamin; Echavarri-Erasun, Beatriz; Lacorte, Silvia; Porte, Cinta

    2013-12-15

    Sediment contamination poses a potential risk for both ecosystems and human health. Risk assessment is troublesome as sediments contain complex mixtures of toxicants, and traditional chemical analyses can neither provide information about potential hazards to organisms nor identify and measure all present contaminants. This work combines the use of the PLHC-1 cell line and the recombinant yeast assay (RYA) to assess the environmental quality of estuarine and coastal sediments. The application of multiple endpoints (cytotoxicity, generation of oxidative stress, presence of CYP1A inducing agents, micronucleus formation and estrogenicity) revealed that the organic extracts of those sediments affected by industrial activities or collected near harbours and untreated urban discharges showed significant cytotoxicity, micronuclei and CYP1A induction. The study highlights the usefulness of the applied bioassays to identify those sediments that could pose risk to aquatic organisms and that require further action to improve their environmental quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sperm quality assessment via separation and sedimentation in a microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Yu; Chiang, Tsun-Chao; Lin, Cheng-Ming; Lin, Shu-Sheng; Jong, De-Shien; Tsai, Vincent F-S; Hsieh, Ju-Ton; Wo, Andrew M

    2013-09-07

    A major reason for infertility is due to male factors, including the quality of spermatozoa, which is a primary factor and often difficult to assess, particularly the total sperm concentration and its motile percentage. This work presents a simple microfluidic device to assess sperm quality by quantifying both total and motile sperm counts. The key design feature of the microfluidic device is two channels separated by a permeative phase-guide structure, where one channel is filled with raw semen and the other with pure buffer. The semen sample was allowed to reach equilibrium in both chambers, whereas non-motile sperms remained in the original channel, and roughly half of the motile sperms would swim across the phase-guide barrier into the buffer channel. Sperms in each channel agglomerated into pellets after centrifugation, with the corresponding area representing total and motile sperm concentrations. Total sperm concentration up to 10(8) sperms per ml and motile percentage in the range of 10-70% were tested, encompassing the cutoff value of 40% stated by World Health Organization standards. Results from patient samples show compact and robust pellets after centrifugation. Comparison of total sperm concentration between the microfluidic device and the Makler chamber reveal they agree within 5% and show strong correlation, with a coefficient of determination of R(2) = 0.97. Motile sperm count between the microfluidic device and the Makler chamber agrees within 5%, with a coefficient of determination of R(2) = 0.84. Comparison of results from the Makler Chamber, sperm quality analyzer, and the microfluidic device revealed that results from the microfluidic device agree well with the Makler chamber. The sperm microfluidic chip analyzes both total and motile sperm concentrations in one spin, is accurate and easy to use, and should enable sperm quality analysis with ease.

  15. Comparative performances of eggs and embryos of sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) in toxicity bioassays used for assessment of marine sediment quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrovyan, A; Rodríguez-Romero, A; Salamanca, M J; Del Valls, T A; Riba, I; Serrano, F

    2013-05-15

    The potential toxicity of sediments from various ports was assessed by means of two different liquid-phase toxicity bioassays (acute and chronic) with embryos and eggs of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Performances of embryos and eggs of P. lividus in these bioassays were compared for their interchangeable applicability in integrated sediment quality assessment. The obtained endpoints (percentages of normally developed plutei and fertilized eggs) were linked to physical and chemical properties of sediments and demonstrated dependence on sediment contamination. The endpoints in the two bioassays were strongly correlated and generally exhibited similar tendency throughout the samples. Therein, embryos demonstrated higher sensitivity to elutriate exposure, compared to eggs. It was concluded that these tests could be used interchangeably for testing toxicity of marine sediments. Preferential use of any of the bioassays can be determined by the discriminatory capacity of the test or vulnerability consideration of the test subject to the surrounding conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality monitoring and assessment of mercury contamination in water and sediments of the Botafogo river, PE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Moraes Ferreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 80's, the riverside population of Rio Botafogo, in the Santa Cruz channel, Itamaracá has undergone critical environmental situations due to poorly planned growth and inadequate soil occupation, and as a consequence, a loss in environmental quality resulted. In 1963, an industry for production of chlorine and caustic soda produced by electrolytic cell of mercury was installed in the Botafogo river. By mid-1987, a discharge of inorganic mercury between 22 and 35 tones of mercury in this river was estimated. In addition to this industry, others of different types were installed in recent years along the sides of this river. Based on previous studies, we conducted a new assessment of contaminated sites, comparing the changes over the years concerning the quality of water and sediment of the Botafogo river, in which the locations of collection, the need to increase the network of environmental monitoring were investigated. The parameters defined for analysis of water were: pH, dissolved oxygen (OD, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, ammonia and phosphorus concentration, color, turbidity and mercury content. It was monitored the concentration of mercury in the sediments. The values of pH, turbidity, DO, BOD and ammonia usually showed values within the limits established by CONAMA Resolution No 357. Color parameters have remained consistently high, probably caused by continuous withdrawal of sand before the points of collection. The content of phosphorus was high, until the beginning of 2005, and remained within standards required by legislation until the end of this research. In the studied area, it has been installed, since 1963, an industry for chlorine and caustic soda production, which uses in its manufacturing process electrolytic cell of mercury. In this experiment, the impact of mercury has been observed.

  17. Sediment quality assessment in a coastal lagoon (Ravenna, NE Italy) based on SEM-AVS and sequential extraction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignotti, Emanuela; Guerra, Roberta; Covelli, Stefano; Fabbri, Elena; Dinelli, Enrico

    2018-09-01

    Sediments from the Pialassa Piomboni coastal lagoon (NE Italy) were studied to assess the degree of contamination and ecological risk related to trace metals by combining a geochemical characterization of bulk sediments with the assessment of the bioavailable forms of trace metals. With this purpose, sediment contamination (Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) was assessed by Enrichment Factors (EFs), and potential bioavailability by the Simultaneously Extracted Metals and Acid Volatile Sulfides (SEM-AVS) approach (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn), and by Sequential Extraction Procedure (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). On average, Cr and Ni exhibited no contamination (EF ≤1.5), and a predominance in the residual fraction of the sediment, indicating natural origin for these metals. Cu, Pb and Zn displayed a local contamination, which resulted in a higher proportion of Cu bound to the reducible and oxidizable fractions (~30% and ~40% as median, respectively), and Pb mostly associated with the reducible phase (~60% as median). Hence, Cu and Pb could be mobilized when environmental conditions become reducing or oxidizing. Zn resulted mainly partitioned into the reducible and residual fractions (~50% as median, in both fractions). The Risk Assessment Code (RAC) indicated that approximately 30% of samples had >10% of total Zn weakly bound to the sediment, suggesting a medium risk of exposure for aquatic organisms. RAC results were consistent with the ∑SEM-AVS findings, pointing to possible adverse effects for aquatic biota in ~30% of samples, with Zn mostly accounting for the total metal bioavailability. Hg showed a moderate to very severe enrichment, indicating that a substantial amount of this metal derives from anthropogenic sources and may pose adverse effects on the aquatic biota of the Pialassa Piomboni lagoon. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrative assessment of coastal pollution: Development and evaluation of sediment quality criteria from chemical contamination and ecotoxicological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Juan; Nieto, Óscar; Beiras, Ricardo

    2011-04-01

    Elutriate embryo-larval bioassays with sea-urchins ( Paracentrotus lividus) were conducted concurrently with chemical analyses of sediments and biota as part of an integrative assessment of pollution in highly productive coastal regions. High metal contents and organic compounds in sediments and mussels were found in localised areas from the inner part of the estuaries indicating a clear anthropogenic influence. In particular, average maximum concentrations of 2803 mg Cu/kg dw, 776 mg Pb/kg dw, 2.5 mg Hg/kg dw and 5803 μg ∑ 7PAHs/kg dw were measured in sediments from the most polluted sites. Significant correlations were observed between sediment chemistry and toxicity bioassays. Moreover, the Mantel test revealed a significant correlation ( rM=0.80; pbioassays identified polluted sites and quantified the level of toxicity, providing a cost-effective tool to complement the routine chemical monitoring currently conducted in European coastal waters with ecologically relevant information. This is in line with the recent European legislation that advocates the use of biological tools with the ultimate aim of protecting marine resources from anthropogenic substances that will affect their sensitive early life stages.

  19. Coastal surface sediment quality assessment in Leizhou Peninsula (South China Sea) based on SEM-AVS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Lin, Jin-qin; Liang, Yan-yan; Gan, Hua-yang; Zeng, Xiang-yun; Duan, Zhi-peng; Liang, Kai; Liu, Xing; Huo, Zhen-hai; Wu, Chang-hua

    2014-07-15

    Surface sediments from the coastal area of the Leizhou Peninsula in the South China Sea were collected and analyzed and the potential ecological risks in the area were assessed based on acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) model. The AVS levels are between 0.109 and 55.6 μmol g(-1), with the average at 4.45 μmol g(-1). The high AVS-concentration zones include the aquaculture areas of Liusha Bay and the densely populated areas of Zhanjiang Bay. The simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) range from 0.026 μmol g(-1) to 8.61 μmol g(-1), with the average at 0.843 μmol g(-1). Most of high SEM-concentration stations were located in ports or aquaculture zones. Most of the coastal surface sediments of the Leizhou Peninsula (90%) had no adverse biological effects according to the criterion proposed by USEPA (2005); while adverse effects were uncertain in some stations (8%); even in 2 stations (2%) adverse biological effects may be expected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. RELEVANCE OF ROOTED VASCULAR PLANTS AS INDICATORS OF ESTUARINE SEDIMENT QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicity assessments and numerical quality assessment guidelines for estuarine sediments are rarely based on information for aquatic plants. The effect of this lack of information on contaminated sediment evaluations is largely unknown. For this reason, the toxicities of whole se...

  1. Assessment of sediment quality based on acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals in heavily industrialized area of Asaluyeh, Persian Gulf: concentrations, spatial distributions, and sediment bioavailability/toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfaeinia, Hossein; Nabipour, Iraj; Ostovar, Afshin; Asadgol, Zahra; Abuee, Ehsan; Keshtkar, Mozhgan; Dobaradaran, Sina

    2016-05-01

    Sediment samples from the coastal area of Asaluyeh harbor were collected during autumn and spring 2015. The acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEMs) were measured to assess the sediment quality and potential ecological risks. The average concentrations (and relative standard deviation (RSD)) of AVS in the industrial sediments were 12.32 μmol/g (36.91) and 6.34 μmol/g (80.05) in autumn and spring, respectively, while in the urban area, these values were 0.44 μmol/g (123.50) and 0.31 μmol/g (160.0) in autumn and spring, respectively. The average concentrations of SEM (and RSD) in the industrial sediments were 15.02 μmol/g (14.38) and 12.34 μmol/g (20.65) in autumn and spring, respectively, while in the urban area, these values were 1.10 μmol/g (43.03) and 1.06 μmol/g (55.59) in autumn and spring, respectively. Zn was the predominant component (34.25-86.24 %) of SEM, while the corresponding value for Cd, much more toxic ingredient, was less than 1 %. Some of the coastal sediments in the harbor of Asaluyeh (20 and 47 % in autumn and spring, respectively) had expected adverse biological effects based on the suggested criterion by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), while most stations (80 and 53 % in autumn and spring, respectively) had uncertain adverse effects.

  2. Assessment of sediment quality in the Mediterranean Sea-Boughrara lagoon exchange areas (southeastern Tunisia): GIS approach-based chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharroubi, Adel; Gargouri, Dorra; Baati, Houda; Azri, Chafai

    2012-06-01

    Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe) in surface sediments from 66 sites in both northern and eastern Mediterranean Sea-Boughrara lagoon exchange areas (southeastern Tunisia) were studied in order to understand current metal contamination due to the urbanization and economic development of nearby several coastal regions of the Gulf of Gabès. Multiple approaches were applied for the sediment quality assessment. These approaches were based on GIS coupled with chemometric methods (enrichment factors, geoaccumulation index, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis). Enrichment factors and principal component analysis revealed two distinct groups of metals. The first group corresponded to Fe and Mn derived from natural sources, and the second group contained Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu originated from man-made sources. For these latter metals, cluster analysis showed two distinct distributions in the selected areas. They were attributed to temporal and spatial variations of contaminant sources input. The geoaccumulation index (I (geo)) values explained that only Cd, Pb, and Cu can be considered as moderate to extreme pollutants in the studied sediments.

  3. Distribution and ecological risk assessment of cadmium in water and sediment in Longjiang River, China: Implication on water quality management after pollution accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Min; Yao, Ling-Ai; Ma, Qian-Li; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Wang, Li; Fang, Qiao-Li; Xu, Zhen-Cheng

    2018-03-01

    In early January 2012, the Longjiang River was subjected to a serious cadmium (Cd) pollution accident, which led to negatively environmental and social impacts. A series of measures of emergency treatment were subsequently taken to reduce water Cd level. However, little information was available about the change of Cd level in environmental matrices and long-term effect of this pollution accident to aquatic ecosystem. Thus, this study investigated the distribution of Cd in water and sediment of this river for two years since pollution accident, as well as assessed its ecological risk to aquatic ecosystem of Longjiang River. The results showed that it was efficient for taking emergency treatment measures to decrease water Cd concentration to below the threshold value of national drinking water quality standard of China. There was high risk (HQ > 1) to aquatic ecosystem in some of reaches between February and July 2012, but low or no risk (HQ polluted reaches increased after pollution accident and emergency treatments in 2012, but decreased in 2013. During flood period, the sediment containing high concentration of Cd in Longjiang River was migrated to downstream Liujiang River. Cd content in sediment was reduced to background level after two years of the pollution accident occurrence. The study provides basic information about Cd levels in different media after pollution accident, which is helpful in evaluating the effectiveness of emergency treatments and the variation of ecological risk, as well as in conducting water management and conservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sediment Quality of the SW Coastal Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China: A Comprehensive Assessment Based on the Analysis of Heavy Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuelu; Zhuang, Wen; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Historically, the Bohai Sea is one of the most important fishing grounds in China. Yet, surrounded by one of the biggest economic rims of China, its ecological functions have been declining rapidly in recent two decades under the heavy anthropogenic impacts. The Laizhou Bay is the smallest one of the three main bays in the Bohai Sea. Owing to the rich brine deposits, chemical industries using brine as raw materials are booming in the southern coast of the Laizhou Bay, the scale of which ranks as the largest one in China. In order to monitor and assess the environmental quality, surface sediments were collected from the coastal waters of southwestern Laizhou Bay and the rivers it connects with during summer and autumn in 2012, and analyzed for heavy metals. Several widely adopted methods were used in the overall assessment of heavy metal pollution status and potential ecological risks in these sediments, and the data were analyzed to infer the main sources of the pollutants. The results showed that the remarkably high concentrations of heavy metals were almost all recorded in a small number of riverine sites. Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were the main environmental threat according to the sediment quality guidelines. The marine area was generally in good condition with no or low risk from the studied metals and adverse effects on biota could hardly occur. Natural sources dominated the concentrations and distributions of Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the marine area. Our results indicated that heavy metal pollution was not a main cause of the ecological degradation of the Laizhou Bay at present. PMID:25816338

  5. Sediment quality of the SW coastal Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China: a comprehensive assessment based on the analysis of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuelu; Zhuang, Wen; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Historically, the Bohai Sea is one of the most important fishing grounds in China. Yet, surrounded by one of the biggest economic rims of China, its ecological functions have been declining rapidly in recent two decades under the heavy anthropogenic impacts. The Laizhou Bay is the smallest one of the three main bays in the Bohai Sea. Owing to the rich brine deposits, chemical industries using brine as raw materials are booming in the southern coast of the Laizhou Bay, the scale of which ranks as the largest one in China. In order to monitor and assess the environmental quality, surface sediments were collected from the coastal waters of southwestern Laizhou Bay and the rivers it connects with during summer and autumn in 2012, and analyzed for heavy metals. Several widely adopted methods were used in the overall assessment of heavy metal pollution status and potential ecological risks in these sediments, and the data were analyzed to infer the main sources of the pollutants. The results showed that the remarkably high concentrations of heavy metals were almost all recorded in a small number of riverine sites. Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were the main environmental threat according to the sediment quality guidelines. The marine area was generally in good condition with no or low risk from the studied metals and adverse effects on biota could hardly occur. Natural sources dominated the concentrations and distributions of Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the marine area. Our results indicated that heavy metal pollution was not a main cause of the ecological degradation of the Laizhou Bay at present.

  6. Sediment quality of the SW coastal Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China: a comprehensive assessment based on the analysis of heavy metals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelu Gao

    Full Text Available Historically, the Bohai Sea is one of the most important fishing grounds in China. Yet, surrounded by one of the biggest economic rims of China, its ecological functions have been declining rapidly in recent two decades under the heavy anthropogenic impacts. The Laizhou Bay is the smallest one of the three main bays in the Bohai Sea. Owing to the rich brine deposits, chemical industries using brine as raw materials are booming in the southern coast of the Laizhou Bay, the scale of which ranks as the largest one in China. In order to monitor and assess the environmental quality, surface sediments were collected from the coastal waters of southwestern Laizhou Bay and the rivers it connects with during summer and autumn in 2012, and analyzed for heavy metals. Several widely adopted methods were used in the overall assessment of heavy metal pollution status and potential ecological risks in these sediments, and the data were analyzed to infer the main sources of the pollutants. The results showed that the remarkably high concentrations of heavy metals were almost all recorded in a small number of riverine sites. Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were the main environmental threat according to the sediment quality guidelines. The marine area was generally in good condition with no or low risk from the studied metals and adverse effects on biota could hardly occur. Natural sources dominated the concentrations and distributions of Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the marine area. Our results indicated that heavy metal pollution was not a main cause of the ecological degradation of the Laizhou Bay at present.

  7. Assessment of the Water and Sediment Quality of Tropical Forest Streams in Upper Reaches of the Baleh River, Sarawak, Malaysia, Subjected to Logging Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck-Yee Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the impact of logging activities on water and sediment quality of Sarawak forest streams is still scarce despite Sarawak being the largest exporter of timber in Malaysia. This study was aimed at determining the water and sediment quality of forest streams in Sarawak and the potential impact of logging activities. In situ parameters were measured, and water and sediment samples were collected at six stations before rain. Additionally, water quality was investigated at three stations after rain. The results showed that canopy removal resulted in large temperature variation and sedimentation in the forest streams. Lower suspended solids were found at stations with inactive logging (<2 mg/L compared to active logging (10–16 mg/L activities. The highest concentration of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in water and sediment was 4.4 mg/L, 77.6 μg/L, 0.17%, and 0.01%, respectively. Besides, significantly negative correlation of sediment nitrogen and water total ammonia nitrogen indicated the loss of nitrogen from sediment to water. Water quality of the streams deteriorated after rain, in particular, suspended solids which increased from 8.3 mg/L to 104.1 mg/L. This study reveals that logging activities have an impact on the water quality of Sarawak forest streams particularly in rainfall events.

  8. Water and sediment quality assessment in the Colastiné-Corralito stream system (Santa Fe, Argentina): impact of industry and agriculture on aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regaldo, Luciana; Gutierrez, María F; Reno, Ulises; Fernández, Viviana; Gervasio, Susana; Repetti, María R; Gagneten, Ana M

    2018-03-01

    The present study focuses on the evaluation of metal (chromium, copper, and lead), arsenic, and pesticide (atrazine and endosulfan) contamination in freshwater streams of one of the most important agricultural and industrial areas of central-eastern Argentina, which has not been reported earlier. The environmental fate of inorganic microcontaminants and pesticides was assessed. Samples were collected monthly for a year. Pesticide concentrations were measured in water; metal and arsenic concentrations were measured in water and sediments, and physicochemical variables were analyzed. In most cases, metals and arsenic in water exceeded the established guideline levels for the protection of aquatic biota: 98 and 56.25% of the samples showed higher levels of Cr and Pb, while 81.25 and 85% of the samples presented higher values for Cu and As, respectively. Cr, Pb, Cu, and As exceeded 181.5 times, 41.6 times, 57.5 times, and 12.9 times, respectively, the guideline level values. In sediment samples, permitted levels were also surpassed by 40% for Pb, 15% for As, 4% for Cu, and 2% for Cr. Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) demonstrated that most of the sediment samples were highly polluted by Cr and Cu and very seriously polluted by Pb, which indicates progressive deterioration of the sediment quality. Atrazine never exceeded them, but 27% of the 48 water samples contained total endosulfan that surpassed the guidelines. The findings of this study suggest risk to the freshwater biota over prolong periods and possible risk to humans if such type of contaminated water is employed for recreation or human use. Improper disposal of industrial effluents and agricultural runoffs need to be controlled, and proper treatment should be done before disposal to avoid further deterioration of the aquifers of this area.

  9. The use of amino acid indices for assessing organic matter quality and microbial abundance in deep-sea Antarctic sediments of IODP Expedition 318

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Stephanie A; Mills, Christopher T.; Mandernack, Kevin W

    2016-01-01

    The Adélie Basin, located offshore of the Wilkes Land margin, experiences unusually high sedimentation rates (~ 2 cm yr− 1) for the Antarctic coast. This study sought to compare depthwise changes in organic matter (OM) quantity and quality with changes in microbial biomass with depth at this high-deposition site and an offshore continental margin site. Sediments from both sites were collected during the International Ocean Drilling (IODP) Program Expedition 318. Viable microbial biomass was estimated from concentrations of bacterial-derived phospholipid fatty acids, while OM quality was assessed using four different amino acid degradation proxies. Concentrations of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) measured from the continental margin suggest an oligotrophic environment, with THAA concentrations representing only 2% of total organic carbon with relative proportions of non-protein amino acids β-alanine and γ-aminobutyric acid as high as 40%. In contrast, THAA concentrations from the near-shore Adélie Basin represent 40%–60% of total organic carbon. Concentrations of β-alanine and γ-aminobutyric acid were often below the detection limit and suggest that the OM of the basin as labile. DI values in surface sediments at the Adélie and margin sites were measured to be + 0.78 and − 0.76, reflecting labile and more recalcitrant OM, respectively. Greater DI values in deeper and more anoxic portions of both cores correlated positively with increased relative concentrations of phenylalanine plus tyrosine and may represent a change of redox conditions, rather than OM quality. This suggests that DI values calculated along chemical profiles should be interpreted with caution. THAA concentrations, the percentage of organic carbon (CAA%) and total nitrogen (NAA%) represented by amino acids at both sites demonstrated a significant positive correlation with bacterial abundance estimates. These data suggest that the selective degradation of amino acids, as

  10. Water-quality assessment of the Lower Susquehanna River Basin, Pennsylvania and Maryland; sources, characteristics, analysis and limitations of nutrient and suspended-sediment data, 1975-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainly, R.A.; Loper, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    data were available. Atmospheric deposition is the dominant source of nitrogen for the mostly forested basins draining the upper half of the study unit. The estimate of total annual nitrogen load to the study unit from precipitation is 98.8 million pounds. Nonpoint and point sources of nutrients were estimated. Nonpoint and point sources combined, including atmospheric deposition, provide a potential annual load of 390 million pounds of nitrogen and 79.5 million pounds of phosphorus. The range of percentages of the estimated nonpoint and point sources that were measured in the stream was 20 to 47 percent for nitrogen and 6 to 14 percent for phosphorus. On the average, the Susquehanna River discharges 141,000 pounds of nitrogen and 7,920 pounds of phosphorus to the Lower Susquehanna River reservoir system each year. About 98 percent of the nitrogen and 60 percent of the phosphorus passes through the reservoir system. Interpretations of available water-quality data and conclusions about the water quality of the Lower Susquehanna River Basin were limited by the scarcity of certain types of water-quality data and current ancillary data. A more complete assessment of the water quality of the basin with respect to nutrients and suspended sediment would be enhanced by the availability of additional data for multiple samples over time from all water environments; samples from streams in the northern and western part of the basin; samples from streams and springs throughout the basin during high base-flow or stormflow conditions; and information on current land-use, and nutrient loading from all types of land-use settings.

  11. US Environmental Protection Agency National Coastal Assessment for Hawaii 2002: Water Quality, Fish Taxon, Sediment Chemistry Data (NODC Accession 0061250)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2002, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) National Coastal Assessment (NCA), in conjunction with...

  12. Assessing land use, sedimentation, and water quality stressors as predictors of coral reef condition in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, L M; Fisher, W S; Fore, L; Smith, A; Bradley, P

    2018-03-13

    Coral reef condition on the south shore of St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, was assessed at various distances from Charlotte Amalie, the most densely populated city on the island. Human influence in the area includes industrial activity, wastewater discharge, cruise ship docks, and impervious surfaces throughout the watershed. Anthropogenic activity was characterized using a landscape development intensity (LDI) index, sedimentation threat (ST) estimates, and water quality (WQ) impairments in the near-coastal zone. Total three-dimensional coral cover, reef rugosity, and coral diversity had significant negative coefficients for LDI index, as did densities of dominant species Orbicella annularis, Orbicella franksi, Montastraea cavernosa, Orbicella faveolata, and Porites porites. However, overall stony coral colony density was not significantly correlated with stressors. Positive relationships between reef rugosity and ST, between coral diversity and ST, and between coral diversity and WQ were unexpected because these stressors are generally thought to negatively influence coral growth and health. Sponge density was greater with higher disturbance indicators (ST and WQ), consistent with reports of greater resistance by sponges to degraded water quality compared to stony corals. The highest FoRAM (Foraminifera in Reef Assessment and Monitoring) indices indicating good water quality were found offshore from the main island and outside the harbor. Negative associations between stony coral metrics and LDI index have been reported elsewhere in the Caribbean and highlight LDI index potential as a spatial tool to characterize land-based anthropogenic stressor gradients relevant to coral reefs. Fewer relationships were found with an integrated stressor index but with similar trends in response direction.

  13. Water-quality assessment of the Rio Grande Valley study unit, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas: analysis of selected nutrient, suspended-sediment, and pesticide data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderholm, S.K.; Radell, M.J.; Richey, S.F.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a summary of data compiled from sources throughout the Rio Grande Valley study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment program. Information presented includes the sources and types of water-quality data available, the utility of water-quality data for statistical analysis, and a description of recent water-quality conditions and trends and their relation to natural and human factors. Water-quality data are limited to concentrations of selected nutrient species in surface water and ground water, concentrations of suspended sediment and suspended solids in surface water, and pesticides in surface water, ground water, and biota.The Rio Grande Valley study unit includes about 45,900 square miles in Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas upstream from the streamflow-monitoring station Rio Grande at El Paso, Texas. The area also includes the San Luis Closed Basin and the surface-water closed basins east of the Continental Divide and north of the United States-Mexico international border. The Rio Grande drains about 29,300 square miles in these States; the remainder of the study unit area is in closed basins. Concentrations of all nutrients found in surface-water samples collected from the Rio Grande, with the exception of phosphorus, generally remained nearly constant from the northernmost station in the study unit to Rio Grande near Isleta, where concentrations were larger by an order of magnitude. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads increased downstream between Lobatos, Colorado, and Albuquerque, New Mexico. Nutrient concentrations remained elevated with slight variations until downstream from Elephant Butte Reservoir, where nutrient concentrations were lower. Nutrient concentrations then increased downstream from the reservoir, as evidenced by elevated concentrations at Rio Grande at El Paso, Texas.Suspended-sediment concentrations were similar at stations upstream from Otowi Bridge near San Ildefonso, New Mexico. The concentration and

  14. A preliminary assessment of the spatial sources of contemporary suspended sediment in the Ohio River basin, United States, using water quality data from the NASQAN programme in a source tracing procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.-S.; Collins, A.L.; Horowitz, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Reliable information on catchment scale suspended sediment sources is required to inform the design of management strategies for helping abate the numerous environmental issues associated with enhanced sediment mobilization and off-site loadings. Since sediment fingerprinting techniques avoid many of the logistical constraints associated with using more traditional indirect measurement methods at catchment scale, such approaches have been increasingly reported in the international literature and typically use data sets collected specifically for sediment source apportionment purposes. There remains scope for investigating the potential for using geochemical data sets assembled by routine monitoring programmes to fingerprint sediment provenance. In the United States, routine water quality samples are collected as part of the US Geological Survey's revised National Stream Quality Accounting Network programme. Accordingly, the geochemistry data generated from these samples over a 10-year period (1996-2006) were used as the basis for a fingerprinting exercise to assess the key tributary sub-catchment spatial sources of contemporary suspended sediment transported by the Ohio River. Uncertainty associated with the spatial source estimates was quantified using a Monte Carlo approach in conjunction with mass balance modelling. Relative frequency weighted means were used as an alternative way of summarizing the spatial source contributions, thereby avoiding the need to use confidence limits. The results should be interpreted in the context of the routine, but infrequent nature, of the suspended sediment samples used to assemble geochemistry as a basis for the sourcing exercise. Nonetheless, the study demonstrates how routine monitoring samples can be used to provide some preliminary information on sediment provenance in large drainage basins. ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A comparison of sediment quality results with acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) ratio in Vojvodina (Serbia) sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prica, M; Dalmacija, B; Roncević, S; Krcmar, D; Becelić, M

    2008-01-25

    The acid-volatile sulfide (AVS), simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), total metals, and pore-water metal concentrations were studied in Vojvodina (Serbia) sediments. In Serbia, there are no regulations concerning sediment quality standards and sediment management. Harmonization of legislation in the domain of environmental protection with EU requirements will increase the significance of the sediment issue. Sediment quality was assessed according to Dutch standards, but the results were also compared with Canadian and USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) guidelines for sediment quality. A comparison of the results based on different criteria for sediment quality assessment shows that they are sometimes contradictory. Therefore, a single approach to quality assessment may be insufficient. The Sigma[SEM]/[AVS] ratio was found to be greater than one at several locations that were already recognized as places of high risk based on Dutch standards. Some other samples had Sigma[SEM]/[AVS]AVS]>1 can cause increased toxicity because there are many other metal-binding phases in sediments. Metals that are associated with AVS may be released within sediments through storms, dredging activities, oxidation, etc., and may have adverse environmental impacts. This has to be taken into account during dredging, which is for some sediments necessary because the sediment is of class 4 (Dutch evaluation), because the dredging process will certainly increase the concentration of bioavailable heavy metals and disturb the sedimentation dynamics. The obtained results will be invaluable for future activities regarding dredging and sediment management in the country.

  16. Metal assessment in sediments from the Guarapiranga Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho, Suellen N.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Quináglia, Gilson A., E-mail: sncoutinho@usp.br, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br, E-mail: gquinaglia@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The study of the distribution of metals in sediments is very important from the point of view of environmental pollution once the sediment concentrates metals in aquatic systems and represents a relevant contamination monitor. The analysis of sediments has been used to evaluate the quality of aquatic systems in relation to the concentration of metals. This study aimed to assess sediment contamination by metals in the Guarapiranga Reservoir. Sediment and water samples were analyzed by ICP OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry) for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn and by CV AAS (Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry) for Hg. The sediment samples results were compared to TEL (Threshold Effect Level) and PEL (Probable Effect Level) guidance values and RRV (Reference Regional Values). Geoaccumulation Index (I{sub geo}) was calculated to evaluate metals pollution degree using reference values established for metals and metalloids in sediments from the Upper Tietê Basin and E{sub H}-pH diagrams were applied to explain chemical forms and bioavailability of toxic metals in sediment samples. In general, most of the analyzed elements exceeded TEL values and Cr, Cu and Zn exceeded RRV guidelines. The high concentrations of Cu found in this reservoir can be explained by the frequent application of CuSO{sub 4} algicide, mainly at sampling site S-03. The I{sub geo} indicated moderated polluted sediments by Zn and moderately to extremely polluted sediments by Cu, especially at S-03, in agreement with the TEL, PEL and RRV values comparison. These results may indicate potential risk of the reservoir water quality. (author)

  17. Metal assessment in sediments from the Guarapiranga Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, Suellen N.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Quináglia, Gilson A.

    2017-01-01

    The study of the distribution of metals in sediments is very important from the point of view of environmental pollution once the sediment concentrates metals in aquatic systems and represents a relevant contamination monitor. The analysis of sediments has been used to evaluate the quality of aquatic systems in relation to the concentration of metals. This study aimed to assess sediment contamination by metals in the Guarapiranga Reservoir. Sediment and water samples were analyzed by ICP OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry) for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn and by CV AAS (Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry) for Hg. The sediment samples results were compared to TEL (Threshold Effect Level) and PEL (Probable Effect Level) guidance values and RRV (Reference Regional Values). Geoaccumulation Index (I geo ) was calculated to evaluate metals pollution degree using reference values established for metals and metalloids in sediments from the Upper Tietê Basin and E H -pH diagrams were applied to explain chemical forms and bioavailability of toxic metals in sediment samples. In general, most of the analyzed elements exceeded TEL values and Cr, Cu and Zn exceeded RRV guidelines. The high concentrations of Cu found in this reservoir can be explained by the frequent application of CuSO 4 algicide, mainly at sampling site S-03. The I geo indicated moderated polluted sediments by Zn and moderately to extremely polluted sediments by Cu, especially at S-03, in agreement with the TEL, PEL and RRV values comparison. These results may indicate potential risk of the reservoir water quality. (author)

  18. Assessing ecorelevance of emerging chemicals in sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Selck, Henriette; Salvito, D.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of the Great Lakes and elsewhere has detected the presence of a wide variety of chemicals which has raised concern that these chemicals pose risks to resident species. Sediments are of particular interest due to their tendency to accumulate hydrophobic and persistent...... chemicals and because less is known about toxic effects of chemicals to sediment-feeding organisms than to pelagic species. Data collected on the polycyclic musks provides available evidence relevant to assessing exposure and effects in Great Lakes' sediments. Studies at Roskilde University demonstrate how...

  19. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: wasoares@sp.gov.br, E-mail: gquinaglia@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2013-07-01

    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  20. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Quinaglia, Gilson A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2013-01-01

    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  1. Historical variations of Bera Lake (Malaysia) sediments geochemistry using radioisotopes and sediment quality indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadreza Gharibreza; John Kuna Raj; Ismail Yusoff; Zainudin Othman; Wan Zakaria Wan Muhamad Tahir; Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    The Bera Lake basin is a lacustrine mire system and the largest natural lake in Peninsular Malaysia. Three cores were collected from the lake sediments in order to assess sediment quality and ecological risks for aquatic life and human health. An index analysis approach (C f , C d , E r , and IR) and fallout 210 Pb and 137 Cs radioisotopes were applied to assess the impacts of environmental evolutionary changes. Sediment chronology was determined using the Constant Rate of Supply model with the resultant ages verified by 137 Cs horizons. Although the general contamination factors indicate low risk conditions in Bera Lake the risks associated with individual layers ranged from moderate to considerable. Five deforestation phases can be identified in the dated sediment cores with distinct variations in heavy metal influxes since 1972. These phases are in excellent agreement with the dates of land clearance and development projects undertaken over the past four decades. This study has highlighted the capability of contamination factors and chronological methods in environmental evolutionary studies where catchments have experienced extensive land use changes. The destiny of heavy metal influxes into a lake can also be revealed using this methodology. (author)

  2. Conceptualizing the role of sediment in sustaining ecosystem services: Sediment-ecosystem regional assessment (SEcoRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apitz, Sabine E

    2012-01-15

    There is a growing trend to include a consideration of ecosystem services, the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems, within decision frameworks. Not more than a decade ago, sediment management efforts were largely site-specific and held little attention except in terms of managing contaminant inputs and addressing sediments as a nuisance at commercial ports and harbors. Sediments figure extensively in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment; however, contaminated sediment is not the dominant concern. Rather, the focus is on land and water use and management on the landscape scale, which can profoundly affect soil and sediment quality, quantity and fate. Habitat change and loss, due to changes in sediment inputs, whether reductions (resulting in the loss of beaches, storm protection, nutrient inputs, etc.) or increases (resulting in lake, reservoir and wetland infilling, coral reef smothering, etc.); eutrophication and reductions in nutrient inputs, and disturbance due to development and fishing practices are considered major drivers, with significant consequences for biodiversity and the provision and resilience of ecosystem functions and services. As a mobile connecting medium between various parts of the ecosystem via the hydrocycle, sediments both contaminated and uncontaminated, play both positive and negative roles in the viability and sustainability of social, economic, and ecological objectives. How these roles are interpreted depends upon whether sediment status (defined in terms of sediment quality, quantity, location and transport) is appropriate to the needs of a given endpoint; understanding and managing the dynamic interactions of sediment status on a diverse range of endpoints at the landscape or watershed scale should be the focus of sediment management. This paper seeks to provide a language and conceptual framework upon which sediment-ecosystem regional assessments (SEcoRAs) can be developed in support of that goal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B

  3. Predicting pollutant concentrations in the water column during dredging operations: Implications for sediment quality criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, Julio Cesar; Wasserman, Maria Angélica V.; Barrocas, Paulo Rubens G.; Almeida, Aline Mansur

    2016-01-01

    The development of new dredging techniques that can reduce, or at least predict, the environmental impacts, is in high demand by governments in developing countries. In the present work, a new methodology was developed, to evaluate the level of metals contamination (i.e. cadmium, lead and zinc) of the water column, during a dredging operation. This methodology was used to evaluate the impacts of the construction of a new maritime terminal in Sepetiba Bay, Brazil. The methodology quantifies the amount of resuspended sediments and calculates the expected contaminants concentrations in the water column. The results indicated that sediment quality criteria were not compatible with water quality criteria, because the dredging of contaminated sediments does not necessarily yield contaminated water. It is suggested that the use of sediment quality criteria for dredging operations might be abandoned, and the methodology presented in this study applied to assess dredging's environmental impacts, predicting water contamination levels. - Graphical abstract: A graphic model showing transference of contaminants from the sediments to the water column. The dark sediment area represents the dredged sediments and the arrows emerging from them represent the resuspended sediments affecting the water column. - Highlights: •Developing countries demand for new dredging projects. •A new model evaluates concentrations of metals in the water, caused by dredging. •The model shows that water and sediment quality criteria are not compatible. •Local hydrodynamics have a strong influence on the contamination of the water. •Management of dredging operations reduces environmental contamination.

  4. Effects of dredging operations on sediment quality. Contaminant mobilization in dredged sediments from the Port of Santos, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Ronaldo J.; Santos, Fernando C.; Mozeto, Antonio A. [Lab. de Biogeoquimica Ambiental, Dept. de Quimica, Univ. Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Abessa, Denis M.S.; Maranho, Luciane A.; Davanso, Marcela B. [Campus Experimental do Litoral Paulista, UNESP - Univ. Estadual Paulista ' Julio de Mesquita Filho' , Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Marcos R.L. do [Lab. de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC), CNEN-Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, MG (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    Background, aim, and scope Contaminated sediments are a worldwide problem, and mobilization of contaminants is one of the most critical issues in environmental risk assessment insofar as dredging projects are concerned. The investigation of how toxic compounds are mobilized during dredging operations in the channel of the Port of Santos, Brazil, was conducted in an attempt to assess changes in the bioavailability and toxicity of these contaminants. Materials and methods Bulk sediment samples and their interstitial waters and elutriates were subjected to chemical evaluation and ecotoxicological assessment. Samples were collected from the channel before dredging, from the dredge's hopper, and from the disposal site and its surroundings. Results The results indicate that the bulk sediments from the dredging site are contaminated moderately with As, Pb, and Zn and severely with Hg, and that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations are relatively high. Our results also show a 50% increase in PAH concentrations in suspended solids in the water collected from the hopper dredge. This finding is of great concern, since it refers to the dredge overflow water which is pumped back into the ecosystem. Acute toxicity tests on bulk sediment using the amphipod Tiburonella viscana showed no toxicity, while chronic tests with the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus showed toxicity in the interstitial waters and elutriates. Results are compared with widely used sediment quality guidelines and with a sediment quality assessment scheme based on various lines of evidence. Conclusions The data presented here indicate that the sediments collected in this port show a certain degree of contamination, especially those from the inner part of the channel. The classification established in this study indicated that sediments from the dredged channel are impacted detrimentally and that sea disposal may disperse contaminants. According to this classification, the sediments are

  5. Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff R. Hupp; Michael R. Schening

    2000-01-01

    Sedimentation is arguably the most important water-quality concern in the United States. Sediment trapping is cited frequently as a major function of riverine-forested wetlands, yet little is known about sedimcntation rates at the landscape scale in relation to site parameters, including woody vegetation type, elevation, velocity, and hydraulic connection to the river...

  6. On the necessity of ecotoxicological assessments of aquatic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, F.

    1992-01-01

    The guidelines for dredged material adopted by the Oslo Commission in June 1991 impose stricter obligations on its member states regarding the management of dredged material in the marine environment. It can be assumed that the basic ideas of these guidelines will become the model for inland waterways as well. For an environmentally acceptable management of dredging operations and the collection of evidence against polluters, ecotoxicological investigations on the behaviour of contaminants in waters are required in addition to chemical analyses. The practical application of these guidelines is hampered by the fact that no standardized biotests for sediments exist in Germany to date. The paper describes situations in which standardized biotest methods of aquatic ecotoxicology can already be used. A concept for the biological assessment of sediments is still lacking. It is necessary to define quality objectives for the evaluation of chemical and ecotoxicological data with a view to ecologically acceptable management of dredged material. (orig.) [de

  7. Quality Assessment in Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, Jeffrey M.; Das, Prajnan

    2012-01-01

    The movement to improve healthcare quality has led to a need for carefully designed quality indicators that accurately reflect the quality of care. Many different measures have been proposed and continue to be developed by governmental agencies and accrediting bodies. However, given the inherent differences in the delivery of care among medical specialties, the same indicators will not be valid across all of them. Specifically, oncology is a field in which it can be difficult to develop quality indicators, because the effectiveness of an oncologic intervention is often not immediately apparent, and the multidisciplinary nature of the field necessarily involves many different specialties. Existing and emerging comparative effectiveness data are helping to guide evidence-based practice, and the increasing availability of these data provides the opportunity to identify key structure and process measures that predict for quality outcomes. The increasing emphasis on quality and efficiency will continue to compel the medical profession to identify appropriate quality measures to facilitate quality improvement efforts and to guide accreditation, credentialing, and reimbursement. Given the wide-reaching implications of quality metrics, it is essential that they be developed and implemented with scientific rigor. The aims of the present report were to review the current state of quality assessment in oncology, identify existing indicators with the best evidence to support their implementation, and propose a framework for identifying and refining measures most indicative of true quality in oncologic care.

  8. Quality Assessment in Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Jeffrey M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Das, Prajnan, E-mail: prajdas@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The movement to improve healthcare quality has led to a need for carefully designed quality indicators that accurately reflect the quality of care. Many different measures have been proposed and continue to be developed by governmental agencies and accrediting bodies. However, given the inherent differences in the delivery of care among medical specialties, the same indicators will not be valid across all of them. Specifically, oncology is a field in which it can be difficult to develop quality indicators, because the effectiveness of an oncologic intervention is often not immediately apparent, and the multidisciplinary nature of the field necessarily involves many different specialties. Existing and emerging comparative effectiveness data are helping to guide evidence-based practice, and the increasing availability of these data provides the opportunity to identify key structure and process measures that predict for quality outcomes. The increasing emphasis on quality and efficiency will continue to compel the medical profession to identify appropriate quality measures to facilitate quality improvement efforts and to guide accreditation, credentialing, and reimbursement. Given the wide-reaching implications of quality metrics, it is essential that they be developed and implemented with scientific rigor. The aims of the present report were to review the current state of quality assessment in oncology, identify existing indicators with the best evidence to support their implementation, and propose a framework for identifying and refining measures most indicative of true quality in oncologic care.

  9. Power quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathi, H.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The electrical power systems are exposed to different types of power quality disturbances problems. Assessment of power quality is necessary for maintaining accurate operation of sensitive equipment's especially for nuclear installations, it also ensures that unnecessary energy losses in a power system are kept at a minimum which lead to more profits. With advanced in technology growing of industrial / commercial facilities in many region. Power quality problems have been a major concern among engineers; particularly in an industrial environment, where there are many large-scale type of equipment. Thus, it would be useful to investigate and mitigate the power quality problems. Assessment of Power quality requires the identification of any anomalous behavior on a power system, which adversely affects the normal operation of electrical or electronic equipment. The choice of monitoring equipment in a survey is also important to ascertain a solution to these power quality problems. A power quality assessment involves gathering data resources; analyzing the data (with reference to power quality standards); then, if problems exist, recommendation of mitigation techniques must be considered. The main objective of the present work is to investigate and mitigate of power quality problems in nuclear installations. Normally electrical power is supplied to the installations via two sources to keep good reliability. Each source is designed to carry the full load. The Assessment of power quality was performed at the nuclear installations for both sources at different operation conditions. The thesis begins with a discussion of power quality definitions and the results of previous studies in power quality monitoring. The assessment determines that one source of electricity was deemed to have relatively good power quality; there were several disturbances, which exceeded the thresholds. Among of them are fifth harmonic, voltage swell, overvoltage and flicker. While the second

  10. Regional Models for Sediment Toxicity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper investigates the use of empirical models to predict the toxicity of sediment samples within a region to laboratory test organisms based on sediment chemistry. In earlier work, we used a large nationwide database of matching sediment chemistry and marine amphipod sedim...

  11. Patent Assessment Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Paul F.; Reitzig, Markus

    2006-01-01

    The increasing number of patent applications worldwide and the extension of patenting to the areas of software and business methods have triggered a debate on "patent quality". While patent quality may have various dimensions, this paper argues that consistency in the decision making on the side...... of the patent office is one important dimension, particularly in new patenting areas (emerging technologies). In order to understand whether patent offices appear capable of providing consistent assessments of a patent's technological quality in such novel industries from the beginning, we study the concordance...... of the European Patent Office's (EPO's) granting and opoposition decisions for individual patents. We use the historical example of biotech patens filed between 1978 until 1986, the early stage of the industry. Our results indicate that the EPO shows systematically different assessments of technological quality...

  12. Effects-based spatial assessment of contaminated estuarine sediments from Bear Creek, Baltimore Harbor, MD, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, Sharon E; Unger, Michael A; McGee, Beth L; Wilson, Sacoby M; Yonkos, Lance T

    2017-10-01

    Estuarine sediments in regions with prolonged histories of industrial activity are often laden to significant depths with complex contaminant mixtures, including trace metals and persistent organic pollutants. Given the complexity of assessing risks from multi-contaminant exposures, the direct measurement of impacts to biological receptors is central to characterizing contaminated sediment sites. Though biological consequences are less commonly assessed at depth, laboratory-based toxicity testing of subsurface sediments can be used to delineate the scope of contamination at impacted sites. The extent and depth of sediment toxicity in Bear Creek, near Baltimore, Maryland, USA, was delineated using 10-day acute toxicity tests with the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus, and chemical analysis of trace metals and persistent organic pollutants. A gradient of toxicity was demonstrated in surface sediments with 21 of 22 tested sites differing significantly from controls. Effects were most pronounced (100% lethality) at sites proximate to a historic industrial complex. Sediments from eight of nine core samples to depths of 80 cm were particularly impacted (i.e., caused significant lethality to L. plumulosus) even in locations overlain with relatively non-toxic surface sediments, supporting a conclusion that toxicity observed at the surface (top 2 cm) does not adequately predict toxicity at depth. In seven of nine sites, toxicity of surface sediments differed from toxicity at levels beneath by 28 to 69%, in five instances underestimating toxicity (28 to 69%), and in two instances overestimating toxicity (44 to 56%). Multiple contaminants exceeded sediment quality guidelines and correlated positively with toxic responses within surface sediments (e.g., chromium, nickel, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), total petroleum hydrocarbon). Use of an antibody-based PAH biosensor revealed that porewater PAH concentrations also increased with depth at most sites. This

  13. Assessing Sediment Yield and the Effect of Best Management Practices on Sediment Yield Reduction for Tutuila Island, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leta, O. T.; Dulai, H.; El-Kadi, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    Upland soil erosion and sedimentation are the main threats for riparian and coastal reef ecosystems in Pacific islands. Here, due to small size of the watersheds and steep slope, the residence time of rainfall runoff and its suspended load is short. Fagaalu bay, located on the island of Tutuila (American Samoa) has been identified as a priority watershed, due to degraded coral reef condition and reduction of stream water quality from heavy anthropogenic activity yielding high nutrients and sediment loads to the receiving water bodies. This study aimed to estimate the sediment yield to the Fagaalu stream and assess the impact of Best Management Practices (BMP) on sediment yield reduction. For this, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied, calibrated, and validated for both daily streamflow and sediment load simulation. The model also estimated the sediment yield contributions from existing land use types of Fagaalu and identified soil erosion prone areas for introducing BMP scenarios in the watershed. Then, three BMP scenarios, such as stone bund, retention pond, and filter strip were treated on bare (quarry area), agricultural, and shrub land use types. It was found that the bare land with quarry activity yielded the highest annual average sediment yield of 133 ton per hectare (t ha-1) followed by agriculture (26.1 t ha-1) while the lowest sediment yield of 0.2 t ha-1 was estimated for the forested part of the watershed. Additionally, the bare land area (2 ha) contributed approximately 65% (207 ha) of the watershed's sediment yield, which is 4.0 t ha-1. The latter signifies the high impact as well as contribution of anthropogenic activity on sediment yield. The use of different BMP scenarios generally reduced the sediment yield to the coastal reef of Fagaalu watershed. However, treating the quarry activity area with stone bund showed the highest sediment yield reduction as compared to the other two BMP scenarios. This study provides an estimate

  14. Distribution and partitioning of heavy metals in estuarine sediment cores and implications for the use of sediment quality standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Spencer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Total metal concentrations in surface sediments and historically contaminated sediments were determined in sediment cores collected from three estuaries (Thames, Medway and Blackwater in south-east England. The partitioning behaviour of metals in these sediments was also determined using a sequential extraction scheme. These data were then compared with sediment quality values (SQVs to determine the potential ecotoxicological risk to sediment dwelling organisms. When total metal concentrations in surface sediments are examined, no risk to biota in any of the estuaries is indicated. However, when historically contaminated sediments at depth are also considered, risks to biota are apparent and are greatest for the Thames, followed by the Medway and then the Blackwater. This suggests that regulatory authorities should examine vertical metal profiles, particularly in estuaries that are experiencing low sediment accumulation rates where historically contaminated sediments are in the shallow sub-surface zone and where erosion or dredging activities may take place. When metal partitioning characteristics are also considered, the risk to biota is comparable for the Medway and the Blackwater with the potentially bioavailable fraction presenting no ecotoxicological risk. Conversely, over 70% of metals are labile in the Thames Estuary sediments and toxic effects are probable. This suggests that the application of SQVs using total sediment metal concentrations may over- or under-estimate the risk to biota in geochemically dissimilar estuarine sediments. Keywords: sediment quality values, estuarine sediments, metal contamination, partitioning, sequential extraction

  15. Sediment quality criteria: A review with recommendations for developing criteria for the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-05-01

    Criteria for determining the quality of liver sediment are necessary to ensure that concentrations of contaminants in aquatic systems are within acceptable limits for the protection of aquatic and human life. Such criteria should facilitate decision-making about remediation, handling, and disposal of contaminants. Several approaches to the development of sediment quality criteria (SQC) have been described and include both descriptive and numerical methods. However, no single method measures all impacts at all times to all organisms (U.S. EPA 1992b). The U.S. EPA`s interest is primarily in establishing chemically based, numerical SQC that are applicable nation-wide (Shea 1988). Of the approaches proposed for SQC development, only three are being considered for numerical SQC on a national level. These approaches include an Equilibrium Partitioning Approach, a site-specific method using bioassays (the Apparent Effects Threshold Approach), and an approach similar to EPA`s water quality criteria (Pavlou and Weston 1984). Although national (or even regional) criteria address a number of political, litigative, and engineering needs, some researchers feel that protection of benthic communities require site-specific, biologically based criteria (Baudo et al. 1990). This is particularly true for areas where complex mixtures of contaminants are present in sediments. Other scientifically valid and accepted procedures for freshwater SQC include a background concentration approach, methods using field or spiked bioassays, a screening level concentration approach, the Apparent Effects Threshold Approach, the Sediment Quality Triad, the International Joint Commission Sediment Assessment Strategy, and the National Status and Trends Program Approach. The various sediment assessment approaches are evaluated for application to the Hanford Reach and recommendations for Hanford Site sediment quality criteria are discussed.

  16. Biochemical parameters in Tubifex tubifex as an integral part of complex sediment toxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smutna, M.; Hilscherova, K.; Paskova, V. [Masaryk Univ., Brno (CZ). RECETOX (Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology); Marsalek, B [Czech Academy of Science, Brno (Czech Republic). Centre for Cyanobacteria and their Toxins

    2008-06-15

    Background, aim, and scope Restoration of lakes and reservoirs with extensive cyanobacterial water bloom often requires evaluation of the sediment quality. Next to the chemical analysis of known pollutants, sediment bioassays should be employed to assess toxicity of the present contaminants and to make predictions of associated risk. Brno reservoir in the Czech Republic is a typical example of water bodies with long-term problems concerning cyanobacterial water blooms. Comprehensive assessment of reservoir sediment quality was conducted since successful reservoir restoration might require sediment removal. An important part of this survey focused on an examination of the utility of Tubifex tubifex and its sublethal biochemical markers for the assessment of direct sediment toxicity. Materials and methods This complex study included chemical analysis of contaminants (heavy metals, organic pollutants), ecotoxicity testing of sediment elutriates (tests with Daphnia magna, Pseudomonas putida, Sinapis alba, Scenedesmus subspicatus), and other parameters. We have tested in more detail the applicability of T. tubifex as a test organism for direct evaluation of contact sediment toxicity. Survival tests after 14 days of exposure were complemented by an assessment of parameters serving as biomarkers for sublethal effects [such as total glutathione content (GSH), activities of the enzymes glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR)]. The data matrix was subjected to multivariate analysis to interpret relationships between different parameters and possible differences among locations. Results The multivariate statistical techniques helped to clearly identify the more contaminated upstream sites and separate them from the less contaminated and reference samples. The data document closer relationships of the detected sediment contamination with results of direct sediment exposure in the T. tubifex test regarding mortality but namely

  17. The Study of Heavy Metals on Sediment Quality of Kuala Perlis Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubir, A. A. Ahmad; Saad, F. N. Mohd; Dahalan, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    The contamination of heavy metals gives bad implications to the aquatic environment. Thus, a study was conducted to assess the sediment quality by using different contamination indices such as Enrichment Factor (EF), Geo-accumulation Index (Igeo), and Pollution Load Index (PLI). Each sediment sample was collected at the surface (0-15cm) at 5 locations based on the land use activity; jetty port (A), seaside restaurant (B), roadside area (C), power plant (D) and residential area (E). All samples were undergoes acid digestion and analyzed with AAS. Four elements identified from the sediment samples which are Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were used to calculate the respective indices. Results show that, the highest EF value of Pb which categorized as very severe enrichment was at point E. Meanwhile minor enrichment was detected at point B for Cu while Cr and Zn at point A. Based on Igeo value the sediment quality along Kuala Perlis was in the unpolluted-moderately polluted condition (class 1). As for PLI it shows that the sediment of the coastal area is unpolluted (PLI<1). Therefore, this study revealed that, the main contributor of heavy metals in this area is Pb while the sediment quality of Kuala Perlis was in minor pollution condition.

