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Sample records for sediment ingestion contributed

  1. The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment transport of the Pra River. ... the relative contribution of surface and bank sediments to the fluvial sediment transport. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  2. Animal-sediment interactions: the effect of ingestion and excretion by worms on mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Needham

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available By controlled experiments that simulate marine depositional environments, it is shown that accelerated weathering and clay mineral authigenesis occur during the combined process of ingestion, digestion and excretion of fine-grained sediment by two species of annelid worms. Previously characterized synthetic mud was created using finely ground, low-grade metamorphic slate (temperature approximately 300°C containing highly crystalline chlorite and muscovite. This was added to experiment and control tanks along with clean, wind-blown sand. Faecal casts were collected at regular intervals from the experimental tanks and, less frequently, from the control tanks. Over a period of many months the synthetic mud (slate proved to be unchanged in the control tanks, but was significantly different in faecal casts from the experimental tanks that contained the worms Arenicola marina and Lumbricus terrestris. Chlorite was preferentially destroyed during digestion in the gut of A. marina. Both chlorite and muscovite underwent XRD peak broadening with a skew developing towards higher lattice spacing, characteristic of smectite formation. A neoformed Fe-Mg-rich clay mineral (possibly berthierine and as-yet undefined clay minerals with very high d-spacing were detected in both A. marina and L. terrestris cast samples. We postulate that a combination of the low pH and bacteria-rich microenvironment in the guts of annelid worms may radically accelerate mineral dissolution and clay mineral precipitation processes during digestion. These results show that macrobiotic activity significantly accelerates weathering and mineral degradation as well as mineral authigenesis. The combined processes of sediment ingestion and digestion thus lead to early diagenetic growth of clay minerals in clastic sediments.

  3. Relating the ability of mallards to ingest high levels of sediment to potential contaminant exposure in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Gary H.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Hoffman, David J.; Audet, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    When waterfowl feed from the bottom of bodies of water, they sometimes ingest sediments along with their food, and this sediment can be a major source of contaminants. Learning how much sediment waterfowl can consume in their diet and still maintain their health would be helpful in assessing potential threats from contaminants in sediment. In a controlled laboratory study the maximum tolerated percentage of sediment in the diet of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) was measured. When fed a well-balanced commercial avian diet, 50, 60, or 70% sediment in the diet on a dry-weight basis did not cause weight loss over a two-week period. Ducks fed this same commercial diet, but containing 80 or 90% sediment, lost 8.6 and 15.6% of their body weight, respectively, in the first week on those diets. After factoring in the ability of the mallards to sieve out some of the sediment from their diet before swallowing it, we concluded that the mallards could maintain their health even when approximately half of what they swallowed, on a dry-weight basis, was sediment.

  4. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion increases glycolytic contribution and improves performance during simulated taekwondo combat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, João Paulo; Da Silva Santos, Jonatas Ferreira; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Loturco, Irineu; Abbiss, Chris; Franchini, Emerson

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) on performance and estimated energy system contribution during simulated taekwondo combat. Nine taekwondo athletes completed two experimental sessions separated by at least 48 h. Athletes consumed 300 mg/kg body mass of NaHCO 3 or placebo (CaCO 3 ) 90 min before the combat simulation (three rounds of 2 min separated by 1 min passive recovery), in a double-blind, randomized, repeated-measures crossover design. All simulated combat was filmed to quantify the time spent fighting in each round. Lactate concentration [La - ] and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured before and after each round, whereas heart rate (HR) and the estimated contribution of the oxidative (W OXI ), ATP (adenosine triphosphate)-phosphocreatine (PCr) (W PCR ), and glycolytic (W [ La - ] ) systems were calculated during the combat simulation. [La - ] increased significantly after NaHCO 3 ingestion, when compared with the placebo condition (+14%, P = 0.04, d = 3.70). NaHCO 3 ingestion resulted in greater estimated glycolytic energy contribution in the first round when compared with the placebo condition (+31%, P = 0.01, d = 3.48). Total attack time was significantly greater after NaHCO 3 when compared with placebo (+13%, P = 0.05, d = 1.15). W OXI , W PCR , VO 2 , HR and RPE were not different between conditions (P > 0.05). NaHCO 3 ingestion was able to increase the contribution of glycolytic metabolism and, therefore, improve performance during simulated taekwondo combat.

  5. Toxicological significance of soil ingestion by wild and domestic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Fries, George F.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    Most wild and domestic animals ingest some soil or sediment, and some species may routinely, or under special circumstances, ingest considerable amounts. Ingested soil supplies nutrients, exposes animals to parasites and pathogens, and may play a role in developing immune systems.1 Soil ingestion is also sometimes the principal route of exposure to various environmental contaminants.2-7 Ingestion of soil and earthy material is defined as geophagy and may be either intentional or unintentional, occurring as an animal eats or grooms.

  6. Contribution of inhalation by food animals to man's ingestion dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, R.

    1985-01-01

    Animals' inhalation (AI) pathway was evaluated for 57 radionuclides using infant dose predictions from the food-chain model LIMCAL. With ingestion transfer coefficients fMi to define transfer from the respiratory tract to milk, the AI pathway appeared to be insignificant compared to animals' plant ingestion, as implicitly assumed in most environmental assessment models for nuclear installations. Using ICRP Publication 30 respiratory clearance models for man to adjust ingestion transfer coefficients, animals' inhalation appeared to be important, particularly for some actinide radionuclides. The AI pathway also appeared to be significant relative to man's inhalation, especially for infants. The importance of the AI pathway varied greatly between radionuclides, and results strongly suggest that it cannot be ignored in environmental assessments. Until better data become available to implement this pathway fully, adjusted ingestion transfer coefficient values can be used for transfer from animals' respiratory tract to milk and other food products

  7. Biofilms' contribution to organic carbon in salt marsh sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, K.; Quirk, T. E.; Mariotti, G.; Hotard, A.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal salt marshes are productive environments with high potential for carbon (C) accumulation. Organic C in salt marsh sediment is typically attributed to plant biomass. Recent field measurements, however, suggest that biofilms - mainly composed of benthic diatoms and their secretion - also contribute to basal C in these environments and can be important contributors to marsh productivity, C cycling, and potentially, C sequestration. The potential for biofilms to soil organic C and the influence of mineral sedimentation of biofilm-based C accumulation is unknown. We conducted controlled laboratory experiments to test (1) whether biofilms add measurable amounts of organic C to the sediment and (2) the effect of mineral sedimentation rate on the amount of biofilm-based C accumulation. Settled beds of pure bentonite mud were created in 10-cm-wide cylinders. Each cylinder was inoculated with biofilms collected from a marsh in Louisiana. A small amount of mud was added weekly for 11 weeks. Control experiments without biofilms were also performed. Biofilms were grown with a 12/12 hours cycle, with a gentle mixing of the water column that did not cause sediment resuspension, with a nutrient-rich medium that was exchanged weekly, and in the absence of metazoan grazing. At the end of the experiment, the sediment columns were analyzed for depth-integrated chl-a, loss on ignition (LOI), and total organic carbon (TOC). Chl-a values ranged from 26-113 mg/cm2, LOI values ranged from 86-456 g/m2/yr, and TOC values ranged from 31-211 g/m2/yr. All three of these metrics (chl-a, LOI, and TOC) increased with the rate of mineral sedimentation. These results show that biofilms, in the absence of erosion and grazing, can significantly contribute to C accumulation in salt marshes, especially with high rates of mineral sedimentation. Given the short time scale of the experiment, the increase in organic C accumulation with the rate of sedimentation is attributed to stimulated biofilm

  8. Contribution of River Mouth Reach to Sediment Load of the Yangtze River

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    C. Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the sediment gain and loss in the river mouth reach of the Yangtze River by considering sediment load from the local tributaries, erosion/accretion of the river course, impacts of sand mining, and water extraction. A quantitative estimation of the contribution of the river mouth reach to the sediment load of the Yangtze River was conducted before and after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD in 2003. The results showed that a net sediment load loss of 1.78 million ton/yr (Mt/yr occurred from 1965 to 2002 in the study area. The contribution of this reach to the sediment discharge into the sea is not as high as what was expected before the TGD. With impoundment of the TGD, channel deposition (29.90 Mt/yr and a net sediment loss of 30.89 Mt/yr occurred in the river mouth reach from 2003 to 2012. The river mouth reach has acted as a sink but not a source of sediment since impoundment of the TGD, which has exacerbated the decrease in sediment load. Technologies should be advanced to measure changes in river channel morphology, as well as in water and sediment discharges at the river mouth reach.

  9. Fallout 3H ingestion in Akita, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, S.; Takizawa, Y.; Abe, T.; Katsumata, T.

    1987-01-01

    To study fallout 3 H ingestion in Japan, 16 separate food group samples were collected from Akita during 1985. The 3 H concentration in free water and that in a tissue-bound form were determined separately. The average 3 H concentration in the tissue-bound form was 2.2 Bq L-1, 1.7 times higher than in the free water of the food. The ingestions of 3 H in the tissue-bound form and as free water in the diet were 0.60 Bq d-1 and 1.0 Bq d-1, respectively. Cereals represented the food group that contributed the most to the ingestion of tissue-bound 3 H. Total 3 H ingestion was estimated to be 4.1 Bq d-1. The contribution of the tissue-bound form to the total ingestion was 15%, considerably lower than reported for Italian diets. The ratio of 3 H ingestion in the tissue-bound form to the free water form in the diet was similar to the ratio reported for New York City

  10. Trophodynamics of Organic Pollutants in Pelagic and Benthic Food Webs of Lake Dianchi: Importance of Ingested Sediment As Uptake Route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Senrong; Wang, Beili; Liu, Hang; Gao, Shixiong; Li, Tong; Wang, Shuran; Liu, Yong; Liu, Xueqin; Wan, Yi

    2017-12-19

    Habitat is of great importance in determining the trophic transfer of pollutants in freshwater ecosystems; however, the major factors influencing chemical trophodynamics in pelagic and benthic food webs remain unclear. This study investigated the levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and substituted PAHs (s-PAHs) in 2 plankton species, 6 invertebrate species, and 10 fish species collected from Lake Dianchi in southern China. Relatively high concentrations of PAHs and s-PAHs were detected with total concentrations of 11.4-1400 ng/g wet weight (ww) and 5.3-115 ng/g ww, respectively. Stable isotope analysis and stomach content analysis were applied to quantitatively determine the trophic level of individual organisms and discriminate between pelagic and benthic pathways, and the trophodynamics of the detected compounds in the two food webs were assessed. P,p'-DDE was found to exhibit relatively higher trophic magnification rate in the pelagic food web than in the benthic food web. In contrast, PAHs and s-PAHs exhibited greater dilution rates along the trophic levels in the pelagic food web. The lower species differences of pollutants accumulated in benthic organisms compared to pelagic organisms is attributable to extra uptake via ingested sediment in benthos. The average uptake proportions of PAHs and s-PAHs via ingested sediment in benthic biotas were estimated to be 31-77%, and that of p,p'-DDE was 46%. The uptake routes are of importance for assessing the trophic magnification potentials of organic pollutants, especially in eutrophic freshwater ecosystems.

  11. Quantifying the contributions of sediment, sediment-P and fertiliser-P from forested, cultivated and pasture areas at the landuse and catchment scale using fallout radionuclides and geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallbrink, P.J.; Martin, C.E.; Wilson, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use a combination of fallout nuclides and geochemistry to determine the contributions of sediment and sediment bound phosphorus (sed-P) from the major diffuse sources in the Bundella Creek catchment (8700 ha), NSW, Australia. Sources include surface erosion from cultivated, pasture and steep forested land as well as subsoil erosion from channels and gullies. We determine these contributions to the <10 μm fraction of deposited sediments. Concentrations of P were higher in the surface soils of each landuse than the underlying subsoils, and erosion from these contributed more to offsite sediment-P (∼60%) than did subsoil erosion at the individual landuse scale. At the catchment outlet, the amount of surface sediment eroded from cultivated lands was a factor of ∼84 higher than from pastures; the steep forested lands contributed ∼9 times more than pastures. Sed-P eroded from cultivated land was ∼42 times higher than from pasturelands; the forests were ∼8 times greater than from pastures. At the catchment outlet the largest contribution of sediment (∼70%) and sed-P (∼62%) was from subsoil erosion of gullies and channels within and between the different landuse areas. There was little contribution of sediment or sed-P at the catchment scale from surface erosion of pastures. Concentrations of P were highest in 'storm event' suspended sediment samples taken from the pasture and cultivated areas without gullies. In a suite of samples selected for their high P contents, fertiliser P was detected in two storm event suspended sediment samples and one deposited sediment sample, using the ratio of Nd/P. This suggests fertiliser P may be transported-off land surfaces with sediments and contribute to offsite sediment-P concentrations in some situations. However, the fertiliser contributions were episodic and variable; and probably influenced by particle size selectivity as well as timing of fertiliser application with respect to size and occurrence

  12. 210Pb ingestion in Akita City, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, Shunichi; Takizawa, Yukio; Komura, Kazuhisa; Tada, Tetsuo.

    1992-01-01

    Ingestion of 210 Pb in Akita City, northern Japan was studied with food category samples and total diet samples by means of a low energy photon spectrometry. Results for food category samples revealed that the contribution of marine products to total 210 Pb ingestion was the largest. Mean 210 Pb ingestion of the two total diet samples was found to be 0.19 Bq d -1 , and approximately 1/3 of a previous reported value which was cited in an UNSCEAR report as an example of high 210 Pb ingestion by marine foods consumption. (author)

  13. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Connor, E.E.; Gerould, S.

    1994-01-01

    Many wildlife species ingest soil while feeding, but ingestion rates are known for only a few species. Knowing ingestion rates may be important for studies of environmental contaminants. Wildlife may ingest soil deliberately, or incidentally, when they ingest soil-laden forage or animals that contain soil. We fed white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing 0-15% soil to relate the dietary soil content to the acid-insoluble ash content of scat collected from the mice. The relation was described by an equation that required estimates of the percent acid-insoluble ash content of the diet, digestibility of the diet, and mineral content of soil. We collected scat from 28 wildlife species by capturing animals, searching appropriate habitats for scat, or removing material from the intestines of animals collected for other purposes. We measured the acid-insoluble ash content of the scat and estimated the soil content of the diets by using the soil-ingestion equation. Soil ingestion estimates should be considered only approximate because they depend on estimated rather than measured digestibility values and because animals collected from local populations at one time of the year may not represent the species as a whole. Sandpipers (Calidris spp.), which probe or peck for invertebrates in mud or shallow water, consumed sediments at a rate of 7-30% of their diets. Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, soil = 17% of diet), American woodcock (Scolopax minor, 10%), and raccoon (Procyon lotor, 9%) had high rates of soil ingestion, presumably because they ate soil organisms. Bison (Bison bison, 7%), black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus, 8%), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis, 8%) consumed soil at the highest rates among the herbivores studied, and various browsers studied consumed little soil. Box turtle (Terrapene carolina, 4%), opossum (Didelphis virginiana, 5%), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, 3%), and wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo, 9%) consumed soil

  14. Sediment contributions from floodplains and legacy sediments to Piedmont streams of Baltimore County, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Mitchell; Miller, Andrew; Baker, Matthew; Gellis, Allen

    2015-04-01

    Disparity between watershed erosion rates and downstream sediment delivery has remained an important theme in geomorphology for many decades, with the role of floodplains in sediment storage as a common focus. In the Piedmont Province of the eastern USA, upland deforestation and agricultural land use following European settlement led to accumulation of thick packages of overbank sediment in valley bottoms, commonly referred to as legacy deposits. Previous authors have argued that legacy deposits represent a potentially important source of modern sediment loads following remobilization by lateral migration and progressive channel widening. This paper seeks to quantify (1) rates of sediment remobilization from Baltimore County floodplains by channel migration and bank erosion, (2) proportions of streambank sediment derived from legacy deposits, and (3) potential contribution of net streambank erosion and legacy sediments to downstream sediment yield within the Mid-Atlantic Piedmont. We calculated measurable gross erosion and deposition rates within the fluvial corridor along 40 valley segments from 18 watersheds with drainage areas between 0.18 and 155 km2 in Baltimore County, Maryland. We compared stream channel and floodplain morphology from lidar-based digital elevation data collected in 2005 with channel positions recorded on 1:2400 scale topographic maps from 1959-1961 in order to quantify 44-46 years of channel change. Sediment bulk density and particle size distributions were characterized from streambank and channel deposit samples and used for volume to mass conversions and for comparison with other sediment sources. Average annual lateral migration rates ranged from 0.04 to 0.19 m/y, which represented an annual migration of 2.5% (0.9-4.4%) channel width across all study segments, suggesting that channel dimensions may be used as reasonable predictors of bank erosion rates. Gross bank erosion rates varied from 43 to 310 Mg/km/y (median = 114) and were

  15. Variability in source sediment contributions by applying different statistic test for a Pyrenean catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón, L; Navas, A

    2017-06-01

    Information on sediment contribution and transport dynamics from the contributing catchments is needed to develop management plans to tackle environmental problems related with effects of fine sediment as reservoir siltation. In this respect, the fingerprinting technique is an indirect technique known to be valuable and effective for sediment source identification in river catchments. Large variability in sediment delivery was found in previous studies in the Barasona catchment (1509 km 2 , Central Spanish Pyrenees). Simulation results with SWAT and fingerprinting approaches identified badlands and agricultural uses as the main contributors to sediment supply in the reservoir. In this study the Kruskal-Wallis H-test and (3) principal components analysis. Source contribution results were different between assessed options with the greatest differences observed for option using #3, including the two step process: principal components analysis and discriminant function analysis. The characteristics of the solutions by the applied mixing model and the conceptual understanding of the catchment showed that the most reliable solution was achieved using #2, the two step process of Kruskal-Wallis H-test and discriminant function analysis. The assessment showed the importance of the statistical procedure used to define the optimum composite fingerprint for sediment fingerprinting applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In situ and laboratory bioassays with Chironomus riparius larvae to assess toxicity of metal contamination in rivers: the relative toxic effect of sediment versus water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Mafalda S; Lopes, Ricardo J; Nogueira, António J A; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2007-09-01

    We used bioassays employing head capsule width and body length increase of Chironomus riparius larvae as end points to evaluate metal contamination in streams. Bioassays were performed in situ near an abandoned Portuguese goldmine in the spring of 2003 and 2004. Bioassays also were performed under laboratory conditions with water and sediment collected from each stream to verify if laboratory bioassays could detect in situ toxicity and to evaluate the relative contribution of sediment and water to overall toxicity. We used field sediments with control water and control sediments with field water to discriminate between metal contamination in water and sediment. Field water with dry and sieved, organic matter-free, and nontreated sediments was used to determine the toxicity of heavy metals that enter the organism through ingested material. In both in situ and laboratory bioassays, body length increase was significantly inhibited by metal contamination, whereas head capsule width was not affected. Body length increase was more affected by contaminated sediment compared to contaminated water. The lowest-effect level of heavy metals was observed in the dry and sieved sediment that prevented ingestion of sediment particles by larvae. These results suggest that body length increase of C. riparius larvae can be used to indicate the impact of metal contamination in rivers. Chironomus riparius larvae are more affected by heavy metals that enter the organism through ingested sediment than by heavy metals dissolved in the water column. Nevertheless, several factors, such as the particle size and organic matter of sediment, must be taken into account.

  17. Sediment contributions from floodplains and legacy sediments to Piedmont streams of Baltimore County, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Mitchell; Miller, Andrew; Baker, Matthew; Gellis, Allen C.

    2015-01-01

    Disparity between watershed erosion rates and downstream sediment delivery has remained an important theme in geomorphology for many decades, with the role of floodplains in sediment storage as a common focus. In the Piedmont Province of the eastern USA, upland deforestation and agricultural land use following European settlement led to accumulation of thick packages of overbank sediment in valley bottoms, commonly referred to as legacy deposits. Previous authors have argued that legacy deposits represent a potentially important source of modern sediment loads following remobilization by lateral migration and progressive channel widening. This paper seeks to quantify (1) rates of sediment remobilization from Baltimore County floodplains by channel migration and bank erosion, (2) proportions of streambank sediment derived from legacy deposits, and (3) potential contribution of net streambank erosion and legacy sediments to downstream sediment yield within the Mid-Atlantic Piedmont.We calculated measurable gross erosion and deposition rates within the fluvial corridor along 40 valley segments from 18 watersheds with drainage areas between 0.18 and 155 km2 in Baltimore County, Maryland. We compared stream channel and floodplain morphology from lidar-based digital elevation data collected in 2005 with channel positions recorded on 1:2400 scale topographic maps from 1959–1961 in order to quantify 44–46 years of channel change. Sediment bulk density and particle size distributions were characterized from streambank and channel deposit samples and used for volume to mass conversions and for comparison with other sediment sources.Average annual lateral migration rates ranged from 0.04 to 0.19 m/y, which represented an annual migration of 2.5% (0.9–4.4%) channel width across all study segments, suggesting that channel dimensions may be used as reasonable predictors of bank erosion rates. Gross bank erosion rates varied from 43 to 310 Mg/km/y (median = 114) and

  18. Analyzing the contribution of climate change to long-term variations in sediment nitrogen sources for reservoirs/lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Xinghui, E-mail: xiaxh@bnu.edu.cn [School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation/Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences of Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875 (China); Wu, Qiong; Zhu, Baotong; Zhao, Pujun [School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation/Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences of Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang, Shangwei [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstraße 15, Leipzig 04318 (Germany); Yang, Lingyan [Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center, Beijing 100048 (China)

    2015-08-01

    We applied a mixing model based on stable isotopic δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N, and C:N ratios to estimate the contributions of multiple sources to sediment nitrogen. We also developed a conceptual model describing and analyzing the impacts of climate change on nitrogen enrichment. These two models were conducted in Miyun Reservoir to analyze the contribution of climate change to the variations in sediment nitrogen sources based on two {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs dated sediment cores. The results showed that during the past 50 years, average contributions of soil and fertilizer, submerged macrophytes, N{sub 2}-fixing phytoplankton, and non-N{sub 2}-fixing phytoplankton were 40.7%, 40.3%, 11.8%, and 7.2%, respectively. In addition, total nitrogen (TN) contents in sediment showed significant increasing trends from 1960 to 2010, and sediment nitrogen of both submerged macrophytes and phytoplankton sources exhibited significant increasing trends during the past 50 years. In contrast, soil and fertilizer sources showed a significant decreasing trend from 1990 to 2010. According to the changing trend of N{sub 2}-fixing phytoplankton, changes of temperature and sunshine duration accounted for at least 43% of the trend in the sediment nitrogen enrichment over the past 50 years. Regression analysis of the climatic factors on nitrogen sources showed that the contributions of precipitation, temperature, and sunshine duration to the variations in sediment nitrogen sources ranged from 18.5% to 60.3%. The study demonstrates that the mixing model provides a robust method for calculating the contribution of multiple nitrogen sources in sediment, and this study also suggests that N{sub 2}-fixing phytoplankton could be regarded as an important response factor for assessing the impacts of climate change on nitrogen enrichment. - Highlights: • A mixing model was built to analyze sediment N sources of lakes/reservoirs. • Fertilizer/soil and macrophytes showed decreasing trends during

  19. Analyzing the contribution of climate change to long-term variations in sediment nitrogen sources for reservoirs/lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Xinghui; Wu, Qiong; Zhu, Baotong; Zhao, Pujun; Zhang, Shangwei; Yang, Lingyan

    2015-01-01

    We applied a mixing model based on stable isotopic δ 13 C, δ 15 N, and C:N ratios to estimate the contributions of multiple sources to sediment nitrogen. We also developed a conceptual model describing and analyzing the impacts of climate change on nitrogen enrichment. These two models were conducted in Miyun Reservoir to analyze the contribution of climate change to the variations in sediment nitrogen sources based on two 210 Pb and 137 Cs dated sediment cores. The results showed that during the past 50 years, average contributions of soil and fertilizer, submerged macrophytes, N 2 -fixing phytoplankton, and non-N 2 -fixing phytoplankton were 40.7%, 40.3%, 11.8%, and 7.2%, respectively. In addition, total nitrogen (TN) contents in sediment showed significant increasing trends from 1960 to 2010, and sediment nitrogen of both submerged macrophytes and phytoplankton sources exhibited significant increasing trends during the past 50 years. In contrast, soil and fertilizer sources showed a significant decreasing trend from 1990 to 2010. According to the changing trend of N 2 -fixing phytoplankton, changes of temperature and sunshine duration accounted for at least 43% of the trend in the sediment nitrogen enrichment over the past 50 years. Regression analysis of the climatic factors on nitrogen sources showed that the contributions of precipitation, temperature, and sunshine duration to the variations in sediment nitrogen sources ranged from 18.5% to 60.3%. The study demonstrates that the mixing model provides a robust method for calculating the contribution of multiple nitrogen sources in sediment, and this study also suggests that N 2 -fixing phytoplankton could be regarded as an important response factor for assessing the impacts of climate change on nitrogen enrichment. - Highlights: • A mixing model was built to analyze sediment N sources of lakes/reservoirs. • Fertilizer/soil and macrophytes showed decreasing trends during the past two decades.

  20. Element Geochemical Analysis of the Contribution of Aeolian Sand to Suspended Sediment in Desert Stream Flash Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Jia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of wind and water in semiarid and arid areas usually leads to low-frequency flash flood events in desert rivers, which have adverse effects on river systems and ecology. In arid zones, many aeolian dune-fields terminate in stream channels and deliver aeolian sand to the channels. Although aeolian processes are common to many desert rivers, whether the aeolian processes contribute to fluvial sediment loss is still unknown. Here, we identified the aeolian-fluvial cycling process responsible for the high rate of suspended sediment transport in the Sudalaer desert stream in the Ordos plateau of China. On the basis of element geochemistry data analysis, we found that aeolian sand was similar to suspended sediment in element composition, which suggests that aeolian sand contributes to suspended sediment in flash floods. Scatter plots of some elements further confirm that aeolian sand is the major source of the suspended sediment. Factor analysis and the relation between some elements and suspended sediment concentration prove that the greater the aeolian process, the higher the suspended sediment concentration and the greater the contribution of aeolian sand to suspended sediment yield. We conclude that aeolian sand is the greatest contributor to flash floods in the Sudalaer desert stream.

  1. Element geochemical analysis of the contribution of aeolian sand to suspended sediment in desert stream flash floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haibing

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of wind and water in semiarid and arid areas usually leads to low-frequency flash flood events in desert rivers, which have adverse effects on river systems and ecology. In arid zones, many aeolian dune-fields terminate in stream channels and deliver aeolian sand to the channels. Although aeolian processes are common to many desert rivers, whether the aeolian processes contribute to fluvial sediment loss is still unknown. Here, we identified the aeolian-fluvial cycling process responsible for the high rate of suspended sediment transport in the Sudalaer desert stream in the Ordos plateau of China. On the basis of element geochemistry data analysis, we found that aeolian sand was similar to suspended sediment in element composition, which suggests that aeolian sand contributes to suspended sediment in flash floods. Scatter plots of some elements further confirm that aeolian sand is the major source of the suspended sediment. Factor analysis and the relation between some elements and suspended sediment concentration prove that the greater the aeolian process, the higher the suspended sediment concentration and the greater the contribution of aeolian sand to suspended sediment yield. We conclude that aeolian sand is the greatest contributor to flash floods in the Sudalaer desert stream.

  2. Unravelling the relative contribution of bed and suspended sediment load on a large alluvial river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, S. E.; Hackney, C. R.; Parsons, D. R.; Leyland, J.; Aalto, R. E.; Nicholas, A. P.; Best, J.

    2017-12-01

    The world's largest rivers transport 19 billion tonnes of sediment to the coastal zone annually, often supporting large deltas that rely on this sediment load to maintain their elevation in the face of rising sea level, and to sustain high levels of agricultural productivity and biodiversity. However, the majority of estimates of sediment delivery to coastal regions pertain solely to the suspended fraction of the sediment load, with the bedload fraction often being neglected due to the difficulty in estimating bedload flux and the assumption that bedload contributes a minor (management plans, improved estimates of all fractions of the sediment load are essential. Recent advances in non-intrusive, high-resolution, technology have begun to enable more accurate estimates of bedload transport rates. However, the characterisation of the holistic sediment transport regime of large alluvial rivers is still lacking. Here, we develop a sediment transport rating curve, combining both suspended- and bed- load sediment fractions, for the Lower Mekong River. We define suspended sediment rating curves using the inversion of acoustic return data from a series of acoustic Doppler current profiler surveys conducted through the Lower Mekong River in Cambodia, and into the bifurcating channels of the Mekong delta in Vietnam. Additionally, we detail estimates of bed-load sediment transport determined using repeat multibeam echo sounder surveys of the channel bed. By combining estimates of both fractions of the sediment load, we show the spatial and temporal contribution of bedload to the total sediment load of the Mekong and refine estimates of sediment transport to the Mekong delta. Our results indicate that the time-averaged suspended load transport rates for the Mekong River are 87 MT/yr, whilst bedload transport forms c. management within this highly threatened river basin.

  3. Application of Radiotracer Methodology for Understanding the Influence of Geochemical Fractionation on Metal Bioavailability in Estuarine Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, N. S.; Baumann, Z. [School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2013-07-15

    To evaluate the extent to which contaminated sediments could introduce metals into marine food chains, gamma emitting radioisotopes of arsenic, cadmium and chromium were used to study their geochemical fractionation in estuarine sediments and bioavailability to deposit feeding polychaetes. Radioisotopes were added to sediments directly or via planktonic debris and were then fractionated with a sequential extraction scheme after aging for up to 90 days. The assimilation of ingested metals was positively related to their partitioning in the two most readily extractable (labile) sediment fractions and negatively related to refractory organic fractions, oxides, and pyrite. In comparison to uptake from ingested sediment, metal uptake from pore water was negligible. A metal bioaccumulation model, modified to consider their geochemical fractionation, was found to quantitatively predict metal concentrations in benthic polychaetes better than total metal concentrations in sediment. Metals need to desorb from ingested particles into gut fluid within the polychaete gut before they can be assimilated. (author)

  4. Imaging pediatric magnet ingestion with surgical-pathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otjen, Jeffrey P; Rohrmann, Charles A; Iyer, Ramesh S

    2013-07-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common problem in the pediatric population and a frequent cause for emergency room visits. Magnets are common household objects that when ingested can bring about severe, possibly fatal gastrointestinal complications. Radiography is an integral component of the management of these children. Pediatric and emergency radiologists alike must be aware of imaging manifestations of magnet ingestion, as their identification drives decision-making for consulting surgeons and gastroenterologists. Radiology can thus substantially augment the clinical history and physical exam, facilitating appropriate management. This manuscript sequentially presents cases of magnet ingestion featuring imaging findings coupled with surgical and pathological correlation. Each case is presented to highlight ways in which the radiologist can make impactful contributions to diagnosis and management. Clinical overview with pitfalls of magnet ingestion imaging and an imaging decision tree will also be presented.

  5. Imaging pediatric magnet ingestion with surgical-pathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otjen, Jeffrey P.; Iyer, Ramesh S.; Rohrmann, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common problem in the pediatric population and a frequent cause for emergency room visits. Magnets are common household objects that when ingested can bring about severe, possibly fatal gastrointestinal complications. Radiography is an integral component of the management of these children. Pediatric and emergency radiologists alike must be aware of imaging manifestations of magnet ingestion, as their identification drives decision-making for consulting surgeons and gastroenterologists. Radiology can thus substantially augment the clinical history and physical exam, facilitating appropriate management. This manuscript sequentially presents cases of magnet ingestion featuring imaging findings coupled with surgical and pathological correlation. Each case is presented to highlight ways in which the radiologist can make impactful contributions to diagnosis and management. Clinical overview with pitfalls of magnet ingestion imaging and an imaging decision tree will also be presented. (orig.)

  6. Comparative Effects of Ingested PVC Micro Particles With and Without Adsorbed Benzo(apyrene vs. Spiked Sediments on the Cellular and Sub Cellular Processes of the Benthic Organism Hediste diversicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Gomiero

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plastic micro litter represents an emerging contaminant as well as a multiple stress agent in aquatic environments. Microplastics are found even in the remote areas of the world. Together with their occurrence in all environmental compartments, there is a growing concern about their potential to adsorb pollutants co-occurring in the environment. At present, little is known about this source of exposure for aquatic organisms in the benthic environment. Exposure conditions were set up to mimick the contribution of microplastics through different exposure routes. Potential biological effects resulting from these exposures were investigated in the model organism Hediste diversicolor, an annelid worm. Cellular effects including alterations of immunological responses, lysosomal compartment changes, mitochondrial activity, oxyradical production and onset of genotoxicity were assessed in coelomocytes while temporary and permanent effects of oxidative stress were also performed at tissue level. In this study polyvinylchloride (PVC microparticles were shown to adsorb benzo(apyrene with a time and dose-dependent relationship. The elevated bioavailability of the model pollutant after ingestion induced a clear pattern of biological responses. Toxicity mainly targeted impairment of cellular functioning and genotoxicity in H. diversicolor coelomocytes, while permanent effects of oxidative stress were observed at tissue level. Coelomocytes responded fast and with a higher degree of sensitivity to the adverse stimuli. The results showed that microplastic particles in sediments may play a significant role as vectors for organic pollutants. The highest adverse responses were observed in those H. diversicolor exposed to sediments spiked with PVC particles pre-incubated with B[a]P when compared against sediments spiked with B[a]P and plastic microparticles separately.

  7. Energy intake and obesity: ingestive frequency outweighs portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Energy intake is a function of the quantity of energy consumed per ingestive event and the number of these events. The marked increase of energy intake and body weight over the past 35 years indicates that there has been poor precision in the reciprocity of these two facets of intake. With recent study of the associations between gut "satiation" peptides and energy intake, there has been an emphasis on the contribution of portion size to positive energy balance. However, this orientation may not appropriately weight the contribution of ingestive frequency. Gut peptides are not purely satiation factors and metabolic and environmental cues may more strongly guide the onset and number of ingestive events. Evidence is presented that while both portion size and ingestive frequency have increased in the population, the latter may be more problematic for weight gain. The magnitude and time course of increments in ingestive frequency map better onto energy intake and BMI trends than changes of portion size. This may occur, in part, because dietary compensation and thermogenic effects are weaker for increases in ingestive frequency than portion size. Though not to the exclusion of consideration of portion size effects, improved weight management may be achieved with greater attention to the drivers of eating and drinking frequency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Patterns and contributions of floodplain and legacy sediments remobilized from Piedmont streams of the mid-Atlantic U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Mitchell; Miller, Andrew; Baker, Matthew; Gellis, Allen

    2015-04-01

    The perceived role of streambank erosion as a contributor to watershed sediment yield is an important driver of policy decisions for managing downstream impacts in the United States. In the Piedmont physiographic province of the eastern U.S. and in other regions of the south and midwest, the issue of 'legacy' sediment stored in stream valleys has long been recognized as a consequence of rapid deforestation and erosive agricultural practices following European settlement. Remobilization of stored floodplain sediment by bank erosion is frequently cited as a dominant component of watershed sediment budgets, with legacy sediment comprising the largest portion of this source. However there are few published studies documenting spatially extensive measurements of channel change throughout the drainage network on time scales of more than a few years. In this study we document 1) rates of sediment remobilization from Baltimore County floodplains by channel migration and bank erosion, 2) proportions of streambank sediment derived from legacy deposits, and 3) potential contribution of net streambank erosion and legacy sediments to downstream sediment yield within the Mid-Atlantic Piedmont. We measured gross erosion and channel deposition rates over 45 years within the fluvial corridor along 40 valley segments from 18 watersheds with drainage areas between 0.18 and 155 km2 by comparing stream channel and floodplain morphology from LiDAR-based digital elevation data collected in 2005 with channel positions recorded on 1:2400-scale topographic maps from 1959-1961. Results were extrapolated to estimate contributions to watershed sediment yield from 1005 km2 of northern Baltimore County. Results indicate that legacy sediment is a dominant component (62%) of the sediment derived from bank erosion and that its relative importance is greater in larger valleys with broader valley floors and lower gradients. Although mass of sediment remobilized per unit channel length is greater in

  9. Feeding type affects microplastic ingestion in a coastal invertebrate community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setälä, Outi; Norkko, Joanna; Lehtiniemi, Maiju

    2016-01-15

    Marine litter is one of the problems marine ecosystems face at present, coastal habitats and food webs being the most vulnerable as they are closest to the sources of litter. A range of animals (bivalves, free swimming crustaceans and benthic, deposit-feeding animals), of a coastal community of the northern Baltic Sea were exposed to relatively low concentrations of 10 μm microbeads. The experiment was carried out as a small scale mesocosm study to mimic natural habitat. The beads were ingested by all animals in all experimental concentrations (5, 50 and 250 beads mL(-1)). Bivalves (Mytilus trossulus, Macoma balthica) contained significantly higher amounts of beads compared with the other groups. Free-swimming crustaceans ingested more beads compared with the benthic animals that were feeding only on the sediment surface. Ingestion of the beads was concluded to be the result of particle concentration, feeding mode and the encounter rate in a patchy environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tracing sediment sources in upstream agricultural catchments: contribution of elemental geochemistry, 87Sr/86Sr ratio and radionuclides measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le-Gall, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is recognized as one of the main processes of land degradation in agricultural environments. This study develops an original fingerprinting method to examine sediment source contributions in two contrasted agricultural catchments. Several properties were used to trace sediment lithological sources ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, elemental concentrations), soil surface and subsurface sources ( 137 Cs) and to quantify their temporal dynamics ( 7 Be, 210 Pb xs ). In the Louroux catchment (24 km 2 , France), representative of drained areas of Northwestern Europe, results showed the dominant contribution of very fine particles (≤2 μm) transiting through the tile drainage system to suspended sediment. Sediment accumulated in the river channel was mainly exported during the two first floods investigated in 2013 whereas the next event was characterized by the transport of sediment eroded from the cultivated soil surface. Mixing models were used, and results indicated that surface sources contributed the majority of sediment deposited in the pond, at the outlet of the catchment. The two lithological sources, discriminated using 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, contributed in similar proportions to downstream pond sediment. In contrast, significant variations were observed since the 1950's. These changes may be related to the progressive implementation of land consolidation schemes within the catchment. Results obtained in the Louroux catchment revealed the potential of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios to trace sediment lithological sources. The methodology was then applied to the larger and steeper Guapore catchment (2000 km 2 , Brazil), exposed to a more erosive climate and characterized by contrasted laterite soils. 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios and elements that discriminated the five soil types found in the catchment were incorporated in mixing models. Results showed that the major part of sediment was supplied by soils located in lower catchment parts. This result suggests the higher

  11. Comparative study of plutonium and americium bioaccumulation from two marine sediments contaminated in the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T.F.; Smith, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Plutonium and americium sediment-animal transfer was studied under controlled laboratory conditions by exposure of the benthic polychaete Nereis diversicolor (O. F. Mueller) to marine sediments contaminated by a nuclear bomb accident (near Thule, Greenland) and nuclear weapons testing (Enewetak Atoll). In both sediment regimes, the bioavailability of plutonium and 241 Am was low, with specific activity in the tissues 241 Am occurred and 241 Am uptake from the Thule sediment was enhanced compared to that from lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll. Autoradiography studies indicated the presence of hot particles of plutonium in the sediments. The results highlight the importance of purging animals of their gut contents in order to obtain accurate estimates of transuranic transfer from ingested sediments into tissue. It is further suggested that enhanced transuranic uptake by some benthic species could arise from ingestion of highly activity particles and organic-rich detritus present in the sediments. (author)

  12. The relative contribution of near-bed vs. intragravel horizontal transport to fine sediment accumulation processes in river gravel beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Mulet, Roser; Lakhanpal, Garima; Stewardson, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding flow-sediment interactions is important for comprehending river functioning. Fine sediment accumulation processes, in particular, have key implications for ecosystem health. However, the amount of fines generated by intragravel flows and later accumulated in gravel streambeds may have been underestimated, as the hydraulic-related driving transport mechanisms in play are not clearly identified. Specifically, the relative contribution of fines from upper vs. lower sediment layers in gravel beds is not well understood. By recreating flooded and dewatered conditions in an experimental flume filled with natural sediment, we estimated such contributions by observing and collecting intragravel transported fines that were later accumulated into a void in the middle of the sediment matrix. Near-bed transport in the upper sediment layers (named Brinkman load) during flooded conditions accounted for most (90%) of the accumulated fines. Intragravel transport in the lower sediment layers (named Interstitial load) was the sole source of transport and accumulation during dewatered conditions with steeper hydraulic gradients. Interstitial load accounted for 10% of the total transport during flooded conditions. Although small, such estimations demonstrate that hydraulic-gradient transport in the lower sediment layers occurs in spite of the contradicting analytical assessments. We provide a case study to challenge the traditional approaches of assessing intragravel transport, and a useful framework to understand the origin and relative contribution of fine sediment accumulation in gravel beds. Such knowledge will be highly useful for the design of monitoring programs aiding river management, particularly in regulated rivers.