  18. Use of the aquatic plant Elodea canadensis to assess toxicity and genotoxicity of Yenisei River sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotina, Tatiana A; Trofimova, Elena A; Medvedeva, Marina Yu; Dementyev, Dmitry V; Bolsunovsky, Alexander Ya

    2015-10-01

    The toxicity, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity of bulk sediments from the Yenisei River (Siberia, Russia) were estimated in laboratory bioassays based on several endpoints in the aquatic plant Elodea canadensis. The bottom sediment samples were collected in the Yenisei River upstream and downstream of the sources of chemical and radioactive contamination. The testing revealed different sensitivities of Elodea endpoints to the quality of the bottom sediment: weight of shoots Elodea) was the highest in sediments with chemical pollution, whereas the highest inhibition of toxicity endpoints (shoot and root length) occurred in sediments with the highest level of radioactive pollution. The extreme response of Elodea endpoints to the quality of certain sediment samples may be regarded as related to the possible presence of unknown toxicants. The results show that E. canadensis can be used as an indicator species in laboratory contact testing of bottom sediment. The responses of shoot and root length growth endpoints of Elodea can be recommended as basic sensitivity indicators of bottom sediment toxicity. Analysis of cells carrying abnormal chromosomes in the apical root meristem of Elodea can be performed optionally in the same test to assess the genotoxicity of sediments. © 2015 SETAC.

  19. Sediment quality in the north coastal basin of Massachusetts, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Ashman, Mary S.; Heath, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, completed a reconnaissance-level study of bottom-sediment quality in selected lakes, rivers, and estuaries in the North Coastal Basin of Massachusetts. Bottom-sediment grab samples were collected from 20 sites in the North River, Lake Quannapowitt, Saugus River, Mill River, Shute Brook, Sea Plane Basin, Pines River, and Bear Creek. The samples were tested for various types of potentially harmful contaminants? including 33 elements, 17 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 22 organochlorine pesticides, and 7 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures (Aroclors)?to benthic organisms (bottom-dwelling) and humans. The results were compared among sampling sites, to background concentrations, and to concen-trations measured in other urban rivers, and sediment-quality guidelines were used to predict toxicity at the sampling sites to benthic organisms and humans. Because there are no standards for human toxicity for aquatic sediment, standards for contaminated upland soil were used. Contaminant concentrations measured in sediment collected from the North Coastal Basin generally were equal to or greater than concentrations in sediment from uncontaminated rivers throughout New England. Contaminants in North Coastal Basin sediment with elevated concentrations (above back-ground levels) included arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc, some of the PAHs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloro-ethane (DDT) and its metabolites, and dieldrin. No PCBs were measured above the detection limits. Measured concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and lead were also generally greater than those measured in other urban rivers throughout the conter-minous United States. With one exception (arsenic), local con-centrations measured in sediment samples collected from the North Coastal Basin were lower than concentrations measured in sediment collected from two of three urban rivers draining to Boston

  20. US Environmental Protection Agency National Coastal Assessment for American Samoa 2004: water quality, sediment grain, and chemistry data (NODC Accession 0000455)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2004, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) National Coastal Assessment (NCA), coordinated through the...

  1. Assessment of water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    2002-01-01

    Water is the most essential component of all living things and it supports the life process. Without water, it would not have been possible to sustain life on this planet. The total quantity of water on earth is estimated to be 1.4 trillion cubic meter. Of this, less than 1 % water, present in rivers and ground resources is available to meet our requirement. These resources are being contaminated with toxic substances due to ever increasing environmental pollution. To reduce this contamination, many countries have established standards for the discharge of municipal and industrial waste into water streams. We use water for various purposes and for each purpose we require water of appropriate quality. The quality of water is assessed by evaluating the physical chemical, biological and radiological characteristics of water. Water for drinking and food preparation must be free from turbidity, colour, odour and objectionable tastes, as well as from disease causing organisms and inorganic and organic substances, which may produce adverse physiological effects, Such water is referred to as potable water and is produced by treatment of raw water, involving various unit operations. The effectiveness of the treatment processes is checked by assessing the various parameters of water quality, which involves sampling and analysis of water and comparison with the National Quality Standards or WHO standards. Water which conforms to these standards is considered safe and palatable for human consumption. Periodic assessment of water is necessary, to ensure the quality of water supplied to the public. This requires proper sampling at specified locations and analysis of water, employing reliable analytical techniques. (author)

  2. Assessing sediment contamination using six toxicity assays

    OpenAIRE

    Allen G. BURTON Jr.; Carolyn ROWLAND; Renato BAUDO; Monica BELTRAMI

    2001-01-01

    An evaluation of sediment toxicity at Lake Orta, Italy was conducted to compare a toxicity test battery of 6 assays and to evaluate the extent of sediment contamination at various sediment depths. Lake Orta received excessive loadings of copper and ammonia during the 1900’s until a large remediation effort was conducted in 1989-90 using lime addition. Since that time, the lake has shown signs of a steady recovery of biological communities. The study results showed acute toxicity still exists ...

  3. Sediment Quality and Comparison to Historical Water Quality, Little Arkansas River Basin, South-Central Kansas, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.

    2008-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variability in streambed-sediment quality and its relation to historical water quality was assessed to provide guidance for the development of total maximum daily loads and the implementation of best-management practices in the Little Arkansas River Basin, south-central Kansas. Streambed-sediment samples were collected at 26 sites in 2007, sieved to isolate the less than 63-micron fraction (that is, the silt and clay), and analyzed for selected nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), organic and total carbon, 25 trace elements, and the radionuclides beryllium-7, cesium-137, lead-210, and radium-226. At eight sites, streambed-sediment samples also were collected and analyzed for bacteria. Particulate nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon concentrations in the streambed sediment varied substantially spatially and temporally, and positive correlations among the three constituents were statistically significant. Along the main-stem Little Arkansas River, streambed-sediment concentrations of particulate nitrogen and phosphorus generally were larger at and downstream from Alta Mills, Kansas. The largest particulate nitrogen concentrations were measured in samples collected in the Emma Creek subbasin and may be related to livestock and poultry production. The largest particulate phosphorus concentrations in the basin were measured in samples collected along the main-stem Little Arkansas River downstream from Alta Mills, Kansas. Particulate nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon content in the water and streambed-sediment samples typically decreased as streamflow increased. This inverse relation may be caused by an increased contribution of sediment from channel-bank sources during high flows and (or) increased particle sizes transported by the high flows. Trace element concentrations in the streambed sediment varied from site to site and typically were less than threshold-effects guidelines for possible adverse biological effects

  4. Sediment quality guidelines for copper and zinc for filter-feeding estuarine oysters?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, G.F., E-mail: gavin.birch@sydney.edu.a [Environmental Geology Group, School of Geosciences, Sydney University, NSW (Australia); Hogg, T.D. [Environmental Geology Group, School of Geosciences, Sydney University, NSW (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) assess the ability of bottom sediment to sustain healthy infauna and water quality guidelines (WQGs) provide protection for a designated percentage of aquatic species. Filter-feeding marine species, e.g. oysters and mussels, acquire food from particles in the water column and protection of these animals is not provided by SQGs or WQGs. The current work investigated the relationship between metal (Cu, Zn) concentrations in total and fine-fraction (<62.5 {mu}m) surficial sediment digested in a range of acids and chelating agents and oyster tissue metal concentrations. A strong correlation between oyster tissue Cu and Zn concentrations and fine-fraction surficial sediment digested in 1 M HCl provided a sedimentary guideline which predicted tissue metal concentrations in oysters and established a level (<45 {mu}g g{sup -1} and <1000 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively) for protecting oysters from exceeding human consumption levels (70 {mu}g g{sup -1} and 1000 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively). - A strong correlation between oyster tissue Cu and Zn concentrations and fine-fraction surficial sediment digested in 1 M HCl provided a sedimentary guideline which predicted tissue metal concentrations in oysters and established a level for protecting oysters from exceeding human consumption levels for these metals. The guidelines for fine surficial sediment developed in the present work accurately predicted oyster tissue concentrations in the field.

  5. Water-quality assessment of the Albermarle-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina and Virginia; a summary of selected trace element, nutrient, and pesticide data for bed sediments, 1969-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrobialowski, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    Spatial distributions of metals and trace elements, nutrients, and pesticides and polychiorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in bed sediment were characterized using data collected from 1969 through 1990 and stored in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Data Storage and Retrieval (WATSTORE) system and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Storage and Retrieval (STORET) system databases. Bed-sediment data from WATSTORE and STORET were combined to form a single database of 1,049 records representing 301 sites. Data were examined for concentrations of 16 metals and trace elements, 4 nutrients, 10 pesticides, and PCB's. Maximum bed-sediment concentrations were evaluated relative to sediment-quality guidelines developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, and the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality. Sites were not selected randomly; therefore, results should not be interpreted as representing average conditions. Many sites were located in or around lakes and reservoirs, urban areas, and areas where special investigations were conducted. Lakes and reservoirs function as effective sediment traps, and elevated concentrations of some constituents occurred at these sites. High concentrations of many metals and trace elements also occurred near urban areas where streams receive runoff or inputs from industrial, residential, and municipal activities. Elevated nutrient concentrations occurred near lakes, reservoirs, and the mouths of major rivers. The highest concentrations of arsenic, beryllium, chromium, iron. mercury, nickel, and selenium occurred in the Roanoke River Basin and may be a result of geologic formations or accumulations of bed sediment in lakes and reservoirs. The highest concentrations of cadmium, lead, and thallium were detected in the Chowan River Basin; copper and zinc were reported highest in the Neuse River Basin. Total phosphorus and total ammonia plus organic nitrogen

  6. Assessing sediment contamination using six toxicity assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen G. BURTON Jr.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of sediment toxicity at Lake Orta, Italy was conducted to compare a toxicity test battery of 6 assays and to evaluate the extent of sediment contamination at various sediment depths. Lake Orta received excessive loadings of copper and ammonia during the 1900’s until a large remediation effort was conducted in 1989-90 using lime addition. Since that time, the lake has shown signs of a steady recovery of biological communities. The study results showed acute toxicity still exists in sediments at a depth of 5 cm and greater. Assays that detected the highest levels of toxicity were two whole sediment exposures (7 d using Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia. The MicrotoxR assay using pore water was the third most sensitive assay. The Thamnotox, Rototox, Microtox solid phase, and Seed Germination-Root Elongation (pore and solid phase assays showed occasional to no toxicity. Based on similarity of responses and assay sensitivity, the two most useful assays were the C. dubia (or H. azteca and Microtox pore water. These assays were effective at describing sediment toxicity in a weight-of-evidence approach.

  7. Water Quality Assessment and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of Clean Water Act (CWA) restoration framework including; water quality standards, monitoring/assessment, reporting water quality status, TMDL development, TMDL implementation (point & nonpoint source control)

  8. Heavy metal pollution assessment in the sediments of lake Chad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediments were collected from Dumba and KwataYobe of Lake Chad, Nigerian Sector.The aim was to assess the pollution statusof the sediments of the lake. The concentration of heavy metals, Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), Z (Zn) and Arsenic (As) were ...

  9. A novel approach for assessments of erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribush, A; Hatskelzon, L; Meyerstein, N

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the dispersed phase of sedimenting blood undergoes dramatic structural changes: Discrete red blood cell (RBC) aggregates formed shortly after a settling tube is filled with blood are combined into a continuous network followed by its collapse via the formation of plasma channels, and finally, the collapsed network is dispersed into individual fragments. Based on this scheme of structural transformation, a novel approach for assessments of erythrocyte sedimentation is suggested. Information about erythrocyte sedimentation is extracted from time records of the blood conductivity measured after a dispersion of RBC network into individual fragments. It was found that the sedimentation velocity of RBC network fragments correlates positively with the intensity of attractive intercellular interactions, whereas no effect of hematocrit (Hct) was observed. Thus, unlike Westergren erythrocyte sedimentation rate, sedimentation data obtained by the proposed method do not require correction for Hct. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Water-quality assessment of part of the Upper Mississippi River Basin Study Unit, Minnesota and Wisconsin- Nutrients, chlorophyll a, phytoplankton, and suspended sediment in streams, 1996-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroening, Sharon E.; Lee, Kathy E.; Goldstein, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Stream water-quality data from part of the Upper Mississippi River Basin Study Unit (Study Unit) from 1995 through 1998 was used to describe the distribution of nutrients, chlorophyll a, phytoplankton, and suspended sediment; and the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on reported concentrations, loads, and yields. During the study period, streamflows generally were near to greater than average. Agricultural land cover, particularly on tile-drained soils, had the most substantial influence on nutrients, chlorophyll a, and suspended sediment in the Study Unit. The greatest concentrations and yields of total nitrogen, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, dissolved nitrite nitrogen, total organic plus ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment were measured in a stream representing agricultural land cover on tile-drained soils. Total nitrogen yields also were about 6 times greater in a stream representing agricultural land cover on tile-drained soils than in a stream representing agricultural land cover on naturally welldrained soils.

  11. Characterization of heavy-metal-contaminated sediment by using unsupervised multivariate techniques and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeuh-Bin; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Wang, Sheng-Wei

    2015-03-01

    This study characterized the sediment quality of the severely contaminated Erjen River in Taiwan by using multivariate analysis methods-including factor analysis (FA), self-organizing maps (SOMs), and positive matrix factorization (PMF)-and health risk assessment. The SOMs classified the dataset with similar heavy-metal-contaminated sediment into five groups. FA extracted three major factors-traditional electroplating and metal-surface processing factor, nontraditional heavy-metal-industry factor, and natural geological factor-which accounted for 80.8% of the variance. The SOMs and FA revealed the heavy-metal-contaminated-sediment hotspots in the middle and upper reaches of the major tributary in the dry season. The hazardous index value for health risk via ingestion was 0.302. PMF further qualified the source apportionment, indicating that traditional electroplating and metal-surface-processing industries comprised 47% of the health risk posed by heavy-metal-contaminated sediment. Contaminants discharged from traditional electroplating and metal-surface-processing industries in the middle and upper reaches of the major tributary must be eliminated first to improve the sediment quality in Erjen River. The proposed assessment framework for heavy-metal-contaminated sediment can be applied to contaminated-sediment river sites in other regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Simultaneous Investigation of Sediment Transport and Water Quality Parameters Using An In Situ Measurement Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochnow, J. V.

    Though quality of surface waters has improved remarkably over the last twenty years, the contaminant load of soft cohesive sediments remained comparatively unimproved. That is why the new European water framework directive addresses contaminant loaded sediments and postulates criteria for assessing sediment quality. Surveys into contaminated sediment behaviour have revealed adsorption/desorption characteristics of individual toxins. Biomonitoring of pollutant pressure on specific benthic organ- isms on the other hand can be useful to elucidate potential dangers to aquatic ecosys- tems. However, it is yet unknown how a given contaminant loaded sediment will re- spond to different hypercritical flow conditions in terms of release rates and partition- ing of xenobiotica. On this account a small in situ measuring device (EROSIMESS) was constructed, that features simultaneous determination of suspended sediment con- centration (optical turbidity meter), dissolved oxygen levels, pH and temperature (membrane probes) under predefined hydraulic conditions. Samples of the suspen- sion can be withdrawn for subsequent chemical analysis. Bottom shear stresses up to 5N/m2 can be generated by means of a propeller that resides in cylindrical perspex tube (erosion chamber) two centimeters above the sediment bed. Baffles on the in- ner wall of the cylinder prevent a solid body rotation of the suspension by creating additional turbulence and a second propeller straight beneath the concentration me- ter inhibits the development of a concentration gradient within the chamber. A small CCD-camera is used to control positioning of the device. It can be used in water- depths up to 5m. The control unit consists of a trigger box and an ordinary laptop computer running LabView. EROSIMESS has been successfully used in various stud- ies on contaminant release, eutrophication, and SOD (sediment oxygen demand) in rivers (Spree: Germany; Maun: UK), reservoirs (Heimbach, Haus Ley: Germany), and

  13. GEOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF SEDIMENT IN CAPE TOWN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Both the water and sediment samples at this site are very muddy ... a Phillip PANnalytical PW 3830/40 X-ray generator with a PW 3710 MPD control. X-ray ..... Shuping, L.S.; Snyman, R.G.; Odendaal, J.P.; Ndakidemi, P.A. Water Air Soil Pollut.

  14. Assessing temporal variations in connectivity through suspended sediment hysteresis analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie; Rowan, John; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Phil; Melland, Alice; Mellander, Per-Erik; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.

    2016-04-01

    Connectivity provides a valuable concept for understanding catchment-scale sediment dynamics. In intensive agricultural catchments, land management through tillage, high livestock densities and extensive land drainage practices significantly change hydromorphological behaviour and alter sediment supply and downstream delivery. Analysis of suspended sediment-discharge hysteresis has offered insights into sediment dynamics but typically on a limited selection of events. Greater availability of continuous high-resolution discharge and turbidity data and qualitative hysteresis metrics enables assessment of sediment dynamics during more events and over time. This paper assesses the utility of this approach to explore seasonal variations in connectivity. Data were collected from three small (c. 10 km2) intensive agricultural catchments in Ireland with contrasting morphologies, soil types, land use patterns and management practices, and are broadly defined as low-permeability supporting grassland, moderate-permeability supporting arable and high-permeability supporting arable. Suspended sediment concentration (using calibrated turbidity measurements) and discharge data were collected at 10-min resolution from each catchment outlet and precipitation data were collected from a weather station within each catchment. Event databases (67-90 events per catchment) collated information on sediment export metrics, hysteresis category (e.g., clockwise, anti-clockwise, no hysteresis), numeric hysteresis index, and potential hydro-meteorological controls on sediment transport including precipitation amount, duration, intensity, stream flow and antecedent soil moisture and rainfall. Statistical analysis of potential controls on sediment export was undertaken using Pearson's correlation coefficient on separate hysteresis categories in each catchment. Sediment hysteresis fluctuations through time were subsequently assessed using the hysteresis index. Results showed the numeric

  15. Data quality objectives summary report for 105-N Basin sediment disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarcik, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    During stabilization of the 105-N Basin, sediments that have accumulated on 105-N Basin surfaces will be vacuumed, collected in the North Cask Pit of the basin complex, and eventually removed. The Environmental Assessment for the Deactivation of the N Reactor Facilities describes two potential disposition paths for the 105-N Basin sediment: transfer in slurry form to a double-shell tank if determined to be a transuranic waste, or disposal in solid form as a low-level waste. Interim storage of the sediments may be required if a transfer to the Tank Waste Remediation System cannot meet schedule milestones. Selection of a particular alternative depends on the final characterization of the accumulated sediment, regulatory requirements, cost/benefit analyses, and 105-N Stabilization Project schedule requirements. Revision 0 of this Data Quality Objectives (DQO) report was issued to describe a formal DQO process that was performed according to BHI-EE-01, Environmental Investigations Procedures, EIP 1.2, Data Quality Objectives, Revision 1. Since publication of Revision 0 of this report, important changes to the disposition strategy for 100-N Deactivation sediment material have been proposed, evaluated, discussed with the US Department of Energy and State of Washington Department of Ecology, and implemented. Revision 1 of this report documents these changes

  16. Mask industry quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strott, Al; Bassist, Larry

    1994-12-01

    Product quality and timely delivery are two of the most important parameters in determining the success of a mask manufacturing facility. Because of the sensitivity of this data, very little was known about industry performance in these areas until an assessment was authored and presented at the 1993 BACUS Symposium by Larry Regis of Intel Corporation, Neil Paulsen of Intel Corporation, and James A. Reynolds of Reynolds Consulting. This data has been updated and will be published and presented at this year's BACUS Symposium. Contributor identities will again remain protected by utilizing Arthur Andersen & Company to compile the submittals. Participation was consistent with last year's representation of over 75% of the total merchant and captive mask volume in the United States. The data compiled includes shipments, customer return rate, customer return reasons from 1988 through Q2, 1994, performance to schedule, plate survival yield, and throughput time (TPT).

  17. Drinking water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N

    2012-09-01

    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (Pwater for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  18. A sediment resuspension and water quality model of Lake Okeechobee

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R.T.; Martin, J.; Wool, T.; Wang, P.-F.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of sediment resuspension on the water quality of shallow lakes is well documented. However, a search of the literature reveals no deterministic mass-balance eutrophication models that explicitly include resuspension. We modified the Lake Okeeehobee water quality model - which uses the Water Analysis Simulation Package (WASP) to simulate algal dynamics and phosphorus, nitrogen, and oxygen cycles - to include inorganic suspended solids and algorithms that: (1) define changes in depth with changes in volume; (2) compute sediment resuspension based on bottom shear stress; (3) compute partition coefficients for ammonia and ortho-phosphorus to solids; and (4) relate light attenuation to solids concentrations. The model calibration and validation were successful with the exception of dissolved inorganic nitrogen species which did not correspond well to observed data in the validation phase. This could be attributed to an inaccurate formulation of algal nitrogen preference and/or the absence of nitrogen fixation in the model. The model correctly predicted that the lake is lightlimited from resuspended solids, and algae are primarily nitrogen limited. The model simulation suggested that biological fluxes greatly exceed external loads of dissolved nutrients; and sedimentwater interactions of organic nitrogen and phosphorus far exceed external loads. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated that parameters affecting resuspension, settling, sediment nutrient and solids concentrations, mineralization, algal productivity, and algal stoichiometry are factors requiring further study to improve our understanding of the Lake Okeechobee ecosystem.

  19. Compilation, quality control, analysis, and summary of discrete suspended-sediment and ancillary data in the United States, 1901-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Casey J.; Glysson, G. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Human-induced and natural changes to the transport of sediment and sediment-associated constituents can degrade aquatic ecosystems and limit human uses of streams and rivers. The lack of a dedicated, easily accessible, quality-controlled database of sediment and ancillary data has made it difficult to identify sediment-related water-quality impairments and has limited understanding of how human actions affect suspended-sediment concentrations and transport. The purpose of this report is to describe the creation of a quality-controlled U.S. Geological Survey suspended-sediment database, provide guidance for its use, and summarize characteristics of suspended-sediment data through 2010. The database is provided as an online application at http://cida.usgs.gov/sediment to allow users to view, filter, and retrieve available suspended-sediment and ancillary data. A data recovery, filtration, and quality-control process was performed to expand the availability, representativeness, and utility of existing suspended-sediment data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the United States before January 1, 2011. Information on streamflow condition, sediment grain size, and upstream landscape condition were matched to sediment data and sediment-sampling sites to place data in context with factors that may influence sediment transport. Suspended-sediment and selected ancillary data are presented from across the United States with respect to time, streamflow, and landscape condition. Examples of potential uses of this database for identifying sediment-related impairments, assessing trends, and designing new data collection activities are provided. This report and database can support local and national-level decision making, project planning, and data mining activities related to the transport of suspended-sediment and sediment-associated constituents.

  20. heavy metal pollution asse al pollution assessment in the sediments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Sediments were collected from Dumba and to assess the pollution statusof the sedim. Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu. (Zn) and Arsenic (As) were analysed using concentration of heavy metals varies bet with standard average shale to assess pollution in Dumba and KwataYobe sedi assessed ...

  1. Assessing effects of changing land use practices on sediment loads in Panther Creek, north coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Ann Madej; Greg Bundros; Randy Klein

    2012-01-01

    Revisions to the California Forest Practice Rules since 1974 were intended to increase protection of water quality in streams draining timber harvest areas. The effects of improved timber harvesting methods and road designs on sediment loading are assessed for the Panther Creek basin, a 15.4 km2 watershed in Humboldt County, north coastal...

  2. Input-variable sensitivity assessment for sediment transport relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Roberto; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2017-09-01

    A methodology to assess input-variable sensitivity for sediment transport relations is presented. The Mean Value First Order Second Moment Method (MVFOSM) is applied to two bed load transport equations showing that it may be used to rank all input variables in terms of how their specific variance affects the overall variance of the sediment transport estimation. In sites where data are scarce or nonexistent, the results obtained may be used to (i) determine what variables would have the largest impact when estimating sediment loads in the absence of field observations and (ii) design field campaigns to specifically measure those variables for which a given transport equation is most sensitive; in sites where data are readily available, the results would allow quantifying the effect that the variance associated with each input variable has on the variance of the sediment transport estimates. An application of the method to two transport relations using data from a tropical mountain river in Costa Rica is implemented to exemplify the potential of the method in places where input data are limited. Results are compared against Monte Carlo simulations to assess the reliability of the method and validate its results. For both of the sediment transport relations used in the sensitivity analysis, accurate knowledge of sediment size was found to have more impact on sediment transport predictions than precise knowledge of other input variables such as channel slope and flow discharge.

  3. Heavy metal enrichment and ecological risk assessment of surface sediments in Khorramabad River, West Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastmanesh, F; Safaie, S; Zarasvandi, A R; Edraki, M

    2018-04-11

    The ecological health of rivers has often been threatened in urbanized catchments due to the expansion of industrial activities and the population growth. Khorramabad River which flows through Khorramabad city, west of Iran, is an example of such settings. The river water is used for agricultural purposes downstream. In this study, the effect of Khorramabad city on heavy metal and metalloid (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, and As) loads in Khorramabad River sediments was investigated. To evaluate sediment pollution and potential adverse biological effects, surface sediment samples were collected at selected locations along the river and were characterized for their geochemical properties. Contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and ecological risk assessment (RI) were calculated. Also, sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) were used to screen contaminants of concern in the study area. The results showed that sediments were moderately polluted, with stations located in more densely populated areas showing higher pollution indicators. Copper, Zn, and Pb sources could be attributed to urban wastewater, whereas Ni, Cr, and As had both natural and anthropogenic sources. Moreover, ecological risk assessments showed that sediments could be classified in the category of low risk. The results of the present study showed the effect of anthropogenic activities on heavy metal loads of the river sediments and these findings can be used to mitigate potential impacts on the environment and human health.

  4. Information System Quality Assessment Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores challenging topic of information system quality assessment and mainly process assessment. In this work the term Information System Quality is defined as well as different approaches in a quality definition for different domains of information systems are outlined. Main methods of process assessment are overviewed and their relationships are described. Process assessment methods are divided into two categories: ISO standards and best practices. The main objective of this w...

  5. Equilibrium sampling for a thermodynamic assessment of contaminated sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Mäenpää, Kimmo

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) reaching the aquatic environment are largely stored in sediments. The risk of contaminated sediments is challenging to assess since traditional exhaustive extraction methods yield total HOC concentrations, whereas freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree......) govern diffusive uptake and partitioning. Equilibrium sampling of sediment was introduced 15 years ago to measure Cfree, and it has since developed into a straightforward, precise and sensitive approach for determining Cfree and other exposure parameters that allow for thermodynamic assessment...... of polluted sediments. Glass jars with µm-thin silicone coatings on the inner walls can be used for ex situ equilibration while a device housing several silicone-coated fibers can be used for in situ equilibration. In both cases, parallel sampling with varying silicone thicknesses can be applied to confirm...

  6. Quality assessment of laparoscopic hysterectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, S.R.C.

    2017-01-01

    Quality assessment is surgical care is very important, though very difficult. With this thesis we attempted to overcome the limitations of currently used quality indicators and developed a dynamic, unique quality assessment tool to reflect upon individual surgical performance with case-mix

  7. Social Advertising Quality: Assessment Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Kalmykov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the The purpose of the publication is development of existing criterial assessment in social advertising sphere. The next objectives are provided for its achievement: to establish research methodology, to develop the author’s version of necessary notional apparatus and conceptual generalization, to determine the elements of social advertising quality, to establish the factors of its quality, to conduct the systematization of existing criteria and measuring instruments of quality assessment, to form new criteria of social advertising quality, to apply received results for development of criterial assessment to determine the further research perspectives. Methods: the methodology of research of management of social advertising interaction with target audience, which has dynamic procedural character with use of sociological knowledge multivariate paradigmatic status, has been proposed. Results: the primary received results: the multivariate paradigmatic research basis with use of works of famous domestic and foreign scientists in sociology, qualimetry and management spheres; the definitions of social advertising, its quality, sociological quality provision system, target audience behavior model during social advertising interaction are offered; the quality factors with three groups by level of effect on consumer are established; the systematization of existing quality and its measure instruments assessment criteria by detected social advertising quality elements are conducted; the two new criteria and its management quality assessment measuring instruments in social advertising sphere are developed; the one of the common groups of production quality criteria – adaptability with considering of new management quality criteria and conducted systematization of existing social advertising creative quality assessment criteria development; the perspective of further perfection of quality criterial assessment based on social advertising

  8. Assessment of the bioavailability and phytotoxicity of sediment spiked with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rončević, Srđan; Spasojević, Jelena; Maletić, Snežana; Jazić, Jelena Molnar; Isakovski, Marijana Kragulj; Agbaba, Jasmina; Grgić, Marko; Dalmacija, Božo

    2016-02-01

    Large amounts of sediment are dredged globally every year. This sediment is often contaminated with low concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides and other organic pollutants. Some of this sediment is disposed of on land, creating a need for risk assessment of the sediment disposal method, to minimize the degradation of environmental quality and prevent risks to human health. Evaluating the available fractions of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is very important, as in the presence of various organisms, they are believed to be easily subject to the processes of bioaccumulation, biosorption and transformation. In order to determine the applicability of applying these methods for the evaluation of pollutant bioavailability in sediments, the desorption kinetics from the sediment of various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of Tenax and XAD4 were examined over the course of 216 h. Changes in the PAH concentrations in dredged sediments using five different seed plants during a short time of period (10 days) were also followed. Using chemical extraction techniques with Tenax and XAD4, a time of around 24 h is enough to achieve equilibrium for all four PAHs. Results showed good agreement between the seed accumulation and PAH extraction methods with both agents. If we compare the two extraction techniques, XAD4 gave better results for phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene, and Tenax gave better results for chrysene.

  9. Assessing effects of changing land use practices on sediment loads in Panther Creek, north coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej, Mary Ann; Bundros, Greg; Klein, Randy

    2011-01-01

    Revisions to the California Forest Practice Rules since 1974 were intended to increase protection of water quality in streams draining timber harvest areas. The effects of improved timber harvesting methods and road designs on sediment loading are assessed for the Panther Creek basin, a 15.4 km2 watershed in Humboldt County, north coastal California. We compute land use statistics, analyze suspended sediment discharge rating curves, and compare sediment yields in Panther Creek to a control (unlogged) stream, Little Lost Man Creek. From 1978 to 2008, 8.2 km2 (over half the watershed) was clearcut and other timber management activities (thinning, selection cuts, and so forth) affected an additional 5.9 km2. Since 1984, 40.7 km of streams in harvest units received riparian buffer strip protection. Between 2000 and 2009, 22 km of roads were upgraded and 9.7 km were decommissioned, reducing potential sediment production by an estimated 40,000 m3. Road density is currently 3.1 km/km2. Sediment rating curves from 2005 to 2010 indicate a decrease in suspended sediment concentrations when compared to the pre-1996 period, although Panther Creek still has a higher sediment yield on a per unit area basis than the control stream.

  10. Sediment quality guidelines for copper and zinc for filter-feeding estuarine oysters?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch, G.F.; Hogg, T.D.

    2011-01-01

    Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) assess the ability of bottom sediment to sustain healthy infauna and water quality guidelines (WQGs) provide protection for a designated percentage of aquatic species. Filter-feeding marine species, e.g. oysters and mussels, acquire food from particles in the water column and protection of these animals is not provided by SQGs or WQGs. The current work investigated the relationship between metal (Cu, Zn) concentrations in total and fine-fraction ( -1 and -1 , respectively) for protecting oysters from exceeding human consumption levels (70 μg g -1 and 1000 μg g -1 , respectively). - A strong correlation between oyster tissue Cu and Zn concentrations and fine-fraction surficial sediment digested in 1 M HCl provided a sedimentary guideline which predicted tissue metal concentrations in oysters and established a level for protecting oysters from exceeding human consumption levels for these metals. The guidelines for fine surficial sediment developed in the present work accurately predicted oyster tissue concentrations in the field.

  11. Assessment of sedimentation rate and hydrodynamics of Vembanad lagoon, Southern India, using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Noble; Joseph, T.B.; Hari Kumar, P.S.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are natural ecosystems that contribute to flood mitigation, fish and wildlife habitat protection and natural retention of pollutants and nutrients. Despite the importance, wetlands all over the world are undergoing severe degradation in the recent years, because of pollution and human interventions. Hydrology and water quality are the important factors controlling the ecological processes of wetlands and their understanding is essential for the wetlands restoration and management. Vembanad Lagoon, a major component of the Vembanad wetland system, is one of the largest coastal ecosystems in the southwestern part of India. Currently, it is facing numerous problems such as water quality deterioration due to ingression of saltwater, heavy metal contamination, weed infestation etc. and sedimentation due to large scale reclamation, intensive agriculture practices together with deforestation in its catchments. Hence, an isotope investigation was carried out to assess the sedimentation rate, pollution levels in sediments and hydrodynamics of Vembanad Lagoon

  12. Life cycle assessment for dredged sediment placement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Matthew E; Fox-Lent, Cate; Seymour, Linda; Wender, Ben A; Linkov, Igor

    2015-04-01

    Dredging to maintain navigable waterways is important for supporting trade and economic sustainability. Dredged sediments are removed from the waterways and then must be managed in a way that meets regulatory standards and properly balances management costs and risks. Selection of a best management alternative often results in stakeholder conflict regarding tradeoffs between local environmental impacts associated with less expensive alternatives (e.g., open water placement), more expensive measures that require sediment disposal in constructed facilities far away (e.g., landfills), or beneficial uses that may be perceived as risky (e.g., beach nourishment or island creation). Current sediment-placement decisions often focus on local and immediate environmental effects from the sediment itself, ignoring a variety of distributed and long-term effects from transportation and placement activities. These extended effects have implications for climate change, resource consumption, and environmental and human health, which may be meaningful topics for many stakeholders not currently considered. Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) provides a systematic and quantitative method for accounting for this wider range of impacts and benefits across all sediment management project stages and time horizons. This paper applies a cradle-to-use LCA to dredged-sediment placement through a comparative analysis of potential upland, open water, and containment-island placement alternatives in the Long Island Sound region of NY/CT. Results suggest that, in cases dealing with uncontaminated sediments, upland placement may be the most environmentally burdensome alternative, per ton-kilometer of placed material, due to the emissions associated with diesel fuel combustion and electricity production and consumption required for the extra handling and transportation. These results can be traded-off with the ecosystem impacts of the sediments themselves in a decision-making framework. Published by

  13. Equilibrium sampling for a thermodynamic assessment of contaminated sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ) govern diffusive uptake and partitioning. Equilibrium sampling of sediment was introduced 15 years ago to measure Cfree, and it has since developed into a straightforward, precise and sensitive approach for determining Cfree and other exposure parameters that allow for thermodynamic assessment...... of polluted sediments. Glass jars with µm-thin silicone coatings on the inner walls can be used for ex situ equilibration while a device housing several silicone-coated fibers can be used for in situ equilibration. In both cases, parallel sampling with varying silicone thicknesses can be applied to confirm...... will focus at the latest developments in equilibrium sampling concepts and methods. Further, we will explain how these approaches can provide a new basis for a thermodynamic assessment of polluted sediments....

  14. Mask quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Larry; Paulson, Neil; Reynolds, James A.

    1994-02-01

    Product quality and timely delivery are two of the most important parameters, determining the success of a mask manufacturing facility. Because of the sensitivity of this data, however, very little is known about industry performance in these areas. Using Arthur Andersen & Co. to protect contributor identity, the authors have conducted a blind quality survey of mask shops which represents over 75% of the total merchant and captive mask volume in the US. Quantities such as return rate, plate survival yield, performance to schedule and reason for return were requested from 1988 through Q2 1993. Data is analyzed and conclusions are presented.

  15. Assessment of Water and Sediment Physical-Chemical Composition in the West Coast of Maracaibo Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Moronta-Riera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to determine the physical and chemical composition of the water streams and sediments of the Maracaibo Lake in three sampling areas located in Tía Juana, Lagunillas and Ceuta in order to know the level of contamination and assess water quality based on permissible values established by the 883 Decree. The results indicate that the overall hydrocarbon concentrations in the water and sediments are above permissible levels. It is concluded that petroleum prospection is the root cause of the lake contamination.

  16. Radiological assessment of dam water and sediments for natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiological assessment of dam water and sediments for natural radioactivity and its overall health detriments. ... No artificial gamma emitting radionuclide was detected in the samples. The projected ... However, the chances of radiological hazard to the health of human from radioactivity in the soil were generally low.

  17. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Sediment and Polychaete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metal pollution in the Mzinga creek mangrove stand was assessed and compared with a relatively pristine mangrove forest at Ras Dege in Dar es Salaam. The concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and zinc in sediment and polychaete worms (Capitella sp.) were analyzed by ICP-AES and mercury was ...

  18. The assessment of sediment contamination in an acid mine drainage impacted river in Gauteng (South Africa) using three sediment bioassays

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    M.Sc. (Zoology) Sediment contamination occurs as a result of various anthropogenic activities; mainly through mining-, agricultural- and industrial practices. Many of the contaminants arising from these activities enter the aquatic system and precipitate from the surrounding water, binding to sediment particles. In the sediment compartment, these contaminants reach concentrations much higher than in solution with the overlying water. Even though the quality of the overlying water may prove...

  19. Sediment delivery estimates in water quality models altered by resolution and source of topographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Peter C; Sadeghi, Ali M; Lang, Megan W; Tomer, Mark D; Daughtry, Craig S T

    2014-01-01

    Moderate-resolution (30-m) digital elevation models (DEMs) are normally used to estimate slope for the parameterization of non-point source, process-based water quality models. These models, such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), use the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and Modified USLE to estimate sediment loss. The slope length and steepness factor, a critical parameter in USLE, significantly affects sediment loss estimates. Depending on slope range, a twofold difference in slope estimation potentially results in as little as 50% change or as much as 250% change in the LS factor and subsequent sediment estimation. Recently, the availability of much finer-resolution (∼3 m) DEMs derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data has increased. However, the use of these data may not always be appropriate because slope values derived from fine spatial resolution DEMs are usually significantly higher than slopes derived from coarser DEMs. This increased slope results in considerable variability in modeled sediment output. This paper addresses the implications of parameterizing models using slope values calculated from DEMs with different spatial resolutions (90, 30, 10, and 3 m) and sources. Overall, we observed over a 2.5-fold increase in slope when using a 3-m instead of a 90-m DEM, which increased modeled soil loss using the USLE calculation by 130%. Care should be taken when using LiDAR-derived DEMs to parameterize water quality models because doing so can result in significantly higher slopes, which considerably alter modeled sediment loss. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Integrating the fish embryo toxicity test as triad element for sediment toxicity assessment based on the water framework directive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzke, Mariana [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Dept. Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Delov, Vera [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Ecotoxicology, Fraunhofer Inst. for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Aachen (Germany); Stahlschmidt-Allner, Petra; Allner, Bernhard [Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Oehlmann, Joerg [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to complement analyses according to the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) with a sediment toxicity analysis as part of an integrated river assessment. To this end, Hessian water courses were analyzed using the sediment quality triad concept according to Chapman with chemical analyses, in situ effect evaluations, and ecotoxicological assessments. For the ecotoxicological assessment (fish embryo toxicity test with Danio rerio), a new evaluation scheme was developed, the fish teratogenicity index (FTI), that allows for a classification of sediments into ecological quality classes compliant to the WFD. Materials and methods sediment and macrozoobenthos samples were taken from tributaries of the rivers Fulda and Lahn. Sediments were characterized regarding particle size, carbon, heavy metals, and polyaromatic hydrocarbon content. Macroinvertebrate samples were taken via multi-habitat sampling. The fish embryo toxicity test with D. rerio was conducted as a contact assay on the basis of DIN 38415-6. Results and discussion The integrated assessment indicated a significant influence of heavy metals and carbon content on macroinvertebrate communities. The bioaccessibility of sediment pollutants were clearly demonstrated by the FTI, which showed a wide range of adverse effects. A significant linear relationship between metals and the FTI was detected. However, there was no statistically significant evidence that macroinvertebrate communities were affected by the hydromorphological quality clements at the sampling sites. Conclusions The new scheme for the assessment of fish embryo toxicity test was successfully applied. The results suggest that sediment compounds impact macroinvertebrate communities and early development of fish. It demonstrates that the quality of sediments should be evaluated on a routine basis as part of an integrated river assessment. (orig.)

  1. Water quality assessment in the "German River of the years 2014/2015": how a case study on the impact of a storm water sedimentation basin displayed impairment of fish health in the Argen River (Southern Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellmann, Paul; Kuch, Bertram; Wurm, Karl; Köhler, Heinz-R; Triebskorn, Rita

    2017-01-01

    The present work investigates the impact of discharges from a storm water sedimentation basin (SSB) receiving runoff from a connected motorway in southern Germany. The study lasted for almost two years and was aimed at assessing the impact of the SSB on the fauna of the Argen River, which is a tributary of Lake Constance. Two sampling sites were examined up- and downstream of the SSB effluent. A combination of different diagnostic methods (fish embryo test with the zebrafish, histopathology, micronucleus test) was applied to investigate health impairment and genotoxic effects in indigenous fish as well as embryotoxic potentials in surface water and sediment samples of the Argen River, respectively, in samples of the SSB effluent. In addition, sediment samples from the Argen River and tissues of indigenous fish were used for chemical analyses of 33 frequently occurring pollutants by means of gas chromatography. Furthermore, the integrity of the macrozoobenthos community and the fish population were examined at both investigated sampling sites. The chemical analyses revealed a toxic burden with trace substances (originating from traffic and waste water) in fish and sediments from both sampling sites. Fish embryo tests with native sediment and surface water samples resulted in various embryotoxic effects in exposed zebrafish embryos (Fig. 1). In addition, the health condition of the investigated fish species (e.g., severe alterations in the liver and kidney) provided clear evidence of water contamination at both Argen River sites (Fig. 2). At distinct points in time, some parameters (fish development, kidney and liver histopathology) indicated stronger effects at the sampling site downstream of the SSB effluent than at the upstream site. Our results clearly showed that the SSB cannot be assigned as the main source of pollutants that are released into the investigated Argen River section. Moreover, we showed that there is moderate background pollution with substances

  2. Mycological assessment of sediments in Ligurian beaches in the Northwestern Mediterranean: pathogens and opportunistic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Vanessa-Sarah; Fabiano, Mauro

    2007-05-01

    Sediments of five Ligurian beaches in compliance with European Union bathing water regulations were studied based on the characteristics of the fungal assemblage during the tourism season. Among the 179 taxa of filamentous fungi isolated, 120 were opportunistic pathogens, such as Acremonium sp., and the genus Penicillium was also present as the pathogenic species P. citrinum. Furthermore, 5% of the total filamentous fungi belonged to the dermatophyte genus Microsporum, whose species can cause mycoses. Beach sediments showed elevated densities of opportunistic pathogens, of pathogenic filamentous fungi, and of yeasts during the tourism season. Although monitoring of beach sediments for microbiological contamination is not mandatory, and disease transmission from sediments has not yet been demonstrated, our study suggests that beach sediments may act as a reservoir of potential pathogens, including fungi. In addition, the mycoflora displayed high sensitivity to critical environmental situations in the beaches studied. Therefore, the fungal community can be a useful tool for assessing the quality of sandy beaches in terms of sanitary and environmental quality.

  3. Determining the sources of fine-grained sediment using the Sediment Source Assessment Tool (Sed_SAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman Sanisaca, Lillian E.; Gellis, Allen C.; Lorenz, David L.

    2017-07-27

    A sound understanding of sources contributing to instream sediment flux in a watershed is important when developing total maximum daily load (TMDL) management strategies designed to reduce suspended sediment in streams. Sediment fingerprinting and sediment budget approaches are two techniques that, when used jointly, can qualify and quantify the major sources of sediment in a given watershed. The sediment fingerprinting approach uses trace element concentrations from samples in known potential source areas to determine a clear signature of each potential source. A mixing model is then used to determine the relative source contribution to the target suspended sediment samples.The computational steps required to apportion sediment for each target sample are quite involved and time intensive, a problem the Sediment Source Assessment Tool (Sed_SAT) addresses. Sed_SAT is a user-friendly statistical model that guides the user through the necessary steps in order to quantify the relative contributions of sediment sources in a given watershed. The model is written using the statistical software R (R Core Team, 2016b) and utilizes Microsoft Access® as a user interface but requires no prior knowledge of R or Microsoft Access® to successfully run the model successfully. Sed_SAT identifies outliers, corrects for differences in size and organic content in the source samples relative to the target samples, evaluates the conservative behavior of tracers used in fingerprinting by applying a “Bracket Test,” identifies tracers with the highest discriminatory power, and provides robust error analysis through a Monte Carlo simulation following the mixing model. Quantifying sediment source contributions using the sediment fingerprinting approach provides local, State, and Federal land management agencies with important information needed to implement effective strategies to reduce sediment. Sed_SAT is designed to assist these agencies in applying the sediment fingerprinting

  4. The Assessment of Sediment Heavy Metal Pollution in Begej Canal (Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krčmar, Dejan; Trickovic, Jelena; Grba, Nenad; Becelic Tomin, Milena; Pesic, Vesna; Varga, Natasa; Dalmacija, Bozo

    2016-04-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in aquatic systems has received huge concern due to their toxicity, persistence and subsequent accumulation in aquatic sediments. One of the most crucial properties of the metals, which differentiate them from organic pollutants, is that they are not biodegradable in the environment. Metals are part of biogeochemical cycles with aquatic sediments acting as their ultimate sinks for longer periods of time. However, when environmental conditions change (pH, redox potential, etc.) sediments act as secondary sources of metal pollution. The toxicity and mobility of metals depend strongly on the way they are associated with sediments. Therefore, information on the total concentrations of metals in sediment alone should not be used to assess the environmental impact of polluted sediments. The Begej Canal is navigation canal between Romania and Serbia and it is a part of Danube-Tisa-Danube hydrosystem in Vojvodina (Northern Province of Serbia). Approximately, 500,000 m3 of sediment is accumulated in Begej canal which currently prevents canal's primary function - navigability. The objective of the present study was to assess the chemical quality of Begej canal sediments regarding heavy metals content. The concentrations of heavy metals were as follows: Cd - 2.4-4.9 mg/kg, Cr - 125-349 mg/kg, Cu - 65-124 mg/kg, Pb - 47-113 mg/kg, Ni - 45-88 mg/kg and Zn - 362-602 mg/kg. According to Serbian legislation (Official gazette, no. 50/12), sediment of Begej canal is the third class sediment which means that special measures should be taken in case of its removal from watercourse and final disposal in order to prevent contamination of other environmental compartments (soil, ground waters, surface waters, wildlife). Therefore, determination of third class has important economic and social implications. Additional tests to assess sediment quality included determination of contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI) and enrichment factor (EF). In

  5. The Effect of Sediment Quality and Stocking Density on Survival and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sediment quality and stocking density on the survival and growth of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra reared in nursery ponds and in pens was studied at Aqua-Lab Farm in Toliara, south west Madagascar. Three types of sediment (micro-atoll, mangrove and seagrass bed) were tested for their food quality ...

  6. Institutional Consequences of Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joao Rosa, Maria; Tavares, Diana; Amaral, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the opinions of Portuguese university rectors and academics on the quality assessment system and its consequences at the institutional level. The results obtained show that university staff (rectors and academics, with more of the former than the latter) held optimistic views of the positive consequences of quality assessment…

  7. Climate change and the impact of increased rainfall variability on sediment transport and catchment scale water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, G. R.; Willgoose, G. R.; Cohen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Recently there has been recognition that changing climate will affect rainfall and storm patterns with research directed to examine how the global hydrological cycle will respond to climate change. This study investigates the effect of different rainfall patterns on erosion and resultant water quality for a well studied tropical monsoonal catchment that is undisturbed by Europeans in the Northern Territory, Australia. Water quality has a large affect on a range of aquatic flora and fauna and a significant change in sediment could have impacts on the aquatic ecosystems. There have been several studies of the effect of climate change on rainfall patterns in the study area with projections indicating a significant increase in storm activity. Therefore it is important that the impact of this variability be assessed in terms of catchment hydrology, sediment transport and water quality. Here a numerical model of erosion and hydrology (CAESAR) is used to assess several different rainfall scenarios over a 1000 year modelled period. The results show that that increased rainfall amount and intensity increases sediment transport rates but predicted water quality was variable and non-linear but within the range of measured field data for the catchment and region. Therefore an assessment of sediment transport and water quality is a significant and complex issue that requires further understandings of the role of biophysical feedbacks such as vegetation as well as the role of humans in managing landscapes (i.e. controlled and uncontrolled fire). The study provides a robust methodology for assessing the impact of enhanced climate variability on sediment transport and water quality.

  8. Site-specific sediment clean-up objectives developed by the sediment quality triad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redman, S.; Janisch, T.

    1995-01-01

    Sediment chemistry, sediment toxicity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community data were collected and evaluated in concert (1) to characterize adverse effects of hydrocarbon and metal contaminants in the sediments of a small inlet of Superior Bay, Lake Superior and a tributary creek and (2) to derive numeric objectives for the clean up of this system. Sediments from reference locations and eight study sites were analyzed for a range of contaminants, including hydrocarbons (measured both as diesel range organics (DRO) and oil and grease), lead, chromium, and ammonia. A range of sediment toxicity was observed across the eight study sites using a variety of tests and endpoints: Hyalella azteca (10 day survival and growth), Chironomus tentans (10 day survival and growth), Ceriodaphnia dubia (48 hour survival), and Daphnia magna (48 hour survival and 10 day survival and reproduction). A range of alterations of the benthic macroinvertebrate community compared with communities from reference locations were observed. Benthic community alterations were summarized quantitatively by taxa richness and Shannon-Weiner mean diversity. Lowest effect levels determined through this study included 150 microg/g dry sediment for DRO (as measured in this study) and 40 microg/g dry sediment for lead. Effects thresholds determined through this study included 1,500 microg/g dry sediment for DRO and 90 microg/g dry sediment for lead. These levels and concentrations measured in relevant reference locations are being used to define objectives for sediment clean up in the inlet and creek

  9. Ecotoxicological assessment of water and sediment of the Corumbataí River, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM. Jardim

    Full Text Available The Corumbataí River drains an economically important area which is mainly represented by the municipalities of Piracicaba and Rio Claro. In view of the impacts caused by the discharge of industrial waste and domestic sewage into the Piracicaba River, the Corumbataí has become increasingly significant as a source of water for the municipality of Piracicaba. However, chemical, physical, and microbiological analyses carried out prior to the present study had already indicated a decline in the quality of the Corumbataí waters. This study aimed to assess, through water and sediment samples, both acute and chronic toxicity to Daphnia magna and Daphnia similis, and to analyze acid-volatile sulfide (AVS and simultaneously extracted metal (SEM in the sediment. Resulting data were intended to be a contribution to future projects for the management and recuperation of this system. To that aim, water and sediment were collected at seven Corumbataí sampling stations in November 2003 and March 2004. Acute toxicity to D. similis was detected in water and sediment samples from the Piracicaba station, located at the mouth of the Corumbataí River. Chronic toxicity was identified in the water or sediment samples of all stations, with the exception of Analândia Montante (upstream, at the head of the river. This was found to affect survival, growth, and fecundity of the test-organisms. The AVS and SEM analyses showed the bioavailability of the metals, thus explaining toxicity found in bioassaying samples of water and sediment. The use of two test-organism species made it possible to obtain a better assessment of the condition of both water and sediment samples of the Corumbataí River.

  10. Indoor Climate Quality Assessment -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansaldi, Roberta; Asadi, Ehsan; Costa, José Joaquim

    This Guidebook gives building professionals useful support in the practical measurements and monitoring of the indoor climate in buildings. It is evident that energy consumption in a building is directly influenced by required and maintained indoor comfort level. Wireless technologies for measure...... for measurement and monitoring have allowed a significantly increased number of possible applications, especially in existing buildings. The Guidebook illustrates several cases with the instrumentation of the monitoring and assessment of indoor climate.......This Guidebook gives building professionals useful support in the practical measurements and monitoring of the indoor climate in buildings. It is evident that energy consumption in a building is directly influenced by required and maintained indoor comfort level. Wireless technologies...

  11. The Northeast Stream Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Coles, James F.

    2016-04-22

    In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) is assessing stream quality in the northeastern United States. The goal of the Northeast Stream Quality Assessment (NESQA) is to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and evaluating the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The focus of NESQA in 2016 will be on the effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality in all or parts of eight states: Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information about the most critical factors affecting stream quality, thus providing insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region. The NESQA study will be the fourth regional study conducted as part of NAWQA and will be of similar design and scope to the first three, in the Midwest in 2013, the Southeast in 2014, and the Pacific Northwest in 2015 (http://txpub.usgs.gov/RSQA/).

  12. Assessment of sediment contamination in Casco Bay, Maine, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, Terry L. [Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, Texas A and M University, 833 Graham Road, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Sweet, Stephen T. [Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, Texas A and M University, 833 Graham Road, College Station, TX 77845 (United States)], E-mail: sweet@gerg.tamu.edu; Klein, Andrew G. [Geography Department, Texas A and M University, 814B Eller O and M Building, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    The current status of contaminant concentrations in Casco Bay, decadal trends of these contaminants and changes in their geographical distribution are assessed using sediment samples collected approximately 10 years apart. In general, regulated contaminants appeared to be decreasing in concentration. Total PAH and dioxins/furans concentrations did not significantly change over this period. Total organochlorine pesticides, 4,4-DDE, 4,4-DDD, total DDT, PCB, tributyltin and total butyltin decreased in concentration. Trace element concentrations in sediments decreased at the majority of the sampling sites for chromium, nickel, and selenium while arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc remained relatively constant. None of the contaminants measured has increased by more than a factor of 2. Selected sites located in the Inner Bay, where concentrations are higher and new inputs were more likely, showed increased concentrations of contaminants. Most contaminants were not found at concentrations expected to adversely affect sediment biota based on ERL/ERM guidelines. - Sediment studies indicate decadal decreases for many chemical contaminants in Casco Bay.

  13. Assessment of sediment contamination in Casco Bay, Maine, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, Terry L.; Sweet, Stephen T.; Klein, Andrew G.

    2008-01-01

    The current status of contaminant concentrations in Casco Bay, decadal trends of these contaminants and changes in their geographical distribution are assessed using sediment samples collected approximately 10 years apart. In general, regulated contaminants appeared to be decreasing in concentration. Total PAH and dioxins/furans concentrations did not significantly change over this period. Total organochlorine pesticides, 4,4-DDE, 4,4-DDD, total DDT, PCB, tributyltin and total butyltin decreased in concentration. Trace element concentrations in sediments decreased at the majority of the sampling sites for chromium, nickel, and selenium while arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc remained relatively constant. None of the contaminants measured has increased by more than a factor of 2. Selected sites located in the Inner Bay, where concentrations are higher and new inputs were more likely, showed increased concentrations of contaminants. Most contaminants were not found at concentrations expected to adversely affect sediment biota based on ERL/ERM guidelines. - Sediment studies indicate decadal decreases for many chemical contaminants in Casco Bay

  14. Classification of sediments by means of Self-Organizing Maps and sediment quality guidelines in sites of the southern Spanish coastline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. VESES

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to classify 112 marine and estuarine sites of the southern Spanish coastline (about 918 km long according to similar sediment characteristics by means of artificial neural networks (ANNs such as Self-Organizing Maps (SOM and sediment quality guidelines from a dataset consisted of 16 physical and chemical parameters including sediment granulometry, trace and major elements, total N and P and organic carbon content. The use of ANNs such as SOM made possible the classification of the sampling sites according to their similar chemical characteristics. Visual correlations between geochemical parameters were extracted due to the powerful visual characteristics (component planes of the SOM revealing that ANNs are an excellent tool to be incorporated in sediment quality assessments. Besides, almost 20% of the sites were classified as medium-high or high priority sites in order to take future remediation actions due to their high mean Effects Range-Median Quotient (m-ERMQ value. Priority sites included the estuaries of the major rivers (Tinto, Odiel, Palmones, etc. and several locations along the eastern coastline.

  15. Assessment of metal concentrations in sediment samples from Billings Reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostelmann, Eleine

    2006-01-01

    The present study chemically characterized sediment samples from the Billings reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, in the Metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, by determining metal concentration and other elements of interest. The chosen chemical parameters for this characterization were Aluminum, Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Selenium and Zinco. These parameters are also used in the water quality index, with the exception of Selenium. The concentrations were determined through different analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, GFAAS and CVAAS), optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and neutron activation analysis. These analytical methodologies were assessed for precision, accuracy and detection and/or quantification limits for the sediment elements in question. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique for each element and its concentration were also discussed. From these assessments the most adequate technique was selected for the routine analysis of sediment samples for each element concentration determination. This assessment verified also that digestion in a closed microwave system with nitric acid is efficient for the evaluation of extracted metals of environmental interest. The analytical techniques chosen were equally efficient for metals determination. In the case of Cd and Pb, the FAAS technique was selected due to better results than ICP OES, as it does not present matrix interference. The concentration values obtained for metals As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) TEL and PEL values. (author)

  16. Assessment of metal concentrations in sediment samples from Billings reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostelmann, Eleine

    2006-01-01

    The present study chemically characterized sediment samples from the Billings reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, in the Metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, by determining metal concentration and other elements of interest. The chosen chemical parameters for this characterization were Aluminum, Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Selenium and Zinc. These parameters are also used in the water quality index, with the exception of Selenium. The concentrations were determined through different analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, GFAAS and CVAAS), optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and neutron activation analysis. These analytical methodologies were assessed for precision, accuracy and detection and/or quantification limits for the sediment elements in question. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique for each element and its concentration were also discussed. From these assessment the most adequate technique was selected for the routine analysis of sediment samples for each element concentration determination. This assessment verified also that digestion in a closed microwave system with nitric acid is efficient for the evaluation of extracted metals of environmental interest. The analytical techniques chosen were equally efficient for metals determination. In the case of Cd and Pb, the FAAS technique was selected due to better results than ICP OES, as it does not present matrix interference. The concentration values obtained for metals As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) TEL and PEL values. (author)

  17. Assessing sediment hazard through a weight of evidence approach with bioindicator organisms: a practical model to elaborate data from sediment chemistry, bioavailability, biomarkers and ecotoxicological bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Francesco; Ciaprini, Francesco; Onorati, Fulvio; Benedetti, Maura; Fattorini, Daniele; Ausili, Antonella; Regoli, Francesco

    2011-04-01

    Quality assessments are crucial to all activities related to removal and management of sediments. Following a multidisciplinary, weight of evidence approach, a new model is presented here for comprehensive assessment of hazards associated to polluted sediments. The lines of evidence considered were sediment chemistry, assessment of bioavailability, sub-lethal effects on biomarkers, and ecotoxicological bioassays. A conceptual and software-assisted model was developed with logical flow-charts elaborating results from each line of evidence on the basis of several chemical and biological parameters, normative guidelines or scientific evidence; the data are thus summarized into four specific synthetic indices, before their integration into an overall sediment hazard evaluation. This model was validated using European eels (Anguilla anguilla) as the bioindicator species, exposed under laboratory conditions to sediments from an industrial site, and caged under field conditions in two harbour areas. The concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace metals were much higher in the industrial compared to harbour sediments, and accordingly the bioaccumulation in liver and gills of exposed eels showed marked differences between conditions seen. Among biomarkers, significant variations were observed for cytochrome P450-related responses, oxidative stress biomarkers, lysosomal stability and genotoxic effects; the overall elaboration of these data, as those of standard ecotoxicological bioassays with bacteria, algae and copepods, confirmed a higher level of biological hazard for industrial sediments. Based on comparisons with expert judgment, the model presented efficiently discriminates between the various conditions, both as individual modules and as an integrated final evaluation, and it appears to be a powerful tool to support more complex processes of environmental risk assessment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ambient water and sediment quality of Galveston Bay: Present status and historical trends. Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, G.H.; Armstrong, N.E.

    1992-08-01

    For many years, data relating to the quality of water and sediment have been collected in the Galveston Bay system by a variety of organizations and individuals. The purpose of the project was to compile these data, and to perform a quantitative assessment of water and sediment quality of Galveston Bay and its evolution over time. The study focused on the following categories of parameters: temperature, salinity and related parameters, suspended sediments and turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, nutrients as measured by nitrogen, phosphorous and organic carbon, organics as measured by oil and grease, volatile solids and biochemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll-a, coliforms, metals (total and dissolved), and trace organics, including pesticides, herbicides, PAH's, PCB's, and priority pollutants.

  19. Assessing the environmental availability of uranium in soils and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, J.E.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Krupa, K.M.; Lindenmeier, C.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Soils and sediments contaminated with uranium pose certain environmental and ecological risks. At low to moderate levels of contamination, the magnitude of these risks depends not only on the absolute concentrations of uranium in the material but also on the availability of the uranium to drinking water supplies, plants, or higher organisms. Rational approaches for regulating the clean-up of sites contaminated with uranium, therefore, should consider the value of assessing the environmental availability of uranium at the site before making decisions regarding remediation. The purpose of this work is to review existing approaches and procedures to determine their potential applicability for assessing the environmental availability of uranium in bulk soils or sediments. In addition to making the recommendations regarding methodology, the authors have tabulated data from the literature on the aqueous complexes of uranium and major uranium minerals, examined the possibility of predicting environmental availability of uranium based on thermodynamic solubility data, and compiled a representative list of analytical laboratories capable of performing environmental analyses of uranium in soils and sediments.

  20. Assessing the environmental availability of uranium in soils and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amonette, J.E.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Krupa, K.M.; Lindenmeier, C.W.

    1994-06-01

    Soils and sediments contaminated with uranium pose certain environmental and ecological risks. At low to moderate levels of contamination, the magnitude of these risks depends not only on the absolute concentrations of uranium in the material but also on the availability of the uranium to drinking water supplies, plants, or higher organisms. Rational approaches for regulating the clean-up of sites contaminated with uranium, therefore, should consider the value of assessing the environmental availability of uranium at the site before making decisions regarding remediation. The purpose of this work is to review existing approaches and procedures to determine their potential applicability for assessing the environmental availability of uranium in bulk soils or sediments. In addition to making the recommendations regarding methodology, the authors have tabulated data from the literature on the aqueous complexes of uranium and major uranium minerals, examined the possibility of predicting environmental availability of uranium based on thermodynamic solubility data, and compiled a representative list of analytical laboratories capable of performing environmental analyses of uranium in soils and sediments

  1. Effects of sediment organic matter quality on bioaccumulation, degradation, and distribution of pyrene in two macrofaunal species and their surrounding sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granberg, Maria E.; Selck, Henriette

    2007-01-01

    Sediment dwelling macrofauna (infauna) are important vectors for the transfer of sediment-associated contaminants to higher trophic levels. Sedimenting organic matter constitutes an important food source for all benthic organisms and changes seasonally in terms of quantity and quality. Sediment...... imply that bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of sediment-associated PAH should increase following fresh organic matter input, e.g. after sedimentation of phytoplankton blooms. We stress the importance of considering behavioural characteristics of infauna and the trophic situation of the system when...

  2. Attention modeling for video quality assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    averaged spatiotemporal pooling. The local quality is derived from visual attention modeling and quality variations over frames. Saliency, motion, and contrast information are taken into account in modeling visual attention, which is then integrated into IQMs to calculate the local quality of a video frame...... average between the global quality and the local quality. Experimental results demonstrate that the combination of the global quality and local quality outperforms both sole global quality and local quality, as well as other quality models, in video quality assessment. In addition, the proposed video...... quality modeling algorithm can improve the performance of image quality metrics on video quality assessment compared to the normal averaged spatiotemporal pooling scheme....

  3. Sedimentation, sediment quality, and upstream channel stability, John Redmond Reservoir, east-central Kansas, 1964-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2010-01-01

    A combination of available bathymetric-survey information, bottom-sediment coring, and historical streamgage information was used to investigate sedimentation, sediment quality, and upstream channel stability for John Redmond Reservoir, east-central Kansas. Ongoing sedimentation is reducing the ability of the reservoir to serve several purposes including flood control, water supply, and recreation. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment deposited between 1964 and 2009 in the conservation pool of the reservoir was 1.46 billion cubic feet and 55.8 billion pounds, respectively. The estimated sediment volume occupied about 41 percent of the conservation-pool, water-storage capacity of the reservoir. Water-storage capacity in the conservation pool has been lost to sedimentation at a rate of about 1 percent annually. Mean annual net sediment deposition since 1964 in the conservation pool of the reservoir was estimated to be 1.24 billion pounds per year. Mean annual net sediment yield from the reservoir basin was estimated to be 411,000 pounds per square mile per year Information from sediment cores shows that throughout the history of John Redmond Reservoir, total nitrogen concentrations in the deposited sediment generally were uniform indicating consistent nitrogen inputs to the reservoir. Total phosphorus concentrations in the deposited sediment were more variable than total nitrogen indicating the possibility of changing phosphorus inputs to the reservoir. As the principal limiting factor for primary production in most freshwater environments, phosphorus is of particular importance because increased inputs can contribute to accelerated reservoir eutrophication and the production of algal toxins and taste-and-odor compounds. The mean annual net loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus deposited in the bottom sediment of the reservoir were estimated to be 2,350,000 pounds per year and 1,030,000 pounds per year, respectively. The estimated mean annual

  4. Towards science-based sediment quality standards—Effects of field-collected sediments in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, Markus, E-mail: markus.brinkmann@bio5.rwth-aachen.de [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Eichbaum, Kathrin; Reininghaus, Mathias; Koglin, Sven [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kammann, Ulrike [Thünen-Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany); Baumann, Lisa; Segner, Helmut [Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Länggassstr. 122, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Zennegg, Markus [Swiss Federal Institute for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), Laboratory for Advanced Analytical Technologies, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg [Department G3: Biochemistry, Ecotoxicology, Federal Institute of Hydrology (BFG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); Hollert, Henner, E-mail: henner.hollert@bio5.rwth-aachen.de [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, 1 Tiansheng Road Beibei, Chongqing 400715 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University (China)

    2015-09-15

    RNA expression and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in fish livers responded immediately and with high sensitivity, while increased frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear aberrations, as well as histopathological and gross pathological lesions, were strong indicators of the potential long-term effects of re-suspension events. Our study clearly demonstrates that sediment re-suspension can lead to accumulation of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in fish, resulting in potentially adverse toxicological effects. For a sound risk assessment within the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive and related legislation, we propose a strong emphasis on sediment-bound contaminants in the context of integrated river basin management plans.

  5. Towards science-based sediment quality standards—Effects of field-collected sediments in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, Markus; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Reininghaus, Mathias; Koglin, Sven; Kammann, Ulrike; Baumann, Lisa; Segner, Helmut; Zennegg, Markus; Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg; Hollert, Henner

    2015-01-01

    RNA expression and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in fish livers responded immediately and with high sensitivity, while increased frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear aberrations, as well as histopathological and gross pathological lesions, were strong indicators of the potential long-term effects of re-suspension events. Our study clearly demonstrates that sediment re-suspension can lead to accumulation of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in fish, resulting in potentially adverse toxicological effects. For a sound risk assessment within the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive and related legislation, we propose a strong emphasis on sediment-bound contaminants in the context of integrated river basin management plans

  6. Ejercicio interlaboratorio de bioensayos marinos para la evaluacion de la calidad ambiental de sedimentos costeros en Espana. II Ensayo de inhibicion dela bioluminiscencia para la evaluacion rapida de la toxicidad de sedimentos = Interlaboratory assessment of marine bioassays to evaluate the environmental quality of coastal sediments in Spain. II. Bioluminescence inhibition test for rapid sediment toxicity assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casado-Martinez, M.C.; Campisi, T.; Diaz, A.; Re, Lo R.; Obispo, R.; Postma, J.F.; Riba, I.; Sneekes, A.C.; Buceta, J.L.; DelValls, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Microtox (R) bioassay was tested in an interlaboratory study to evaluate the variability when using solid-phase samples. The exercise consisted of two consecutive phases each one carried out with six sediment samples from Spanish ports. Phase I included six laboratories that reported results for

  7. Water Quality and Heavy Metal Concentrations in Sediment of Sungai Kelantan, Kelantan, Malaysia: A Baseline Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A.K.; Mushrifah, I.; Mohamad Shuhaimi Othman

    2009-01-01

    A study on water quality and heavy metal concentration in sediment at selected sites of Sungai Kelantan was carried out. Ten water samples were collected along the river for physical and chemical analysis and twenty-six water and sediment samples were collected for heavy metal analysis. Water was sampled at three different dates throughout the study period whereas sediments were collected once. In addition to heavy metal analysis, sediment samples were also analysed for texture, ph and organic content. The physical and chemical water quality analyses were carried out according to the ALPHA procedures. Result of water quality analysis (physico-chemical) indicated that Sungai Kelantan is characterised by excellent water quality and comparable to pristine ecosystems such as the National Park and Kenyir Lake. This river was classified into class I - class III based on Malaysian interim water quality standard criteria (INWQS). Heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd was detected at low concentration in sediment samples, except for Fe and Mn. The presence of Fe and Mn in sediment samples was though to be of natural origin from the soil. Anthropogenic metal concentrations in sediment were low indicating that Sungai Kelantan has not experienced extreme pollution. (author)

  8. Assessment of the metals concentration in sediments of Chimaliapan Lagoon, Lerma, Mexico State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez V, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    The San Pedro Tultepec Lagoon of Quiroga in Lerma, known as Chimaliapan Lagoon is one of the Cienegas of the high course of the Lerma river. Considering that the lagoon is adjacent to an industrial area, have been altered the natural conditions of the channels, degrading the water quality and affecting the systems with different pollution sources, among which are industrial and municipal discharges and runoff of farmland. For this reason was decided to conduct a study in order to assess the concentration of metals in sediments of 4 sites and 4 downloads of the Chimaliapan Lagoon in order to infer the possible natural contributions and/or anthropogenic metals and their impact on both flora and fauna and the population that is supplied with the same, while assessing levels of enrichment of Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb metals as a result of contributions previously mentioned applying the technique of Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). According to the results by EDXRF, the sediments of the Lagoon assessed with the criterion of the EPA for the disposal of dredged sediments at this site, Mn and Fe only slightly exceed this criterion, then considering the Canadian criteria for the protection of aquatic life OMe, might have slight effects of Cr, Mn, Fe and Cu. Sediment discharges, evaluated with the same criteria indicate that Cr and Pb exceed the limit recommended by the EPA for the disposal of dredged sediments and Cr, Cu and Zn exceed the limit recommended for the protection of aquatic life OMe, noting that these metals may cause slight effects on organisms living in the Lagoon, such as carp and other organisms that live there, causing potential effects on humans through the food chain. (Author)

  9. Environmental impact of the Midia Port - Black Sea (Romania, on the coastal sediment quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catianis Irina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of potential pollution sources, mainly from the upstream anthropogenic sources and port-related activities. The in-vestigated area covered a wide range of anthropogenic im-pacts (e.g., industrial wastes, storm water runoff, acciden-tal oil spills, intentional discharges and shipping activities. The quality of water and Sediments was assessed us-ing Standard methods, as physical-chemical parameters, chemistry and biology (microbiology, ecotoxicology aim-ing to figure the level of pollution and the effect of port-related activities. Seawater quality results agreed generally with environmental Standards. Though, in some samples the concentrations of sulphates (mg/1 and heavy metals (μg/1, as B, As and Se exceeded the recommended lim-its, without posing a serious environmental concern. Most of the surface sediment samples contain critical levels of hydrocarbons (C>12, (mg/kg, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ng/g and polychlorobiphenyls (ng/g. For some heavy metals (mg/kg, exchangeable concentrations were found to be very close or above the regulations. The signifi-cance of this study is incontestable taking into account the lack of previous relevant historical data of this area. In this sense, it was possible to indicate, in general, good environmental conditions, despite the industrial and concentrated local port-related activities in the investigated area.

  10. Toxicity assessment of sediments from three European river basins using a sediment contact test battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuikka, A.I.; Schmitt, C.; Hoess, S.; Bandow, N; von der Ohe, P.; de Zwart, D.; de Deckere, E.; Streck, G.; Mothes, S.; van Hattum, A.G.M.; Kocan, A.; Brix, R.; Brack, W.; Barcelo, D.; Sormunen, A.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of four polluted sediments and their corresponding reference sediments from three European river basins were investigated using a battery of six sediment contact tests representing three different trophic levels. The tests included were chronic tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus

  11. Estuarine bed-sediment-quality data collected in New Jersey and New York after Hurricane Sandy, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Focazio, Michael J.; Loftin, Keith A.; Benzel, William M.; Jones, Daniel K.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Fisher, Shawn C.; Fisher, Irene J.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Romanok, Kristin M.; Jenkins, Darkus E.; Bowers, Luke; Boehlke, Adam; Foreman, William T.; Deetz, Anna C.; Carper, Lisa G.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a reconnaissance study of estuarine bed-sediment quality conducted June–October 2013 in New Jersey and New York after Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 to assess the extent of contamination and the potential long-term human and ecological impacts of the storm. The study, funded through the Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 (PL 113-2), was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. In addition to presenting the bed-sediment-quality data, the report describes the study design, documents the methods of sample collection and analysis, and discusses the steps taken to assure the quality of the data.

  12. Assessing quality in cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer A.M. Nashef

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a the strong temporal, if not causal, link between the intervention and the outcome in cardiac surgery and therefore a link becomes established between operative mortality and the measurement of surgical performance. In Britain the law stipulates that data collected by any public body or using public funds must be made freely available. Tools and mechanisms we devise and develop are likely to form the models on which the quality of care is assessed in other surgical and perhaps medical specialties. Measuring professional performance should be done by the profession. To measure risk there are a number of scores as crude mortality is not enough. A very important benefit of assessing the risk of death is to use this knowledge in the determination of the indication to operate. The second benefit is in the assessment of the quality of care as risk prediction gives a standard against performance of hospitals and surgeons. Peer review and “naming and shaming” are two mechanisms to monitor quality. There are two potentially damaging outcomes from the publication of results in a league-table form: the first is the damage to the hospital; the second is to refuse to operate on high-risk patients. There is a real need for quality monitoring in medicine in general and in cardiac surgery in particular. Good quality surgical work requires robust knowledge of three crucial variables: activity, risk prediction and performance. In Europe, the three major specialist societies have agreed to establish the European Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery Institute of Accreditation (ECTSIA. Performance monitoring is soon to become imperative. If we surgeons are not on board, we shall have no control on its final destination, and the consequences may be equally damaging to us and to our patients.

  13. Quality assessment of immobilized wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzyski, B.M.; Suarez, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    A final repository concept for LLW and ILW is being studied in Brazil. It is thus now possible to assess in a systematic way the requirements on the waste packages in each step of the treatment, conditioning, storage, transport, disposal and the quality control procedure needed to show the requirements are fulfilled. The methodology to perform this assessment is discussed in this paper. The results of this methodology is proposed as basis for the licencing of the disposal of different waste packages in Brazil. (author) [pt

  14. Assessing primary care data quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yvonne Mei Fong; Yusof, Maryati; Sivasampu, Sheamini

    2018-04-16

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess National Medical Care Survey data quality. Design/methodology/approach Data completeness and representativeness were computed for all observations while other data quality measures were assessed using a 10 per cent sample from the National Medical Care Survey database; i.e., 12,569 primary care records from 189 public and private practices were included in the analysis. Findings Data field completion ranged from 69 to 100 per cent. Error rates for data transfer from paper to web-based application varied between 0.5 and 6.1 per cent. Error rates arising from diagnosis and clinical process coding were higher than medication coding. Data fields that involved free text entry were more prone to errors than those involving selection from menus. The authors found that completeness, accuracy, coding reliability and representativeness were generally good, while data timeliness needs to be improved. Research limitations/implications Only data entered into a web-based application were examined. Data omissions and errors in the original questionnaires were not covered. Practical implications Results from this study provided informative and practicable approaches to improve primary health care data completeness and accuracy especially in developing nations where resources are limited. Originality/value Primary care data quality studies in developing nations are limited. Understanding errors and missing data enables researchers and health service administrators to prevent quality-related problems in primary care data.

  15. Assessment of sediment hydrocarbon contamination from the 2009 Montara oil blow out in the Timor Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Kathryn A.; Jones, Ross

    2016-01-01

    In August 2009, a blowout of the Montara H1 well 260 km off the northwest coast of Australia resulted in the uncontrolled release of about 4.7 M L of light crude oil and gaseous hydrocarbons into the Timor Sea. Over the 74 day period of the spill, the oil remained offshore and did not result in shoreline incidents on the Australia mainland. At various times slicks were sighted over a 90,000 km"2 area, forming a layer of oil which was tracked by airplanes and satellites but the slicks typically remained within 35 km of the well head platform and were treated with 183,000 L of dispersants. The shelf area where the spill occurred is shallow (100–200 m) and includes off shore emergent reefs and cays and submerged banks and shoals. This study describes the increased inputs of oil to the system and assesses the environmental impact. Concentrations of hydrocarbon in the sediment at the time of survey were very low (total aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged from 0.04 to 31 ng g"−"1) and were orders of magnitude lower than concentrations at which biological effects would be expected. - Highlights: • 2009 fire/collapse of MWH1 released approximately 4.7 M L oil into the Timor Sea. • Oil gushed for 74 days before capping. Sediment studies initially declined. • Estimated 183,000 L dispersant forced oil into seawater in ∼100 m water depth area. • Sediments collected from nearby reefs and shoals 6 and 18 months later. • Assessment based on the increased oil inputs to the system. - Australia's oil spill response must include sediments collected immediately after and sediment quality guidelines for PAHs must include alkylated components as specified by the USEPA quidelines.

  16. Prospective Environmental Risk Assessment for Sediment-Bound Organic Chemicals: A Proposal for Tiered Effect Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepens, Noël J; Koelmans, Albert A; Baveco, Hans; van den Brink, Paul J; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J; Brock, Theo C M

    A broadly accepted framework for prospective environmental risk assessment (ERA) of sediment-bound organic chemicals is currently lacking. Such a framework requires clear protection goals, evidence-based concepts that link exposure to effects and a transparent tiered-effect assessment. In this paper, we provide a tiered prospective sediment ERA procedure for organic chemicals in sediment, with a focus on the applicable European regulations and the underlying data requirements. Using the ecosystem services concept, we derived specific protection goals for ecosystem service providing units: microorganisms, benthic algae, sediment-rooted macrophytes, benthic invertebrates and benthic vertebrates. Triggers for sediment toxicity testing are discussed.We recommend a tiered approach (Tier 0 through Tier 3). Tier-0 is a cost-effective screening based on chronic water-exposure toxicity data for pelagic species and equilibrium partitioning. Tier-1 is based on spiked sediment laboratory toxicity tests with standard benthic test species and standardised test methods. If comparable chronic toxicity data for both standard and additional benthic test species are available, the Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) approach is a more viable Tier-2 option than the geometric mean approach. This paper includes criteria for accepting results of sediment-spiked single species toxicity tests in prospective ERA, and for the application of the SSD approach. We propose micro/mesocosm experiments with spiked sediment, to study colonisation success by benthic organisms, as a Tier-3 option. Ecological effect models can be used to supplement the experimental tiers. A strategy for unifying information from various tiers by experimental work and exposure-and effect modelling is provided.

  17. Effects of sediment organic matter quality on bioaccumulation, degradation, and distribution of pyrene in two macrofaunal species and their surrounding sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granberg, M. E.; Selck, H.

    2007-01-01

    Sediment dwelling macrofauna (infauna) are important vectors for the transfer of sediment-associated contaminants to higher trophic levels. Sedimenting organic matter constitutes an important food source for all benthic organisms and changes seasonally in terms of quantity and quality. Sediment...... organic matter (SOM) quality affects organism activity and feeding behaviour, and is therefore also likely to affect contaminant fate in benthic systems. We investigated the impact of SOM quality (enrichment with either labile Tetraselmis sp. or refractory lignin) on the accumulation and metabolism...... imply that bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of sediment-associated PAH should increase following fresh organic matter input, e.g. after sedimentation of phytoplankton blooms. We stress the importance of considering behavioural characteristics of infauna and the trophic situation of the system when...

  18. Integrated assessment of mangrove sediments in the Camamu Bay (Bahia, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Joana F; de Oliveira, Olívia M C; Dominguez, José M L; Almeida, Edna dos Santos; Carvalho, Gilson Correia; Magalhães, Wagner F

    2011-03-01

    Camamu Bay, an Environmentally Protected Area, may be affected by the pressures of tourism and oil exploration in the adjacent continental platform. The current quality of the mangrove sediments was evaluated by porewater bioassays using embryos of Crassostrea rhizophorae and by an analysis of benthic macrofauna and its relationships with organic compounds, trace metals and bioavailability. Porewater toxicity varied from low to moderate in the majority of the samples, and polychaetes dominated the benthos. The Grande Island sampling station (Station 1) presented more sandy sediments, differentiated macrobenthic assemblages and the highest metal concentrations in relation to other stations and guideline values, and it was the only station that indicated a possible bioavailability of metals. The origin of the metals (mainly barium) is most likely associated with the barite ore deposits located in the Grande and Pequena islands. These results may be useful for future assessment of the impact of oil exploration in the coastal region. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of metals in sediments of Baiyangdian wetland ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Liya; Liu, Jingling; Christensen, Per

    2011-01-01

    is the biggest wetland in Northeast China. We apply three methodologies. The first is literature analysis comparing total concentrations of heavy metals with other water bodies around world. The second is Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (EQSS), National Environmental Protection Agency of China...... 1995, and the third is Soil and Aquatic Sediment Guidelines and Standards issued by New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC). The results show that compared to other water bodies around the world, the seven heavy metals are low. However, Cd was found in the most polluting level...... of EQSS near a village and was second grade some distance from it. The village was also the most polluted site of Zn, which was in the second grade. When assessed by NYSDEC, Cu, Cr, and As contaminated the sediment and with moderate impacts on benthic life while Pb, Hg, and Zn were found at tolerable...

  20. Ecotoxicological assessment of sediments from Tiete river between Salesopolis and Suzano, SP (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alegre, Gabriel Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Once introduced into the aquatic environment, many substances can bind or be adsorbed by organic particles in suspension. Depending on the river morphology and hydrological conditions, these particles in suspension containing the contaminants can be deposited along its course, becoming part of the bottom sediments, making them actual sinks and often a source of contamination for the water column and benthic organisms. In the assessment of water, sediment has been one of the most important indicators of the contamination levels in aquatic ecosystems, representing the deposition of contaminants in the environment that occurred over the years and even decades. The Tiete River cross the Sao Paulo state, however, in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, the river shows the most severe degradation. In the region of Salesopolis, the waters of the Tiete River are used for public supply, but across the city of Mogi das Cruzes the water quality decreases significantly. Considering the importance of the Tiete river and the sediment for the aquatic biota, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of the sediment at five points along the Tiete river, between the cities of Salesopolis and Suzano, Sao Paulo. Four sampling were carried out: two in the summer (rainy season) and two in winter (dry season). The whole sediment was assessed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia, respectively, the elutriate was assessed by chronic toxicity test using C. dubia, while the porewater was evaluated by acute toxicity test with Vibrio fischeri. Samples of river water were also evaluated for chronic toxicity tests with C. dubia. The quantification of metals and hydrocarbons in sediment samples was also carried out in order to correlate the biological effects with the chemical contamination. The obtained results with the whole sediment test indicate Mogi das Cruzes and Suzano cities as the most toxic sites and also as the sites with the highest

  1. Climate Change Impacts on Sediment Quality of Subalpine Reservoirs: Implications on Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziali Laura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reservoirs are characterized by accumulation of sediments where micropollutants may concentrate, with potential toxic effects on downstream river ecosystems. However, sediment management such as flushing is needed to maintain storage capacity. Climate change is expected to increase sediment loads, but potential effects on their quality are scarcely known. In this context, sediment contamination by trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn and organics (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PAHs, Polychlorinated Biphenyls PCBs and C > 12 hydrocarbons was analyzed in 20 reservoirs located in Italian Central Alps. A strong As and a moderate Cd, Hg and Pb enrichment was emphasized by Igeo, with potential ecotoxicological risk according to Probable Effect Concentration quotients. Sedimentation rate, granulometry, total organic carbon (TOC and altitude resulted as the main drivers governing pollutant concentrations in sediments. According to climate change models, expected increase of rainfall erosivity will enhance soil erosion and consequently the sediment flow to reservoirs, potentially increasing coarse grain fractions and thus potentially diluting pollutants. Conversely, increased weathering may enhance metal fluxes to reservoirs. Increased vegetation cover will potentially result in higher TOC concentrations, which may contrast contaminant bioavailability and thus toxicity. Our results may provide elements for a proper management of contaminated sediments in a climate change scenario aiming at preserving water quality and ecosystem functioning.

  2. Heavy metal assessment in sediments of east coast of Tamil Nadu using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Harikrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selected heavy metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Pb in sediments from Periyakalapattu to Parangipettai of east coast of Tamil Nadu were determined to assess the contamination status and potential ecological risk. The pollution indices such as enrichment factor (EF, contamination factor (CF, geoaccumulation index (Igeo, and pollution load index (PLI were calculated to determine the contamination level and enrichment of metals in sediments. EF analysis suggested that anthropogenic influence on the environment has been significant in case of Cr. The values of CF indicate that the sediments are not contaminated with these heavy metals. Igeoresults reveal that the study area is not contaminated with respect to Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Pb. This results of Igeoare in good agreement with PLI. Based on the sediment quality guidelines, it is observed that Cr and Ni would be a concern for the ecotoxicological risk in study area.

  3. 1995 mask industry quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Chris; Strott, Al

    1995-12-01

    The third annual mask industry assessment will again survey various industry companies for key performance measurements in the areas of quality and delivery. This year's assessment is enhanced to include the area of safety and further breakdown of the data into 5-inch vs. 6- inch. The data compiled includes shipments, customer return rate, customer return reason, performance to schedule, plate survival yield, and throughput time (TPT) from 1988 through Q2, 1995. Contributor identities remain protected by utilizing Arthur Andersen & Company to ensure participant confidentiality. Participation in the past included representation of over 75% of the total merchant and captive mask volume in the United States. This year's assessment is expected to result in expanded participation by again inviting all mask suppliers domestically to participate as well as an impact from inviting international suppliers to participate.

  4. lessons and challenges from software quality assessment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    www.globaljournalseries.com, Email: info@globaljournalseries.com ... ASSESSMENT: THE CASE OF SPACE SYSTEMS SOFTWARE. ... KEYWORDS: Software, Software Quality ,Quality Standard, Characteristics, ... and communication, etc.

  5. Identifying the Correlation between Water Quality Data and LOADEST Model Behavior in Annual Sediment Load Estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Shik Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Water quality samples are typically collected less frequently than flow since water quality sampling is costly. Load Estimator (LOADEST, provided by the United States Geological Survey, is used to predict water quality concentration (or load on days when flow data are measured so that the water quality data are sufficient for annual pollutant load estimation. However, there is a need to identify water quality data requirements for accurate pollutant load estimation. Measured daily sediment data were collected from 211 streams. Estimated annual sediment loads from LOADEST and subsampled data were compared to the measured annual sediment loads (true load. The means of flow for calibration data were correlated to model behavior. A regression equation was developed to compute the required mean of flow in calibration data to best calibrate the LOADEST regression model coefficients. LOADEST runs were performed to investigate the correlation between the mean flow in calibration data and model behaviors as daily water quality data were subsampled. LOADEST calibration data used sediment concentration data for flows suggested by the regression equation. Using the mean flow calibrated by the regression equation reduced errors in annual sediment load estimation from −39.7% to −10.8% compared to using all available data.

  6. Assessing remediation of contaminated sediments using multiple biological endpoints: sediment toxicity, food web tissue contamination, biotic condition and DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ottawa River is a component of the Maumee River Area of Concern (AOC) as defined by the International Joint Commission’s Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. A sediment remediation project took place in the lower 14.2 km of the river where urban and industrial activitie...

  7. Managing erosion, sediment transport and water quality in drained peatland catchments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marttila, H.

    2010-07-01

    Peatland drainage changes catchment conditions and increases the transport of suspended solids (SS) and nutrients. New knowledge and management methods are needed to reduce SS loading from these areas. This thesis examines sediment delivery and erosion processes in a number of peatland drainage areas and catchments in order to determine the effects of drainage on sediment and erosion dynamics and mechanics. Results from studies performed in peat mining, peatland forestry and disturbed headwater catchments in Finland are presented and potential sediment load management methods are discussed for drainage areas and headwater brooks. Particular attention is devoted to erosion of organic peat, sediment transport and methods to reduce the impacts of peatland drainage in boreal headwaters. This thesis consists of six articles. The first and second papers focus on the erosion and sediment transport processes at peat harvesting and peatland forestry drainage networks. The results indicate that in-channel processes are important in drained peatland, since the drainage network often constitutes temporary inter-storm storage for eroding and transporting material. Sediment properties determine the bed sediment erosion sensitivity, as fluffy organic peat sediment consolidates over time. As flashiness and peak runoff control sediment entrainment and transport from drained peatland areas, water quality management should include peak runoff management. The third, fourth and fifth papers studies use and application of peak runoff control (PRC) method to the peat harvesting and peatland forestry conditions for water protection. Results indicate that effective water quality management in drained peatland areas can be achieved using this method. Installation of the PRC structures is a useful and cost-effective way of storing storm runoff waters temporarily in the ditch system and providing a retention time for eroded sediment to settle to the ditch bed and drainage network. The main

  8. Assessment of sediments in the riverine impoundments of national wildlife refuges in the Souris River Basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Gleason, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated sedimentation of reservoirs and riverine impoundments is a major concern throughout the United States. Sediments not only fill impoundments and reduce their effective life span, but they can reduce water quality by increasing turbidity and introducing harmful chemical constituents such as heavy metals, toxic elements, and nutrients. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service national wildlife refuges in the north-central part of the United States have documented high amounts of sediment accretion in some wetlands that could negatively affect important aquatic habitats for migratory birds and other wetland-dependent wildlife. Therefore, information pertaining to sediment accumulation in refuge impoundments potentially is important to guide conservation planning, including future management actions of individual impoundments. Lands comprising Des Lacs, Upper Souris, and J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuges, collectively known as the Souris River Basin refuges, encompass reaches of the Des Lacs and Souris Rivers of northwestern North Dakota. The riverine impoundments of the Souris River Basin refuges are vulnerable to sedimentation because of the construction of in-stream dams that interrupt and slow river flows and because of post-European settlement land-use changes that have increased the potential for soil erosion and transport to rivers. Information regarding sediments does not exist for these refuges, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service personnel have expressed interest in assessing refuge impoundments to support refuge management decisions. Sediment cores and surface sediment samples were collected from impoundments within Des Lacs, Upper Souris, and J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuges during 2004–05. Cores were used to estimate sediment accretion rates using radioisotope (cesium-137 [137Cs], lead-210 [210Pb]) dating techniques. Sediment cores and surface samples were analyzed for a suite of elements and agrichemicals, respectively. Examination of

  9. Assessment of streambed sediment contamination by heavy metals: The case of the Gabes Catchment, South-eastern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahri, Noura; Atoui, Abdelfattah; Ellouze, Manel; Abida, Habib

    2018-04-01

    This study deals with the assessment of the behaviour of seven heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr and As) in streambed sediments within the Gabes Catchment, located in South-eastern Tunisia. To understand the effect of intense human activities in the Gabes Basin on the quality of the environment, 22 sediment samples, spread all over the study basin, were taken and analyzed for heavy metals. Heavy metal concentrations were shown to vary in the following order: Zn > Pb > Cu > Cr > Ni > Cd > As. Sediment quality was assessed based on the evaluation of various indices. A total of 27% of the sampling stations are characterised by sediment Enrichment Factors (EF) exceeding 40, reflecting extremely severe pollution. This result was also confirmed by different indices, including Sediment Pollution Index (SPI), Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Geo-accumulation index. The calculation of Mean Effect Range-Median Quotient (M-ERM-Q) indicated that in stream discharge, all metals have a probability of 21% to be toxic. The ecological toxicity risk of heavy metals increases close to urban (traffic activity) and industrial activities (industrial complex of Gabes). Close to Gabes City, the situation and the degree of contamination that may be transferred into marine ecosystems is worrisome and requires immediate intervention.

  10. Higher Education Quality Assessment Model: Towards Achieving Educational Quality Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noaman, Amin Y.; Ragab, Abdul Hamid M.; Madbouly, Ayman I.; Khedra, Ahmed M.; Fayoumi, Ayman G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a developed higher education quality assessment model (HEQAM) that can be applied for enhancement of university services. This is because there is no universal unified quality standard model that can be used to assess the quality criteria of higher education institutes. The analytical hierarchy process is used to identify the…

  11. Ecotoxicological Assessment of Water and Sediment Pollution of the Iskar River bellow Samokov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Diadovski

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A system of integral ecological indices has been worked out to assess the level of pollution of water and sediments with hazardous substances. A model for the dynamics of the integral index for water and sediments pollution is proposed. This index was applied for ecotoxicological assessment of water and sediments pollution of the Iskar river bellow Samokov. A modification method on time series analysis is applied.

  12. Data quality objectives summary report for 105-N Basin sediment disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarcik, D.J.

    1996-10-01

    During stabilization of the 105-N Basin, sediments that have accumulated on basin surfaces will be vacuumed, collected in the North Cask Pit of the basin complex, and eventually removed. The environmental assessment for the deactivation of the N Reactor Facilities describes two potential disposition paths for the 105-N Basin sediment: transfer in slurry form to a double-shell tank if determined to be a transuranic waste, or disposal in solid form as a low-level waste. Interim storage of the sediments may be required if a transfer to the Tank Waste Remediation System cannot meet scheduled milestones. Selection of a particular alternative depends on the final characterization of the accumulated sediment, regulatory requirements, cost/benefit analyses, and 105-N Stabilization Project schedule requirements. The 105-N Basin Sediment Process is being conducted in two phases. The scope of the first phase includes identification of the sampling requirements, and the specific analyses required to support evaluation of the sediment disposition options. The objectives of the first phase of the 105-N Basin Sediment DQO Process include the following: identify the relevant acceptance criteria for each of the disposition options; and develop a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) sufficiently through to allow evaluation of sediment analysis results against each set of acceptance criteria

  13. Assessment of selected contaminants in streambed- and suspended-sediment samples collected in Bexar County, Texas, 2007-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2011-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of sediment-associated contaminants are typically associated with urban areas such as San Antonio, Texas, in Bexar County, the seventh most populous city in the United States. This report describes an assessment of selected sediment-associated contaminants in samples collected in Bexar County from sites on the following streams: Medio Creek, Medina River, Elm Creek, Martinez Creek, Chupaderas Creek, Leon Creek, Salado Creek, and San Antonio River. During 2007-09, the U.S. Geological Survey periodically collected surficial streambed-sediment samples during base flow and suspended-sediment (large-volume suspended-sediment) samples from selected streams during stormwater runoff. All sediment samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and for organic compounds including halogenated organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Selected contaminants in streambed and suspended sediments in watersheds of the eight major streams in Bexar County were assessed by using a variety of methods—observations of occurrence and distribution, comparison to sediment-quality guidelines and data from previous studies, statistical analyses, and source indicators. Trace elements concentrations were low compared to the consensus-based sediment-quality guidelines threshold effect concentration (TEC) and probable effect concentration (PEC). Trace element concentrations were greater than the TEC in 28 percent of the samples and greater than the PEC in 1.5 percent of the samples. Chromium concentrations exceeded sediment-quality guidelines more frequently than concentrations of any other constituents analyzed in this study (greater than the TEC in 69 percent of samples and greater than the PEC in 8 percent of samples). Mean trace element concentrations generally are lower in Bexar County samples compared to concentrations in samples collected during previous studies in the Austin and Fort Worth, Texas, areas, but considering the relatively

  14. Deposition behavior, risk assessment and source identification of heavy metals in reservoir sediments of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Liu, Jianwei; Xu, Shiguo; Xie, Zaigang

    2017-08-01

    Sediment cores from five reservoirs, located in the Liaoning and Jilin Provinces in Northeast China, were collected to investigate the accumulation and potential toxicity of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cr) during a sampling campaign in February, 2015. The results showed that all the detected metals accumulated significantly, especially Cd, compared to their respective background values. Among these reservoirs, Biliuhe Reservoir had markedly increasing trends for organic matter and all the metals, among which Mn was elevated by 280% to 3411mg/kg in a core of only 18cm in depth. Xinlicheng Reservoir was characterized by heavy siltation and varying metal distribution due to its regular geometric features and pulsed flood events. The Enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (I geo ) indicated Cd was strongly enriched by anthropogenic inputs, with the values of EF and I geo greater than 8 and 3, respectively. The toxicity assessment calculated using consensus-based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) implied the whole cores of Tanghe and Dahuofang and the upper cores of Biliuhe, Xinlicheng and Fengman exhibited toxicity to sediment-dwelling organisms. Cr contributed more to Q m-PEC than the other heavy metals, because only Cr exceeded the probable effect concentration (PEC) despite its low enrichment. According to the results of correlation analysis (CA) and principal components analysis (PCA), mining industries and agricultural activities within the basin were the main anthropogenic pollution sources for these heavy metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Can behavioural responses of Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta) assess sediment toxicity? A case study with sediments exposed to acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardo, A.M.; Soares, A.M.V.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Sao Domingos mine (Portugal) is, potentially, a good site for ecotoxicological studies, due to a pH and metal gradient of acid mine drainage. In this study, the toxicity of several mine sediments was evaluated using the aquatic oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus as a test organism. Our hypothesis was that exposure to contaminated sediments would cause behavioural early warning responses in L. variegatus. Five sites, with pH ranging from 2.5 to 6.5, and with associated metals, were investigated. The results showed poor sediment quality in most of the collected sediments and Fe, S and As were the dominant elements in the samples. High mortalities were observed, ranging from 32.6 to 100%, indicating severe contamination. The collected sediments did not support good L. variegatus growth and significantly changed its behaviour. Early warning responses consisted of decreased locomotion and decreased peristaltic movements. A behaviour inhibition will affect the ecosystem balance by limiting the organisms' ability to avoid capture, which leads to a higher risk of predation. - Behavioural responses of the aquatic oligochaeta Lumbriculus variegatus may be used to detect early warning responses.

  16. Assessing Anthracene and Arsenic Contamination within Buffalo River Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gawedzki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthracene and arsenic contamination concentrations at various depths in the Buffalo River were analyzed in this study. Anthracene is known to cause damage to human skin and arsenic has been linked to lung and liver cancer. The Buffalo River is labelled as an Area of Concern defined by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between Canada and the United States. It has a long history of industrial activity located in its near vicinity that has contributed to its pollution. An ordinary kriging spatial interpolation technique was used to calculate estimates between sample locations for anthracene and arsenic at various depths. The results show that both anthracene and arsenic surface sediment (0–30 cm is less contaminated than all subsurface depths. There is variability of pollution within the different subsurface levels (30–60 cm, 60–90 cm, 90–120 cm, 120–150 cm and along the river course, but major clusters are identified throughout all depths for both anthracene and arsenic.

  17. Ecotoxicological Assessment of Sediment Leachates of Small Watercourses in the Brno City Suburban Area (South Moravia, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Beklová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediments of two small watercourses Leskava and Troubsky Brook in the Brno city suburban area were examined for their ecotoxicity. Using a standard procedure, extracts of the sediments were prepared for diagnostic tests. These extracts were tested for acute toxicity to fresh-water organisms. The ecotoxicological tests were performed on the fresh-water alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the vascular water plant Lemna minor, on a representative of invertebrates – the water flea Daphnia magna and on the Xenopus laevis frog embryo and luminiscent Vibrio fischeri bacteria. Possible toxic effects were evaluated using the test determining the inhibition of the growth of white mustard root Sinapis alba. Results of ecotoxicological assessment of sediment leachates showed that their quality varied significantly during the year. Differences were found between results of sediment evaluations from different collection profiles, which may indicate effects of point source pollution. Of the ecotoxicological tests used, the most sensitive organisms included the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, bioluminiscent bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. The highest concentrations of arsenic were found by chemical analysis in both spring and autumn sediment leachate samples collected at Site L1 (Leskava. The highest organic pollutant concentrations were found in autumn sediment leachate samples from Site L1. In total PAH sums, phenanthrene was the dominant pollutant at all the sites investigated.

  18. A Hydrograph-Based Sediment Availability Assessment: Implications for Mississippi River Sediment Diversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Rosen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mississippi River Delta Plain has undergone substantial land loss caused by subsidence, relative sea-level rise, and loss of connectivity to the Mississippi River. Many restoration projects rely on diversions from the Mississippi River, but uncertainty exists about the timing and the amount of actually available sediment. This study examined long-term (1980–2010 suspended sediment yield as affected by different hydrologic regimes to determine actual suspended sediment availability and how this may affect diversion management. A stage hydrograph-based approach was employed to quantify total suspended sediment load (SSL of the lower Mississippi River at Tarbert Landing during three river flow conditions: Peak Flow Stage (stage = 16.8 m, discharge >32,000 m3 s−1, High Flow Stage (stage = 14.6 m, discharge = 25,000–32,000 m3 s−1, and Intermediate Flow Stage (Stage = 12.1 m, discharge = 18,000–25,000 m3 s−1. Suspended sediment concentration (SSC and SSL were maximized during High Flow and Intermediate Flow Stages, accounting for approximately 50% of the total annual sediment yield, even though duration of the stages accounted for only one-third of a year. Peak Flow Stage had the highest discharge, but significantly lower SSC (p < 0.05, indicating that diversion of the river at this stage would be less effective for sediment capture. The lower Mississippi River showed significantly higher SSC (p < 0.0001 and SSL (p < 0.0001 during the rising than the receding limb. When the flood pulse was rising, Intermediate Flow and High Flow Stages showed greater SSC and SSL than Peak Flow Stage. Together, Intermediate Flow and High Flow Stages on the rising limb annually discharged 28 megatonnes over approximately 42 days, identifying this to be the best period for sediment capture and diversion.

  19. Assessment of sediment contamination at Great Lakes Areas of Concern: the ARCS Program Toxicity-Chemistry Work Group strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P.E.; Burton, G.A.; Crecelius, E.A.; Filkins, J. C.; Giesy, J.P.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Landrum, P.F.; Mac, M.J.; Murphy, T.J.; Rathbun, J. E.; Smith, V. E.; Tatem, H. E.; Taylor, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    In response to a mandate in Section 118(c)(3) of the Water Quality Act of 1987, a program called Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) was established. Four technical work groups were formed. This paper details the research strategy of the Toxicity-Chemistry Work Group.The Work Group's general objectives are to develop survey methods and to map the degree of contamination and toxicity in bottom sediments at three study areas, which will serve as guidance for future surveys at other locations. A related objective is to use the data base that will be generated to calculate sediment quality concentrations by several methods. The information needed to achieve these goals will be collected in a series of field surveys at three areas: Saginaw Bay (MI), Grand Calumet River (IN), and Buffalo River (NY). Assessments of the extent of contamination and potential adverse effects of contaminants in sediment at each of these locations will be conducted by collecting samples for physical characterization, toxicity testing, mutagenicity testing, chemical analyses, and fish bioaccumulation assays. Fish populations will be assessed for tumors and external abnormalities, and benthic community structure will be analyzed. A mapping approach will use low-cost indicator parameters at a large number of stations, and will extrapolate by correlation from traditional chemical and biological studies at a smaller number of locations. Sediment toxicity testing includes elutriate, pore water and whole sediment bioassays in a three-tiered framework. In addition to the regular series of toxicity tests at primary mater stations, some stations are selected for a more extensive suite of tests.

  20. Metal pollution and ecological risk assessment in marine sediments of Karachi Coast, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashiatullah, Azhar; Chaudhary, Muhammad Zaman; Ahmad, Nasir; Javed, Tariq; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2013-02-01

    Concentrations of 12 metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, U, V, Zn, and Zr) in surface sediments of Karachi Coast, Pakistan were determined to evaluate their distribution and pollution assessment. The measured metals in the sediments were found to be in the range of Fe, 0.84-6.96 %; Mn, 300-1,300 μg/g; Cr, 12.0-319.84 μg/g; Mo, 0.49-2.03 μg/g; Ni, 1.53-58.86 μg/g; Pb, 9.0-49.46 μg/g; Se, 0.25-.86 μg/g; Sr, 192-1185 μg/g; U, 0.19-1.66 μg/g; V, 15.80-118.20 μg/g; Zn, 15.60-666.28 μg/g; and Zr, 44.02-175.26 μg/g. The mean contents of the metal studied were: Fe, 3.07 %, Mn, 0.05 %; Cr, 96.75 μg/g; Mo, 1.34 μg/g; Ni, 31.39 μg/g; Pb, 23.24 μg/g; Se, 0.61 μg/g; Sr, 374.83 μg/g; U, 0.64 μg/g; V, 61.75 μg/g; Zn, 204.75 μg/g; and Zr:76.27 μg/g, and arrangement of the metals from higher to lower mean content in this area is: Fe > Zn > Mn > Sr > Zn > Cr > Zr > V > Ni > Pb > Mo > U > Se. There is no significant correlation among most of these metals, indicating different anthropogenic and natural sources. To assess ecotoxic potential of marine sediments, Numerical Sediment Quality Guidelines were also applied. The concentration of Pb in all the sediments except one was lower than the threshold effect concentration (TECs) showing that there are no harmful effects to marine life from Pb. On the other hand, the concentrations of Cr, Ni, and Zn exceeded TEC in three stations, indicating their potential risk. The degree of pollution in sediments for metals was assessed by calculating enrichment factor (EF) and pollution load index (PLI). The results indicated that sediments of Layari River Mouth Area, Fish Harbour, and KPT Boat Building Area are highly enriched with Cr and Zn (EF > 5). Sediments of Layari River Outfall Zone were moderately enriched with Ni and Pb (EF > 2). The pollution load index was found in the range of 0.98 to 1.34. Lower values of PLI (≤ 1) at most of sampling locations imply no appreciable input from anthropogenic sources. However

  1. Material quality assurance risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades the role of SHA has shifted from quality control (QC) of materials and : placement techniques to quality assurance (QA) and acceptance. The role of the Office of Materials : Technology (OMT) has been shifting towards assuran...

  2. Sediment porewater toxicity assessment studies in the vicinity of offshore oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R. S.; Chapman, D. C.; Presley, B. J.; Biedenbach, J. M.; Robertson, L.

    1996-01-01

    Sediment chemical analyses and porewater toxicity tests were conducted in the vicinity of five offshore oil and gas platforms in the Gulf of Mexico to determine the potential long-term environmental impacts of offshore oil and gas exploration and production. Evidence of toxicity was obtained from four of the five platforms from data on sea urchin fertilization and embryonic development. The majority of toxic samples were collected within 150 m of the platform. Sediment concentrations of several metals were well in excess of sediment quality assessment guidelines at a number of stations. Porewater metal concentrations were found to be high enough to account for the observed toxicity. The general conclusion reached from these toxicity tests was that the contaminant-induced impacts from the offshore platforms were confined to a limited area in the immediate vicinity of the platform. 23 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs

  3. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-16

    Jan 16, 2006 ... Surface water, groundwater quality assessment and environ- .... Urbanisation influences the water cycle through changes in flow and water ..... tion of aquatic life, CCME water quality Index 1, 0. User`s ... Water, Air Soil Pollut.

  4. The occurrence and potential ecological risk assessment of bauxite mine-impacted water and sediments in Kuantan, Pahang,Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusin, Faradiella Mohd; Rahman, Muhammad Syazwan Abd; Madzin, Zafira; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Mohamat-Yusuff, Ferdaus; Ariffin, Mariani; Z, Mohd Syakirin Md

    2017-01-01

    Recent bauxite mining activities in the vicinity of Kuantan, Pahang, have been associated with apparent environmental quality degradation and have raised environmental concerns among the public. This study was carried out to evaluate the overall ecological impacts on water and sediment quality from the bauxite mining activities. Water and sediment samples were collected at seven sampling locations within the bauxite mining areas between June and December 2015. The water samples were analyzed for water quality index (WQI) and distribution of major and trace element geochemistry. Sediment samples were evaluated based on geochemical indices, i.e., the enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (I geo ). Potential ecological risk index was estimated to assess the degree to which sediments of the mine-impacted areas have been contaminated with heavy metals. The results showed that WQIs of some locations were classified as slightly polluted and contained metal contents exceeding the recommended guideline values. The EFs indicated minimal to moderate enrichment of metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, and Sr) in the sediments. I geo showed slightly to partially polluted sediments with respect to As at some locations. The potential ecological risk index (RI) showed that As posed the highest potential ecological risk with RI of 52.35-60.92 at two locations, while other locations indicated low risk. The findings from this study have demonstrated the impact of recent bauxite mining activities, which might be of importance to the local communities and relevant authorities to initiate immediate rehabilitation phase of the impacted area.

  5. Sediment toxicity assessment in the Lagoon of Venice (Italy) using Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) fertilization and embryo bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi Ghirardini, A; Arizzi Novelli, A; Tagliapietra, D

    2005-09-01

    The capacity of two toxicity bioassays (fertilization and embryo toxicity tests) to discriminate sediment toxicity using the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus was tested in five stations with different levels of pollution in the Lagoon of Venice. Two stations were located in estuarine sites, two in the industrial zone, and one in a site at the top of our quality gradient (reference). Elutriate was chosen as sediment matrix to assess the potential effects of bioavailable pollutants in the water column as a consequence of sediment resuspension (dredging and dumping, fishing gear, etc.). An experimental design based on Quality Assurance/Quality Control procedures (QA/QC) was adopted in order to set the methodological basis for an effective use of these bioassays in monitoring programs. Results revealed both higher embriotoxicity than spermiotoxicity in all stations and the efficacy of combined use of both toxicity bioassays in discriminating differing pollution/bioavailability between stations and periods. The good representativeness of the integrated sampling scheme and the standardization of all experimental phases yielded high precision of results. Clear Toxicity Fingerprints were evidenced for the investigated sites through the combined use of both bioassays. A good fit between ecotoxicological data and chemical contamination levels was found, except for unnatural sediment texture.