  13. Hf Isotope Evidence for Subducted Basalt and Sediment Contributions to the Eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y.; Tuena, A. G.; Capra, L.; Straub, S. M.; Goldstein, S. L.; Langmuir, C. H.

    2005-12-01

    Magmas generated at thick crust continental arcs often have enriched continental crust-like trace element patterns and Pb-Sr-Nd isotope ratios that are intermediate to both upper mantle and crustal compositions. Thus it is difficult to distinguish between contributions from (a) the subducted basalt and the upper mantle wedge, and (b) subducted sediment and the continental crust. These issues have been the focus of major controversy. Here we show evidence for subduction contributions to lavas in a classic thick crust environment. In Eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, the upper continental crust is 30 km to 45 km thick. However, primitive mafic lavas erupt on many sites across the arc. We have analyzed the subducting sediments as represented by DSDP 487, located seaward of the trench, where the lower third of the sediment column has strongly hydrothermal pelagic features and the upper two-thirds is composed of terrigenous sediments. The pelagic sediments have distinctive features that could be used to identify a subduction component in the volcanics, including high REE/Hf, negative Ce anomalies, and Nd-Hf isotopes that lie on the "seawater array" and offset from the "mantle-crust" array. We have focused on a unique series of lavas from volcano Nevado de Toluca, located southwest of Mexico City. These lavas show negative Ce anomalies coupled with low REE/Hf and Zr/Nd ratios. Hf-Nd isotope ratios show a shallow trend compared to the mantle-crust array, consistent with a pelagic component. In addition, Hf isotopes show a striking positive correlation with Ce anomalies that trend toward the pelagic sediment compositions. These and other observations provide clear evidence for a component from subducted sediment in the lavas. In addition, there is a negative correlation of Lu/Hf and Hf isotopes that requires a mixing endmember with MORB-like Hf isotope ratios but with lower than MORB Lu/Hf. This indicates a melt from eclogitic subducted basalt. Compared to other

  14. Toxicity of Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA, sediment fed to mute swans (Cygnus olor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Day, D.; Melancon, M.J.; Sileo, L.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion is sometimes the principal route by which waterfowl are exposed to environmental contaminants, and at severely contaminated sites waterfowl have been killed by ingesting sediment. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) were fed a diet for six weeks with a high but environmentally realistic concentration (24%) of sediment from the moderately polluted Anacostia River in the District of Columbia, to estimate the sediment?s toxicity. Control swans were fed the same diet without the sediment. Five organochlorine compounds were detected in the treated diets but none of 22 organochlorine compounds included in the analyses were detected in livers of the treated swans. The concentrations of 24 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons measured in the treated diet were as high as 0.80 mg/kg and they were thought to have been responsible for the observed induction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity in livers. A concentration of 85 mg/kg of lead in the diet was enough to decrease red blood cell ALAD activity but was not high enough to cause more serious effects of lead poisoning. The dietary concentrations of Al, Fe, V, and Ba were high compared to the concentrations of these elements known to be toxic in laboratory feeding studies, but these elements did not accumulate in the livers of the treated swans and probably were not readily available in the sediment. Although ingestion of the Anacostia River sediment caused subtle toxicological effects in swans, we concluded from pathological examinations and weight data that the treated swans remained basically healthy.

  15. Catchment source contributions to the sediment-bound organic matter degrading salmonid spawning gravels in a lowland river, southern England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, A.L., E-mail: adrian.collins@adas.co.uk [ADAS, Pendeford House, Wobaston Road, Wolverhampton WV9 5AP (United Kingdom); Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Williams, L.J.; Zhang, Y.S. [ADAS, Pendeford House, Wobaston Road, Wolverhampton WV9 5AP (United Kingdom); Marius, M. [Civil Engineering and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton S017 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dungait, J.A.J. [Department of Sustainable Systems and Grassland Science, Rothamsted Research—North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Smallman, D.J. [Civil Engineering and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton S017 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dixon, E.R. [Department of Sustainable Systems and Grassland Science, Rothamsted Research—North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Stringfellow, A. [Civil Engineering and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton S017 1BJ (United Kingdom); Sear, D.A. [Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Jones, J.I. [School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Naden, P.S. [CEH Wallingford, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    The ingress of particulate material into freshwater spawning substrates is thought to be contributing to the declining success of salmonids reported over recent years for many rivers. Accordingly, the need for reliable information on the key sources of the sediment problem has progressed up the management agenda. Whilst previous work has focussed on apportioning the sources of minerogenic fine sediment degrading spawning habitats, there remains a need to develop procedures for generating corresponding information for the potentially harmful sediment-bound organic matter that represents an overlooked component of interstitial sediment. A source tracing procedure based on composite signatures combining bulk stable {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N isotope values with organic molecular structures detected using near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was therefore used to assess the primary sources of sediment-bound organic matter sampled from artificial spawning redds. Composite signatures were selected using a combination of the Kruskal–Wallis H-test, principal component analysis and GA-driven discriminant function analysis. Interstitial sediment samples were collected using time-integrating basket traps which were inserted at the start of the salmonid spawning season and extracted in conjunction with critical phases of fish development (eyeing, hatch, emergence, late spawning). Over the duration of these four basket extractions, the overall relative frequency-weighted average median (± 95% confidence limits) source contributions to the interstitial sediment-bound organic matter were estimated to be in the order: instream decaying vegetation (39 ± < 1%; full range 0–77%); damaged road verges (28 ± < 1%; full range 0–77%); septic tanks (22 ± < 1%; full range 0–50%), and; farm yard manures/slurries (11 ± < 1%; full range 0–61%). The reported procedure provides a promising basis for understanding the key sources of interstitial sediment-bound organic matter

  16. Delineation of heavy metal contamination pathways (seawater, food and sediment) in tropical oysters from New Caledonia using radiotracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedouin, Laetitia; Metian, Marc; Teyssie, Jean-Louis; Fichez, Renaud; Warnau, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of Ag, Cd, Co, Cr and Zn was studied in the oysters Isognomon isognomon and Malleus regula, using highly sensitive radiotracer techniques. Metals were readily bioconcentrated from the dissolved phase. Sediment exposures indicated a low bioavailability of sediment-bound metals (3-5 orders of magnitude lower than dissolved metals). In both seawater and sediment experiments, the two oysters displayed similar bioaccumulation behaviour towards all metals but Ag. Indeed, Ag was much more efficiently incorporated and retained in I. isognomon. Metals ingested with food (phytoplankton) were efficiently assimilated (34-77%) and strongly retained in oyster tissues (T b1/2 ≥ 20 d). Estimation of the relative contribution of each exposure pathway indicated that for both species sediment was the dominant pathway for Co and Cd, whereas food was the major source of Zn. Regarding Ag, seawater was the main source for I. isognomon (86%), whereas sediment was the predominant route for M. regula (92%).

  17. Comparative study of plutonium and americium bioaccumulation from two marine sediments contaminated in the natural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T.F.; Smith, J.D. (Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry); Fowler, S.W.; LaRosa, J.; Holm, E. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Monaco-Ville (Monaco). Lab. of Marine Radioactivity); Aarkrog, A.; Dahlgaard, H. (Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark))

    1991-01-01

    Plutonium and americium sediment-animal transfer was studied under controlled laboratory conditions by exposure of the benthic polychaete Nereis diversicolor (O. F. Mueller) to marine sediments contaminated by a nuclear bomb accident (near Thule, Greenland) and nuclear weapons testing (Enewetak Atoll). In both sediment regimes, the bioavailability of plutonium and {sup 241}Am was low, with specific activity in the tissues <1% (dry wt) than in the sediments. Over the first three months, a slight preference in transfer of plutonium over {sup 241}Am occurred and {sup 241}Am uptake from the Thule sediment was enhanced compared to that from lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll. Autoradiography studies indicated the presence of hot particles of plutonium in the sediments. The results highlight the importance of purging animals of their gut contents in order to obtain accurate estimates of transuranic transfer from ingested sediments into tissue. It is further suggested that enhanced transuranic uptake by some benthic species could arise from ingestion of highly activity particles and organic-rich detritus present in the sediments. (author).

  18. The availability of soil-associated radionuclides for uptake after inadvertent ingestion by humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, S.; Green, N.

    2002-01-01

    Assessments of the radiological impact of radionuclides released into the environment generally take into account the inadvertent ingestion of radionuclides associated with soil or sediment. Such assessments often assume that gut uptake factors for radionuclides that are biologically incorporated in food are also applicable when the ingested activity is associated with soil. Studies of the availability of soil-associated radionuclides after ingestion have been mainly conducted on ruminant animals and few data exist for humans. The digestive tract of ruminants is totally different from that of a mono-gastric animal and so the availability estimated from the animal studies may not be valid in the case of man. A simple in-vitro enzymolysis procedure was therefore developed to simulate human digestion closely. The measured availability of 137 Cs, 241 Am, 239 PU and 90 Sr associated with loam, sand and peat soils was about 3%, 3%, 10% and 50% respectively. (author)

  19. Toxicity of Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA, sediment fed to mute swans (Cygnus olor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, W.N.; Day, D.; Melancon, M.J.; Sileo, L.

    2000-03-01

    Sediment ingestion is sometimes the principal route by which waterfowl are exposed to environmental contaminants, and at severely contaminated sites waterfowl have been killed by ingesting sediment. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) were fed a diet for 6 weeks with a high but environmentally realistic concentration (24%) of sediment from the moderately polluted Anacostia River in the District of Columbia, USA, to estimate the sediment's toxicity. Control swans were fed the same diet without the sediment. Five organochlorine compounds were detected in the treated diets, but none of 22 organochlorine compounds included in the analyses was detected in livers of the treated swans. The concentrations of 24 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons measured in the treated diet were as high as 0.80 mg/kg, and they were thought to have been responsible for the observed induction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity in livers. A concentration of 85 mg/kg of lead in the diet was enough to decrease red blood cell ALAD activity but was not high enough to cause more serious effects of lead poisoning. The dietary concentrations of Al, Fe, V, and Ba were high compared to the concentrations of these elements known to be toxic in laboratory feeding studies. However, the lack of accumulation in the livers of the treated swans suggested that these elements were not readily available from the ingested sediment. The authors did not study all potential toxic effects, but, on the basis of those that they did consider, they concluded that the treated swans were basically healthy after a chronic exposure to the sediment.

  20. Toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment to mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.; LeCaptain, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    Because consumption of lead-contaminated sediment has been suspected as the cause of waterfowl mortality in the Coeur d?Alene River basin in Idaho, we studied the bioavailability and toxicity of this sediment to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). In experiment 1, one of 10 adult male mallards died when fed a pelleted commercial duck diet that contained 24% lead-contaminated sediment (with 3,400 μg/g lead in the sediment). Protoporphyrin levels in the blood increased as the percentage of lead-contaminated sediment in the diet increased. Birds fed 24% lead-contaminated sediment exhibited atrophy of the breast muscles, green staining of the feathers around the vent, viscous bile, green staining of the gizzard lining, and renal tubular intranuclear inclusion bodies. Mallards fed 24% lead-contaminated sediment had means of 6.1 μg/g of lead in the blood and 28 μg/g in the liver (wet-weight basis) and 1,660 μg/g in the feces (dry-weight basis). In experiment 2, we raised the dietary concentration of the lead-contaminated sediment to 48%, but only about 20% sediment was actually ingested due to food washing by the birds. Protoporphyrin levels were elevated in the lead-exposed birds, and all of the mallards fed 48% lead-contaminated sediment had renal tubular intranuclear inclusion bodies. The concentrations of lead in the liver were 9.1 μg/g for mallards fed 24% lead-contaminated sediment and 16 μg/g for mallards fed 48% lead-contaminated sediment. In experiment 3, four of five mallards died when fed a ground corn diet containing 24% lead-contaminated sediment (with 4,000 μg/g lead in this sample of sediment), but none died when the 24% lead-contaminated sediment was mixed into a nutritionally balanced commercial duck diet; estimated actual ingestion rates for sediment were 14% and 17% for the corn and commercial diets. Lead exposure caused elevations in protoporphyrin, and four of the five mallards fed 24% lead-contaminated sediment in a commercial diet and all five

  1. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) shows increased public health risk associated with exposure to river water under conditions of riverbed sediment resuspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Akebe Luther King; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Genthe, Bettina; Momba, Maggy Ndombo Benteke

    2016-10-01

    Although higher microbial concentrations have been reported in sediments than in the overlying water column, most quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) studies have not clearly indicated the contribution of sediment-borne pathogens to estimated risks. Thus, the present study aimed at determining the public health risk associated with exposure to pathogenic bacteria in polluted river water under undisturbed conditions and conditions of sediment resuspension in the Apies River, Gauteng, South Africa. Microbial pathogens were isolated and identified using culture and molecular methods. The beta-Poisson dose-response model was used to estimate the probability of infection (Pi) with the various pathogens, following accidental/intentional ingestion of 1mL or 100mL (or 50mL) of untreated river water. Mean wet season Escherichia coli counts ranged between 5.8E+01 and 8.8E+04MPN/100mL (water column) and between 2.40E+03 and 1.28E+05MPN/100mL (sediments). Mean dry season E. coli counts ranged between 5.11E+00 and 3.40E+03MPN/100mL (water column) and between 5.09E+00 and 6.30E+03MPN/100mL (sediments). Overall (water and sediments) Vibrio cholerae was the most detected pathogen (58.8%) followed by Salmonella spp. (23.9%) and Shigella (10.1%). Ingestion of 1mL of river water could lead to 0%-4% and 1%-74% Pi with E. coli during the dry and wet season, respectively. During the dry season, the Pi with V. cholerae, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were 0%-1.39%, 0%-4.11% and 0%-0.16% respectively, depending on volume of water ingested. The risks of infections with all microorganisms increased during the wet season. A 2-log increase in water E. coli count following sediments disturbance led to approximately 10 times higher Pi with E. coli than when sediments were undisturbed. Therefore, the use of the untreated water from the Apies River for drinking, household purposes or recreational activities poses a potential health risk to the users of the river. Copyright © 2016

  2. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Helena A.; Maher, William A., E-mail: bill.maher@canberra.edu.au; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata.

  3. The relative importance of ingestion for multiple pathway dose assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicker, W.; Grogan, H.; Bergstroem, U.; Hoffman, O.

    1991-01-01

    The general purpose of this report is to examine the relative importance of ingestion pathways, and particularly food chain transport in overall dose assessment. The importance of ingestion pathways is examined for various release scenarios and radionuclides because the findings are expected to differ with circumstances. The degree to which contaminated food products contribute to the total dose will affect the importance of accuracy and uncertainty of food chain model predictions, which is the main thrust of the Biospheric Model Validation Study (BIOMOVS). This analysis requires that all modes of radiation exposure be examined, including inhalation, external exposure, and the various ingestion pathways. (2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  4. Sediment and Nutrient Contributions from Subsurface Drains and Point Sources to an Agricultural Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Ball Coelho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Excess sediment and nutrients in surface waters can threaten aquatic life. To determine the relative importance of subsurface drainage as a pathway for movement of sediment and nutrients to surface waters, loading from various tile systems was compared to that from sewage treatment plants (STP within the same watershed. Movement through tiles comprised 1 to 8% of estimated total (overland plus tile annual sediment loading from the respective areas drained by the tile. Load during the growing season from five closed drain- age systems without surface inlets averaged 5 kg sediment/ha, 0.005 kg dissolved reactive P (DRP/ha, 0.003 kg NH4-N/ha, and 3.8 kg NO3-N/ha; and from two open drainage systems with surface inlets averaged 14 kg sediment/ha, 0.03 kg DRP/ha, 0.04 kg NH4-N/ha, and 3.1 kg NO3-N/ha. The eight STP contributed about 44 530 kg suspended sediments, 3380 kg total P, 1340 kg NH4-N, and 116 900 kg NO3-N to the watershed annually. Drainage systems added less NH4-N and P, but more NO3-N and suspended solids to surface waters than STP. Tile drainage pathways for NO3-N, STP in the case of P, and overland pathways for sediment are indicated as targets to control loading in artificially drained agricultural watersheds.

  5. Caustic Ingestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rafeey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevention has a main role in reducing the occurrence of corrosive ingestion especially in children, yet this goal is far from being reached in developing countries, where such injuries are largely unreported and their true prevalence simply cannot be extrapolated from random articles or personal experience. Because of the accidental nature of the ingestions, the case fatality rate for pediatric patients is significantly less than that of adolescents and adults.  Currently, esophagoscopy is recommended for all patients with a history of caustic substance ingestion because clinical criteria have not proved to be reliable predictors of esophageal injury. The presence or absence of three serious signs and symptoms-vomiting, drooling, and stridor—as well as the presence and location of oropharyngeal burns could be  compared with the findings on subsequent esophagoscopy. Medical or endoscopic prevention of stricture is debatable, yet esophageal stents, absorbable or not, show promising data. The purpose of this lecture is to outline the current epidemiology, mechanism of injury, clinical manifestations, management and long-term complications of caustic ingestions in pediatric patients.   Key Words: Caustic, Children, Ingestions.

  6. Lead mobilisation in the hyporheic zone and river bank sediments of a contaminated stream. Contribution to diffuse pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Wragg, Joanna; Banks, Vanessa J. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Past metal mining has left a legacy of highly contaminated sediments representing a significant diffuse source of contamination to water bodies in the UK and worldwide. This paper presents the results of an integrated approach used to define the role of sediments in contributing to the dissolved lead (Pb) loading to surface water in a mining-impacted catchment. Materials and methods: The Rookhope Burn catchment, northern England, UK is affected by historical mining and processing of lead ore. Quantitative geochemical loading determinations, measurements of interstitial water chemistry from the stream hyporheic zone and inundation tests of bank sediments were carried out. Results and discussion: High concentrations of Pb in the sediments from the catchment, identified from the British Geological Survey Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment (GBASE) data, demonstrate both the impact of mineralisation and widespread historical mining. The results from stream water show that the stream Pb load increased in the lower part of the catchment, without any apparent or significant contribution of point sources of Pb to the stream. Relative to surface water, the interstitial water of the hyporheic zone contained high concentrations of dissolved Pb in the lower reaches of the Rookhope Burn catchment, downstream of a former mine washing plant. Concentrations of 56 {mu}g l{sup -1} of dissolved Pb in the interstitial water of the hyporheic zone may be a major cause of the deterioration of fish habitats in the stream and be regarded as a serious risk to the target of good ecological status as defined in the European Water Framework Directive. Inundation tests provide an indication that bank sediments have the potential to contribute dissolved Pb to surface water. Conclusions: The determination of Pb in the interstitial water and in the inundation water, taken with water Pb mass balance and sediment Pb distribution maps at the catchment scale, implicate the

  7. Foreign-body ingestion: characteristics and outcomes in a lower socioeconomic population with predominantly intentional ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Renee; Sahota, Amandeep; Bemarki, Ali; Salama, Paul; Simpson, Nicole; Laine, Loren

    2009-03-01

    Previous reports of foreign-body ingestions focused primarily on accidental ingestions. To describe the characteristics and management of foreign-body ingestions, with predominantly intentional ingestion, in a lower socioeconomic status population. A retrospective case series. An urban county hospital. Patients >/=17 years old, with foreign-body ingestions between 2000 and 2006. Characteristics of ingestion cases, endoscopic extraction, need for surgery, and complications. Among 262 cases, 92% were intentional, 85% involved psychiatric patients, and 84% occurred in patients with prior ingestions. The time from ingestion to presentation was >48 hours in 168 cases (64%). The overall success rate for endoscopic extraction was 90% (165/183 cases). Surgery was performed in 30 cases (11%) and was more common for objects beyond the pylorus versus objects above the pylorus (16/43 [37%] vs 10/151 [7%], respectively) and in cases with a greater delay from ingestion to presentation (25/168 [15%] if >48 hours vs 4/77 [5%] if 48 hours vs 14/165 [8%] if ingestions in an urban county hospital occurred primarily in psychiatric patients who had repeated episodes of intentional ingestions. Endoscopic extraction was unsuccessful in 10% of cases. Long delays from ingestion to presentation and intervention may account for relatively high rates of surgery and perforation. Strategies to prevent ingestions and delays in endoscopic management are needed in this population.

  8. Toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment to mute swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, D.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Hoffman, D.J.; Morton, Alexandra; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Most ecotoxicological risk assessments of wildlife emphasize contaminant exposure through ingestion of food and water. However, the role of incidental ingestion of sediment-bound contaminants has not been adequately appreciated in these assessments. This study evaluates the toxicological consequences of contamination of sediments with metals from hard-rock mining and smelting activities. Lead-contaminated sediments collected from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin in Idaho were combined with either a commercial avian maintenance diet or ground rice and fed to captive mute swans (Cygnus olor) for 6 weeks. Experimental treatments consisted of maintenance or rice diets containing 0, 12 (no rice group), or 24% highly contaminated (3,950 ug/g lead) sediment or 24% reference (9.7 ug/g lead) sediment. Although none of the swans died, the group fed a rice diet containing 24% lead-contaminated sediment were the most severely affected, experiencing a 24% decrease in mean body weight, including three birds that became emaciated. All birds in this treatment group had nephrosis; abnormally dark, viscous bile; and significant (p < 0.05) reductions in hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations compared to their pretreatment levels. This group also had the greatest mean concentrations of lead in blood (3.2 ug/g), brain (2.2 ug/g), and liver (8.5 ug/g). These birds had significant (alpha = 0.05) increases in mean plasma alanine aminotransferase activity, cholesterol, and uric acid concentrations and decreased plasma triglyceride concentrations compared to all other treatment groups. After 14 days of exposure, mean protoporphyrin concentrations increased substantially, and mean delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity decreased by more than 95% in all groups fed diets containing highly contaminated sediments. All swans fed diets that contained 24% lead-contaminated sediment had renal acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies, which are diagnostic of lead poisoning in waterfowl. Body

  9. Microplastic ingestion decreases energy reserves in marine worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L; Rowe, Darren; Thompson, Richard C; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-12-02

    The indiscriminate disposal of plastic to the environment is of concern. Microscopic plastic litter (environment, originating from the fragmentation of plastic items and from industry and personal-care products [1]. On highly impacted beaches, microplastic concentrations (impacts remain understudied [1]. Here, we show that deposit-feeding marine worms maintained in sediments spiked with microscopic unplasticised polyvinylchloride (UPVC) at concentrations overlapping those in the environment had significantly depleted energy reserves by up to 50% (Figure 1). Our results suggest that depleted energy reserves arise from a combination of reduced feeding activity, longer gut residence times of ingested material and inflammation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Are Sediments a Source of Fukushima Radiocesium for Marine Fauna in Coastal Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Fisher, N. S.; Baumann, Z.

    2016-02-01

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in 2011 resulted in the largest accidental release of artificial radionuclides into the world's oceans. Among the fission products released in large quantities, 137Cs has the greatest potential for long-term impacts on marine biota and human consumers of seafood. In particular, some species of bottom fish near Fukushima were very contaminated and had higher radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs) levels than pelagic fish in the same area, sometimes exceeding Japanese safety limits >4 years after the accident. Benthic invertebrates, many being prey items for bottom fish, show the same slow decrease in radiocesium as sediments, suggesting that contaminated sediment could be a source of radiocesium for benthic fauna. We evaluated the binding of 137Cs to sediments (Kd found to be 44-60 ml g-1) and found that bioturbation by the polychaete Nereis succinea greatly increased the initial release rate of Cs to overlying seawater. We also assessed the bioavailability of dissolved and sediment-bound Cs for deposit-feeding polychaetes, and its subsequent transfer to crabs and fish, and measured the influence of water temperature on Cs accumulation in fish. Assimilation efficiency (AE) of ingested 137Cs ranged from 16% in polychaetes ingesting sediments to 79% in fish ingesting worms. Efflux rate constants ranged from 5% d-1 for killifish to 40% d-1 for polychaetes. Animal absorption and retention of dissolved 137Cs were also measured. These parameters are used to model radiocesium bioaccumulation and trophic transfer in benthic food chains. Our results are consistent with the idea that sediments can be an important source of Cs for benthic food chains and help explain why some species of bottom fish remained more contaminated than pelagic fish in Japanese coastal waters.

  11. Catchment source contributions to the sediment-bound organic matter degrading salmonid spawning gravels in a lowland river, southern England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, A.L.; Williams, L.J.; Zhang, Y.S.; Marius, M.; Dungait, J.A.J.; Smallman, D.J.; Dixon, E.R.; Stringfellow, A.; Sear, D.A.; Jones, J.I.; Naden, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    The ingress of particulate material into freshwater spawning substrates is thought to be contributing to the declining success of salmonids reported over recent years for many rivers. Accordingly, the need for reliable information on the key sources of the sediment problem has progressed up the management agenda. Whilst previous work has focussed on apportioning the sources of minerogenic fine sediment degrading spawning habitats, there remains a need to develop procedures for generating corresponding information for the potentially harmful sediment-bound organic matter that represents an overlooked component of interstitial sediment. A source tracing procedure based on composite signatures combining bulk stable 13 C and 15 N isotope values with organic molecular structures detected using near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was therefore used to assess the primary sources of sediment-bound organic matter sampled from artificial spawning redds. Composite signatures were selected using a combination of the Kruskal–Wallis H-test, principal component analysis and GA-driven discriminant function analysis. Interstitial sediment samples were collected using time-integrating basket traps which were inserted at the start of the salmonid spawning season and extracted in conjunction with critical phases of fish development (eyeing, hatch, emergence, late spawning). Over the duration of these four basket extractions, the overall relative frequency-weighted average median (± 95% confidence limits) source contributions to the interstitial sediment-bound organic matter were estimated to be in the order: instream decaying vegetation (39 ± road verges > septic tanks > farm manures

  12. Contribution of phytoplankton and benthic microalgae to inner shelf sediments of the north-central Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, M. A.; Fleeger, J. W.; Rabalais, N. N.; Condrey, R.; Carman, K. R.

    2010-03-01

    Marine sediment may contain both settled phytoplankton and benthic microalgae (BMA). In river-dominated, shallow continental shelf systems, spatial, and temporal heterogeneity in sediment type and water-column characteristics (e.g., turbidity and primary productivity) may promote spatial variation in the relative contribution of these two sources to the sediment organic matter pool available to benthic consumers. Here we use photosynthetic pigment analysis and microscopic examination of sediment microalgae to investigate how the biomass, composition, and degradation state of sediment-associated microalgae vary along the Louisiana (USA) inner shelf, a region strongly influenced by the Mississippi River. Three sandy shoals and surrounding muddy sediments with depths ranging from 4 to 20 m were sampled in April, August, and October 2007. Pigment composition suggested that sediment microalgae were primarily diatoms at all locations. We found no significant differences in sediment chlorophyll a concentrations (8-77 mg m -2) at the shoal and off-shoal stations. Epipelic pennate diatoms (considered indicative of BMA) made up a significantly greater proportion of sediment diatoms at sandy (50-98%) compared to more silty off-shoal stations (16-56%). The percentage of centric diatoms (indicators of settled phytoplankton) in the sediment was highest in August. Sediment total pheopigment concentrations on sandy stations (40 mg m -2), suggesting differences in sediment microalgal degradation state. These observations suggest that BMA predominate in shallow sandy sediments and that phytodetritus predominates at muddy stations. Our results also suggest that the relative proportion of phytodetritus in the benthos was highest where phytoplankton biomass in the overlying water was greatest, independent of sediment type. The high biomass of BMA found on shoals suggests that benthic primary production on sandy sediments represents a potentially significant local source of sediment

  13. Contributions of a Strengthened Early Holocene Monsoon and Sediment Loading to Present-Day Subsidence of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpytchev, M.; Ballu, V.; Krien, Y.; Becker, M.; Goodbred, S.; Spada, G.; Calmant, S.; Shum, C. K.; Khan, Z.

    2018-02-01

    The contribution of subsidence to relative sea level rise in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta (GBD) is largely unknown and may considerably enhance exposure of the Bengal Basin populations to sea level rise and storm surges. This paper focuses on estimating the present-day subsidence induced by Holocene sediment in the Bengal Basin and by oceanic loading due to eustatic sea level rise over the past 18 kyr. Using a viscoelastic Earth model and sediment deposition history based on in situ measurements, results suggest that massive sediment influx initiated in the early Holocene under a strengthened South Asian monsoon may have contributed significantly to the present-day subsidence of the GBD. We estimate that the Holocene loading generates up to 1.6 mm/yr of the present-day subsidence along the GBD coast, depending on the rheological model of the Earth. This rate is close to the twentieth century global mean sea level rise (1.1-1.7 mm/yr). Thus, past climate change, by way of enhanced sedimentation, is impacting vulnerability of the GBD populations.

  14. Combining sediment fingerprinting and a conceptual model for erosion and sediment transfer to explore sediment sources in an Alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A.; Stutenbecker, L.; Anghileri, D.; Bakker, M.; Lane, S. N.; Molnar, P.; Schlunegger, F.

    2017-12-01

    In Alpine basins, sediment production and transfer is increasingly affected by climate change and human activities, specifically hydropower exploitation. Changes in sediment sources and pathways significantly influence basin management, biodiversity and landscape evolution. We explore the dynamics of sediment sources in a partially glaciated and highly regulated Alpine basin, the Borgne basin, by combining geochemical fingerprinting with the modelling of erosion and sediment transfer. The Borgne basin in southwest Switzerland is composed of three main litho-tectonic units, which we characterised following a tributary-sampling approach from lithologically characteristic sub-basins. We analysed bulk geochemistry using lithium borate fusion coupled with ICP-ES, and we used it to discriminate the three lithologic sources using statistical methods. Finally, we applied a mixing model to estimate the relative contributions of the three sources to the sediment sampled at the outlet. We combine results of the sediment fingerprinting with simulations of a spatially distributed conceptual model for erosion and transport of fine sediment. The model expresses sediment erosion by differentiating the contributions of erosional processes driven by erosive rainfall, snowmelt, and icemelt. Soil erodibility is accounted for as function of land-use and sediment fluxes are linearly convoluted to the outlet by sediment transfer rates for hillslope and river cells, which are a function of sediment connectivity. Sediment connectivity is estimated on the basis of topographic-hydraulic connectivity, flow duration associated with hydropower flow abstraction and permanent storage in hydropower reservoirs. Sediment fingerprinting at the outlet of the Borgne shows a consistent dominance (68-89%) of material derived from the uppermost, highly glaciated reaches, while contributions of the lower part (10-25%) and middle part (1-16%), where rainfall erosion is predominant, are minor. This result is

  15. An analysis of ingestion doses from a range of postulated Magnox reactor releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis was carried out of ingestion doses from a range of postulated Magnox reactor releases to the atmosphere. Doses to the adult, ten year old child and one year old child were calculated, which showed the one year old child to receive the highest dose. Detailed studies were made of the significance of the ingestion dose to the one year old child in relation to other exposure routes. The ingestion dose was analysed for its contributing critical organs, foods and nuclides. Approximate calculations were also made of the dependence of the ingestion dose on the time of year when the release occurs. The ingestion pathway was found to dominate if the release occurs towards the end of the growing season but to be less significant relative to other exposure pathways at all other times. The calculations enabled a set of release-specific emergency action guidance levels of critical nuclide concentrations in the critical foods to be produced, which comply with NRPB's ingestion Emergency Reference Level guidelines. (author)

  16. An analysis of ingestion doses from a range of postulated Magnox reactor releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.

    1985-06-01

    An analysis has been carried out of ingestion doses from a range of postulated Magnox reactor releases to atmosphere. Calculations were made of the dose to the adult, ten year old child and one year old child, which showed the one year old child to receive the highest dose. Detailed studies were made of the significance of the ingestion dose to the one year old child in relation to other exposure routes. The ingestion dose was also analysed in terms of the contributing critical organs, foods and nuclides. Approximate calculations were also made of the dependence of the ingestion dose on the time of year when the release occurs. The results of the analysis were used to derive a set of release-specific Emergency Action Guidance Levels (EAGLs) of critical nuclide concentrations in the critical foods, which comply with NRPB's ingestion ERL recommendations. The EAGLs were supplemented with a corresponding set of EAGLs for grass, for use in situations where crop samples were not readily available. (author)

  17. Modeling the source contribution of heavy metals in surficial sediment and analysis of their historical changes in the vertical sediments of a drinking water reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqiang; A, Yinglan; Jiang, Hong; Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui

    2015-01-01

    Increasing water pollution in developing countries poses a significant threat to environmental health and human welfare. Understanding the spatial distribution and apportioning the sources of pollution are important for the efficient management of water resources. In this study, ten types of heavy metals were detected during 2010-2013 for all ambient samples and point sources samples. A pollution assessment based on the surficial sediment dataset by Enrichment Factor (EF) showed the surficial sediment was moderately contaminated. A comparison of the multivariate approach (principle components analysis/absolute principle component score, PCA/APCS) and the chemical mass balance model (CMB) shows that the identification of sources and calculation of source contribution based on the CMB were more objective and acceptable when source profiles were known and source composition was complex. The results of source apportionment for surficial heavy metals, both from PCA/APCS and CMB model, showed that the natural background (30%) was the most dominant contributor to the surficial heavy metals, followed by mining activities (29%). The contribution percentage of the natural background was negatively related to the degree of contamination. The peak concentrations of many heavy metals (Cu, Ba, Fe, As and Hg) were found in the middle layer of sediment, which is most likely due to the result of development of industry beginning in the 1970s. However, the highest concentration of Pb appeared in the surficial sediment layer, which was most likely due to the sharp increase in the traffic volume. The historical analysis of the sources based on the CMB showed that mining and the chemical industry are stable sources for all of the sections. The comparing of change rates of source contribution versus years indicated that the composition of the materials in estuary site (HF1) is sensitive to the input from the land, whereas center site (HF4) has a buffering effect on the materials from

  18. Biota-sediment accumulation factors for radionuclides and sediment associated biota of the Ottawa River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowan, D.; Silke, R.; Carr, J., E-mail: rowand@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    As Ottawa River contamination is historical and resides in sediment, ecological risk and trophic transfer depend on linkages between sediment and biota. One of the ways in which this linkage is quantified is through the use of the biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF). In this study, we present the first field estimates of BSAF for a number of radionuclides. The strongest and most consistent BSAFs were those for {sup 137}Cs in deposit feeding taxa, suggesting that sediment concentrations rather than dissolved concentrations drive uptake. For crayfish and unionid bivalves that do not feed on sediment, biota radionuclide concentrations were not related to sediment concentrations, but rather reflected concentrations in water. BSAFs would not be appropriate for these non-deposit feeding biota. BSAFs for {sup 137}Cs were not significantly different among deposit feeding taxa, suggesting similar processes for ingestion, assimilation and elimination. These data also show that the concentration factor approach used for guidance would have led to spurious results in this study for deposit feeding benthic invertebrates. Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in Hexagenia downstream of the CRL process outfall range by about 2-orders of magnitude, in comparison to relatively uniform water concentrations. The concentration factor approach would have predicted a single value downstream of CRL, underestimating exposure to Hexagenia by almost 2-orders of magnitude at sites close to the CRL process outfall. (author)

  19. Thermal Esophageal Injury following Ingestion of Boiling Mushroom Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Prevost

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal esophageal and gastric damage from ingestion of hot liquids is poorly studied in pediatrics. Limited case reports exist in the literature. Many cases presented with chest pain, dysphagia, and odynophagia. Variable histologic findings were reported. No definitive management guidelines exist for such injuries. We provide a report of the acute assessment and management of an obvious thermal esophageal injury and contribute to what is known about this presentation. A 16-year-old male presented with odynophagia, dysphagia, and hematemesis following ingestion of “nearly boiling” mushroom water. Ondansetron, pantoprazole, ketorolac, maintenance intravenous fluids, and a clear liquid diet were started. At sixty hours after ingestion, an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD revealed blistering and edema of the soft palate and epiglottis, circumferential erythema of the entire esophagus with an exudate likely to be desquamated mucosa, and linear erythema of the body and fundus of the stomach. An EGD one month after ingestion showed no residual effects from the injury. The pantoprazole was weaned and restrictions to his diet were lifted. To better standardize care in these rare esophageal injuries, the development of a clinical care algorithm may be beneficial to provide clinicians with a guide for management based on outcomes of previously reported cases.