  6. Quality-assessment expectations and quality-assessment reality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dissonance between stated and actual quality criteria among a group of lecturers in a particular. 1 For a discussion of quality in .... 6 The feasibility study undertaken by the SU Language Centre and its impact on interpreting at SU will be discussed in detail in a ..... Communication & Cognition 38(1-2): 27-46. Kopczynski, A.

  7. Towards Quality Assessment in an EFL Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Holi Ibrahim Holi; Al Ajmi, Ahmed Ali Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Assessment is central in education and the teaching-learning process. This study attempts to explore the perspectives and views about quality assessment among teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL), and to find ways of promoting quality assessment. Quantitative methodology was used to collect data. To answer the study questions, a…

  8. Assessing the toxicity of sediments using the medaka embryo-larval assay and 2 other bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhoumi, Badreddine; Clérandeau, Christelle; Landi, Laure; Pichon, Anaïk; Le Bihanic, Florane; Poirier, Dominique; Anschutz, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Driss, Mohamed Ridha; Cachot, Jérôme

    2016-09-01

    Sediments are sinks for aquatic pollutants, and analyzing toxicity in such complex matrices is still challenging. To evaluate the toxicity of bioavailable pollutants accumulated in sediments from the Bizerte lagoon (Tunisia), a novel assay, the medaka embryo-larval assay by sediment contact, was applied. Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos were incubated in direct contact with sediment samples up to hatching. Lethal and sublethal adverse effects were recorded in embryos and larvae up to 20 d postfertilization. Results from medaka embryo-larval assay were compared with cytotoxicity (Microtox®), genotoxicity (SOS chromotest), and pollutant content of sediments. The results highlight differences in the contamination profile and toxicity pattern between the different studied sediments. A significant correlation was shown between medaka embryo-larval assay by sediment contact and SOS chromotest responses and concentrations of most organic pollutants studied. No correlation was shown between pollutant levels and Microtox. According to the number of sediment samples detected as toxic, medaka embryo-larval assay by sediment contact was more sensitive than Microtox, which in turn was more sensitive than the SOS chromotest; and medaka embryo-larval assay by sediment contact allowed sediment toxicity assessment of moderately polluted sediments without pollutant extraction and using an ecologically realistic exposure scenario. Although medaka embryo-larval assay by sediment contact should be tested on a larger sample set, the results show that it is sensitive and convenient enough to monitor the toxicity of natural sediments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2270-2280. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  9. Risk Assessment of Sediment Pollution Using Geostatistical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golay, J.; Kanevski, M.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental monitoring networks (EMN) discreetly measure the intensities of continuous phenomena (e.g. pollution, temperature, etc.). Spatial prediction models, like kriging, are then used for modeling. But, they give rise to smooth representations of phenomena which leads to overestimations or underestimations of extreme values. Moreover, they do not reproduce the spatial variability of the original data and the corresponding uncertainties. When dealing with risk assessment, this is unacceptable, since extreme values must be retrieved and probabilities of exceeding given thresholds must be computed [Kanevski et al., 2009]. In order to overcome these obstacles, geostatistics provides another approach: conditional stochastic simulations. Here, the basic idea is to generate multiple estimates of variable values (e.g. pollution concentration) at every location of interest which are calculated as stochastic realizations of an unknown random function (see, for example, [Kanevski, 2008], where both theoretical concepts and real data case studies are presented in detail). Many algorithms implement this approach. The most widely used in spatial modeling are sequential Gaussian simulations/cosimulations, sequential indicator simulations/cosimulations and direct simulations. In the present study, several algorithms of geostatistical conditional simulations were applied on real data collected from Lake Geneva. The main objectives were to compare their effectiveness in reproducing global statistics (histograms, variograms) and the way they characterize the variability and uncertainty of the contamination patterns. The dataset is composed of 200 measurements of the contamination of the lake sediments by heavy metals (i.e. Cadmium, Mercury, Zinc, Copper, Titanium and Chromium). The results obtained show some differences highlighting that risk assessment can be influenced by the algorithm it relies on. Moreover, hybrid models based on machine learning algorithms and

  10. Supplementary guidance for the investigation and risk-assessment of potentially contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, K.; Spadaro, P.; Starr, J.; Thomas, J. [Arcadis, Arnhem (Netherlands); Hildenbrand, B. [Energy Institute, London (United Kingdom); Smith, J.W.N.; Dunk, M.; Grosjean, T.; De Ibarra, M.; Medve, A.; Den Haan, K.

    2013-11-15

    This report provides guidance on the investigation and assessment of potentially contaminated sediments, focusing on the inland, estuarine and coastal environments. It is designed as a complementary, technical companion document to Energy Institute and CONCAWE (2013) report 'Guidance on characterising, assessing and managing risks associated with potentially contaminated sediments' (Report E1001). It highlights a number of significant challenges associated with assessing the aquatic and water bottom environment, which means that a sediment assessment should not be undertaken lightly. Where a decision is taken to undertake a site assessment, this report promotes the use of an iterative process of Conceptual Site Model (CSM) development, data collection, data evaluation and a continuous CSM refinement, taking into account the results obtained. Risk-based assessment is described throughout the report, entailing four tiers of assessment, which progress from a qualitative assessment (Tier 0) through to a detailed cause-attribution assessment (Tier 3), in which the decrease in uncertainty in the assessment process is balanced against the increased costs and timescales with progress to a higher tier assessment. The application of this evidence-driven risk-based approach to sediment site management, including remedial control measures, should help to overcome at least some of the challenges associated with contaminants in sediment sites in Europe, and promote a sustainable approach to sediment management on a case-by-case basis.

  11. Assessment of Trace Metals Contamination of Surface Water and Sediment: A Case Study of Mvudi River, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua N. Edokpayi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Trace metals contamination of rivers and sediments remains a global threat to biodiversity and humans. This study was carried out to assess the variation pattern in trace metals contamination in Mvudi River water and sediments for the period of January–June 2014. Metal concentrations were analyzed using an inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer after nitric acid digestion. A compliance study for the water samples was performed using the guidelines of the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF of South Africa and the World Health Organization (WHO. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA sediment quality guidelines for marine and estuarine sediments and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment sediment guidelines (CCME for freshwater sediments were used to determine the possible toxic effects of the metals on aquatic organisms. pH (7.2–7.7 and conductivity (10.5–16.1 mS/m values complied with DWAF and WHO standards for domestic water use. Turbidity values in nephelometric turbidity units (NTU were in the range of 1.9–429 and exceeded the guideline values. The monthly average levels of trace metals in the water and sediments of Mvudi River were in the range of: Al (1.01–9.644 mg/L and 4296–5557 mg/kg, Cd (0.0003–0.002 mg/L and from below the detection limit to 2.19 mg/kg, Cr (0.015–0.357 mg/L and 44.23–149.52 mg/kg, Cu (0.024–0.185 mg/L and 13.22–1027 mg/kg, Fe (0.702–2.645 mg/L and 3840–6982 mg/kg, Mn (0.081–0.521 mg/L and 279–1638 mg/kg, Pb (0.002–0.042 mg/L and 1.775-4.157 mg/kg and Zn (0.031–0.261 mg/L and 14.481–39.88 mg/kg. The average concentrations of Al, Cr, Fe, Mn and Pb in the water samples exceeded the recommended guidelines of DWAF and WHO for domestic water use. High concentrations of Al and Fe were determined in the sediment samples. Generally, the concentrations of Cd, Cr and Cu in the sediments exceeded the corresponding effect range low

  12. Assessment of heavy metals concentrations in coastal sediments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Three kinds of analytical method were used for metals determination and quantification: ... such as copper, zinc, manganese, iron and chromium in Nosy Be sediments, were twice as .... Mean sewage of Mahajanga from Vallon de Meitzinger.

  13. Natural radioactivity assessment of surface sediments in the Yangtze Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jinlong; Du, Jinzhou; Bi, Qianqian

    2017-01-01

    The activities of the natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K) of the surface sediments in the Yangtze Estuary were determined and used to evaluate radiation hazards in the study area. The of activities of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K ranges from 14.1 to 62.3, 26.1 to 71.9, 13.7 to 52.3, and 392 to 898 Bq kg −1 , respectively, which were comparable to values of other regions in China. The activities of 232 Th, 40 K and 226 Ra were clearly different from the global recommended values. The radium equivalent activity was less than the recommended limit of 370 Bq kg −1 ; therefore, the sediment in this area can be safely used for reclamation. The external hazard index values were less than one. The average absorbed gamma dose rate and annual effective dose equivalent values were slightly greater than the world average value. 226 Ra/ 238 U and 232 Th/ 238 U ratios could potentially be applied for tracing sediment source. - Highlights: • The natural radioactivity of surface sediments in the Yangtze Estuary was observed. • The radiological hazards of the sediments are insignificant in this study area. • The ratios of natural radionuclides can potentially be applied for sediment source.

  14. Improvement of a free software tool for the assessment of sediment connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crema, Stefano; Lanni, Cristiano; Goldin, Beatrice; Marchi, Lorenzo; Cavalli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Sediment connectivity expresses the degree of linkage that controls sediment fluxes throughout landscape, in particular between sediment sources and downstream areas. The assessment of sediment connectivity becomes a key issue when dealing with risk mitigation and priorities of intervention in the territory. In this work, the authors report the improvements made to an open source and stand-alone application (SedInConnect, http://www.sedalp.eu/download/tools.shtml), along with extensive applications to alpine catchments. SedInConnect calculates a sediment connectivity index as expressed in Cavalli et al. (2013); the software improvements consisted primarily in the introduction of the sink feature, i.e. areas that act as traps for sediment produced upstream (e.g., lakes, sediment traps). Based on user-defined sinks, the software decouples those parts of the catchment that do not deliver sediment to a selected target of interest (e.g., fan apex, main drainage network). In this way the assessment of sediment connectivity is achieved by taking in consideration effective sediment contributing areas. Sediment connectivity analysis has been carried out on several catchments in the South Tyrol alpine area (Northern Italy) with the goal of achieving a fast and objective characterization of the topographic control on sediment transfer. In addition to depicting the variability of sediment connectivity inside each basin, the index of connectivity has proved to be a valuable indicator of the dominant process characterizing the basin sediment dynamics (debris flow, bedload, mixed behavior). The characterization of the dominant process is of great importance for the hazard and risk assessment in mountain areas, and for choice and design of structural and non-structural intervention measures. The recognition of the dominant sediment transport process by the index of connectivity is in agreement with evidences arising from post-event field surveys and with the application of

  15. Quality assurance in performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.; Watkins, B.M.; Salter, P.; Mcleod, R

    1999-01-01

    Following publication of the Site-94 report, SKI wishes to review how Quality Assurance (QA) issues could be treated in future work both in undertaking their own Performance Assessment (PA) calculations and in scrutinising documents supplied by SKB (on planning a repository for spent fuels in Sweden). The aim of this report is to identify the key QA issues and to outline the nature and content of a QA plan which would be suitable for SKI, bearing in mind the requirements and recommendations of relevant standards. Emphasis is on issues which are specific to Performance Assessments for deep repositories for radioactive wastes, but consideration is also given to issues which need to be addressed in all large projects. Given the long time over which the performance of a deep repository system must be evaluated, the demonstration that a repository is likely to perform satisfactorily relies on the use of computer-generated model predictions of system performance. This raises particular QA issues which are generally not encountered in other technical areas (for instance, power station operations). The traceability of the arguments used is a key QA issue, as are conceptual model uncertainty, and code verification and validation; these were all included in the consideration of overall uncertainties in the Site-94 project. Additionally, issues which are particularly relevant to SKI include: How QA in a PA fits in with the general QA procedures of the organisation undertaking the work. The relationship between QA as applied by the regulator and the implementor of a repository development programme. Section 2 introduces the discussion of these issues by reviewing the standards and guidance which are available from national and international organisations. This is followed in Section 3 by a review of specific issues which arise from the Site-94 exercise. An outline procedure for managing QA issues in SKI is put forward as a basis for discussion in Section 4. It is hoped that

  16. Quality assurance in performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maul, P.R.; Watkins, B.M.; Salter, P.; Mcleod, R [QuantiSci Ltd, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    1999-01-01

    Following publication of the Site-94 report, SKI wishes to review how Quality Assurance (QA) issues could be treated in future work both in undertaking their own Performance Assessment (PA) calculations and in scrutinising documents supplied by SKB (on planning a repository for spent fuels in Sweden). The aim of this report is to identify the key QA issues and to outline the nature and content of a QA plan which would be suitable for SKI, bearing in mind the requirements and recommendations of relevant standards. Emphasis is on issues which are specific to Performance Assessments for deep repositories for radioactive wastes, but consideration is also given to issues which need to be addressed in all large projects. Given the long time over which the performance of a deep repository system must be evaluated, the demonstration that a repository is likely to perform satisfactorily relies on the use of computer-generated model predictions of system performance. This raises particular QA issues which are generally not encountered in other technical areas (for instance, power station operations). The traceability of the arguments used is a key QA issue, as are conceptual model uncertainty, and code verification and validation; these were all included in the consideration of overall uncertainties in the Site-94 project. Additionally, issues which are particularly relevant to SKI include: How QA in a PA fits in with the general QA procedures of the organisation undertaking the work. The relationship between QA as applied by the regulator and the implementor of a repository development programme. Section 2 introduces the discussion of these issues by reviewing the standards and guidance which are available from national and international organisations. This is followed in Section 3 by a review of specific issues which arise from the Site-94 exercise. An outline procedure for managing QA issues in SKI is put forward as a basis for discussion in Section 4. It is hoped that

  17. Assessment of environmentally available metals in sediment samples from water for public supply of the city of Palmas, Tocantis, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Bruna Rafaela

    2012-01-01

    The sediments are an important compartment used as a tool for assessment of aquatic ecosystems quality, for indicating the presence of contaminants released continuously into the environment as a result of human activities. Among chemical substances discharged to surface water, there are metals that in undesirable amounts, can be toxic to biota. Due to the importance of sediment and of shortage of data of water quality of the Araguaia-Tocantins river system, the present study conducted an assessment of environmentally available metals in sediment samples from water for public supply of the city of Palmas, in Tocantins, Brazil. The concentrations of As, Cd, Pb and Se were analyzed by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS), Ag, Al, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Sb, Sc, Si, Ti, V and Zn were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) and Hg by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CVAAS). Two partial solubilization processes were performed for a comparative study, one with HCl 0,1 M and agitation at room temperature, considered a milder method for metal extraction from anthropogenic origin, and another with HNO 3 8 M and microwave heating, considered as an alternative to more complex methods of total digestion, since it provides a good evaluation of the total concentration of the elements. The sediment quality evaluation was realized by comparing the concentration values of the elements As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn with the quality guidelines (TEL and PEL) adopted by Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME), to thereby contribute to the environmental quality of the water of the Araguaia-Tocantins river system. (author)

  18. The Pacific northwest stream quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Sheibley, Rich W.

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program is assessing stream quality in the Pacific Northwest. The goals of the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (Pacific Northwest study) are to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and to evaluate the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality for the Puget Lowlands and Willamette Valley are the focus of this regional study. Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information regarding which human and environmental factors are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect or improve the health of streams in the region.

  19. Rapid Assessment of Logging-Associated Sediment-Delivery Pathways in an Intensively-Managed Forested Watershed in the Southern Cascades, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, D. B.; Wopat, M. A.; Lindsay, D.; Stanish, S.; Boone, M.; Beck, B.; Wyman, A.; Bull, J.

    2012-12-01

    The potential for water-quality impacts in intensively-managed forested watersheds depends partly upon the frequency of overland flow paths linking logging-related hillslope sediment sources to the channel network, as well as the volume of sediment delivered along these flow paths. In response to public concerns over perceived water-quality impacts from clearcut timber harvesting, the Battle Creek Task Force, composed of subject-matter experts from 4 different state agencies, performed a rapid assessment for visible evidence of sediment delivery pathways from multiple logging-associated features in the upper Battle Creek watershed - an area underlain predominantly by Holocene- and Late Pleistocene-aged volcanic rock types, with highly permeable soils, and relatively few streams. Logging-associated features were selected for assessment based on erosion potential and proximity to stream channels. Identified sediment-delivery pathways were then characterized by dominant erosion process and the relative magnitude of sediment delivery (i.e., low, moderate, and high) was estimated. Approximately 26 km of stream buffers adjacent to 55 clearcut harvest units were assessed, and the single detected instance of sediment delivery was found to be of low magnitude and the result of illegal encroachment by logging equipment into a 5-m wide stream-adjacent equipment-limitation zone. The proportion of sampled sites delivering sediment was found to be highest for tractor-stream crossings, followed by road-stream crossings, stream-adjacent road segments, stream-adjacent landings, and clearcut harvest units, respectively. All 5 tractor-stream crossings delivered sediment, but were generally delivering a low magnitude of sediment derived from sheetwash and rilling. Road-stream crossings (n=39) and stream-adjacent road segments (n=24) delivered observable sediment 69 and 67 percent of the time, respectively. The highest magnitudes of sediment delivery from roads were associated with

  20. Assessment of heavy metals pollution using AVS-SEM and fractionation techniques in Edku Lagoon sediments, Mediterranean Sea, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zokm, Gehan M; Okbah, Mohamed A; Younis, Alaa M

    2015-01-01

    A method is presented to evaluate the fractionation of metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Ni), acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) in Edku lagoon sediments. Thirteen sediment samples were collected from the study area in the period of 2010-2011 to assess the potential bioavailability and toxicity of the selected metals. According to classification of the Interim Sediment Quality Quidelines (ISQG), five stations near the drains exhibited 10% toxic probability. The high AVS and low ∑SEM ranges in Summer were identified as 6-138 and 0.86-3.3 µmol g(-1) dry wet, respectively which are referring to the low mobility of heavy metals in this season and vice versa for winter (2.5-23.9 and 1.16-3.82 µmol g(-1) dry wet, respectively). According to the evaluation of USEPA, all sediment samples showed ∑SEM/AVS heavy metals in Edku lagoon sediments posed a low risk of adverse biological effects due to cadmium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc in all evaluated stations.

  1. Assessing condition of macroinvertebrate communities and bed sediment toxicity in the Rochester Embayment Area of Concern, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Brian; George, Scott D.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, Alexander J.

    2017-01-01

    The United States and Canada agreed to restore the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes ecosystem under the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement in 1972. The lowest reach of the Genesee River and the Rochester Embayment on Lake Ontario between Bogus Point and Nine Mile Point, including Braddock Bay, were designated as an Area of Concern (AOC) due to effects of contaminated sediments and physical disturbance on several beneficial uses. Following sediment remedial efforts and with conditions improving in the AOC, the present study was conducted to reevaluate the status of the benthic macroinvertebrate (benthos) beneficial use impairment (BUI). Benthic macroinvertebrate community assessments and 10-day Chironomus dilutus bioassays were used to test the hypotheses that sediments within the AOC were no more toxic than sediments from surrounding reference areas. The study was separated into three discrete systems (Genesee River, Lake Ontario, and Braddock Bay) and non-parametric analyses determined that a multimetric index of benthic macroinvertebrate community integrity was significantly higher at AOC sites compared to reference sites on the Genesee River and in Braddock Bay while AOC and reference sites on Lake Ontario did not differ significantly. Survival and growth of C. dilutus were also similar between AOC and reference sites for each system with the exception of significantly higher growth at reference sites on Lake Ontario. Results generally indicated that the condition of benthos and toxicity of sediment of the Rochester Embayment AOC are similar to or better than that in the surrounding area.

  2. Amazon estuary - assessment of trace elements in seabed sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, L.B.L.S.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Oliveira, H.; Bacchi, M.A.; Ferraz, E.S.B.

    1997-01-01

    The interactive processes operating on the continental shelf to the river mouth control the amount and the characteristics of the Amazon discharge reaching the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, the distribution of trace elemental concentrations, with emphasis to the rare-earth elements, in sediment cores collected at several stations from the Amazon continental shelf during the falling water period was investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Cores from the terrigenous and blue water zones have relatively uniform REE concentrations throughout the profile. Cerium anomalies for samples of the upper section of the eight stations are consistently positive and of high values (normally > 2). Similar variation in the elemental concentration ratios between the seabed sediments and Amazon River suspended sediments was seen for stations located in the biogenic and blue water zones, with an enrichment for Ce, Sm, Fe, Th, and Sc and a depletion for the La, Eu, Tb, Yb, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Ta, and Zn. The shale-normalized REE patterns from shelf sediments are enriched in LREE relative to HREE, with enrichment factors varying from 1.5 for stations near the river mouth (terrigenous zone) to 1.9 for station located far in the blue water zone. Published data for the Amazon River suspended sediment agree remarkably well with this observation of LREE-enrichment. (author)

  3. An integrated assessment of pollution and biological effects in flounder, mussels and sediment in the southern Baltic Sea coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, Henryka; Kopko, Orest; Lehtonen, Kari K; Lang, Thomas; Waszak, Ilona; Balode, Maija; Strode, Evita

    2017-02-01

    Organic and metal contaminants and biological effects were investigated in flounder, mussels, and sediments in the southern Baltic Sea coastal area in order to assess environmental quality status in that area. Four sites were selected, including two within the Gulf of Gdańsk (GoG). In biota and sediment at each site, DDTs dominated over PCBs and PBDEs were the least abundant among organic contaminants. Their concentrations decreased progressively outward from GoG. Among metal contaminants, the levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd were elevated in GoG. Biomarkers in flounder, EROD activity and DNA SB, showed moderate positive correlations with organic and metal contaminants. In flounder, the integrated biomarker index (IBR/n) presented a spatial trend coherent with chemical pollution index (CPI), but there was no clear spatial correspondence between IBR/n and CPI in mussels nor between sediment toxicity index (STI) and sediment CPI. The integrated assessment of contaminant and biological effect data against available assessment criteria indicated that in biota, the contaminant assessment thresholds were most often exceeded by CB-118, heptachlor, PBDE, and Hg (in the GoG sediments by p,p'-DDT, Hg and Cd), while of the biological determinants, the threshold was breeched by AChE activity in mussels in GoG. Applying the ICES/OSPAR traffic-light approach showed that of the 50 parameters assessed at each site, there were 18% of determinants in the red color category in the two GoG sites and 8% of determinants in the two sites outside GoG, which indicated that none of the four investigated sites attained good environmental status (GES).

  4. An alternative approach to assessing feasibility of flushing sediment from reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfimov Valeriy Ivanovich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective parameters on feasibility of sediment flushing through reservoirs include hydrological, hydraulic, and topographic properties of the reservoirs. In this study, the performances of the Decision tree forest (DTF and Group method of data handling (GMDH for assessing feasibility of flushing sediment from reservoirs, were investigated. In this way, Decision tree Forest, that combines multiple Decision tree, used to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting flushing sediment. At the second step, GMDH deployed to predict the feasibility of flushing sediment from reservoirs. Results indicate that these models, as an efficient novel approach with an acceptable range of error, can be used successfully for assessing feasibility of flushing sediment from reservoirs.

  5. STATISTICS IN SERVICE QUALITY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Gardašević

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For any quality evaluation in sports, science, education, and so, it is useful to collect data to construct a strategy to improve the quality of services offered to the user. For this purpose, we use statistical software packages for data processing data collected in order to increase customer satisfaction. The principle is demonstrated by the example of the level of student satisfaction ratings Belgrade Polytechnic (as users the quality of institutions (Belgrade Polytechnic. Here, the emphasis on statistical analysis as a tool for quality control in order to improve the same, and not the interpretation of results. Therefore, the above can be used as a model in sport to improve the overall results.

  6. Effects of sediment quality on macroinvertebrates in the Sunraysia region of the Murray-Darling Rivers, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharley, David J. [Centre for Environmental Stress and Adaptation Research-Hoffmann Laboratory, Zoology Department, University of Melbourne, Level 2, Bio 21 Institute, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)], E-mail: sharleyd@unimelb.edu.au; Hoffmann, Ary A. [Centre for Environmental Stress and Adaptation Research-Hoffmann Laboratory, Zoology Department, University of Melbourne, Level 2, Bio 21 Institute, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Pettigrove, Vincent [Research and Technology, Melbourne Water, PO Box 4342, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia)

    2008-12-15

    A field-based microcosm approach was tested to identify deterioration of sediment quality in waterways using freshwater macroinvertebrates. The method can potentially identify the nature of contaminants based on species-specific responses. Sediments were collected from the Murray and Darling Rivers and irrigation drains within the Sunraysia region of south-eastern Australia and compared to non-polluted reference sediment. Clean sediments were also spiked with fertiliser to test whether nutrients affected the aquatic fauna. Seven of the eight sediments from the Sunraysia region had a negative impact on the macroinvertebrates, in particular sediment from the Darling River, which supported an impoverished fauna. Three species of chironomid showed varied responses to sediment quality and, although it was hypothesised that nutrients may have impacted on the macroinvertebrate fauna, the results suggest that other pollutants are also involved. The field-based microcosm method proved effective for determining the impact of sediment quality on indigenous macroinvertebrates. - Sediment quality effects on freshwater macroinvertebrates are isolated.

  7. Effects of sediment quality on macroinvertebrates in the Sunraysia region of the Murray-Darling Rivers, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharley, David J.; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Pettigrove, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    A field-based microcosm approach was tested to identify deterioration of sediment quality in waterways using freshwater macroinvertebrates. The method can potentially identify the nature of contaminants based on species-specific responses. Sediments were collected from the Murray and Darling Rivers and irrigation drains within the Sunraysia region of south-eastern Australia and compared to non-polluted reference sediment. Clean sediments were also spiked with fertiliser to test whether nutrients affected the aquatic fauna. Seven of the eight sediments from the Sunraysia region had a negative impact on the macroinvertebrates, in particular sediment from the Darling River, which supported an impoverished fauna. Three species of chironomid showed varied responses to sediment quality and, although it was hypothesised that nutrients may have impacted on the macroinvertebrate fauna, the results suggest that other pollutants are also involved. The field-based microcosm method proved effective for determining the impact of sediment quality on indigenous macroinvertebrates. - Sediment quality effects on freshwater macroinvertebrates are isolated

  8. Clinical Music Study Quality Assessment Scale (MUSIQUAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaschke, A.C.; Eggermont, L.H.P.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Shippton, M.; Hiomonides, I.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS Quality assessment of studies is essential for the understanding and application of these in systematic reviews and meta analyses, the two “gold standards” of medical sciences. Publications in scientific journals have extensively used assessment scales to address poor methodological quality,

  9. Visual signal quality assessment quality of experience (QOE)

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Lin; Lin, Weisi; Ngan, King

    2015-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the latest trends/advances in subjective and objective quality evaluation for traditional visual signals, such as 2D images and video, as well as the most recent challenges for the field of multimedia quality assessment and processing, such as mobile video and social media. Readers will learn how to ensure the highest storage/delivery/ transmission quality of visual content (including image, video, graphics, animation, etc.) from the server to the consumer, under resource constraints, such as computation, bandwidth, storage space, battery life, etc.    Provides an overview of quality assessment for traditional visual signals; Covers newly emerged visual signals such as social media, 3D image/video, mobile video, high dynamic range (HDR) images, graphics/animation, etc., which demand better quality of experience (QoE); Helps readers to develop better quality metrics and processing methods for newly emerged visual signals; Enables testing, optimizing, benchmarking...

  10. Floodplain sedimentology and sediment accumulation assessment – Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeager, Kevin M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences

    2016-01-03

    The primary goal of the larger research program, of which this work is one component, is to restore the hydrodynamics and energy gradients of targeted Savannah River Site (SRS) streams to a condition comparable to local natural streams or rivers of similar order, and to stabilize sediment transport (net degradation/aggregation) with the assumption that the faunal components of these systems will quickly recover on their own (e.g., Pen Branch; Lakly and McArthur, 2000). This work is specifically focused on the identification of near-stream floodplain areas that exhibit sediment deposition or erosion, and the quantification of these processes over a historical time scale (last ~100 years).

  11. Development of a Transgenic Model to Assess Bioavailable Genotoxicity in Sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    This technical note describes the rationale for using transgenic animal models to assess the potential genotoxicity of sediments, the benefits that can be obtained using such models versus currently...

  12. Data quality objectives summary report for the 107-N Basin Recirculation Building liquid/sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarcik, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process used for this 107-N Basin Recirculation Building liquid/sediment DQO report followed BHI-EE-01, Environmental Investigations Procedures, EIIP 1.2, Data Quality Objectives, Revision 2. Tri-Party Agreement Milestone (M-16-OIE) states that the 100-N Area deactivation must be performed according to the work scope identified in the N Reactor Deactivation Program Plan (WHC 1993c). Consistent with the N Reactor Deactivation Program Plan, the scope of the 107-N liquid/sediment DQO process exclusively involves the determination of sampling requirements during the deactivation period. The sampling requirements are primarily directed at characterization for comparison to decontamination and decommissioning endpoint acceptance criteria in preparation for turnover of the facilities listed below to the D and D organization. The sample characterization will also be used for selection of the appropriate disposition option for liquid and sediment currently contained in the facility. The primary media within the scope of this DQO includes the following: Accumulated liquids and sediment contained in tanks, vessels, pump wells, sumps, associated piping, and valve pit floors; and Limited solid debris (anticipated to be discovered)

  13. 100-D Ponds groundwater quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The 100-D Ponds facility is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The pH of groundwater in a downgradient well is statistically different than local background, triggering an assessment of groundwater contamination under 40 CFR 265.93. Results of a similar assessment, conducted in 1993, show that the elevated pH is caused by the presence of alkaline ash sediments beneath the ponds, which are not part of the RCRA unit. The 100-D Ponds should remain in indicator evaluation monitoring

  14. Impacts of urbanization on surface sediment quality: evidence from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminations in the Grand Canal of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youwei; Yu, Shen; Yu, Guangbin; Liu, Yi; Li, Guilin; Wang, Min

    2012-06-01

    Organic pollutants, especially synthetic organic compounds, can indicate paces of anthropogenic activities. Effects of urbanization on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) distributions in surface sediment were conducted in urban sections of the Grand Canal, China, consisting of a four-level urbanization gradient. The four-level urbanization gradients include three countryside towns, two small-size cities, three medium-size cities, and a large-size city. Diagnostic ratio analysis and factor analysis-multiple linear regression model were used for source apportionment of PAHs. Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) of USA and Canada were employed to assess ecological risks of PAHs and PCBs in surface sediments of the Canal. Ranges of PAH and PCB concentrations in surface sediments were 0.66-22 mg/kg and 0.5-93 μg/kg, respectively. Coal-related sources were primary PAH sources and followed by vehicular emission. Total concentration, composition, and source apportionment of PAHs exhibited urbanization gradient effects. Total PCB concentrations increased with the urbanization gradient, while total PAHs concentration in surface sediments presented an inverted U Kuznets curve with the urbanization gradient. Elevated concentrations of both PAHs and PCBs ranged at effect range low levels or interim SQG, assessed by USA and Canadian SQGs. PAHs and PCBs in surface sediments of the Grand Canal showed urbanization gradient effects and low ecological risks.

  15. Sediment yield assessment in the Upper Wadi Kebir catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil erosion that occurs within fluvial basins has a significant impact on ... Regarding the sediment rating models, Walling and Webb [27], Ludwig and ... The climate over the study area is Mediterranean with dry summers and .... collected data set and therefore a high scatter of the cloud around the regression line (Fig. 3).

  16. ASSESSING THE MOBILITY OF ARSENIC IN CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mobility of arsenic is controlled, in part, by partitioning to mineral surfaces in soils and sediments. Determination of the risk posed to human or ecosystem health by arsenic and identification of remediation technologies that could be employed to eliminate or reduce risk i...

  17. Ecotoxicological risk assessment linked to infilling quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrodin, Yves, E-mail: perrodin@entpe.fr [Universite de Lyon, ENTPE, CNRS, UMR 5023 LEHNA, 2 rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France); Donguy, Gilles [Universite de Lyon, ENTPE, CNRS, UMR 5023 LEHNA, 2 rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France); Bazin, Christine [INSAVALOR, 20 avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Volatier, Laurence; Durrieu, Claude [Universite de Lyon, ENTPE, CNRS, UMR 5023 LEHNA, 2 rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France); Bony, Sylvie; Devaux, Alain [Universite de Lyon, ENTPE, CNRS, UMR 5023 LEHNA, 2 rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France); INRA, USC IGH, UMR LEHNA, 2, rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France); Abdelghafour, Mohammed; Moretto, Robert [INSAVALOR, 20 avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2012-08-01

    The dredged sediments of polluted seaports now raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. This results in the need to manage them on land, raising other types of technical, economic and environmental problems. Regarding the technical and economic dimensions, traditional waste treatment methods have proved to be poorly adapted, due to very high costs and low absorbable volumes. In this context, filling quarries in coastal areas with treated sediments could represent an interesting alternative for these materials. Nevertheless, for the environmental dimension, it is necessary to demonstrate that this possibility is harmless to inland ecosystems. Consequently, a specific ecotoxicological risk assessment methodology has been formulated and tested on three sediments taken from seaboards of France, in view to providing an operational and usable tool for the prior validation of any operation to fill quarries with treated seaport sediments. This method incorporates the formulation of a global conceptual model of the scenario studied and the definition of protocols for each of its steps: the characterisation of exposures (based on a simulation of sediment deposit), the characterisation of effects (via the study of sediments ecotoxicity), and the final ecotoxicological risk assessment performed as a calculation of a risk quotient. It includes the implementation in parallel of two types of complementary approach: the 'substances' approach derived from the European methodology for assessing new substances placed on the market, and the 'matrix' approach which is similar to methods developed in France to assess ecological risks in other domains (waste management, polluted site management, Horizontal-Ellipsis ). The application of this dual approach to the three sediments tested led to conclude with reliability that the project to deposit sediments '1' and '2' presented a low risk for

  18. Ecotoxicological risk assessment linked to infilling quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrodin, Yves; Donguy, Gilles; Bazin, Christine; Volatier, Laurence; Durrieu, Claude; Bony, Sylvie; Devaux, Alain; Abdelghafour, Mohammed; Moretto, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The dredged sediments of polluted seaports now raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. This results in the need to manage them on land, raising other types of technical, economic and environmental problems. Regarding the technical and economic dimensions, traditional waste treatment methods have proved to be poorly adapted, due to very high costs and low absorbable volumes. In this context, filling quarries in coastal areas with treated sediments could represent an interesting alternative for these materials. Nevertheless, for the environmental dimension, it is necessary to demonstrate that this possibility is harmless to inland ecosystems. Consequently, a specific ecotoxicological risk assessment methodology has been formulated and tested on three sediments taken from seaboards of France, in view to providing an operational and usable tool for the prior validation of any operation to fill quarries with treated seaport sediments. This method incorporates the formulation of a global conceptual model of the scenario studied and the definition of protocols for each of its steps: the characterisation of exposures (based on a simulation of sediment deposit), the characterisation of effects (via the study of sediments ecotoxicity), and the final ecotoxicological risk assessment performed as a calculation of a risk quotient. It includes the implementation in parallel of two types of complementary approach: the “substances” approach derived from the European methodology for assessing new substances placed on the market, and the “matrix” approach which is similar to methods developed in France to assess ecological risks in other domains (waste management, polluted site management, …). The application of this dual approach to the three sediments tested led to conclude with reliability that the project to deposit sediments “1” and “2” presented a low risk for the peripheral aquatic ecosystems while

  19. Perceived Quality of Full HD Video - Subjective Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Bienik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, an interest in multimedia services has become a global trend and this trend is still rising. The video quality is a very significant part from the bundle of multimedia services, which leads to a requirement for quality assessment in the video domain. Video quality of a streamed video across IP networks is generally influenced by two factors “transmission link imperfection and efficiency of compression standards. This paper deals with subjective video quality assessment and the impact of the compression standards H.264, H.265 and VP9 on perceived video quality of these compression standards. The evaluation is done for four full HD sequences, the difference of scenes is in the content“ distinction is based on Spatial (SI and Temporal (TI Index of test sequences. Finally, experimental results follow up to 30% bitrate reducing of H.265 and VP9 compared with the reference H.264.

  20. A Tool for Assessing Future Capacity Loss Due to Sedimentation in the United States' Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, A. O.; Baker, B.; White, K. D.

    2017-12-01

    Federal reservoirs are critical components of the United States' water supply, flood risk management, hydropower and navigation infrastructure. These reservoirs included capacity for storage loss due to the deposition of sediment by inflowing streams in their original design. However, the actual rate of capacity loss experienced is controlled in part by climate, topography, soils, and land use/land cover, and may vary from the design. To assess the current and future vulnerability of its reservoirs to sedimentation. USACE has developed an online planning tool to identify USACE reservoirs where sedimentation is currently a problem (e.g., sedimentation rate exceeds design sedimentation rate, or zone losses disproportionately affect authorized purposes), and reservoirs where rates are expected to increase significantly in the future. The goal is to be able to prioritize operation and maintenance actions to minimize the effects of reservoir capacity loss on authorized purposes and help maximize reservoir use life.

  1. Ecotoxicological risk assessment linked to infilling quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrodin, Yves; Donguy, Gilles; Bazin, Christine; Volatier, Laurence; Durrieu, Claude; Bony, Sylvie; Devaux, Alain; Abdelghafour, Mohammed; Moretto, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The dredged sediments of polluted seaports now raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. This results in the need to manage them on land, raising other types of technical, economic and environmental problems. Regarding the technical and economic dimensions, traditional waste treatment methods have proved to be poorly adapted, due to very high costs and low absorbable volumes. In this context, filling quarries in coastal areas with treated sediments could represent an interesting alternative for these materials. Nevertheless, for the environmental dimension, it is necessary to demonstrate that this possibility is harmless to inland ecosystems. Consequently, a specific ecotoxicological risk assessment methodology has been formulated and tested on three sediments taken from seaboards of France, in view to providing an operational and usable tool for the prior validation of any operation to fill quarries with treated seaport sediments. This method incorporates the formulation of a global conceptual model of the scenario studied and the definition of protocols for each of its steps: the characterisation of exposures (based on a simulation of sediment deposit), the characterisation of effects (via the study of sediments ecotoxicity), and the final ecotoxicological risk assessment performed as a calculation of a risk quotient. It includes the implementation in parallel of two types of complementary approach: the "substances" approach derived from the European methodology for assessing new substances placed on the market, and the "matrix" approach which is similar to methods developed in France to assess ecological risks in other domains (waste management, polluted site management, …). The application of this dual approach to the three sediments tested led to conclude with reliability that the project to deposit sediments "1" and "2" presented a low risk for the peripheral aquatic ecosystems while sediment "3

  2. Soldier Quality of Life Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    SUSTAINMENT LOGISTICS EMOTIONS QUALITY OF LIFE MENTAL READINESS FUEL DEMAND REDUCTION FEEDBACK ARMY PERSONNEL ARMY...QoL as a measure of how well a given camp supports the physical and mental (to include the cognitive, social, and emotional dimensions) readiness of...housing fewer than 1,000 personnel. Larger FOBs have significantly more capabilities (e.g., food courts with contractor-prepared, name brand fast foods

  3. Assessment of heavy metals in sediment in a heavily polluted urban river in the Chaohu Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shiguang; Xue, Lianqing; Liu, Cheng; Shang, Jingge; Wang, Zhaode; He, Xiang; Fan, Chengxin

    2016-05-01

    The Nanfei River (Anhui Province, China) is a severely polluted urban river that flows into Chaohu Lake. In the present study, sediments were collected from the river and analyzed for their heavy metal contents. Multivariate statistics and the fuzzy comprehensive assessment method were used to determine the sources of pollution, the current pollution status, and spatial and temporal variations in heavy metal pollution in sediments. The concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in sediments ranged from 5.67-113, 0.08-40.2, 41.6-524, 15.5-460, 0.03-4.84, 13.5-180, 18.8-250, and 47.9-1 996 mg/kg, and the average concentrations of each metal were 1.7, 38.7, 1.8, 5.5, 18.8, 1.3, 2.5, and 11.1 times greater than the background values, respectively. Multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that Hg, Cu, Cr, Cd, and Ni may have originated from industrial activities, whereas As and Pb came from agricultural activities. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment method, based on the fuzzy mathematics theory, was used to obtain a detailed assessment of the sediment quality in the Nanfei River watershed. The results indicated that the pollution was moderate in the downstream tributaries of the Nianbu and Dianbu Rivers, but was severe in the main channel of the Nanfei River and in the upstream tributaries of the Sili and Banqiao Rivers. Therefore, sediments in the Nanfei River watershed are heavily polluted and urgent measures should be taken to remedy the status.

  4. Screening-level ecological and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater detention pond sediments of Coastal South Carolina, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, John E., E-mail: john.weinstein@citadel.edu [Department of Biology, The Citadel, Charleston, SC (United States); Crawford, Kevin D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, Oshkosh, WI (United States); Garner, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Clemson University, Pendleton, SC (United States); Flemming, Alan J. [South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Screening-level ecological and human health assessments were performed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of 19 stormwater detention ponds located in coastal South Carolina. For ecological screening benchmarks, we used threshold and probable effect concentrations (TEC and PEC) derived from consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for individual PAH analytes and equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmarks-toxic units ({Sigma}ESB-TU) derived for PAH mixtures. For human health benchmarks, we used preliminary remediation goals (PRGs). Sediments of five stormwater ponds (four commercial ponds and one residential pond with a large drainage area) exceeded PEC values for several PAH analytes and the {Sigma}ESB-TU safe value of 1 for PAH mixtures. These same five stormwater ponds also exceeded the PRG values for five carcinogenic PAH analytes. These results suggest that the PAH levels in sediments from certain commercial and residential ponds have the potential to pose moderate to high risks for adverse, chronic effects to benthic organisms in situ and an increased risk of cancer to humans ex situ following excavation and on-site disposal. We recommend that sediment from these stormwater ponds be tested prior to excavation to determine the appropriate method of disposal. We also recommend that regulatory agencies enforce guidelines for periodic sediment removal as this should reduce both in situ and ex situ risks resulting from sediment PAH exposure.

  5. Screening-level ecological and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater detention pond sediments of Coastal South Carolina, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, John E.; Crawford, Kevin D.; Garner, Thomas R.; Flemming, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Screening-level ecological and human health assessments were performed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of 19 stormwater detention ponds located in coastal South Carolina. For ecological screening benchmarks, we used threshold and probable effect concentrations (TEC and PEC) derived from consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for individual PAH analytes and equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmarks-toxic units (ΣESB-TU) derived for PAH mixtures. For human health benchmarks, we used preliminary remediation goals (PRGs). Sediments of five stormwater ponds (four commercial ponds and one residential pond with a large drainage area) exceeded PEC values for several PAH analytes and the ΣESB-TU safe value of 1 for PAH mixtures. These same five stormwater ponds also exceeded the PRG values for five carcinogenic PAH analytes. These results suggest that the PAH levels in sediments from certain commercial and residential ponds have the potential to pose moderate to high risks for adverse, chronic effects to benthic organisms in situ and an increased risk of cancer to humans ex situ following excavation and on-site disposal. We recommend that sediment from these stormwater ponds be tested prior to excavation to determine the appropriate method of disposal. We also recommend that regulatory agencies enforce guidelines for periodic sediment removal as this should reduce both in situ and ex situ risks resulting from sediment PAH exposure.

  6. Welfare Quality assessment protocol for laying hens = Welfare Quality assessment protocol voor leghennen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, van T.G.C.M.; Gunnink, H.; Reenen, van C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Results of a study on the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for laying hens. It reports the development of the integration of welfare assessment as scores per criteria as well as simplification of the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol. Results are given from assessment of 122 farms.

  7. Assessing the transport of PAH in the surficial sediment layer by passive sampler approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belles, Angel; Alary, Claire; Criquet, Justine; Ivanovsky, Anastasia; Billon, Gabriel

    2017-02-01

    A new method based on passive samplers has been developed to assess the diffusive flux of fluorene, fluoranthene and pyrene in the sediment bed and across the sediment-water interface. The dissolved compound concentration gradient in the sediment in the vertical direction was measured at the outlet of a storm water pond by using polyethylene strips as passive samplers. Simultaneously, the dissipation of a set of tracer compounds preloaded in the passive samplers was measured to estimate the effective diffusion coefficients of the pollutants in the sediment. Both measurements were used to evaluate the diffusive flux of the compounds according to Fick's first law. The diffusive fluxes of the 3 studied compounds have been estimated with a centimetre-scale resolution in the upper 44cm of the sediment. According to the higher compound diffusion coefficient and the steeper concentration gradient in the surficial sediment layer, the results show that the net flux of compounds near the sediment interface (1cm depth) is on average 500 times higher than in the deep sediment, with average fluxes at 1cm depth on the order of 5, 0.1 and 0.1ng/m 2 /y for fluorene, fluoranthene and pyrene, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing Sediment Transport at Navy Facilities (User’s Guide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    grain) size associated with each classification, along with a correspond- ing phi (Φ) classification that is also used in many engineering and...generally on the order of centimeters), and a decrease in activity with increasing depth (Clarke, Palermo , and Sturgis, 2001). The most common... universities , and state, regional, and local agencies (see Figure 7). Suspended Sediment Concentration Data. Site-specific or regional data on

  9. Sedimentation and Its Impacts/Effects on River System and Reservoir Water Quality: case Study of Mazowe Catchment, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundu, Colleta; Tumbare, Michael James; Kileshye Onema, Jean-Marie

    2018-04-01

    Sediment delivery into water sources and bodies results in the reduction of water quantity and quality, increasing costs of water purification whilst reducing the available water for various other uses. The paper gives an analysis of sedimentation in one of Zimbabwe's seven rivers, the Mazowe Catchment, and its impact on water quality. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model was used to compute soil lost from the catchment as a result of soil erosion. The model was used in conjunction with GIS remotely sensed data and limited ground observations. The estimated annual soil loss in the catchment indicates soil loss ranging from 0 to 65 t ha yr-1. Bathymetric survey at Chimhanda Dam showed that the capacity of the dam had reduced by 39 % as a result of sedimentation and the annual sediment deposition into Chimhanda Dam was estimated to be 330 t with a specific yield of 226 t km-2 yr-1. Relationship between selected water quality parameters, TSS, DO, NO3, pH, TDS, turbidity and sediment yield for selected water sampling points and Chimhanda Dam was analyzed. It was established that there is a strong positive relationship between the sediment yield and the water quality parameters. Sediment yield showed high positive correlation with turbidity (0.63) and TDS (0.64). Water quality data from Chimhanda treatment plant water works revealed that the quality of water is deteriorating as a result of increase in sediment accumulation in the dam. The study concluded that sedimentation can affect the water quality of water sources.

  10. Chemical quality of water and bottom sediment, Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge, Lahontan Valley, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thodal, Carl E.

    2017-12-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collected data on water and bottom-sediment chemistry to be used to evaluate a new water rights acquisition program designed to enhance wetland habitat in Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge and in Lahontan Valley, Churchill County, Nevada. The area supports habitat critical to the feeding and resting of migratory birds travelling the Pacific Flyway. Information about how water rights acquisitions may affect the quality of water delivered to the wetlands is needed by stakeholders and Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge managers in order to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach to wetlands management. A network of six sites on waterways that deliver the majority of water to Refuge wetlands was established to monitor the quality of streamflow and bottom sediment. Each site was visited every 4 to 6 weeks and selected water-quality field parameters were measured when flowing water was present. Water samples were collected at varying frequencies and analyzed for major ions, silica, and organic carbon, and for selected species of nitrogen and phosphorus, trace elements, pharmaceuticals, and other trace organic compounds. Bottom-sediment samples were collected for analysis of selected trace elements.Dissolved-solids concentrations exceeded the recommended criterion for protection of aquatic life (500 milligrams per liter) in 33 of 62 filtered water samples. The maximum arsenic criterion (340 micrograms per liter) was exceeded twice and the continuous criterion was exceeded seven times. Criteria protecting aquatic life from continuous exposure to aluminum, cadmium, lead, and mercury (87, 0.72, 2.5, and 0.77 micrograms per liter, respectively) were exceeded only once in filtered samples (27, 40, 32, and 36 samples, respectively). Mercury was the only trace element analyzed in bottom-sediment samples to exceed the published probable effect concentration (1,060 micrograms per kilogram).

  11. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in water and sediments of Trepça and Sitnica rivers, Kosovo, using pollution indicators and multivariate cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferati, Flora; Kerolli-Mustafa, Mihone; Kraja-Ylli, Arjana

    2015-06-01

    The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in water and sediment samples from Trepça and Sitnica rivers were determined to assess the level of contamination. Six water and sediment samples were collected during the period from April to July 2014. Most of the water samples was found within the European and Kosovo permissible limits. The highest concentration of As, Cd, Pb, and Zn originates primarily from anthropogenic sources such discharge of industrial water from mining flotation and from the mine waste eroded from the river banks. Sediment contamination assessment was carried out using the pollution indicators such as contamination factor (CF), degree of contamination (Cd), modified degree of contamination (mCd), pollution load index (PLI), and geo-accumulation index (Igeo). The CF values for the investigated metals indicated a high contaminated nature of sediments, while the Cd values indicated a very high contamination degree of sediments. The mCd values indicate a high degree of contamination of Sitnica river sediment to ultrahigh degree of contamination of Trepça river sediment. The PLI values ranged from 1.89 to 14.1 which indicate that the heavy metal concentration levels in all investigated sites exceeded the background values and sediment quality guidelines. The average values of Igeo revealed the following ranking of intensity of heavy metal contamination of the Trepça and Sitnica river sediments: Cd > As > Pb > Zn > Cu > Co > Cr > Ni. Cluster analysis suggests that As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn are derived from anthropogenic sources, particularly discharges from mining flotation and erosion form waste from a zinc mine plant. In order to protect the sediments from further contamination, the designing of a monitoring network and reducing the anthropogenic discharges are suggested.

  12. A scheme to scientifically and accurately assess cadmium pollution of river sediments, through consideration of bioavailability when assessing ecological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhixin; Tang, Wenzhong; Shan, Baoqing

    2017-10-01

    Evaluating heavy metal pollution status and ecological risk in river sediments is a complex task, requiring consideration of contaminant pollution levels, as well as effects of biological processes within the river system. There are currently no simple or low-cost approaches to heavy metal assessment in river sediments. Here, we introduce a system of assessment for pollution status of heavy metals in river sediments, using measurements of Cd in the Shaocun River sediments as a case study. This system can be used to identify high-risk zones of the river that should be given more attention. First, we evaluated the pollution status of Cd in the river sediments based on their total Cd content, and calculated a risk assessment, using local geochemical background values at various sites along the river. Using both acetic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to extracted the fractions of Cd in sediments, and used DGT to evaluate the bioavailability of Cd. Thus, DGT provided a measure of potentially bioavailable concentrations of Cd concentrations in the sediments. Last, we measured Cd contents in plant tissue collected at the same site to compare with our other measures. A Pearson's correlation analysis showed that Cd-Plant correlated significantly with Cd-HAc, (r = 0.788, P < 0.01), Cd-EDTA (r = 0.925, P < 0.01), Cd-DGT (r = 0.976, P < 0.01), and Cd-Total (r = 0.635, P < 0.05). We demonstrate that this system of assessment is a useful means of assessing heavy metal pollution status and ecological risk in river sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sediment quality in depositional areas of Shelikof Strait and outermost Cook Inlet, July 1997 - July 1998 (NODC Accession 0000702)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Minerals Management Service (MMS) program "Sediment Quality in Depositional Areas of Shelikof Strait and Outermost Cook Inlet," consisted of a two-year study...

  14. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of rivers Niger and Benue confluence, Lokoja, Central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekere, Nwachukwu; Yakubu, Newman; Ihedioha, Janefrances

    2017-08-01

    The concentrations of six heavy metals (HMs) and 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment samples of the confluence of rivers Niger and Benue were investigated. The ecological risk assessment of the contaminants was carried out. The results showed that the sediment samples were heavily polluted with iron and moderately polluted with Cd while other metals posed no pollution problem when compared with USEPA sediment quality guidelines. Only six out of the 16 priority PAHs were detected in the samples, and source apportionment of the PAHs indicated that they are of pyrogenic origin. The ∑PAHs in the samples were lower than many of similar studies and were of no pollution risk. The ecological risk assessment result of the heavy metals showed that the sediments were of considerable risk due majorly to Cd levels. The HM concentration results statistically showed significant difference between seasons at probability value (P metals into three different components according to sources. The levels of HMS and PAHs detected in the sediments were correlated for source identification, and the correlation showed that the majority of the pollutants were mainly from anthropogenic sources. There is increasing level of anthropogenic activities at the vicinity of the confluence due to urbanization which may call for periodic monitoring of the sediment quality.

  15. Environmental assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of the Santander Bay, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viguri, J; Verde, J; Irabien, A

    2002-07-01

    Samples of intertidal surface sediments (0-2 cm) were collected in 17 stations of the Santander Bay, Cantabric Sea, Northern Spain. The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 16, were analysed by HPLC and MS detection. Surface sediments show a good linear correlation among the parameters of the experimental organic matter evaluation, where total carbon (TC) and loss on ignition (LOI) are approximately 2.5 and 5 times total organic carbon (TOC). A wide range of TOC from 0.08% to 4.1%, and a broad distribution of the sum of sigma16PAHs, from 0.02 to 344.6 microg/g d.w., which can be correlated by an exponential equation to the TOC, has been identified. A qualitative relationship may be established between the industrial input along the rivers and the concentration of sigma6PAHs in the sediments of the estuaries: Boo estuary (8404-4631 microg/g OC), Solia-San Salvador estuaries (305-113 microg/g OC) and Cubas estuary (31-32 microg/g OC). This work shows a dramatic change in the spatial distribution in the concentration of PAHs of intertidal surface sediments. The left edge of the Bay has the main traffic around the city and the major source of PAHs is from combustion processes and estuarine inputs, leading to medium values of PAHs in the sediments; the right edge of the Bay has much lesser anthropogenic activities leading to lower values of PAHs in sediments. The distribution of individual PAHs in sediments varies widely depending on their structure and molecular weight; the 4-6 ring aromatics predominate in polluted sediments due to their higher persistence. The isomer ratio does not allow any clear identification of the PAHs origin. Environmental evaluation according to Dutch guidelines and consensus sediment quality guidelines based on ecotoxicological data leads to the same conclusion, sediments in the Santander Bay show a very different environmental quality depending on the spatial position from heavily polluted/medium effects to non

  16. Demonstration and Commercialization of the Sediment Ecosystem Assessment Protocol (SEAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-09

    31  6.1.1  Performance Objective #1: Water Quality Maintenance...green represents where a thin- layer sand cap was installed in April 2014. .................................................................12  Figure...device(s) PSNS Puget Sound Naval Shipyard QA/QC Quality Assurance/ Quality Control SARA Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act SCCWRP

  17. Assessing Participation in Secondary Education Quality Enhancement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing Participation in Secondary Education Quality Enhancement: Teachers, Parents and Communities in Cross River State. ... ailing economy, low moral values and philosophy of the end justifies the means were reasons for low parents and communities involvement in secondary education-quality improvement.

  18. Supporting visual quality assessment with machine learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gastaldo, P.; Zunino, R.; Redi, J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective metrics for visual quality assessment often base their reliability on the explicit modeling of the highly non-linear behavior of human perception; as a result, they may be complex and computationally expensive. Conversely, machine learning (ML) paradigms allow to tackle the quality

  19. the research quality plus (rq+) assessment instrument

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Thomas Schwandt

    THE RESEARCH QUALITY PLUS (RQ+) ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT ... consistent way to allow for further meta-analysis about research quality over time. ... Addresses complex and integrative problems, requiring systems-based approaches ..... benefits or financial costs for participants that might not be appropriate in the ...

  20. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme Moura

    2011-01-01

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the

  1. Ecological risk, source and preliminary assessment of metals in the surface sediments of Chabahar Bay, Oman Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agah, Homira; Saleh, Abolfazl; Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Fumani, Neda Sheijooni

    2016-01-01

    In this study, concentrations of Aluminum (Al), Iron (Fe), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Vanadium (V), Zinc (Zn), Arsenic (As), Cobalt (Co) and lead (Pb) in the surface sediments from Chabahar Bay were studied to assess the degree of heavy metal pollution as a consequence of natural and anthropogenic sources. Metal contents in the sediments were observed in the order of: Al > Fe > Cr > V > Ni > Zn > Cu > > As > Pb > Co. According to enrichment factor (EF), Arsenic was higher than 1.5 at some sites, indicating anthropogenic inputs. Contents of Ni, As and Cr in the some sampling sites were higher than sediment quality guideline implying adverse impacts of these metals. Based on potential ecological risk (PER), the Chabahar Bay had low ecological risk. - Highlights: •Metals and major elements were determined in surface sediments from Chabahar Bay, Oman Sea. •EF values indicated non-enriched to moderate-enriched. •Ni, As and Cr were above ERL values.

  2. Quality Assessment in the Primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Ak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available -Quality Assessment in the Primary care Dear Editor; I have read the article titled as “Implementation of Rogi Kalyan Samiti (RKS at Primary Health Centre Durvesh” with great interest. Shrivastava et all concluded that assessment mechanism for the achievement of objectives for the suggested RKS model was not successful (1. Hereby I would like to emphasize the importance of quality assessment (QA especially in the era of newly established primary care implementations in our country. Promotion of quality has been fundamental part of primary care health services. Nevertheless variations in quality of care exist even in the developed countries. Accomplishment of quality in the primary care has some barriers like administration and directorial factors, absence of evidence-based medicine practice lack of continuous medical education. Quality of health care is no doubt multifaceted model that covers all components of health structures and processes of care. Quality in the primary care set up includes patient physician relationship, immunization, maternal, adolescent, adult and geriatric health care, referral, non-communicable disease management and prescribing (2. Most countries are recently beginning the implementation of quality assessments in all walks of healthcare. Organizations like European society for quality and safety in family practice (EQuiP endeavor to accomplish quality by collaboration. There are reported developments and experiments related to the methodology, processes and outcomes of quality assessments of health care. Quality assessments will not only contribute the accomplishment of the program / project but also detect the areas where obstacles also exist. In order to speed up the adoption of QA and to circumvent the occurrence of mistakes, health policy makers and family physicians from different parts of the world should share their experiences. Consensus on quality in preventive medicine implementations can help to yield

  3. Environmental and geochemical assessment of surface sediments on irshansk ilmenite deposit area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталия Олеговна Крюченко

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is revealed the problem of pollution of surface sediments of Irshansk ilmenite deposit area of various chemical elements hazard class (Mn, V, Ba, Ni, Co, Cr, Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn. It is determined its average content in surface sediments of various functional areas (forest and agricultural land, flood deposits, reclaimed land, calculated geochemical criteria, so given ecological and geochemical assessment of area

  4. Quality of Experience Assessment of Video Quality in Social Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Ali Laghari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Video sharing on social clouds is popular among the users around the world. High-Definition (HD videos have big file size so the storing in cloud storage and streaming of videos with high quality from cloud to the client are a big problem for service providers. Social clouds compress the videos to save storage and stream over slow networks to provide quality of service (QoS. Compression of video decreases the quality compared to original video and parameters are changed during the online play as well as after download. Degradation of video quality due to compression decreases the quality of experience (QoE level of end users. To assess the QoE of video compression, we conducted subjective (QoE experiments by uploading, sharing, and playing videos from social clouds. Three popular social clouds, Facebook, Tumblr, and Twitter, were selected to upload and play videos online for users. The QoE was recorded by using questionnaire given to users to provide their experience about the video quality they perceive. Results show that Facebook and Twitter compressed HD videos more as compared to other clouds. However, Facebook gives a better quality of compressed videos compared to Twitter. Therefore, users assigned low ratings for Twitter for online video quality compared to Tumblr that provided high-quality online play of videos with less compression.

  5. Image quality assessment using deep convolutional networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yezhou; Ye, Xiang; Li, Yong

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes a method of accurately assessing image quality without a reference image by using a deep convolutional neural network. Existing training based methods usually utilize a compact set of linear filters for learning features of images captured by different sensors to assess their quality. These methods may not be able to learn the semantic features that are intimately related with the features used in human subject assessment. Observing this drawback, this work proposes training a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) with labelled images for image quality assessment. The ReLU in the CNN allows non-linear transformations for extracting high-level image features, providing a more reliable assessment of image quality than linear filters. To enable the neural network to take images of any arbitrary size as input, the spatial pyramid pooling (SPP) is introduced connecting the top convolutional layer and the fully-connected layer. In addition, the SPP makes the CNN robust to object deformations to a certain extent. The proposed method taking an image as input carries out an end-to-end learning process, and outputs the quality of the image. It is tested on public datasets. Experimental results show that it outperforms existing methods by a large margin and can accurately assess the image quality on images taken by different sensors of varying sizes.

  6. Quantifying soil burn severity for hydrologic modeling to assess post-fire effects on sediment delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, Mariana; Brooks, Erin; Lew, Roger; Kolden, Crystal; Quinn, Dylan; Elliot, William; Robichaud, Pete

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion is a secondary fire effect with great implications for many ecosystem resources. Depending on the burn severity, topography, and the weather immediately after the fire, soil erosion can impact municipal water supplies, degrade water quality, and reduce reservoirs' storage capacity. Scientists and managers use field and remotely sensed data to quickly assess post-fire burn severity in ecologically-sensitive areas. From these assessments, mitigation activities are implemented to minimize post-fire flood and soil erosion and to facilitate post-fire vegetation recovery. Alternatively, land managers can use fire behavior and spread models (e.g. FlamMap, FARSITE, FOFEM, or CONSUME) to identify sensitive areas a priori, and apply strategies such as fuel reduction treatments to proactively minimize the risk of wildfire spread and increased burn severity. There is a growing interest in linking fire behavior and spread models with hydrology-based soil erosion models to provide site-specific assessment of mitigation treatments on post-fire runoff and erosion. The challenge remains, however, that many burn severity mapping and modeling products quantify vegetation loss rather than measuring soil burn severity. Wildfire burn severity is spatially heterogeneous and depends on the pre-fire vegetation cover, fuel load, topography, and weather. Severities also differ depending on the variable of interest (e.g. soil, vegetation). In the United States, Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) maps, derived from Landsat satellite images, are used as an initial burn severity assessment. BARC maps are classified from either a Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) or differenced Normalized Burned Ratio (dNBR) scene into four classes (Unburned, Low, Moderate, and High severity). The development of soil burn severity maps requires further manual field validation efforts to transform the BARC maps into a product more applicable for post-fire soil rehabilitation activities

  7. ASSESSMENT OF QUALITY OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Alexejevna Ismagilova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the topical issue of implementation of innovative technologies in the aircraft engine building industry. In this industry, products with high reliability requirements are developed and mass-produced. These products combine the latest achievements of science and technology. To make a decision on implementation of innovative technologies, a comprehensive assessment is carried out. It affects the efficiency of the innovations realization. In connection with this, the assessment of quality of innovative technologies is a key aspect in the selection of technological processes for their implementation. Problems concerning assessment of the quality of new technologies and processes of production are considered in the suggested method with respect to new positions. The developed method of assessing the quality of innovative technologies stands out for formed system of the qualimetric characteristics ensuring the effectiveness, efficiency, adaptability of innovative technologies and processes. The feature of suggested system of assessment is that it is based on principles of matching and grouping of quality indicators of innovative technologies and the characteristics of technological processes. The indicators are assessed from the standpoint of feasibility, technologies competiveness and commercial demand of products. In this paper, we discuss the example of implementing the approach of assessing the quality of the innovative technology of high-tech products such as turbine aircraft engine.

  8. The use of Ampelisca abdita growth rate as an indicator of sediment quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, D.P.; Thompson, B.

    1995-01-01

    Acute lethal bioassays with amphipod crustaceans are routinely used to assess toxicity of bulk sediments. A study within the San Francisco Bay Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) is in progress to develop a chronic bioassay with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita, measuring both survivorship and growth rates. This approach is attractive because depression of growth rate is likely to be a more sensitive indicator of toxic effects than acute lethality, and natural populations of A. abdita exist throughout the Bay. Spiked sediment bioassays, using cadmium and crude oil, were used to demonstrate the relative sensitivity of the standard 10-day lethal test vs. the 30-day growth test. Sediments were also collected from 9 sites throughout the Bay, ranging from areas adjacent to municipal wastewater discharges to areas distant from known point source inputs. These samples were then split, and used for side-by-side comparison of acute (lethal) and chronic (growth) toxicity tests. Survivorship exceeded 90% in all tests, including those sediments collected nearest the wastewater outfalls. Growth rates were contrasted among the various treatments to examine the utility of this end point in discriminating the outfall sites. Data on the spatial distribution, abundance, and size-frequency distribution of native populations was examined within the context of using growth rate as an indicator of toxic effects in natural populations as well

  9. Using bioavailability to assess contaminated sediment risk: Passive sampling and Pore Water Remedial Guidelines (PWRGs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosted by the Contaminated Sediment Forum, this half-day course will introduce the RPM to the use of passive samplers to assess bioavailability and in ecological risk assessment. Passive sampling devices (PSD) are a technology with growing acceptance for measuring porewater conce...

  10. A geomorphological assessments of the distribution of sediment sinks along the lower Amazon River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, E.; Latrubesse, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    Floodplain sediment storage budget is examined along the 1,000 km reach of the lower Amazon River based on extensive sets of remote sensing data and field measurements. Incorporating the washload discharges at gauge stations at the main channel and major tributaries, we analyzed the roles of vast floodplain on the Amazon River seasonal variability in sediment discharges. Annual washload accumulation rate on floodplain along the reach in between Manacapuru and Obidos of is estimated to be 79 Mt over inter-annual average. Period that the net loss over to the floodplain of washload coincide with discharge rising phase of the Amazon River at Obidos, when the river water level rises to make hydrologic connections to floodplain. Only during the early falling phase (July-August), 3.6 Mt of washload net gain occurred in a year, which was less than 5% of the annual net loss to the floodplain. To assess the spatial distribution of sediment sinks along the lower Amazon, we incorporated various hydro-geomorphic factors regarding floodplain geomorphic styles and morphometric parameters, such floodplain width, levee heights, water-saturated area, suspended sediment distribution over floodplain and distribution of impeded floodplain. Impeded floodplain that contains numerous large rounded lakes is the definition of active sediment sinks along the lower Amazon, which seasonally stores most of the water and traps sediment from the river. The results of these hydro-geomorphic factors collectively indicate that the extent and magnitudes of sediment sinks becomes larger downstream (from Manacapuru to Monte Alegre), which is proportionally related to the development of the water-saturated floodplain. This indicates the nonlinear geomorphic evolution of the Amazon floodplain through its longitudinal profile since the late Holocene that downstream reaches are still to be infilled with sediments (incomplete floodplain) thus acting as sediment sinks.

  11. Preliminary assessment of contaminants in the sediment and organisms of the Swartkops Estuary, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, L; Strydom, N A; Bouwman, H

    2015-12-30

    Urban estuaries are susceptible to metal and organic pollution, yet most remain understudied in South Africa with respect to the presence, concentrations and distribution of contaminants. Metal and organic chemical concentrations were assessed in sediment and organisms from different trophic levels in the lower reaches of the Swartkops Estuary. Species sampled included Upogebia africana (Malacostraca: Upogebiidae), Gilchristella aestuaria (Clupeidae), Psammogobius knysnaensis (Gobiidae), Mugil cephalus (Mugilidae), Lichia amia (Carangidae), Argyrosomus japonicus (Sciaenidae), Pomadasys commersonnii (Haemulidae) and Larus dominicanus (Avis: Laridae). This study is one of the most comprehensive studies to date assessing pollution levels in a food web in estuaries in South Africa. Due to biomagnification, higher concentrations of Arsenic, Lead, Mercury and Cadmium were found in the juveniles stages of popular angling fishes. High concentrations of Cadmium and Arsenic were recorded in the liver of L. amia, A. japonicus and P. commersonnii which exceed international quality food guidelines. Eggs from the gull, L. dominicanus, showed detectable concentrations of PCBs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of soil erosion and sedimentation through the use of the 137Cs and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queralt, I.; Zapata, F.; Garcia Agudo, E.

    2000-01-01

    During the last decades the international scientific community has been increasingly aware of both the risk and the effects of soil erosion and sedimentation processes cause to sustainable agricultural activities and the quality of the superficial environment. Soil erosion is a major environmental worldwide concern of our time. Over the past thirty years two main streams of thought have developed about the effects of soil erosion. The first one, mainly based on ecologist and environmentalist criteria, believes that soil erosion is a true disease on the land that quickly depletes the soil production capacity with some additional subsequent effects such as eutrophication of water reservoirs and pollution of natural waters. The second one supports that soil erosion is a natural process shaping the overall landscape. Development of fertile soils on river valleys can be attributed to erosion processes in the upper reaches of catchment. Loss of productivity due to soil erosion on agricultural lands can be easily compensated by small addition of fertilisers . W h a t ever position we adopt a development of methods offering reliable data is needed. The use of models based on radiogenic isotopes distribution in soil profiles can offer valuable data set both in soil erosion and deposition. In addition, soil redistribution can be effectively assessed. These methods can be applied in a huge range of soil conditions in different geographic zones and the results are comparable at global scale. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) sponsored since 1995, the implementation of two co-ordinated research projects (CRP's) dealing with the application of the 137 Cs technique in soil erosion and sedimentation studies respectively. A joint Meeting of both CRP's was organised by the Land and Water Conservation Group of the Institute of Earth Sciences 'Jaume Almera', CSIC, in Barcelona, Spain, from 4 to 8 October 1999. This Special Issue of Acta Geologica Hispanica contains a

  13. Assessing product image quality for online shopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Anjan; Chung, Sung H.; Chittar, Naren; Islam, Atiq

    2012-01-01

    Assessing product-image quality is important in the context of online shopping. A high quality image that conveys more information about a product can boost the buyer's confidence and can get more attention. However, the notion of image quality for product-images is not the same as that in other domains. The perception of quality of product-images depends not only on various photographic quality features but also on various high level features such as clarity of the foreground or goodness of the background etc. In this paper, we define a notion of product-image quality based on various such features. We conduct a crowd-sourced experiment to collect user judgments on thousands of eBay's images. We formulate a multi-class classification problem for modeling image quality by classifying images into good, fair and poor quality based on the guided perceptual notions from the judges. We also conduct experiments with regression using average crowd-sourced human judgments as target. We compute a pseudo-regression score with expected average of predicted classes and also compute a score from the regression technique. We design many experiments with various sampling and voting schemes with crowd-sourced data and construct various experimental image quality models. Most of our models have reasonable accuracies (greater or equal to 70%) on test data set. We observe that our computed image quality score has a high (0.66) rank correlation with average votes from the crowd sourced human judgments.

  14. Sediment porewater toxicity assessment studies in the vicinity of offshore oil and gas production platforms in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.; Presley, B.J.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Robertson, L.; Boothe, P.; Kilada, R.; Wade, T.; Montagna, P.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary program to assess the potential long-term impacts of offshore oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Gulf of Mexico, sediment chemical analyses and porewater toxicity tests were conducted in the vicinity of five offshore platforms. Based on data from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development assays, toxicity was observed near four of the five platforms sampled; the majority of the toxic samples were collected within 150 m of a platform. There was excellent agreement among the results of porewater tests with three different species (sea urchin embryological development, polychaete reproduction, and copepod nauplii survival). The sediment concentrations of several metals were well in excess of sediment quality assessment guidelines at a number of stations, and good agreement was observed between predicted and observed toxicity. Porewater metal concentrations compared with EC50, LOEC, and NOEC values generated for water-only exposures indicated that the porewater concentrations for several metals were high enough to account for the observed toxicity. Results of these studies utilizing highly sensitive toxicity tests suggest that the contaminant-induced impacts from offshore platforms are limited to a localized area in the immediate vicinity of the platforms. 

  15. Demonstration and Commercialization of the Sediment Ecosystem Assessment Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    provided in Appendix F. Of those measurements recorded, only dissolved copper was found to exceed national ambient marine water quality (http...measurement of water quality parameters. The Battelle staff member found the SEA Ring easy to operate, but noted that care must be taken when...ERDC); Jason Conder (Geosyntec, Inc.); Brian Hester, Jay Word , and staff of the Ramboll Environ Port Gamble Bioassay Laboratory; and laboratory and

  16. The impacts of indoor Amang processing to the quality of water and locally sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Samudi Yasir; Redzuwan Yahaya; Ismail Bahari; Wong, Siew Kim

    2007-01-01

    The impact of amang industry to the environment and community health has long been studied since the industry uses a large amount of water as well the accumulation of TENORM. A study was carried out to measure the water quality as well as the contents of radioactive substances and selected heavy metals in the water and sediments in the vicinity of an amang processing plant in Kampar, Perak, which is using a close water system. The sampling locations selected are; the natural pond, closed to the plant which supply the water for the processing (L1), a recycling concrete pond outside the plant (L2) and an affluent discharge point inside the plant (L3). The techniques of analysis used included in-situ measurement and laboratory analysis of water quality, direct counting of radioactivity ( 238 U and 232 Th) and chemical extraction for atomic absorption spectroscopy of heavy metals (zinc, lead, copper). Chemical extraction was carried out using potassium nitrate, sodium hydroxide, disodium ethylene-diamine tetra-acetic acid (Na 2 EDTA) and concentrated nitric acid solutions. the results show that the water quality indices for the natural pond are much better than at the effluent discharge point or the recycling concrete pond. The average 238 U and 232 Th concentrations were the highest in sediment samples at L3 (1110.5 ± 7.3 Bq/ Kg and 1966.6 ± 4.7 Bq/ kg respectively). For the water samples, the radioactivity was highest in the water sample collected at concrete pond (L2), which is 35.42 ± 1.63 Bq/ L ( 238 U) and 36.16 ± 1.02 Bq/ L ( 232 Th). The average value of extracted Pb (194.13 μg/ g) and Cu (9.71 μg/ g) was highest in the sediment from L3, while for Zn in sediment taken from L1 (38.78 μg/ g). In general, the water quality indices of L1 are better than L2 and L3. The closed water recycling system currently practiced by the amang processing plant has successfully contained the contamination to the environment caused by amang processing activities. (author)

  17. Image Quality Assessment via Quality-aware Group Sparse Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minglei Tong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Image quality assessment has been attracting growing attention at an accelerated pace over the past decade, in the fields of image processing, vision and machine learning. In particular, general purpose blind image quality assessment is technically challenging and lots of state-of-the-art approaches have been developed to solve this problem, most under the supervised learning framework where the human scored samples are needed for training a regression model. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised learning approach that work without the human label. In the off-line stage, our method trains a dictionary covering different levels of image quality patch atoms across the training samples without knowing the human score, where each atom is associated with a quality score induced from the reference image; at the on-line stage, given each image patch, our method performs group sparse coding to encode the sample, such that the sample quality can be estimated from the few labeled atoms whose encoding coefficients are nonzero. Experimental results on the public dataset show the promising performance of our approach and future research direction is also discussed.

  18. Assessment of Measurement Uncertainty Values of the Scandium Determination in Marine Sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rina-Mulyaningsih, Th.

    2005-01-01

    The result value of testing is meaningless if it isn't completed with uncertainty value. So that with the analysis result Sc in the marine sediment sample. It was assessed the uncertainty measurement of Sc analysis in marine sediment. The experiment was done in AAN Serpong laboratory. The result of calculation uncertainty on Sc analysis showed that the uncertainty components come from: preparation of sample and standard/comparator, purity of standard, counting statistics (sample and standard), repeatability, nuclear data and decay correction. The assessment on uncertainty must be done for the analysis of others elements, because each elements has difference nuclear and physical properties. (author)

  19. Assessment Quality in Tertiary Education: An Integrative Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gerritsen-van Leeuwenkamp, Karin; Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Kester, Liesbeth

    2018-01-01

    In tertiary education, inferior assessment quality is a problem that has serious consequences for students, teachers, government, and society. A lack of a clear and overarching conceptualization of assessment quality can cause difficulties in guaranteeing assessment quality in practice. Thus, the aim of this study is to conceptualize assessment quality in tertiary education by providing an overview of the assessment quality criteria, their influences, the evaluation of the assessment quality ...

  20. Quality Management Plan for the Environmental Assessment and Innovation Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality management plan (QMP) which identifies the mission, roles, responsibilities of personnel with regard to quality assurance and quality management for the environmental assessment and innovation division.

  1. Environmental geochemistry and sediment quality in Lake Pontchartrain: database development and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, Frank T.; Flowers, George C.; McIntire, Andrew G.; Marot, Marcie; Holmes, Charles

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports on preliminary results of a project to develop a comprehensive data base of chemical and environmental information on sediments from Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, and surrounding water bodies. The goal is to evaluate all data for reliability and comparability, and to make it widely accessible and useful to all users. Methods for processing heterogeneous, historical data follow previous methods employed in the Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay area. Data from 11 different data sets, encompassing about 900 total samples, have been entered to date. Questionable or anomalous data were noted in a minority of cases. Problems tend to follow distinct patterns and are relatively easy to identify. Hence, comparability of data has not proven to be the major obstacle to synthesis efforts that was anticipated in earlier years (NRC, 1989). Quality-controlled data sets show that the bulk of sediment samples in the more central parts of Lake Pontchartrain have values within normal background for heavy metals like Cu, Pb, and Zn. The same or lower concentrations were found in the vicinity of the Bonnet Carre Spillway, representing influx from the Mississippi River. Mean concentrations for Cu, Pb, and Zn were 17, 21, and 74 µg/g (total dissolution analyses), respectively. However, values as high as 267 µg/g Pb and comparable increases for other metal and organic contaminants are found in sediments within 2 km of the coastal strip of New Orleans. Additional sampling in such areas and in other inland coastal waterways is needed, since such levels are above the threshold for potential toxic effects on benthic organisms, according to effects-based screening criteria. The most contaminated sites, Bayou Trepagnier and Bayou Bonfouca, involve industrial areas where waste discharge has now been controlled or remediated, but where sediments may retain large concentrations of contaminants, e.g. tenths of a percent of Pb, Cr, and Zn or more for Bayou Trepagnier.

  2. Occurrence and distribution of selected heavy metals in the surface sediments of South Brittany coastal waters: An assessment using pollution indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, M. C.; Menier, D.; Noor Azhar, M. S.; Dupont, V.; Révillon, S.

    2012-04-01

    In order to avoid the pollution of heavy metals in South Brittany water, it is necessary to establish the data and understand the mechanisms influencing the distribution of heavy metals of the area. One of the aims of this work was to assess heavy metals contamination in Gulf of Morbihan and Quiberon Bay. Another aim was to use interpolation surfaces per metals to assess the contamination separately per metal. A total of 196 bottom sediment samples were collected from the coastal waters in order to determine the spatial concentration of Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) after acid digestion. The average heavy metal concentrations are ranked as follows: Mn>Zn>Cr>Pb>Cu>Cu>Cd. In the gulf, metal enrichments observed compared to the bay environment may due river run-off from three major river (Auray, Le Marle and Novalo rivers) which carried municipal waste and maritime activities along the coastal area within the gulf. Beside those factors, the natural factors such as the sheltered basin morphology itself, fine sediment and low hydrodynamic regime which favour the in situ accumulation of pollutants. The level of pollution levels attributed to heavy metals was evaluated using several pollution indicators in order to determine anthropogenically derived sediment contamination. Comparison to sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), enrichment factors (EFs), index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) and contamination factors (CF) based on reference element and background value to compensate for the influence of the natural variability in sediment mineralogy and to assess whether the concentration observed in surface sediment represent background and contaminated levels and visualize using ArcGIS software. These analyses validated that the bottom sediment only enriched in Pb and the other metals in most sample are not due to artificial contamination. Overall, geochemistry of the samples show the effect of both natural and anthropogenic

  3. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF SEDIMENT REDISTRIBUTION IN THE SICHUAN HILLY BASIN AND THE CENTRAL RUSSIAN UPLAND DURING THE PAST 60 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin N. Golosov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural lands around the globe have been seriously affected by soil erosion and resultant on- and off-site eco-environmental problems. Quantitative assessment of sediment redistribution allows for explicit understanding the effects of natural and anthropogenic agents on catchment soil erosion and sediment delivery. To this end, sediment redistribution at field and catchment scales in two agricultural regions of the Sichuan Hilly Basin in southwestern China and the Central Russian Upland was comprehensively assessed using multiple approaches including 137Cs tracing, soil morphology comparison, empirical-mathematic modeling, sediment budgeting, discharge and sediment monitoring, and sediment dating. Field measurements were undertaken in the zero-order small catchments (with drainage area less than 0,25 km2, and soil erosion rates were found to be 6-7 t ha-1-yr-1. Long-term repeated measurements indicated that both precipitation changes and conservation practices had contributed to the alleviation of soil erosion on hillslopes. However, eroded sediment was transferred from hillslopes to streams through different pathways for both regions. High slope-channel connectivity and substantial proportions of sediment delivery were observed in the Sichuan Hilly Basin. Changes of riverine suspended sediment yield were indicative of soil erosion and sediment delivery on upland catchments. Large quantity of sediment was redeposited on first-order dry-valley bottoms and only 4-12% of the gross sediment load was delivered into adjacent river channels in the Central Russian Upland.

  4. Assessment of the Mutagenicity of Sediments from Yangtze River Estuary Using Salmonella Typhimurium/Microsome Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Chen, Ling; Floehr, Tilman; Xiao, Hongxia; Bluhm, Kerstin; Hollert, Henner; Wu, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    Sediments in estuaries are of important environmental concern because they may act as pollution sinks and sources to the overlying water body. These sediments can be accumulated by benthic organisms. This study assessed the mutagenic potential of sediment extracts from the Yangtze River estuary by using the Ames fluctuation assay with the Salmonella typhimurium his (−) strain TA98 (frameshift mutagen indicator) and TA100 (baseshift mutagen indicator). Most of the sediment samples were mutagenic to the strain TA98, regardless of the presence or absence of exogenous metabolic activation (S9 induction by β-naphthoflavone/phenobarbital). However, none of the samples were mutagenic to the strain TA100. Thus, the mutagenicity pattern was mainly frameshift mutation, and the responsible toxicants were both direct (without S9 mix) and indirect (with S9 mix) mutagens. The mutagenicity of the sediment extracts increased when S9 was added. Chemical analysis showed a poor correlation between the content of priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the detected mutagenicity in each sample. The concept of effect-directed analysis was used to analyze possible compounds responsible for the detected mutagenic effects. With regard to the mutagenicity of sediment fractions, non-polar compounds as well as weakly and moderately polar compounds played a main role. Further investigations should be conducted to identify the responsible components. PMID:26606056

  5. Assessment of the ecotoxicity of urban estuarine sediment using benthic and pelagic copepod bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P. Charry

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban estuarine sediments are sinks to a range of contaminants of anthropogenic origin, and a key challenge is to characterize the risk of these compounds to receiving environments. In this study, the toxicity of urban estuarine sediments was tested using acute and chronic bioassays in the benthic harpacticoid Quinquelaophonte sp., and in the planktonic calanoid Gladioferens pectinatus, two New Zealand copepod species. The sediment samples from the estuary tributary sites significantly impacted reproduction in Quinquelaophonte sp. However, results from one of the estuary sites were not significantly different to those from the tributaries sites, suggesting that chemicals other than trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ammonia may be the causative stressors. Sediment elutriate samples had significant effects on reproductive endpoints in G. pectinatus, and on the induction of DNA damage in cells, as shown by the comet assay. The results indicate that sediment contamination at the Ahuriri Estuary has the potential to impact biological processes of benthic and pelagic organisms. The approach used provides a standardized methodology to assess the toxicity of estuarine sediments.

  6. Assessment of erosion and sedimentation dynamic in a combined sewer network using online turbidity monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersinger, T; Le Hécho, I; Bareille, G; Pigot, T

    2015-01-01

    Eroded sewer sediments are a significant source of organic matter discharge by combined sewer overflows. Many authors have studied the erosion and sedimentation processes at the scale of a section of sewer pipe and over short time periods. The objective of this study was to assess these processes at the scale of an entire sewer network and over 1 month, to understand whether phenomena observed on a small scale of space and time are still valid on a larger scale. To achieve this objective the continuous monitoring of turbidity was used. First, the study of successive rain events allows observation of the reduction of the available sediment and highlights the widely different erosion resistance for the different sediment layers. Secondly, calculation of daily chemical oxygen demand (COD) fluxes during the entire month was performed showing that sediment storage in the sewer pipe after a rain period is important and stops after 5 days. Nevertheless, during rainfall events, the eroded fluxes are more important than the whole sewer sediment accumulated during a dry weather period. This means that the COD fluxes promoted by runoff are substantial. This work confirms, with online monitoring, most of the conclusions from other studies on a smaller scale.

  7. Antibiotics in surface water and sediments from Hanjiang River, Central China: Occurrence, behavior and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying; Yan, Xue; Shen, Yun; Di, Mingxiao; Wang, Jun

    2018-08-15

    Thirteen antibiotics including sulfonamides (SAs), tetracyclines (TETs) and fluoroquinolones (FQs) were measured in Hanjiang River (HR) during two periods. The total concentrations of 13 antibiotics in surface water and sediments ranged from 3.1 to 109 ng/l and from 10 to 45 ng/g dry weight, respectively. SAs were dominant in water while the concentrations of TETs were the highest in sediments in two seasons. For their spatial distribution, total concentrations of 13 antibiotics in both matrices were significantly higher in the lower section of HR (p  5.15) due to wastewater release, agricultural activities and water transfer project. Obvious seasonal variations of sulfadiazine, sulfameter, trimethoprim and oxytetracycline in water were observed (p  4.62). Phase partition of antibiotics between water and sediments suggested a greater affinity of TETs and FQs to sediments. In addition, significantly positive relationships were found between SAs (sulfameter, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim) and sediment TOC (p Risk assessment indicated that the hazard quotients of antibiotics were higher in the sediment than those in the water. Moreover, antibiotic mixtures posed higher ecological risks to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of the ecotoxicity of urban estuarine sediment using benthic and pelagic copepod bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charry, Maria P; Keesing, Vaughan; Costello, Mark; Tremblay, Louis A

    2018-01-01

    Urban estuarine sediments are sinks to a range of contaminants of anthropogenic origin, and a key challenge is to characterize the risk of these compounds to receiving environments. In this study, the toxicity of urban estuarine sediments was tested using acute and chronic bioassays in the benthic harpacticoid Quinquelaophonte sp., and in the planktonic calanoid Gladioferens pectinatus , two New Zealand copepod species. The sediment samples from the estuary tributary sites significantly impacted reproduction in Quinquelaophonte sp. However, results from one of the estuary sites were not significantly different to those from the tributaries sites, suggesting that chemicals other than trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ammonia may be the causative stressors. Sediment elutriate samples had significant effects on reproductive endpoints in G. pectinatus , and on the induction of DNA damage in cells, as shown by the comet assay. The results indicate that sediment contamination at the Ahuriri Estuary has the potential to impact biological processes of benthic and pelagic organisms. The approach used provides a standardized methodology to assess the toxicity of estuarine sediments.

  9. Assessing the Extent of Sediment Contamination Around Creosote-treated Pilings Through Chemical and Biological Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, E. S.

    2008-12-01

    Creosote is a common wood preservative used to treat marine structures, such as docks and bulkheads. Treated dock pilings continually leach polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other creosote compounds into the surrounding water and sediment. Over time, these compounds can accumulate in marine sediments, reaching much greater concentrations than those in seawater. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of creosote contamination in sediments, at a series of distances from treated pilings. Three pilings were randomly selected from a railroad trestle in Fidalgo Bay, WA and sediment samples were collected at four distances from each: 0 meters, 0.5 meters, 1 meter, and 2 meters. Samples were used to conduct two bioassays: an amphipod bioassay (Rhepoxynius abronius) and a sand dollar embryo bioassay. Grain size and PAH content (using a fluorometric method) were also measured. Five samples in the amphipod bioassay showed significantly lower effective survival than the reference sediment. These consisted of samples closest to the piling at 0 and 0.5 meters. One 0 m sample in the sand dollar embryo bioassay also showed a significantly lower percentage of normal embryos than the reference sediment. Overall, results strongly suggest that creosote-contaminated sediments, particularly those closest to treated pilings, can negatively affect both amphipods and echinoderm embryos. Although chemical data were somewhat ambiguous, 0 m samples had the highest levels of PAHs, which corresponded to the lowest average survival in both bioassays. Relatively high levels of PAHs were found as far as 2 meters away from pilings. Therefore, we cannot say how far chemical contamination can spread from creosote-treated pilings, and at what distance this contamination can still affect marine organisms. These results, as well as future research, are essential to the success of proposed piling removal projects. In addition to creosote-treated pilings, contaminated sediments must

  10. Assessment of metals pollution in sediment cores from the Sabah-Sarawak coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Zaharudin Ahmad; Che Abdul Rahim Mohamed; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Norfaizal Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    The distribution, enrichment and pollution status of metals in sediment cores from the Sabah-Sarawak coastal waters were studied. Seven sediment cores were taken in July 2004 using a gravity box corer. The metals of Cu, Zn and Pb were analyzed by ICP-MS to assess the pollution status of the sediments. The sediment fine fraction and organic carbon content was also analyzed. Enrichment Factor (EF), Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) and Pollution Load Index (PLI) was calculated as criteria of possible contamination. The results showed that collected sediments were composed with clay, silt and sand as 12 - 74 %, 27 - 72 % and 0 - 20 %, respectively. Meanwhile, organic carbon contents were relatively low and constant over time, based on sediment depth profiles, and it did not exceed 5 % at any sampling station. The average metal concentrations in sediment cores at all sampling station were distributed in the ranges of 1.66 ± 1.36 - 6.61 ± 0.12 μgg -1 for Cu, 26.55 ± 1.04 - 57.94 ± 1.58 μgg -1 for Zn and 3.99 ± 0.10 - 14.48 ± 0.32 μgg -1 for Pb. According to calculations of EF, I geo and PLI, it can be concluded that concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb were not significantly affected by pollution from anthropogenic sources at the seven sampling locations. Thus, the metal content of Cu, Zn and Pb in sediment should not cause pollution problem to the marine environment of Sabah-Sarawak coastal waters and further response measures are not needed. (author)

  11. Chemometric Analysis for Pollution Source Assessment of Harbour Sediments in Arctic Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Lejon, Tore; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2015-01-01

    Pollution levels, pollutant distribution and potential source assessments based on multivariate analysis (chemometrics) were made for harbour sediments from two Arctic locations; Hammerfest in Norway and Sisimiut in Greenland. High levels of heavy metals were detected in addition to organic...... pollutants. Preliminary assessments based on principal component analysis (PCA) revealed different sources and pollutant distribution in the sediments of the two harbours. Tributyltin (TBT) was, however, found to originate from point source(s), and the highest concentrations of TBT in both harbours were...... indicated relation primarily to German, Russian and American mixtures in Hammerfest; and American, Russian and Japanese mixtures in Sisimiut. PCA was shown to be an important tool for identifying pollutant sources and differences in pollutant composition in relation to sediment characteristics....

  12. Ecological and human health sediment risk assessment for a hydrocarbon-impacted site in Lake Athabasca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcdonald, B.; Wagenaar, A.; LaPorte, J.; Misfeldt, G.; Chatwell, I.

    2009-01-01

    The operation of a public port facility near Uranium City, Saskatchewan has resulted in elevated levels of hydrocarbons in soil, groundwater and sediment. Remedial action in the uplands portion of the site was successful and a risk management approach was initiated for the aquatic portion of the site in order to resolve human health and ecological issues. Ecological risks were assessed using a sediment weight-of-evidence approach involving chemistry, toxicity, bioaccumulation and benthic community structure. Human health risks were assessed via fish consumption, water ingestion and direct contact according to Health Canada guidance. This presentation included an overview of the general risk assessment approach as well as site-specific data and findings. The primary focus was on the challenges confronted during the risk assessment process, such as the need to include alkylated PAHs as a COPC in the human health risk assessment and to evaluate ongoing propeller wash and sediment resuspension for sediment risk management, even though the facility is no longer operational.

  13. Risk assessment of metals in road-deposited sediment along an urban–rural gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Li, Xuyong

    2013-01-01

    We applied the traditional risk assessment methods originally designed for soils and river sediments to evaluation of risk associated with metals in road-deposited sediment (RDS) along an urban–rural gradient that included central urban (UCA), urban village (UVA), central suburban county (CSA), rural town (RTA), and rural village (RVA) areas in the Beijing metropolitan region. A new indicator RI RDS was developed which integrated the RDS characteristics of mobility, grain size and amount with the potential ecological risk index. The risk associated with metals in RDS in urban areas was generally higher than that in rural areas based on the assessment using traditional methods, but the risk was higher in urban and rural village areas than the areas with higher administration units based on the indicator RI RDS . These findings implied that RDS characteristics variation with the urban–rural gradient must be considered in metal risk assessment and RDS washoff pollution control. Highlights: ► Spatial pattern of metal risk level associated with road-deposited sediment (RDS) along urban–rural gradients varied. ► Risk level of metals changed significantly when grain size was considered. ► A new index integrating RDS characteristics and potential ecological risk was developed. ► Results from the new index were improved relative to those of traditional assessment methods. -- A new index integrating road-deposited sediment characteristics and potential ecological risk was developed to assess metal risk along the urban–rural gradient

  14. Sediment impact assessment of check-dam removal strategies on a mountain river in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, W.; Wang, H.; Stark, C. P.

    2011-12-01

    Dam removal is important for reconnecting river habitats and restoring the free flow of water and sediment, so managing accumulated sediments is crucial in dam removal planning as the cost and potential impacts of dam removal can vary substantially depending on local conditions. A key uncertainty in dam removal is the fate of reservoir sediment stored upstream of the dam. Release of impounded sediment could raise downstream bed elevations leading to flooding, increase lateral channel mobility leading to bank erosion, and potentially bury downstream ecologically sensitive habitats if the sediment is fine. The ability to predict the sediment impacts of dam removal in highly sediment-filled systems is thus increasingly important as the number of such dam-removal cases is growing. Due to the safety concerns and the need for habitat restoration for the Formosan landlocked salmon, the Shei-Pa National Park in Taiwan removed the 15m high Chijiawan "No. 1 Check Dam" in late May 2011. During the planning process prior to removal, we conducted field surveys, numerical simulations, and flume experiments to determine sediment impacts and to suggest appropriate dam removal strategies. We collected river-bed topography and sediment bulk samples in 2010 to establish the channel geometry and grain-size distribution for modeling input. The scaled flume experiment was designed to provide insights on how and if the position of a notch location and size would affect the rate and amount of reservoir erosion under particular discharges. Observations indicated that choices of notch location can force the river to migrate differently. For long-term prediction, we used the quasi-two-dimensional numerical model NETSTARS (Network of Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation) to simulate the channel responses. These simulations indicated that high suspended sediment concentrations would be the most likely major concern in the first year, while concerns for downstream sediment deposition

  15. [Certification assessment and quality and risk management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papin-Morardet, Maud

    2018-03-01

    Organised by the French National Health Authority (HAS), certification is an external assessment process which is obligatory for all public and private health facilities, whatever their size or activity. The aim is to independently evaluate the quality of the health care provision of hospitals and clinics in France. This article looks at the investigation methods and the procedure used during the certification assessment of Henri Mondor University Hospitals in 2016. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Water- and air-quality and surficial bed-sediment monitoring of the Sweetwater Reservoir watershed, San Diego County, California, 2003-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Gregory O.; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.; Morita, Andrew Y.

    2015-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sweetwater Authority, began a study to assess the overall health of the Sweetwater watershed in San Diego County, California. This study was designed to provide a data set that could be used to evaluate potential effects from the construction and operation of State Route 125 within the broader context of the water quality and air quality in the watershed. The study included regular sampling of water, air, and surficial bed sediment at Sweetwater Reservoir (SWR) for chemical constituents, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), base-neutral and acid- extractable organic compounds (BNAs) that include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, and metals. Additionally, water samples were collected for anthropogenic organic indicator compounds in and around SWR. Background water samples were collected at Loveland Reservoir for VOCs, BNAs, pesticides, and metals. Surficial bed-sediment samples were collected for PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, and metals at Sweetwater and Loveland Reservoirs.

  17. Preparation of an estuarine sediment quality control material for the determination of trace metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatje Vanessa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality Control Materials (QCM have being used routinely in daily laboratory work as a tool to fill the gap between need and availability of Certified Reference Materials (CRM. The QCM are a low-cost alternative to CRMs, and they are in high demand, especially, for the implementation of quality control systems in laboratories of several areas. This paper describes the preparation of a QCM for the determination of trace metals in estuarine sediments and the results of an interlaboratory exercise. Homogeneity and stability studies were performed and analysis of variance was carried out with the results. No statistical significant differences were observed in the concentrations of Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn between- or within bottle results. Neither the storage nor temperature affected the results. Therefore, the QCM produced is considered homogeneous and stable and can be used for statistical control charts, evaluation of reproducibility and interlaboratory exercises.

  18. The biological basis for environmental quality assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, V.I.; Kudritsky, Y.K.; Georgievsky, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic approach is required to environmental quality assessments with regard to the Baltic regions in order to address the problem of pollution abatement. The proposed systematization of adaptive states stems from the general theory of adaptation. The various types of adaption are described. (AB)

  19. Assessment of physicochemical qualities, heavy metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogbe

    2012-08-23

    Aug 23, 2012 ... dominance of metals in the water followed the sequence: Al > Zn > Cu > Fe > Mn > Cd > Pb > Hg > As. ... ted and treated waters poses a considerable health risk ..... quently used to assess the general hygienic quality of water ...

  20. Quality assessment of pacemaker implantations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, M; Arnsbo, P; Asklund, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: Quality assessment of therapeutic procedures is essential to insure a cost-effective health care system. Pacemaker implantation is a common procedure with more than 500,000 implantations world-wide per year, but the general complication rate is not well described. We studied procedure relat...

  1. A Quality Approach to Writing Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Joanne; Ryley, Helen

    1992-01-01

    A Colorado elementary school began its Total Quality Management work about a year ago after several staff members participated in an IBM Leadership Training Program addressing applications of Deming's theories. The school's new writing assessment has increased collegiality and cross-grade collaboration. (MLH)

  2. Heavy Metals and Organic Pollutants in Sediments of Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Florida criteria (MacDonald 1993) for assessment of pollution of tropical marine sediments was adopted in oredr to evaluate the extent of pollution in Dar es Salaam harbour sediments. The Florida criteria is one of the established references for sediment quality assessment. Heavy metals that had concentrations above ...

  3. A review and re-assessment of sediment transport along the Goa Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.; Yasuhiro Sugimori

    Although, a variety of methods have been employed to determine sediment transport along Goa coast, India, the results differ in some sections. Fifteen studies have been reviewed, compared, re-assessed and a corrected shore drift map of the Goa coast...

  4. 78 FR 13874 - Watershed Modeling To Assess the Sensitivity of Streamflow, Nutrient, and Sediment Loads to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... EPA's policy to include all comments it receives in the public docket without change and to make the... Modeling To Assess the Sensitivity of Streamflow, Nutrient, and Sediment Loads to Climate Change and Urban... Loads to Climate Change and Urban Development in 20 U.S. Watersheds (EPA/600/R-12/058). EPA also is...

  5. Air Quality Assessment Using Interpolation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awkash Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is increasing rapidly in almost all cities around the world due to increase in population. Mumbai city in India is one of the mega cities where air quality is deteriorating at a very rapid rate. Air quality monitoring stations have been installed in the city to regulate air pollution control strategies to reduce the air pollution level. In this paper, air quality assessment has been carried out over the sample region using interpolation techniques. The technique Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW of Geographical Information System (GIS has been used to perform interpolation with the help of concentration data on air quality at three locations of Mumbai for the year 2008. The classification was done for the spatial and temporal variation in air quality levels for Mumbai region. The seasonal and annual variations of air quality levels for SO2, NOx and SPM (Suspended Particulate Matter have been focused in this study. Results show that SPM concentration always exceeded the permissible limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Also, seasonal trends of pollutant SPM was low in monsoon due rain fall. The finding of this study will help to formulate control strategies for rational management of air pollution and can be used for many other regions.

  6. Health risk assessment linked to filling coastal quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrodin, Yves, E-mail: yves.perrodin@entpe.fr [Université de Lyon, ENTPE, UMR CNRS 5023, Laboratoire LEHNA, 2 rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France); Donguy, Gilles [Université de Lyon, ENTPE, UMR CNRS 5023, Laboratoire LEHNA, 2 rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France); Emmanuel, Evens [Laboratoire de Qualité de l' Eau et de l' Environnement, Université Quisqueya, BP 796 Port-au-Prince (Haiti); Winiarski, Thierry [Université de Lyon, ENTPE, UMR CNRS 5023, Laboratoire LEHNA, 2 rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France)

    2014-07-01

    Dredged seaport sediments raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. Traditional waste treatments are poorly adapted for these materials in terms of absorbable volumes and cost. In this context, filling quarries with treated sediments appears interesting but its safety regarding human health must be demonstrated. To achieve this, a specific methodology for assessing health risks has been developed and tested on three seaport sediments. This methodology includes the development of a conceptual model of the global scenario studied and the definition of specific protocols for each of its major steps. The approach proposed includes in particular the use of metrological and experimental tools that are new in this context: (i) an experimental lysimeter for characterizing the deposit emissions, and (ii) a geological radar for identifying potential preferential pathways between the sediment deposit and the groundwater. The application of this approach on the three sediments tested for the scenario studied showed the absence of health risk associated with the consumption of groundwater for substances having a “threshold effect” (risk quotient < 1), and an acceptable risk for substances having a “non-threshold effect”, with the notable exception of arsenic (individual risk equal to 3.10{sup −6}). - Highlights: • The release of polluted dredged seaport sediments into the sea must be avoided. • Their use after treatment for the filling-up of quarries is proposed by managers. • An original health risk assessment methodology was created to validate this option. • It includes the use of a lysimeter and a georadar for the exposure assessment stage. • The example studied concludes to a health risk linked to arsenic in the groundwater.

  7. Health risk assessment linked to filling coastal quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrodin, Yves; Donguy, Gilles; Emmanuel, Evens; Winiarski, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Dredged seaport sediments raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. Traditional waste treatments are poorly adapted for these materials in terms of absorbable volumes and cost. In this context, filling quarries with treated sediments appears interesting but its safety regarding human health must be demonstrated. To achieve this, a specific methodology for assessing health risks has been developed and tested on three seaport sediments. This methodology includes the development of a conceptual model of the global scenario studied and the definition of specific protocols for each of its major steps. The approach proposed includes in particular the use of metrological and experimental tools that are new in this context: (i) an experimental lysimeter for characterizing the deposit emissions, and (ii) a geological radar for identifying potential preferential pathways between the sediment deposit and the groundwater. The application of this approach on the three sediments tested for the scenario studied showed the absence of health risk associated with the consumption of groundwater for substances having a “threshold effect” (risk quotient −6 ). - Highlights: • The release of polluted dredged seaport sediments into the sea must be avoided. • Their use after treatment for the filling-up of quarries is proposed by managers. • An original health risk assessment methodology was created to validate this option. • It includes the use of a lysimeter and a georadar for the exposure assessment stage. • The example studied concludes to a health risk linked to arsenic in the groundwater

  8. Water- and sediment-quality effects on Pimephales promelas spawning vary along an agriculture-to-urban land-use gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R; Klaper, Rebecca D; Weber, Daniel N; Bannerman, Roger T

    2011-10-15

    Many streams in the U.S. are "impaired" due to anthropogenic influence. For watershed managers to achieve practical understanding of these impairments, a multitude of factors must be considered, including point and nonpoint-source influence on water quality. A spawning assay was developed in this study to evaluate water- and sediment-quality effects that influenced Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) egg production over a gradient of urban and agricultural land use in 27 small watersheds in Eastern Wisconsin. Six pairs of reproducing fathead minnows were contained in separate mesh cartridges within one larger flow-through chamber. Water- and sediment quality were sampled for an array of parameters. Egg production was monitored for each pair providing an assessment of spawning success throughout the 21-day test periods. Incidences of low dissolved oxygen (DO) in many of these streams negatively impacted spawning success. Nine of 27 streams experienced DO less than 3.1mg/L and 15 streams experienced DO less than 4.8mg/L. Low DO was observed in urban and agricultural watersheds, but the upper threshold of minimum DO decreased with increasing urban development. An increase in specific conductance was related to a decrease in spawning success. In previous studies for streams in this region, specific conductance had a linear relation with chloride, suggesting the possibility that chloride could be a factor in egg production. Egg production was lower at sites with substantial urban development, but sites with low egg production were not limited to urban sites. Degradation of water- and sediment-quality parameters with increasing urban development is indicated for multiple parameters while patterns were not detected for others. Results from this study indicate that DO must be a high priority watershed management consideration for this region, specific conductance should be investigated further to determine the mechanism of the relation with egg production, and water- and

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhiza in soil quality assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, M.; Jakobsen, I.

    1998-01-01

    aggregates and to the protection of plants against drought and root pathogens. Assessment of soil quality, defined as the capacity of a soil to function within ecosystem boundaries to sustain biological productivity, maintain environmental quality, and promote plant health, should therefore include both......Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi constitute a living bridge for the transport of nutrients from soil to plant roots, and are considered as the group of soil microorganisms that is of most direct importance to nutrient uptake by herbaceous plants. AM fungi also contribute to the formation of soil...... quantitative and qualitative measurements of this important biological resource. Various methods for the assessment of the potential for mycorrhiza formation and function are presented. Examples are given of the application of these methods to assess the impact of pesticides on the mycorrhiza....

  10. Can the integration of multiple biomarkers and sediment geochemistry aid solving the complexity of sediment risk assessment? A case study with a benthic fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Pedro M.; Caeiro, Sandra; Vale, Carlos; DelValls, T. Àngel; Costa, Maria H.

    2012-01-01

    Surveying toxicity of complex geochemical media as aquatic sediments often yields results that are either difficult to interpret or even contradictory to acknowledged theory. Multi-level biomarkers were investigated in a benthic fish exposed to estuarine sediments through laboratory and in situ bioassays, to evaluate their employment either in ecological risk assessment or in more mechanistic approaches to assess sediment-bound toxicity. Biomarkers reflecting lesions (such as genotoxicity or histopathology), regardless of their low or absent specificity to contaminants, are efficient in segregating exposure to contaminated from uncontaminated sediments even when classical biomarkers like CYP1A and metallothionein induction are inconclusive. Conversely, proteomics and gene transcription analyses provided information on the mechanics of toxicity and aided explaining response variation as a function of metabolic imbalance and impairment of defences against insult. In situ bioassays, although less expedite and more affected by confounding factors, produced data better correlated to overall sediment contamination. Highlights: ► Sediment-bound contaminant mixtures can yield unexpected biomarker responses in fish. ► Biomarkers reflecting lesions are sturdier predictors of pollution by mixed xenobiotics. ► Proteomics and gene transcription analyses disclosed the existence of complex patterns of response to toxicity. ► Laboratory bioassays are less impacted by noise variables but tend to lose ecological relevance. - Evaluation of multi-level biomarker responses in fish for ecological risk assessment

  11. Assessing water quality trends in catchments with contrasting hydrological regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie C.; Shore, Mairead; Mellander, Per-Erik

    2016-04-01

    Environmental resources are under increasing pressure to simultaneously achieve social, economic and ecological aims. Increasing demand for food production, for example, has expanded and intensified agricultural systems globally. In turn, greater risks of diffuse pollutant delivery (suspended sediment (SS) and Phosphorus (P)) from land to water due to higher stocking densities, fertilisation rates and soil erodibility has been attributed to deterioration of chemical and ecological quality of aquatic ecosystems. Development of sustainable and resilient management strategies for agro-ecosystems must detect and consider the impact of land use disturbance on water quality over time. However, assessment of multiple monitoring sites over a region is challenged by hydro-climatic fluctuations and the propagation of events through catchments with contrasting hydrological regimes. Simple water quality metrics, for example, flow-weighted pollutant exports have potential to normalise the impact of catchment hydrology and better identify water quality fluctuations due to land use and short-term climate fluctuations. This paper assesses the utility of flow-weighted water quality metrics to evaluate periods and causes of critical pollutant transfer. Sub-hourly water quality (SS and P) and discharge data were collected from hydrometric monitoring stations at the outlets of five small (~10 km2) agricultural catchments in Ireland. Catchments possess contrasting land uses (predominantly grassland or arable) and soil drainage (poorly, moderately or well drained) characteristics. Flow-weighted water quality metrics were calculated and evaluated according to fluctuations in source pressure and rainfall. Flow-weighted water quality metrics successfully identified fluctuations in pollutant export which could be attributed to land use changes through the agricultural calendar, i.e., groundcover fluctuations. In particular, catchments with predominantly poor or moderate soil drainage

  12. Assessment of metal leachability and toxicity from sediment potentially stored on land

    OpenAIRE

    Baran, A; Tarnawski, M; Michalec, B

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity and metal leachability from three dredged bottom sediments potentially stored on land. Washing out was conducted at a sediment dry mass to water mass ratio of 1:10. The method relies on washing out pollutants from the examined sample using water with third degree of purity in static/quasi-dynamic conditions. The investigations comprised three 27-h washing out cycles, including leaching in static conditions (19 h) and shaking (8 h). Bottom sedim...

  13. Water-quality trends in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin using sediment cores from reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, B.J.; Callender, Edward C.

    1997-01-01

    Water-quality trends reflect the relation between water quality and human activities, chronicling changes in concentrations of environmental contaminants, introduction of new contaminants, and successful efforts in environmental pollution remediation. Historical data available for analyzing trends often have severe limitations, from questionable accuracy to unknown sampling and analytic methodologies. Where data are unavailable or have such limitations, water-quality trends sometimes can be reconstructed using sediment cores from lakes and reservoirs.