  20. Clay mineralogy of surface sediments as a tool for deciphering river contributions to the Cariaco Basin (Venezuela)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bout-Roumazeilles, V.; Riboulleau, A.; du Châtelet, E. Armynot; Lorenzoni, L.; Tribovillard, N.; Murray, R. W.; Müller-Karger, F.; Astor, Y. M.

    2013-02-01

    The mineralogical composition of 95 surface sediment samples from the Cariaco Basin continental shelf and Orinoco delta was investigated in order to constrain the clay-mineral main provenance and distribution within the Cariaco Basin. The spatial variability of the data set was studied using a geo-statistical approach that allows drawing representative clay-mineral distribution maps. These maps are used to identify present-day dominant sources for each clay-mineral species in agreement with the geological characteristics of the main river watersheds emptying into the basin. This approach allows (1) identifying the most distinctive clay-mineral species/ratios that determine particle provenance, (2) evaluating the respective contribution of local rivers, and (3) confirming the minimal present-day influence of the Orinoco plume on the Cariaco Basin sedimentation. The Tuy, Unare, and Neveri Rivers are the main sources of clay particles to the Cariaco Basin sedimentation. At present, the Tuy River is the main contributor of illite to the western part of the southern Cariaco Basin continental shelf. The Unare River plume, carrying smectite and kaolinite, has a wide westward propagation, whereas the Neveri River contribution is less extended, providing kaolinite and illite toward the eastern Cariaco Basin. The Manzanares, Araya, Tortuga, and Margarita areas are secondary sources of local influence. These insights shed light on the origin of present-day terrigenous sediments of the Cariaco Basin and help to propose alternative explanations for the temporal variability of clay mineralogy observed in previously published studies.

  1. Alteration of organic matter during infaunal polychaete gut passage and links to sediment organic geochemistry. Part I: Amino acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woulds, C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Cowie, G.L.

    2012-01-01

    Of the factors which control the quantity and composition of organic matter (OM) buried in marine sediments, the links between infaunal ingestion and gut passage and sediment geochemistry have received relatively little attention. This study aimed to use feeding experiments and novel isotope tracing

  2. A fingerprinting mixing model approach to generate uniformly representative solutions for distributed contributions of sediment sources in a Pyrenean drainage basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón, Leticia; Gaspar, Leticia; Latorre, Borja; Blake, Will; Navas, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Spanish Pyrenean reservoirs are under pressure from high sediment yields in contributing catchments. Sediment fingerprinting approaches offer potential to quantify the contribution of different sediment sources, evaluate catchment erosion dynamics and develop management plans to tackle the reservoir siltation problems. The drainage basin of the Barasona reservoir (1509 km2), located in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, is an alpine-prealpine agroforest basin supplying sediments to the reservoir at an annual rate of around 350 t km-2 with implications for reservoir longevity. The climate is mountain type, wet and cold, with both Atlantic and Mediterranean influences. Steep slopes and the presence of deep and narrow gorges favour rapid runoff and large floods. The ability of geochemical fingerprint properties to discriminate between the sediment sources was investigated by conducting the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis H-test and a stepwise discriminant function analysis (minimization of Wilk's lambda). This standard procedure selects potential fingerprinting properties as optimum composite fingerprint to characterize and discriminate between sediment sources to the reservoir. Then the contribution of each potential sediment source was assessed by applying a Monte Carlo mixing model to obtain source proportions for the Barasona reservoir sediment samples. The Monte Carlo mixing model was written in C programming language and designed to deliver a user-defined number possible solutions. A Combinatorial Principals method was used to identify the most probable solution with associated uncertainty based on source variability. The unique solution for each sample was characterized by the mean value and the standard deviation of the generated solutions and the lower goodness of fit value applied. This method is argued to guarantee a similar set of representative solutions in all unmixing cases based on likelihood of occurrence. Soil samples for the different potential sediment

  3. Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin eKeen-Rhinehart

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Food availability in nature is often irregular, and famine is commonplace. Increased motivation to engage in ingestive behaviors increases the chance of survival, providing additional potential opportunities for reproduction. Because of the advantages conferred by entraining ingestive behavior to environmental conditions, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the motivation to acquire and ingest food have evolved to be responsive to exogenous (i.e. food stored for future consumption and endogenous (i.e. body fat stores fuel availability. Motivated behaviors like eating occur in two phases. The appetitive phase brings animals into contact with food (e.g. foraging, food hoarding, and the more reflexive consummatory phase results in ingestion (e.g., chewing, swallowing. Quantifiable appetitive behaviors are part of many the natural ingestive behavioral repertoire of species such as hamsters and humans. This review summarizes current knowledge about neuroendocrine regulators of ingestive behavior, with an emphasis appetitive behavior. We will discuss hormonal regulators of appetitive ingestive behaviors, including the orexigenic hormone ghrelin, which potently stimulates foraging and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters. This section includes a discussion of the hormone leptin, its relation to endogenous fat stores, and its role in food deprivation-induced increases in appetitive ingestive behaviors. Next, we discuss how hormonal regulators interact with neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of ingestive behaviors, such as NPY, AgRP and alpha-MSH, to regulate ingestive behavior. Finally, we discuss the potential impact that perinatal nutrient availability can have on the neuroendocrine regulation of ingestive behavior. Understanding the hormonal mechanisms that connect metabolic fuel availability to central appetite regulatory circuits should provide a better understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of the motivation to engage in ingestive

  4. Microplastics ingestion by a common tropical freshwater fishing resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Cavalcanti, Jacqueline Santos; Silva, José Diego B; França, Elton José de; Araújo, Maria Christina Barbosa de; Gusmão, Felipe

    2017-02-01

    Microplastics pollution is widespread in marine ecosystems and a major threat to biodiversity. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the impacts of microplastics in freshwater environments and biota is still very limited. The interaction of microplastics with freshwater organisms and the risks associated with the human consumption of organisms that ingested microplastics remain major knowledge gaps. In this study, we assessed the ingestion of microplastics by Hoplosternum littorale, a common freshwater fish heavily consumed by humans in semi-arid regions of South America. We assessed the abundance and diversity of both plastic debris and other food items found in the gut of fishes caught by local fishermen. We observed that 83% of the fish had plastic debris inside the gut, the highest frequency reported for a fish species so far. Most of the plastic debris (88.6%) recovered from the guts of fish were microplastics (microplastics at the urbanized sections of the river, and that the ingestion of microplastics was negatively correlated with the diversity of other food items in the gut of individual fish. Nevertheless, microplastics ingestion appears to have a limited impact on H. littorale, and the consequences of human consumption of this fish were not assessed. Our results suggest freshwater biota are vulnerable to microplastics pollution and that urbanization is a major factor contributing to the pollution of freshwater environments with microplastics. We suggest the gut content of fish could be used as a tool for the qualitative assessment of microplastics pollution in freshwater ecosystems. Further research is needed to determine the processes responsible for the high incidence of microplastics ingestion by H. littorale, and to evaluate the risk posed to humans by the consumption of freshwater fish that ingested microplastics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determining the sources of fine-grained sediment using the Sediment Source Assessment Tool (Sed_SAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman Sanisaca, Lillian E.; Gellis, Allen C.; Lorenz, David L.

    2017-07-27

    A sound understanding of sources contributing to instream sediment flux in a watershed is important when developing total maximum daily load (TMDL) management strategies designed to reduce suspended sediment in streams. Sediment fingerprinting and sediment budget approaches are two techniques that, when used jointly, can qualify and quantify the major sources of sediment in a given watershed. The sediment fingerprinting approach uses trace element concentrations from samples in known potential source areas to determine a clear signature of each potential source. A mixing model is then used to determine the relative source contribution to the target suspended sediment samples.The computational steps required to apportion sediment for each target sample are quite involved and time intensive, a problem the Sediment Source Assessment Tool (Sed_SAT) addresses. Sed_SAT is a user-friendly statistical model that guides the user through the necessary steps in order to quantify the relative contributions of sediment sources in a given watershed. The model is written using the statistical software R (R Core Team, 2016b) and utilizes Microsoft Access® as a user interface but requires no prior knowledge of R or Microsoft Access® to successfully run the model successfully. Sed_SAT identifies outliers, corrects for differences in size and organic content in the source samples relative to the target samples, evaluates the conservative behavior of tracers used in fingerprinting by applying a “Bracket Test,” identifies tracers with the highest discriminatory power, and provides robust error analysis through a Monte Carlo simulation following the mixing model. Quantifying sediment source contributions using the sediment fingerprinting approach provides local, State, and Federal land management agencies with important information needed to implement effective strategies to reduce sediment. Sed_SAT is designed to assist these agencies in applying the sediment fingerprinting

  6. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of a cationic surfactant (DODMAC) in sediment dwelling freshwater invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, S.D.W. [Atkins Ltd, Chilbrook, Oasis Business Park, Eynsham, Oxford, OX29 4AH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sean.comber@atkinsglobal.com; Rule, K.L. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Conrad, A.U. [Scottish Environmental Protection Agency, SEPA Corporate Office, Erskine Court Castle Business Park, Stirling FK9 4TR (United Kingdom); Hoess, S. [ECOSSA, Thierschstrasser 43, 80538 Muenchen (Germany); Webb, S.F. [Procter and Gamble, Temselaan 100, Strombeek-Bever B1853 (Belgium); Marshall, S. [Unilever Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedford MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride (DODMAC, CAS No. 107-64-2) is the principal active component of Di(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethylammonium chloride (DHTDMAC, CAS No. 61789-80-8), a cationic surfactant formerly used principally in laundry fabric softeners. After discharge to water, DODMAC partitions strongly to sediment, therefore the assessment of the effects of DODMAC to benthic organisms is essential in any risk assessment. Chronic toxicity studies were conducted with Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaete), Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaete) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode). NOECs were greater than 5738, 1515 and 1351 mg/kg dw, respectively, even for sub-lethal effects. Measurement of the route of uptake of DODMAC by L. variegatus demonstrated the relative importance of uptake via ingestion (86%) compared with direct contact with the sediment and via pore water (14%). The overall tendency of DODMAC to bioaccumulate, however, was low with measured accumulation factors of 0.22 and 0.78 for L. variegatus and T. tubifex, respectively. - The cationic surfactant, DODMAC, exhibits low bioavailability and toxicity to sediment dwelling organisms, with uptake dominated by ingestion.

  7. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of a cationic surfactant (DODMAC) in sediment dwelling freshwater invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comber, S.D.W.; Rule, K.L.; Conrad, A.U.; Hoess, S.; Webb, S.F.; Marshall, S.

    2008-01-01

    Dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride (DODMAC, CAS No. 107-64-2) is the principal active component of Di(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethylammonium chloride (DHTDMAC, CAS No. 61789-80-8), a cationic surfactant formerly used principally in laundry fabric softeners. After discharge to water, DODMAC partitions strongly to sediment, therefore the assessment of the effects of DODMAC to benthic organisms is essential in any risk assessment. Chronic toxicity studies were conducted with Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaete), Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaete) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode). NOECs were greater than 5738, 1515 and 1351 mg/kg dw, respectively, even for sub-lethal effects. Measurement of the route of uptake of DODMAC by L. variegatus demonstrated the relative importance of uptake via ingestion (86%) compared with direct contact with the sediment and via pore water (14%). The overall tendency of DODMAC to bioaccumulate, however, was low with measured accumulation factors of 0.22 and 0.78 for L. variegatus and T. tubifex, respectively. - The cationic surfactant, DODMAC, exhibits low bioavailability and toxicity to sediment dwelling organisms, with uptake dominated by ingestion

  8. Evaluating the role of desorption in bioavailability of sediment-associated contaminants using oligochaetes, semipermeable membrane devices and Tenax extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppaenen, Matti T.; Kukkonen, Jussi V.K.

    2006-01-01

    The success of the rapidly desorbing fraction as an available fraction was challenged by using sediment ingesting and non-ingesting oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) together with passive samplers (semipermeable membrane devices, SPMDs) in accumulation and kinetic modelling exercises for carbon-14 labelled model compounds (pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene and 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl). Passive samplers clearly produced lower uptake rate constants and steady state factors than either of the oligochaete treatments when residue concentrations were based on animal lipid or total SPMD weight. The rapidly desorbing chemical fractions in sediments did not show a significant relationship with the biota sediment accumulation factors or SPMD accumulation factors. A distinctly better relationship was observed between the accumulation factors and the desorption rate constants. The results support the assumption that desorption plays an important role in bioavailability, although animal behaviour and the diffusional limitations of hydrophobic contaminants in sediment together probably affect the actual available pool. - Desorption and animal behaviour play major roles in the availability of hydrophobic organics in sediments

  9. Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Ondek, Katelynn; Schneider, Jill E

    2013-11-15

    Food availability in nature is often irregular, and famine is commonplace. Increased motivation to engage in ingestive behaviors increases the chance of survival, providing additional potential opportunities for reproduction. Because of the advantages conferred by entraining ingestive behavior to environmental conditions, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the motivation to acquire and ingest food have evolved to be responsive to exogenous (i.e., food stored for future consumption) and endogenous (i.e., body fat stores) fuel availability. Motivated behaviors like eating occur in two phases. The appetitive phase brings animals into contact with food (e.g., foraging, food hoarding), and the more reflexive consummatory phase results in ingestion (e.g., chewing, swallowing). Quantifiable appetitive behaviors are part of the natural ingestive behavioral repertoire of species such as hamsters and humans. This review summarizes current knowledge about neuroendocrine regulators of ingestive behavior, with an emphasis appetitive behavior. We will discuss hormonal regulators of appetitive ingestive behaviors, including the orexigenic hormone ghrelin, which potently stimulates foraging and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters. This section includes a discussion of the hormone leptin, its relation to endogenous fat stores, and its role in food deprivation-induced increases in appetitive ingestive behaviors. Next, we discuss how hormonal regulators interact with neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of ingestive behaviors, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP) and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), to regulate ingestive behavior. Finally, we discuss the potential impact that perinatal nutrient availability can have on the neuroendocrine regulation of ingestive behavior. Understanding the hormonal mechanisms that connect metabolic fuel availability to central appetite regulatory circuits should provide a better understanding of the

  10. Ingestion of Nevada Test Site Fallout: Internal dose estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.; Kirchner, T.B.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes individual and collective dose estimates for the internal organs of hypothetical yet representative residents of selected communities that received measurable fallout from nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site. The doses, which resulted from ingestion of local and regional food products contaminated with over 20 radionuclides, were estimated with use of the PATHWAY food-chain-transport model to provide estimates of central tendency and uncertainty. The thyroid gland received much higher doses than other internal organs and tissues. In a avery few cases, infants might have received thyroid doses in excess of 1 Gy, depending on location, diet, and timing of fallout. 131 I was the primary thyroid dose contributor, and fresh milk was the main exposure pathway. With the exception of the thyroid, organ doses from the ingestion pathway were much smaller (<3%) than those from external gamma exposure to deposited fallout. Doses to residents living closest to the Nevada Test Site were contributed mainly by a few fallout events; doses to more distantly located people were generally smaller, but a greater number of events provided measurable contributions. The effectiveness of different fallout events in producing internal organ doses through ingestion varied dramatically with seasonal timing of the test, with maximum dose per unit fallout occurring for early summer depositions when milk cows were on pasture and fresh, local vegetables were used. Within specific communities, internal doses differed by age, sex, and lifestyle. Collective internal dose estimates for specific geographic areas are provided

  11. Esophageal button battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şencan, Arzu; Genişol, İncinur; Hoşgör, Münevver

    2017-07-01

    Button battery lodged in the esophagus carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to present cases of patients with esophageal button battery ingestion treated at our clinic and to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. Records of patients admitted to our hospital for foreign body ingestion between January 2010 and May 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Cases with button battery lodged in the esophagus were included in the study. Patient data regarding age, sex, length of time after ingestion until admission, presenting clinical symptoms, type and localization of the battery, management, and prognosis were analyzed. Among 1891 foreign body ingestions, 71 were localized in the esophagus, and 8 of those (11.2%) were cases of button battery ingestion. Mean age was 1.7 years. Admission was within 6 hours of ingestion in 5 cases, after 24 hours had elapsed in 2, and 1 month after ingestion in 1 case. All patients but 1 knew the history of ingestion. Prompt endoscopic removal was performed for all patients. Three patients developed esophageal stricture, which responded to dilatation. Early recognition and timely endoscopic removal is mandatory in esophageal button battery ingestion. It should be suspected in the differential diagnosis of patients with persistent respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  12. Evidence for vivianite formation and its contribution to long-term phosphorus retention in a recent lake sediment: a novel analytical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rothe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vivianite, Fe3(PO42 · 8 H2O, is a ferrous iron phosphate mineral which forms in waterlogged soils and sediments. The phosphorus (P bound in its crystal lattice is considered to be immobilised because vivianite is stable under anoxic, reducing, sedimentary conditions. Thus, vivianite formation can make a major contribution to P retention during early diagenesis. Much remains unknown about vivianite in sediments, because technical challenges have rendered direct identification and quantification difficult. To identify vivianite and assess its significance for P burial during early diagenesis we studied the consequences of a 1992/1993 in-lake application of FeCl3 and Fe(OH3 aimed at restoring Lake Groß-Glienicke (Berlin, Germany. In a novel approach, we firstly applied a heavy-liquid separation to the iron-rich surface sediments which allowed direct identification of vivianite by X-ray diffraction in the high-density (ρ > 2.3 g cm−3 sediment fraction. Secondly, we assessed the contribution of vivianite to P retention, combining results from chemical digestion with magnetic susceptibility data derived from magnetic hysteresis measurements. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the dark blue spherical vivianite nodules were 40–180 μm in diameter, and formed of platy- and needle-shaped crystal aggregates. Although equilibrium calculations indicated supersaturation of vivianite throughout the upper 30 cm of the sediment, the vivianite deposits were homogeneously distributed within, and restricted to, the upper 23 cm only. Thus, supersaturated pore water alone cannot serve as a reliable predictor for the in situ formation of vivianite. In Lake Groß -Glienicke, vivianite formation continues to be triggered by the artificial iron amendment more than 20 yr ago, significantly contributing to P retention in surface sediments.

  13. Typology of potential high contribution areas in the sediment budget in the Upper Guil Catchment (Queyras, French Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissak, Candide; Fort, Monique; Fassetta, Gilles Arnaud; Viel, Vincent; Carlier, Benoit

    2015-04-01

    In mountainous areas, especially in large river catchments with torrential tributaries, the production and sediment transport significantly increase flood impacts in the valley bottoms. For a better understanding of Alpine river catchments considered as complex systems, we focused our research on the Guil River catchment (Queyras, Southern French Alps - 317km²). This catchment is prone to catastrophic summer floods (June 1957 (> R.I. 100 yr), June 2000 (R.I. 30 yr)...) characterized by considerable sediment transport from tributaries to downvalley, very much facilitated by strong hillslope-channel connectivity (≈12,000 m3 volume of sediment aggraded during the June 2000 flood event). During the last flood events, several infrastructures and buildings were seriously damaged. Most of them were located at confluences and, at specific reaches such as canyon reaches constrained by infrastructures. For risk mitigation some protection equipments were built after the 1957 event, but most of them are now poorly maintained and might be less effective in case of flood event. In the frame of SAMCO (ANR 12 SENV-0004) project designed for mountain hazard mitigation in a context of Climate Change, one objective is to understand the hydro-geomorphological functioning of Alpine catchments for a sustainable management of sediment yield, transfer and deposition. Part of our study is aimed at a better assessment of sediment transfers, especially on adjacent sediment supply (i.e. from hillslope to channel, and from tributaries to the trunk river) for a better management of sediment fluxes in the frame of the local "River Scheme". For this reason, we decided to establish a sediment budget of the Guil River catchment, with a quantitative assessment and a spatial analysis of erosion, transport, and deposition processes. The initial phase of our study consists in identifying contributive, erosion and deposition areas with a twofold approach: (i) assessment of longitudinal sedimentary

  14. Tracking sediment through the Holocene: Determining anthropogenic contributions to a sediment-rich agricultural system, north-central USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, Karen; Belmont, Patrick; Finnegan, Noah

    2013-04-01

    Management and restoration of sediment-impaired streams requires quantification of sediment sources and pathways of transport. Addressing the role of humans in altering the magnitude and sources of sediment supplied to a catchment is notoriously challenging. Here, we explore how humans have amplified erosion in geomorphically-sensitive portions of the predominantly-agricultural Minnesota River basin in north-central USA. In the Minnesota River basin, the primary sources of sediment are classified generally as upland agricultural field vs. near-channel sources, with near-channel sources including stream banks, bluffs, and ravines. Using aerial lidar data, repeat terrestrial lidar scans of bluffs, ravine monitoring, historic air photo analyses, and sediment fingerprinting, we have developed a sediment budget to determine the relative importance of each source in a tributary to the Minnesota River, the Le Sueur River. We then investigate how these sources have changed through time, from changes evident over the past few decades to changes associated with valley evolution over the past 13,400 years. The Minnesota River valley was carved ~13,400 years ago through catastrophic drainage of glacial Lake Agassiz. As the Minnesota River valley incised, knickpoints have migrated upstream into tributaries, carving out deep valleys where the most actively eroding near-channel sediment sources occur. The modern sediment budget, closed for the time period 2000 to 2010, shows that the majority of the fine sediment load in the Le Sueur River comes from bluffs and other near-channel sources in the deeply-incised knick zone. Numerical modeling of valley evolution constrained by mapped and dated strath terraces cut into the glacial till presents an opportunity to compare the modern sediment budget to that of the river prior to anthropogenic modification. This comparison reveals a natural background or "pre-agriculture" rate of erosion from near-channel sources to be 3-5 times lower

  15. Targeting sediment management strategies using sediment quantification and fingerprinting methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie; Rowan, John; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Phil; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.

    2016-04-01

    Cost-effective sediment management is required to reduce excessive delivery of fine sediment due to intensive land uses such as agriculture, resulting in the degradation of aquatic ecosystems. Prioritising measures to mitigate dominant sediment sources is, however, challenging, as sediment loss risk is spatially and temporally variable between and within catchments. Fluctuations in sediment supply from potential sources result from variations in land uses resulting in increased erodibility where ground cover is low (e.g., cultivated, poached and compacted soils), and physical catchment characteristics controlling hydrological connectivity and transport pathways (surface and/or sub-surface). Sediment fingerprinting is an evidence-based management tool to identify sources of in-stream sediments at the catchment scale. Potential sediment sources are related to a river sediment sample, comprising a mixture of source sediments, using natural physico-chemical characteristics (or 'tracers'), and contributions are statistically un-mixed. Suspended sediment data were collected over two years at the outlet of three intensive agricultural catchments (approximately 10 km2) in Ireland. Dominant catchment characteristics were grassland on poorly-drained soils, arable on well-drained soils and arable on moderately-drained soils. High-resolution (10-min) calibrated turbidity-based suspended sediment and discharge data were combined to quantify yield. In-stream sediment samples (for fingerprinting analysis) were collected at six to twelve week intervals, using time-integrated sediment samplers. Potential sources, including stream channel banks, ditches, arable and grassland field topsoils, damaged road verges and tracks were sampled, oven-dried (account for particle size and organic matter selectivity processes. Contributions from potential sources type groups (channel - ditches and stream banks, roads - road verges and tracks, fields - grassland and arable topsoils) were

  16. Health risks associated with ingesting venison from a uranium enrichment facility with multiple operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.; Welsh, C.

    1995-01-01

    Ingestion of game, including venison, may be a significant exposure pathway in human health risk assessments at hazardous waste sites. The difficulty associated with modeling contaminant tissue concentrations in a wide-ranging herbivorous mammal is compounded when the home range of the mammal extends over multiple operable units (OUs) of varying size and media contaminant concentration. Using biotransfer factors extracted from the literature and species-specific parameter information (e.g., home range size, diet, forage and water ingestion rates) the authors estimate contaminant concentrations in venison based on soil and surface water contaminant concentrations and determine the contribution of individual OUs to modeled venison tissue concentrations. Estimated tissue concentrations are calculated through the use of site foraging factors (SFFS) that adjust exposure contributions from individual OUs to account for the size of the OU in relation to the animals home range. The authors then use the venison tissue concentrations to estimate human health risk associated with ingesting venison under both a current and future exposure scenario

  17. Automatic ingestion monitor: a novel wearable device for monitoring of ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Juan M; Farooq, Muhammad; Sazonov, Edward

    2014-06-01

    Objective monitoring of food intake and ingestive behavior in a free-living environment remains an open problem that has significant implications in study and treatment of obesity and eating disorders. In this paper, a novel wearable sensor system (automatic ingestion monitor, AIM) is presented for objective monitoring of ingestive behavior in free living. The proposed device integrates three sensor modalities that wirelessly interface to a smartphone: a jaw motion sensor, a hand gesture sensor, and an accelerometer. A novel sensor fusion and pattern recognition method was developed for subject-independent food intake recognition. The device and the methodology were validated with data collected from 12 subjects wearing AIM during the course of 24 h in which both the daily activities and the food intake of the subjects were not restricted in any way. Results showed that the system was able to detect food intake with an average accuracy of 89.8%, which suggests that AIM can potentially be used as an instrument to monitor ingestive behavior in free-living individuals.

  18. Glucose ingestion stimulates atherothrombotic inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, John P.; Rote, Neal S.; Minium, Judi

    2013-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have chronic low-grade inflammation that can increase the risk of atherothrombosis. We performed a cross-sectional study to examine the effect of glucose ingestion on markers of atherothrombotic inflammation in mononuclear cells (MNC) of 16 women with PCOS (8 lean, 8 obese) and 16 weight-matched controls. Activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation and the protein content of early growth response-1 (EGR-1), matrix matalloproteinases-2 (MMP2), and tissue factor (TF) were quantified from MNC obtained from blood drawn fasting and 2 h after glucose ingestion. Plasma MMP9 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured from fasting blood samples. Truncal fat was determined by DEXA. Lean women with PCOS exhibited greater AP-1 activation and MMP2 protein content after glucose ingestion and higher plasma MMP9 and CRP levels than lean controls. Obese women with PCOS exhibited greater EGR-1 and TF protein content after glucose ingestion, and plasma CRP levels were even higher compared with lean subjects regardless of PCOS status. Truncal fat correlated with MMP9 and CRP levels and glucose-stimulated increases in AP-1 activation and EGR-1 and TF protein content. Testosterone correlated with glucose-stimulated AP-1 activation, and androstenedione correlated with MMP9 and CRP levels and glucose-stimulated AP-1 activation. Thus, both PCOS and obesity contribute to an atherothrombotic state in which excess abdominal adiposity and hyperandrogenism may be specific risk factors for developing atherothrombosis. PMID:23249695

  19. Driving forces and their contribution to the recent decrease in sediment flux to ocean of major rivers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Yanxu; Fu, Bojie; Zhao, Wenwu

    2018-09-01

    Understanding the mechanisms behind land-ocean sediment transport processes is crucial, due to the resulting impacts on the sustainable management of water and soil resources. This study investigated temporal trends and historical phases of sediment flux delivered to the sea by nine major rivers in China, while also quantifying the contribution of key anthropogenic and natural driving forces. During the past six decades, sediment flux from these nine major rivers exhibited a statistically significant negative trend, decreasing from 1.92Gtyr -1 during 1954-1968 to 1.39Gtyr -1 , 0.861Gtyr -1 and 0.335Gtyr -1 during 1969-1985, 1986-1999 and 2000-2016, respectively. We used a recently developed Sediment Identity approach and found that the sharp decrease in sediment load observed across China was mainly (~95%) caused by a reduction in sediment concentration. Reservoir construction exerted the strongest influence on land-ocean sediment fluxes, while soil conservation measures represented a secondary driver. Before 1999, soil erosion was not controlled effectively in China and reservoirs, especially large ones, played a dominant role in reducing riverine sediments. After 1999, soil erosion has gradually been brought under control across China, so that conservation measures directly accounted for ~40% of the observed decrease in riverine sediments. With intensifying human activities, it is predicted that the total sediment flux delivered to the sea by the nine major rivers will continue to decrease in the coming decades, although at a slower rate, resulting in severe challenges for the sustainable management of drainage basins and river deltas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantifying the anthropogenic and climatic contributions to changes in water discharge and sediment load into the sea: A case study of the Yangtze River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yifei; Zou, Xinqing; Gao, Jianhua; Xu, Xinwanghao; Wang, Chenglong; Tang, Dehao; Wang, Teng; Wu, Xiaowei

    2015-12-01

    Based on data from the Datong hydrological station and 147 meteorological stations, the influences of climate change and human activities on temporal changes in water discharge and sediment load were examined in the Yangtze River basin from 1953 to 2010. The Mann-Kendall test, abrupt change test (Mann-Kendall and cumulative anomaly test), and Morlet wavelet method were employed to analyze the water discharge and sediment load data measured at the Datong hydrological station. The results indicated that the annual mean precipitation and water discharge exhibited decreasing trends of -0.0064 mm/10 yr and -1.41×10(8) m3/yr, respectively, and that the water sediment load showed a significant decreasing trend of -46.5×10(6) t/yr. Meanwhile, an abrupt change in the water discharge occurred in 2003. The sediment load also exhibited an abrupt change in 1985. From 1970 to 2010, the climate change and human activities contributed 72% and 28%, respectively, to the water discharge reduction. The human-induced decrease in the sediment load was 914.03×10(6) t/yr during the 1970s and 3301.79×10(6) t/yr during the 2000s. The contribution from human activities also increased from 71% to 92%, especially in the 1990s, when the value increased to 92%. Climate change and human activities contributed 14% and 86%, respectively, to the sediment load reduction. Inter-annual variations in water discharge and sediment load were affected by climate oscillations and human activities. The effect of human activities on the sediment load was considerably greater than those on water discharge in the Yangtze River basin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Contributions of human activities to suspended-sediment yield during storm events from a steep, small, tropical watershed, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, A. T.; Biggs, T. W.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic watershed disturbance by agriculture, deforestation, roads, and urbanization can alter the timing, composition, and mass of sediment loads to adjacent coral reefs, causing enhanced sediment stress on corals near the outlets of impacted watersheds like Faga'alu, American Samoa. To quantify the increase in sediment loading to the adjacent priority coral reef experiencing sedimentation stress, suspended-sediment yield (SSY) from undisturbed and human-disturbed portions of a small, steep, tropical watershed was measured during baseflow and storm events of varying magnitude. Data on precipitation, discharge, turbidity, and suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) were collected over three field campaigns and continuous monitoring from January 2012 to March 2014, which included 88 storm events. A combination of paired- and nested-watershed study designs using sediment budget, disturbance ratio, and sediment rating curve methodologies was used to quantify the contribution of human-disturbed areas to total SSY. SSC during base- and stormflows was significantly higher downstream of an open-pit aggregate quarry, indicating the quarry is a key sediment source requiring sediment discharge mitigation. Comparison of event-wise SSY from the upper, undisturbed watershed, and the lower, human-disturbed watershed showed the Lower watershed accounted for more than 80% of total SSY on average, and human activities have increased total sediment loading to the coast by approximately 200%. Four storm characteristics were tested as predictors of event SSY using Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients. Similar to mountainous watersheds in semi-arid and temperate watersheds, SSY from both the undisturbed and disturbed watersheds had the highest correlation with event maximum discharge, Qmax (Pearson's R=0.88 and 0.86 respectively), and were best fit by a power law relationship. The resulting model of event-SSY from Faga'alu is being incorporated as part of a larger

  2. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Ingest Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, A. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for ingests maintained by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new ingests for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing ingests, (3) future ingests that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to an ingest, and (5) top requested ingests from the ARM Data Archive. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  3. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Ingest Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, A. [ARM Climate Reesearch Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [ARM Climate Reesearch Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for ingests maintained by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new ingests for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing ingests, (3) future ingests that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to an ingest, and (5) top requested ingests from the ARM Data Archive. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  4. Does a shared neurobiology for foods and drugs of abuse contribute to extremes of food ingestion in anorexia and bulimia nervosa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Walter H; Wierenga, Christina E; Bailer, Ursula F; Simmons, Alan N; Wagner, Angela; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Is starvation in anorexia nervosa (AN) or overeating in bulimia nervosa (BN) a form of addiction? Alternatively, why are individuals with BN more vulnerable and AN protected from substance abuse? Such questions have been generated by recent studies that suggest that there are overlapping neural circuits for foods and drugs of abuse. In order to determine whether a shared neurobiology contributes to eating disorders (EDs) and substance abuse, this review focused on imaging studies that investigated response to tastes of food and tasks designed to characterize reward and behavioral inhibition in AN and BN. BN and those with substance abuse disorders may share dopamine D2 receptor related vulnerabilities, and opposite findings may contribute to “protection” from substance abuse in AN. Moreover, imaging studies provide insights into executive cortico-striatal processes related to extraordinary inhibition and self-control in AN and diminished inhibitory self-control in BN that may influence the rewarding aspect of palatable foods and likely other consummatory behaviors. AN and BN tend to have premorbid traits, such as perfectionism and anxiety that make them vulnerable to employing extremes of food ingestion which serve to reduce negative mood states. Dysregulation within and/or between limbic and executive cortio-striatal circuits contributes to such symptoms. Limited data support the hypothesis that reward and inhibitory processes may contribute to symptoms in ED and addictive disorders, but little is known about the molecular biology of such mechanisms in terms of shared or independent processes. PMID:23380716

  5. Sediment contribution from coastal-cliff erosion into the Nile's littoral cell and its significance to cliff-retreat mitigation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Oded; Mushkin, Amit; Crouvi, Onn; Alter, Samuel; Shemesh, Ran

    2017-04-01

    In 2013 the government of Israel initiated a national mitigation program aimed to prevent further collapse and retreat of the country's coastal cliffs, which occur along the northern termination of the Niles's littoral cell (NLC) in the eastern Mediterranean. The goals of this large-scale program are to protect infrastructure and property proximal to the cliff and to conduct long-term maintenance and monitoring of this highly dynamic and sensitive land-sea interface that spans 40 km of Israel's coast line. Here, we examine the possible impact of proposed cliff retreat mitigation efforts on long-shore sediment transport (LST) and coastal dynamics in the region. We used airborne LiDAR spanning a 9-year period between 2006 and 2015 to quantify the annual contribution of sediment eroded from a 20-km-long segment of Israel's coastal cliffs into the NLC. Our measurements reveal 282±85*103 m3 of sediment eroded from the cliff and delivered into the NLC during the studied period. Considering our study area comprises 50% of Israel's sea cliffs we infer an average contribution rate of 30,000-60,000 m^3/yr of cliff-derived sediment into the NLC prior to the planned broad-scale implementation of cliff-retreat mitigation measures. Previous studies report an average net LST flux of 80,000 - 90,000 m3 that reaches the northern termination of the NLC at Haifa Bay annually. Thus, our results suggest that Israel's actively eroding coastal cliffs are primary contributors (40-80%) to the LST budget along the northern termination of the NLC. It therefore appears that successful implementation of the coastal-cliff protection program along Israel's coastline will result in a significant sand deficit, which may drive LST in this part of the NLC out of its 'background' state. In the likely case that the energy/currents driving LST do not change, a possible outcome of this sediment deficit could be increased beach erosion along Israel's coast line to make up for the lost volumes of cliff

  6. Bioaccessibility of Fukushima-Accident-Derived Cs in Soils and the Contribution of Soil Ingestion to Radiation Doses in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Shogo; Ikegami, Maiko; Yoneda, Minoru; Kondo, Hitoshi; Ishizaki, Azusa; Iijima, Masashi; Shimada, Yoko; Matsui, Yasuto

    2017-07-01

    Ingestion of contaminated soil is one potential internal exposure pathway in areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Doses from this pathway can be overestimated if the availability of radioactive nuclides in soils for the gastrointestinal tract is not considered. The concept of bioaccessibility has been adopted to evaluate this availability based on in vitro tests. This study evaluated the bioaccessibility of radioactive cesium from soils via the physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) and the extractability of those via an extraction test with 1 mol/L of hydrochloric acid (HCl). The bioaccessibility obtained in the PBET was 5.3% ± 1%, and the extractability in the tests with HCl was 16% ± 3%. The bioaccessibility was strongly correlated with the extractability. This result indicates the possibility that the extractability in HCl can be used as a good predictor of the bioaccessibility with PBET. In addition, we assessed the doses to children from the ingestion of soil via hand-to-mouth activity based on our PBET results using a probabilistic approach considering the spatial distribution of radioactive cesium in Date City in Fukushima Prefecture and the interindividual differences in the surveyed amounts of soil ingestion in Japan. The results of this assessment indicate that even if children were to routinely ingest a large amount of soil with relatively high contamination, the radiation doses from this pathway are negligible compared with doses from external exposure owing to deposited radionuclides in Fukushima Prefecture. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Studies of osmotic diarrhea induced in normal subjects by ingestion of polyethylene glycol and lactulose.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, H F; Santa Ana, C A; Schiller, L R; Fordtran, J S

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to gain insight into the pathophysiology of pure osmotic diarrhea and the osmotic diarrhea caused by carbohydrate malabsorption. Diarrhea was induced in normal volunteers by ingestion of polyethylene glycol (PEG), which is nonabsorbable, not metabolized by colonic bacteria, and carries no electrical charge. In PEG-induced diarrhea, (a) stool weight was directly correlated with the total mass of PEG ingested; (b) PEG contributed 40-60% of the osmolality of the ...