  14. The assessment of quality of products using selected quality instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kardas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality parameters of products should be controlled at every stage of the production process, since it allows detection of any problems even in the initial stages of production processes and removes their causes during manufacturing. Final control of products is intended to capture non-conforming products that did not go to the customers. The results of such controls should constantly be analysed. Such analysis can help to detect the most common problems, determine some dependences or identify the causes of such situations. A lot of different instruments that can support improvement of processes can be used for this kind of analysis. The paper presents the possibility of using some tools which can be utilized to support the analysis and assessment of quality of products at different stages of the production process. The quality analysis of exemplary products using selected quality methods and tolls is carried out. Metal sleeve, that is part of electronic control subassembly of anti-blocking system of ABS, which was the research component being studied.

  15. Characterization of the quality of water, bed sediment, and fish in Mittry Lake, Arizona, 2014–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosillo, Edyth; Coes, Alissa L.

    2017-03-01

    Water, bed-sediment, and fish sampling was conducted in Mittry Lake, Arizona, in 2014–15 to establish current water-quality conditions of the lake. The parameters of temperature, dissolved-oxygen concentration, specific conductance, and alkalinity were measured in the field. Water samples were collected and analyzed for dissolved major ions, dissolved trace elements, dissolved nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved pesticides, bacteria, and suspended-sediment concentrations. Bed-sediment and fish samples were analyzed for trace elements, halogenated compounds, total mercury, and methylmercury.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels in drinking water were exceeded for sulfate, chloride, and manganese in the water samples. Trace-element concentrations were relatively similar between the inlet, middle, and outlet locations. Concentrations for nutrients in all water samples were below the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality’s water-quality standards for aquatic and wildlife uses, and all bacteria levels were below the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality’s recommended recreational water-quality criteria. Three out of 81 pesticides were detected in the water samples.Trace-element concentrations in bed sediment were relatively consistent between the inlet, middle, and outlet locations. Lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc concentrations, however, decreased from the inlet to outlet locations. Concentrations for lead, nickel, and zinc in some bed-sediment samples exceeded consensus-based sediment-quality guidelines probable effect concentrations. Eleven out of 61 halogenated compounds were detected in bed sediment at the inlet location, whereas three were detected at the middle location, and five were detected at the outlet location. No methylmercury was detected in bed sediment. Total mercury was detected in bed sediment at concentrations below the consensus-based sediment-quality guidelines probable effect

  16. Quality Assessment of Domesticated Animal Genome Assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seemann, Stefan E; Anthon, Christian; Palasca, Oana

    2015-01-01

    affected by the lack of genomic sequence. Herein, we quantify the quality of the genome assemblies of 20 domesticated animals and related species by assessing a range of measurable parameters, and we show that there is a positive correlation between the fraction of mappable reads from RNAseq data...... domesticated animal genomes still need to be sequenced deeper in order to produce high-quality assemblies. In the meanwhile, ironically, the extent to which RNAseq and other next-generation data is produced frequently far exceeds that of the genomic sequence. Furthermore, basic comparative analysis is often...

  17. Drinking Water Quality Assessment in Tetova Region

    OpenAIRE

    B. H. Durmishi; M. Ismaili; A. Shabani; Sh. Abduli

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The quality of drinking water is a crucial factor for human health. The objective of this study was the assessment of physical, chemical and bacteriological quality of the drinking water in the city of Tetova and several surrounding villages in the Republic of Macedonia for the period May 2007-2008. The sampling and analysis are conducted in accordance with State Regulation No. 57/2004, which is in compliance with EU and WHO standards. A total of 415 samples were taken for ...

  18. Environmental assessment of coastal surface sediments at Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al Kahtany, Khaled; Al Otiaby, Naif

    2015-07-15

    Thirty eight surface sediments samples have been collected in the area around Tarut Island, Saudi Arabian Gulf to determine the spatial distribution of metals, and to assess the magnitude of pollution. Total concentrations of Fe, Mn, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, and Zn in the sediments were measured using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer). Nature of sediments and heavy metals distribution reflect marked changes in lithology, biological activities in Tarut bay. Very high arsenic concentrations were reported in all studied locations from Tarut Island. The concentrations of Mercury are generally high comparing to the reported values from the Gulf of Oman, Red Sea. The concentrations of As and Hg exceeded the wet threshold safety values (MEC, PEC) indicating possible As and Hg contamination. Dredging and land filling, sewage, and oil pollution are the most important sources of pollution in the study area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation and selection of test methods for assessment of contaminated sediments in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Kari; Ahvo, Aino; Berezina, Nadya

    The purpose of the CONTEST project (2014-15) is to test, develop, evaluate and select suitable biological methods to be applied in the quantitative and qualitative assessment of toxicity of anthropogenically contaminated sediments in the Baltic Sea marine region. Here is presented results from...... showed large variability in the sensitivity of the different biotests. Most of the tests applied showed concentration-dependent effects on the test organisms. New experiments will be carried out in 2015. The CONTEST project is funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers and the Finnish Ministry...... a set of pilot experiments, which were performed by the participating laboratories. Chemical analysis of the contaminated harbour sediment chosen as the test matrix confirmed the presence of high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organotins and trace metals, and the sediment...

  20. Mercury Content of Sediments in East Fork Poplar Creek: Current Assessment and Past Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eller, Virginia A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dickson, Johnbull O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Earles, Jennifer E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lowe, Kenneth Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mehlhorn, Tonia L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Olsen, Todd A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeRolph, Christopher R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watson, David J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Phillips, Debra H. [Queen' s Univ., Belfast (United Kingdom); Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This study provided new information on sediment mercury (Hg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) content and chemistry. The current inventory of Hg in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) bed sediments was estimated to be 334 kg, which represents a ~67% decrease relative to the initial investigations in 1984. MMHg sediment inventory was estimated to be 44.1 g, lower but roughly similar to past estimates. The results support the relevance and potential impacts of other active and planned investigations within the Mercury Remediation Technology Development for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek project (e.g., assessment and control of bank soil inputs, sorbents for Hg and MMHg removal, re-introduction of freshwater clams to EFPC), and identify gaps in current understanding that represent opportunities to understand controlling variables that may inform future technology development studies.

  1. Sedimentation and chemical quality of surface water in the Heart River drainage basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderak, Marion L.

    1966-01-01

    The Heart River drainage basin of southwestern North Dakota comprises an area of 3,365 square miles and lies within the Missouri Plateau of the Great Plains province. Streamflow of the Heart River and its tributaries during 1949-58 was directly proportional to .the drainage area. After the construction of Heart Butte Dam in 1949 and Dickinson Dam in 1950, the mean annual streamflow near Mandan was decreased an estimated 10 percent by irrigation, evaporation from the two reservoirs, and municipal use. Processes that contribute sediment to the Heart River are mass wasting, advancement of valley heads, and sheet, lateral stream, and gully erosion. In general, glacial deposits, terraces, and bars of Quaternary age are sources of sand and larger sediment, and the rocks of Tertiary age are sources of clay, silt. and sand. The average annual suspended-sediment discharges near Mandan were estimated to be 1,300,000 tons for 1945-49 and 710,000 tons for 1970-58. The percentage composition of ions in water of the Heart River, based on average concentrations in equivalents per million for selected ranges of streamflow, changes with flow and from station to station. During extremely low flows the water contains a large percentage of sodium and about equal percentages of bicarbonate and .sulfate, and during extremely high flows the water contains a large percentage of calcium plus magnesium and bicarbonate. The concentrations, in parts per million, of most of the ions vary inversely with flow. The water in the reservoirs--Edward Arthur Patterson Lake and Lake Tschida--during normal or above-normal runoff is of suitable quality for public use. Generally, because of medium or high salinity hazards, the successful long-term use of Heart River water for irrigation will depend on a moderate amount of leaching, adequate drainage, ,and the growing of crops that have moderate or good salt tolerance.

  2. Health risk assessment linked to filling coastal quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrodin, Yves; Donguy, Gilles; Emmanuel, Evens; Winiarski, Thierry

    2014-07-01

    Dredged seaport sediments raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. Traditional waste treatments are poorly adapted for these materials in terms of absorbable volumes and cost. In this context, filling quarries with treated sediments appears interesting but its safety regarding human health must be demonstrated. To achieve this, a specific methodology for assessing health risks has been developed and tested on three seaport sediments. This methodology includes the development of a conceptual model of the global scenario studied and the definition of specific protocols for each of its major steps. The approach proposed includes in particular the use of metrological and experimental tools that are new in this context: (i) an experimental lysimeter for characterizing the deposit emissions, and (ii) a geological radar for identifying potential preferential pathways between the sediment deposit and the groundwater. The application of this approach on the three sediments tested for the scenario studied showed the absence of health risk associated with the consumption of groundwater for substances having a "threshold effect" (risk quotient risk for substances having a "non-threshold effect", with the notable exception of arsenic (individual risk equal to 3.10(-6)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Contamination assessment of heavy metal in surface sediments of the Wuding River, northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longjiang, M.; Qiang, F.; Duowen, M.; Ke, H.; Jinghong, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The heavy metal contents and the contamination levels of the surface sediments of the Wuding River, northern China, were investigated. Heavy metal concentration ranged in μg g -1 : 50.15 - 71.91 for Cr, 408.1 - 442.9 for Mn, 20.11 - 43.59 for Ni, 17.51 - 20.1 for Cu, 68.32 - 89.57 for Zn, 0.2 - 0.38 for Cd and 15.08 - 16.14 for Pb in the Wuding River sediments. The enrichment factor (EF) and the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) demonstrated that the sediments of the Wuding River had been polluted by Cd, Cr and Ni, which mainly originated from anthropogenic sources, whereas the sediments had not been polluted by Zn, Pb, Cu and Mn, which were derived from the crust. In addition, the assessment results of EF and Igeo suggested that the sediments of the Wuding River was 'moderately' polluted by Cd and 'unpolluted to moderately' polluted by Cr and Ni. The elevated urban sewage discharges and agriculture fertilizers usage in river basin are the anthropogenic sources of these heavy metals in river. (author)

  4. Sediment predictions in Wadi Al-Naft using soil water assessment tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwan Imzahim Abdulkareem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediment production is the amount of sediment in the unit area that is transported through the basin by water transfer over a specified period of time. The main aim of present study is to predict sediment yield of Wadi, Al-Naft watershed with 8820 Km2area, that is located in the North-East of Diyala Governorate in Iraq, using Soil-Water Assessment Tool, (SWAT and to predict the impact of land management and the input data including the land use, soil type, and soil texture maps which are obtained from Landsat-8 satellite image. Digital Elevation Model,(DEM with resolution (14 14 meter is used to delineate the watershed with the aid of model. Three Land-sat images were used to cover the study area which were mosaic processed and the study area masked- up from the mosaic, image. The area of study has been registries by Arc-GIS 10.2 and digitized the soil hydrologic group through assistant of Soil Plant Assistant Water Model, (SPAW which was progressed by USDA, Agricultural, Research Service, using the data of soil textural and organic matter from Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, the available water content, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and bulk density. The results of average, sediment depth and the maximum upland sediment for simulation period (2010-2020 were predicted to be (1.7 mm, and (12.57 Mg/ha, respectively.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS CONTENTS IN BOTTOM SEDIMENTS OF BUG RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Skorbiłowicz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of industry, agriculture, and transport contributes to an increased environmental pollution by heavy metals. The aim of the study was preliminary assessment of the contents of selected metals (lead, cobalt, copper, chromium, cadmium and nickel in the sediments of Bug river. The study comprised part of the river flowing through Poland. It was found that the Bug river sediments are not contaminated in respect to the content of tested metals. Based on the analysis of the study results, these metals can be lined up in the following order: Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Co > Cd. Statistical analysis showed that copper and chromium occur in Bug river sediments in forms bindings with organic matter in majority of cases. The granulometric analysis of sediments from Bug river revealed the largest percentage of two fractions: 1.0–0.2 mm with average of 47.7 ± 19.77% and 0.2–0.1 mm with average of 20.6 ± 7.7%. These are the dominant fractions with the accumulation of metals in river sediments, which has been confirmed by statistical analysis.

  6. Sources and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from the Spanish northern continental shelf. Assessment of spatial and temporal trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinas, Lucia; Angeles Franco, M.; Antonio Soriano, J.; Jose Gonzalez, J.; Pon, Jordi; Albaiges, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was determined in surface sediments collected at 36 stations along the Spanish Northern continental shelf in March and September 2003, and February 2005. Concentrations of PAHs (Σ13 parent components) were in the range of 22-47528 μg/kg dw, the highest values corresponding to coastal urban-industrial hotspots and decreasing offshore. Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) showed that concentrations of total PAHs were below the threshold effect level (TEC) in 27 stations (81%) and above in 7, two of which (Gijon and Bilbao) were above the probable effect concentration (PEC). The detailed study of diagnostic ratios suggested a rather uniform mixture of petrogenic and pyrolytic PAH sources along the continental shelf, with a slight decrease of the latter moving westwards and offshore. In order to assess the incidence of sediment sampling on the variability of the results, selected stations were also monitored in February and September 2004 and September 2005. The average field variance of the values obtained for each station was 31% that decreased to 23% when the values were normalized to TOC. - PAHs in the Spanish Atlantic coastal sediments reflect chronic inputs of petrogenic and pyrolytic hydrocarbons, with a decrease of the latter moving westwards and offshore and representing low to moderate pollution according to established sediment quality guidelines.

  7. Sources and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from the Spanish northern continental shelf. Assessment of spatial and temporal trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinas, Lucia, E-mail: lucia.vinas@vi.ieo.e [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Centro Oceanografico de Vigo, Cabo Estai - Canido, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Angeles Franco, M.; Antonio Soriano, J.; Jose Gonzalez, J. [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Centro Oceanografico de Vigo, Cabo Estai - Canido, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Pon, Jordi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, CID-CSIC, Jordi Girona Salgado, 18-26, 08034-Barcelona (Spain); Albaiges, Joan, E-mail: albqam@cid.csic.e [Department of Environmental Chemistry, CID-CSIC, Jordi Girona Salgado, 18-26, 08034-Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was determined in surface sediments collected at 36 stations along the Spanish Northern continental shelf in March and September 2003, and February 2005. Concentrations of PAHs (SIGMA13 parent components) were in the range of 22-47528 mug/kg dw, the highest values corresponding to coastal urban-industrial hotspots and decreasing offshore. Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) showed that concentrations of total PAHs were below the threshold effect level (TEC) in 27 stations (81%) and above in 7, two of which (Gijon and Bilbao) were above the probable effect concentration (PEC). The detailed study of diagnostic ratios suggested a rather uniform mixture of petrogenic and pyrolytic PAH sources along the continental shelf, with a slight decrease of the latter moving westwards and offshore. In order to assess the incidence of sediment sampling on the variability of the results, selected stations were also monitored in February and September 2004 and September 2005. The average field variance of the values obtained for each station was 31% that decreased to 23% when the values were normalized to TOC. - PAHs in the Spanish Atlantic coastal sediments reflect chronic inputs of petrogenic and pyrolytic hydrocarbons, with a decrease of the latter moving westwards and offshore and representing low to moderate pollution according to established sediment quality guidelines.

  8. Quality assurance in diagnostic radiology - assessing the fluoroscopic image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabakov, S.

    1995-01-01

    The X-ray fluoroscopic image has a considerably lower resolution than the radiographic one. This requires a careful quality control aiming at optimal use of the fluoroscopic equipment. The basic procedures for image quality assessment of Image Intensifier/TV image are described. Test objects from Leeds University (UK) are used as prototypes. The results from examining 50 various fluoroscopic devices are shown. Their limiting spatial resolution varies between 0.8 lp/mm (at maximum II field size) and 2.24 lp/mm (at minimum field size). The mean value of the limiting spatial resolution for a 23 cm Image Intensifier is about 1.24 lp/mm. The mean limits of variation of the contrast/detail diagram for various fluoroscopic equipment are graphically expressed. 14 refs., 1 fig. (author)

  9. Data quality objectives summary report for the 107-N Basin recirculation building liquid/sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nossardi, O.A.; Miller, M.S.; Carlson, D.

    1997-01-01

    The scope of the 107-N Basin Recirculation Facility Liquid/Sediment Data Quality Objectives (DQO) exclusively involves the determination of sampling and analytical requirements during the deactivation period. The sampling requirements are primarily directed at sample characterization for comparison to decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) endpoint acceptance criteria in preparation for turnover of the facilities (listed below) to D and D organization. If determined to be waste, the sample characterization is also used for comparison with the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the receiving facilities for selection of the appropriate disposition. Additionally, the data generated from the characterization will be used to support the selection of available disposition options. The primary media within the scope of this DQO includes the following: Accumulated liquids and sediment contained in tanks, vessels, pump wells, sumps, associated piping, and valve pit floors; and Limited solid debris (anticipated to be discovered). Although the title of this report refers only to the 107-N Basin Recirculation Building, this DQO encompasses the following four 100-N Buildings/areas: 1310-N valve pit area inside the Radioactive Chemical Waste Treatment Pump House (silo); 1314-N Waste Pump (Overflow) Tank at the Liquid Waste Disposal Station; 105-N Lift Station pump well and valve pit areas inside the 105-N Reactor Building; and 107-N Basin Recirculation Building

  10. Air quality assessment in Salim Slam Tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadel, M.; Hashisho, Z.; Saikaly, P.

    1999-01-01

    Full text.Vehicle emissions constitute a serious occupational environmental hazard particularly in confined spaces such as tunnels and underground parking garages. these emissions at elevated concentrations, can cause adverse health effects, which range from nausea and eye irritation to mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and even death. This paper presents an environmental air quality assessment in a tunnel located in a highly congested urban area. For this purpose, air samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of primary air pollutants, priority metals, and volatile organic carbons. Air quality modeling was conducted to simulate variations of pollutant concentrations in the tunnel under worst case scenarios including traffic congestion and no air ventilation. Field measurements and mathematical simulation results were used to develop a strategy for proper air quality management in tunnels

  11. Extraction procedure compared to attenuation model to assess heavy metals mobility in sediments from Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Andreza Portella

    2006-01-01

    Sepetiba bay, located about 60 km west of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro city, has undergone notable development in the last decades, with the establishment of about 400 industrial plants in its basin, basically metallurgical, which release its industrial waste either straight into the bay or through local rivers. The Sepetiba harbor also brought up a lot of industrial investment in that area. This urban and industrial expansion caused several environmental impacts, mainly due to the presence of heavy metals and other potentially toxic substances present in the effluents discharged into the bay. This work aimed to assess heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb e Zn) contamination and mobility in sediments from Sepetiba bay. The acid-volatile sulfides (AVS) and the concentration of simultaneously extracted metals (SIGMA[SEM) were determined in 65 sediment samples from Sepetiba bay, representing the whole area. The results obtained showed that Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn presented higher concentrations in the northeastern area (mainly in the mouth of Guandu and Canal de Sao Francisco rivers), while the highest concentration of Ni were observed in the western region of the bay. The comparison between SEM concentrations with the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines (TEL and PEL) indicated that Cd and Zn presented values which may hazard to aquatic organisms (concentration levels above PEL); the elements Cu, Pb and Ni presented concentration levels below PEL, suggesting low probability of toxicological effects to the aquatic organisms. On the other hand, the ratio Σ[SEM]/[AVS] was below 1 in the northeastern region, indicating that, in spite of the high concentration of the analyzed metals in this area, they are trapped in the sediment, as sulfides. The total metal concentrations in the sediments were also determined and the same distribution pattern obtained for the SEM were observed, with high concentrations in the northeastern region of the bay, classifying the area as level 2

  12. Fractionation distribution and preliminary ecological risk assessment of As, Hg and Cd in ornithogenic sediments from the Ross Sea region, East Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Chuangneng [Institute of Polar Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, Xiaodong, E-mail: ycx@ustc.edu.cn [Institute of Polar Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Nie, Yaguang [Institute of Polar Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Emslie, Steven D. [Department of Biology and Marine Biology, University of North Carolina Wilmington, 601S. College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate mobility of toxic elements and their potential ecological risk caused by seabird biovectors, the fractionation distributions of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) were investigated in three ornithogenic sediment profiles from the Ross Sea region, East Antarctica. The results show residual As holds a dominant position, and Hg mainly derives from residual, organic matter-bound and humic acid-bound fractions, indicating weak mobility of As and Hg. However, exchangeable Cd occupies a considerable proportion in studied samples, suggesting Cd has strong mobility. The preliminary evaluation of Sediment Quality Guidelines (SGQs) shows adverse biological effects may occur occasionally for As and Cd, and rarely for Hg. Using Risk Assessment Code (RAC), the ecological risk is assessed at moderate, low and very high for As, Hg and Cd pollution, respectively. Organic matter derived from guano is the main factor controlling the mobility of Hg and Cd through adsorption and complexation. - Highlights: • Residual As holds a dominant position in ornithogenic sediments. • Hg mainly derives from residual, organic matter-bound and humic acid-bound fractions. • Exchangeable Cd occupies a considerable proportion in ornithogenic sediments. • TOC is the main factor controlling the mobility of Hg and Cd in studied sediments.

  13. A novel approach to the assess biotic oxygen consumption in marine sediment communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, Victor; Queiros, Ana; Widdicombe, Stephen; Stephens, Nick; Lessin, Gennadi; Krause, Stefan; Lewandowski, Joerg

    2016-04-01

    Bioturbation , the mixing of the sediment matrix by burrowing animals impacts sediment metabolism, including respiration through redistribution of particulate organics, changes in bacterial biota diversity and acitivity, as well as via burrowing fauna's own metabolism. Bioturbation, reflecting faunal activity, is also a proxy for the general sedimentary ecosystem health, and can be impacted by many of emerging marine environmental issues such as ocean acidification, warming and the occurrence of heat waves. Sedimentary oxygen consumption is often taken as a proxy for the activity of bioturbating fauna, but determining baselines can be difficult because of the confounding effects of other fauna and microbes present in sediments, as well as irnorganic processes that consume oxygen. Limitations therefore exist in current methodologies, and numerous confounding factors are hampering progress in this area. Here, we present novel method for the assessment of sediment respiration which is expected to be affected only by the biogenic oxygen consumption (namely aerobic respiration). As long as tracer reduction "immune" to inorganic oxygen consumption, so that measurements using this method can be used, alongside traditional methods, to decouple biological respiration from inorganic oxygen consumption reactions. The tracer is easily detectable, non-toxic and can be applied in systems with constant oxygen supply. The latter allow for incubation without the need to to work with unsealed experimental units, bringing procedural advantage over traditional methods. Consequently assessed bioturbating fauna is not exposed to hypoxia and additional stress. Here, we had applied system for the first time to investigate impacts of a common North-Atlantic bioturbator, the brittle star Amphiura filiformis, - on respiration of marine sediments. Two series of experiments were conducted with animals and sediment collected from Cawsand Bay, Plymouth, UK Preliminary results show that tracer

  14. Assessment of the role of bottomland hardwoods in sediment and erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinas, A.; Auble, Gregor T.; Segelquist, C.A.; Ischinger, Lee S.

    1988-01-01

    Drainage and clearing of bottomland hardwoods have long been recognized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) as important impacts of Federal water projects in the lower Mississippi River Valley. More recently, the water quality impacts of such projects (e.g., increases in sediments, nutrients, and pesticides) have also become of concern. In 1984, in an effort to better define problems concerning wetland losses and water degradation, EPA initiated a cooperative project with the Western Energy and Land Use Team (now the National Ecology Research Center) of the Service. Three phases of the project were identified: 1. To collect existing literature and data; 2. To select, develop, and test the utility of methods to quantify the relationships between land use, cover types, soils, hydrology, and water quality (as represented by sediment); and 3. To apply selected methodologies to several sites within the Yazoo Basin of Mississippi to determine the, potential effectiveness of various management alternatives to reduce sediment yield, increase sediment deposition, and improve water quality. Methods development focused on linking a simulation of water and sediment movement to a computerized geographic information system. We had several objectives for the resulting model. We desired that it should: 1. Estimate the importance of bottomland and hardwoods as a cover type that performs the functions of erosion and sediment control, 2. Simulate effects of proportions of ' various cover types and their specific spatial configurations, 3. Be applicable to moderately large spatial areas with minimal site-specific calibration, 4. Simulate spatial patterns of sediment loss-gain over time, and 5. Represent both sediment detachment and transport. While it was recognized that impacts and management alternatives could be sorted roughly into landscape measures and channel measures, the decision was made to focus study efforts

  15. Environmental assessment of coastal surface sediments at Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al Kahtany, Khaled; Al Otiaby, Naif

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The present work deal with the environmental assessment of Tarut Island Coastal area. • Thirty eight surface sediments samples have been chemically analyzed. • Thirteen major and trace metals have been recorded. • The area of study is highly polluted with Arsenic and Mercury. - Abstract: Thirty eight surface sediments samples have been collected in the area around Tarut Island, Saudi Arabian Gulf to determine the spatial distribution of metals, and to assess the magnitude of pollution. Total concentrations of Fe, Mn, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, and Zn in the sediments were measured using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer). Nature of sediments and heavy metals distribution reflect marked changes in lithology, biological activities in Tarut bay. Very high arsenic concentrations were reported in all studied locations from Tarut Island. The concentrations of Mercury are generally high comparing to the reported values from the Gulf of Oman, Red Sea. The concentrations of As and Hg exceeded the wet threshold safety values (MEC, PEC) indicating possible As and Hg contamination. Dredging and land filling, sewage, and oil pollution are the most important sources of pollution in the study area

  16. Toxicity assessment of polluted sediments using swimming behavior alteration test with Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, O. V.; Nasyrova, E. I.; Nuriakhmetova, V. R.; Stepanova, N. Yu; Danilova, N. V.; Latypova, V. Z.

    2018-01-01

    Recently behavioral responses of organisms are increasingly used as a reliable and sensitive tool in aquatic toxicology. Behavior-related endpoints allow efficiently studying the effects of sub-lethal exposure to contaminants. At present behavioural parameters frequently are determined with the use of digital analysis of video recording by computer vision technology. However, most studies evaluate the toxicity of aqueous solutions. Due to methodological difficulties associated with sample preparation not a lot of examples of the studies related to the assessment of toxicity of other environmental objects (wastes, sewage sludges, soils, sediments etc.) by computer vision technology. This paper presents the results of assessment of the swimming behavior alterations of Daphnia magna in elutriates from both uncontaminated natural and artificially chromium-contaminated bottom sediments. It was shown, that in elutriate from chromium contaminated bottom sediments (chromium concentration 115±5.7 μg l-1) the swimming speed of daphnids was decreases from 0.61 cm s-1 (median speed over the period) to 0.50 cm s-1 (median speed at the last minute of the experiment). The relocation of Daphnia from the culture medium to the extract from the non-polluted sediments does not essential changes the swimming activity.

  17. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction III: Assessing phosphorus and sediment reduction potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebel, M.W.; Maxted, J.T.; Robertson, Dale M.; Han, S.; Vander Zanden, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Riparian buffers have the potential to improve stream water quality in agricultural landscapes. This potential may vary in response to landscape characteristics such as soils, topography, land use, and human activities, including legacies of historical land management. We built a predictive model to estimate the sediment and phosphorus load reduction that should be achievable following the implementation of riparian buffers; then we estimated load reduction potential for a set of 1598 watersheds (average 54 km2) in Wisconsin. Our results indicate that land cover is generally the most important driver of constituent loads in Wisconsin streams, but its influence varies among pollutants and according to the scale at which it is measured. Physiographic (drainage density) variation also influenced sediment and phosphorus loads. The effect of historical land use on present-day channel erosion and variation in soil texture are the most important sources of phosphorus and sediment that riparian buffers cannot attenuate. However, in most watersheds, a large proportion (approximately 70%) of these pollutants can be eliminated from streams with buffers. Cumulative frequency distributions of load reduction potential indicate that targeting pollution reduction in the highest 10% of Wisconsin watersheds would reduce total phosphorus and sediment loads in the entire state by approximately 20%. These results support our approach of geographically targeting nonpoint source pollution reduction at multiple scales, including the watershed scale. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  18. Testing lagoonal sediments with early life stages of the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana): An approach to assess sediment toxicity in the Venice Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Marco; Bergamin, Martina; Delaney, Eugenia; Ghirardini, Annamaria Volpi; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2018-01-01

    The early-life stages of development of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa from egg to copepodite I is proposed as an endpoint for assessing sediment toxicity by exposing newly released eggs directly onto the sediment-water interface. A preliminary study of 5 sediment samples collected in the lagoon of Venice highlighted that the larval development rate (LDR) and the early-life stages (ELS) mortality endpoints with A. tonsa are more sensitive than the standard amphipod mortality test; moreover LDR resulted in a more reliable endpoint than ELS mortality, due to the interference of the sediment with the recovery of unhatched eggs and dead larvae. The LDR data collected in a definitive study of 48 sediment samples from the Venice Lagoon has been analysed together with the preliminary data to evaluate the statistical performances of the bioassay (among replicate variance and minimum significant difference between samples and control) and to investigate the possible correlation with sediment chemistry and physical properties. The results showed that statistical performances of the LDR test with A. tonsa correspond with the outcomes of other tests applied to the sediment-water interface (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryotoxicity test), sediments (Neanthes arenaceodentata survival and growth test) and porewater (S. purpuratus); the LDR endpoint did, however, show a slightly higher variance as compared with other tests used in the Lagoon of Venice, such as 10-d amphipod lethality test and larval development with sea urchin and bivalves embryos. Sediment toxicity data highlighted the high sensitivity and the clear ability of the larval development to discriminate among sediments characterized by different levels of contamination. The data of the definitive study evidenced that inhibition of the larval development was not affected by grain-size and the organic carbon content of the sediment; in contrast, a strong correlation between inhibition of the larval development

  19. Comprehensive large-scale investigation and assessment of trace metal in the coastal sediments of Bohai Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjun; Gao, Xuelu; Gu, Yanbin; Wang, Ruirui; Xie, Pengfei; Liang, Miao; Ming, Hongxia; Su, Jie

    2018-04-01

    The Bohai Sea is characterized as a semi-closed sea with limited water exchange ability, which has been regarded as one of the most contaminated regions in China and has attracted public attention over the past decades. In recent years, the rapid industrialization and urbanization around the coastal region has resulted in a severe pollution pressure in the Bohai Sea. Although efforts from official government and scientific experts have been made to protect and restore the marine ecosystem, satisfactory achievements were not gained. Moreover, partial coastal areas in the Bohai Sea seemingly remain heavily polluted. In this study, we focused on five coastal regions around the Bohai Sea to study the spatial distribution pattern of trace elements in the sediments and their ecological risk. A total of 108 sediment samples were analyzed to determine the contamination degree of trace elements (Cu, Cd, As, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Hg). Contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), geoaccumulation index (I geo ), and potential ecological risk index (PERI) were utilized to assess the pollution extent of these metals. Spatial distribution patterns revealed that the sedimentary environments of coastal Bohai were in good condition, except Jinzhou Bay, according to the Marine Sediment Quality of China. The concentrations of Hg and Cd were considerably higher than the average upper crust value and presented high potential ecological risk and considerable potential ecological risk, respectively. The overall environment quality of the coastal Bohai Sea does not seem to pose an extremely serious threat in terms of metal pollution. Thus, the government should continue implementing pollution control programs in the Bohai Sea. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Wastewater canal Vojlovica, industrial complex Pančevo, Serbia – preliminary ecotoxicological assessment of contaminated sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANA PLANOJEVIĆ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Effluents collected from the industrial complex of Pančevo, Serbia (oil refinery, petrochemical plant, and fertilizer factory, are discharged into a wastewater canal entering the Danube River. In this study, which was focused on sediment assessment, a complex triad approach consisting of chemical analysis, sediment toxicity tests and macrozoobenthos community analysis was applied. In toxicity tests on sediment elutriates, the following responses were registered – stimulatory effect in algal bioassay, no effect in acute test with Daphnia magna, and low to moderate toxicity in the conventional Vibrio fischeri test. Moderate to high toxicities were recorded in solid phase tests on Myriophyllum aquaticum and V. fischeri. High content of Hg, certain PAHs and non-characterised sediment contaminants accumulated over years contribute not only to the registered toxicity, but also to the complete absence of macrozoobenthos. The obtained results proved that regularly measured conventional and priority pollutants are hardly ever the only toxic contaminants present in sediments. Toxicity tests, in particular the contact test, might guide towards a better selection of parameters to be regularly or occasionally monitored. In addition, complete sediment toxicity tests proved to be an appropriate method for assessing the bioavailability of the chemically detected contaminants. The analysis of the macrozoobenthos composition and structure as inevitable part of sediment risk assessment procedures integrates the effects of multiple stressors and gives a realistic insight into not only sediment contamination by toxic pollutants, but also the sediment status in general.

  1. Impact of sediment organic matter quality on the fate and effects of fluoranthene in the infaunal brittle star Amphiura filiformis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selck, Henriette; Granberg, Maria E; Forbes, Valery E.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrophobic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) readily adsorb to organic matter. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of the quality of sedimentary organic matter for the uptake, biotransformation and toxicity of the PAH, fluoranthene (Flu......), in the infaunal brittle star Amphiura filiformis. Brittle stars were exposed to a base sediment covered by a 2 cm Flu-spiked top layer (30 mug Flu/g dry wt. sed.), enriched to the same total organic carbon content with either refractory or labile organic matter. The labile carbon source was concentrated green...... to equilibrium partitioning between organism lipid content and organic content of the sediment. Biotransformation of Flu by brittle stars was very limited and unaffected by organic matter quality. A. filiformis contributed to the downward transport of Flu from the surface sediment to the burrow lining...

  2. Assessment of chapatti quality of wheat varieties based on physicochemical, rheological and sensory traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Manju; Khatkar, Bhupendar Singh; Gulia, Neelam

    2017-07-01

    Fifty wheat varieties were assessed for chapatti quality using grain characteristics, dough rheological properties and pasting characteristics. Results revealed that 88% of wheat varieties studied were medium-hard to hard based on kernel texture. Water absorption and damaged starch were found to be important parameters for chapatti quality as both parameters had significant positive effect on the pliability and puffing height of chapatti. Protein content and gluten strength parameters like SDS sedimentation volume, dough stability and gluten index were found to have a negative impact on chapatti quality. Based on chapatti quality assessment the wheat varieties were classified into four distinct clusters viz. good, acceptable, fair and poor for chapatti making. It was elucidated that 46% of the varieties studied were good to acceptable for chapatti making, while 54% resulted in fair or poor chapatti quality thereby clearly indicating the need to establish and substantiate the development of product-specific varieties. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Assessment of metal and trace element contamination in water, sediment, plants, macroinvertebrates, and fish in Tavasci Marsh, Tuzigoot National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Miller, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Tavasci Marsh is a large freshwater marsh within the Tuzigoot National Monument in central Arizona. It is the largest freshwater marsh in Arizona that is unconnected to the Colorado River and is designated as an Important Bird Area by the Audubon Society. The marsh has been altered significantly by previous land use and the monument’s managers are evaluating the restoration of the marsh. In light of historical mining activities located near the marsh from the first half of the 20th century, evaluations of water, sediment, plant, and aquatic biota in the marsh were conducted. The evaluations were focused on nine metals and trace elements commonly associated with mining and other anthropogenic activities (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) together with isotopic analyses to understand the presence, sources and timing of water and sediment contaminants to the marsh and the occurrence in aquatic plants, dragonfly larvae, and fish. Results of water analyses indicate that there were two distinct sources of water contributing to the marsh during the study: one from older high elevation recharge entering the marsh at Shea Spring (as well as a number of unnamed seeps and springs on the northeastern edge of the marsh) and the other from younger low elevation recharge or from Pecks Lake. Water concentrations for arsenic exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standard of 10 μg/L at all sampling sites. Surface waters at Tavasci Marsh may contain conditions favorable for methylmercury production. All surficial and core sediment samples exceeded or were within sample concentration variability of at least one threshold sediment quality guideline for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Several sediment sites were also above or were within sample concentration variability of severe or probable effect sediment quality guidelines for As, Cd, and Cu. Three sediment cores collected in the marsh have greater metal and trace element concentrations

  4. Water Quality, Sediment Characteristics and Benthic Status of the Razim-Sinoie Lagoon System, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catianis, Irina; Secrieru, Dan; Pojar, Iulian; Grosu, Dumitru; Scrieciu, Albert; Pavel, Ana Bianca; Vasiliu, Dan

    2018-03-01

    Razim Lake is the biggest of Romania's freshwater lakes and along with other basins as Golovita, Zmeica and Sinoie constitutes a system of great ecological significance, playing also an essential role in the supply of water for irrigation, fishery exploitation, farming, flood prevention, recreational navigation and water tourism. Due to their importance, the environmental conditions in the Razim - Sinoie coastal lakes have attracted an increased public attention in contemporary society. To assess the levels, dissemination and potential sources of contamination in the above-mentioned lagoon system, random sampling was used to collect water and sediment samples from every lake and several analytical techniques were performed to investigate their environmental characteristics. The results obtained from this study indicated that, in water, concentrations of various physico-chemical parameters are, mostly, in agreement with correlated environmental standards. Slight variations and/or occasional exceeding of the maximum admissible limits were generally limited to small areas showing levels that would not warrant special concern. In sediments, the mean concentrations of some specific trace metals were below the levels of potential effect. Benthic samples revealed 31 taxa belonging to 16 zoo-benthal subdivisions. The results of this study showed good ecological status despite local several natural and anthropogenic stressors as fishery exploitation, farming, recreational navigation and water tourism.

  5. Anthropogenic effects on sediment quality offshore southwestern Taiwan: Assessing the sediment core geochemical record

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Selvaraj, K.; Parthiban, G.; Chen, C.T.A.; Lou, J.Y.

    -Fernández, A.C., Páez-Osuna, F., Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J., Preda, M., Rehault, I., 2004. Historical trace metal fluxes in the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone as evidenced by a sedimentary record from the Espejo de los Lirios lake. Journal of Environmental...

  6. Quality of assessments within reach: Review study of research and results of the quality of assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen, Nathalie Anthonia Maria; Hopster-den Otter, Dorothea; Wools, S.; Hemker, B.T.; Straetmans, G.J.J.M.; Eggen, Theodorus Johannes Hendrikus Maria

    2015-01-01

    Educational tests and assessments are important instruments to measure a student’s knowledge and skills. The question that is addressed in this review study is: “which aspects are currently considered as important to the quality of educational assessments?” Furthermore, it is explored how this

  7. Using Data Mining for Wine Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Paulo; Teixeira, Juliana; Cerdeira, António; Almeida, Fernando; Matos, Telmo; Reis, José

    Certification and quality assessment are crucial issues within the wine industry. Currently, wine quality is mostly assessed by physicochemical (e.g alcohol levels) and sensory (e.g. human expert evaluation) tests. In this paper, we propose a data mining approach to predict wine preferences that is based on easily available analytical tests at the certification step. A large dataset is considered with white vinho verde samples from the Minho region of Portugal. Wine quality is modeled under a regression approach, which preserves the order of the grades. Explanatory knowledge is given in terms of a sensitivity analysis, which measures the response changes when a given input variable is varied through its domain. Three regression techniques were applied, under a computationally efficient procedure that performs simultaneous variable and model selection and that is guided by the sensitivity analysis. The support vector machine achieved promising results, outperforming the multiple regression and neural network methods. Such model is useful for understanding how physicochemical tests affect the sensory preferences. Moreover, it can support the wine expert evaluations and ultimately improve the production.

  8. Coupling geochemical and biological approaches to assess the availability of cadmium in freshwater sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrin, Aymeric, E-mail: aymeric.dabrin@cemagref.fr; Durand, Cyrielle L.; Garric, Jeanne; Geffard, Olivier; Ferrari, Benoit J.D.; Coquery, Marina

    2012-05-01

    Sediments are considered as a sink for metals, and the assessment of metal bioavailability for benthic organisms represents a great challenge. Diffusive Gradient in Thin films (DGT), developed to measure labile metals in aquatic media, have more recently been applied to sediment. Nevertheless, few studies have determined the relation between measurements from DGT and bioaccumulation in different benthic organisms. The aim of our work was to determine if labile metal measured by DGT in sediment is representative of bioavailable metal for benthic organisms. We focused our work on Cd and chose to use the diversity of ecological traits from different organisms to better understand the measurement given by DGT. We exposed simultaneously DGT and 3 macroinvertebrates species (the chironomid, Chironomus riparius; the amphipod, Gammarus fossarum; the mudsnail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum) to a natural sediment Cd-spiked at environmental relevant concentrations. The nature of sediment-bound Cd was also determined by means of sequential extractions in order to better interpret DGT measurements. Cadmium concentrations were determined in DGT and in the 3 organisms after one week of exposure. Results provided by DGT indicated that Cd was poorly released from particulate phase to pore water, suggesting that Cd measured by DGT was representative of the pore water labile fraction. Sequential extractions showed that the percentage of Cd bound to carbonate fraction increased simultaneously with Cd-spiking level; hence, this Cd fraction was poorly reactive to supply DGT demand. Cadmium accumulation rates were similar between DGT measurements and P. antipodarum, suggesting that labile Cd in pore waters was representative of bioavailable Cd for this species. Cadmium accumulation rates in C. riparius were higher than in DGT, demonstrating that C. riparius can mobilize Cd bound to carbonate phase. G. fossarum showed the lowest Cd accumulation rates, suggesting that they were mainly exposed

  9. Metal pollution assessment in the surface sediment of Lake Nasser, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Goher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight heavy metals were measured seasonally in the sediment of Lake Nasser during 2013. 27 sites were chosen through 9 sectors across the main channel of the lake from Abu-Simbel to Aswan High Dam to assess the levels of the selected metals. The abundance of these metals was in the order of Fe > Mn > Zn > Cr > Ni > Cu > Pb > Cd, with mean concentrations of 12.41 mg/g, 279.56, 35.38, 30.79, 27.56, 21.78, 11.21 and 0.183 μg/g, respectively. Heavy metals are positively correlated with fine particles (mud fractions and organic matter accumulation. The results showed perspicuous spatial high significant differences (P < 0.01 for all the measured metals. Fe, Cr, Ni, Pb and Cd exhibited temporally high significant differences (P < 0.01 before and after the flood period. Four Pollution Indices were used for the environmental assessment of Lake Nasser sediment. The indices included three single indices, Enrichment Factor (EF, Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo and Contamination Factor (CF. While the fourth, Pollution Load Index (PLI was an integrated index. The pollution indexes confirmed that the Lake Nasser sediment was not contaminated with these elements. Sediments of Lake Nasser may be represented as a reference for the pre-industrial background of River Nile Sediments downstream Aswan High Dam.

  10. Sediment transport, light and algal growth in the Markermeer : a two-dimensional water quality model for a shallow lake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duin, van E.H.S.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis reports on a study of the water quality in the Markermeer, focusing on the relationships between sediment transport, the light field and the growth of Oscillatoria agardhii . The study comprises two aspects: an extensive data collection program with the data

  11. Scour hole ('wielen') sediments as historical archive of floods, vegetation, and air and water quality in lowlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, Holger; van Hoof, Thomas; Bunnik, Frans; Donders, Timme

    2010-01-01

    The sediment record from a maximum 18 m deep scour hole lake (Haarsteegse Wiel) near the embanked Meuse River in the Netherlands was studied for past changes in flooding frequency, water quality, and landscape change using a combined geochemical, geobiological and historical approach. The results

  12. Design and methods of the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (PNSQA), 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Journey, Celeste A.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Bell, Amanda H.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Button, Daniel T.; Qi, Sharon L.

    2017-08-25

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) project conducted the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (PNSQA) to investigate stream quality across the western part of the Pacific Northwest. The goal of the PNSQA was to assess the health of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to in-stream aquatic life and by evaluating the relation between these stressors and the condition of biological communities. The effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality for the Puget Lowland and Willamette Valley Level III Ecoregions were the focus of this regional study. Findings will help inform the public and policymakers about human and environmental factors that are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights into possible strategies to protect or improve the health of streams in the region.Land-use data were used in the study to identify and select sites within the region that ranged in levels of urban and agricultural development. A total of 88 sites were selected across the region—69 were on streams that explicitly spanned a range of urban land use in their watersheds, 8 were on streams in agricultural watersheds, and 11 were reference sites with little or no development in their watersheds. Depending on the type of land use, sites were sampled for contaminants, nutrients, and sediment for either a 4- or 10-week period during April, May, and June 2015. This water-quality “index period” was immediately followed with an ecological survey of all sites that included stream habitat, benthic algae, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Additionally, streambed sediment was collected during the ecological survey for analysis of sediment chemistry and toxicity testing.This report provides a detailed description of the specific study components and methods of the PNSQA, including (1) surveys of stream habitat and aquatic biota, (2) discrete

  13. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EFFLUENT DISCHARGES FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    waste disposal into water bodies used for potable ... hydrocarbon content (THC), total dissolved solid ..... Sediments from around a North Sea Oil Platform: are metals of hydrocarbons responsible for ecological impacts”, Marine Environmental.

  14. Major and trace elements assessment in sediment from Ituparanga reservoir, by activation analysis and ICP OES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sharlleny A., E-mail: sharllenya@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Inorganica; Bevilacqua, Jose Eduardo [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Tecnologia, Qualidade e Avaliacao Ambiental; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2011-07-01

    The Ituparanga reservoir was built to generate electric power by the LIGHT Company and started its operation in 1912. It is fed by the Una, Sorocamirim and Sorocabucu rivers. This reservoir supplies water to a population of 600.000. This water system is affected by irregular soil occupation and urban development which has caught CETESB's (Environmental Company of Sao Paulo State) attention. In this study four geo-referenced sampling points were used and bottom sediment samples were collected. The sediment samples were dried at 400 deg C, ground in an agate mortar, sieved (200 mesh) and again homogenized. The instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the sediment samples in order to determine some major elements (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. By using ICP OES metals determination for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni was undertaken after digestion procedure according to the 3051 method from US EPA. The methodology validation for precision and accuracy was carried out by reference material analyses. For metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni the concentration values were compared to the oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL). The Enrichment Factor (EF) was calculated for sediment contamination assessment. (author)

  15. The remobilisation of radionuclides from marine sediments: implications for collective dose assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, S.; MacKenzie, J.

    1988-09-01

    A model of the transfer (in either direction) of radioactivity between seawater and the seabed is described. It was developed, in the first instance, for inclusion in marine collective dose assessment codes. A review of radionuclide-sediment interactions with particular emphasis on the remobilisation process is followed by a description of the seabed model, an investigation of the effect of the model on estimates of collective dose, and a discussion of sedimentation in the Irish Sea in the context of radioactive discharges. The inclusion of the seabed model may lead to marked decreases in the collective dose at short integration times for nuclides with a high affinity for sediments. For discharges of such radionuclides into the Irish Sea, remobilisation may lead to a significant increase in collective dose compared with estimates obtained ignoring this phenomenon; and thirdly, remobilisation appears to have little effect on collective doses integrated to infinite time for discharges from three other locations in the UK. It is also shown that inclusion of the seabed model leads to predictions of a high uptake of plutonium by the seabed for Irish Sea discharges without the need for anomalously high sedimentation rates. (author)

  16. Fractionation of heavy metals and assessment of contamination of the sediments of Lake Titicaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres Choque, Luis Fernando; Ramos Ramos, Oswaldo E; Valdez Castro, Sulema N; Choque Aspiazu, Rigoberto R; Choque Mamani, Rocío G; Fernández Alcazar, Samuel G; Sracek, Ondra; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2013-12-01

    Chemical weathering is one of the major geochemical processes that control the mobilization of heavy metals. The present study provides the first report on heavy metal fractionation in sediments (8-156 m) of Lake Titicaca (3,820 m a.s.l.), which is shared by the Republic of Peru and the Plurinational State of Bolivia. Both contents of total Cu, Fe, Ni, Co, Mn, Cd, Pb, and Zn and also the fractionation of these heavy metals associated with four different fractions have been determined following the BCR scheme. The principal component analysis suggests that Co, Ni, and Cd can be attributed to natural sources related to the mineralized geological formations. Moreover, the sources of Cu, Fe, and Mn are effluents and wastes generated from mining activities, while Pb and Zn also suggest that their common source is associated to mining activities. According to the Risk Assessment Code, there is a moderate to high risk related to Zn, Pb, Cd, Mn, Co, and Ni mobilization and/or remobilization from the bottom sediment to the water column. Furthermore, the Geoaccumulation Index and the Enrichment Factor reveal that Zn, Pb, and Cd are enriched in the sediments. The results suggest that the effluents from various traditional mining waste sites in both countries are the main source of heavy metal contamination in the sediments of Lake Titicaca.

  17. Major and trace elements assessment in sediment from Ituparanga reservoir, by activation analysis and ICP OES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Sharlleny A.; Bevilacqua, Jose Eduardo; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2011-01-01

    The Ituparanga reservoir was built to generate electric power by the LIGHT Company and started its operation in 1912. It is fed by the Una, Sorocamirim and Sorocabucu rivers. This reservoir supplies water to a population of 600.000. This water system is affected by irregular soil occupation and urban development which has caught CETESB's (Environmental Company of Sao Paulo State) attention. In this study four geo-referenced sampling points were used and bottom sediment samples were collected. The sediment samples were dried at 400 deg C, ground in an agate mortar, sieved (200 mesh) and again homogenized. The instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the sediment samples in order to determine some major elements (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. By using ICP OES metals determination for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni was undertaken after digestion procedure according to the 3051 method from US EPA. The methodology validation for precision and accuracy was carried out by reference material analyses. For metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni the concentration values were compared to the oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL). The Enrichment Factor (EF) was calculated for sediment contamination assessment. (author)

  18. Assessment of the quality of educational portals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Bolbakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of theoretical and experimental studies on the evaluation of the quality of educational information placed on information and educational portals. The methodology allows you to compare not only portals, but also the results of training on exam scores and test scores. The methodological basis of the assessment is the cognitive approach and the negentropic approach. The article gives a comparison of entropy and negentropy. On the basis of comparison, the authors propose a negentropic approach to assessing the quality of educational resources obtained as a result of information retrieval. The search results are evaluated by cognitive and perpetual scores. Estimates are introduced into the entropy formula and converted to the formula of negentropy. The negentropic approach serves as the basis for calculating the statistical amount of information obtained as a result of information retrieval. The cognitive approach serves as a basis for assessing the qualitative characteristics of educational information, such as: visibility, perceptibility, interpretability. Open information portalsare the source of educational resources. The article shows that modern information portals are often clogged with unreliable or unnecessary information, which makes it difficult to find relevant educational information. In contrast to the widespread methods for one relevanceassess of the information retrieval, this article differentiates the notion of the relevance of the information retrieval. The article introduces three qualitatively different notions of relevance: formal, semantic and perpetual – relevance. The article introduces new additional characteristics of the quality of information search, the coefficient of cognition and the coefficient of perpetuation. These coefficients are introduced into the formula for estimating entropy and obtain the cognitive-entropy formula. As a result, a new method for assessing the content of

  19. Characterization of quality of sediments from Paranaguá Bay (Brazil) by combined in vitro bioassays and chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Juliane; Pérez-Albaladejo, Elisabet; Fernandes, Denise; Contreras, Javier; Froehner, Sandro; Porte, Cinta

    2017-07-01

    The present study characterizes the quality of sediments from the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (South Brazil). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in sediment samples together with a series of different in vitro bioassays. The fish hepatoma cell line (PLHC-1) was used to determine the presence of cytotoxic compounds and CYP1A- and oxidative stress-inducing agents in sediment extracts. Ovarian microsomal fractions from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were used to detect the presence of endocrine disrupters that interfered with the synthesis of estrogens (ovarian CYP19). Despite the relatively low levels of pollutants and no evidence of negative effects based on guideline levels, sediments collected close to harbors were enriched with CYP1A-inducing agents and they showed higher cytotoxicity. In contrast, sediments from internal areas inhibited CYP19 activity, which suggests the presence of endocrine disrupters at these sites. Overall, the selected bioassays and the chemistry data led to the identification of potentially impacted areas along the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex that would require further action to improve their environmental quality. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1811-1819. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  20. Review on the quality of sediments from the stormwater drainage system in the urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawrot Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main task of the stormwater drainage system (SDS is a safe drainage of rainwater and snowmelt from the urban area to the receiver. The flow of rain water in the drainage pipes is directly related with the formation of sediments in the whole stormwater system. In addition, pollutants from land runoff get adsorbed to the sediments. The sludge is mainly formed in those elements of SDS, wherein the flow conditions allow for sedimentation. This article provides an overview of the literature concerning the characteristics of sediments from SDS, with a particular focus on heavy metals in sediments deposited in the urban catchment area.

  1. Effects of land disposal of municipal sewage sludge on fate of nitrates in soil, streambed sediment, and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, James A.; Lull, Kenneth J.; Gaggiani, Neville G.

    1994-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of sewage-sludge disposal at the Lowry sewage-sludge-disposal area, near Denver, Colorado, on ground- and surface-water quality, to determine the fate of nitrates from sludge leachate, and to determine the source areas of leachate and the potential for additional leaching from the disposal area.Sewage-sludge disposal began in 1969. Two methods were used to apply the sludge: burial and plowing. Also, the sludge was applied both in liquid and cake forms. Data in this report represent the chemical composition of soil and streambed sediment from seven soil- and four streambed-sampling sites in 1986, chemical and bacterial composition of ground water from 28 wells from 1981 to 1987, and surface-water runoff from seven water-sampling sites from 1984 to 1987. Ground water samples were obtained from alluvial and bedrock aquifers. Samples of soil, streambed sediment, ground water and surface water were obtained for onsite measurement and chemical analysis. Measurements included determination of nitrogen compounds and major cations and anions, fecal-coliform and -streptococcus bacteria, specific conductance, and pH.Thirteen wells in the alluvial aquifer in Region 3 of the study area contain water that was probably affected by sewage-sludge leachate. The plots of concentration of nitrate with time show seasonal trends and trends caused by precipitation. In addition to yearly fluctuation, there were noticeable increases in ground-water concentrations of nitrate that coincided with increased precipitation. After 3 years of annual ground-water-quality monitoring and 4 years of a quarterly sampling program, it has been determined that leachate from the sewage-sludge-disposal area caused increased nitrite plus nitrate (as nitrogen) concentration in the alluvial ground water at the site. Soil analyses from the disposal area indicate that organic nitrogen was the dominant form of nitrogen in the soil.As a result of investigations at

  2. Assessment of daylight quality in simple rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kjeld; Dubois, Marie-Claude; Sørensen, Karl Grau

    The present report documents the results of a study on daylight conditions in simple rooms of residential buildings. The overall objective of the study was to develop a basis for a method for the assessment of daylight quality in a room with simple geometry and window configurations. As a tool...... in daylighting conditions for a number of lighting parameters. The results gave clear indications of, for instance, which room would be the brightest, under which conditions might glare be a problem and which type of window would yield the greatest luminous variation (or visual interest), etc....

  3. Service Quality and Process Maturity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serek Radomir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with service quality and the methods for its measurement and improvements to reach the so called service excellence. Besides older methods such as SERVQUAL and SERPERF, there are also shortly described capability maturity models based on which the own methodology is developed and used for process maturity assessment in organizations providing technical services. This method is equally described and accompanied by examples on pictures. The verification of method functionality is explored on finding a correlation between service employee satisfaction and average process maturity in a service organization. The results seem to be quite promising and open an arena for further studies.

  4. A methodology for the assessment of rehabilitation success of post mining landscapes-sediment and radionuclide transport at the former Nabarlek uranium mine, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, G.R.; Grabham, M.K.; Martin, P; Evans, K.G.; Bollhoefer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Protection of the environment post-mining is an important issue, especially where runoff and erosion can lead to undesirable material leaving post-mining landscapes and contaminating surrounding land and watercourses. Methods for assessment of the environmental impact and long-term behaviour of post-mining landforms based on scientific methodology are needed especially where field data are absent or poor. An appraisal of the former Nabarlek uranium mine was conducted to assess the site from a soil erosion perspective as part of an independent evaluation of overall rehabilitation success. Determination of the gross erosion occurring, sediment discharge to Cooper Creek and the resultant sediment associated radionuclide load in Cooper Creek were the primary objectives of the study. These objectives were achieved through the application of several models using parameter values collected from the site. The study found that the area containing the mill tailings repository is extremely stable and meets the guidelines established for long-term storage of uranium mill tailings. Most other areas on the site are stable; however there are some areas with a high sediment loss. Sediment concentration in Cooper Creek, which drains the site, was found to be within the Australian water quality guidelines for fresh water, however sediment concentrations in tributaries were found to exceed recommended levels. Radionuclide determinations on soil samples showed that the highest specific activities (Bq kg -1 ) were present on a small (0.44 ha) area with a relatively high erosion rate. This small area contributed the majority of the estimated flux to Cooper Creek of uranium-series radionuclides sorbed or structurally incorporated to eroded soil particles sourced from the mine site. This study provides a methodology for assessment of the erosional stability of such a landscape and consequent impact on water quality, using extensive field data and readily available and well known models

  5. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in coastal surface sediments in the Hebei Province offshore area, Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xigui; Ye, Siyuan; Yuan, Hongming; Krauss, Ken W

    2018-06-01

    Seven hundred and nine surface sediment samples, along with deeper sediment samples, were collected from Hebei Province along the coastal section of the Bohai Sea, China, and analyzed for grain size, concentrations of organic carbon (Corg) and heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As, and Hg). Results indicated that the average concentrations in the sediments were 16.1 mg/kg (Cu), 19.4 mg/kg (Pb), 50 mg/kg (Zn), 48.8 mg/kg (Cr), 0.1 mg/kg (Cd), 8.4 mg/kg (As), and 20.3 μg/kg (Hg). These concentrations generally met the China Marine Sediment Quality criteria. However, both pollution assessments indicated moderate to strong Cd and Hg contamination in the study area. The potential ecological risk index suggested that the combined ecological risk of the seven studied metals may be low, but that 24.5% of the sites, where sediments were finer and higher in Corg concentration, had high ecological risk in Hg and Cd pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sedimentology, geochemistry, pollution status and ecological risk assessment of some heavy metals in surficial sediments of an Egyptian lagoon connecting to the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, Ghada F; Draz, Suzanne E O; El-Sadaawy, Manal M; Moneer, Abeer A

    2014-01-01

    Spatial distribution of heavy metals (Co, Cu, Ni, Cr, Mn, Zn and Fe) was studied on Lake Edku's surface sediments in relation to sedimentology and geochemistry characteristics and their contamination status on the ecological system. Lake Edku's sediments were dominated by sandy silt and silty sand textures and were enriched with carbonate content (9.83-58.46%). Iron and manganese were the most abundant heavy metals with ranges of 1.69 to 8.06 mg g(-1) and 0.88 to 3.27 mg g(-1), respectively. Cobalt and nickel showed a harmonic distribution along the studied sediments. The results were interpreted by the statistical means. The heavy metal pollution status and their ecological risk in Lake Edku was evaluated using the sediment quality guidelines and the contamination assessment methods (geoaccumulation, pollution load and potential ecological risk indices, enrichment factor, contamination degree as well as effect range median (ERM) and probable effect level (PEL) quotients). Amongst the determined heavy metals, zinc had the most ecological risk. Overall, the heavy metals in surface sediments showed ecological effect range from moderate to considerable risk, specially, in the stations in front of the seawater and in drain sources that had the highest toxic priority.

  7. Advancing the Use of Passive Sampling in Risk Assessment and Management of Sediments Contaminated with Hydrophobic Organic Chemicals: Results of an International Ex Situ Passive Sampling Interlaboratory Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Michiel T O; van der Heijden, Stephan A; Adelman, Dave; Apell, Jennifer N; Burgess, Robert M; Choi, Yongju; Fernandez, Loretta A; Flavetta, Geanna M; Ghosh, Upal; Gschwend, Philip M; Hale, Sarah E; Jalalizadeh, Mehregan; Khairy, Mohammed; Lampi, Mark A; Lao, Wenjian; Lohmann, Rainer; Lydy, Michael J; Maruya, Keith A; Nutile, Samuel A; Oen, Amy M P; Rakowska, Magdalena I; Reible, Danny; Rusina, Tatsiana P; Smedes, Foppe; Wu, Yanwen

    2018-03-20

    This work presents the results of an international interlaboratory comparison on ex situ passive sampling in sediments. The main objectives were to map the state of the science in passively sampling sediments, identify sources of variability, provide recommendations and practical guidance for standardized passive sampling, and advance the use of passive sampling in regulatory decision making by increasing confidence in the use of the technique. The study was performed by a consortium of 11 laboratories and included experiments with 14 passive sampling formats on 3 sediments for 25 target chemicals (PAHs and PCBs). The resulting overall interlaboratory variability was large (a factor of ∼10), but standardization of methods halved this variability. The remaining variability was primarily due to factors not related to passive sampling itself, i.e., sediment heterogeneity and analytical chemistry. Excluding the latter source of variability, by performing all analyses in one laboratory, showed that passive sampling results can have a high precision and a very low intermethod variability (sampling, irrespective of the specific method used, is fit for implementation in risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments, provided that method setup and performance, as well as chemical analyses are quality-controlled.

  8. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in coastal surface sediments in the Hebei Province offshore area, Bohai Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xigui; Ye, Siyuan; Yuan, Hongming; Krauss, Ken W.

    2018-01-01

    Seven hundred and nine surface sediment samples, along with deeper sediment samples, were collected from Hebei Province along the coastal section of the Bohai Sea, China, and analyzed for grain size, concentrations of organic carbon (Corg) and heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As, and Hg). Results indicated that the average concentrations in the sediments were 16.1 mg/kg (Cu), 19.4 mg/kg (Pb), 50 mg/kg (Zn), 48.8 mg/kg (Cr), 0.1 mg/kg (Cd), 8.4 mg/kg (As), and 20.3 μg/kg (Hg). These concentrations generally met the China Marine Sediment Quality criteria. However, both pollution assessments indicated moderate to strong Cd and Hg contamination in the study area. The potential ecological risk index suggested that the combined ecological risk of the seven studied metals may be low, but that 24.5% of the sites, where sediments were more finer and higher in Corg concentration, had high ecological risk in Hg and Cd pollution.

  9. Preliminary assessment of heavy metals in water, sediment and macrophyte ( Lemna minor) collected from Anchar Lake, Kashmir, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showqi, Irfana; Lone, Farooq Ahmad; Naikoo, Mehrajuddin

    2018-06-01

    Water samples, sediments and free floating macrophytic plant, Lemna minor specimens were collected from five designated sites in Anchar lake (Srinagar, J&K, India) to assess its heavy metal (Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, Cd, Pb) load and changes on seasonal basis. The concentration of heavy metals was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Most of the samples were found within limits of maximum permissible concentrations as recommended by WHO (Guidelines for drinking water quality, pp 491-493, 2006). During all the seasons, highest concentration of all heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, Cd, Pb) was recorded at highly polluted sites of the lake viz. near agricultural fields (S1), near settlements (S3) and SKIMS (S4). These sites received huge agrochemical run-off from the surrounding agricultural fields, solid and liquid wastes from the nearby catchment areas and effluents from Sher-e-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS) compared to control site lake centre (S5). Furthermore, most of the metals in water and sediment were found with highest concentration during autumn (Viz., Cu-1.5 ppm; Zn-0.38 ppm; Ni-1.89 ppm; Pb-0.84 ppm in water and Cu-26.9 ppm; Zn-13.6 ppm; Pb-4.33 ppm in sediment) and summer (Viz., Cr-0.68 ppm in water and Ni-4.8 ppm; Cd-2.6 ppm; Cr-8.01 ppm in sediment) seasons. Also in Lemna minor plant highest concentration was observed during summer season (Cu-29.09 ppm; Zn-19.11 ppm; Ni-5.7 ppm; Cd-1.34 ppm; Cr-9.18 ppm and Pb-9.77 ppm). From these observations, it was found that the sources of heavy metals in Anchar lake were both natural and anthropogenic ones. This study recommended that continuous monitoring of heavy metals (Viz; Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, Cd and Pb) in water, sediment and other aquatic biota of Anchar lake should be directed to protection of ecological status of the lake and its surrounding area.

  10. Chemical quality of surface waters and sedimentation in the Saline River basin, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Paul Robert; Jones, B.F.; Petri, Lester R.

    1964-01-01

    calcium bicarbonate type when the specific conductance is less than about 1,000 micromhos per centimeter, but it is of the sodium chloride type when the specific conductance is more than about 1,500 micromhos per centimeter. The water is off the calcium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, or sodium chloride type when the conductance is between 1,000 and 1,500 micromhos per centimeter. Most of the increase in mineralization of the water is caused by inflow of highly mineralized ground water. The ground-water inflow was estimated to be 22 percent of the total streamflow at Tescott in 1948 and 60 percent in 1952. Mineralization increases and water quality deteriorates progressively downstream along nearly the entire Saline River, especially in the part of the area directly underlain by the Dakota Sandstone between the vicinities of Fairport and Wilson: sodium and chloride are the principal constituents of water contributed by the Dakota. The total percentage of the salt in the Saline River that comes from oil-field brines is considered to be small. The water in the upper Saline River is of good quality for domestic use except that it is hard; the water in the lower Saline River is of poor quality for domestic use because most of the time it is highly mineralized, is hard, and contains high concentrations of chloride and sulfate. In the upper reaches of the river, the water is of good quality for irrigation. In the lower reaches, if the water were impounded in a reservoir, it would be of good quality for irrigation during years of high flow and of very poor quality during years of low flow. The water in the lower reaches is of poor quality for industrial use because it is highly mineralized most of the tinge. Relations of suspended-sediment discharge to water discharge were used with the long-term streamflow duration curves to compute the long-term aver age suspended-sediment discharges and concentrations at five indications. Sediment discharge is closely related to runoff. S

  11. Assessment of sleep quality in powernapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooravand Takht Sabzy, Bashaer; Thomsen, Carsten E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the Sleep Quality (SQ) in powernapping. The contributed factors for SQ assessment are time of Sleep Onset (SO), Sleep Length (SL), Sleep Depth (SD), and detection of sleep events (K-complex (KC) and Sleep Spindle (SS)). Data from daytime nap for 10 subjects, 2...... days each, including EEG and ECG were recorded. The SD and sleep events were analyzed by applying spectral analysis. The SO time was detected by a combination of signal spectral analysis, Slow Rolling Eye Movement (SREM) detection, Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis and EEG segmentation using both...... Autocorrelation Function (ACF), and Crosscorrelation Function (CCF) methods. The EEG derivation FP1-FP2 filtered in a narrow band and used as an alternative to EOG for SREM detection. The ACF and CCF segmentation methods were also applied for detection of sleep events. The ACF method detects segment boundaries...

  12. QUALIMETRIC QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF IODINE SUPPLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Bazrova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the new iodine-containing supplements (ID derived from organic media collagenous animal protein (pork rind, carpatina and collagen and protein concentrates brands SCANGEN and PROMIL C95. It is shown that the use of these proteins as carriers of iodine is due to the high content of the amino acids glycine and alanine, which correlates with the degree of binding of iodine objects. New additives in addition to the special focus improve rheological properties of foods, including texture, appearance and functional properties. To assess the quality'ID and selection of preferred option the proposed qualitative assessment and a systematic approach to consider all'ID as a system to allocate its elements, to justify the principles of its construction and the requirements imposed on it, to build a General decision tree. For the construction of complex criterion for assessing the quality'ID proposed procedure formalization based on selection and evaluation of individual indicators, the definition of the laws of their change, depending on the dose, duration and temperature of exposure, and functional efficiency. For comparative evaluation of single and calculation of group indicators all of them were reduced to a single dimension by introducing the dimensionless coefficients of adequately describing the analyzed indicators. The article presents the calculated values of single and group of indicators characterizing technological properties 'ID: the degree of binding of iodine, the binding rate of iodine, heat losses of iodine and basic functional and technological properties of meat stuffing systems (water-binding, moisture-holding, emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability, obtained by the introduction of stuffing in the system studied'ID. At the final stage is the selection of the best 'ID, on the basis of an assessment of group performance.

  13. Assessing Assessment Quality: Criteria for Quality Assurance in Design of (Peer) Assessment for Learning--A Review of Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillema, Harm; Leenknecht, Martijn; Segers, Mien

    2011-01-01

    The interest in "assessment for learning" (AfL) has resulted in a search for new modes of assessment that are better aligned to students' learning how to learn. However, with the introduction of new assessment tools, also questions arose with respect to the quality of its measurement. On the one hand, the appropriateness of traditional,…

  14. Impact assessment of oil spills on sediments in Vasyugan River Basin (Western Siberia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobyov, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    Vasyugan River (more than 1100 km of length and 65000 km 2 of catchment totally) is right tributary of Ob River. Exploration and development of oil fields have provided in the area since 1970's. Long-term project for hydro-ecological investigation of Vasyugan River Basin was provided during 1992-2002. Main aim of the project was study of distribution and spatial dynamics of bottom invertebrate communities (population density, biomass) affected by oil contamination for tasks of environmental monitoring. Samples of sediments were assessed hydro-biologically (zoo-benthos) and chemically (petroleum hydrocarbons). Concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons (non-polar hydrocarbons) in bottom sediments in oil fields were significantly different depending on texture and organic matter content: detritus - 370 mg/kg; silt - 89 mg/kg; silty-sand - 37 mg/kg. The significant correlation between concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons and organic matter content in sediments was found (? = 0,94). Concentration of in bottom sediments depended on destination from and age of developed oil fields: 300 mg/kg (areas of oil fields developed more than 20 years); 77 mg/kg (areas of oil fields developed less than 10 years); 59 mg/kg (estuary of Vasyugan, 400 km far from main sources of contamination at least). Population of zoo-benthos is increasing depending on extension of destination from source of contamination. The phenomena can be explained by stream transport and accumulation of PAH. Population of oligochaeta and mollusks in sediments increase depending on extension from sources of contamination (p<0,05). (author)

  15. Evaluation and assessment of baseline metal contamination in surface sediments from the Bernam River, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhum, Safaa A; Ishak, Mohd Yusoff; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2016-04-01

    The Bernam River is one of the most important rivers in Malaysia in that it provides water for industries and agriculture located along its banks. The present study was conducted to assess the level of contamination of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Cr, Sn, and Fe) in surface sediments in the Bernam River. Nine surface sediment samples were collected from the lower, middle, and upper courses of the river. The results indicated that the concentrations of the metals decreased in the order of Sn > Cr > Ni > Fe > Cd (56.35, 14.90, 5.3, 4.6, and 0.62 μg/g(1) dry weight). Bernam River sediments have moderate to severe enrichment for Sn, moderate for Cd, and no enrichment for Cr, Ni, and Fe. The contamination factor (CF) results demonstrated that Cd and Sn are responsible for the high contamination. The pollution load index (PLI), for all the sampling sites, suggests that the sampling stations were generally unpolluted with the exception of the Bagan Tepi Sungai, Sabak Bernam, and Tanjom Malim stations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson's correlation and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to apportion the various sources of the metals. The results suggested that the sediment samples collected from the upper course of the river had lower metal concentrations, while sediments in the middle and lower courses of the river had higher metal concentrations. Therefore, our results can be useful as a baseline data for government bodies to adopt corrective measure on the issues related to heavy metal pollution in the Bernam River in the future.

  16. Design and methods of the Midwest Stream Quality Assessment (MSQA), 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Jessica D.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Journey, Celeste A.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Button, Daniel T.; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2017-10-18

    During 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Project (NAWQA), in collaboration with the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA), and the EPA Office of Pesticide Programs assessed stream quality across the Midwestern United States. This Midwest Stream Quality Assessment (MSQA) simultaneously characterized watershed and stream-reach water-quality stressors along with instream biological conditions, to better understand regional stressor-effects relations. The MSQA design focused on effects from the widespread agriculture in the region and urban development because of their importance as ecological stressors of particular concern to Midwest region resource managers.A combined random stratified selection and a targeted selection based on land-use data were used to identify and select sites representing gradients in agricultural intensity across the region. During a 14-week period from May through August 2013, 100 sites were selected and sampled 12 times for contaminants, nutrients, and sediment. This 14-week water-quality “index” period culminated with an ecological survey of habitat, periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish at all sites. Sediment was collected during the ecological survey for analysis of sediment chemistry and toxicity testing. Of the 100 sites, 50 were selected for the MSQA random stratified group from 154 NRSA sites planned for the region, and the other 50 MSQA sites were selected as targeted sites to more evenly cover agricultural and urban stressor gradients in the study area. Of the 50 targeted sites, 12 were in urbanized watersheds and 21 represented “good” biological conditions or “least disturbed” conditions. The remaining 17 targeted sites were selected to improve coverage of the agricultural intensity gradient or because of historical data collection to provide temporal context for the

  17. Data Quality Assessment Report for the Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-09-21

    This report summarizes the results of the data quality assessment that was performed on the analytical data generated in connection with the 2008/2009 surface water, sediment, and soil data collection; groundwater upwelling investigation sample collection; and fish tissue sample collection.

  18. Data Quality Assessment Report for the Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-08-10

    This report summarizes the results of the data quality assessment that was performed on the analytical data generated in connection with the 2008/2009 surface water, sediment, and soil data collection; groundwater upwelling investigation sample collection; and fish tissue sample collection.

  19. Distribution, Source, and Ecological Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Sediment of Liaodong Bay, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuang; Tao, Ping; Li, Yuxia; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Man; Jia, Hongliang; Shao, Mihua

    2018-01-01

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in surface sediments from Liaodong Bay, northeast China. The concentration levels of total PAHs (Σ16PAHs) in sediment were 11.0˜249.6 ng·g-1 dry weight (dw), with a mean value of 89.9 ng·g-1 dry weight (dw). From the point of the spatial distribution, high PAHs levels were found in the western areas of Liaodong Bay. In the paper, sources of PAHs were investigated by diagnostic ratios, which indicated that pyrogenic sources were the main sources of PAHs in the sediment of Liaodong Bay. Therefore, selected PAH levels in sediments were compared with Sediments Quality Guidelines (ERM-ERL indexes) for evaluation probable toxic effects on marine organism.

  20. Assessment of trace metals pollution in estuarine sediments using SEM-AVS and ERM-ERL predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carlos Alexandre Borges; Passos, Elisangela de Andrade; Alves, José do Patrocínio Hora

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the distributions of the investigation of trace metals geochemistry in surface sediments of the Sergipe river estuary, northeast Brazil. Analyses were carried out by Flame or electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS or ETAAS). Principal component analysis was applied to results to identify any groupings among the different sampling sites. In order to determine the extent of contamination, taking into account natural variability within the region, metal concentrations were normalized relative to aluminium. Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn contamination was observed in sediments from the area receiving highest inputs of domestic wastes, while cadmium contamination occurred in sediments from the region affected by highest inflows of industrial effluents. Possible toxicity related to these metals was examined using the relationship simultaneously extracted metals/acid volatile sulfide and by comparing sediment chemical data with sediment quality guidelines ERL-ERM values. Results obtained using the two methods were in agreement and indicated that adverse effects on aquatic biota should rarely occur.

  1. Water-quality impact assessment for hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniil, E.I.; Gulliver, J.; Thene, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology to assess the impact of a hydropower facility on downstream water quality is described. Negative impacts can result from the substitution of discharges aerated over a spillway with minimally aerated turbine discharges that are often withdrawn from lower reservoir levels, where dissolved oxygen (DO) is typically low. Three case studies illustrate the proposed method and problems that can be encountered. Historic data are used to establish the probability of low-dissolved-oxygen occurrences. Synoptic surveys, combined with downstream monitoring, give an overall picture of the water-quality dynamics in the river and the reservoir. Spillway aeration is determined through measurements and adjusted for temperature. Theoretical computations of selective withdrawal are sensitive to boundary conditions, such as the location of the outlet-relative to the reservoir bottom, but withdrawal from the different layers is estimated from measured upstream and downstream temperatures and dissolved-oxygen profiles. Based on field measurements, the downstream water quality under hydropower operation is predicted. Improving selective withdrawal characteristics or diverting part of the flow over the spillway provided cost-effective mitigation solutions for small hydropower facilities (less than 15 MW) because of the low capital investment required

  2. Water Quality Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Loads Information (ATTAINS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Assessment TMDL Tracking And Implementation System (ATTAINS) stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads...

  3. Towards web documents quality assessment for digital humanities scholars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceolin, D.; Noordegraaf, Julia; Aroyo, L.M.; van Son, C.M.; Nejdl, Wolfgang; Hall, Wendy; Parigi, Paolo; Staab, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    We present a framework for assessing the quality of Web documents, and a baseline of three quality dimensions: trustworthiness, objectivity and basic scholarly quality. Assessing Web document quality is a "deep data" problem necessitating approaches to handle both data size and complexity.

  4. Handbook for the assessment of soil erosion and sedimentation using environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, F.

    2002-01-01

    Soil erosion and sedimentation are major environmental and agricultural threats worldwide. There is an urgent need for obtaining reliable information on the rates of these processes to establish the magnitude of the problems and to underpin the selection of soil erosion/sedimentation control technologies, including assessment of their economic and environmental on-site and off-site impacts. The quest for alternative techniques for assessing soil erosion to complement existing classical methods directed attention to the use of environmental radionuclides. Including the latest research developments made in the refinement and standardization of the 137 Cs technique by 25 research groups worldwide and featuring the contributions of a selected team of leading experts in the field, this handbook provides a comprehensive coverage of the methodologies for using radionuclides, primarily 137Cs and 210Pb to establish rates and spatial patterns of soil redistribution and determine the geochronology of sediment deposits. This Handbook is an up-to-date resource for soil and environmental scientists, hydrologists, geomorphologists, geologists, agronomists, ecologists, and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines. (author)

  5. Quality assessment of orthodontic radiography in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakbaznejad Esmaeili, Elmira; Ekholm, Marja; Haukka, Jari; Waltimo-Sirén, Janna

    2016-02-01

    Numbers of dental panoramic tomographs (DPTs) and lateral cephalometric radiographs (LCRs) outweigh other radiographic examinations in 7- to 12-year-old Finns. Orthodontists and general practitioners (GPs) involved in orthodontics hold therefore the highest responsibility of the exposure of children to ionising radiation with its risks. Against this background, lack of reports on the quality of orthodontic radiography is surprising. The purpose of our study was to shed some light and draw the awareness of the orthodontic community on the subject by analyzing the quality of orthodontic radiography in Oral Healthcare Department of City of Helsinki, in the capital of Finland. We analyzed randomly selected 241 patient files with DPTs and 118 patient files with LCRs of 7- to 12-year-olds for the indications of radiography, quality of referrals, status of interpretation, and number of failed radiographs. The majority of DPTs (95%) and all LCRs had been ordered for orthodontic reasons. Of the DPTs, 60% were ordered by GPs, and of the LCRs, 64% by orthodontists. The referrals were adequate for most DPTs (78%) and LCRs (73%), orthodontists being responsible for the majority of inadequate referrals. Of the DPTs, 80% had been interpreted. Of the LCRs, 65% lacked interpretation, but 67% had been analysed cephalometrically. Failed radiographs, leading to repeated exposure, were found in 2-3%. The quality assessment revealed that orthodontic radiography may not completely fulfill the criteria of good practice. Our results stress further need of continuing education in radiation protection among both orthodontists and GPs involved in orthodontics. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Distribution, Fraction, and Ecological Assessment of Heavy Metals in Sediment-Plant System in Mangrove Forest, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruili; Chai, Minwei; Qiu, Guo Yu

    2016-01-01

    Overlying water, sediment, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove seedlings in the Futian mangrove forest were analyzed for heavy metals. The results showed that mangrove plant acidified sediment and increased organic matter contents. Except for chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) in Aegiceras corniculatum sediment, heavy metals in all sediments were higher than in overlying water, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove root. Heavy metals in Avicennia marina sediments were higher than other sediments. The lower heavy metal biological concentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) indicated that mangrove plant adopted exclusion strategy. The geo-accumulation index, potential ecological risk index and risk assessment code (RAC) demonstrated that heavy metals have posed a considerable ecological risk, especially for cadmium (Cd). Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Cd) mainly existed in the reducible fractions. These findings provide actual heavy metal accumulations in sediment-plant ecosystems in mangrove forest, being important in designing the long-term management and conservation policies for managers of mangrove forest. PMID:26800267

  7. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Laarhoven

    Full Text Available An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv. The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml, 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin. With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.

  8. Sources of heavy metals in surface sediments and an ecological risk assessment from two adjacent Plateau reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Wu

    Full Text Available The concentrations of heavy metals (mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu and arsenic (As in surface water and sediments were investigated in two adjacent drinking water reservoirs (Hongfeng and Baihua Reservoirs on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in Southwest China. Possible pollution sources were identified by spatial and statistical analyses. For both reservoirs, Cd was most likely from industrial activities, and As was from lithogenic sources. For the Hongfeng Reservoir, Pb, Cr and Cu might have originated from mixed sources (traffic pollution and residual effect of former industrial practices, and the sources of Hg included the inflows, which were different for the North (industrial activities and South (lithogenic origin Lakes, and atmospheric deposition resulting from coal combustion. For the Baihua Reservoir, the Hg, Cr and Cu were primarily derived from industrial activities, and the Pb originated from traffic pollution. The Hg in the Baihua Reservoir might also have been associated with coal combustion pollution. An analysis of ecological risk using sediment quality guidelines showed that there were moderate toxicological risks for sediment-dwelling organisms in both reservoirs, mainly from Hg and Cr. Ecological risk analysis using the Hakanson index suggested that there was a potential moderate to very high ecological risk to humans from fish in both reservoirs, mainly because of elevated levels of Hg and Cd. The upstream Hongfeng Reservoir acts as a buffer, but remains an important source of Cd, Cu and Pb and a moderately important source of Cr, for the downstream Baihua Reservoir. This study provides a replicable method for assessing aquatic ecosystem health in adjacent plateau reservoirs.

  9. Risk and toxicity assessments of heavy metals in sediments and fishes from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jie; Hu, Xin; Tao, Xiancong; Yu, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2013-11-01

    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serous environmental issues globally. To evaluate the metal pollution in Jiangsu Province of China, the total concentrations of heavy metals in sediments and fishes from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake were analyzed. Ecological risk of sediments and human health risk of fish consumption were assessed respectively. Furthermore, toxicity of samples on expression of the stress responsive genes was evaluated using microbial live cell-array method. The results showed that the heavy metals concentrations in sediments from the Yangtze River were much higher than those in sediments from the Taihu Lake. However, the fishes from the Taihu Lake had higher concentrations of heavy metals than fishes from the Yangtze River. Ecological risk evaluation showed that the heavy metal contaminants in sediments from the Yangtze River posed higher risk of adverse ecological effects, while sediments from the study areas of Taihu Lake were relatively safe. Health risk assessment suggested that the heavy metals in fishes of both Yangtze River and Taihu Lake might have risk of adverse health effects to human. The toxicity assessment indicated that the heavy metals in these sediments and fishes showed transcriptional effects on the selected 21 stress responsive genes, which were involved in the pathways of DNA damage response, chemical stress, and perturbations of electron transport. Together, this field investigation combined with chemical analysis, risk assessment and toxicity bioassay would provide useful information on the heavy metal pollution in Jiangsu Province. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment Quality in Tertiary Education: An Integrative Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen-van Leeuwenkamp, Karin; Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Kester, Liesbeth

    2018-01-01

    In tertiary education, inferior assessment quality is a problem that has serious consequences for students, teachers, government, and society. A lack of a clear and overarching conceptualization of assessment quality can cause difficulties in guaranteeing assessment quality in practice. Thus, the

  11. Review on the quality of sediments from the stormwater drainage system in the urban area

    OpenAIRE

    Nawrot Nicole; Wojciechowska Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The main task of the stormwater drainage system (SDS) is a safe drainage of rainwater and snowmelt from the urban area to the receiver. The flow of rain water in the drainage pipes is directly related with the formation of sediments in the whole stormwater system. In addition, pollutants from land runoff get adsorbed to the sediments. The sludge is mainly formed in those elements of SDS, wherein the flow conditions allow for sedimentation. This article provides an overview of the literature c...

  12. Catch and Release: A dense, longitudinal array of water quality sondes reveals spatial and temporal complexities in suspended sediment flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilinger, J. J.; Crosby, B. T.

    2017-12-01

    Excessive suspended sediment in streams is one of the most common causes for industrial, ecological and recreational stream impairment in the US. Identifying the primary geomorphic or anthropogenic sources of sediment is a key step in the effective mitigation of impairment. This study seeks to identify sources of suspended sediment in an agriculturally impaired watershed, Marsh Creek, in southeast Idaho. We employ thirteen multi-parameter water quality sensors to simultaneously measure stage, turbidity, temperature and conductivity every 15 minutes over a full calendar year. Examined at both the event and annual scale, these data enable mass balance calculations for mainstem and tributary contributions. Revealed in this monitoring is an approximately eight-fold longitudinal increase in sediment flux over 74 km that is largely augmented by eroding mainstem banks in reaches with higher stream power in the lower 30 km, with less than 20% contributed from tributaries. Independent data confirming the bank source were acquired through cost-effective sediment fingerprinting using 15N and C:N signatures from potential soil endmembers. Additionally, Google Street View-type longitudinal imagery of banks was collected via a kayak survey to confirm the spatial extent and magnitude of bank erosion along Marsh Creek. These data converge on bank erosion as the primary source of fine sediment. Sediment load at various hierarchical temporal and spatial scales is impacted by in-stream storage and remobilization, especially over shorter timescales ranging from daily to seasonal periods. Once averaged over the annual scale, local, temporary in-channel storage is overcome and these data reveal source reaches that can be prioritized for restoration and mitigation projects.

  13. Assessment of pathogenic bacteria in water and sediment from a water reservoir under tropical conditions (Lake Ma Vallée), Kinshasa Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanamoki, Paola M; Devarajan, Naresh; Thevenon, Florian; Atibu, Emmanuel K; Tshibanda, Joseph B; Ngelinkoto, Patience; Mpiana, Pius T; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Kabele, Christophe G; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted to assess potential human health risks presented by pathogenic bacteria in a protected multi-use lake-reservoir (Lake Ma Vallée) located in west of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Water and surface sediments from several points of the Lake were collected during summer. Microbial analysis was performed for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus (ENT), Pseudomonas species and heterotrophic plate counts. PCR amplification was performed for the confirmation of E. coli, ENT, Pseudomonas spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from samples. The results reveal low concentration of bacteria in water column of the lake, the bacterial quantification results observed in this study for the water column were below the recommended limits, according to WHO and the European Directive 2006/7/CE, for bathing water. However, high concentration of bacteria was observed in the sediment samples; the values of 2.65 × 10(3), 6.35 × 10(3), 3.27 × 10(3) and 3.60 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) of dry sediment for E. coli, ENT, Pseudomonas spp. and heterotrophic plate counts, respectively. The results of this study indicate that sediments of the Lake Ma Vallée can constitute a reservoir of pathogenic microorganisms which can persist in the lake. Possible resuspension of faecal indicator bacteria and pathogens would affect water quality and may increase health risks to the population during recreational activities. Our results indicate that the microbial sediment analysis provides complementary and important information for assessing sanitary quality of surface water under tropical conditions.

  14. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  15. Material quality assurance risk assessment : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    With the shift from quality control (QC) of materials and placement techniques : to quality assurance (QA) and acceptance over the years, the role of the Office : of Materials Technology (OMT) has been shifting towards assurance of : material quality...

  16. Congener-specific model for polychlorinated biphenyl effect on otter (Lutra lutra) and associated sediment quality criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traas, T.P.; Luttik, R.; Klepper, O.; Beurskens, J.E.M.; Smit, M.D.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Hattum, van A.G.M.; Aldenberg, T.

    2001-01-01

    A model for risk assessment was built for simultaneous, congener-specific PCB bioaccumulation from sediment to fish to otters (Lutra lutra). Toxic equivalence factors (TEFs) were used to sum individual congeners in otters to a toxic equivalent concentration (TEQ) relative to

  17. Active biomonitoring for assessing effects of metal polluted sediment resuspension on gammarid amphipods during fluvial traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prygiel, E; Billon, G; François, A; Dumoulin, D; Chaumot, A; Geffard, O; Criquet, J; Prygiel, J

    2016-11-01

    The resuspension of polluted sediments by boat traffic could release substantial amounts of metals to the water column, affecting at the same time their bioavailability. In order to characterize the impact of sediment resuspensions on biota, caged amphipods have been deployed on three different channelized watercourses in Northern France. Firstly, the biological responses of transplanted freshwater gammarid amphipods, Gammarus fossarum, described by trace metal accumulation, feeding and reproduction activities were quite similar for the three water courses despite the differences of metal contamination and navigability. Secondly, the concentrations of metals accumulated in gammarids never exceeded the contamination thresholds previously defined for Co, Cu, Cr and Zn. Values were in the same order of magnitude whatever the studied site despite: (i) large differences noticed in the sediment quality and (ii) some concentrations in the overlying waters exceeding the Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) defined by the Water Framework Directive. Conversely, Pb was highly bioaccumulated with values systematically exceeding the threshold value whatever the site. Therefore, the impact of navigation cannot be proved and the difference between the 3 monitoring periods is rather attributed to environmental variability, probably linked to the seasonality. Moreover, this study also confirms that organisms sampled from a local population in the vicinity of the three studied watercourses could be used as test organisms, leading to similar results than the ones obtained with reference gammarids initially used for developing all the biological responses. This would simplify and then promote the development of studies based on gammarid amphipod, G. fossarum, as bioindicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Surface water-quality assessment of the lower Kansas River basin, Kansas and Nebraska; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamer, J.K.; Jordan, P.R.; Engberg, R.A.; Dugan, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    In 1986 the U.S. Geological Survey began a National Water-Quality Assessment Program to: (1) provide nationally consistent descriptions of the current status of water quality for a large, diverse, and geographically distributed part of the Nation 's surface water resources; (2) where possible, define trends in water quality; and (3) identify and describe the relation between water quality and natural and land use factors. This report describes the pilot study of the lower Kansas River basin, which is one of four surface water pilot studies that will be used to test, and modify as necessary, assessment concepts and approaches in preparation for future full implementation of the national program. Water quality issues in the lower Kansas River basin are dominated by possible nonpoint sources of contamination from agricultural land, with issues including: (1) large sediment discharge in the streams and sediment deposition in the reservoirs caused by intensive cultivation of row crops and subsequent erosion; (2) occurrence of pesticides in streams and reservoirs that could impair the suitability of water for aquatic life and has the potential for impairing the water 's suitability for public supply; (3) bacterial contamination caused by runoff from pastureland and feedlot operations and municipal wastewater discharges; and (4) nutrient enrichment of reservoirs. Data from fixed stations will be used to determine frequency distributions of constituent concentrations and mass balances of constituents between stations. Subbasin or river reach studies will provide a better understanding of the origin, movement, and fate of potential contaminants. (Lantz-PTT)

  19. QUAST: quality assessment tool for genome assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Alexey; Saveliev, Vladislav; Vyahhi, Nikolay; Tesler, Glenn

    2013-04-15

    Limitations of genome sequencing techniques have led to dozens of assembly algorithms, none of which is perfect. A number of methods for comparing assemblers have been developed, but none is yet a recognized benchmark. Further, most existing methods for comparing assemblies are only applicable to new assemblies of finished genomes; the problem of evaluating assemblies of previously unsequenced species has not been adequately considered. Here, we present QUAST-a quality assessment tool for evaluating and comparing genome assemblies. This tool improves on leading assembly comparison software with new ideas and quality metrics. QUAST can evaluate assemblies both with a reference genome, as well as without a reference. QUAST produces many reports, summary tables and plots to help scientists in their research and in their publications. In this study, we used QUAST to compare several genome assemblers on three datasets. QUAST tables and plots for all of them are available in the Supplementary Material, and interactive versions of these reports are on the QUAST website. http://bioinf.spbau.ru/quast . Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  20. Innovative technique for assessment of groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Ahmad, M.; Sajjad, M.I.

    2001-07-01

    Groundwater quality of a part of Chaj Doab has been assessed with innovative techniques which are not reported in literature. The concept of triangular coordinates is modified by multi-rectangular ones for the classification of major cations and anions analysed in the ground water. A Multi-Rectangular Diagram (MRD) has been developed with the combination of rectangular coordinates by virtue of which milli-equivalent per liter percentages (meq/1%) of major cations and anions could be classified into different categories more efficiently as compared to classical trilinear diagrams. Both Piper diagram and MRD are used for the assessment of 259 data sets analysed from ground water of Chaj Doab area, Pakistan. The differentiated ground water types with MRD in the study area are calcium bicarbonate, magnesium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate and sodium sulfate. Sodium bicarbonate type emerges as the most abundant type of ground water in the study area. A map showing spatial variation of groundwater quality has been constructed with the help of MRD. This map shows that, in the vicinity of rivers Chenab and Jhelum, calcium bicarbonate type of waters occur while the central area is mainly covered by sodium bicarbonate dominant waters. Groundwaters near the upper Jhelum canal are dominant in sodium sulfate. An important relation between calcium and sodium is proposed which explains the movement history of groundwater in the aquifer. Hydrogeochemical processes have been evaluated with new methods. Ion exchange between calcium and sodium, precipitation of calcium bicarbonate and dissolution of rock forming minerals are the major delineated hydrogeochemical processes. (author)

  1. Potential bioavailability assessment, source apportionment and ecological risk of heavy metals in the sediment of Brisbane River estuary, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duodu, Godfred Odame; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2017-04-15

    A weak acid extraction was used to mobilize the loosely bound metals in estuary sediment samples. More than 30% of Ag, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Mn Ni, Pb and Zn were leached from the sediment showing that these metals are significantly present in the bioavailable form. PCA/APCS identified three sources of the metals, namely: lithogenic accounting for 72%, shipping related contributing 15% and traffic related representing 13% of the total load. Application of pollution index (PI) and modified pollution index (MPI) revealed that the sediment range from unpolluted to heavily polluted while ecological risk index (RI) classifies the sediment as posing low ecological risk modified ecological risk index (MRI) suggests considerable to very high ecological risk. To provide holistic insights into the ecological risks posed by metals, enrichment factor, MPI and MRI are recommended for the assessment of sediment in complex environments such as estuaries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Avaliação da qualidade de sedimentos - estudo de caso: sub-bacia do Ribeirão Espírito Santo, afluente do Rio São Francisco Evaluation of sediment quality - case study: sub-watershed of Espírito Santo stream, affluent of the São Francisco river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Kelly Saraiva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the environmental impact resulting from surface water and sediment contamination by metals in a watershed affected by a tailing basin that controls effluents coming from a zinc-ore beneficiation plant. The studies combined assessments of sediment chemistry (exceedances of sediment quality guidelines, benthic assemblage structure and acute and chronic ecotoxicity. The results showed that the levels of metal contamination in sediments are not yet enough to cause deleterious effects to the biota. However, the ecotoxicity tests indicated the occurrence of chronic effects, demonstrating that other factors, as the use of fertilizers, could also be a source of contamination.

  3. Assessment of heavy metals bioavailability and toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri in sediment of the Huelva estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Daniel; Usero, José; Morillo, José

    2016-06-01

    Relationship between toxicity and bioavailable metals in sediments from the Huelva estuary and its littoral of influence was analyzed. Toxicity was assessed with Microtox® bioassay using a marine luminescent bacterium: Vibrio fischeri. Bioavailable metals were considered as both, acid extractable fraction of BCR procedure and the sum of exchangeable and bound to carbonates fractions of Tessier sequential extraction. A bioavailable metals index was calculated to integrate results in a single figure. Toxicity and bioavailable metals showed a similar pattern. Higher levels were found in the estuary than in the littoral (140 TU/g). In Huelva estuary, highest levels were found in the Tinto estuary (5725 TU/g), followed by the Odiel estuary (5100 TU/g) and the Padre Santo Canal (2500 TU/g). Results in this area were well over than those in nearby estuaries. Furthermore, they are similar to or even higher than those in other polluted sediments around the world. Bioavailable metal index showed a stronger correlation with acid extractable fraction of BCR (R(2) = 0.704) than that for the sum of exchangeable and bound to carbonates fractions of Tessier (R(2) = 0.661). These results suggest that bioavailable metals are an important source of sediment toxicity in the Huelva estuary and its littoral of influence, an area with one of the highest mortality risks of Spain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling Benthic Sediment Processes to Predict Water Quality and Ecology in Narragansett Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benthic sediment acts as a huge reservoir of particulate and dissolved material (within interstitial water) which can contribute to loading of contaminants and nutrients to the water column. A benthic sediment model is presented in this report to predict spatial and temporal ...

  5. Testing the potential for improving quality of sediments impacted by mussel farms using bioturbating polychaete worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Per; Carlsson, Marita S; Lindegarth, Mats

    2017-01-01

    Biodeposits from farmed mussels severely influence the biogeochemistry of sediments by increasing the levels of organic matter (OM). Mitigation of such negative impacts is important for the development of sustainable aquaculture operations. As a step towards developing methods for remediation...... of coastal sediments affected by mussel farming, the effects of the polychaete, Hediste diversicolor was evaluated experimentally. In a series of field- and laboratory experiments we tested hypotheses about the effects of polychaetes on sediment oxygen consumption, nutrient fluxes and sulphide pools under...... different polychaete densities and sedimentation regimes. The experimental results support the idea that polychaetes can mitigate negative effects on the benthic environment beneath mussel farms. H. diversicolor oxidized the sediment and generally enhanced the oxygen consumption, and thus the decomposition...

  6. Radioactivity, radiological risk and metal pollution assessment in marine sediments from Calabrian selected areas, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, F.; Messina, M.; Faggio, G.; Santangelo, S.; Messina, G.; Belmusto, G.

    2018-02-01

    The two most significant categories of physical and chemical pollutants in sediments (radionuclides and metals) were investigated in this article, in order to evaluate pollution levels in marine sediments from eight different selected sites of the Calabria region, south of Italy. In particular samples were analyzed to determine natural and anthropic radioactivity and metal concentrations, in order to assess any possible radiological hazard, the level of contamination and the possible anthropogenic impact in the investigated area. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were measured by High Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry. The obtained results show that, for radium (in secular equilibrium with uranium), the specific activity ranges from ( 14 ± 1) Bq/kg dry weight (d.w.) to ( 54 ± 9) Bq/kg d.w.; for thorium, from ( 12 ± 1) Bq/kg d.w. to ( 83 ± 8) Bq/kg d.w.; for potassium, from ( 470 ± 20) Bq/kg d.w. to ( 1000 ± 70) Bq/kg d.w. and for cesium it is lower than the minimum detectable activity value. The absorbed gamma dose rate in air (D), the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) outdoor and the external hazard index ( H_ex) were calculated to evaluate any possible radiological risk, mainly due to the use of marine sediments for the beach nourishment. The results show low levels of radioactivity, thus discarding any significant radiological risk. Some metals (As, Cd, Cr tot, Hg, Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe), that could be released into the environment by both natural and anthropogenic sources, were investigated through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements and compared with the limits set by the Italian Legislation, to assess any possible contamination. Experimental results show that they are much lower than the contamination threshold value, thus excluding their presence as pollutants. The degree of sediment contaminations were quantified using enrichment factor ( EF) and geoaccumulation index ( I geo) for

  7. Assessment of sediment contamination by spermiotoxicity and embryotoxicity bioassays with sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffard, O; Budzinski, H; Augagneur, S; Seaman, M N; His, E

    2001-07-01

    Gametes (sperm) and fertilized eggs (embryos) of the Mediterranean sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, and the Japanese oyster, Crassostrea gigas, were used to investigate the toxicity of two marine sediments, one polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the other by heavy metals. The sediment samples were freeze-dried for storage, and three different treatments were used for analysis: whole sediment, unfiltered elutriate, and filtered elutriate. The two sediments were toxic to sea urchin spermatozoa but not to oyster spermatozoa, and embryotoxicity was almost always the more sensitive endpoint for toxicity assessment. As a rule, whole sediment was more toxic than the elutriates by nearly two orders of magnitude. With respect to embryotoxicity, the whole sediments and the elutriates of the PAH-contaminated sediment were more toxic to oyster embryos, whereas the elutriates of the sediment polluted by heavy metals had stronger effects on sea urchin embryos. The results confirm that bioassays with Japanese oyster embryos provide a more sensitive appraisal of toxicity in the marine environment than bioassays with other developmental stages. As a whole, Mediterranean sea urchins and Japanese oysters were similar in overall sensitivity and are therefore both equally suited as bioassay organisms, but tests with oysters are more reproducible because of the better performance of the controls.

  8. Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, and concentrate sample media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granitto, Matthew; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    This database was initiated, designed, and populated to collect and integrate geochemical data from central Colorado in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessment, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessment, and medical geology. The Microsoft Access database serves as a geochemical data warehouse in support of the Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP) and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses determined by 70 analytical laboratory and field methods for 47,478 rock, sediment, soil, and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed either in the analytical laboratories of the USGS or by contract with commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects. In addition, geochemical data from 7,470 sediment and soil samples collected and analyzed under the Atomic Energy Commission National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program (henceforth called NURE) have been included in this database. In addition to data from 2,377 samples collected and analyzed under CCAP, this dataset includes archived geochemical data originally entered into the in-house Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database (used by the USGS from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s) and the in-house PLUTO database (used by the USGS from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s). All of these data are maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB and from the NURE database were used to generate most of this dataset. In addition, USGS data that have been excluded previously from the NGDB because the data predate earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons

  9. Audiovisual quality assessment and prediction for videotelephony

    CERN Document Server

    Belmudez, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The work presented in this book focuses on modeling audiovisual quality as perceived by the users of IP-based solutions for video communication like videotelephony. It also extends the current framework for the parametric prediction of audiovisual call quality. The book addresses several aspects related to the quality perception of entire video calls, namely, the quality estimation of the single audio and video modalities in an interactive context, the audiovisual quality integration of these modalities and the temporal pooling of short sample-based quality scores to account for the perceptual quality impact of time-varying degradations.

  10. The Challenges of Data Quality and Data Quality Assessment in the Big Data Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High-quality data are the precondition for analyzing and using big data and for guaranteeing the value of the data. Currently, comprehensive analysis and research of quality standards and quality assessment methods for big data are lacking. First, this paper summarizes reviews of data quality research. Second, this paper analyzes the data characteristics of the big data environment, presents quality challenges faced by big data, and formulates a hierarchical data quality framework from the perspective of data users. This framework consists of big data quality dimensions, quality characteristics, and quality indexes. Finally, on the basis of this framework, this paper constructs a dynamic assessment process for data quality. This process has good expansibility and adaptability and can meet the needs of big data quality assessment. The research results enrich the theoretical scope of big data and lay a solid foundation for the future by establishing an assessment model and studying evaluation algorithms.

  11. Groundwater quality data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, May 2012 through December 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Terri L.; Desimone, Leslie A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Kingsbury, James A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-06-20

    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 748 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from May 2012 through December 2013. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and radionuclides. These groundwater quality data are tabulated in this report. Quality-control samples also were collected; data from blank and replicate quality-control samples are included in this report.

  12. Balancing Attended and Global Stimuli in Perceived Video Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    . This paper proposes a quality model based on the late attention selection theory, assuming that the video quality is perceived via two mechanisms: global and local quality assessment. First we model several visual features influencing the visual attention in quality assessment scenarios to derive......The visual attention mechanism plays a key role in the human perception system and it has a significant impact on our assessment of perceived video quality. In spite of receiving less attention from the viewers, unattended stimuli can still contribute to the understanding of the visual content...... an attention map using appropriate fusion techniques. The global quality assessment as based on the assumption that viewers allocate their attention equally to the entire visual scene, is modeled by four carefully designed quality features. By employing these same quality features, the local quality model...

  13. Fluvial sediment in the environment: a national challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Gellis, Allen C.; Glysson, G. Douglas; Gray, John R.; Horowitz, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment and sediment-associated constituents can contribute substantially to water-quality impairment. In the past, sediment was viewed mainly as an engineering problem that affected reservoir storage capacity, shipping channel maintenance, and bridge scour, as well as the loss of agricultural soil. Sediment is now recognized as a major cause of aquatic system degradation in many rivers and streams as a result of light attenuation, loss of spawning substrate due to fine-grained sediment infilling, reduction in primary productivity, decreases in biotic diversity, and effects from sediment-associated chemical constituents. Recent advances in sediment measurement, assessment, source-identification, and analytical protocols provide new capabilities to quantify sediment and solid-phase chemical fluxes in aquatic systems. Developing, maintaining, and augmenting current sediment- and water-quality-monitoring networks is essential for determining the health of U.S. waterways and for evaluating the effectiveness of management actions in reducing sediment-related problems. The application of new scientific capabilities that address the adverse effects of sediment and sediment- associated constituents represents a major step in managing the Nation’s water quality. A robust Federal, national-scale eff rt, in collaboration with vested stakeholders, is needed to address these sediment-related water-quality issues across the United States.

  14. Assessing condition of macroinvertebrate communities and sediment toxicity in the St. Lawrence River at Massena Area-of-Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Brian T.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, Alexander J.; George, Scott D.; David, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    In 1972, the USA and Canada agreed to restore the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes ecosystem under the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. In subsequent amendments, part of the St. Lawrence River at Massena, New York and segments of three tributaries, were designated as an Area of Concern (AOC) due to the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead and copper contamination, and habitat degradation and resulting impairment to several beneficial uses. Because sediments have been largely remediated, the present study was initiated to evaluate the current status of the benthic macroinvertebrate (benthos) beneficial use impairment (BUI). Benthic macroinvertebrate communities and sediment toxicity tests using Chironomus dilutus were used to test the hypotheses that community condition and sediment toxicity at AOC sites were not significantly different from those of adjacent reference sites. Grain size was found to be the main driver of community composition and macroinvertebrate assemblages, and bioassessment metrics did not differ significantly between AOC and reference sites of the same sediment class. Median growth of C. dilutus and its survival in three of the four river systems did not differ significantly in sediments from AOC and reference sites. Comparable macroinvertebrate assemblages and general lack of toxicity across most AOC and reference sites suggest that the quality of sediments should not significantly impair benthic macroinvertebrate communities in most sites in the St. Lawrence River AOC.

  15. Cumulative influences of a small city and former mining activities on the sediment quality of a subtropical estuarine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Ana Carolina Feitosa; Davanso, Marcela Bergo; Araujo, Giuliana Seraphim; Buruaem, Lucas M; Santaella, Sandra Tédde; de Morais, Rodofley Davino; Abessa, Denis M S

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the sediment quality in the estuarine protected area known as Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe (CIP-PA), located on the southeastern coast of Brazil. The study was designed considering possible negative effects induced by the city of Cananéia on the sediment quality of surrounding areas. This evaluation was performed using chemical and ecotoxicological analyses. Sediments were predominantly sandy, with low CaCO3 contents. Amounts of organic matter varied, but higher contents occurred closer to the city, as well as did Fe and Total Recoverable Oils and Greases (TROGs) concentrations. Contamination by Cd and Cu was revealed in some samples, while concentrations of Zn were considered low. Chronic toxicity was detected in all tested sediments and acute toxicity occurred only in sediments collected near the city. The principal component analysis (PCA) revealed an association among Cd, Cu, Fe, TROG, fines, organic matter, CaCO3, and chronic toxicity, whereas acute toxicity was found to be associated with Zn and mud. However, because Zn levels were low, acute toxicity was likely due to a contaminant that was not measured. Results show that there is a broad area within the CIP-PA that is under the influence of mining activities (chronic toxicity, moderate contamination by metals), whereas poorer conditions occur closer to Cananéia (acute toxicity); thus, the urban area seems to constitute a relevant source of contaminants for the estuarine complex. These results show that contamination is already capable of producing risks for the local aquatic biota, which suggests that the CIP-PA effectiveness in protecting estuarine biota may be threatened.