  8. Effect of anaerobic contributions to the uranium content in marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez R, E.; Ruiz F, A. C.; Jimenez D, E.; Guerrero J, M.

    2014-10-01

    In this work a sediment group obtained in the seabed near the mouth of the Santiago River, physical analyzes show that there is little activity of microscopic marine life, revealed by exoskeletons of foraminifera. Although the amount of organic matter occurs normally, around 20%, is assumed that this contribution is due to the large amount of organic waste scattered by the effluent of the river, causing an abnormally high anaerobic activity, clearly shown by the large amount of pyrite specific framboids found along the nucleus profile of 23 cm of sediment. In the analyzed fractions the uranium concentration and its isotope ratio was studied: which vary from 3.19 Bq/kg for the more superficial fractions down gradually to less than 1 Bq/kg for deeper fractions. An outstanding fact is that the surface fractions have an isotope ratio 234 U/ 238 U unusually low for fractions 1-4 cm of deep, close to 0.4, indicating a strong reaction of few years ago on the radiogenic descendants of 238 U, leaching essentially the 234 Th and causing this abnormal radioactive imbalance. The plutonium has become an element found commonly in the surface layers of the sea and coastlines, finding in the top layer an activity of 2.78 Bq/kg ( 239 Pu + 240 Pu). The high contamination of the mouth of Santiago River has changed the conditions of the micro fauna as well as of the chemical equilibrium of the natural elements. (Author)

  9. Impacts of plastic ingestion on post-hatchling loggerhead turtles off South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter G; Cole, Georgina; Spiby, Kevin; Nel, Ronel; Osborne, Alexis; Perold, Vonica

    2016-06-15

    Twenty-four of 40 (60%) loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta post-hatchlings (carapaceTurtles selected for white (38%) and blue (19%) items, but translucent items (23%) were under-represented compared to beach mesodebris. Ingested loads did not decrease up to 52days in captivity, indicating long retention times. Plastic killed 11 turtles by blocking their digestive tracts or bladders, and contributed to the deaths of five other turtles. Our results indicate that the amount and diversity of plastic ingested by post-hatchling loggerhead turtles off South Africa have increased over the last four decades, and now kill some turtles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Ondek, Katelynn; Schneider, Jill E.

    2013-01-01

    Food availability in nature is often irregular, and famine is commonplace. Increased motivation to engage in ingestive behaviors increases the chance of survival, providing additional potential opportunities for reproduction. Because of the advantages conferred by entraining ingestive behavior to environmental conditions, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the motivation to acquire and ingest food have evolved to be responsive to exogenous (i.e., food stored for future consumption) and endo...

  11. Ingestion of caustic substances and its complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Celso Martins Mamede

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Caustic substances cause tissue destruction through liquefaction or coagulation reactions and the intensity of destruction depends on the type, concentration, time of contact and amount of the substance ingested. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the complications in patients who ingested caustic substances and correlate them with the amount of caustic soda ingested. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: University hospital, a referral center. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 239 patients who ingested caustic soda. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The amount of granulated caustic substance ingested was measured as tablespoonfuls and the following complications were analyzed: esophagitis, esophageal stenosis and progression to cancer, fistulas, perforations, stomach lesions, brain abscesses, and death. Stenosis was classified as mild, moderate or severe according to the radiological findings. RESULTS: We observed an 89.3% incidence of esophagitis; 72.6% of the cases involved progression to stenosis and 1% died during the acute phase. Stenosis was mild in 17.6% of cases, moderate in 59.3% and severe in 23%. The incidence of stenosis was 80.8% in women and 62.5% in men. The incidence of stenosis was 46.9% in the group that ingested "fragments" and 93.6% in the group that ingested one or more tablespoonfuls of caustic substances. Among subjects who ingested one or more tablespoonfuls, 32.2% developed lesions of the stomach-duodenum, whereas the ingestion of "fragments" was not sufficient to induce these lesions. There was no correlation between the intensity of lesions of the esophagus and of the stomach. Progression to cancer of the esophagus occurred in 1.8% of cases, death during the chronic phase in 1.4%, perforations in 4.6%, fistulas in 0.9%, and brain abscesses in 1.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The complications were related to the amount of caustic soda ingested. Small amounts caused esophagitis or stenosis and large amounts increased the risk of fistulas, perforations and

  12. Global analysis of anthropogenic debris ingestion by sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2014-02-01

    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Estimation of different source contributions to sediment organic matter in an agricultural-forested watershed using end member mixing analyses based on stable isotope ratios and fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrien, Morgane; Kim, Min-Seob; Ock, Giyoung; Hong, Seongjin; Cho, Jinwoo; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Hur, Jin

    2018-03-15

    The two popular source tracing tools of stable isotope ratios (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to estimate the relative source contributions to sediment organic matter (SeOM) at five different river sites in an agricultural-forested watershed (Soyang Lake watershed), and their capabilities for the source assignment were compared. Bulk sediments were used for the stable isotopes, while alkaline extractable organic matter (AEOM) from sediments was used to obtain fluorescent indices for SeOM. Several source discrimination indices were fully compiled for a range of the SeOM sources distributed in the catchments of the watershed, which included soils, forest leaves, crop (C3 and C4) and riparian plants, periphyton, and organic fertilizers. The relative source contributions to the river sediment samples were estimated via end member mixing analysis (EMMA) based on several selected discrimination indices. The EMMA based on the isotopes demonstrated that all sediments were characterized by a medium to a high contribution of periphyton ranging from ~30% to 70% except for one site heavily affected by forest and agricultural fields with relatively high contributions of terrestrial materials. The EMMA based on fluorescence parameters, however, did not show similar results with low contributions from forest leaf and periphyton. The characteristics of the studied watershed were more consistent with the source contributions determined by the isotope ratios. The discrepancy in the EMMA capability for source assignments between the two analytical tools can be explained by the limited analytical window of fluorescence spectroscopy for non-fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) and the inability of AEOM to represent original bulk particulate organic matter (POM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Does a shared neurobiology for foods and drugs of abuse contribute to extremes of food ingestion in anorexia and bulimia nervosa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Walter H; Wierenga, Christina E; Bailer, Ursula F; Simmons, Alan N; Wagner, Angela; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda

    2013-05-01

    Is starvation in anorexia nervosa (AN) or overeating in bulimia nervosa (BN) a form of addiction? Alternatively, why are individuals with BN more vulnerable and individuals with AN protected from substance abuse? Such questions have been generated by recent studies suggesting that there are overlapping neural circuits for foods and drugs of abuse. To determine whether a shared neurobiology contributes to eating disorders and substance abuse, this review focused on imaging studies that investigated response to tastes of food and tasks designed to characterize reward and behavioral inhibition in AN and BN. BN and those with substance abuse disorders may share dopamine D2 receptor-related vulnerabilities, and opposite findings may contribute to "protection" from substance abuse in AN. Moreover, imaging studies provide insights into executive corticostriatal processes related to extraordinary inhibition and self-control in AN and diminished inhibitory self-control in BN that may influence the rewarding aspect of palatable foods and likely other consummatory behaviors. AN and BN tend to have premorbid traits, such as perfectionism and anxiety that make them vulnerable to using extremes of food ingestion, which serve to reduce negative mood states. Dysregulation within and/or between limbic and executive corticostriatal circuits contributes to such symptoms. Limited data support the hypothesis that reward and inhibitory processes may contribute to symptoms in eating disorders and addictive disorders, but little is known about the molecular biology of such mechanisms in terms of shared or independent processes. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Caloric densities of ingested food of Etroplus suratensis (Bloch) grown in a culture pond

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Krishnakumari, L.; Dhawan, R.M.; Royan, J.P.

    Analyses of stomach contents of E.suratensis indicated that it is principally a phytoplankton-detritus feeder. Biochemical analyses of the ingested food showed that of the total consumed food, 44% was contributed by ash content, while 56...

  16. Ingested foreign bodies in the paediatric patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, G C

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Paediatric foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common problem and while most can be managed conservatively, a sub-population require intervention. AIMS: To establish clear guidelines for management of paediatric FB ingestion. METHODS: A retrospective chart review analysing all paediatric admissions with FB ingestion over a 10-year period from 1990 to 1999. RESULTS: Of 339 patients presenting to the accident and emergency department with FB ingestion, 59 required admission. Ingestion was accidental in 93.0% of patients. The reasons for admission were as follows: large FBs; dangerous FBs; and living far from the hospital. Nineteen patients (32.2%) were discharged without intervention. Thirty-seven (62.7%) required endoscopic retrieval. In two, the FB was not identified at endoscopy. Only three (5%) required surgery. CONCLUSION: Conservative management of FB ingestion in the paediatric population is possible in the majority of cases. However, a minority require intervention. While guidelines for intervention are ill-defined, definitive indications include symptomatic patients, or dangerous objects.

  17. Evaluating the importance of surface soil contributions to reservoir sediment in alpine environments: a combined modelling and fingerprinting approach in the Posets-Maladeta Natural Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón, L.; Gaspar, L.; Latorre, B.; Blake, W. H.; Navas, A.

    2014-09-01

    Soil in alpine environments plays a key role in the development of ecosystem services and in order to maintain and preserve this important resource, information is required on processes that lead to soil erosion. Similar to other mountain alpine environments, the Benasque catchment is characterised by temperatures below freezing that can last from November to April, intense rainfall events, typically in spring and autumn, and rugged topography which makes assessment of erosion challenging. Indirect approaches to soil erosion assessment, such as combined model approaches, offer an opportunity to evaluate soil erosion in such areas. In this study (i) the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) hydrological and erosion model and (ii) sediment fingerprinting procedures were used in parallel to assess the viability of a combined modelling and tracing approach to evaluate soil erosion processes in the area of the Posets-Maladeta Natural Park (central Spanish Pyrenees). Soil erosion rates and sediment contribution of potential sediment sources defined by soil type (Kastanozems/Phaeozems; Fluvisols and Cambisols) were assessed. The SWAT model suggested that, with the highest specific sediment yields, Cambisols are the main source of sediment in the Benasque catchment and Phaeozems and Fluvisols were identified as the lowest sediment contributors. Spring and winter model runs gave the highest and lowest specific sediment yield, respectively. In contrast, sediment fingerprinting analysis identified Fluvisols, which dominate the riparian zone, as the main sediment source at the time of sampling. This indicates the importance of connectivity as well as potential differences in the source dynamic of material in storage versus that transported efficiently from the system at times of high flow. The combined approach enabled us to better understand soil erosion processes in the Benasque alpine catchment, wherein SWAT identified areas of potential high sediment yield in large flood

  18. Radioactive tracers as a tool for the study of in situ meiofaunal-microbial trophic interactions in marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carman, K.R.

    1989-01-01

    Three methods of delivering labeled substrates to natural cores of sediments were compared. Slurried sediments disrupted the sedimentary structure and significantly altered uptake of labeled substrates by copepod species. Thus, disruption of sedimentary structure can significantly alter microbial-meiofaunal interactions and influence the results of grazing studies. The [ 3 H]-thymidine technique for measuring bacterial production was evaluated. The metabolic fate of labeled thymidine in a coastal marine sediment was not consistent with assumptions necessary for measuring bacterial production or its consumption by meiofauna. Microautoradiography was used to demonstrate the sedimentary microalgae and heterotrophic bacteria can be selectively labeled with [ 14 C]bicarbonate and labeled organic substrates, respectively. A study was performed to determine if radioactivity measured in copepods from grazing experiments was the result of ingestion of labeled microorganisms or the result of uptake by non-feeding processes. Uptake of label by copepods from [ 14 C]-bicarbonate was due almost exclusively to grazing on microalgae. Uptake of label by copepods from [ 14 C]-acetate, however, resulted from activity by epicuticular bacteria and was not due to ingestion of labeled bacteria

  19. Contamination and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Lake Bed Sediment of a Large Lake Scenic Area in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Li; Xu, Liang; Fu, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of heavy metals to lake bed sediment of scenic areas may pose risks on aquatic ecosystems and human health, however very few studies on risk assessment have been reported for scenic areas. Accordingly, this study determined concentration levels, and assessed contamination characteristics and risks, of heavy metals in lake bed sediment of National Scenic Areas Songhuahu (NSAS) in China. The concentrations of Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Cu were determined in 29 bed sediment samples. Results showed that the mean values of Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Cu were 92.69, 90.73, 38.29, 46.77, and 49.44 mg/kg, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that organic matter was a major factor influencing distribution of heavy metals. The results for enrichment factors indicated that contamination rates and anthropogenic inputs of single heavy metals decreased in the order Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn; results of Nemerow integrated pollution index suggested that 72.41% of sampling sites were exposed to low to moderately integrated pollution, and 27.59% of sampling sites were exposed to strongly integrated pollution. According to results for potential ecological risk index, ecological risks of single and all the heavy metals in bed sediment from all the sampling sites were low. Human risks were assessed with hazardous quotients, and the results suggested that exposure of heavy metals to bed sediment posed no or little risk to human health, and the pathway of ingestion significantly contributed to human health risks. PMID:27455296

  20. Cyclic Sediment Trading Between Channel and River Bed Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadchi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Much of the previous work on sediment tracing has focused on determining either the initial sources of the sediment (soils derive from a particular rock type) or the erosion processes generating the sediment. However, alluvial stores can be both a source and sink for sediment transported by streams. Here geochemical and fallout radionuclide tracing of river-bed and alluvial sediments are used to determine the role of secondary sources, sediment stores, as potential sources of sediment leaving Emu Creek catchment, southeastern Queensland, Australia. Activity concentrations of 137Cs on the river sediments are consistent with channel erosion being the dominant source at all sites sampled along the river. To characterise the deposition and remobilisation cycles in the catchment, a novel geochemical tracing approach was used. Successive pockets of alluvium were treated as discrete sink terms within geochemical mixing models and their source contributions compared with those of river bed sediments collected adjacent to each alluvial pocket. Three different size fractions were examined; silts and clays (banks indicates a high degree of 'trading' between the fluvial space and the alluvial space. Hence, management works aimed at primarily reducing the supply of sediments to the outlet of Emu Creek should focus on rehabilitation of channel banks in the lower catchment.

  1. Gasoline ingestion: a rare cause of pancytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ifad; Narasimhan, Kanakasabai; Aziz, Shahid; Owens, William

    2009-11-01

    The majority of reported cases of gasoline intoxication involves inhalation or percutaneous absorption. Data are scarce on complications and outcomes after gasoline poisoning by oral ingestion. The major cause of mortality and morbidity associated with the ingestion of gasoline is related to pulmonary aspiration. Despite the high frequency of the ingestions, there is little documentation of nonpulmonary toxic effects of gasoline. After ingestion, the principal toxicity is aspiration pneumonia, but any documented extra pulmonary manifestations of this condition may be important in the overall management of these patients. We are reporting a rare case of pancytopenia along with aspiration pneumonia and multisystem organ failure in a 58-year-old male after prolonged intentional ingestion of gasoline. To our knowledge, this is the only reported case of gasoline toxicity causing pancytopenia.

  2. Intestinal perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergul Corduk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can cause serious gastrointestinal complications. We report a case of 7-year-old girl with multiple intestinal perforations caused by multiple magnet ingestion. The aim of this report is to draw attention to magnetic toys, results of magnet ingestion and the importance of timing of operation.

  3. Cancer Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Soils and Sediments of India: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti; Sinha, Alok

    2017-10-01

    A carcinogenic risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and sediments was conducted using the probabilistic approach from a national perspective. Published monitoring data of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in soils and sediments at different study points across India were collected and converted to their corresponding BaP equivalent concentrations. These BaP equivalent concentrations were used to evaluate comprehensive cancer risk for two different age groups. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis were applied to quantify uncertainties of risk estimation. The analysis denotes 90% cancer risk value of 1.770E-5 for children and 3.156E-5 for adults at heavily polluted site soils. Overall carcinogenic risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of India were mostly in acceptance limits. However, the food ingestion exposure route for sediments leads them to a highly risked zone. The 90% risk values from sediments are 7.863E-05 for children and 3.999E-04 for adults. Sensitivity analysis reveals exposure duration and relative skin adherence factor for soil as the most influential parameter of the assessment, followed by BaP equivalent concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For sediments, biota to sediment accumulation factor of fish in terms of BaP is most sensitive on the total outcome, followed by BaP equivalent and exposure duration. Individual exposure route analysis showed dermal contact for soils and food ingestion for sediments as the main exposure pathway. Some specific locations such as surrounding areas of Bhavnagar, Raniganj, Sunderban, Raipur, and Delhi demand potential strategies of carcinogenic risk management and reduction. The current study is probably the first attempt to provide information on the carcinogenic risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and sediments across India.

  4. Cancer Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Soils and Sediments of India: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti; Sinha, Alok

    2017-10-01

    A carcinogenic risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and sediments was conducted using the probabilistic approach from a national perspective. Published monitoring data of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in soils and sediments at different study points across India were collected and converted to their corresponding BaP equivalent concentrations. These BaP equivalent concentrations were used to evaluate comprehensive cancer risk for two different age groups. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis were applied to quantify uncertainties of risk estimation. The analysis denotes 90% cancer risk value of 1.770E-5 for children and 3.156E-5 for adults at heavily polluted site soils. Overall carcinogenic risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of India were mostly in acceptance limits. However, the food ingestion exposure route for sediments leads them to a highly risked zone. The 90% risk values from sediments are 7.863E-05 for children and 3.999E-04 for adults. Sensitivity analysis reveals exposure duration and relative skin adherence factor for soil as the most influential parameter of the assessment, followed by BaP equivalent concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For sediments, biota to sediment accumulation factor of fish in terms of BaP is most sensitive on the total outcome, followed by BaP equivalent and exposure duration. Individual exposure route analysis showed dermal contact for soils and food ingestion for sediments as the main exposure pathway. Some specific locations such as surrounding areas of Bhavnagar, Raniganj, Sunderban, Raipur, and Delhi demand potential strategies of carcinogenic risk management and reduction. The current study is probably the first attempt to provide information on the carcinogenic risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and sediments across India.

  5. Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

    1994-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed.

  6. Ecotoxicological and Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Short-Neck Clam (Paphia undulata) and Contaminated Sediments in Malacca Strait, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Sharifi, Reza

    2017-10-01

    The distribution, sources, and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediment and the edible tissue of short-neck clam (Paphia undulata) from mudflat ecosystem in the west coast of Malaysia were investigated. The concentrations of ∑ 16 PAHs varied from 347.05 to 6207.5 and 179.32 to 1657.5 ng g -1 in sediment and short-neck clam samples, respectively. The calculations of mean PEL quotients (mean-PELQs) showed that the ecological risk of PAHs in the sediment samples was low to moderate-high level, whereas the total health risk through ingestion and dermal contact was considerably high. The PAHs biota sediment accumulation factors data for short-neck clam were obtained in this study, indicating a preferential accumulation of lower molecular weight PAHs. The source apportionment of PAHs in sediment using positive matrix factorization model indicated that the highest contribution to the PAHs was from diesel emissions (30.38%) followed by oil and oil derivate and incomplete coal combustion (23.06%), vehicular emissions (16.43%), wood combustion (15.93%), and natural gas combustion (14.2%). A preliminary evaluation of human health risk using chronic daily intake, hazard index, benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent (BaP eq ) concentration, and the incremental lifetime cancer risk indicated that PAHs in short-neck clam would induce potential carcinogenic effects in the consumers.

  7. Increased DNA methylation of scavenger receptor class B type I contributes to inhibitory effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol uptake and steroidogenesis in fetal adrenals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dong-Mei; He, Zheng; Ma, Liang-Peng; Wang, Lin-Long [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ping, Jie, E-mail: pingjie@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-06-01

    Steroid hormones synthesized from cholesterol in the fetal adrenal are crucial for fetal development. We have observed the inhibited fetal adrenal corticosterone synthesis and increased intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rate in rats under prenatal caffeine ingestion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol supply in fetal adrenal steroidogenesis in rats and explore the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with 60 mg/kg·d caffeine from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD17. Histological changes of fetal adrenals and increased IUGR rates were observed in the caffeine group. There were significantly decreased steroid hormone contents and cholesterol supply in caffeine-treated fetal adrenals. Data from the gene expression array suggested that prenatal caffeine ingestion caused increased expression of genes related to DNA methylation and decreased expression of genes related to cholesterol uptake. The following conjoint analysis of DNA methylation array with these differentially expressed genes suggested that scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) may play an important role in caffeine-induced cholesterol supply deficiency. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical detection certified the inhibitory effects of caffeine on both mRNA expression and protein expression of SR-BI in the fetal adrenal. And the increased DNA methylation frequency in the proximal promoter of SR-BI was confirmed by bisulfite-sequencing PCR. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine ingestion can induce DNA hypermethylation of the SR-BI promoter in the rat fetal adrenal. These effects may lead to decreased SR-BI expression and cholesterol uptake, which inhibits steroidogenesis in the fetal adrenal. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits steroid hormone production in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits cholesterol uptake in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine

  8. Increased DNA methylation of scavenger receptor class B type I contributes to inhibitory effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol uptake and steroidogenesis in fetal adrenals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dong-Mei; He, Zheng; Ma, Liang-Peng; Wang, Lin-Long; Ping, Jie; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormones synthesized from cholesterol in the fetal adrenal are crucial for fetal development. We have observed the inhibited fetal adrenal corticosterone synthesis and increased intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rate in rats under prenatal caffeine ingestion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol supply in fetal adrenal steroidogenesis in rats and explore the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with 60 mg/kg·d caffeine from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD17. Histological changes of fetal adrenals and increased IUGR rates were observed in the caffeine group. There were significantly decreased steroid hormone contents and cholesterol supply in caffeine-treated fetal adrenals. Data from the gene expression array suggested that prenatal caffeine ingestion caused increased expression of genes related to DNA methylation and decreased expression of genes related to cholesterol uptake. The following conjoint analysis of DNA methylation array with these differentially expressed genes suggested that scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) may play an important role in caffeine-induced cholesterol supply deficiency. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical detection certified the inhibitory effects of caffeine on both mRNA expression and protein expression of SR-BI in the fetal adrenal. And the increased DNA methylation frequency in the proximal promoter of SR-BI was confirmed by bisulfite-sequencing PCR. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine ingestion can induce DNA hypermethylation of the SR-BI promoter in the rat fetal adrenal. These effects may lead to decreased SR-BI expression and cholesterol uptake, which inhibits steroidogenesis in the fetal adrenal. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits steroid hormone production in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits cholesterol uptake in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine

  9. Carbohydrate co-ingestion with protein does not further augment post-prandial muscle protein accretion in older men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamer Henrike M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A blunted muscle protein synthetic response to protein ingestion may contribute to the age related loss of muscle tissue. We hypothesized that the greater endogenous insulin release following co-ingestion of carbohydrate facilitates post-prandial muscle protein accretion after ingesting a meal-like bolus of protein in older males. Methods Twenty-four healthy older men (75±1 y were randomly assigned to ingest 20 g intrinsically L-[1-13C] phenylalanine-labeled casein protein with (PRO-CHO or without (PRO 40 g carbohydrate. Ingestion of specifically produced intrinsically L-[1-13C] phenylalanine labeled protein allowed us to assess post-prandial incorporation of dietary protein derived amino acids into muscle protein. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals, with muscle biopsies being obtained prior to and 2 and 6 h after protein ingestion. Results Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations showed a greater increase in PRO-CHO compared with PRO (P13C] phenylalanine enrichments tended to increase to a greater extent in PRO-CHO compared with PRO during the first 2 h after protein ingestion (0.0072±0.0013 vs 0.0046±0.010 MPE, respectively; P=0.13. However, 6 h after protein ingestion, differences in muscle protein-bound L-[1-13C] phenylalanine enrichments were no longer observed between experiments (0.0213±0.0024 vs 0.0185±0.0010 MPE, respectively; P=0.30. Conclusions This study shows that carbohydrate ingestion may accelerate, but does not further augment post-prandial incorporation of dietary protein derived amino acids into muscle protein in healthy elderly men.

  10. Comparison of the fates of ingested leucine and ingested 2-ketoisocaproate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imura, K.; Walser, M. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-05-01

    We previously reported that the ratio, R, of 14C to 3H in the leucine of whole body protein, measured 6 h after ingestion of (3H)leucine and (1-14C)2-ketoisocaproate is equal to ratio of the dose of leucine to the dose of 2-ketoisocaproate (KIC) (on a leucine-free diet) required to achieve the same rate of growth. To determine whether R is dependent on the interval between injection and sampling, R was measured at intervals in purified whole body protein after oral injection of these isotopes in groups of rats; it was constant from 1 h onward for 1 wk, averaging 0.64 +/- 0.01 (means +/- SEM). Thus, the extent of incorporation into the leucine of whole body protein of ingested KIC remains close to 64% of the incorporation of ingested leucine administered as such simultaneously, from 1 h onward for at least 1 wk.

  11. Disc battery ingestion; a single event with different outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sindi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body (FB ingestion is a common problem especially in children below the age of 5 years. This is fueled by their curiosity to explore their surroundings. The ingested foreign body finds its way out of the gastrointestinal tract without any serious consequences most of the time. On the other hand, disc battery ingestion has been reported to cause serious harm when ingested including death. We report two patients who had ingested disc batteries and their respective outcomes.

  12. Pediatric magnet ingestions: the dark side of the force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie C; Otjen, Jeffrey P; Drugas, George T

    2014-05-01

    Pediatric magnet ingestions are increasing. Commercial availability of rare-earth magnets poses a serious health risk. This study defines incidence, characteristics, and management of ingestions over time. Cases were identified by searching radiology reports from June 2002 to December 2012 at a children's hospital and verified by chart and imaging review. Relative risk (RR) regressions determined changes in incidence and interventions over time. In all, 98% of ingestions occurred since 2006; 57% involved multiple magnets. Median age was 8 years (range 0 to 18); 0% of single and 56% of multiple ingestions required intervention. Compared with 2007 to 2009, ingestions increased from 2010 to 2012 (RR = 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 3.0). Intervention proportion was unchanged (RR = .94, 95% confidence interval .4 to 2.2). Small spherical magnets comprised 26.8% of ingestions since 2010; 86% involved multiple magnets and 47% required intervention. Pediatric magnet ingestions and interventions have increased. Multiple ingestions prompt more imaging and surgical interventions. Magnet safety standards are needed to decrease risk to children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Soil ingestion: a concern for acute toxicity in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Calabrese, E J; Stanek, E J; James, R C; Roberts, S M

    1997-01-01

    Several soil ingestion studies have indicated that some children ingest substantial amounts of soil on given days. Although the EPA has assumed that 95% of children ingest 200 mg soil/day or less for exposure assessment purposes, some children have been observed to ingest up to 25-60 g soil during a single day. In light of the potential for children to ingest such large amounts of soil, an assessment was made of the possibility for soil pica episodes to result in acute intoxication from conta...

  14. Metabolic Fate of Fructose Ingested with and without Glucose in a Mixed Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Theytaz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of pure fructose stimulates de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. This may however not be relevant to typical nutritional situations, where fructose is invariably ingested with glucose. We therefore assessed the metabolic fate of fructose incorporated in a mixed meal without or with glucose in eight healthy volunteers. Each participant was studied over six hours after the ingestion of liquid meals containing either 13C-labelled fructose, unlabeled glucose, lipids and protein (Fr + G or 13C-labelled fructose, lipids and protein, but without glucose (Fr, or protein and lipids alone (ProLip. After Fr + G, plasma 13C-glucose production accounted for 19.0% ± 1.5% and 13CO2 production for 32.2% ± 1.3% of 13C-fructose carbons. After Fr, 13C-glucose production (26.5% ± 1.4% and 13CO2 production (36.6% ± 1.9% were higher (p < 0.05 than with Fr + G. 13C-lactate concentration and very low density lipoprotein VLDL 13C-palmitate concentrations increased to the same extent with Fr + G and Fr, while chylomicron 13C-palmitate tended to increase more with Fr + G. These data indicate that gluconeogenesis, lactic acid production and both intestinal and hepatic de novo lipogenesis contributed to the disposal of fructose carbons ingested together with a mixed meal. Co-ingestion of glucose decreased fructose oxidation and gluconeogenesis and tended to increase 13C-pamitate concentration in gut-derived chylomicrons, but not in hepatic-borne VLDL-triacylglycerol (TG. This trial was approved by clinicaltrial. gov. Identifier is NCT01792089.

  15. Intestinal perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion | Corduk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can cause serious gastrointestinal complications. We report a case of 7-year-old girl with multiple intestinal perforations caused by multiple magnet ingestion. The aim of this report is to draw attention to magnetic toys, results of magnet ingestion and the importance of timing of operation.

  16. Liquid nitrogen ingestion followed by gastric perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrizbeitia, Luis D; Calello, Diane P; Dhir, Nisha; O'Reilly, Colin; Marcus, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Ingestion of liquid nitrogen is rare but carries catastrophic complications related to barotrauma to the gastrointestinal tract. We describe a case of ingestion of liquid nitrogen followed by gastric perforation and respiratory insufficiency and discuss the mechanism of injury and management of this condition. Liquid nitrogen is widely available and is frequently used in classroom settings, in gastronomy, and for recreational purposes. Given the potentially lethal complications of ingestion, regulation of its use, acquisition, and storage may be appropriate.

  17. Ingestion of swimming pool water by recreational

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Swimming pool water ingestion data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Dufour, A., L. Wymer, M. Magnuson, T. Behymer, and R. Cantu. Ingestion...

  18. Retrospective study of mistletoe ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, H A; Willias, D B; Gorman, S E; Sanftleban, J

    1996-01-01

    There are limited data concerning accidental exposure to Phoradendron flavescens (Phoradendron serotinum, American Mistletoe). The only published reports include a review of 14 cases which revealed no symptoms and a single fatality from an intentional ingestion of an unknown amount of an elixir brewed from the berries. The risk of serious toxicity from accidental exposure to this plant appears to be minimal, yet it continues to be regarded as a dangerous plant. We reviewed charts for four years (1990-1993) from three poison centers where Phoradendron flavescens is indigenous. Ninety-two human cases were located. Age ranged from four months to 42 years, with a mean of six years (SD 8.8) and median of two years. There were 14 symptomatic cases of which 11 were determined to be related to mistletoe exposure. There were six gastrointestinal upset, two mild drowsiness, one eye irritation, one ataxia (21 months), one seizure (13 months). Treatments included gastrointestinal decontamination in 54 patients (59%), ocular irrigation in one and IV benzodiazepine in one. Decontamination did not appear to affect outcome. Amount ingested ranged from one berry or leaf to more than 20 berries or five leaves. In cases with a known amount ingested, eight of ten cases with > or = 5 berries remained symptom free. In the 11 cases with leaf-only ingestion (range 1-5 leaves), three patients had gastrointestinal upset. The one case with five leaves ingested remained asymptomatic. The infant with seizures was an unwitnessed exposure, found with both berries and leaves in the crib. No arrhythmias or cardiovascular changes were reported in any case. All symptomatic cases had onset of symptoms in Cardiovascular effects were not seen.

  19. Gastrobronchial fistula after toothbrush ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, Jan Christoph; von Buch, Christoph; Waag, Karl-Ludwig; Reinshagen, Konrad

    2006-10-01

    Gastrobronchial fistulous communications are uncommon complications of disease processes with only 36 previously reported cases. Described as complication of a number of conditions, such as previous gastroesophageal surgery, subphrenic abscess, and gastric ulcers (Jha P, Deiraniya A, Keeling-Robert C, et al. Gastrobronchial fistula--a recent series. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Sur 2003;2:6-8), we report a case of fistulization caused by ingestion of a foreign body. A patient with mental retardation, admitted for the treatment of osteomyelitis, presented during hospitalization symptoms of high fever, vomiting, and respiratory distress. Endoscopy showed the presence of a gastrobronchial fistula, which developed after ingestion of a toothbrush. The toothbrush was extracted endoscopically, and the fistula was subsequently closed by surgery. The patient recovered completely. We report the first case of a gastrobronchial fistula as a complication of foreign body ingestion.

  20. Serious complications after button battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krom, Hilde; Visser, Margot; Hulst, Jessie M; Wolters, Victorien M; Van den Neucker, Anita M; de Meij, Tim; van der Doef, Hubert P J; Norbruis, Obbe F; Benninga, Marc A; Smit, Margot J M; Kindermann, Angelika

    2018-05-02

    Serious and fatal complications after button battery ingestion are increasing worldwide. The aim of this study is to describe serious complications after battery ingestion in children in the Netherlands.All pediatric gastroenterologists in the Netherlands performing upper endoscopies were asked to report all serious complications after battery ingestion in children (0-18 years) between 2008 and 2016 retrospectively.Sixteen serious complications were reported: death after massive bleeding through esophageal-aortal fistula (n = 1), esophageal-tracheal fistula (n = 5), stenosis after (suspected) perforation and mediastinitis (n = 5), (suspected) perforation and mediastinitis (n = 3), vocal cord paralysis (n = 1), and required reintubation for dyspnea and stridor (n = 1). The median time interval between ingestion and presentation was 5 (IQR 2-258) h. All children were ≤ 5 (median 1.4; IQR 0.9-2.1) years. Vomiting (31.3%), swallowing/feeding problems (31.3%), and fever (31.3%) were the most common presenting symptoms; however, 18.8% of the patients were asymptomatic (n = 1 missing). All batteries were button batteries (75% ≥ 20 mm; 18.8% batteries were removed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (50%) and rigid endoscopy (37.5%) or surgically (12.5%). Sixteen serious complications occurred after small and large button batteries ingestion between 2008 and 2016 in both symptomatic and asymptomatic children in the Netherlands. Therefore, immediate intervention after (suspected) button battery ingestion is required. What is Known: • Button battery ingestion may result in serious and fatal complications. • Serious and fatal complications after button battery ingestion are increasing worldwide. What is New: • Sixteen serious complications after button battery ingestion occurred during 2008-2016 in children in the Netherlands. • Serious complications were also caused by small batteries (< 20 mm) in the Netherlands and also occurred

  1. Daily radionuclide ingestion and internal radiation doses in Aomori prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Akata, Naofumi; Takaku, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2013-10-01

    To assess internal annual dose in the general public in Aomori Prefecture, Japan, 80 duplicate cooked diet samples, equivalent to the food consumed over a 400-d period by one person, were collected from 100 volunteers in Aomori City and the village of Rokkasho during 2006–2010 and were analyzed for 11 radionuclides. To obtain average rates of ingestion of radionuclides, the volunteers were selected from among office, fisheries, agricultural, and livestock farm workers. Committed effective doses from ingestion of the diet over a 1-y period were calculated from the analytical results and from International Commission on Radiological Protection dose coefficients; for 40K, an internal effective dose rate from the literature was used. Fisheries workers had significantly higher combined internal annual dose than the other workers, possibly because of high rates of ingestion of marine products known to have high 210Po concentrations. The average internal dose rate, weighted by the numbers of households in each worker group in Aomori Prefecture, was estimated at 0.47 mSv y-1. Polonium-210 contributed 49% of this value. The sum of committed effective dose rates for 210Po, 210Pb, 228Ra, and 14C and the effective dose rate of 40K accounted for approximately 99% of the average internal dose rate.

  2. The Mediator subunit MDT-15 confers metabolic adaptation to ingested material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Taubert

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase II (Pol(II dependent gene expression requires accessory factors termed transcriptional coregulators. One coregulator that universally contributes to Pol(II-dependent transcription is the Mediator, a multisubunit complex that is targeted by many transcriptional regulatory factors. For example, the Caenorhabditis elegans Mediator subunit MDT-15 confers the regulatory actions of the sterol response element binding protein SBP-1 and the nuclear hormone receptor NHR-49 on fatty acid metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that MDT-15 displays a broader spectrum of activities, and that it integrates metabolic responses to materials ingested by C. elegans. Depletion of MDT-15 protein or mutation of the mdt-15 gene abrogated induction of specific detoxification genes in response to certain xenobiotics or heavy metals, rendering these animals hypersensitive to toxin exposure. Intriguingly, MDT-15 appeared to selectively affect stress responses related to ingestion, as MDT-15 functional defects did not abrogate other stress responses, e.g., thermotolerance. Together with our previous finding that MDT-15:NHR-49 regulatory complexes coordinate a sector of the fasting response, we propose a model whereby MDT-15 integrates several transcriptional regulatory pathways to monitor both the availability and quality of ingested materials, including nutrients and xenobiotic compounds.

  3. Clinical evaluation of disc battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshemirani, AliReza; Khaleghnejad-Tabari, Ahmad; Kouranloo, Jaefar; Sadeghian, Naser; Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Roshanzamir, Fatolah; Razavi, Sajad; Sayary, Ali Akbar; Imanzadeh, Farid

    2012-04-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics, management, and outcomes of disc battery ingestion in children. METHODS We reviewed the medical records of children admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital due to disc battery ingestion from January 2006 to January 2010. Clear history, clinical symptoms and results of imaging studies revealed diagnosis of disc battery ingestion in suspected patients. The clinical data reviewed included age, gender, clinical manifestation, radiologic findings, location of disc battery, duration of ingestion, endoscopic results and surgical treatment. RESULTS We found 22 cases (11 males and 11 females) of disc battery ingestion with a mean age of 4.3 years (range: 9 months to 12 years). Common symptoms were vomiting, cough, dysphagia, and dyspnea. The mean duration of ingestion was 2.7 days (4 hours to 1.5 months). A total of 19 patients had histories of disc battery ingestion, but three cases referred with the above symptoms, and the batteries were accidentally found by x-ray. Only three cases had batteries impacted in the esophagus. Twelve batteries were removed endoscopically, 6 batteries spontaneously passed through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract within 5 to 7 days, and 4 patients underwent surgery due to complications: 3 due to tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF) and 1 due to intestinal perforation. There was no mortality in our study. CONCLUSION Most cases of disc battery ingestion run uneventful courses, but some may be complicated. If the battery lodges in the esophagus, emergency endoscopic management is necessary. However, once in the stomach, it will usually pass through the GI tract.

  4. Bank-derived material dominates fluvial sediment in a suburban Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, M. J.; Gellis, A.; Gorman-Sanisaca, L.; Noe, G. B.; Cogliandro, V.; Baker, A.

    2017-12-01

    Excess fine sediment is a leading cause of ecological degradation within the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The Piedmont physiographic province, which includes parts of the Washington, D.C. metro area, has the highest sediment yields in the Chesapeake Bay. In order to effectively employ sediment mitigation measures, it is necessary to identify and quantify the contributions of sediments sources within rapidly urbanizing areas in the Piedmont. This sediment fingerprinting study examines the inputs of various sediment sources to Upper Difficult Run (14.2 km2; 22.6% impervious surface), an urbanized watershed in Fairfax County, Virginia. A source sediment library was constructed from collections of stream bank material, forest soils, and road dust from across the watershed. Target fluvial sediments were collected from fine channel margin deposits and from suspended sediment using an autosampler during 16 storm events from 2008 - 2012. Apportionment of the target samples to the source sediments was performed using Sed_SAT, a publically available toolkit for sediment fingerprinting. Bed sediment was found to be dominated by stream bank sources (mean: 96%), with minor contributions from forest (4%) and no detectable contribution from roads (0%). Suspended fine sediments were also found to predominantly originate from stream bank sources (SSC-weighted mean: 91%), with minor contributions from roads (8%), and negligible contributions from forests (1%). Stream bank sources dominated at all discharges, with the greatest contributions from overland sources found only at low discharges. On the rising limb of the hydrograph and at peak flow, sediment concentrations increased due to increasing contributions of bank material rather than surface erosion caused by overland flow. Results demonstrate that stream bank erosion is responsible for the vast majority of fine sediment occurring in this suburban basin of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. This is likely a consequence of storm

  5. Floodplains as a source of fine sediment in grazed landscapes: tracing the source of suspended sediment in the headwaters of an intensively managed agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, M.; Rhoads, B. L.; Stumpf, A.

    2017-12-01

    The flux of fine sediment within agricultural watersheds is an important factor determining the environmental quality of streams and rivers. Despite this importance, the contributions of sediment sources to suspended sediment loads within intensively managed agricultural watersheds remain poorly understood. This study assesses the provenance of fine suspended sediment in the headwater portion of a river flowing through an agricultural landscape in Illinois. Sediment source samples were collected from five potential sources: streambanks, forested floodplain, grassland, and grazed floodplains. Event-based and aggregated suspended sediment samples were collected from the stream at the watershed outlet. Quantitative geochemical fingerprinting techniques and a mixing model were employed to estimate the relative contributions of sediment from five potential sources to the suspended sediment loads. Organic matter content, trace elements, and fallout radionuclides were used as potential tracers. Principal Component analysis was employed to complement the results and Monte Carlo random sampling routine was used to test the uncertainty in estimated contributions of sources to in-stream sediment loads. Results indicate that the majority of suspended sediment is derived from streambanks and grazed floodplains. Erosion of the floodplain both by surface runoff and by streambank erosion from lateral channel migration contributes to the production of fine sediment within the stream system. These results suggest that human activities, in this case grazing, have converted portions of floodplains, normally net depositional environments, into sources of fine sediments. Efforts to reduce fluxes of fine sediment in this intensively managed landscape should focus on degraded floodplain surfaces and eroding channel banks within heavily grazed reaches of the stream.

  6. Contribution of chronic petroleum inputs to Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vleet, E S; Quin, J G

    1978-05-01

    Sediment cores from Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound have been analyzed for petroleum hydrocarbons and compared with a relatively unpolluted sediment core from the Gulf of Maine. The sediments were analyzed for unbound hydrocarbons, hydrocarbons bound or closely associated with humic substances, and residual hydrocarbons bound or closely associated with the clay mineral or kerogen matrix. Results indicated that in general 90-100% of the hydrocarbons were in the unbound form and could be easily extracted with organic solvents. The petroleum hydrocarbons decreased with depth at all stations. Biogenic hydrocarbons (nC/sub 25/, nC/sub 27/, nC/sub 29/, and nC/sub 31/) made up an increasingly greater percentage of the total with increasing depth. The hydrocarbons in the Narragansett Bay sediments and near surface Rhode Island Sound sediments strongly resembled the hydrocarbons previously reported for the Providence River and upper Narragansett Bay. These petroleum-like hydrocarbons were shown to be largely introduced to the river and bay through chronic inputs from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. These hydrocarbons then undergo sedimentation throughout the entire bay and into Rhode Island Sound. Preliminary calculations indicate that over 0.2 million t (tonne) of petroleum hydrocarbons may be transported to the marine environment annually from municipal treatment plants. Most of these hydrocarbons appear to accumulate in estuarine and coastal sediments.

  7. Topographic filtering simulation model for sediment source apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Se Jong; Wilcock, Peter; Hobbs, Benjamin

    2018-05-01

    We propose a Topographic Filtering simulation model (Topofilter) that can be used to identify those locations that are likely to contribute most of the sediment load delivered from a watershed. The reduced complexity model links spatially distributed estimates of annual soil erosion, high-resolution topography, and observed sediment loading to determine the distribution of sediment delivery ratio across a watershed. The model uses two simple two-parameter topographic transfer functions based on the distance and change in elevation from upland sources to the nearest stream channel and then down the stream network. The approach does not attempt to find a single best-calibrated solution of sediment delivery, but uses a model conditioning approach to develop a large number of possible solutions. For each model run, locations that contribute to 90% of the sediment loading are identified and those locations that appear in this set in most of the 10,000 model runs are identified as the sources that are most likely to contribute to most of the sediment delivered to the watershed outlet. Because the underlying model is quite simple and strongly anchored by reliable information on soil erosion, topography, and sediment load, we believe that the ensemble of simulation outputs provides a useful basis for identifying the dominant sediment sources in the watershed.

  8. The contribution of gastric digestion and ingestion of amino acids on the postprandial rise in oxygen consumption, heart rate and growth of visceral organs in pythons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enok, Sanne; Simonsen, Lasse Stærdal; Wang, Tobias

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the contribution of gastric and intestinal processes to the postprandial rise in metabolism in pythons (Python regius), we measured oxygen consumption after ligation of the pyloric sphincter to prevent the chyme from entering the intestine. Pyloric blockade reduced the postprandial rise in metabolism during the first 18h after ingestion of mice amounting to 18% of the snake's body mass by 60%. In another series of the experiments, we showed that infusion of amino acids directly into the stomach or the intestine elicited similar metabolic responses. This indicates a lower gastric contribution to the SDA response than previously reported. To include an assessment of the gastric contribution to the postprandial cardiovascular response, we also measured blood and heart rate. While heart rate increased during digestion in snakes with pyloric blockade, there was no rise in the double-blocked heart rates compared to fasting controls. Thus, the non-adrenergic-non-cholinergic factor that stimulates heart rate during digestion does not stem from the stomach. Finally, there was no growth of the visceral organs in response to digestion when chyme was prevented from reaching the intestine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Surgical management and morbidity of pediatric magnet ingestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Alicia M; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Thorne, Vivian; Bousvaros, Athos; Noel, R Adam; Beierle, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-01

    Foreign body ingestion remains a common reason for emergency room visits and operative interventions in the pediatric population. Rare earth magnet ingestion represents a low percentage of all foreign bodies swallowed by children; however, magnets swallowed in multiplicity can result in severe injuries. Pediatric surgeons with membership in the Surgical Section of the American Academy of Pediatrics were surveyed to determine the magnitude and consequences of magnet ingestions in the pediatric population. About 100 (16%) participant responses reported on 99 magnet ingestions. The median age at ingestion was 3.7 y, and the majority of ingestions (71%) occurred after year 2010. Thirty-two children underwent endoscopy with successful removal in 70% of cases, and multiple magnets were found in 65% of these patients. Seventy-three children required either laparotomy (51) or laparoscopy (22) for magnet removal, and 90% of these children were discovered to have ingested more than one magnet. In addition, 17% of the children were found to have at least one perforation or fistula, and 34% of the children had multiple perforations or fistulae. Nine children required long-term care for their injuries including repeat endoscopies. One child died after hemorrhage from an esophago-aortic fistula. These results demonstrated the increasing need for magnet regulations and public awareness to prevent potentially serious complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fate of pathogenic Bacillus cereus spores after ingestion by protist grazers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne; Santos, Susana; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse

    The aim of this study is to understand the symbiosis between bacterivorous protists and pathogenic bacterial spores, in order to gain insight on survival and dispersal of pathogenic bacteria in the environment. It is generally accepted that resistance to grazing by protists has contributed...... to the evolution of Bacillus cereus group bacteria (e.g. B. cereus, B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis) as a pathogen. It has been hypothesized that the spore stage protects against digestion by predating protists. Indeed, B. thuringiensis spores have been shown to be readily ingested by ciliated protists but failed...... to be digested (Manasherob et al 1998 AEM 64:1750-). Here we report how diverse protist grazers grow on both vegetative cells and spores of B. cereus and how the bacteria survive ingestion and digestion, and even proliferate inside the digestive vacuoles of ciliated protists. The survival ability of B. cereus...

  11. Determination of radioactivity levels and heavy metal concentrations in seawater, sediment and anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) from the Black Sea in Rize, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, Hasan; Kiris, Erkan; Sirin, Murat

    2017-03-15

    Seawater, sediment and fish (anchovy) samples consumed in the Rize province of the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey were collected from five different stations. The radioactivity levels ( 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs) were determined in all the samples using a high-purity germanium detector. While 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K radionuclides were detected in all samples, the radionuclide concentration of 137 Cs, except for the sediment samples (mean activity is 9±1.4Bqkg -1 ), was not detected for the seawater and fish samples. The total annual effective dose rates from the ingestion of these radionuclides for fish were calculated using the measured activity concentrations in radionuclides and their ingested dose conversion factor. Also, the concentrations of some heavy metals in all the samples were determined. The activity and heavy metal concentration values that were determined for the seawater, sediment and fish samples were compared among the locations themselves and with literature values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hadoop Tutorial - Efficient data ingestion

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Baranowski, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The Hadoop ecosystem is the leading opensource platform for distributed storage and processing of "big data". The Hadoop platform is available at CERN as a central service provided by the IT department. Real-time data ingestion to Hadoop ecosystem due to the system specificity is non-trivial process and requires some efforts (which is often underestimated) in order to make it efficient (low latency, optimize data placement, footprint on the cluster). In this tutorial attendees will learn about: The important aspects of storing the data in Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS).  Data ingestion techniques and engines that are capable of shipping data to Hadoop in an efficient way. Setting up a full data ingestion flow into a Hadoop Distributed Files System from various sources (streaming, log files, databases) using the best practices and components available around the ecosystem (including Sqoop, Kite, Flume, Kafka...

  13. Identification and determination of the contribution of iron-steel manufacturing industry to sediment-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a large shallow lake of eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liu; Bai, Ya-Shu; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Chuan; Chen, Tian-Hu; Yin, Da-Qiang

    2016-11-01

    Seventeen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were determined in surface sediments collected from the Chaohu Lake (a large shallow lake in eastern China) and its tributaries. Both diagnostic ratios and a receptor model (positive matrix factorization, PMF) were applied to identify and determine the contribution of a local iron-steel manufacturing plant located in the Nanfei River (NFR) to the Chaohu Lake basin. The results show that sites located in the downstream of the steel plant contained concentrations of 17 PAH (Σ 17 PAH) approximately two orders of magnitudes higher than those from other sites. Five factors were identified by the PMF model, including industrial waste, wood/biomass burning, diagenetic origin, domestic coal combustion, and industrial combustion. Our findings suggest that sediments in the downstream of the plant and in the western part of the Chaohu Lake were predominantly affected by industrial coal combustion. A mixture of pyrolytic origins impacted urban sediments in the upstream of the plant, whereas diagenetic origins along with coal and biomass burning were suggested to influence the eastern part and rural tributaries of the lake. To assess the potential ecological risk and toxicity caused by the iron-steel plant, sediment toxicity was evaluated by the PMF model, sediment quality guideline, and toxic equivalent factors. All of the three approaches suggested PAH accumulation in the NFR sediments could produce significant adverse ecological effects and half of the sediment toxicity in the NFR may be attributed to the emissions from the iron-steel plant. Some rural locations also exhibited PAH concentrations above probable effects, most likely contributed by wood/biomass burning.

  14. Age-dependent mixing of deep-sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.R.; Maggaard, L.; Pope, R.H.; DeMaster, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Rates of bioturbation measured in deep-sea sediments commonly are tracer dependent; in particular, shorter lived radiotracers (such as 234 Th) often yield markedly higher diffusive mixing coefficients than their longer-lived counterparts (e.g., 210 Pb). At a single station in the 1,240-m deep Santa Catalina Basin, the authors document a strong negative correlation between bioturbation rate and tracer half-life. Sediment profiles of 234 Th (half-life = 24 days) yield an average mixing coefficient (60 cm 2 y -1 ) two orders of magnitude greater than that for 210 Pb (half-life = 22 y, mean mixing coefficient = 0.4 cm 2 y -1 ). A similar negative relationship between mixing rate and tracer time scale is observed at thirteen other deep-sea sites in which multiple radiotracers have been used to assess diffusive mixing rates. This relationship holds across a variety of radiotracer types and time scales. The authors hypothesize that this negative relationship results from age-dependent mixing, a process in which recently sedimented, food-rich particles are ingested and mixed at higher rates by deposit feeders than are older, food-poor particles. Results from an age-dependent mixing model demonstrate that this process indeed can yield the bioturbation-rate vs. tracer-time-scale correlations observed in deep-sea sediments. Field data on mixing rates of recently sedimented particles, as well as the radiotracer activity of deep-sea deposit feeders, provide strong support for the age-dependent mixing model. The presence of age-dependent mixing in deep-sea sediments may have major implications for diagenetic modeling, requiring a match between the characteristic time scales of mixing tracers and modeled reactants. 102 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Luminescence dating of Netherland's sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, J.; Davids, F.; Dijkmans, J.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades luminescence dating techniques have been developed that allow earth scientists to determine the time of deposition of sediments. In this contribution we revity: 1) the development of the methodology, 2) tests of the reliability of luminescence dating on Netherlands' sediments;

  16. Foreign Body Ingestion in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyuk Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body (FB ingestion in children is common and most children are observed to be between 6 months and 3 years of age. Although most FBs in the gastrointestinal tract pass spontaneously without complications, endoscopic or surgical removal may be required in a few children. Thus, FB ingestion presents a significant clinical difficulty in pediatric gastroenterological practice. Parameters that need to be considered regarding the timing of endoscopic removal of ingested FBs in children are the children’s age or body weight, the clinical presentation, time lapse since ingestion, time of last meal, type as well as size and shape of the FB, and its current location in the gastrointestinal tract. Esophageal button batteries require emergency removal regardless of the presence of symptoms because they can cause serious complications. Coins, magnets, or sharp FBs in the esophagus should be removed within 2 hours in symptomatic and within 24 hours in asymptomatic children. Among those presenting with a single or multiple magnets and a metallic FB that have advanced beyond the stomach, symptomatic children need a consultation with a pediatric surgeon for surgery, and asymptomatic children may be followed with serial X-rays to assess progression. Sharp or pointed, and long or large and wide FBs located in the esophagus or stomach require endoscopic removal.

  17. Button battery ingestion in children: An emerging hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Button battery ingestion is an emerging hazard. In this retrospective study, we report six cases of lithium button battery ingestion in pediatric age group (mean age 2.8 years. Three button batteries were removed from stomach and three from esophagus. Esophageal site was associated with significant local injury, and one button battery was impacted in the esophagus, requiring rigid esophagoscopy for removal. Small battery size, used batteries, and early removal (<12 h after ingestion were associated with lesser mucosal injury. No long-term complications were noted. Our study emphasizes that early diagnosis and urgent removal of ingested button battery are the only measures which prevent complications.

  18. Aging of microplastics promotes their ingestion by marine zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroom, Renske J E; Koelmans, Albert A; Besseling, Ellen; Halsband, Claudia

    2017-12-01

    Microplastics (microplastics to test their impacts, while aging processes such as weathering and biofouling alter the characteristics of plastic particles in the marine environment. We investigated zooplankton ingestion of polystyrene beads (15 and 30 μm) and fragments (≤30 μm), and tested the hypothesis that microplastics previously exposed to marine conditions (aged) are ingested at higher rates than pristine microplastics. Polystyrene beads were aged by soaking in natural local seawater for three weeks. Three zooplankton taxa ingested microplastics, excluding the copepod Pseudocalanus spp., but the proportions of individuals ingesting plastic and the number of particles ingested were taxon and life stage specific and dependent on plastic size. All stages of Calanus finmarchicus ingested polystyrene fragments. Aged microbeads were preferred over pristine ones by females of Acartia longiremis as well as juvenile copepodites CV and adults of Calanus finmarchicus. The preference for aged microplastics may be attributed to the formation of a biofilm. Such a coating, made up of natural microbes, may contain similar prey as the copepods feed on in the water column and secrete chemical exudates that aid chemodetection and thus increase the attractiveness of the particles as food items. Much of the ingested plastic was, however, egested within a short time period (2-4 h) and the survival of adult Calanus females was not affected in an 11-day exposure. Negative effects of microplastics ingestion were thus limited. Our findings emphasize, however, that aging plays an important role in the transformation of microplastics at sea and ingestion by grazers, and should thus be considered in future microplastics ingestion studies and estimates of microplastics transfer into the marine food web. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Vascular ring complicates accidental button battery ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Ronald W; Schwartz, Matthew C; Stephany, Joshua; Donnelly, Lane F; Franciosi, James P; Epelman, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Button battery ingestion can lead to dangerous complications, including vasculoesophageal fistula formation. The presence of a vascular ring may complicate battery ingestion if the battery lodges at the level of the ring and its important vascular structures. We report a 4-year-old boy with trisomy 21 who was diagnosed with a vascular ring at the time of button battery ingestion and died 9 days after presentation due to massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding from esophageal erosion and vasculoesophageal fistula formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the Ecotoxicity of Sediments from Yangtze River Estuary and Contribution of Priority PAHs to Ah Receptor-Mediated Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Chen, Ling; Shao, Ying; Zhang, Lili; Floehr, Tilman; Xiao, Hongxia; Yan, Yan; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Hollert, Henner; Wu, Lingling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, in vitro bioassays were performed to assess the ecotoxicological potential of sediments from Yangtze River estuary. The cytotoxicity and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated toxicity of sediment extracts with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver cells were determined by neutral red retention and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase assays. The cytotoxicity and AhR-mediated activity of sediments from the Yangtze River estuary ranged from low level to moderate level compared with the ecotoxicity of sediments from other river systems. However, Yangtze River releases approximately 14 times greater water discharge compared with Rhine, a major river in Europe. Thus, the absolute pollution mass transfer of Yangtze River may be detrimental to the environmental quality of estuary and East China Sea. Effect-directed analysis was applied to identify substances causing high dioxin-like activities. To identify unknown substances contributing to dioxin-like potencies of whole extracts, we fractionated crude extracts by open column chromatography. Non-polar paraffinic components (F1), weakly and moderately polar components (F2), and highly polar substances (F3) were separated from each crude extract of sediments. F2 showed the highest dioxin-like activities. Based on the results of mass balance calculation of chemical toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs), our conclusion is that priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons indicated a low portion of bio-TEQs ranging from 1% to 10% of crude extracts. Further studies should be conducted to identify unknown pollutants. PMID:25111307

  1. Evaluation of the ecotoxicity of sediments from Yangtze river estuary and contribution of priority PAHs to ah receptor--mediated activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Chen, Ling; Shao, Ying; Zhang, Lili; Floehr, Tilman; Xiao, Hongxia; Yan, Yan; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Hollert, Henner; Wu, Lingling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, in vitro bioassays were performed to assess the ecotoxicological potential of sediments from Yangtze River estuary. The cytotoxicity and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated toxicity of sediment extracts with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver cells were determined by neutral red retention and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase assays. The cytotoxicity and AhR-mediated activity of sediments from the Yangtze River estuary ranged from low level to moderate level compared with the ecotoxicity of sediments from other river systems. However, Yangtze River releases approximately 14 times greater water discharge compared with Rhine, a major river in Europe. Thus, the absolute pollution mass transfer of Yangtze River may be detrimental to the environmental quality of estuary and East China Sea. Effect-directed analysis was applied to identify substances causing high dioxin-like activities. To identify unknown substances contributing to dioxin-like potencies of whole extracts, we fractionated crude extracts by open column chromatography. Non-polar paraffinic components (F1), weakly and moderately polar components (F2), and highly polar substances (F3) were separated from each crude extract of sediments. F2 showed the highest dioxin-like activities. Based on the results of mass balance calculation of chemical toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs), our conclusion is that priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons indicated a low portion of bio-TEQs ranging from 1% to 10% of crude extracts. Further studies should be conducted to identify unknown pollutants.

  2. Annual intake of 137Cs and 90Sr from ingestion of main foodstuffs in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chih-Jung; Lai, Shu-Ying; Huang, Ching-Chung; Lin, Yu-ming

    1996-01-01

    The radioactivities of eight main foodstuffs were investigated during 1985-1994 to evaluate the annual intake from the ingestion of 137 Cs and 90 Sr for the residents of Taiwan. The evaluation of annual intake was based on the results of radiochemical analysis of 90 Sr and gamma-ray spectrometry of 137 Cs as well as annual consumption rates of those foodstuffs in Taiwan. The annual intake 90 Sr and 137 Cs per capita is 13 and 60 Bq, respectively. Among the eight foodstuffs, fruit contributed the most to the annual intake of 90 Sr, vegetable second, rice the third and egg the least. For 137 Cs, rice contributed the most, then fruit, meat the third and flour the least. Based on the new conversion factors from ICRP 60, the annual committed effective doses of Taiwanese due to the ingestion of radionuclides 90 Sr and 137 Cs were estimated to be 3.7 x 10 -7 and 7.8 x 10 -7 Sv, respectively. (author)

  3. The anesthetic management of button battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Richard J; Hoagland, Monica; Mayes, Lena; Twite, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Injuries related to button battery ingestion are common in children. This review provides an outline of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, management, and anesthetic implications in children who have ingested a button battery. A literature search was conducted in the United States National Library of Medicine PubMed database using the terms "button battery ingestion" and "children' and "removal" and "surgery" and "anesthesia". Ninety-six articles published in English were found from 1983-2017, and 62 of these articles were incorporated into this review. Additionally, the Internet was searched with the terms "button battery ingestion and children" to identify further entities, organizations, and resources affiliated with button battery ingestion in children. These additional sources were studied and included in this review. Button batteries are ubiquitous in homes and electronic devices. Since 2006, larger-diameter and higher-voltage batteries have become available. These are more likely to become impacted in the esophagus after ingestion and lead to an increase in severe morbidity and mortality due to caustic tissue injury. Children at the highest risk for complications are those under six years of age who have ingested batteries > 20 mm in diameter and sustain prolonged esophageal impaction at the level of the aortic arch with the negative pole oriented anteriorly. Anesthesiologists need to know about the epidemiology, pathophysiology, complications, and anesthetic management of children who have ingested button batteries.

  4. Too attractive: the growing problem of magnet ingestions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie C; Otjen, Jeffrey P; Drugas, George T

    2013-11-01

    Small, powerful magnets are increasingly available in toys and other products and pose a health risk. Small spherical neodymium magnets marketed since 2008 are of particular concern. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, characteristics, and management of single and multiple-magnet ingestions over time. Magnet ingestion cases at a tertiary children's hospital were identified using radiology reports from June 2002 to December 2012. Cases were verified by chart and imaging review. Relative risk regressions were used to determine changes in the incidence of ingestions and interventions over time. Of 56 cases of magnet ingestion, 98% occurred in 2006 or later, and 57% involved multiple magnets. Median age was 8 years (range, 0-18 years). Overall, 21% of single and 88% of multiple ingestions had 2 or more imaging series obtained, whereas no single and 56.3% of multiple ingestions required intervention (25.0% endoscopy, 18.8% surgery, 12.5% both). Magnet ingestions increased in 2010 to 2012 compared with 2007 to 2009 (relative risk, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.0). Small, spherical magnets likely from magnet sets comprised 27% of ingestions, all ingested 2010 or later: 86% involved multiple magnets, 50% of which required intervention. Excluding these cases, ingestions of other magnets did not increase in 2010 to 2012 compared with 2007 to 2009 (relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.4). The incidence of pediatric magnet ingestions and subsequent interventions has increased over time. Multiple-magnet ingestions result in high utilization of radiological imaging and surgical interventions. Recent increases parallel the increased availability of small, spherical magnet sets. Young and at-risk children should not have access to these and other small magnets. Improved regulation and magnet safety standards are needed.

  5. A review of soil and dust ingestion studies for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Jacqueline; Phillips, Linda

    2014-11-01

    Soil and dust ingestion by children may be important pathways of exposure to environmental contaminants. Contaminated soil and dust may end up on children's hands and objects, because they play close to the ground. These contaminants can be ingested by children, because they have a tendency to place objects, including their fingers, in their mouths. Assessing exposure through this pathway requires information about the amount of soil and dust ingested by children. Estimates of soil and dust ingestion and information on the prevalence of the behavior have been published in the literature, but research in this area is generally limited. Three methodologies have been used to quantify soil and dust ingestion rates. In this paper, these are referred to as the tracer element method, the biokinetic model comparison method, and the activity pattern method. This paper discusses the information available on the prevalence of soil and dust ingestion behavior, summarizes the three methodologies for quantifying soil and dust ingestion, and discusses their limitations. Soil ingestion data derived from studies that use these methodologies are also summarized. Although they are based on different estimation approaches, the central tendency estimates of soil and dust ingestion derived from the three methodologies are generally comparable.

  6. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem Eren Cevik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  7. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  8. A functional neuroimaging review of obesity, appetitive hormones and ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S; Berner, Laura A

    2014-09-01

    Adequate energy intake is vital for the survival of humans and is regulated by complex homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms. Supported by functional MRI (fMRI) studies that consistently demonstrate differences in brain response as a function of weight status during exposure to appetizing food stimuli, it has been posited that hedonically driven food intake contributes to weight gain and obesity maintenance. These food reward theories of obesity are reliant on the notion that the aberrant brain response to food stimuli relates directly to ingestive behavior, specifically, excess food intake. Importantly, functioning of homeostatic neuroendocrine regulators of food intake, such as leptin and ghrelin, are impacted by weight status. Thus, data from studies that evaluate the effect on weight status on brain response to food may be a result of differences in neuroendocrine functioning and/or behavior. In the present review, we examine the influence of weight and weight change, exogenous administration of appetitive hormones, and ingestive behavior on BOLD response to food stimuli. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Studies of osmotic diarrhea induced in normal subjects by ingestion of polyethylene glycol and lactulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, H F; Santa Ana, C A; Schiller, L R; Fordtran, J S

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of these studies was to gain insight into the pathophysiology of pure osmotic diarrhea and the osmotic diarrhea caused by carbohydrate malabsorption. Diarrhea was induced in normal volunteers by ingestion of polyethylene glycol (PEG), which is nonabsorbable, not metabolized by colonic bacteria, and carries no electrical charge. In PEG-induced diarrhea, (a) stool weight was directly correlated with the total mass of PEG ingested; (b) PEG contributed 40-60% of the osmolality of the fecal fluid, the remainder being contributed by other solutes either of dietary, endogenous, or bacterial origin; and (c) fecal sodium, potassium, and chloride were avidly conserved by the intestine, in spite of stool water losses exceeding 1,200 g/d. Diarrhea was also induced in normal subjects by ingestion of lactulose, a disaccharide that is not absorbed by the small intestine but is metabolized by colonic bacteria. In lactulose-induced diarrhea, (a) a maximum of approximate 80 g/d of lactulose was metabolized by colonic bacteria to noncarbohydrate moieties such as organic acids; (b) the organic acids were partially absorbed in the colon; (c) unabsorbed organic acids obligated the accumulation of inorganic cations (Na greater than Ca greater than K greater than Mg) in the diarrheal fluid; (d) diarrhea associated with low doses of lactulose was mainly due to unabsorbed organic acids and associated cations, whereas with larger doses of lactulose unmetabolized carbohydrates also played a major role; and (e) the net effect of bacterial metabolism of lactulose and partial absorption of organic acids on stool water output was done dependent. With low or moderate doses of lactulose, stool water losses were reduced by as much as 600 g/d (compared with equimolar osmotic loads of PEG); with large dose, the increment in osmotically active solutes within the lumen exceeded the increment of the ingested osmotic load, and the severity of diarrhea was augmented.

  10. Development of an Ingestion Pathway Model for AXAIRQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, A.A.

    1999-01-13

    AXAIRQ is a dose mode code used for prospective accident assessment at the Savannah River Site and is primarily used to show regulatory compliance. For completeness of pathway analysis, an ingestion model, AXINGST, has been developed for use with, and incorporation in, AXAIRQ. Currently available ingestion models were referenced as a basis for AXINGST. AXINGST calculates a conservative ingestion dose following an atmospheric release of radionuclides and includes site specific variables where applicable.

  11. Chronic metals ingestion by prairie voles produces sex-specific deficits in social behavior: an animal model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J Thomas; Hood, Amber N; Chen, Yue; Cobb, George P; Wallace, David R

    2010-11-12

    We examined the effects of chronic metals ingestion on social behavior in the normally highly social prairie vole to test the hypothesis that metals may interact with central dopamine systems to produce the social withdrawal characteristic of autism. Relative to water-treated controls, 10 weeks of chronic ingestion of either Hg(++) or Cd(++) via drinking water significantly reduced social contact by male voles when they were given a choice between isolation or contact with an unfamiliar same-sex conspecific. The effects of metals ingestion were specific to males: no effects of metals exposure were seen in females. Metals ingestion did not alter behavior of males allowed to choose between isolation or their familiar cage-mates, rather than strangers. We also examined the possibility that metals ingestion affects central dopamine functioning by testing the voles' locomotor responses to peripheral administration of amphetamine. As with the social behavior, we found a sex-specific effect of metals on amphetamine responses. Males that consumed Hg(++) did not increase their locomotor activity in response to amphetamine, whereas similarly treated females and males that ingested only water significantly increased their locomotor activities. Thus, an ecologically relevant stimulus, metals ingestion, produced two of the hallmark characteristics of autism - social avoidance and a male-oriented bias. These results suggest that metals exposure may contribute to the development of autism, possibly by interacting with central dopamine function, and support the use of prairie voles as a model organism in which to study autism. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. ACIDIC AND NEUTRAL LIQUID INGESTION IN PATIENTS WITH GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne Calsoni GOMES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Sour acidic liquid has a slower distal esophageal transit than a neutral liquid. Our hypothesis was that an acidic sour bolus has a different ingestion dynamic than a neutral bolus. Method In 50 healthy volunteers and 29 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, we evaluated the ingestion dynamics of 100 mL of acidic sour liquid (concentrated lemon juice, pH: 3.0 and 100 mL of water (pH: 6.8. The time to ingest the total volume, the number of swallows to ingest the volume, the interval between swallows, the flux of ingestion and the volume ingested in each swallow was measured. Results In both groups, healthy volunteers and patients in treatment for GERD, the acidic liquid took longer to be ingested, a higher number of swallows, a slower flux of ingestion and a smaller volume in each swallow than the neutral bolus. There was no difference between healthy volunteers and patients with GERD. The ingestion in women was longer than in men for acidic and neutral liquids. Conclusion Acidic liquid has a different dynamic of ingestion than the neutral liquid, which may be consequence of the slower transit through the distal esophageal body or an anticipation to drink a sour bolus. Patients with GERD have the same prolonged ingestion of the acidic liquid bolus as seen in healthy volunteers.

  13. Acidic and neutral liquid ingestion in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Dafne Calsoni; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Sour acidic liquid has a slower distal esophageal transit than a neutral liquid. Our hypothesis was that an acidic sour bolus has a different ingestion dynamic than a neutral bolus. In 50 healthy volunteers and 29 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), we evaluated the ingestion dynamics of 100 mL of acidic sour liquid (concentrated lemon juice, pH: 3.0) and 100 mL of water (pH: 6.8). The time to ingest the total volume, the number of swallows to ingest the volume, the interval between swallows, the flux of ingestion and the volume ingested in each swallow was measured. In both groups, healthy volunteers and patients in treatment for GERD, the acidic liquid took longer to be ingested, a higher number of swallows, a slower flux of ingestion and a smaller volume in each swallow than the neutral bolus. There was no difference between healthy volunteers and patients with GERD. The ingestion in women was longer than in men for acidic and neutral liquids. Acidic liquid has a different dynamic of ingestion than the neutral liquid, which may be consequence of the slower transit through the distal esophageal body or an anticipation to drink a sour bolus. Patients with GERD have the same prolonged ingestion of the acidic liquid bolus as seen in healthy volunteers.

  14. Prevalence, clinical features and management of pediatric magnetic foreign body ingestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavarez, Melissa M; Saladino, Richard A; Gaines, Barbara A; Manole, Mioara D

    2013-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) ingestions are frequent in children. Whereas the majority of FBs pass spontaneously through the gastrointestinal tract, ingestion of magnetic FBs pose a particular risk for obstruction due to proximate attraction through the intestinal wall. We aimed to identify the prevalence, clinical presentation, and management of magnetic FB ingestions at our tertiary care institution. We performed a retrospective chart review of medical records of patients presenting to the pediatric Emergency Department (ED) or admitted to the hospital with FB ingestions from June 2003-July 2009. From those cases, patients with magnetic FB ingestions were identified. During the study period, 337,839 patients presented to the ED; 38 cases of magnetic FB ingestion were identified (prevalence 0.01%). Abdominal radiography was obtained in all cases. Ingestion of a single magnet occurred in 30 of 38 cases (79%). Of those, 4 patients underwent endoscopic removal due to signs of FB impaction in the esophagus or pylorus; no complications were noted. Ingestion of multiple magnets (range 2-6) occurred in 8 of 38 cases. Four of the 8 patients with multiple magnetic FBs (50%) presented with signs of peritonitis and required operative repair of multiple intestinal perforations. No deaths were identified. Although ingestion of a single magnetic FB may, in most cases, be managed as a simple FB ingestion, the ingestion of multiple magnetic FB is associated with a high risk of complication and requires aggressive management. We propose an algorithm for management of children with magnetic FB ingestions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Oscillatory infragravity wave contribution to surf zone sediment transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Greenwood, Brian

    2008-01-01

    . It is shown that infragravity sediment transports are onshore directed at the landward side of relative (incident) wave height maxima, and offshore directed at the seaward side of such maxima. If a longshore infragravity wave structure exists, such as in the case of standing edge waves, the advection process...

  16. Effects of sediment composition on inorganic mercury partitioning, speciation and bioavailability in oxic surficial sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Huan; Wang Wenxiong

    2008-01-01

    Artificially prepared sediments were used to assess the effects of sediment composition on inorganic Hg partitioning, speciation and bioavailability. Organic coating in sediment greatly increased the Hg partitioning and the amount of bioavailable Hg bound with the clay and the Fe and Mn oxides, but had little effect on that bound with the quartz and calcium carbonate as a result of weaker binding of humic acids and fulvic acids. The clay content increased the concentration of Hg in the sediments but inhibited the gut juice extraction due to the strong binding of Hg-organic matter (OM) complexes. Most Hg in the sediments was complexed by OM (mainly distributed in the organo-complexed phase and the strongly complexed phase), and the Hg-OM complexes (especially Hg in the strongly complexed phase) in sediments contributed much to gut juice extraction. Redistribution of Hg-OM complexes between sediments and gut juices may occur during gut juice extraction and modify Hg bioavailability and speciation in sediments. - Organic and clay contents in sediments are the two most important components controlling Hg partitioning in sediments and bioavailability

  17. Health and ecological risk-based characterization of soil and sediment contamination in shipyard with long-term use of DDT-containing antifouling paint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Guanlin; Zhang, Chao [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Guanglong; Ding, Qiong [Foreign Economic Cooperation Office, Ministry of Environmental Protection of China, Beijing, 100035 (China); Wang, Shijie [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Fasheng, E-mail: Lifs@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was a frequently occurring type of persistent organic environmental pollutant in China and DDT-containing antifouling paint could be the main contributor of DDT to shipyards and fishing harbors. A field survey was conducted in a shipyard in southern China to investigate the content and distribution of DDT in soil and sediments. Human health and screening-level ecological risk assessments were conducted for DDT contamination in soil and sediments and the results indicated that total DDT in all samples tested exceeded present advisory safe limits. Analysis of the composition and distribution implicated DDT-containing antifouling paint used for ship maintenance as an important source of DDT. Individual and cumulative health risks for residents exceeded the extra lifetime cancer risks of 10{sup −6} and 10{sup −5}, mainly from exposure to soil, ingestion and dermal contact. DDT in sediments is associated with a high level of toxicity for the benthic community when > 99% of samples exceed the threshold concentration likely to be responsible for effects and severe effects. Further risk control for DDT is required to ensure safety for human health, the benthic community and the environment. - Highlights: ► DDT ranked high concentration both in sediments and soil in a shipyard. ► Composition analysis indicated DDT antifouling paint was the main source. ► High loading DDT in sediments resulted in high probability of ecological risks. ► Potential health risks for residents were mainly from the exposure of ingestion.