  16. Assessment of bridge abutment scour and sediment transport under various flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilja, Gordon; Valyrakis, Manousos; Michalis, Panagiotis; Bekić, Damir; Kuspilić, Neven; McKeogh, Eamon

    2017-04-01

    Safety of bridges over watercourses can be compromised by flow characteristics and bridge hydraulics. Scour process around bridge foundations can develop rapidly during low-recurrence interval floods when structural elements are exposed to increased flows. Variations in riverbed geometry, as a result of sediment removal and deposition processes, can increase flood-induced hazard at bridge sites with catastrophic failures and destructive consequences for civil infrastructure. The quantification of flood induced hazard on bridge safety generally involves coupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport models (i.e. 2D numerical or physical models) for a range of hydrological events covering both high and low flows. Modelled boundary conditions are usually estimated for their probability of occurrence using frequency analysis of long-term recordings at gauging stations. At smaller rivers gauging station records are scarce, especially in upper courses of rivers where weirs, drops and rapids are common elements of river bathymetry. As a result, boundary conditions that accurately represent flow patterns on modelled river reach cannot be often reliably acquired. Sediment transport process is also more complicated to describe due to its complexity and dependence to local flow field making scour hazard assessment a particularly challenging issue. This study investigates the influence of flow characteristics to the development of scour and sedimentation processes around bridge abutments of a single span masonry arch bridge in south Ireland. The impact of downstream weirs on bridge hydraulics through variation of downstream model domain type is also considered in this study. The numerical model is established based on detailed bathymetry data surveyed along a rectangular grid of 50cm spacing. Acquired data also consist of riverbed morphology and water level variations which are monitored continuously on bridge site. The obtained data are then used to compare and calibrate

  17. Assessment of Runoff and Sediment Yields Using the AnnAGNPS Model in a Three-Gorge Watershed of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Nan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion has been recognized as one of the major threats to our environment and water quality worldwide, especially in China. To mitigate nonpoint source water quality problems caused by soil erosion, best management practices (BMPs and/or conservation programs have been adopted. Watershed models, such as the Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollutant Loading model (AnnAGNPS, have been developed to aid in the evaluation of watershed response to watershed management practices. The model has been applied worldwide and proven to be a very effective tool in identifying the critical areas which had serious erosion, and in aiding in decision-making processes for adopting BMPs and/or conservation programs so that cost/benefit can be maximized and non-point source pollution control can be achieved in the most efficient way. The main goal of this study was to assess the characteristics of soil erosion, sediment and sediment delivery of a watershed so that effective conservation measures can be implemented. To achieve the overall objective of this study, all necessary data for the 4,184 km2 Daning River watershed in the Three-Gorge region of the Yangtze River of China were assembled. The model was calibrated using observed monthly runoff from 1998 to 1999 (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency of 0.94 and R2 of 0.94 and validated using the observed monthly runoff from 2003 to 2005 (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency of 0.93 and R2 of 0.93. Additionally, the model was validated using annual average sediment of 2000–2002 (relative error of −0.34 and 2003–2004 (relative error of 0.18 at Wuxi station. Post validation simulation showed that approximately 48% of the watershed was under the soil loss tolerance released by the Ministry of Water Resources of China (500 t·km−2·y−1. However, 8% of the watershed had soil erosion of exceeding 5,000 t·km−2

  18. Spatial distributions, fractionation characteristics, and ecological risk assessment of trace elements in sediments of Chaohu Lake, a large eutrophic freshwater lake in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Rongqiong; Xi, Shanshan; Da, Chunnian; Liu, Fei

    2018-01-01

    The concentrations, spatial distribution, fractionation characteristics, and potential ecological risks of trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Co) in the surface sediment samples collected from 32 sites in Chaohu Lake were investigated. The improved BCR sequential extraction procedure was applied to analyze the chemical forms of trace elements in sediments. The enrichment factor (EF), sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), potential ecological risk index (PERI), and risk assessment code (RAC) were employed to evaluate the pollution levels and the potential ecological risks. The results found that the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Co in the surface sediments were 78.59, 36.91, 161.84, 98.87, 38.92, and 10.09 mg kg -1 , respectively. The lower concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Ni were almost found in the middle part of the lake, while Co increased from the western toward the eastern parts of the lake. Cr, Ni, Co, and Zn predominantly existed in the residual fractions, with the average values of 76.35, 59.22, 45.60, and 44.30%, respectively. Cu and Pb were mainly combined with Fe/Mn oxides in reducible fraction, with the average values of 66.4 and 69.1%, respectively. The pollution levels were different among the selected elements. Cu had the highest potential ecological risk, while Cr had the lowest potential ecological risk.

  19. Monitoring and Assessment of Youshui River Water Quality in Youyang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-qin; Wen, Juan; Chen, Ping-hua; Liu, Na-na

    2018-02-01

    By monitoring the water quality of Youshui River from January 2016 to December 2016, according to the indicator grading and the assessment standard of water quality, the formulas for 3 types water quality indexes are established. These 3 types water quality indexes, the single indicator index Ai, single moment index Ak and the comprehensive water quality index A, were used to quantitatively evaluate the quality of single indicator, the water quality and the change of water quality with time. The results show that, both total phosphorus and fecal coliform indicators exceeded the standard, while the other 16 indicators measured up to the standard. The water quality index of Youshui River is 0.93 and the grade of water quality comprehensive assessment is level 2, which indicated that the water quality of Youshui River is good, and there is room for further improvement. To this end, several protection measures for Youshui River environmental management and pollution treatment are proposed.

  20. Assessing water quality in Lake Naivasha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndungu, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality in aquatic systems is important because it maintains the ecological processes that support biodiversity. However, declining water quality due to environmental perturbations threatens the stability of the biotic integrity and therefore hinders the ecosystem services and functions of

  1. Quality assessment for online iris images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makinana, S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition systems have attracted much attention for their uniqueness, stability and reliability. However, performance of this system depends on quality of iris image. Therefore there is a need to select good quality images before features can...

  2. Evaluation methods for assessing effectiveness of in situ remediation of soil and sediment contaminated with organic pollutants and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Biao; Zeng, Guangming; Gong, Jilai; Liang, Jie; Xu, Piao; Liu, Zhifeng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chen; Cheng, Min; Liu, Yang; Ye, Shujing; Yi, Huan; Ren, Xiaoya

    2017-08-01

    Soil and sediment contamination has become a critical issue worldwide due to its great harm to the ecological environment and public health. In recent years, many remediation technologies including physical, chemical, biological, and combined methods have been proposed and adopted for the purpose of solving the problems of soil and sediment contamination. However, current research on evaluation methods for assessing these remediation technologies is scattered and lacks valid and integrated evaluation methods for assessing the remediation effectiveness. This paper provides a comprehensive review with an environmental perspective on the evaluation methods for assessing the effectiveness of in situ remediation of soil and sediment contaminated with organic pollutants and heavy metals. The review systematically summarizes recent exploration and attempts of the remediation effectiveness assessment based on the content of pollutants, soil and sediment characteristics, and ecological risks. Moreover, limitations and future research needs of the practical assessment are discussed. These limitations are not conducive to the implementation of the abatement and control programs for soil and sediment contamination. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the evaluation methods for assessing the remediation effectiveness while developing new in situ remediation technologies in future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Water-quality assessment of the Smith River drainage basin, California and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsubo, Rick T.; Washabaugh, Donna S.

    1982-01-01

    A water-quality assessment of the Smith River drainage basin was made to provide a summary of the water-quality conditions including known or potential water-quality problems. Results of the study showed that the water quality of the Smith River is excellent and generally meets the water-quality objectives for the beneficial uses identified by the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, North Coast Region. Known and potential problems related to water quality include: Sedimentation resulting from both natural erosional processes and land-use activities such as timber harvest, road construction, and mining that accelerate the erosional processes; bacterial contamination of surface and ground waters from inundated septic tanks and drainfields, and grazing activities; industrial spills which have resulted in fish kills and oil residues; high concetrations of iron in ground water; log and debris jams creating fish migration barriers; and pesticide and trace-element contamination from timber-harvest and mining activities, respectively. Future studies are needed to establish: (1) a sustained long-term monitoring program to provide a broad coverage of water-quality conditions in order to define long-term water-quality trends; and (2) interpretive studies to determine the source of known and potential water-quality problems. (USGS)

  4. Adaptive testing for video quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menkovski, V.; Exarchakos, G.; Liotta, A.; Damásio, M.J.; Cardoso, G.; Quico, C.; Geerts, D.

    2011-01-01

    Optimizing the Quality of Experience and avoiding under or over provisioning in video delivery services requires understanding of how different resources affect the perceived quality. The utility of resources, such as bit-rate, is directly calculated by proportioningthe improvement in quality over

  5. assessing participation in secondary education quality enhancement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    for low parents and communities involvement in secondary education-quality improvement. It was recommended that the quality of instruction in ... concern on standard of education hinges on the quality of instruction the children are ... NTI, 2000). This implies that teachers have a duty of helping students under their care to.

  6. Assessing the ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments at Langkawi Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasher, Essam; Heng, Lee Yook; Zakaria, Zuriati; Surif, Salmijah

    2013-01-01

    Tourism-related activities such as the heavy use of boats for transportation are a significant source of petroleum hydrocarbons that may harm the ecosystem of Langkawi Island. The contamination and toxicity levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in the sediments of Langkawi were evaluated using sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) and toxic equivalent factors. Ten samples were collected from jetties and fish farms around the island in December 2010. A gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used to analyse the 18 PAHs. The concentration of total PAHs was found to range from 869 ± 00 to 1637 ± 20 ng g⁻¹ with a mean concentration of 1167.00 ± 24 ng g⁻¹, lower than the SQG effects range-low (3442 ng g⁻¹). The results indicated that PAHs may not cause acute biological damage. Diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis suggested that the PAHs were likely to originate from pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. The toxic equivalent concentrations of the PAHs ranged from 76.3 to 177 ng TEQ/g d.w., which is lower compared to similar studies. The results of mean effects range-median quotient of the PAHs were lower than 0.1, which indicate an 11% probability of toxicity effect. Hence, the sampling sites were determined to be the low-priority sites.

  7. Water Quality and Sedimentation Data of the Coastal Intensive Site Network (CISNet) Long Term Monitoring Sites in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii from 1998 to 2001 (NODC Accession 0001473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A long term project to monitor water quality and sediment processes in Kaneohe Bay was initiated in November 1998 and continued through July 2001. Four primary sites...

  8. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM), released in 2002, is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  9. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  10. Distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments in Xiaoqing river estuary and its adjacent sea of Laizhou bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Luo, Xianxiang; Fan, Yuqing

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the monitoring results of four heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn and Hg at 10 sampling stations in Xiaoqing river estuary and its adjacent sea of Laizhou Bay in November 2008 were analyzed and evaluated. The results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in the steam channel and estuary are higher than those in the adjacent sea, and the metal concentrations were below the standard for I class of marine sediment quality, excepting the station 2 in the steam channel and station 5 in the estuary. The assessment of the single-factor pollution index showed that the overall pollution level of the study area was relatively low, but there was serious pollution phenomenon in individual station. The potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the surface sediments was generally at a low level, and Hg had the highest potential risk.

  11. Ecotoxicological assessment of sediments from Tiete river between Salesopolis and Suzano, SP (Brazil); Avaliacao ecotoxicologica de sedimentos do rio Tiete, entre os municipios de Salesopolis e Suzano, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alegre, Gabriel Fonseca

    2009-07-01

    Once introduced into the aquatic environment, many substances can bind or be adsorbed by organic particles in suspension. Depending on the river morphology and hydrological conditions, these particles in suspension containing the contaminants can be deposited along its course, becoming part of the bottom sediments, making them actual sinks and often a source of contamination for the water column and benthic organisms. In the assessment of water, sediment has been one of the most important indicators of the contamination levels in aquatic ecosystems, representing the deposition of contaminants in the environment that occurred over the years and even decades. The Tiete River cross the Sao Paulo state, however, in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, the river shows the most severe degradation. In the region of Salesopolis, the waters of the Tiete River are used for public supply, but across the city of Mogi das Cruzes the water quality decreases significantly. Considering the importance of the Tiete river and the sediment for the aquatic biota, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of the sediment at five points along the Tiete river, between the cities of Salesopolis and Suzano, Sao Paulo. Four sampling were carried out: two in the summer (rainy season) and two in winter (dry season). The whole sediment was assessed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia, respectively, the elutriate was assessed by chronic toxicity test using C. dubia, while the porewater was evaluated by acute toxicity test with Vibrio fischeri. Samples of river water were also evaluated for chronic toxicity tests with C. dubia. The quantification of metals and hydrocarbons in sediment samples was also carried out in order to correlate the biological effects with the chemical contamination. The obtained results with the whole sediment test indicate Mogi das Cruzes and Suzano cities as the most toxic sites and also as the sites with the highest

  12. Assessment of pollution and identification of sources of heavy metals in the sediments of Changshou Lake in a branch of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ao; Wang, Yechun; Guo, Hongtao; Bo, Lei; Zhang, Sheng; Bai, Yili

    2015-10-01

    To assess the heavy metal pollution in Changshou Lake, sediments were collected from nine sites at three periods (dry, normal, and wet) in 2013. The Hg, As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn levels were then determined. The index of geoaccumulation (I geo) and the sediment pollution index (SPI) were applied to the sediment assessment, and Pearson's correlation analysis and factor analysis (FA) were performed to identify common pollution sources in the basin. The results showed that heavy metals presented significant spatial variations with Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg, and As concentrations of 29.66~42.58, 0.62~0.91, 24.91~37.96, 21.18~74.91, 41.65~86.86, 0.079~0.152, and 20.17~36.88 mg kg(-1), respectively, and no obvious variations were found among the different periods. The average contents of the metals followed the order Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > As > Cd > Hg, which showed a high pollution in the sediments collected from open water and at the river mouth. The assessment results indicated that toxic heavy metals presented obvious pollution with I Hg of 0.64~1.36 (moderately polluted), I Cd of 1.66~2.22 (moderately to heavily polluted), and I As of 1.21~2.07 (moderately to heavily polluted). The heavy metal pollution states followed the order Cd > As > Hg > Cu > Pb > Zn > Cr, and the SPI showed that the sediment collected from open water area was more polluted than those obtained from the tributaries and the river mouth. Cr, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, As, and Zn were mainly attributed to sediment weathering with Hg, Pb, and Cu and partially due to domestic sewage from the upper reaches. These results indicate that the more attention should be paid to the inner loads of sediment in order to achieve improvements in reservoir water quality after the control of external pollution.

  13. Assessment of copper, cadmium and zinc remobilization in Mediterranean marine coastal sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellari, Aikaterini; Plavšić, Marta; Karavoltsos, Sotiris; Dassenakis, Manos; Scoullos, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The remobilization of copper, cadmium and zinc in sediments of three selected coastal microenvironments of the Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean) is assessed. Various analytical methods and techniques were employed providing concentrations, profiles and forms of metals and organic matter in sediments and pore waters. At Loutropyrgos, a non-industrial site located, however, within an intensively industrialized enclosed gulf, an intense resupply of zinc in pore water from sediment was recorded, correlating with the highest value of weakly bound fraction of zinc determined at this area. The comparatively high zinc concentrations measured in the pore waters (394 nM), exceed considerably those in the overlying seawater (12.5 nM determined by DGT; 13.5 nM total), resulting in the formation of a strong concentration gradient at the sediment-water interface. Potential zinc flux at the sediment-water interface at Loutropyrgos (based on 0.4 mm DGT profile) was calculated equal to 0.8 mmol.m -2.d -1. The half lives of trace metals at Loutropyrgos site, based on the aforementioned DGT profiles, amount to 0.1 y (Zn), 2.8 y (Cd), 4.5 y (Cu), 2.2 y (Mn) and 0.4 y (Fe) pointing out to the reactivity of these metals at the sediment-water interface. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in pore waters of the three selected sites (2.7-5.2 mg/L) was up to four times higher compared to that of the corresponding overlying seawater. Similarly, the concentrations of carbohydrates in pore waters (0.20-0.91 mg/L monosaccharides; 0.71-1.6 mg/L polysaccharides) are an order of magnitude higher than those of seawater, forming a concentration gradient at the sediment-water interface. Total carbohydrates contribute between 34 and 48% of the organic carbon of the pore waters, being significantly higher than those of seawater from the corresponding areas, which were in the range of 15-21%. The complexing capacity as for copper ions (CCu) determined in pore water ranges widely, from 0

  14. Quality-Assurance Plan for the Analysis of Fluvial Sediment by the U. S. Geological Survey Kentucky Water Science Center Sediment Laboratory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shreve, Elizabeth A; Downs, Aimee C

    2005-01-01

    This report describes laboratory procedures used by the U. S. Geological Survey Kentucky Water Science Center Sediment Laboratory for the processing and analysis of fluvial sediment samples for concentration of sand and finer material...

  15. A Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis for trace metal assessment of sediments in the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragbirsingh, Y.; Norville, W.

    2005-01-01

    The Gulf of Paria is a semi-enclosed shallow basin with increasing coastal development activities along Trinidad's west coast. Sediments present a host for trace metal pollutants from overlying waters, therefore determination of their content is critical in evaluating and detecting sources of marine pollution. This paper presents a Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis of geochemical assessment for trace metals in coastal sediments of the Gulf of Paria. This GIS approach facilitates interpretation of the spatial relationships among key environmental processes. The GIS development involves the integration of spatial and attribute data pertaining to bathymetry, current systems, topography, rivers, land use/land cover and coastal sediments. It employs spatial interpolation and retrieval operations to analyze the total trace metal concentrations of aluminum, copper and lead in the sediments and the clay-enriched sediments, to determine whether they are related to sediment type or are affected by the discharge from anthropogenic sources. Spatial distribution modeling of element concentrations are produced to indicate contamination plumes from possible anthropogenic sources such as rivers entering the Gulf of Paria, and to reveal potential hot spots and dispersion patterns. A direct spatial correlation between clay-enriched sediments and high concentrations of aluminum and lead is detected, however regions of high concentrations of copper and lead indicate a relationship to anthropogenic sources. The effectiveness of GIS for visualization, spatial query and overlay of geochemical analysis is demonstrated [es

  16. Bioluminescent Vibrio fischeri assays in the assessment of seasonal and spatial patterns in toxicity of contaminated river sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Jarque

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Several bacteria-based assays, notably Vibrio fischeri luminescence assays, are often used as environmental monitoring tool for toxicity in sediments that may serve as both sinks and secondary source of contamination in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we used 30-s kinetic bioassays based on V. fischeri to evaluate the toxicity associated to sediments from five localities with different contamination inputs (Morava River and its tributary Drevnice River in the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic. Toxicity assessed as half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 over the course of a year-long sampling was compared in bottom sediments and freshly trapped particulate material. Standard approach based on testing of aqueous elutriates was compared with toxicity of whole sediments (contact suspension toxicity. Bottom sediments showed lower toxicity compared to freshly trapped suspended materials in all cases. On the other hand, standardized elutriates induced generally weaker effects than suspended sediments likely due to losses during the extraction process. Toxicity generally increased during winter reaching maximum peaks in early spring months in all five sites. Total organic carbon (TOC was found to be highly correlated with toxic effects. Toxicity from sites with direct industrial and agricultural water inputs also correlated with concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. Single time point sampling followed by the extraction and testing of elutriates, do not truly reflect the spatial and temporal variability in natural sediments and may lead to underestimation of ecotoxic risks.

  17. Distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments in the Yellow Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xin; Teng, Ankang; Xu, Wenzhe; Liu, Xiaoshou

    2014-06-15

    Heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments at 56 stations during two cruises in the Yellow Sea in summer and winter, 2011 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The pollution status was assessed via the Geoaccumulation index and Hankanson potential ecological risk index. Higher concentrations of heavy metals (except for Mn) were found in the central Southern Yellow Sea and the western Northern Yellow Sea. The higher contents of Mn were much closer to Shandong Peninsula. Correlation analyses indicated that Pb, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Co probably had the same origin and were controlled by grain size and total organic carbon. Pollution assessment showed that most areas of the Yellow Sea were not or lowly contaminated with the exception of the northwest and south parts of the Southern Yellow Sea showing Cd-contamination. The pollution status of the Yellow Sea in summer was worse than that in winter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Building quality into performance and safety assessment software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciechowski, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Quality assurance is integrated throughout the development lifecycle for performance and safety assessment software. The software used in the performance and safety assessment of a Canadian deep geological repository (DGR) follows the CSA quality assurance standard CSA-N286.7 [1], Quality Assurance of Analytical, Scientific and Design Computer Programs for Nuclear Power Plants. Quality assurance activities in this standard include tasks such as verification and inspection; however, much more is involved in producing a quality software computer program. The types of errors found with different verification methods are described. The integrated quality process ensures that defects are found and corrected as early as possible. (author)

  19. Ecotoxicological assessment of the pharmaceutical compound Triclosan to freshwater invertebrates with emphasis to spiked sediment tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusceddu, Fabio Hermes

    2009-01-01

    The increasing of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) occurrence in the aquatic environment cause adverse effects on the human health and aquatic communities. The environmental risk of the PPCPs associated with the possibility of synergic effects between PCPPs and the increase of the use of synthetic organic compounds, unchained a great concern on the toxic potential to biota aquatic. Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-phenol) is a pharmaceutical compound widely used due your antibacterial mechanism effect, found in at least 932 products such as shampoos, toilet soaps, deodorants, lotions, toothpaste, detergents, socks and underwear, among others. Currently, studies about the Triclosan toxicity in the water and, mainly in the sediment, are poorly. We have the knowledge that the photodegradation of this product results into dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and now it has great discussion on environmental agencies, like EPA, about the release or restriction of this product. The aim of this work is to assess the effects of Triclosan on mortality of insect larvae Chironomus xanthus and mortality and reproduction inhibition of microcrustacea Ceriodaphnia dubia exposed to Triclosan spiked sediments based on standard methods EPA and OECD. The EC50;96H obtained on acute toxicity tests with C. xanthus was 45,26 mg.Kg -1 . The chronic toxicity tests with C. dubia using spiked sediments were performed following the procedure in Burton and MacPherson (1995). A no-observed-effect concentrations and lowest-observed-effect concentration were 5,78 e 6,94 mg.Kg -1 , respectively. (author)

  20. Development of a dementia assessment quality database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, P.; Jørgensen, Kasper; Korner, A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increased focus on the quality of health care requires tools and information to address and improve quality. One tool to evaluate and report the quality of clinical health services is quality indicators based on a clinical database. METHOD: The Capital Region of Denmark runs a quality...... database for dementia evaluation in the secondary health system. One volume and seven process quality indicators on dementia evaluations are monitored. Indicators include frequency of demented patients, percentage of patients evaluated within three months, whether the work-up included blood tests, Mini...... for the data analyses. RESULTS: The database was constructed in 2005 and covers 30% of the Danish population. Data from all consecutive cases evaluated for dementia in the secondary health system in the Capital Region of Denmark are entered. The database has shown that the basic diagnostic work-up programme...

  1. THE USE OF GEOMORPHOLOGY AND STREAM STABILITY IN THE ASSESSMENT OF THE RISK OF STREAM IMPAIRMENT FROM SEDIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The evaluation of the current condition is critical to the management of streams impaired by sediment and other non-point source stressors, which adversely affect both physical habitat and water quality. Several rating and classification systems based on geomorphic data exist for...

  2. Quality assessment of home births in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sabrina; Colmorn, Lotte B; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Krebs, Lone

    2017-05-01

    The safety of home births has been widely debated. Observational studies examining maternal and neonatal outcomes of home births have become more frequent, and the quality of these studies has improved. The aim of the present study was to describe neonatal outcomes of home births compared with hospital births and to discuss which data are needed to evaluate the safety of home births. This was a register-based cohort study. Data on all births in Denmark (2003-2013) were collected from the Danish Medical Birth Registry (DMBR). The cohort included healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies and no medical interventions during delivery. A total of 6,395 home births and 266,604 hospital births were eligible for analysis. Comparative analyses were performed separately in nulliparous and multiparous women. The outcome measures were neonatal mortality and morbidity. Frequencies of admission to a neonatal intensive care unit and treatment with continuous positive airway pressure were significantly lower in infants born at home than in infants born at a hospital. A slightly, but significantly increased rate of early neonatal death was found among infants delivered by nulliparous at home. This study indicates that home births in Denmark are characterized by a high level of safety owing to low rates of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Missing registration on intrapartum transfers and planned versus unplanned home births in the DMBR are, however, major limitations to the validity and utility of the reported results. Registration of these items of information is necessary to make reasonable assessments of home births in the future. none. not relevant. Articles published in the DMJ are “open access”. This means that the articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, which permits any non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

  3. Aplication Of Life Cycle Assessment On Water Quality Caesed By Fish Culture Activity In Cirata Reservoir, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Heru Prihadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is an environmental analytical tool used for evaluating the environmental performance of products by compiling and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout the life cycle of product.Sources of the decomposition at Cirata Reservoir are from industrial activities, household waste, agricultural waste, and the leftover from the activities of floating net fish cages. The wastes are in the form of fat, protein and carbohydrat. In decomposition process and the rate of destruction process of organic matters in the sediment  is carried our by bacteria, resulting in the oxygen dissolved in the waters will decrease. This lessens the oxygen at Cirata reservoir so that decomposition process takes place anaerobically at the bottom of the waters. The methodology was conducted by  water and sediment sampling, measuring water quality on location and laboratory analysis for samples of water and sediment. Analysis result showed that the data of water quality collected in every station was relatively homogeneous. The quality of water at measuring time approached critical treshold required for fish raising. The result showed that the level of decomposition Sediment Organic Metter, water quality in Cirata reservoir based on IKA_STORET valued class I, II, and III catagorized as worse. Valued DO, sulfide, Fenol, BOD, COD, Total Fosfat byone  water quality standar. The destruction will occur by itself, depending on the availability of oxygen on the sediment and interface when there is bacteria serving as heterotraphic aerobic in line with the availability of dissolved oxygen for bacteria to do the decomposition activity in the sediment. The result would be confirmed on dendogram classification hierarchy, result revealed that stations of observation were divided into 2 groups according to affecting characteristics. Group 1 covering stasion 1 and 2, group 2 which covering station 3

  4. A mathematical model of reservoir sediment quality prediction based on land-use and erosion processes in watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junakova, N.; Balintova, M.; Junak, J.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a mathematical model for determining of total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) content in eroded soil particles with emphasis on prediction of bottom sediment quality in reservoirs. The adsorbed nutrient concentrations are calculated using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) extended by the determination of the average soil nutrient concentration in top soils. The average annual vegetation and management factor is divided into five periods of the cropping cycle. For selected plants, the average plant nutrient uptake divided into five cropping periods is also proposed. The average nutrient concentrations in eroded soil particles in adsorbed form are modified by sediment enrichment ratio to obtain the total nutrient content in transported soil particles. The model was designed for the conditions of north-eastern Slovakia. The study was carried out in the agricultural basin of the small water reservoir Klusov.

  5. An assessment of mercury in estuarine sediment and tissue in Southern New Jersey using public domain data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kara; Szabo, Zoltan; Reilly, Pamela A.; Barringer, Julia; Smalling, Kelly L.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is considered a contaminant of global concern for coastal environments due to its toxicity, widespread occurrence in sediment, and bioaccumulation in tissue. Coastal New Jersey, USA, is characterized by shallow bays and wetlands that provide critical habitat for wildlife but share space with expanding urban landscapes. This study was designed as an assessment of the magnitude and distribution of Hg in coastal New Jersey sediments and critical species using publicly available data to highlight potential data gaps. Mercury concentrations in estuary sediments can exceed 2 μg/g and correlate with concentrations of other metals. Based on existing data, the concentrations of Hg in mussels in southern New Jersey are comparable to those observed in other urbanized Atlantic Coast estuaries. Lack of methylmercury data for sediments, other media, and tissues are data gaps needing to be filled for a clearer understanding of the impacts of Hg inputs to the ecosystem.

  6. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in the Surrounding Soils and Surface Sediments in Xiawangang River, Qingshuitang District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Chang; Ma, Xiaoying; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Jiachao; Lu, Lunhui; Yu, Qian; Hu, Langping; Liu, Lifeng

    2013-01-01

    Xiawanggang River region is considered to be one of the most polluted areas in China due to its huge amount discharge of pollutants and accumulation for years. As it is one branch of Xiang River and the area downstream is Changsha city, the capital of Hunan Province, the ecological niche of Xiawangang River is very important. The pollution treatment in this area was emphasized in the Twelfth Five-Year Plan of Chinese government for Xiang River Water Environmental Pollution Control. In order to assess the heavy metal pollution and provide the base information in this region for The Twelfth Five-Year Plan, contents and fractions of four heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) covering both sediments and soils were analyzed to study their contamination state. Three different indexes were applied to assess the pollution extent. The results showed this area was severely polluted by the four heavy metals, and the total concentrations exceeded the Chinese environmental quality standard for soil, grade III, especially for Cd. Moreover, Cd, rated as being in high risk, had a high mobility as its great contents of exchangeable and carbonates fractions in spite of its relative low content. Regression analysis revealed clay could well explain the regression equation for Cd, Cu and Zn while pH and sand could significantly interpret the regression equation for Pb. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between Non-residual fraction and Igeo for all the four metals. Correlation analysis showed four metals maybe had similar pollution sources. PMID:23951103

  7. Use of multispectral satellite remote sensing to assess mixing of suspended sediment downstream of large river confluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, M.; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Greenberg, Jonathan A.

    2018-01-01

    Although past work has noted that contrasts in turbidity often are detectable on remotely sensed images of rivers downstream from confluences, no systematic methodology has been developed for assessing mixing over distance of confluent flows with differing surficial suspended sediment concentrations (SSSC). In contrast to field measurements of mixing below confluences, satellite remote-sensing can provide detailed information on spatial distributions of SSSC over long distances. This paper presents a methodology that uses remote-sensing data to estimate spatial patterns of SSSC downstream of confluences along large rivers and to determine changes in the amount of mixing over distance from confluences. The method develops a calibrated Random Forest (RF) model by relating training SSSC data from river gaging stations to derived spectral indices for the pixels corresponding to gaging-station locations. The calibrated model is then used to predict SSSC values for every river pixel in a remotely sensed image, which provides the basis for mapping of spatial variability in SSSCs along the river. The pixel data are used to estimate average surficial values of SSSC at cross sections spaced uniformly along the river. Based on the cross-section data, a mixing metric is computed for each cross section. The spatial pattern of change in this metric over distance can be used to define rates and length scales of surficial mixing of suspended sediment downstream of a confluence. This type of information is useful for exploring the potential influence of various controlling factors on mixing downstream of confluences, for evaluating how mixing in a river system varies over time and space, and for determining how these variations influence water quality and ecological conditions along the river.

  8. Assessing metal contamination in recent creek sediments using fractionation technique along Mumbai coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, L.L.; Nayak, G.N.

    nitrogen) and sediment components (sand, silt, clay). A sequential extraction procedure was also applied to understand the partitioning of trace metals among the different fractions of the sediment. Together with this data, pollution indices were also...

  9. Selected Malaysia air quality pollutants assessment using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of PCA, FA, KMO and Bartlett's test were done on five main air quality pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, CO and PM10) from all around Malaysia. From the data analysis obtained, the concentrations of air quality pollutants all around Malaysia starting from 2008 to 2011 were acceptable and the most dominant major ...

  10. Microbiological methods for assessing soil quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.; Hopkins, D.W.; Benedetti, A.

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a selection of microbiological methods that are already applied in regional or national soil quality monitoring programs. It is split into two parts: part one gives an overview of approaches to monitoring, evaluating and managing soil quality. Part two provides a selection of

  11. Water quality assessment of bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocio Diaz-Chavez; Goran Berndes; Dan Neary; Andre Elia Neto; Mamadou Fall

    2011-01-01

    Water quality is a measurement of the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of water against certain standards set to ensure ecological and/or human health. Biomass production and conversion to fuels and electricity can impact water quality in lakes, rivers, and aquifers with consequences for aquatic ecosystem health and also human water uses. Depending on...

  12. Key parameters of the sediment surface morphodynamics in an estuary - An assessment of model solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, D. M. R.; Boski, T.

    2018-05-01

    Large-scale geomorphological evolution of an estuarine system was simulated by means of a hybrid estuarine sedimentation model (HESM) applied to the Guadiana Estuary, in Southwest Iberia. The model simulates the decadal-scale morphodynamics of the system under environmental forcing, using a set of analytical solutions to simplified equations of tidal wave propagation in shallow waters, constrained by empirical knowledge of estuarine sedimentary dynamics and topography. The key controlling parameters of the model are bed friction (f), current velocity power of the erosion rate function (N), and sea-level rise rate. An assessment of sensitivity of the simulated sediment surface elevation (SSE) change to these controlling parameters was performed. The model predicted the spatial differentiation of accretion and erosion, the latter especially marked in the mudflats within mean sea level and low tide level and accretion was mainly in a subtidal channel. The average SSE change mutually depended on both the friction coefficient and power of the current velocity. Analysis of the average annual SSE change suggests that the state of intertidal and subtidal compartments of the estuarine system vary differently according to the dominant processes (erosion and accretion). As the Guadiana estuarine system shows dominant erosional behaviour in the context of sea-level rise and sediment supply reduction after the closure of the Alqueva Dam, the most plausible sets of parameter values for the Guadiana Estuary are N = 1.8 and f = 0.8f0, or N = 2 and f = f0, where f0 is the empirically estimated value. For these sets of parameter values, the relative errors in SSE change did not exceed ±20% in 73% of simulation cells in the studied area. Such a limit of accuracy can be acceptable for an idealized modelling of coastal evolution in response to uncertain sea-level rise scenarios in the context of reduced sediment supply due to flow regulation. Therefore, the idealized but cost

  13. Cancer Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Soils and Sediments of India: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti; Sinha, Alok

    2017-10-01

    A carcinogenic risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and sediments was conducted using the probabilistic approach from a national perspective. Published monitoring data of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in soils and sediments at different study points across India were collected and converted to their corresponding BaP equivalent concentrations. These BaP equivalent concentrations were used to evaluate comprehensive cancer risk for two different age groups. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis were applied to quantify uncertainties of risk estimation. The analysis denotes 90% cancer risk value of 1.770E-5 for children and 3.156E-5 for adults at heavily polluted site soils. Overall carcinogenic risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of India were mostly in acceptance limits. However, the food ingestion exposure route for sediments leads them to a highly risked zone. The 90% risk values from sediments are 7.863E-05 for children and 3.999E-04 for adults. Sensitivity analysis reveals exposure duration and relative skin adherence factor for soil as the most influential parameter of the assessment, followed by BaP equivalent concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For sediments, biota to sediment accumulation factor of fish in terms of BaP is most sensitive on the total outcome, followed by BaP equivalent and exposure duration. Individual exposure route analysis showed dermal contact for soils and food ingestion for sediments as the main exposure pathway. Some specific locations such as surrounding areas of Bhavnagar, Raniganj, Sunderban, Raipur, and Delhi demand potential strategies of carcinogenic risk management and reduction. The current study is probably the first attempt to provide information on the carcinogenic risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and sediments across India.

  14. Cancer Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Soils and Sediments of India: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti; Sinha, Alok

    2017-10-01

    A carcinogenic risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and sediments was conducted using the probabilistic approach from a national perspective. Published monitoring data of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in soils and sediments at different study points across India were collected and converted to their corresponding BaP equivalent concentrations. These BaP equivalent concentrations were used to evaluate comprehensive cancer risk for two different age groups. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis were applied to quantify uncertainties of risk estimation. The analysis denotes 90% cancer risk value of 1.770E-5 for children and 3.156E-5 for adults at heavily polluted site soils. Overall carcinogenic risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of India were mostly in acceptance limits. However, the food ingestion exposure route for sediments leads them to a highly risked zone. The 90% risk values from sediments are 7.863E-05 for children and 3.999E-04 for adults. Sensitivity analysis reveals exposure duration and relative skin adherence factor for soil as the most influential parameter of the assessment, followed by BaP equivalent concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For sediments, biota to sediment accumulation factor of fish in terms of BaP is most sensitive on the total outcome, followed by BaP equivalent and exposure duration. Individual exposure route analysis showed dermal contact for soils and food ingestion for sediments as the main exposure pathway. Some specific locations such as surrounding areas of Bhavnagar, Raniganj, Sunderban, Raipur, and Delhi demand potential strategies of carcinogenic risk management and reduction. The current study is probably the first attempt to provide information on the carcinogenic risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and sediments across India.

  15. Water-quality assessment of the Kentucky River basin, Kentucky; results of investigations of surface-water quality, 1987-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, K.H.; Garcia, Rene; Jarrett, G.L.; Porter, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey investigated the water quality of the Kentucky River Basin in Kentucky as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment program. Data collected during 1987-90 were used to describe the spatial and temporal variability of water-quality constituents including metals and trace elements, nutrients, sediments, pesticides, dissolved oxygen, and fecal-coliform bacteria. Oil-production activities were the source of barium, bromide, chloride, magnesium, and sodium in several watersheds. High concentrations of aluminum, iron, and zinc were related to surface mining in the Eastern Coal Field Region. High concentrations of lead and zinc occurred in streambed sediments in urban areas, whereas concentrations of arsenic, strontium, and uranium were associated with natural geologic sources. Concentrations of phosphorus were significantly correlated with urban and agricultural land use. The high phosphorus content of Bluegrass Region soils was an important source of phosphorus in streams. At many sites in urban areas, most of the stream nitrogen load was attributable to wastewater-treatment-plant effluent. Average suspended-sediment concentrations were positively correlated with discharge. There was a downward trend in suspended-sediment concentrations downstream in the Kentucky River main stem during the study. The most frequently detected herbicides in water samples were atrazine, 2,4-D, alachlor, metolachlor, and dicamba. Diazinon, malathion, and parathion were the most frequently detected organophosphate insecticides in water samples. Detectable concentrations of aldrin, chlordane, DDT, DDE, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan, heptachlor, and lindane were found in streambed-sediment samples. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were sometimes below the minimum concentration needed to sustain aquatic life. At some sites, high concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were found and water samples did not meet sanitary water-quality criteria.

  16. Development of a bioassay to assess the toxicity of oil sands sediments to pike (Esox lucius)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, D.; Yuan, H.; Tumber, V.; Parrott, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Raine, J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Pike (Esox lucius) are a commercially sought fish species that inhabit the Athabasca River, which flows through the Athabasca oil sands. The fish are exposed to natural sources of bitumen from the McMurray formation. This study was conducted to design and implement a daily-renewal bioassay to assess the toxicity of oil sands to this fish species and to obtain information regarding the development of pike exposed to bitumen. Eggs were collected and fertilized with milt from spawning wild pike captured from Lake Diefenbaker in Saskatchewan. The fertilized eggs were exposed to different concentrations of sediments or culture water only (negative controls) until complete yolk absorption of control fish, approximately 15 days post-hatch. For the rest of the experiment, brine shrimp were fed to the walleye embryos every day after hatching. The developing fish were examined for morphological deformities, survival, hatching success, and changes in weight and length. The research findings indicated that pike is less sensitive than walleye and fathead minnow to the toxicity of oil sands sediments.

  17. The T-TEL Method for Assessing Water, Sediment, and Chemical Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Genevieve; Oswald, Claire; Spence, Christopher; Wellen, Christopher

    2018-02-01

    The concept of connectivity has been the subject of a great deal of recent research and provided new insights and breakthroughs on runoff generation processes and watershed biogeochemistry. However, a consensus definition and cohesive mathematical framework that would permit the consistent quantification of hydrologic connectivity, the examination of the interrelationships between water and material (e.g., sediment and chemicals) connectivity, or rigorous study intercomparison, have not been presented by the water resource community. Building on previous conceptualizations and site-specific or process-specific metrics, this paper aimed to review the current state of science on hydrologic connectivity and its role in water-mediated connectivity of material such as solutes and sediment before introducing a conceptual and a mathematical connectivity assessment framework. These frameworks rely on the quantification of Time scales, Thresholds, Excesses and Losses related to water and water-mediated material transport dynamics and are referred to as the T-TEL method. Through a small case study, we show how the T-TEL method allows a wide range of properties to be quantified, namely the occurrence, frequency, duration, magnitude, and spatial extent of water and water-mediated material connectivity. We also propose a research agenda to refine the T-TEL method and ensure its usefulness for facilitating the research and management of connectivity in pristine and human-impacted landscapes.

  18. The use of bioassays to assess the toxicity of sediment in an acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure of river sediment from 7 sampling sites to these bioassays provided an eco-toxicological estimation of the acute toxicity and chronic toxicity emanating from the contaminated sediments. Physico-chemical analyses revealed higher levels of sediment contamination closer to the mine. The bioassays displayed a ...

  19. Temperature-induced impacts on groundwater quality and arsenic mobility in anoxic aquifer sediments used for both drinking water and shallow geothermal energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, Matthijs; van Breukelen, Boris M; Stuyfzand, Pieter J

    2013-09-15

    Aquifers used for the production of drinking water are increasingly being used for the generation of shallow geothermal energy. This causes temperature perturbations far beyond the natural variations in aquifers and the effects of these temperature variations on groundwater quality, in particular trace elements, have not been investigated. Here, we report the results of column experiments to assess the impacts of temperature variations (5°C, 11°C, 25°C and 60°C) on groundwater quality in anoxic reactive unconsolidated sandy sediments derived from an aquifer system widely used for drinking water production in the Netherlands. Our results showed that at 5 °C no effects on water quality were observed compared to the reference of 11°C (in situ temperature). At 25°C, As concentrations were significantly increased and at 60 °C, significant increases were observed pH and DOC, P, K, Si, As, Mo, V, B, and F concentrations. These elements should therefore be considered for water quality monitoring programs of shallow geothermal energy projects. No consistent temperature effects were observed on Na, Ca, Mg, Sr, Fe, Mn, Al, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Eu, Ho, Sb, Sc, Yb, Ga, La, and Th concentrations, all of which were present in the sediment. The temperature-induced chemical effects were probably caused by (incongruent) dissolution of silicate minerals (K and Si), desorption from, and potentially reductive dissolution of, iron oxides (As, B, Mo, V, and possibly P and DOC), and mineralisation of sedimentary organic matter (DOC and P). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecological risk assessment of toxic organic pollutant and heavy metals in water and sediment from a landscape lake in Tianjin City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Liu, Yuanyuan; Niu, Zhiguang; Jin, Shaopei

    2017-05-01

    To estimate the ecological risk of toxic organic pollutant (formaldehyde) and heavy metals (mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr)) in water and sediment from a landscape Lake in Tianjin City, an ecological risk assessment was performed. The risk quotient (RQ) method and the AQUATOX model were used to assess the ecological risk of formaldehyde in landscape water. Meanwhile, the RQ method and the potential ecological risk index method were used to assess the ecological risk of four heavy metals in water and sediment from the studied landscape lake, respectively. The results revealed that the maximum concentration of formaldehyde in landscape water was lower than the environmental quality standards of surface water in China. The maximum simulated concentrations of formaldehyde in phytoplankton and invertebrates were 3.15 and 22.91 μg/L, respectively, which were far less than its toxicity data values (1000 and 510 μg/L, respectively), suggesting that formaldehyde in landscape water was at a safe level for aquatic organisms. The RQ model indicated that the risks of phytoplankton and invertebrates were higher than that of fish posed by Hg and Cd in landscape water, and the risks from As and Cr were acceptable for all test organisms. Cd is the most important pollution factor among all heavy metals in sediment from studied landscape lake, and the pollution factor sequence of heavy metals was Hg > As > Cr > Cd. The values of risk index (RI) for four heavy metals in samples a and b were 43.48 and 72.66, which were much lower than the threshold value (150), suggesting that the ecological risk posed by heavy metals in sediment was negligible.

  1. Ljubljana quality selection (LQS) - innovative case of restaurant assessment system

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Uran Maravić; Daniela Gračan; Zrinka Zadel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose – The purpose of this paper is to briefly present the most well-known restaurant assessment systems where restaurant are assessed by experts. The aim is to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each system. Design –The special focus is to give answers on questions: how are the restaurants assessed by experts, which are the elements and standards of assessment and whether they are consistent with the quality dimensions as advocated in the theory of service quality. Methodology ...

  2. Data Delivery and Mapping Over the Web: National Water-Quality Assessment Data Warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard W.; Williamson, Alex K.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began its National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991, systematically collecting chemical, biological, and physical water-quality data from study units (basins) across the Nation. In 1999, the NAWQA Program developed a data warehouse to better facilitate national and regional analysis of data from 36 study units started in 1991 and 1994. Data from 15 study units started in 1997 were added to the warehouse in 2001. The warehouse currently contains and links the following data: -- Chemical concentrations in water, sediment, and aquatic-organism tissues and related quality-control data from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS), -- Biological data for stream-habitat and ecological-community data on fish, algae, and benthic invertebrates, -- Site, well, and basin information associated with thousands of descriptive variables derived from spatial analysis, like land use, soil, and population density, and -- Daily streamflow and temperature information from NWIS for selected sampling sites.

  3. Assessing Community Quality of Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Jeph; Kenward, Kevin; Joshi, Maulik S; Audet, Anne-Marie J; Hines, Stephen J

    2016-02-01

    To determine the agreement of measures of care in different settings-hospitals, nursing homes (NHs), and home health agencies (HHAs)-and identify communities with high-quality care in all settings. Publicly available quality measures for hospitals, NHs, and HHAs, linked to hospital service areas (HSAs). We constructed composite quality measures for hospitals, HHAs, and nursing homes. We used these measures to identify HSAs with exceptionally high- or low-quality of care across all settings, or only high hospital quality, and compared these with respect to sociodemographic and health system factors. We identified three dimensions of hospital quality, four HHA dimensions, and two NH dimensions; these were poorly correlated across the three care settings. HSAs that ranked high on all dimensions had more general practitioners per capita, and fewer specialists per capita, than HSAs that ranked highly on only the hospital measures. Higher quality hospital, HHA, and NH care are not correlated at the regional level; regions where all dimensions of care are high differ systematically from regions which score well on only hospital measures and from those which score well on none. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  4. Assessment of integrated watershed health based on the natural environment, hydrology, water quality, and aquatic ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Ahn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Watershed health, including the natural environment, hydrology, water quality, and aquatic ecology, is assessed for the Han River basin (34 148 km2 in South Korea by using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. The evaluation procedures follow those of the Healthy Watersheds Assessment by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA. Six components of the watershed landscape are examined to evaluate the watershed health (basin natural capacity: stream geomorphology, hydrology, water quality, aquatic habitat condition, and biological condition. In particular, the SWAT is applied to the study basin for the hydrology and water-quality components, including 237 sub-watersheds (within a standard watershed on the Korea Hydrologic Unit Map along with three multipurpose dams, one hydroelectric dam, and three multifunction weirs. The SWAT is calibrated (2005–2009 and validated (2010–2014 by using each dam and weir operation, the flux-tower evapotranspiration, the time-domain reflectometry (TDR soil moisture, and groundwater-level data for the hydrology assessment, and by using sediment, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen data for the water-quality assessment. The water balance, which considers the surface–groundwater interactions and variations in the stream-water quality, is quantified according to the sub-watershed-scale relationship between the watershed hydrologic cycle and stream-water quality. We assess the integrated watershed health according to the U.S. EPA evaluation process based on the vulnerability levels of the natural environment, water resources, water quality, and ecosystem components. The results indicate that the watershed's health declined during the most recent 10-year period of 2005–2014, as indicated by the worse results for the surface process metric and soil water dynamics compared to those of the 1995–2004 period. The integrated watershed health tended to decrease farther downstream within the watershed.

  5. Quality Assurance of Assessment and Moderation Discourses Involving Sessional Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Peter; Adie, Lenore; Weir, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Quality assurance is a major agenda in tertiary education. The casualisation of academic work, especially in teaching, is also a quality assurance issue. Casual or sessional staff members teach and assess more than 50% of all university courses in Australia, and yet the research in relation to the role sessional staff play in quality assurance of…

  6. Quality Assurance--Best Practices for Assessing Online Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi

    2006-01-01

    Educators have long sought to define quality in education. With the proliferation of distance education and online learning powered by the Internet, the tasks required to assess the quality of online programs become even more challenging. To assist educators and institutions in search of quality assurance methods to continuously improve their…

  7. Assessment of the Quality Management Models in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Gulsun; Altinay, Zehra; Dagli, Gokmen; Altinay, Fahriye

    2016-01-01

    This study involves the assessment of the quality management models in Higher Education by explaining the importance of quality in higher education and by examining the higher education quality assurance system practices in other countries. The qualitative study was carried out with the members of the Higher Education Planning, Evaluation,…

  8. Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction: An Assessment and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; Nitecki, Danuta A.; Altman, Ellen

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the literature of library and information science to examine issues related to service quality and customer satisfaction in academic libraries. Discusses assessment, the application of a business model to higher education, a multiple constituency approach, decision areas regarding service quality, resistance to service quality, and future…

  9. Predictive no-reference assessment of video quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres Vega, M.; Mocanu, D.C.; Stavrou, S.; Liotta, A.

    2017-01-01

    Among the various means to evaluate the quality of video streams, light-weight No-Reference (NR) methods have low computation and may be executed on thin clients. Thus, these methods would be perfect candidates in cases of real-time quality assessment, automated quality control and in adaptive

  10. The Emergence of Quality Assessment in Brazilian Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauko, Jaakko; Centeno, Vera Gorodski; Candido, Helena; Shiroma, Eneida; Klutas, Anni

    2016-01-01

    The focus in this article is on Brazilian education policy, specifically quality assurance and evaluation. The starting point is that quality, measured by means of large-scale assessments, is one of the key discursive justifications for educational change. The article addresses the questions of how quality evaluation became a significant feature…

  11. Contamination and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Lake Bed Sediment of a Large Lake Scenic Area in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Li; Xu, Liang; Fu, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of heavy metals to lake bed sediment of scenic areas may pose risks on aquatic ecosystems and human health, however very few studies on risk assessment have been reported for scenic areas. Accordingly, this study determined concentration levels, and assessed contamination characteristics and risks, of heavy metals in lake bed sediment of National Scenic Areas Songhuahu (NSAS) in China. The concentrations of Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Cu were determined in 29 bed sediment samples. Results showed that the mean values of Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Cu were 92.69, 90.73, 38.29, 46.77, and 49.44 mg/kg, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that organic matter was a major factor influencing distribution of heavy metals. The results for enrichment factors indicated that contamination rates and anthropogenic inputs of single heavy metals decreased in the order Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn; results of Nemerow integrated pollution index suggested that 72.41% of sampling sites were exposed to low to moderately integrated pollution, and 27.59% of sampling sites were exposed to strongly integrated pollution. According to results for potential ecological risk index, ecological risks of single and all the heavy metals in bed sediment from all the sampling sites were low. Human risks were assessed with hazardous quotients, and the results suggested that exposure of heavy metals to bed sediment posed no or little risk to human health, and the pathway of ingestion significantly contributed to human health risks. PMID:27455296

  12. ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR GROUNDWATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-31

    Dec 31, 2013 ... The advantages of an index include its ability to represent measurements of a ... Fair. Water quality is usually protected but occasionally threatened or ... Electrical Conductivity (EC) value is an index to represent the total.

  13. Quality assessment of gamma camera systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindler, M.

    1985-01-01

    There are methods and equipment in nuclear medical diagnostics that allow selective visualisation of the functioning of organs or organ systems, using radioactive substances for labelling and demonstration of metabolic processes. Following a previous contribution on fundamentals and systems components of a gamma camera system, the article in hand deals with the quality characteristics of such a system and with practical quality control and its significance for clinical applications. [de

  14. Temporal trends and bioavailability assessment of heavy metals in the sediments of Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-12-15

    Thirteen sites in Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia were sampled three times over a period of 7 months and assessed for contamination by a range of heavy metals, primarily As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Hg. Fraction analysis, enrichment factors and Principal Components Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) analysis were conducted in order to identify the potential bioavailability of these elements of concern and their sources. Hg and Te were identified as the elements of highest enrichment in Deception Bay while marine sediments, shipping and antifouling agents were identified as the sources of the Weak Acid Extractable Metals (WE-M), with antifouling agents showing long residence time for mercury contamination. This has significant implications for the future of monitoring and regulation of heavy metal contamination within Deception Bay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing Software Quality Through Visualised Cohesion Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Shih

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Cohesion is one of the most important factors for software quality as well as maintainability, reliability and reusability. Module cohesion is defined as a quality attribute that seeks for measuring the singleness of the purpose of a module. The module of poor quality can be a serious obstacle to the system quality. In order to design a good software quality, software managers and engineers need to introduce cohesion metrics to measure and produce desirable software. A highly cohesion software is thought to be a desirable constructing. In this paper, we propose a function-oriented cohesion metrics based on the analysis of live variables, live span and the visualization of processing element dependency graph. We give six typical cohesion examples to be measured as our experiments and justification. Therefore, a well-defined, well-normalized, well-visualized and well-experimented cohesion metrics is proposed to indicate and thus enhance software cohesion strength. Furthermore, this cohesion metrics can be easily incorporated with software CASE tool to help software engineers to improve software quality.

  16. Real Time Face Quality Assessment for Face Log Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Summarizing a long surveillance video to just a few best quality face images of each subject, a face-log, is of great importance in surveillance systems. Face quality assessment is the back-bone for face log generation and improving the quality assessment makes the face logs more reliable....... Developing a real time face quality assessment system using the most important facial features and employing it for face logs generation are the concerns of this paper. Extensive tests using four databases are carried out to validate the usability of the system....

  17. Validity of portfolio assessment: which qualities determine ratings?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, E.W.; Overeem, K.; Tartwijk, J. van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Muijtjens, A.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The portfolio is becoming increasingly accepted as a valuable tool for learning and assessment. The validity of portfolio assessment, however, may suffer from bias due to irrelevant qualities, such as lay-out and writing style. We examined the possible effects of such qualities in a portfolio

  18. 42 CFR 493.1289 - Standard: Analytic systems quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Analytic systems quality assessment. 493.1289 Section 493.1289 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... through 493.1283. (b) The analytic systems quality assessment must include a review of the effectiveness...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1299 - Standard: Postanalytic systems quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Postanalytic systems quality assessment. 493.1299 Section 493.1299 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH....1291. (b) The postanalytic systems quality assessment must include a review of the effectiveness of...

  20. 42 CFR 493.1249 - Standard: Preanalytic systems quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Preanalytic systems quality assessment. 493.1249 Section 493.1249 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH....1241 through 493.1242. (b) The preanalytic systems quality assessment must include a review of the...

  1. Standard setting and quality of assessment: A conceptual approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality performance standards and the effect of assessment outcomes are important in the educational milieu, as assessment remains the representative ... not be seen as a methodological process of setting pass/fail cut-off points only, but as a powerful catalyst for quality improvements in HPE by promoting excellence in ...

  2. Educational Quality, Outcomes Assessment, and Policy Change: The Virginia Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The higher education system in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States provides a case model for how discussions regarding educational quality and assessment of that quality have affected institutions' policy decisions and implementation. Using Levin's (1998) policy analysis framework, this essay explores how assessment of student…

  3. Impact of sediments resuspension on metal solubilization and water quality during recurrent reservoir sluicing management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frémion, Franck; Courtin-Nomade, Alexandra [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France); Bordas, François, E-mail: francois.bordas@unilim.fr [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France); Lenain, Jean-François [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France); Jugé, Philippe [CETU – ELMIS Ingénieries, Université François Rabelais, , 60 Rue du Plat d' Étain, 37000 Tours (France); Kestens, Tim [EDF – DPIH, Unité de Production Centre, 19 bis avenue de la Révolution, BP 406, 87012 Limoges Cedex (France); Mourier, Brice [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France)

    2016-08-15

    In dam contexts, sluicing operations can be performed to reestablish sediments continuity, as proposed by the EU Water Framework Directive, as well as to preserve the reservoirs' water storage capacity. Such management permits the rapid release of high quantities of reservoir sediments through the opening of dam bottom valves. This work aims to study the impact of such operation on the evolution of environmental physicochemical conditions notably changes in dissolved metallic elements concentrations (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) through field and laboratory investigations. Results were interpreted in terms of concentrations and fluxes, and compared with data collected on an annual basis regarding both suspended matter and metallic elements. The release of high quantities of sediments (4,500 tons dry weight in 24 h), with concentrations representing up to 300 times the inter-annual mean suspended sediments discharge, significantly modified water parameters, notably solid/liquid (S/L) ratio, pH and redox conditions. Despite the fact that they are mainly trapped in stable phases, a clear increase of the solubilized metals content was measured, representing up to 60 times the maximum values of current exploitation. This solubilization is related to desorption phenomena from sediments through changes in chemical equilibriums as highlighted by laboratory characterizations and experiments. These chemical modifications are mainly attributed to S/L ratio variations. Indeed, the low S/L ratios (≤ 1.3 g·L{sup −1}) measured in situ are typically the ones for which metals solubilization is the highest, as shown by laboratory experiments. Additional thermodynamic modeling highlighted that the decrease in pH measured during the operation favors the release of the free forms of metallic elements (Al and Cu), and decreases the OM complexation influence. These changes, either in term of physical conditions or speciation, increasing metals long term