  18. Health and ecological risk-based characterization of soil and sediment contamination in shipyard with long-term use of DDT-containing antifouling paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Guanlin; Zhang, Chao; Wu, Guanglong; Ding, Qiong; Wang, Shijie; Li, Fasheng

    2013-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was a frequently occurring type of persistent organic environmental pollutant in China and DDT-containing antifouling paint could be the main contributor of DDT to shipyards and fishing harbors. A field survey was conducted in a shipyard in southern China to investigate the content and distribution of DDT in soil and sediments. Human health and screening-level ecological risk assessments were conducted for DDT contamination in soil and sediments and the results indicated that total DDT in all samples tested exceeded present advisory safe limits. Analysis of the composition and distribution implicated DDT-containing antifouling paint used for ship maintenance as an important source of DDT. Individual and cumulative health risks for residents exceeded the extra lifetime cancer risks of 10 −6 and 10 −5 , mainly from exposure to soil, ingestion and dermal contact. DDT in sediments is associated with a high level of toxicity for the benthic community when > 99% of samples exceed the threshold concentration likely to be responsible for effects and severe effects. Further risk control for DDT is required to ensure safety for human health, the benthic community and the environment. - Highlights: ► DDT ranked high concentration both in sediments and soil in a shipyard. ► Composition analysis indicated DDT antifouling paint was the main source. ► High loading DDT in sediments resulted in high probability of ecological risks. ► Potential health risks for residents were mainly from the exposure of ingestion

  19. Using 137Cs and 210Pbex and other sediment source fingerprints to document suspended sediment sources in small forested catchments in south-central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, P.; Walling, D.E.; Iroumé, A.; Quilodrán, C.; Castillo, A.; Navas, A.

    2013-01-01

    A study of the impact of forest harvesting operations on sediment mobilization from forested catchments has been undertaken in south-central Chile. The study focused on two sets of small paired catchments (treatment and control), with similar soil type, but contrasting mean annual rainfall, located about 400 km apart at Nacimiento (1200 mm yr −1 ) and Los Ulmos (2500 mm yr −1 ). The objective was to study the changes in the relative contribution of the primary sources of fine sediment caused by forestry operations. Attention focused on the pre-harvest and post-harvest periods and the post-replanting period was included for the Nacimiento treatment catchment. The sediment source fingerprinting technique was used to document the contributions of the potential sources. Emphasis was placed on discriminating between the forest slopes, forest roads and channel erosion as potential sources of fine sediment and on assessing the relative contributions of these three sources to the sediment yield from the catchments. The fallout radionuclides (FRNs) 137 Cs and excess lead-210, the environmental radionuclides 226 Ra and 40 K and soil organic matter (SOM) were tested as possible fingerprints for discriminating between potential sediment sources. The Kruskal–Wallis test and discriminant function analysis were used to guide the selection of the optimum fingerprint set for each catchment and observation period. Either one or both of the FRNs were selected for inclusion in the optimum fingerprint for all datasets. The relative contribution of each sediment source to the target sediment load was estimated using the selected fingerprint properties, and a mixing model coupled with a Monte Carlo simulation technique that takes account of uncertainty in characterizing sediment source properties. The goodness of fit of the mixing model was tested by comparing the measured and simulated fingerprint properties for the target sediment samples. In the Nacimiento treatment catchment

  20. Faulting of gas-hydrate-bearing marine sediments - contribution to permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, William P.; Holbrook, W.S.; Drury, Rebecca; Gettrust, Joseph; Hutchinson, Deborah; Booth, James; Taylor, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Extensive faulting is observed in sediments containing high concentrations of methane hydrate off the southeastern coast of the United States. Faults that break the sea floor show evidence of both extension and shortening; mud diapirs are also present. The zone of recent faulting apparently extends from the ocean floor down to the base of gas-hydrate stability. We infer that the faulting resulted from excess pore pressure in gas trapped beneath the gas hydrate-beating layer and/or weakening and mobilization of sediments in the region just below the gas-hydrate stability zone. In addition to the zone of surface faults, we identified two buried zones of faulting, that may have similar origins. Subsurface faulted zones appear to act as gas traps.

  1. Gastrointestinal bleeding following NSAID ingestion in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both presented with a history of fever and passage of bloody stools. There was a positive history of NSAID ingestion in both patients that was prescribed in the referring hospitals. ..... Bostwick HE, Halata MS, Feerick J, Newman LJ, Medow MS. Gastrointestinal bleeding in children following ingestion of low-dose. Ibuprofen.

  2. Suicidal ingestion of potassium permanganate crystals: a rare encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A C; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ingestion of potassium permanganate crystals. After treatment, the patient was discharged home on the 8(th) day after admission. So we conclude that Emergency endoscopy has a significant role in diagnosis and management of potassium permanganate ingestion.

  3. Ingestion of microplastics by commercial fish off the Portuguese coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Diogo; Sobral, Paula; Ferreira, Joana Lia; Pereira, Tânia

    2015-12-15

    The digestive tract contents of 263 individuals from 26 species of commercial fish were examined for microplastics. These were found in 17 species, corresponding to 19.8% of the fish of which 32.7% had ingested more than one microplastic. Of all the fish that ingested microplastics, 63.5% was benthic and 36.5% pelagic species. A total of 73 microplastics were recorded, 48 (65.8%) being fibres and 25 (34.2%) being fragments. Polymers were polypropylene, polyethylene, alkyd resin, rayon, polyester, nylon and acrylic. The mean of ingested microplastics was 0.27 ± 0.63 per fish, (n=263). Pelagic fish ingested more particles and benthic fish ingested more fibres, but no significant differences were found. Fish with the highest number of microplastics were from the mouth of the Tagus river. Scomber japonicus registered the highest mean of ingested microplastics, suggesting its potential as indicator species to monitor and investigate trends in ingested litter, in the MSFD marine regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Measuring water ingestion from spray exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Martha; Roddick, Felicity; Nguyen, Thang; O'Toole, Joanne; Leder, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Characterisation of exposure levels is an essential requirement of health risk assessment; however for water exposures other than drinking, few quantitative exposure data exist. Thus, regulatory agencies must use estimates to formulate policy on treatment requirements for non-potable recycled water. We adapted the use of the swimming pool chemical cyanuric acid as a tracer of recreational water ingestion to permit detection of small water volumes inadvertently ingested from spray exposures. By using solutions of 700-1000 mg/L cyanuric acid in an experimental spray exposure scenario, we were able to quantify inadvertent water ingestion in almost 70% of participants undertaking a 10 min car wash activity using a high pressure spray device. Skin absorption was demonstrated to be negligible under the experimental conditions, and the measured ingestion volumes ranged from 0.06 to 3.79 mL. This method could be applied to a range of non-potable water use activities to generate exposure data for risk assessment processes. The availability of such empirical measurements will provide greater assurance to regulatory agencies and industry that potential health risks from exposure to non-potable water supplies are well understood and adequately managed to protect public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tropical Cyclones as a Driver of Global Sediment Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyland, J.; Darby, S. E.; Cohen, S.

    2017-12-01

    The world's rivers deliver 19 billion tonnes of sediment to the coastal zone annually. The sediment supplied to the coastal zone is of significant importance for a variety of reasons, for example in acting as a vector for nutrients as well as in supplying sediment to coastal landforms such as deltas and beaches that can buffer those landforms from erosion and flooding. A greater understanding of the factors governing sediment flux to the oceans is therefore a key research gap. The non-linear relationship between river discharge and sediment flux implies that the global sediment flux may be disproportionately driven by large floods. Indeed, in our recent empirical research we have demonstrated that changes in the track locations, frequency and intensity of tropical storms in recent decades exert a significant control on the sediment flux emanating from the Mekong River. Since other large rivers potentially affected by tropical storms are known to make a significant contribution to the global sediment flux, this raises the question of the extent to which such storms play a significant role in controlling sediment loads at the global scale. In this paper we address that question by employing a global hydrological model (WBMsed) in order to predict runoff and sediment load forced by recent historical climate scenarios `with' and `without' tropical cyclones. We compare the two scenarios to (i) make the first estimate of the global contribution of sediment load forced by tropical storms; (ii) evaluate how that contribution has varied in recent decades and to (iii) explore variations in tropical-storm driven sediment loads in selected major river basins that are significantly affected by such storms.

  6. Particle mixing processes of Chernobyl fallout in deep Norwegian Sea sediments: Evidence for seasonal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, W.

    1996-09-01

    A 1430 m deep station in the Norwegian Sea (Voering Plateau) was occupied five times between May 1986 and February 1987 to investigate the seasonal variation in sediment mixing rates. Cherbnbyl-derived radiocesium, identified by its high proportion of short-lived 134Cs, was used as a tracer for mixing. Most of the nuclide input arrived at the sediment within a narrow time span in June/early July during the beginning of the seasonal biogenic sedimentation pulse. Measured 137Cs profiles in the sediment over time were compared with modelled distributions calculated with a finite difference scheme. The input function of radiocesium to the sea floor was evaluated from the increase of the total inventory with time. Time-invariant mixing coefficients did not provide reasonable fits to either summer or winter distributions. The best fit was obtained with a rate of mixing proportional to the radiocesium input flux, with an average enhancement factor of 6.6 during the two summer months. It appears that the benthic macrofauna are more active during the food supply season and rapidly ingest/bury freshly sedimented materials.

  7. Ecological and human health sediment risk assessment for a hydrocarbon-impacted site in Lake Athabasca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcdonald, B.; Wagenaar, A.; LaPorte, J.; Misfeldt, G.; Chatwell, I.

    2009-01-01

    The operation of a public port facility near Uranium City, Saskatchewan has resulted in elevated levels of hydrocarbons in soil, groundwater and sediment. Remedial action in the uplands portion of the site was successful and a risk management approach was initiated for the aquatic portion of the site in order to resolve human health and ecological issues. Ecological risks were assessed using a sediment weight-of-evidence approach involving chemistry, toxicity, bioaccumulation and benthic community structure. Human health risks were assessed via fish consumption, water ingestion and direct contact according to Health Canada guidance. This presentation included an overview of the general risk assessment approach as well as site-specific data and findings. The primary focus was on the challenges confronted during the risk assessment process, such as the need to include alkylated PAHs as a COPC in the human health risk assessment and to evaluate ongoing propeller wash and sediment resuspension for sediment risk management, even though the facility is no longer operational.

  8. Direct contribution of clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) to benthic fluxes, nitrification, denitrification and nitrous oxide emission in a farmed sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, David T.; Nizzoli, Daniele; Fano, Elisa A.; Viaroli, Pierluigi

    2015-03-01

    The influence of the manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) on N-cycle processes, and oxygen and nutrient fluxes in a farmed sediment was investigated using a multiple core incubation approach and parallel incubations of individual clams. Clam population/biomass density varied ∼8-fold between cores and all sediment-water column solute (O2. N2, N2O, NH4+, NOX and DIN) fluxes and benthic process (N-regeneration, nitrification and denitrification) rates were strongly and significantly correlated with clam density/biomass. Isolated clams exhibited high rates of respiration, N-excretion, nitrification and denitrification of 2050 ± 70, 395 ± 49, 201 ± 42 and 235 ± 40 nmol individual-1 h-1, respectively. The direct contribution of the clams and their associated microbiota to benthic processes was estimated by multiplying the per individual rates by the number of clams in each incubated core. The clams on average directly accounted for 64-133% of total rates of sediment oxygen demand, N-regeneration, nitrification and denitrification, indicating that they regulated processes primarily through their own metabolic activity and that of bacteria that colonise them. Clams and the farmed sediments were significant sources of the greenhouse gas N2O, but this was primarily due to their high nitrification and denitrification rates, rather than high specific N2O yields, as N2O emissions represented farmed sediments had a high denitrification efficiency of 67 ± 10%, but this ecosystem service came at the environmental cost of increased N-regeneration and N2O emission rates. The measured N2O emissions indicate that bivalve aquaculture may be a significant source of N2O. It is therefore recommended that N2O emissions should be included in the impact assessments of current and future bivalve-farming projects.

  9. Assessing Sediment Yield and the Effect of Best Management Practices on Sediment Yield Reduction for Tutuila Island, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leta, O. T.; Dulai, H.; El-Kadi, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    Upland soil erosion and sedimentation are the main threats for riparian and coastal reef ecosystems in Pacific islands. Here, due to small size of the watersheds and steep slope, the residence time of rainfall runoff and its suspended load is short. Fagaalu bay, located on the island of Tutuila (American Samoa) has been identified as a priority watershed, due to degraded coral reef condition and reduction of stream water quality from heavy anthropogenic activity yielding high nutrients and sediment loads to the receiving water bodies. This study aimed to estimate the sediment yield to the Fagaalu stream and assess the impact of Best Management Practices (BMP) on sediment yield reduction. For this, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied, calibrated, and validated for both daily streamflow and sediment load simulation. The model also estimated the sediment yield contributions from existing land use types of Fagaalu and identified soil erosion prone areas for introducing BMP scenarios in the watershed. Then, three BMP scenarios, such as stone bund, retention pond, and filter strip were treated on bare (quarry area), agricultural, and shrub land use types. It was found that the bare land with quarry activity yielded the highest annual average sediment yield of 133 ton per hectare (t ha-1) followed by agriculture (26.1 t ha-1) while the lowest sediment yield of 0.2 t ha-1 was estimated for the forested part of the watershed. Additionally, the bare land area (2 ha) contributed approximately 65% (207 ha) of the watershed's sediment yield, which is 4.0 t ha-1. The latter signifies the high impact as well as contribution of anthropogenic activity on sediment yield. The use of different BMP scenarios generally reduced the sediment yield to the coastal reef of Fagaalu watershed. However, treating the quarry activity area with stone bund showed the highest sediment yield reduction as compared to the other two BMP scenarios. This study provides an estimate

  10. Contribution to the study of sedimentation rates in some french Polynesian lakes and lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, C.; Poletiko, C.; Badie, C.

    1991-03-01

    210 Pb measurements using 210 Po deposition technique were performed in several marine and lacustrine sediments of French Polynesia to determine sedimentation rates in lakes and lagoons. Some results in terrigeneous sediments were acceptable and permit rate measurements; on the contrary other sediments, especially coral sands provided a 210 Pb/ 226 Ra disequilibrium (0.33 to 0.69). The occurring phenomena seem to be related to 222 Rn scavenging and geothermal endoupwelling which induces 226 Ra enhancement; this leads to the same 210 Pb/ 226 Ra disequilibrium as in deep ocean waters as described, for instance by Thomson and Turekian (1976) in an upwelling zone on Peru coasts [fr

  11. Pediatric zolpidem ingestion demonstrating zero-order kinetics treated with flumazenil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Stephen L; Negus, Elezer; Carstairs, Shaun D

    2013-11-01

    Zolpidem is a widely prescribed anti-insomnia agent. Although most pediatric zolpidem ingestions are benign, large ingestions can cause significant central nervous system (CNS) depression. Flumazenil has been reported to reverse the CNS effects of zolpidem. We describe a case of a large pediatric zolpidem ingestion resulting in profound CNS depression that responded to flumazenil administration. Serial zolpidem serum levels confirmed the ingestion. A 10-year-old boy with trisomy 21 presented to the emergency department 1 hour after he was found sedate with several zolpidem 5-mg tablets in his mouth. Seventeen tables (85 mg) were unaccounted for from a prescription bottle. He became unarousable approximately 2 hours after his ingestion. Flumazenil 0.2 mg intravenously was given with rapid return to his baseline mental status. He became resedate 1 hour later but was arousable. Sixteen hours after his presentation, he was asymptomatic. Serial zolpidem serum levels were obtained, showed an initial level of 310 ng/mL, and demonstrated zero-order kinetics. Zolpidem is an imidazopyridine, which binds to the benzodiazepine receptor. It is rapidly absorbed and has a short-half life. Unintentional pediatric ingestions of zolpidem are typically well tolerated. However, this case demonstrates that large ingestions may cause significant and prolonged CNS depression. Flumazenil, a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, has been described to reverse the effects of zolpidem in adult ingestions. There are few published reports describing flumazenil use in pediatric ingestion patients. This case suggests that flumazenil may be an effective treatment for zolpidem-induced CNS depression in the pediatric patient.

  12. Ingestion and transfer of microplastics in the planktonic food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setälä, Outi; Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Lehtiniemi, Maiju

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were carried out with different Baltic Sea zooplankton taxa to scan their potential to ingest plastics. Mysid shrimps, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, polychaete larvae and ciliates were exposed to 10 μm fluorescent polystyrene microspheres. These experiments showed ingestion of microspheres in all taxa studied. The highest percentage of individuals with ingested spheres was found in pelagic polychaete larvae, Marenzelleria spp. Experiments with the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the mysid shrimp Neomysis integer showed egestion of microspheres within 12 h. Food web transfer experiments were done by offering zooplankton labelled with ingested microspheres to mysid shrimps. Microscopy observations of mysid intestine showed the presence of zooplankton prey and microspheres after 3 h incubation. This study shows for the first time the potential of plastic microparticle transfer via planktonic organisms from one trophic level (mesozooplankton) to a higher level (macrozooplankton). The impacts of plastic transfer and possible accumulation in the food web need further investigations. -- Highlights: • Experiments show the potential of ingestion of plastics by various zooplankton taxa. • This ingestion of plastics can be indirect via other zooplankton organisms. • There may be several alternate routes for microplastic transfer in the food webs. -- Experiments with zooplankton and microspheres showed ingestion of spheres by zpl and the transfer of ingested microspheres to higher trophic level organisms via labelled zooplankton

  13. [Magnet ingestions in children: a French multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talvard, M; Mouttalib, S; Flaum, V; Viala, J; Galinier, P; Olives, J-P; Mas, E

    2015-01-01

    Digestive complications related to the ingestion of magnetic foreign bodies in children are increasing, especially in Asia and North America. In France, several case reports have been reported since 2008. We conducted a retrospective multicentric study to evaluate the frequency of ingestion of magnet foreign bodies and to describe the complicated cases that have occurred in France over the last 5 years. We report 40 cases of which 60% were multiple magnet ingestions. Eighty-eight percent of the children of the group who had swallowed multiple magnets needed interventional management by endoscopy (33%) or surgery (58%). Only two children (12.5%) of the group who swallowed one magnet required removal. This problem is not uncommon in France (2% of the 1132 foreign bodies investigated in the Toulouse center over 5 years), which justifies clear information for healthcare professionals and caregivers in order to avoid potential intestinal complications. We suggest interventional management or very close monitoring in the cases of multiple magnet ingestion. Meanwhile, in the majority of confirmed cases of simple magnet ingestions, we propose home monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Polyuria, acidosis, and coma following massive ibuprofen ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michael; Khurana, Amandeep; Ruha, Anne-Michelle

    2010-09-01

    Ibuprofen was the first over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug available in the United States. Despite being a common agent of ingestion, significant toxicity in overdose is rare. We report a case of a massive ibuprofen ingestion who developed polyuria, acidosis, and coma but survived, despite having a serum ibuprofen concentration greater than previous fatal cases. A 19-year-old man ingested 90 g (1,200 mg/kg) ibuprofen. He was initially awake and alert, but his level of consciousness deteriorated over several hours. Seven hours following the ingestion, he was intubated and mechanically ventilated secondary to loss of airway reflexes. He developed a lactic acidosis and polyuria, which lasted for nearly 24 h. His serum creatinine peaked at 1.12 mg/dL. An ibuprofen level drawn 7 h postingestion was 739.2 mg/L (therapeutic 5-49 mg/L). We describe a case of a massive ibuprofen overdose characterized by metabolic acidosis, coma, and a state of high urine output who survived with aggressive supportive care. This case is unique in several ways. First, ibuprofen levels this high have only rarely been described. Second, polyuria is very poorly described following ibuprofen ingestions.

  15. Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, M.D.; Durbin, P.W.; Howard, B.; Lipsztein, J.; Rundo, J.; Still, E.T.; Willis, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Metabolic models for U and Ra are described to estimate the risks to human health from ingesting these elements in drinking water. Chemical toxicity, which is relevant to U in its natural, depleted or slightly enriched state, is addressed, as are the radiotoxicity and the radiobiological effects of the important alpha-emitting isotopes of Ra, including /sup 224/Ra, /sup 226/Ra, and /sup 228/Ra. This paper estimates the kinetics of skeletal U deposition, so that risk coefficients for bone cancer induction can be applied. Skeletal cancer is regarded as the major potential radiobiological effect of ingested alpha-emitting radioisotopes of Ra and the presumed radiobiological effect of U, if any. Best estimates of normal U metabolism are used, because even in extreme cases the amounts of U or Ra ingested in potable water are not great enough to chemically or radiobiologically modify their metabolic behavior.

  16. Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.D.; Durbin, P.W.; Howard, B.; Lipsztein, J.; Rundo, J.; Still, E.T.; Willis, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Metabolic models for U and Ra are described to estimate the risks to human health from ingesting these elements in drinking water. Chemical toxicity, which is relevant to U in its natural, depleted or slightly enriched state, is addressed, as are the radiotoxicity and the radiobiological effects of the important alpha-emitting isotopes of Ra, including 224 Ra, 226 Ra, and 228 Ra. This paper estimates the kinetics of skeletal U deposition, so that risk coefficients for bone cancer induction can be applied. Skeletal cancer is regarded as the major potential radiobiological effect of ingested alpha-emitting radioisotopes of Ra and the presumed radiobiological effect of U, if any. Best estimates of normal U metabolism are used, because even in extreme cases the amounts of U or Ra ingested in potable water are not great enough to chemically or radiobiologically modify their metabolic behavior

  17. Transmesocolic double gastro-enteric fistulas due to ingestion of 28 magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Surd

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Accidental ingestion of magnetic foreign bodies has become more common due to increased availability of objects and toys with magnetic elements. The majority of them traverse the gastrointestinal system spontaneously without complication. However, ingestion of multiple magnets may require surgical resolution. Magnet ingestion usually does not cause serious complications, but in case of multiple magnet ingestion or ingestion of magnet and a metal object, it could cause intestinal obstruction, fistula formation or even perforation. Case report: We report case of a transmesocolic double gastro-enteric fistula formation following ingestion of 28 small magnets in a 17 months old boy. No history of foreign body ingestion could be obtained from parents therefore the patient was treated conservatively in a pediatric clinic for vomiting, dehydration, upper respiratory tract infection and suspicion of upper digestive tract bleeding. After 48 h he was sent in our clinic for surgical evaluation. Intraoperatively double transmesocolic gastro-enteric fistula was found. After separation of de gastric and enteral walls, resection of gastric wall and intestinal segment containing the two perforations was performed, followed by gastric suture in two layers and entero-enteric anastomosis. A total of 28 magnets were removed from the stomach and small intestine. Conclusion: Single magnet ingestion is treated as non-magnetic foreign body. Multiple magnet ingestion should be closely monitored and surgical approach could be the best option to prevent or to cure its complications. Keywords: Ingestion, Magnetic foreign body, Multiple magnets, Intestinal fistula, Children

  18. Prediction of complications following caustic ingestion in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, H B

    1995-01-01

    The records of 86 adults admitted to hospital following caustic ingestion were reviewed. Eighteen patients (21%) developed complications; of these, six were fatal. Patients without symptoms or signs did not develop complications. Complications occurred only following lye ingestion, or intentional...

  19. Characterization of heavy-metal-contaminated sediment by using unsupervised multivariate techniques and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeuh-Bin; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Wang, Sheng-Wei

    2015-03-01

    This study characterized the sediment quality of the severely contaminated Erjen River in Taiwan by using multivariate analysis methods-including factor analysis (FA), self-organizing maps (SOMs), and positive matrix factorization (PMF)-and health risk assessment. The SOMs classified the dataset with similar heavy-metal-contaminated sediment into five groups. FA extracted three major factors-traditional electroplating and metal-surface processing factor, nontraditional heavy-metal-industry factor, and natural geological factor-which accounted for 80.8% of the variance. The SOMs and FA revealed the heavy-metal-contaminated-sediment hotspots in the middle and upper reaches of the major tributary in the dry season. The hazardous index value for health risk via ingestion was 0.302. PMF further qualified the source apportionment, indicating that traditional electroplating and metal-surface-processing industries comprised 47% of the health risk posed by heavy-metal-contaminated sediment. Contaminants discharged from traditional electroplating and metal-surface-processing industries in the middle and upper reaches of the major tributary must be eliminated first to improve the sediment quality in Erjen River. The proposed assessment framework for heavy-metal-contaminated sediment can be applied to contaminated-sediment river sites in other regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Global Analysis of Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Sea Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. Análisis Global de la Ingesta de Residuos Antropogénicos por Tortugas Marinas La ingesta de residuos marinos puede tener efectos letales y subletales sobre las tortugas marinas y otros animales. Aunque hay investigadores que han reportado la ingesta de residuos antropogénicos por tortugas marinas y la incidencia de la ingesta de residuos ha incrementado con el tiempo, no ha habido una síntesis global del fenómeno desde 1985. Por esto analizamos 37 estudios publicados, desde

  1. Oxycodone Ingestion Patterns in Acute Fracture Pain With Digital Pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Peter R; Carreiro, Stephanie; Innes, Brendan J; Chapman, Brittany; Schreiber, Kristin L; Edwards, Robert R; Carrico, Adam W; Boyer, Edward W

    2017-12-01

    Opioid analgesics are commonly prescribed on an as-needed (PRN) basis for acute painful conditions. Uncertainty of how patients actually take PRN opioids, coupled with a desire to completely cover pain, leads to variable and overly generous opioid prescribing practices, resulting in a surplus of opioids. This opioid surplus becomes a source for diversion and nonmedical opioid use. Understanding patterns of actual opioid ingestion after acute painful conditions can help clinicians counsel patients on safe opioid use, and allow timely recognition and intervention when escalating opioid self-dosing occurs, to prevent tolerance and addiction. We used a novel oxycodone digital pill system (ingestible biosensor within a standard gelatin capsule combined with 5-mg oxycodone) that when ingested, is activated by the chloride ion gradient in the stomach thereby emitting a radiofrequency signal captured by a wearable reader. The reader relays ingestion data to a cloud-based server that displays ingestion events to the study team. We deployed the oxycodone digital pill among opioid-naive individuals discharged from the emergency department with acute fracture pain. Participants were trained on digital pill operation and discharged with twenty-one 5-mg oxycodone digital pills. They were instructed to take digital pills PRN for pain on discharge. We conducted a brief interview 7 days after study enrollment, at which point participants returned the digital pill system. We identified oxycodone ingestion events in real time by data from the digital pill system and performed pill counts at the return visit to validate digital pill reporting of medication ingestion. In this study, 26 individuals were approached; 16 enrolled with 15 completing the study. Participants ingested a median of 6 (3-9.5) oxycodone digital pills over the course of 7 days, with 82% of the oxycodone dose ingested in the first 3 days. In individuals who required operative repair, 86% (N = 6) continued to ingest

  2. Characteristics of hand sanitizer ingestions by adolescents reported to poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2015-02-01

    There had been reports of adolescents using hand sanitizers to obtain alcohol and ending up in emergency departments with alcohol poisoning. This study aimed to describe the pattern of adolescent ingestions of hand sanitizers reported to a statewide poison center system. Our study subjects included patients aged 13-19 years who reported hand sanitizer ingestions as reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2013. The distribution of the ingestions was determined for various demographic and clinical factors. Of 385 total cases, 61% of the patients were male, and the mean age was 15.3 years. The ingestion reason was unintentional (61%), intentional abuse/misuse (18%), and malicious (10%). Ingestion site was most frequently reported to be the patient's own residence (53%), followed by school (35%). About 77% of the patients were managed on site. The medical outcome was serious (moderate effect or unable to follow-potentially toxic) in 5% of the cases. The most frequently reported adverse clinical effects were vomiting (5%), abdominal pain (4%), nausea (4%), throat irritation (4%), and drowsiness (2%). Adolescents who ingested hand sanitizers were more likely to be male and younger. One-third of the ingestions occurred at school, suggesting that school personnel might be made aware of the potential problem of hand sanitizer ingestions by adolescents. Nevertheless, despite the potential for serious outcomes from adolescent hand sanitizer ingestion, most of the ingestions reported to poison centers are not likely to be serious and can be successfully managed outside of a healthcare facility.

  3. Frugivory and the effects of ingestion by bats on the seed germination of three pioneering plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho-Ricardo, Maria C.; Uieda, Wilson; Fonseca, Renata Cristina B.; Rossi, Marcelo N.

    2014-02-01

    The dispersion and seedling establishment of pioneering plants can be favoured by the presence of frugivorous bats because the bats usually improve seed germination after ingestion. Although seed germinability is known to vary greatly after ingestion by different bats, the relative contribution of each bat species to seed germination within plant communities is poorly understood. In this study, we first determined the fauna of frugivorous bats in a semideciduous seasonal forest remnant in southern Brazil and subsequently identified the plant species of the seeds passed through their guts. Second, the germination performance (i.e., germination percentage and speed) of the seeds of three pioneering plants (Piper aduncum, Piper hispidinervum and Solanum granuloso-leprosum) ingested by the most abundant bats was compared with that of the non-ingested seeds (seeds collected from fruits). Additionally, the effects on seed germination of different bat species were compared. During one year, five species of frugivorous bats were caught, and the seeds of eleven identifiable plant species (not counting those of undetermined species) were found in their faeces. We found that the germination performance of the seeds of Piper species was significantly enhanced after ingestion by bats, whereas S. granuloso-leprosum seeds had neutral or reduced germinability when seeds in faeces were compared with pulp-removed seeds. Our results revealed that the bat species that were captured exerted different effects upon seed germination; such a disparity is expected to result in different rates of early establishment of these pioneer plants in tropical forests, most likely affecting forest composition and structure, particularly during the initial stages of succession.

  4. Ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon U; Rasmussen, Morten; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2010-01-01

    We report a suicidal ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries, in combination with overdosed prescription medicine and smoking of cannabis.......We report a suicidal ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries, in combination with overdosed prescription medicine and smoking of cannabis....

  5. Sediment Transport Over Run-of-River Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, M.; Magilligan, F. J.; Renshaw, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    Dams have numerous documented effects that can degrade river habitat downstream. One significant effect of large dams is their ability to trap sediment delivered from upstream. This trapping can alter sediment transport and grain size downstream - effects that often motivate dam removal decisions. However, recent indirect observations and modeling studies indicate that small, run-of-river (ROR) dams, which do not impede discharge, may actually leak sediment downstream. However, there are no direct measurements of sediment flux over ROR dams. This study investigates flow and sediment transport over four to six different New England ROR dams over a summer-fall field season. Sediment flux was measured using turbidity meters and tracer (RFID) cobbles. Sediment transport was also monitored through an undammed control site and through a river where two ROR dams were recently removed. These data were used to predict the conditions that contribute to sediment transport and trapping. Year 1 data show that tracer rocks of up to 61 mm were transported over a 3 m ROR dam in peak flows of 84% of bankfull stage. These tracer rocks were transported over and 10 m beyond the dam and continue to move downstream. During the same event, comparable suspended sediment fluxes of up to 81 g/s were recorded both upstream and downstream of the dam at near-synchronous timestamps. These results demonstrate the potential for sediment transport through dammed rivers, even in discharge events that do not exceed bankfull. This research elucidates the effects of ROR dams and the controls on sediment transport and trapping, contributions that may aid in dam management decisions.

  6. Assessing the effects of fluoxetine on Physa acuta (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) and Chironomus riparius (Insecta, Diptera) using a two-species water-sediment test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Argueello, Paloma [Laboratory for Ecotoxicology, Department of the Environment, INIA, Crta, A Coruna km 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: arguello@inia.es; Fernandez, Carlos; Tarazona, Jose V. [Laboratory for Ecotoxicology, Department of the Environment, INIA, Crta, A Coruna km 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-03-01

    Fluoxetine has been tested in a two-species water-sediment system, which allowed a two-generation study with Chironomus riparius and a partial life-cycle with the freshwater snail Physa acuta to be performed at the same time. The design considered the continuous application of fluoxetine to overlaying water for nominal concentrations of 31.25, 62.5, 125 and 250 {mu}g/L. A fifth treatment (87.5 {mu}g/L) level consisted of pulse applications once a week. Measures of water and sediment concentrations were determined once a week and at the end of experiment (day 44), respectively. The fate study demonstrated that water dissipation can be explained by partitioning of fluoxetine to sediment. At the end of experiment, the percentage of detected fluoxetine was up to 10-fold higher in sediment than in overlaying water. The employed two-species test allowed distinguishing, in the same exposure conditions, effects due to waterborne exposure together ingestion at the sediment surface (freshwater grazing snail P. acuta) and exposure by burrowing activities (sediment-dwelling insect larvae C. riparius). The effect assessment showed a stimulation of P. acuta reproduction at lower concentrations (31.25 and 62.5 {mu}g/L), while the opposite effect was observed at the highest treatment (250 {mu}g/L). Additional studies should be conducted to establish if the statistically significant differences observed in F0 sex ratio at the 62.5 {mu}g/L and F1 adult emergence at 31.25 {mu}g/L of C. riparius have a toxicological significance. This study showed that fluoxetine can affect reproduction of freshwater molluscs. The results of the present study may contribute to knowledge on ecotoxicology of pharmaceuticals, about which little data is available. The possible consequences and implications for targeting the environmental risk assessment of fluoxetine are discussed.

  7. Assessing the effects of fluoxetine on Physa acuta (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) and Chironomus riparius (Insecta, Diptera) using a two-species water-sediment test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Argueello, Paloma; Fernandez, Carlos; Tarazona, Jose V.

    2009-01-01

    Fluoxetine has been tested in a two-species water-sediment system, which allowed a two-generation study with Chironomus riparius and a partial life-cycle with the freshwater snail Physa acuta to be performed at the same time. The design considered the continuous application of fluoxetine to overlaying water for nominal concentrations of 31.25, 62.5, 125 and 250 μg/L. A fifth treatment (87.5 μg/L) level consisted of pulse applications once a week. Measures of water and sediment concentrations were determined once a week and at the end of experiment (day 44), respectively. The fate study demonstrated that water dissipation can be explained by partitioning of fluoxetine to sediment. At the end of experiment, the percentage of detected fluoxetine was up to 10-fold higher in sediment than in overlaying water. The employed two-species test allowed distinguishing, in the same exposure conditions, effects due to waterborne exposure together ingestion at the sediment surface (freshwater grazing snail P. acuta) and exposure by burrowing activities (sediment-dwelling insect larvae C. riparius). The effect assessment showed a stimulation of P. acuta reproduction at lower concentrations (31.25 and 62.5 μg/L), while the opposite effect was observed at the highest treatment (250 μg/L). Additional studies should be conducted to establish if the statistically significant differences observed in F0 sex ratio at the 62.5 μg/L and F1 adult emergence at 31.25 μg/L of C. riparius have a toxicological significance. This study showed that fluoxetine can affect reproduction of freshwater molluscs. The results of the present study may contribute to knowledge on ecotoxicology of pharmaceuticals, about which little data is available. The possible consequences and implications for targeting the environmental risk assessment of fluoxetine are discussed

  8. Geochemical influences on assimilation of sediment-bound metals in clams and mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griscom, S.B.; Fisher, N.S.; Luoma, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    A series of experiments was performed to evaluate the extent to which Cd, Co, Ag, Se, Cr, and Zn bound to sediments with different geochemical properties could be assimilated by the mussel Mytilus edulis and the clam Macoma balthica. Oxidized and reduced radiolabeled sediments were fed to suspension-feeding animals, the depuration patterns of the individuals were followed by ??-spectrometry, and the assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of ingested metals were determined. AEs from geochemically diverse sediments typically varied less than 2-fold and ranged from 1% for Cr to 42% for Zn. Metals were assimilated from anoxic sediment by both animals; Ag, Cd, and Co AEs in M. balthica were 9-16%, 2-fold lower than from oxic sediment, but in M. edulis AEs were about two times greater from anoxic sediment for all metals but Ag. For oxic sediment, Cd and Co AEs in M. edulis decreased 3-4-fold with increased sediment exposure time to the metals with smaller but significant effects also noted for Zn and Se but not Ag. A less pronounced decrease in AE for M. balthica was evident only after 6 months exposure time. Sequential extractions of the oxidized sediments showed a transfer of metals into more resistant sediment components over time, but the rate did not correlate with a decrease in metal AEs. Comparing the two bivalves, TOC concentrations had an inconsistent effect on metal AEs. AEs of metals from bacteria-coated glass beads were slightly higher than from humic acid-coated beads, which were comparable with whole-sediment AEs. There was correspondence of AE with desorption of Ag, Cd, Co, and Se (but not Zn) from sediments into pH 5 seawater, measured to simulate the gut pH of these bivalves. The results imply that metals associated with sulfides and anoxic sediments are bioavailable, that the bioavailability of metals from sediments decreases over exposure time, that organic carbon content generally has a small effect on AEs, and that AEs of sediment-bound metals differ among

  9. Earth's portfolio of extreme sediment transport events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korup, Oliver

    2012-05-01

    Quantitative estimates of sediment flux and the global cycling of sediments from hillslopes to rivers, estuaries, deltas, continental shelves, and deep-sea basins have a long research tradition. In this context, extremely large and commensurately rare sediment transport events have so far eluded a systematic analysis. To start filling this knowledge gap I review some of the highest reported sediment yields in mountain rivers impacted by volcanic eruptions, earthquake- and storm-triggered landslide episodes, and catastrophic dam breaks. Extreme specific yields, defined here as those exceeding the 95th percentile of compiled data, are ~ 104 t km- 2 yr- 1 if averaged over 1 yr. These extreme yields vary by eight orders of magnitude, but systematically decay with reference intervals from minutes to millennia such that yields vary by three orders of magnitude for a given reference interval. Sediment delivery from natural dam breaks and pyroclastic eruptions dominate these yields for a given reference interval. Even if averaged over 102-103 yr, the contribution of individual disturbances may remain elevated above corresponding catchment denudation rates. I further estimate rates of sediment (re-)mobilisation by individual giant terrestrial and submarine mass movements. Less than 50 postglacial submarine mass movements have involved an equivalent of ~ 10% of the contemporary annual global flux of fluvial sediment to Earth's oceans, while mobilisation rates by individual events rival the decadal-scale sediment discharge from tectonically active orogens such as Taiwan or New Zealand. Sediment flushing associated with catastrophic natural dam breaks is non-stationary and shows a distinct kink at the last glacial-interglacial transition, owing to the drainage of very large late Pleistocene ice-marginal lakes. Besides emphasising the contribution of high-magnitude and low-frequency events to the global sediment cascade, these findings stress the importance of sediment storage

  10. QUANTIFYING SEDIMENT CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE GUÁNICA BAY PUERTO RICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The island of Puerto Rico faces considerable challenges regarding sustainable land use and effects of land use on adjacent freshwater and marine ecosystem services. In watersheds feeding Guánica Bay (southwestern Puerto Rico), increased soil erosion and sediment loading to strea...

  11. Risk assessment for the daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the ingestion of cockle (Anadara granosa) and exposure to contaminated water and sediments along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsadeghi, Seiedeh Aghileh; Zakari, Mohamad Pauzi; Yap, Chee Kong; Shahbazi, Azadeh

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) present in the sediment and water of Peninsular Malaysia as well as in the cockle Anadara granosa was investigated. Samples were extracted and analysed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The concentrations of total carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (t-PAHs) were measured between 0.80 +/- 0.04 to 162.96 +/- 14.74 ng/g wet weight (ww) in sediment, between 21.85 +/- 2.18 to 76.2 +/- 10.82 ng/L in water samples and between 3.34 +/- 0.77 to 46.85 +/- 5.50 ng/g ww in the cockle tissue. The risk assessment of probable human carcinogens in the Group B2 PAHs was calculated and assessed in accordance with the standards of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Case I in the toxicity assessment analysed the cancer risk to consumers of Malaysian blood cockle. Case II assessed the risk of cancer from exposure to PAHs from multiple pathways. The average cancer risk of case I and case II were found to be classifiable as unsafe according to the US EPA standard. The cancer risk due to c-PAHs acquired by the ingestion of blood cockle was (8.82 +/- 0.54) x 10-6 to (2.67 +/- 0.06) x 10(-2), higher than the US EPA risk management criterion. The non-cancer risks associated with multiple pathways in Kuala Gula, Kuala Juru and Kuala Perlis were higher than the U.S. EPA safe level, but the non-cancer risk for eating blood cockle was below the level of U.S. EPA concern.

  12. Food control concept: Food safety/ingestion issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, B.

    1995-01-01

    This talk outlines the issues in food safety/ingestion in the case of radiation accidents at nuclear power plants and how emergency preparedness plans can/should be tailored. The major topics are as follows: In Washington: food safety/ingestion issues exist at transition between response and regulatory worlds; agricultural concerns; customer concerns; Three Mile Island: detailed maps; development of response procedures; development of tools; legal issues

  13. Linking plastic ingestion research with marine wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, Stephanie; Borrelle, Stephanie B; Provencher, Jennifer F

    2018-05-16

    Plastic is an increasingly pervasive marine pollutant. Concomitantly, the number of studies documenting plastic ingestion in wildlife is accelerating. Many of these studies aim to provide a baseline against which future levels of plastic ingestion can be compared, and are motivated by an underlying interest in the conservation of their study species and ecosystems. Although this research has helped to raise the profile of plastic as a pollutant of emerging concern, there is a disconnect between research examining plastic pollution and wildlife conservation. We present ideas to further discussion about how plastic ingestion research could benefit wildlife conservation by prioritising studies that elucidates the significance of plastic pollution as a population-level threat, identifies vulnerable populations, and evaluates strategies for mitigating impacts. The benefit of plastic ingestion research to marine wildlife can be improved by establishing a clearer understanding of how discoveries will be integrated into conservation and policy actions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Controls of Sediment Nitrogen Dynamics in Tropical Coastal Lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enrich-Prast, Alex; Figueiredo, Viviane; Esteves, Francisco de Assis; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Sediment denitrification rates seem to be lower in tropical environments than in temperate environments. Using the isotope pairing technique, we measured actual denitrification rates in the sediment of tropical coastal lagoons. To explain the low denitrification rates observed at all study sites (<5 μmol N2 m-2 h-1), we also evaluated potential oxygen (O2) consumption, potential nitrification, potential denitrification, potential anammox, and estimated dissimilatory nitrate (NO3-) reduction to ammonium (NH4+; DNRA) in the sediment. 15NO3- and 15NH4+ conversion was measured in oxic and anoxic slurries from the sediment surface. Sediment potential O2 consumption was used as a proxy for overall mineralization activity. Actual denitrification rates and different potential nitrogen (N) oxidation and reduction processes were significantly correlated with potential O2 consumption. The contribution of potential nitrification to total O2 consumption decreased from contributing 9% at sites with the lowest sediment mineralization rates to less than 0.1% at sites with the highest rates. NO3- reduction switched completely from potential denitrification to estimated DNRA. Ammonium oxidation and nitrite (NO2-) reduction by potential anammox contributed up to 3% in sediments with the lowest sediment mineralization rates. The majority of these patterns could be explained by variations in the microbial environments from stable and largely oxic conditions at low sediment mineralization sites to more variable conditions and the prevalences of anaerobic microorganisms at high sediment mineralization sites. Furthermore, the presence of algal and microbial mats on the sediment had a significant effect on all studied processes. We propose a theoretical model based on low and high sediment mineralization rates to explain the growth, activity, and distribution of microorganisms carrying out denitrification and DNRA in sediments that can explain the dominance or coexistence of DNRA and

  15. Breath Hydrogen Produced by Ingestion of Commercial Hydrogen Water and Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Shimouchi, Akito; Nose, Kazutoshi; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Kondo, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare how and to what extent ingestion of hydrogen water and milk increase breath hydrogen in adults.Methods: Five subjects without specific diseases, ingested distilled or hydrogen water and milk as a reference material that could increase breath hydrogen. Their end-alveolar breath hydrogen was measured.Results: Ingestion of hydrogen water rapidly increased breath hydrogen to the maximal level of approximately 40 ppm 10–15 min after ingestion and thereafter rapidly decrease...

  16. Spatial distribution of trace elements in the surface sediments of a major European estuary (Loire Estuary, France): Source identification and evaluation of anthropogenic contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coynel, Alexandra; Gorse, Laureline; Curti, Cécile; Schafer, Jörg; Grosbois, Cécile; Morelli, Guia; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Blanc, Gérard; Maillet, Grégoire M.; Mojtahid, Meryem

    2016-12-01

    Assessing the extent of metal contamination in estuarine surface sediments is hampered by the high heterogeneity of sediment characteristics, the spatial variability of trace element sources, sedimentary dynamics and geochemical processes in addition to the need of accurate reference values for deciphering natural to anthropogenic contribution. Based on 285 surface sediment samples from the Loire Estuary, the first high-resolution spatial distributions are presented for grain-size, particulate organic carbon (POC) and the eight metals/metalloids identified as priority contaminants (Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu, As, Cr, Ni, Hg) plus Ag (an urban tracer). Grain-size and/or POC are major factors controlling the spatial distribution of trace element concentrations. The V-normalized trace metal concentrations divided by the V-normalized concentrations in the basin geochemical background showed the highest Enrichment Factors for Ag and Hg (EF; up to 34 and 140, respectively). These results suggest a severe contamination in the Loire Estuary for both elements. Intra-estuarine Ag and Hg anomalies were identified by comparison between respective normalized concentrations in the Loire Estuary surface sediments and those measured in the surface sediments at the outlet of the Loire River System (watershed-derived). Anthropogenic intra-estuarine Ag and Hg stocks in the uppermost centimetre of the sediment compared with rough annual fluvial flux estimates suggest that the overall strong Enrichment Factors for Ag (EFAg) and and Hg (EFHg) in the Loire Estuary sediments are mainly due to watershed-derived inputs, highlighting the need of high temporal hydro-geochemical monitoring to establish reliable incoming fluxes. Significant correlations obtained between EFCd and EFAg, EFCu and POC and EFHg and POC revealed common behavior and/or sources. Comparison of trace element concentrations with ecotoxicological indices (Sediment Quality Guidelines) provides first standardized information on the

  17. Suspended sediment apportionment in a South-Korean mountain catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, Axel; Meusburger, Katrin; Park, Ji-Hyung; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Due to the rapid agricultural expansion and intensification during the last decades in South-Korea, large areas of hill slope forests were transformed to paddies and vegetable fields. The intensive agriculture and the easily erodible soils in our catchment are a major reason for the increased erosion causing suspended sediments to infiltrate into the close drinking water reservoir. The drinking water reservoir Lake Soyang provides water supply for over ten million people in Seoul. Landscape managers need to know the exact origin of these sediments before they can create landscape amelioration schemes. We applied a compound-specific stable isotope (CSSI) approach (Alewell et al., 2015) to apportion the sources of the suspended sediments between forest and agricultural soil contribution to the suspended sediments in a different catchment and applied the same approach to identify and quantify the different sources of the suspended sediments in the river(s) contributing to Lake Soyang. We sampled eight soil sites within the catchment considering the different landuse types forest, rice paddies, maize and vegetables. Suspended sediments were sampled at three outlets of the different sub-catchments. Soils and suspended sediments are analysed for bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes, compound-specific carbon isotopes of plant-wax derived long-chain fatty acids and long-chain n-alkanes. Fatty acid and alkane isotopes are then used in mixing calculations and the mixing model software IsoSource to find out the contribution of the different source soils to the suspended sediments. We present first data of the source soils and the suspended sediments. C. Alewell, A. Birkholz, K. Meusburger, Y. Schindler-Wildhaber, L. Mabit, 2015. Sediment source attribution from multiple land use systems with CSIA. Biogeosciences Discuss. 12: 14245-14269.

  18. Extreme methane emissions from a Swiss hydropower reservoir: contribution from bubbling sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsontro, Tonya; McGinnis, Daniel F; Sobek, Sebastian; Ostrovsky, Ilia; Wehrli, Bernhard

    2010-04-01

    Methane emission pathways and their importance were quantified during a yearlong survey of a temperate hydropower reservoir. Measurements using gas traps indicated very high ebullition rates, but due to the stochastic nature of ebullition a mass balance approach was crucial to deduce system-wide methane sources and losses. Methane diffusion from the sediment was generally low and seasonally stable and did not account for the high concentration of dissolved methane measured in the reservoir discharge. A strong positive correlation between water temperature and the observed dissolved methane concentration enabled us to quantify the dissolved methane addition from bubble dissolution using a system-wide mass balance. Finally, knowing the contribution due to bubble dissolution, we used a bubble model to estimate bubble emission directly to the atmosphere. Our results indicated that the total methane emission from Lake Wohlen was on average >150 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), which is the highest ever documented for a midlatitude reservoir. The substantial temperature-dependent methane emissions discovered in this 90-year-old reservoir indicate that temperate water bodies can be an important but overlooked methane source.

  19. Inferring sediment connectivity from high-resolution DEMs of Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Tobias; Vericat, Damià

    2017-04-01

    ) erosion and deposition has emerged from sediment transfer between the two epochs of the DoD (i.e. functional connectivity). In this study, we use multitemporal raster DEMs generated (i) from terrestrial LiDAR surveys and (ii) by a landscape evolution model to compute DoDs. Flow accumulation is used to compute, for the contributing area of each raster cell, (i) the net balance and (ii) the total sum of material eroded. The net balance represents the sediment yield of the contributing area. In the case of a study area delimited by a catchment boundary, it is either negative (more sediment eroded than deposited within the contributing area, i.e. net export) or zero (eroded material has been re-deposited within the contributing area). Finally, the ratio of sediment yield and gross erosion is called the sediment delivery ratio (SDR). This number has been used as a "performance factor" indicating the degree of sediment connectivity, as it describes the proportion of material eroded on the local scale that is being delivered to the outlet of the contributing area. The evaluation of a DoD to compute the SDR overcomes one major criticism of the SDR, namely that gross erosion is generally estimated (e.g. by empirical USLE-type equations) rather than measured. Both our proposed approach and the concept of SDR are subject to a number of caveats, which we will discuss in our contribution. In any case, we advocate more detailed analyses of DoD using flow routing algorithms in order to include information on potential sediment pathways in morphological sediment budgets for hillslopes and catchments.

  20. Scoping calculation for components of the cow-milk dose pathway for evaluating the dose contribution from iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikenberry, T.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations have been undertaken to evaluate The absolute and relative contribution of different exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 001) examined the contributions of the various exposure pathways associated with environmental transport and accumulation of iodine-131 in the pasture-cow-milk pathway. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to thyroid dose of infants and adult from (1) the ingestion by dairy cattle of various feedstuffs (pasturage, silage, alfalfa hay, and grass hay) in four different feeding regimes; (2) ingestion of soil by dairy cattle; (3) ingestion of stared feed on which airborne iodine-131 had been deposited; and (4) inhalation of airborne iodine-131 by dairy cows

  1. Sharp foreign body ingestion by a young girl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riyadh Mohamad Hasan

    2017-06-09

    Jun 9, 2017 ... Sharp foreign body ingestion by a young girl. Riyadh Mohamad Hasan. University of Baghdad ... ray imaging and retrieved with the aid of C-arm fluoroscope at a laparotomy. Her postoperative period ... In our patient the foreign bodies were long sharp ones (sewing needles). Foreign body ingestion can be ...

  2. Caustic ingestion injuries-at military hospital rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, O.; Razzaq, K.; Abbas, W.; Zarrin, F.

    2015-01-01

    To study the pattern and endoscopic severity of caustic ingestion injuries presenting at Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Medical and Gastroenterology Department Military Hospital Rawalpindi from August 2012 to April 2013. Material and Methods: Patients were selected from those who presented with caustic ingestion history in Medical OPD, ER and in medical wards. After informed consent the patient underwent upper gastrointestinal (GI) Endoscopy. Endoscopic findings were recorded. Results: Out of 50 patients, 21(42%) were males and 29 (58%) were females. Ingestion was accidental in 19 (38%) and was with intent of suicide or self-harm in 31(62%) patients. Mean age was 33.2 years (SD ± 13.2). All the patients were subjected to upper GI endoscopy and findings were recorded. Endoscopic findings were grade 0 in 4 (8%), Grade 1 in 6 (12%), grade 2a in 7 (14%), grade 2b in 10 (20%), grade 3a in 6 (12%) and grade 3b in 17 (34%) patients. Conclusion: Caustic ingestion injuries were seen more in younger females with predominant cause as suicidal intent. On endoscopic examination severe corrosive injuries were more frequent. (author)

  3. Floodplains as a source of fine sediment in grazed landscapes: Tracing the source of suspended sediment in the headwaters of an intensively managed agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingjing; Rhoads, Bruce L.

    2018-05-01

    The flux of fine sediment within agricultural watersheds is an important factor determining the environmental quality of streams and rivers. Despite this importance, the contributions of sediment sources to suspended sediment loads within intensively managed agricultural watersheds remain poorly understood. This study assesses the provenance of fine suspended sediment in the headwater portion of a river flowing through an agricultural landscape in Illinois. Sediment source samples were collected from five sources: croplands, forested floodplains, grasslands, upper grazed floodplains, and lower grazed floodplains. Event-based and aggregated suspended sediment samples were collected from the stream at the watershed outlet. Quantitative geochemical fingerprinting techniques and a mixing model were employed to estimate the relative contributions of sediment from the five sources to the suspended sediment loads. To account for possible effects of small sample sizes, the analysis was repeated with only two sources: grazed floodplains and croplands/grasslands/forested floodplains. Results based on mean values of tracers indicate that the vast majority of suspended sediment within the stream (>95%) is derived from erosion of channel banks and the soil surface within areas of grazed floodplains. Uncertainty analysis based on Monte Carlo simulations indicates that mean values of tracer properties, which do not account for sampling variability in these properties, probably overestimate contributions from the two major sources. Nevertheless, this analysis still supports the conclusion that floodplain erosion accounts for the largest percentage of instream sediment (≈55-75%). Although grazing occurs over only a small portion of the total watershed area, grazed floodplains, which lie in close proximity to the stream channel, are an important source of sediment in this headwater steam system. Efforts to reduce fluxes of fine sediment in this intensively managed landscape should

  4. Effects of Fluid Ingestion on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Cognition During Exercise in the Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roh Hee-Tae

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of fluid ingestion during exercise in different environments on the serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cognition among athletes. Ten collegiate male athletes (soccer, n = 5; rugby, n = 5 were enrolled, and they completed running tests in the following four conditions (60 min each: 1 thermoneutral temperature at 18°C (group 18; 2 high ambient temperature at 32°C without fluid ingestion (group 32; 3 high ambient temperature at 32°C with water ingestion (group 32+W; and 4 high ambient temperature at 32°C with sports drink ingestion (group 32+S. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels significantly increased in group 18 immediately after exercise when compared with those at rest and were significantly higher than those in group 32 immediately and 60 min after exercise (p < 0.05. In the Stroop Color and Word Test, significantly increased Word, Color, and Color-Word scores were observed in group 18 immediately after exercise compared to those at rest (p < 0.05. However, the Color-Word score appeared to be significantly lower in group 32 immediately after exercise compared to the other groups (p < 0.05 and at 60 min post-exercise compared to group 18 (p < 0.05. We found that the exercise performed in a thermoneutral environment improved cognitive function, but the exercise performed in a hot environment did not. The differences according to the exercise environment would be largely affected by brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and fluid ingestion regardless of the type of drink (water or sports beverage was assumed to have contributed to the improvement in cognitive function caused by exercising in a hot environment.

  5. Importance of measuring discharge and sediment transport in lesser tributaries when closing sediment budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Ronald E.; Topping, David J.

    2017-11-01

    Sediment budgets are an important tool for understanding how riverine ecosystems respond to perturbations. Changes in the quantity and grain size distribution of sediment within river systems affect the channel morphology and related habitat resources. It is therefore important for resource managers to know if a river reach is in a state of sediment accumulation, deficit or stasis. Many sediment-budget studies have estimated the sediment loads of ungaged tributaries using regional sediment-yield equations or other similar techniques. While these approaches may be valid in regions where rainfall and geology are uniform over large areas, use of sediment-yield equations may lead to poor estimations of loads in regions where rainfall events, contributing geology, and vegetation have large spatial and/or temporal variability. Previous estimates of the combined mean-annual sediment load of all ungaged tributaries to the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam vary by over a factor of three; this range in estimated sediment loads has resulted in different researchers reaching opposite conclusions on the sign (accumulation or deficit) of the sediment budget for particular reaches of the Colorado River. To better evaluate the supply of fine sediment (sand, silt, and clay) from these tributaries to the Colorado River, eight gages were established on previously ungaged tributaries in Glen, Marble, and Grand canyons. Results from this sediment-monitoring network show that previous estimates of the annual sediment loads of these tributaries were too high and that the sediment budget for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam is more negative than previously calculated by most researchers. As a result of locally intense rainfall events with footprints smaller than the receiving basin, floods from a single tributary in semi-arid regions can have large (≥ 10 ×) differences in sediment concentrations between equal magnitude flows. Because sediment loads do not

  6. An Ingested Orthodontic Wire Fragment: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puryer, James; McNamara, Catherine; Sandy, Jonathan; Ireland, Tony

    2016-08-01

    Accidental ingestion or inhalation of foreign bodies has been widely documented, including incidents which occur whilst undertaking dental treatment. Most ingested objects pass through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) spontaneously, but approximately 10%-20% need to be removed endoscopically and 1% require surgery. This case reports a complication arising from the accidental loss of an archwire fragment during maxillary archwire placement. It describes the immediate and subsequent management, including the use of radiographs to track the passage of the fragment through the gastro-intestinal tract. This case stresses the vigilance that dentists must take to prevent inhalation or ingestion of foreign bodies and the consequences of time-delays when management decisions are needed.

  7. Rare-earth magnet ingestion-related injuries among children, 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roo, Ana C; Thompson, Meghan C; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Xiang, Huiyun; Cowles, Nancy A; Shmuylovskaya, Liliya; Smith, Gary A

    2013-11-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of rare-earth magnet ingestion by children by retrospectively analyzing 72 cases of magnet ingestion collected from Saferproducts.gov and the US Consumer Product Safety Commission from 2000 through 2012. The mean child age was 6.4 years. Patients ingested between 1 and 40 magnets, most often 1 to 4 magnets. Unique circumstances of ingestion included faux piercing (19.4%) and mistaking magnets for candy (6.9%). Surgery was required in 69.7% of cases where treatment was reported. Fifty-three patients were hospitalized (73.6%), and the length of hospital stay was reported in 58.5% of those cases, ranging from 1 to 54 days. Approximately half (50.7%) of the magnets causing injury were products intended for use by adults. Study findings demonstrate that pediatric ingestion of rare-earth magnets can cause serious gastrointestinal injury. Establishing a performance standard that limits the attraction force of these magnets offers the best prevention solution to this important pediatric public health problem.

  8. Esophageal perforation following foreign body ingestion in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esophageal perforation following foreign body ingestion in children: report of three cases. O Abdelhadi, AE Ali, O Taha, A Abdalla, F Nugud. Abstract. We report three cases of foreign body esophagus, in two of them the foreign body was a coin, and the third child ingested a disc battery. In all three cases the foreign body ...

  9. Heartburn and regurgitation in pregnancy: the effect of fat ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Alba, Valesca; Fornari, Fernando; Krahe, Cláudio; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia Maria; Silva de Barros, Sérgio Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    Reflux symptoms are common in pregnancy, but their association with fat ingestion is unclear. To investigate an association of dietary fats with heartburn and regurgitation in pregnancy. This is a prospective study in which 89 pregnant women (gestational age 34 +/- 4 weeks) attending a low-risk prenatal outpatient clinic were asked to provide information on the frequency they experienced heartburn and regurgitation. Fat ingestion was estimated by means of a 24-h diet record. Symptomatic patients were compared with those with no reflux symptoms (n = 20). Heartburn once a week or more often occurred in 56 of the 89 patients (63%). The ingested amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids was higher in patients with heartburn (11.2 +/- 6.4 vs. 7.7 +/- 3.5 mg; P = 0.022) than in controls after adjusting for age, gain weight during pregnancy, ingestion of caffeine and vitamin C, and total energetic intake. The ingestion of monounsaturated fatty acids was higher in patients with heartburn, but with a borderline statistical significance (16.1 +/- 11 vs. 11.8 +/- 6.5 mg; P = 0.061). No association was observed between the consumption of fats and regurgitation. This study suggests that heartburn in the third trimester of pregnancy is associated with the ingestion of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  10. Ascribing soil erosion of hillslope components to river sediment yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Kazem

    2017-06-01

    In recent decades, soil erosion has increased in catchments of Iran. It is, therefore, necessary to understand soil erosion processes and sources in order to mitigate this problem. Geomorphic landforms play an important role in influencing water erosion. Therefore, ascribing hillslope components soil erosion to river sediment yield could be useful for soil and sediment management in order to decrease the off-site effects related to downstream sedimentation areas. The main objectives of this study were to apply radionuclide tracers and soil organic carbon to determine relative contributions of hillslope component sediment sources in two land use types (forest and crop field) by using a Bayesian-mixing model, as well as to estimate the uncertainty in sediment fingerprinting in a mountainous catchment of western Iran. In this analysis, 137 Cs, 40 K, 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and soil organic carbon tracers were measured in 32 different sampling sites from four hillslope component sediment sources (summit, shoulder, backslope, and toeslope) in forested and crop fields along with six bed sediment samples at the downstream reach of the catchment. To quantify the sediment source proportions, the Bayesian mixing model was based on (1) primary sediment sources and (2) combined primary and secondary sediment sources. The results of both approaches indicated that erosion from crop field shoulder dominated the sources of river sediments. The estimated contribution of crop field shoulder for all river samples was 63.7% (32.4-79.8%) for primary sediment sources approach, and 67% (15.3%-81.7%) for the combined primary and secondary sources approach. The Bayesian mixing model, based on an optimum set of tracers, estimated that the highest contribution of soil erosion in crop field land use and shoulder-component landforms constituted the most important land-use factor. This technique could, therefore, be a useful tool for soil and sediment control management strategies. Copyright

  11. Orally ingestion of krokodil in Spain: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero Escribano, Abel; Beltrán Negre, María Teresa; Calvo Orenga, Gema; Carratalá Monfort, Sonia; Arnau Peiró, Francisco; Meca Zapatero, Sara; Haro Cortés, Gonzalo

    2016-06-14

    The krokodil use disorder is an addictive pathology with quite severe organic effects, especially at the skin level, that causes severe and degenerative necrosis of blood and muscle tissue. Though this disorder has a low prevalence in Spain, compared to the large number of consumers in other countries such as Ukraine or Russia, its consumption is slowly but gradually expanding in countries of the European Union and America. The simplicity of the process of obtaining the substance from desomorphine, together with its high availability and low cost, contribute toward consumers' self-sufficiency. This article presents the case of a user of krokodil and reviews the clinical symptoms of oral ingestion.

  12. Rare-earth magnet ingestion: a childhood danger reaches adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Beesan Shalabi; Sturm, Jesse J; Costello, Brian E

    2013-10-01

    Ingestion of multiple magnets may cause serious gastrointestinal morbidity, such as pressure necrosis, perforation, fistula formation, or intestinal obstruction due to forceful attraction across bowel wall. Although the consequences of multiple magnet ingestion are well documented in young children, the current popularity of small, powerful rare-earth magnets marketed as "desk toys" has heightened this safety concern in all pediatric age groups. A recent US Consumer Product Safety Commission product-wide warning additionally reports the adolescent practice of using toy high-powered, ball-bearing magnets to simulate tongue and lip piercings, a behavior that may increase risk of inadvertent ingestion. We describe 2 cases of older children (male; aged 10 and 13 years, respectively) with unintentional ingestion of multiple rare-earth magnets. Health care providers should be alerted to the potential for misuse of these high-powered, ball-bearing magnets among older children and adolescents.

  13. Appetite influences the responses to meal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribic, T; Nieto, A; Hernandez, L; Malagelada, C; Accarino, A; Azpiroz, F

    2017-08-01

    We have previously shown that the postprandial experience includes cognitive sensations, such as satiety and fullness, with a hedonic dimension involving digestive well-being and mood. Preload conditioning has been shown to modulate appetite and food consumption under certain conditions, but its effects on the responses to meal ingestion are not clear. We hypothesized that appetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and the emotive responses to meal ingestion. The effects of preload conditioning (ingestion of a low- vs a high-calorie breakfast) on appetite and on the cognitive and emotive responses to a comfort probe meal ingested 2 hours later (ham and cheese sandwich with orange juice; 300 mL, 425 Kcal) was tested in healthy subjects (n=12) in a cross-over design. Sensations were measured at regular intervals 15 minutes before and 60 minutes after the probe meal. As compared to the low-calorie breakfast, the high-calorie breakfast reduced basal hunger sensation and influenced the responses to the subsequent probe meal: it increased satiety (4.3±0.2 score vs 2.7±0.2 score; PAppetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and emotive responses to a meal. Preload conditioning of the postprandial experience may be applicable to dietary planning and prevention of postprandial symptoms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Prediction of complications following unintentional caustic ingestion in children. Is endoscopy always necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, H B

    1995-01-01

    The records of 115 children hospitalized following caustic ingestion over an 18.5-year period from 1976 to 1994 were reviewed. The relationship between types of product ingested, signs and symptoms, degree of esophageal injury and complications was analyzed. All complications were the result...... of strong alkali ingestion (sensitivity = 1.0). Among the 102 incident patients, 36.8% of lye ingestions resulted in complications, whereas only 2.7% (one) of automatic dishwasher detergent (ADD) ingestions caused any complications (p

  15. Suspended sediments from upstream tributaries as the source of downstream river sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadchi, Arman; Olley, Jon

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the efficiency with which sediment eroded from different sources is transported to the catchment outlet is a key knowledge gap that is critical to our ability to accurately target and prioritise management actions to reduce sediment delivery. Sediment fingerprinting has proven to be an efficient approach to determine the sources of sediment. This study examines the suspended sediment sources from Emu Creek catchment, south eastern Queensland, Australia. In addition to collect suspended sediments from different sites of the streams after the confluence of tributaries and outlet of the catchment, time integrated suspended samples from upper tributaries were used as the source of sediment, instead of using hillslope and channel bank samples. Totally, 35 time-integrated samplers were used to compute the contribution of suspended sediments from different upstream waterways to the downstream sediment sites. Three size fractions of materials including fine sand (63-210 μm), silt (10-63 μm) and fine silt and clay (<10 μm) were used to find the effect of particle size on the contribution of upper sediments as the sources of sediment after river confluences. And then samples were analysed by ICP-MS and -OES to find 41 sediment fingerprints. According to the results of Student's T-distribution mixing model, small creeks in the middle and lower part of the catchment were major source in different size fractions, especially in silt (10-63 μm) samples. Gowrie Creek as covers southern-upstream part of the catchment was a major contributor at the outlet of the catchment in finest size fraction (<10 μm) Large differences between the contributions of suspended sediments from upper tributaries in different size fractions necessitate the selection of appropriate size fraction on sediment tracing in the catchment and also major effect of particle size on the movement and deposition of sediments.

  16. After the Recall: Reexamining Multiple Magnet Ingestion at a Large Pediatric Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Daniel; Strickland, Matt; Hepburn, Charlotte Moore

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a mandatory product recall on the frequency of multiple mini-magnet ingestion at a large tertiary pediatric hospital, and to examine the morbidity and mortality associated with these ingestions. In this retrospective chart review, we searched our institution's electronic patient record for patients aged magnetic foreign bodies between 2002 and 2015, a period that included the mandatory product recall. We compared the frequency and character of ingestions before and after the recall. Comparing the postrecall years (January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2015) with the 2 years immediately preceding the recall year (January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012) yields an incidence rate ratio of 0.34 (95% CI, 0.18-0.64) for all magnet ingestions and 0.20 (95% CI, 0.08-0.53) for ingestion of multiple magnets. Based on the Fisher exact test, the incidence of both magnet ingestion (P magnet ingestion (P magnet ingestion decreased. There were no deaths in either study period. There was a significant decrease in multiple mini-magnet ingestion following a mandatory product recall. This study supports the effectiveness of the recall, which should bolster efforts to keep it in place in jurisdictions where it is being appealed. More broadly, the result provides general evidence of a recall helping decrease further harm from a product that carries a potential hazard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnet foreign body ingestion: rare occurrence but big consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Richard; Rosenfeld, Eric H; Yu, Yangyang R; St Peter, Shawn D; Shah, Sohail R

    2017-08-24

    To review the outcomes of magnet ingestions from two children's hospitals and develop a clinical management pathway. Children magnet were reviewed from 1/2011 to 6/2016 from two tertiary center children's hospitals. Demographics, symptoms, management and outcomes were analyzed. From 2011 to 2016, there were 89 magnet ingestions (50 from hospital 1 and 39 from hospital 2); 50 (56%) were males. Median age was 7.9 (4.0-12.0) years; 60 (67%) presented with multiple magnets or a magnet and a second metallic co-ingestion. Suspected locations found on imaging were: stomach (53%), small bowel (38%), colon (23%) and esophagus (3%). Only 35 patients (39%) presented with symptoms and the most common symptom was abdominal pain (33%). 42 (47%) patients underwent an intervention, in which 20 (23%) had an abdominal operation. For those undergoing abdominal surgery, an exact logistic regression model identified multiple magnets or a magnet and a second metallic object co-ingestion (OR 12.9; 95% CI, 2.4 - Infinity) and abdominal pain (OR 13.0; 95% CI, 3.2-67.8) as independent risk factors. Magnets have a high risk of requiring surgical intervention for removal. Therefore, we developed a management algorithm for magnet ingestion. Level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrated preservation and sample clean up procedures for studying water ingestion by recreational swimmers via urinary biomarker determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantú, Ricardo; Shoemaker, Jody A; Kelty, Catherine A; Wymer, Larry J; Behymer, Thomas D; Dufour, Alfred P; Magnuson, Matthew L

    2017-08-22

    The use of cyanuric acid as a biomarker for ingestion of swimming pool water may lead to quantitative knowledge of the volume of water ingested during swimming, contributing to a better understanding of disease resulting from ingestion of environmental contaminants. When swimming pool water containing chlorinated cyanurates is inadvertently ingested, cyanuric acid is excreted quantitatively within 24 h as a urinary biomarker of ingestion. Because the volume of water ingested can be quantitatively estimated by calculation from the concentration of cyanuric acid in 24 h urine samples, a procedure for preservation, cleanup, and analysis of cyanuric acid was developed to meet the logistical demands of large scale studies. From a practical stand point, urine collected from swimmers cannot be analyzed immediately, given requirements of sample collection, shipping, handling, etc. Thus, to maintain quality control to allow confidence in the results, it is necessary to preserve the samples in a manner that ensures as quantitative analysis as possible. The preservation and clean-up of cyanuric acid in urine is complicated because typical approaches often are incompatible with the keto-enol tautomerization of cyanuric acid, interfering with cyanuric acid sample preparation, chromatography, and detection. Therefore, this paper presents a novel integration of sample preservation, clean-up, chromatography, and detection to determine cyanuric acid in 24 h urine samples. Fortification of urine with cyanuric acid (0.3-3.0 mg/L) demonstrated accuracy (86-93% recovery) and high reproducibility (RSD urine suggested sufficient cyanuric acid stability for sample collection procedures, while longer holding times suggested instability of the unpreserved urine. Preserved urine exhibited a loss of around 0.5% after 22 days at refrigerated storage conditions of 4 °C. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Paraffin ingestion - the problem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of paraffin ingestion is higher in the summer months. This is because ... where the average cost per patient was R348 per day. The total cost to ... petroleum companies and/or entrepreneurs and distributed ... paraffin, coal and gas. As South Africa ... and more people become involved, making control difficult.

  20. Ingestible capsule for remote controlled release of a substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The application relates to an ingestible capsule (102) for delivery of a substance e.g. a pharmaceutical drug, to a human or animal. The ingestible capsule comprises a capsule wall structure (202) forming a substantially sealed reservoir or lumen holding the substance (204). An electrical resonance...

  1. Severe neurotoxicity following ingestion of tetraethyl lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Brandon K; Christensen, Jason; Mazzoncini, Joe; Miller, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Organic lead compounds are potent neurotoxins which can result in death even from small exposures. Traditionally, these compounds are found in fuel stabilizers, anti-knock agents, and leaded gasoline. Cases of acute organic lead intoxication have not been reported for several decades. We report a case of a 13-year-old Iraqi male who unintentionally ingested a fuel stabilizer containing 80-90% tetraethyl lead, managed at our combat support hospital. The patient developed severe neurologic symptoms including agitation, hallucinations, weakness, and tremor. These symptoms were refractory to escalating doses of benzodiazepines and ultimately required endotracheal intubation and a propofol infusion. Adjunctive therapies included chelation, baclofen, and nutrition provided through a gastrostomy tube. The patient slowly recovered and was discharged in a wheelchair 20 days after ingestion, still requiring tube feeding. Follow-up at 62 days post-ingestion revealed near-resolution of symptoms with residual slurred speech and slight limp. This case highlights the profound neurotoxic manifestations of acute organic lead compounds.

  2. 40K in the Black Sea: a proxy to estimate biogenic sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.; Gulina, L.V.; Sidorov, I.G.; Proskurnin, V.Yu.; Duka, M.S.; Moseichenko, I.N.; Rodina, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    An approach to estimate the rate of biogenic sedimentation in the Black Sea using the naturally occurring radionuclide 40 K has been considered. It allows assessment of the contribution of suspended matter of biological origin to the overall sediment accumulation in the Black Sea coastal, shelf and deep-water areas. Based upon this method, a relationship between the biogenic fraction of the seabed sediments and the water depth has been established with a view to differentiating the contributions of allochthonous and autochthonous suspended matter to the sedimentation rate. Overall, 40 K can be considered as an easily applicable proxy to assess sedimentation rate of biogenic fraction of particulate matter in marine environments. - Highlights: • 40 K-based approach was developed to assess biogenic sedimentation in the Black Sea. • 40 K-derived relationship between biogenic sedimentation and water depth was traced. • 40 K is an easily applicable proxy to estimate rate of biogenic sedimentation in sea

  3. Increasing frequency of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the subarctic North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Piatt, John F.; Wohl, Kenton D.

    1995-01-01

    We examined gut contents of 1799 seabirds comprising 24 species collected in 1988-1990 to assess the types and quantities of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the subarctic waters of Alaska. Of the 15 species found to ingest plastic, most were surface-feeders (shearwaters, petrels, gulls) or plankton-feeding divers (auklets, puffins). Of 4417 plastic particles examined, 76% were industrial pellets and 21% were fragments of ‘user’ plastic. Ingestion rates varied geographically, but no trends were evident and rates of plastic ingestion varied far more among species within areas than within species among areas. Comparison with similar data from 1968 seabirds comprising 37 species collected in 1969-1977 revealed that plastic ingestion by seabirds has increased significantly during the 10–15-year interval between studies. This was demonstrated by: (i) an increase in the total number of species ingesting plastic; (ii) an increase in the frequency of occurrence of plastic particles within species that ingested plastic; and, (iii) an increase in the mean number of plastic particles ingested by individuals of those species.

  4. Early phase glucagon and insulin secretory abnormalities, but not incretin secretion, are similarly responsible for hyperglycemia after ingestion of nutrients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yabe, Daisuke; Kuroe, Akira; Watanabe, Koin

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Hypersecretion of glucagon and reduced insulin secretion both contribute to hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, the relative contributions of impaired glucagon and insulin secretions in glucose excursions at the various stages of T2DM development remain to be determined. METHODS...... secretions but not incretin secretion are involved in hyperglycemia after ingestion of nutrients in T2DM of even a short duration....

  5. Intestinal volvulus and perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilçe, Zekeriya; Samsum, Hakan; Mammadov, Emil; Celayir, Sinan

    2007-01-01

    Ingested magnets can cause intestinal fistulas, perforation, and obstruction. There have been reports of magnet ingestion causing intestinal volvulus, but multiple magnet ingestion causing perforation and intestinal volvulus in a child is very unusual. We report the case of a 4-year-old girl, who ingested four magnets she acquired as toys, which caused intestinal volvulus and perforation as a result of pressure necrosis, several days after ingestion. At surgery we repaired two perforations, but additional bowel resection was not required. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 10. If multiple magnet ingestion is suspected in a child, the child must be monitored carefully. If there are signs of obstruction, emergency surgery is mandatory.

  6. Evaluation of the amount of 210Po ingested by the Spanish population and its relation to their diet habit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Francés, I.; García-Tenorio, R.; Mantero, J.; Manjón, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the contribution of 210 Po to the committed effective dose via ingestion received by the Spanish population have been evaluated, by determining the 210 Po activity concentrations in an ample set of samples which can be considered representatives of the diet consumed in Spain. The obtained results show a quit high variability, preventing the possibility to fix a representative value for the 210 Po contribution to the ingestion doses received by the Spanish population, but in general these values, due exclusively to 210 Po, are higher than the average value assigned by UNSCEAR to the annual committed effective dose received by the worldwide population due to the ingestion of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides. Knowing the diet habits of the Spanish population and the 210 Po bioaccumulative behavior in the marine trophic chain, which implies enhanced concentration of 210 Po in the sea food in comparison with the obtained ones in other components of the diet, the variable and generally higher ingestion doses due to 210 Po received by the Spanish population can be associated to the variable and rich consumption of marine products. The Spanish population has the seafood as an essential component of his diet. Although the 210 Po levels in the edible parts of a great variety of marine organisms can be found in the literature in general the great majority of these determinations corresponds to raw edible products. But little is known about the effects of cooking on the 210 Po content of seafood which are normally cooked for human consumption. Then it is important to check if cooking can alter the 210 Po content in the seafood in order to refine the dose estimates to human consumers. Trying to cover this gap, and at the same time trying to confirm the key role of the seafood in the 210 Po ingestion doses received by the Spanish population, we have also analyzed the 210 Po content in the edible parts of several seafood products bought in commercial markets

  7. Gastric Perforation and Phlegmon Formation by Foreign Body Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Alejandro Avila Alvarez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of foreign body ingestion in a suicide attempt resulting in gastric perforation and phlegmon formation during a subsequent 6 month period that eventually required surgical intervention. The patient had a prolonged course because she did not report a history of foreign body ingestion and the initial evaluating physicians had no suspicion about possible foreign body ingestion and may have missed important findings on physical examination. Gastric perforation by a foreign object  may have a slow course rather than presenting acute abdomen. The realization of a proper physical examination in the emergency department is key to an accurate diagnosis.

  8. The ingestion of plutonium and americium by range cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blincoe, C.; Bohman, V.R.; Smith, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The intake of plutonium and americium in the diet of cattle grazing on plutonium contaminated desert range was determined. Daily feed intake of the grazing animals was also determined so that the amount of nuclides ingested daily could be ascertained. Soil ingested by range cattle constituted the principal and possibly only source of ingested plutonium and americium and resulted in a daily intake of 3600-6600 pCi 238 Pu, 85,000-400,000 pCi 239 Pu, and 11,000-31,000 pCi 241 Am daily. Determining transuranic intake by direct measurement and from the composition and contamination of the diet gave identical results. (author)

  9. Contribution of internal exposures to the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonov, M I; Anspaugh, L R; Bouville, A; Likhtarev, I A

    2007-01-01

    The main pathways leading to exposure of members of the general public due to the Chernobyl accident were external exposure from radionuclides deposited on the ground and ingestion of contaminated terrestrial food products. The collective dose to the thyroid was nearly 1.5 million man Gy in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine with nearly half received by children and adolescents. The collective effective dose received in 1986-2005 by approximately five million residents living in the affected areas of the three countries was approximately 50,000 man Sv with approximately 40% from ingestion. That contribution might have been larger if countermeasures had not been applied. The main radionuclide contributing to both external and internal effective dose is 137Cs with smaller contributions of 134Cs and 90Sr and negligible contribution of transuranic elements. The major demonstrated radiation-caused health effect of the Chernobyl accident has been an elevated incidence of thyroid cancer in children.

  10. Marine debris ingestion and Thayer's law - The importance of plastic color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Robson G; Andrades, Ryan; Fardim, Lorena M; Martins, Agnaldo Silva

    2016-07-01

    In recent years marine plastic pollution has gained considerable attention as a significant threat to marine animals. Despite the abundant literature related to marine debris ingestion, only a few studies attempted to understand the factors involved in debris ingestion. Plastic ingestion is commonly attributed to visual similarities of plastic fragments to animal's prey items, such as plastic bags and jellyfish. However, this simple explanation is not always coherent with the variety of debris items ingested and with the species' main prey items. We assess differences in the conspicuousness of plastic debris related to their color using Thayer's law to infer the likelihood that visual foragers detect plastic fragments. We hypothesize that marine animals that perceive floating plastic from below should preferentially ingest dark plastic fragments, whereas animals that perceive floating plastic from above should select for paler plastic fragments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantifying sediment source contributions in coastal catchments impacted by the Fukushima nuclear accident with carbon and nitrogen elemental concentrations and stable isotope ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceby, J. Patrick; Huon Huon, Sylvain; Onda, Yuichi; Evrard, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accidental release of radioactive contaminants resulted in the significant fallout of radiocesium over several coastal catchments in the Fukushima Prefecture. Radiocesium, considered to be the greatest risk to the short and long term health of the local community, is rapidly bound to fine soil particles and thus is mobilized and transported during soil erosion and runoff processes. As there has been a broad-scale decontamination of rice paddy fields and rural residential areas in the contaminated region, one important long term question is whether there is, or may be, a downstream transfer of radiocesium from forests that covered over 65% of the most contaminated region. Accordingly, carbon and nitrogen elemental concentrations and stable isotope ratios are used to determine the relative contributions of forests and rice paddies to transported sediment in three contaminated coastal catchments. Samples were taken from the three main identified sources: cultivated soils (rice paddies and fields, n=30), forest soils (n=45), and subsoils (channel bank and decontaminated soils, n = 25). Lag deposit sediment samples were obtained from five sampling campaigns that targeted the main hydrological events from October 2011 to October 2014. In total, 86 samples of deposited sediment were analyzed for particulate organic matter elemental concentrations and isotope ratios, 24 from the Mano catchment, 44 from the Niida catchment, and 18 from the Ota catchment. Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to examine the source discrimination potential of this tracing suite and select the appropriate tracers for modelling. The discriminant tracers were modelled with a concentration-dependent distribution mixing model. Preliminary results indicate that cultivated sources (predominantly rice paddies) contribute disproportionately more sediment per unit area than forested regions in these contaminated catchments. Future research will examine if there are

  12. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F. S.; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. PMID:27818542

  13. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F.S.; Castro, Francisco Gomes de; Miller, Wagner Peitl; Lima, Raphael Rodrigues de; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. (author)

  14. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F S; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation.

  15. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F.S.; Castro, Francisco Gomes de; Miller, Wagner Peitl; Lima, Raphael Rodrigues de; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle, E-mail: gabrielnicolodi@gmail.com [Hospital Sao Vicente - Funef, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. (author)

  16. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Cleve Nicolodi

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases, increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases, identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases, and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case. Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation.

  17. Bioaccumulation of perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates and polychlorinated biphenyls in laboratory-cultured Hexagenia spp., Lumbriculus variegatus and Pimephales promelas from field-collected sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosser, R.S., E-mail: prosserr@uoguelph.ca [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Mahon, K. [Aquatic Toxicology Unit, Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sibley, P.K. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Poirier, D.; Watson-Leung, T. [Aquatic Toxicology Unit, Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates (PFASs) are persistent pollutants in sediment that can potentially bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. The current study investigates variation in the accumulation of PCBs and PFASs in laboratory-cultured Hexagenia spp., Lumbriculus variegatus and Pimephales promelas from contaminated field-collected sediment using 28-day tests. BSAF{sup lipid} (lipid-normalized biota-sediment accumulation factor) values for total concentration of PCBs were greater in Hexagenia spp. relative to L. variegatus and P. promelas. The distribution of congeners contributing to the total concentration of PCBs in tissue varied among the three species. Trichlorobiphenyl congeners composed the greatest proportion of the total concentration of PCBs in L. variegatus while tetra- and pentabiphenyl congeners dominated in Hexagenia spp. and P. promelas. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was present in all three species at concentrations greater than all other PFASs analyzed. Hexagenia spp. also produced the greatest BSAF{sup lipid} and BSAF{sup ww} (non-lipid-normalized biota-sediment accumulation factor) values for PFOS relative to the other two species. However, this was not the case for all PFASs. The trend of BSAF values and number of carbon atoms in the perfluoroalkyl chain of perfluorinated carboxylates varied among the three species but was similar for perfluorinated sulfonates. Differences in the dominant pathways of exposure (e.g., water, sediment ingestion) likely explain a large proportion of the variation in accumulation observed across the three species. - Highlights: • BSAF values for total PCBs and PFOS greatest in Hexagenia spp. • BSAF values for other PFASs not consistently greatest in Hexagenia spp. • Trends in BSAF values for PFASs varied as a function of carbon chain length among species. • Differences in exposure pathways likely explain variation in accumulation across species.

  18. Ingestion modelling in COSYMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, Sorin; Angelescu, Tatiana

    2003-01-01

    One of the aims in the design of the COSYMA ingestion model was the ability to cope in a flexible manner with the various food chain related data and results at different stages of an accident consequence assessment. Since dynamic foodchain transport models themselves are normally rather complex and require significant computation times, they are usually not included in ACA codes, but are used to calculate and tabulate the needed information in the form of data libraries. Such data files contain specific activity concentrations in the foodstuff and their time integral normalised to unit deposit or unit air concentration for a series of times after the accident.They allow for calculations taking into account food restrictions. In an ACA run, the actual specific concentrations in the foodstuffs are obtained by multiplying the normalized concentrations taken from the data library by the ground or air concentrations in each grid point predicted with an atmospheric transport and deposition model. The paper presents the structure of the ingestion model: structure, methods and the libraries used for a nuclear accident consequences assessment. (authors)

  19. Magnet ingestions in children presenting to US emergency departments, 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mazen I; Oliva-Hemker, Maria; Choi, Joon; Lustik, Michael; Gilger, Mark A; Noel, R Adam; Schwarz, Kathleen; Nylund, Cade M

    2013-07-01

    In the last 10 years, there have been an increasing number of case reports concerning gastrointestinal injury related to magnet ingestions; however, the magnitude of the problem remains to be clearly defined. The aim of the study was to examine the epidemiology of magnet ingestion-related emergency department (ED) visits among children in the United States. We performed a trend analysis using a nationally representative sample from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission, National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database for ED visits involving magnet ingestion in children younger than 18 years from 2002 to 2011. A national estimate of 16,386 (95% CI 12,175-20,598) children younger than 18 years presented to EDs in the United States during the 10-year study period with possible magnet ingestion. The incidence of visits increased 8.5-fold (from 0.45/100,000 to 3.75/100,000) from 2002 to 2011 with a 75% average annual increase per year. The majority of patients reported to have ingested magnets were younger than 5 years (54.7%). From 2009 to 2011 there was an increase in older children ingesting multiple small and/or round magnets, with a mean average age of 7.1 ± 0.56 years during the study period. There has been an alarming increase in ED visits for magnet ingestion in children. Increased public education and prevention efforts are needed.

  20. Ingested razor blades within the appendix: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Cui

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foreign body ingestion is a common clinical presentation with less than 1% of the cases requiring surgical intervention. In this report, we present a rare case of razor blades lodged in the appendix as a result of intentional ingestion. Presentation of case: A 25 year old male prisoner presented to our hospital with persistent right iliac fossa pain after razor blade ingestion. After 5 days of conservative management, there was no sign of transition on serial X-Rays. Laparoscopy with intraoperative image intensification confirmed the presence of the razor blades in the appendix and appendicectomy was subsequently performed without complications. Discussion: Most ingested objected with diameter less than 2.5 cm and length less than 6 cm can pass through the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously in less than one week. The entry of foreign objects into the appendix is thought to be due to relative low motility of the caecum, the dependent position of the appendix and the size of the appendiceal orifice. Radiographic localisation to the appendiceal lumen was complicated by metallic artefact, but was consistent with failure to transit. Appendicectomy was felt to be the safest mode of retrieval. Conclusion: Ingested foreign body lodged in the appendix is a rare event. Once the exact location is confirmed, a simple laparoscopic appendicectomy can be performed to facilitate the removal. Keywords: Appendicitis, Laparoscopy, Appendicectomy, Foreign body ingestion, Razor blades, Case report

  1. Microplastic ingestion in fish larvae in the western English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Madeleine; Cole, Matthew; Thompson, Richard C; Lindeque, Penelope K

    2017-07-01

    Microplastics have been documented in marine environments worldwide, where they pose a potential risk to biota. Environmental interactions between microplastics and lower trophic organisms are poorly understood. Coastal shelf seas are rich in productivity but also experience high levels of microplastic pollution. In these habitats, fish have an important ecological and economic role. In their early life stages, planktonic fish larvae are vulnerable to pollution, environmental stress and predation. Here we assess the occurrence of microplastic ingestion in wild fish larvae. Fish larvae and water samples were taken across three sites (10, 19 and 35 km from shore) in the western English Channel from April to June 2016. We identified 2.9% of fish larvae (n = 347) had ingested microplastics, of which 66% were blue fibres; ingested microfibers closely resembled those identified within water samples. With distance from the coast, larval fish density increased significantly (P < 0.05), while waterborne microplastic concentrations (P < 0.01) and incidence of ingestion decreased. This study provides baseline ecological data illustrating the correlation between waterborne microplastics and the incidence of ingestion in fish larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Caffeine ingestion enhances Wingate performance: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgic, Jozo

    2018-03-01

    The positive effects of caffeine ingestion on aerobic performance are well-established; however, recent findings are suggesting that caffeine ingestion might also enhance components of anaerobic performance. A commonly used test of anaerobic performance and power output is the 30-second Wingate test. Several studies explored the effects of caffeine ingestion on Wingate performance, with equivocal findings. To elucidate this topic, this paper aims to determine the effects of caffeine ingestion on Wingate performance using meta-analytic statistical techniques. Following a search through PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and SportDiscus ® , 16 studies were found meeting the inclusion criteria (pooled number of participants = 246). Random-effects meta-analysis of standardized mean differences (SMD) for peak power output and mean power output was performed. Study quality was assessed using the modified version of the PEDro checklist. Results of the meta-analysis indicated a significant difference (p = .005) between the placebo and caffeine trials on mean power output with SMD values of small magnitude (0.18; 95% confidence interval: 0.05, 0.31; +3%). The meta-analysis performed for peak power output indicated a significant difference (p = .006) between the placebo and caffeine trials (SMD = 0.27; 95% confidence interval: 0.08, 0.47 [moderate magnitude]; +4%). The results from the PEDro checklist indicated that, in general, studies are of good and excellent methodological quality. This meta-analysis adds on to the current body of evidence showing that caffeine ingestion can also enhance components of anaerobic performance. The results presented herein may be helpful for developing more efficient evidence-based recommendations regarding caffeine supplementation.

  3. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Laarhoven

    Full Text Available An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv. The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml, 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin. With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.

  4. Influence of body size on Cu bioaccumulation in zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha exposed to different sources of particle-associated Cu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huan; Kraemer, Lisa; Evans, Douglas

    2013-10-15

    Size of organisms is critical in controlling metal bioavailability and bioaccumulation, while mechanisms of size-related metal bioaccumulation are not fully understood. To investigate the influences of different sources of particle-associated Cu on body size-related Cu bioavailability and bioaccumulation, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) of different sizes were exposed to stable Cu isotope ((65)Cu) spiked algae (Chlorella vulgaris) or sediments in the laboratory and the Cu tissue concentration-size relationships were compared with that in unexposed mussels. Copper tissue concentrations decreased with mussel size (tissue or shell dry weight) in both unexposed and algal-exposed mussels with similar decreasing patterns, but were independent of size in sediment-exposed mussels. Furthermore, the relative contribution of Cu uptake from algae (65-91%) to Cu bioaccumulation is always higher than that from sediments (9-35%), possibly due to the higher bioavailability of algal-Cu. Therefore, the size-related ingestion of algae could be more important in influencing the size-related variations in Cu bioaccumulation. However, the relative contribution of sediment-Cu to Cu bioaccumulation increased with body size and thus sediment ingestion may also affect the size-related Cu variations in larger mussels (tissue weight >7.5mg). This study highlights the importance of considering exposure pathways in normalization of metal concentration variation when using bivalves as biomonitors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Trichloroacetic Acid Ingestion: Self-Harm Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Black

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA, or trichloroethanoic acid, is a chemical analogue of acetic acid where three methyl group hydrogen atoms are replaced by chlorine. TCAAs are also abbreviated and referred to as TCAs, causing confusion with the psychiatric antidepressant drug class, especially among patients. TCAAs exist in dermatological treatments such as chemical peels or wart chemoablation medication. TCAA ingestion or overdose can cause gastric irritation symptoms including vomiting, diarrhea, or lassitude. This symptomatology is less severe than TCA overdose, where symptoms may include elevated body temperature, blurred vision, dilated pupils, sleepiness, confusion, seizures, rapid heart rate, and cardiac arrest. Owing to the vast difference in symptoms, the need for clinical intervention differs greatly. While overdose of either in a self-harm attempt can warrant psychiatric hospital admission, the risk of death in TCAA ingestion is far less. Case Report. A patient ingested TCAA in the form of a commercially available dermatological chemical peel as a self-harm attempt, thinking that it was a more injurious TCA. Conclusion. Awareness among physicians, particularly psychiatrists, regarding this relatively obscure chemical compound (TCAA and its use by suicidal patients mistakenly believing it to be a substance that can be significantly more lethal (TCA, is imperative.

  6. Contemporary sediment-transport processes in submarine canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Martín, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    Submarine canyons are morphological incisions into continental margins that act as major conduits of sediment from shallow- to deep-sea regions. However, the exact mechanisms involved in sediment transfer within submarine canyons are still a subject of investigation. Several studies have provided direct information about contemporary sedimentary processes in submarine canyons that suggests different modes of transport and various triggering mechanisms. Storm-induced turbidity currents and enhanced off-shelf advection, hyperpycnal flows and failures of recently deposited fluvial sediments, dense shelf-water cascading, canyon-flank failures, and trawling-induced resuspension largely dominate present-day sediment transfer through canyons. Additionally, internal waves periodically resuspend ephemeral deposits within canyons and contribute to dispersing particles or retaining and accumulating them in specific regions. These transport processes commonly deposit sediments in the upper- and middle-canyon reaches for decades or centuries before being completely or partially flushed farther down-canyon by large sediment failures.

  7. Quantifying sources of fine sediment supplied to post-fire debris flows using fallout radionuclide tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Nyman, Petter; Child, David; Lane, Patrick; Hotchkis, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The supply of fine sediment and ash has been identified as an important factor contributing to the initiation of runoff-generated debris flows after fire. However, despite the significance of fines for post-fire debris flow generation, no investigations have sought to quantify sources of this material in debris flow affected catchments. In this study, we employ fallout radionuclides (Cs-137, excess Pb-210 and Pu-239,240) as tracers to measure proportional contributions of fine sediment (bank sources to levee and terminal fan deposits formed by post-fire debris flows in two forest catchments in southeastern Australia. While Cs-137 and excess Pb-210 have been widely used in sediment tracing studies, application of Pu as a tracer represents a recent development and was limited to only one catchment. The estimated range in hillslope surface contributions of fine sediment to individual debris flow deposits in each catchment was 22-69% and 32-74%, respectively. No systematic change in the source contributions to debris flow deposits was observed with distance downstream from channel initiation points. Instead, spatial variability in source contributions was largely influenced by the pattern of debris flow surges forming the deposits. Linking the sediment tracing with interpretation of depositional evidence allowed reconstruction of temporal sequences in sediment source contributions to debris flow surges. Hillslope source inputs dominated most elevated channel deposits such as marginal levees that were formed under peak flow conditions. This indicated the importance of hillslope runoff and sediment supply for debris flow generation in both catchments. In contrast, material stored within channels that was deposited during subsequent surges was predominantly channel-derived. The results demonstrate that fallout radionuclide tracers may provide unique information on the changing source contributions of fine sediment during debris flow events.

  8. Widespread microplastic ingestion by fish assemblages in tropical estuaries subjected to anthropogenic pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendel, A.L.; Bessa, F.; Alves, V.E.N.; Amorim, A.L.A.; Patrício, J.; Palma, A.R.T.

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to quantify microplastic ingestion by fish assemblages in two tropical Brazilian estuaries and to evaluate whether biological and ecological factors influence the ingestion of microplastics by fish species. Of 2233 fish from both estuaries (from 69 species) examined in this study, 9% of the individuals (24 species) had microplastics in their gut contents. Microplastic ingestion occurred irrespective of fish size and functional group. The diet of fish species was analyzed based on prey items identified in the fish's full stomach contents and five feeding guilds were defined. Microplastics were common throughout all feeding guilds. Low (average ingestion values 1.06 ± 0.30 items/total fish) but widespread occurrence among estuaries also indicates proliferation of microplastic pollution. Our findings highlight the need to focus on assemblage level studies to understand the real magnitude of the problem and emphasize the urgency of mitigation measures directed at microplastic pollution in estuarine ecosystems. - Highlights: • We analyzed microplastic ingestion in 69 fish species collected along two estuaries. • Microplastic ingestion was widespread in fish assemblages in two tropical estuaries. • Microplastic ingestion was independent of fish size and fish functional groups. • Microplastics were observed in fish from five different feeding guilds. • The level of anthropogenic pressures did not influence microplastic ingestion.

  9. When shape matters: strategies of different Antarctic ascidians morphotypes to deal with sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Luciana; Abele, Doris; Lagger, Cristian; Momo, Fernando; Sahade, Ricardo

    2014-08-01

    Climate change leads to increased melting of tidewater glaciers in the Western Antarctic Peninsula region and sediment bearing glacial melt waters negatively affects filter feeding species as solitary ascidians. In previous work the erect-forms Molgula pedunculata and Cnemidocarpa verrucosa (Order Stolidobranchiata) appeared more sensitive than the flat form Ascidia challengeri (Order Phlebobranchiata). Sedimentation exposure is expected to induce up-regulation of anaerobic metabolism by obstructing the organs of gas exchange (environmental hypoxia) or causes enhanced squirting activity (functional hypoxia). In this study we evaluated the possible relationship between ascidian morphotype and their physiological response to sedimentation. Together with some behavioural observations, we analysed the response of anaerobic metabolic parameters (lactate formation and glycogen consumption) in different tissues of three Antarctic ascidians, exposed to high sediment concentrations (200 mgL(-1)). The results were compared to experimental hypoxia (10% pO2) and exercise (induced muscular contraction) effects, in order to discriminate the effect of sediment on each species and morpho-type (erect vs. flat forms). Our results suggest that the styled (erect) C. verrucosa increases muscular squirting activity in order to expulse excessive material, while the flat-form A. challengeri reacts more passively by down-regulating its aerobic metabolism under sediment exposure. Contrary, the erect ascidian M. pedunculata did not show any measurable response to the treatments, indicating that filtration and ingestion activities were not reduced or altered even under high sedimentation (low energetic material) which could be disadvantageous on the long-term and could explain why M. pedunculata densities decline in the study area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of sediment source fingerprinting to assess the role of subsurface erosion in the supply of fine sediment in a degraded catchment in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjoro, Munyaradzi; Rowntree, Kate; Kakembo, Vincent; Foster, Ian; Collins, Adrian L

    2017-06-01

    Sediment source fingerprinting has been successfully deployed to provide information on the surface and subsurface sources of sediment in many catchments around the world. However, there is still scope to re-examine some of the major assumptions of the technique with reference to the number of fingerprint properties used in the model, the number of model iterations and the potential uncertainties of using more than one sediment core collected from the same floodplain sink. We investigated the role of subsurface erosion in the supply of fine sediment to two sediment cores collected from a floodplain in a small degraded catchment in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The results showed that increasing the number of individual fingerprint properties in the composite signature did not improve the model goodness-of-fit. This is still a much debated issue in sediment source fingerprinting. To test the goodness-of-fit further, the number of model repeat iterations was increased from 5000 to 30,000. However, this did not reduce uncertainty ranges in modelled source proportions nor improve the model goodness-of-fit. The estimated sediment source contributions were not consistent with the available published data on erosion processes in the study catchment. The temporal pattern of sediment source contributions predicted for the two sediment cores was very different despite the cores being collected in close proximity from the same floodplain. This highlights some of the potential limitations associated with using floodplain cores to reconstruct catchment erosion processes and associated sediment source contributions. For the source tracing approach in general, the findings here suggest the need for further investigations into uncertainties related to the number of fingerprint properties included in un-mixing models. The findings support the current widespread use of ≤5000 model repeat iterations for estimating the key sources of sediment samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  11. Prevention of ingestion injuries in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aspiration include attention-deficit hyperactivity syndrome,[9] low levels of parental ... the environment combined with inadequate caregiver supervision put children ... Increased primary prevention of ingestion through community awareness ...

  12. Arsenic metabolites in humans after ingestion of wakame seaweed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hata A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed contains large amounts of various arsenic compounds such as arsenosugars (AsSugs, but their relative toxicities have not yet been fully evaluated. A risk evaluation of dietary arsenic would be necessary. After developing an arsenic speciation analysis of wakame seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida, we conducted a wakame ingestion experiment using volunteers. Five volunteers ingested 300 g of commercial wakame after refraining from seafood for 5 days. Arsenic metabolites in the urine were monitored over a 5-day period after ingestion. Total arsenic concentration of the wakame seaweed was 34.3 ± 2.1 mg arsenic/kg (dry weight, n = 3. Two AsSugs, 3-[5′-deoxy-5′-(dimethyl-arsinoyl-β-ribofuranosyloxy]-propylene glycol (AsSug328 and 3-[5′-deoxy-5′-(dimethyl-arsinoyl-β- ribofuranosyl-oxy]-2-hydroxypropyl-2,3-dihydroxy-propyl phosphate (AsSug482 were detected, but arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA, monomethylarsonic acid, and inorganic arsenics (iAs were not detected. The major peak was AsSug328, which comprised 89% of the total arsenic. Approximately 30% of the total arsenic ingested was excreted in the urine during the 5-day observation. Five arsenic compounds were detected in the urine after ingestion, the major one being DMA, which comprised 58.1 ± 5.0% of the total urinary arsenic excreted over the 5 days. DMA was believed to be metabolized not from iAs but from AsSugs, and its biological half-time was approximately 13 h.

  13. Characterizing ingestive behavior through licking microstructure: Underlying neurobiology and its use in the study of obesity in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alexander W

    2018-02-01

    Ingestive behavior is controlled by multiple distinct peripheral and central physiological mechanisms that ultimately determine whether a particular food should be accepted or avoided. As rodents consume a fluid they display stereotyped rhythmic tongue movements, and by analyzing the temporal distribution of pauses of licking, it is possible through analyses of licking microstructure to uncover dissociable evaluative and motivational variables that contribute to ingestive behavior. The mean number of licks occurring within each burst of licking (burst and cluster size) reflects the palatability of the consumed solution, whereas the frequency of initiating novel bouts of licking behavior (burst and cluster number) is dependent upon the degree of gastrointestinal inhibition that accrues through continued fluid ingestion. This review describes the analysis of these measures within a context of the behavioral variables that come to influence the acceptance or avoidance of a fluid, and the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie alterations in the temporal distribution of pauses of licks. The application of these studies to models of obesity in animals is also described. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. When do we eat? Ingestive behavior, survival, and reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jill E; Wise, Justina D; Benton, Noah A; Brozek, Jeremy M; Keen-Rhinehart, Erin

    2013-09-01

    The neuroendocrinology of ingestive behavior is a topic central to human health, particularly in light of the prevalence of obesity, eating disorders, and diabetes. The study of food intake in laboratory rats and mice has yielded some useful hypotheses, but there are still many gaps in our knowledge. Ingestive behavior is more complex than the consummatory act of eating, and decisions about when and how much to eat usually take place in the context of potential mating partners, competitors, predators, and environmental fluctuations that are not present in the laboratory. We emphasize appetitive behaviors, actions that bring animals in contact with a goal object, precede consummatory behaviors, and provide a window into motivation. Appetitive ingestive behaviors are under the control of neural circuits and neuropeptide systems that control appetitive sex behaviors and differ from those that control consummatory ingestive behaviors. Decreases in the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels enhance the stimulatory effects of peripheral hormones on appetitive ingestive behavior and the inhibitory effects on appetitive sex behavior, putting a new twist on the notion of leptin, insulin, and ghrelin "resistance." The ratio of hormone concentrations to the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels may generate a critical signal that schedules conflicting behaviors, e.g., mate searching vs. foraging, food hoarding vs. courtship, and fat accumulation vs. parental care. In species representing every vertebrate taxa and even in some invertebrates, many putative "satiety" or "hunger" hormones function to schedule ingestive behavior in order to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy availability fluctuates. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. What role do hurricanes play in sediment delivery to subsiding river deltas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James E.; Bentley, Samuel J.; Snedden, Gregg; White, Crawford

    2015-01-01

    The Mississippi River Delta (MRD) has undergone tremendous land loss over the past century due to natural and anthropogenic influences, a fate shared by many river deltas globally. A globally unprecedented effort to restore and sustain the remaining subaerial portions of the delta is now underway, an endeavor that is expected to cost $50–100B over the next 50 yr. Success of this effort requires a thorough understanding of natural and anthropogenic controls on sediment supply and delta geomorphology. In the MRD, hurricanes have been paradoxically identified as both substantial agents of widespread land loss, and vertical marsh sediment accretion. We present the first multi-decadal chronostratigraphic assessment of sediment supply for a major coastal basin of the MRD that assesses both fluvial and hurricane-induced contributions to sediment accumulation in deltaic wetlands. Our findings indicate that over multidecadal timescales, hurricane-induced sediment delivery may be an important contributor for deltaic wetland vertical accretion, but the contribution from hurricanes to long-term sediment accumulation is substantially less than sediment delivery supplied by existing and planned river-sediment diversions at present-day river-sediment loads.

  16. What Role do Hurricanes Play in Sediment Delivery to Subsiding River Deltas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James E; Bentley, Samuel J; Snedden, Gregg A; White, Crawford

    2015-12-02

    The Mississippi River Delta (MRD) has undergone tremendous land loss over the past century due to natural and anthropogenic influences, a fate shared by many river deltas globally. A globally unprecedented effort to restore and sustain the remaining subaerial portions of the delta is now underway, an endeavor that is expected to cost $50-100B over the next 50 yr. Success of this effort requires a thorough understanding of natural and anthropogenic controls on sediment supply and delta geomorphology. In the MRD, hurricanes have been paradoxically identified as both substantial agents of widespread land loss, and vertical marsh sediment accretion. We present the first multi-decadal chronostratigraphic assessment of sediment supply for a major coastal basin of the MRD that assesses both fluvial and hurricane-induced contributions to sediment accumulation in deltaic wetlands. Our findings indicate that over multidecadal timescales, hurricane-induced sediment delivery may be an important contributor for deltaic wetland vertical accretion, but the contribution from hurricanes to long-term sediment accumulation is substantially less than sediment delivery supplied by existing and planned river-sediment diversions at present-day river-sediment loads.

  17. Changes in Sediment Fatty Acid Composition during Passage through the Gut of Deposit Feeding Holothurians: Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1883 and Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt, 1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosper L. Mfilinge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS, foregut (FG, midgut (MG, hindgut (HG, and faecal pellets (FPs indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H. atra and H. leucospilota. Saturated fatty acids (SAFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, and branched fatty acids (BrFAs were significantly higher in FG than in AS, suggesting that both species selectively ingested nutrient rich particles. Significant reduction of SAFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and BrFAs occurred in MD and HD, with complete elimination of most PUFAs in FPs. A decrease in PUFAs 20:5ω3, 18:4ω3, 22:5ω3, 22:6ω3, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, 18:3ω6, odd-numbered BrFAs, and MUFA 18:1ω7 indicated that algal detritus and bacteria were important part of diet. These results have implications for the fate of specific dietary FAs, especially ω3 and ω6, and the contribution holothurian FPs make to the FA composition of coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems.

  18. Changes in Sediment Fatty Acid Composition during Passage through the Gut of Deposit Feeding Holothurians: Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1883) and Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt, 1835)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA) composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS), foregut (FG), midgut (MG), hindgut (HG), and faecal pellets (FPs) indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H. atra and H. leucospilota. Saturated fatty acids (SAFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and branched fatty acids (BrFAs) were significantly higher in FG than in AS, suggesting that both species selectively ingested nutrient rich particles. Significant reduction of SAFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and BrFAs occurred in MD and HD, with complete elimination of most PUFAs in FPs. A decrease in PUFAs 20:5ω3, 18:4ω3, 22:5ω3, 22:6ω3, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, 18:3ω6, odd-numbered BrFAs, and MUFA 18:1ω7 indicated that algal detritus and bacteria were important part of diet. These results have implications for the fate of specific dietary FAs, especially ω3 and ω6, and the contribution holothurian FPs make to the FA composition of coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. PMID:27042355

  19. Building scalable digital library ingestion pipelines using microservices

    OpenAIRE

    Cancellieri, Matteo; Pontika, Nancy; Pearce, Samuel; Anastasiou, Lucas; Knoth, Petr

    2017-01-01

    CORE, a harvesting service offering access to millions of open access research papers from around the world, has shifted its harvesting process from following a monolithic approach to the adoption of a microservices infrastructure. In this paper, we explain how we rearranged and re-scheduled our old ingestion pipeline, present CORE's move to managing microservices and outline the tools we use in a new and optimised ingestion system. In addition, we discuss the ineffciencies of our old harvest...

  20. 6 The Contribution of bank and furface.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2005-03-17

    Mar 17, 2005 ... using a single tracer Pb to determine the relative contribution of surface and bank sediments to the fluvial .... required to design effective sediment and ... The dry season spans from November to .... Bridge (n = 8) (n = 8).

  1. Fluvial sediment in the environment: a national challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Gellis, Allen C.; Glysson, G. Douglas; Gray, John R.; Horowitz, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment and sediment-associated constituents can contribute substantially to water-quality impairment. In the past, sediment was viewed mainly as an engineering problem that affected reservoir storage capacity, shipping channel maintenance, and bridge scour, as well as the loss of agricultural soil. Sediment is now recognized as a major cause of aquatic system degradation in many rivers and streams as a result of light attenuation, loss of spawning substrate due to fine-grained sediment infilling, reduction in primary productivity, decreases in biotic diversity, and effects from sediment-associated chemical constituents. Recent advances in sediment measurement, assessment, source-identification, and analytical protocols provide new capabilities to quantify sediment and solid-phase chemical fluxes in aquatic systems. Developing, maintaining, and augmenting current sediment- and water-quality-monitoring networks is essential for determining the health of U.S. waterways and for evaluating the effectiveness of management actions in reducing sediment-related problems. The application of new scientific capabilities that address the adverse effects of sediment and sediment- associated constituents represents a major step in managing the Nation’s water quality. A robust Federal, national-scale eff rt, in collaboration with vested stakeholders, is needed to address these sediment-related water-quality issues across the United States.

  2. Influence of land use configurations on river sediment pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An; Duodu, Godfred O; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2017-10-01

    Land use is an influential factor in river sediment pollution. However, land use type alone is found to be inadequate to explain pollutant contributions to the aquatic environment since configurations within the same land use type such as land cover and development layout could also exert an important influence. Consequently, this paper discusses a research study, which consisted of an in-depth investigation into the relationship between land use type and river sediment pollution by introducing robust parameters that represent configurations within the primary land use types. Urban water pollutants, namely, nutrients, total carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals were investigated in the study. The outcomes show that higher patch density and more diverse land use development forms contribute relatively greater pollutant loads to receiving waters and consequently leading to higher sediment pollution. The study outcomes are expected to contribute essential knowledge for creating robust management strategies to minimise waterway pollution and thereby protect the health of aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of caffeine ingestion on functional performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, M J; Clarke, N D; Tallis, J; Guimarães-Ferreira, L; Leddington Wright, S

    2014-12-01

    Caffeine is a widely used nutritional supplement which has been shown to enhance both physical and cognitive performance in younger adults. However, few studies have assessed the effect of caffeine ingestion on performance, particularly functional performance in older adults. The present study aims to assess the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on functional performance, manual dexterity and readiness to invest effort in older adults. 19 apparently healthy, volunteers (10 females and 9 males aged 61-79; 66 ± 2 years) performed tests of functional fitness and manual dexterity post ingestion of caffeine (3mg*kg-1) or placebo in a randomised order. Pre and 60 minutes post ingestion, participants also completed measures of readiness to invest physical (RTIPE) and mental (RTIME) effort. A series of repeated measures ANOVAS indicated enhanced performance in the following functional fitness tests; arm curls (P = .04), 8 foot up and go (P = .007), six minute walk (P = .016). Manual dexterity was also improved in the presence of caffeine (P = .001). RTIME increased (P = .015) pre to post ingestion in the caffeine condition but not in the placebo condition. There were no significant main effects or interactions for RTIPE or gender in any analysis (all P > .05). The results of this study suggest that acute caffeine ingestion positively enhances functional performance, manual dexterity and readiness to invest effort in apparently healthy older adults.

  4. The Report of Suicide by Ingestion of Lidocaine Topical Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lidocaine is a local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic agent. There are reports on accidental and intentional cases of poisoning following injection of lidocaine while rare are the fatal cases realized after oral ingestion of lidocaine. Suicidal poisoning with lidocaine pharmaceutical formulations is rare since no pharmaceutical dosage forms for oral use are available except gels and sprays used as local anesthetics in dentistry. Cases: Three cases of suicidal poisoning by ingestion of the content of lidocaine topical spray are reported in the present study. The cases developed episodes of seizure requiring diazepam and other therapeutic modalities upon admission. Eventually, one of the cases expired. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first reported case of suicidal poisoning after ingestion of this formulation which highlights the fact that lidocaine topical spray formulation may be used for committing suicide. Ingestion of lidocaine present in topical spray can induce varying levels of toxicity that can even be fatal.

  5. Predicting watershed post-fire sediment yield with the InVEST sediment retention model: Accuracy and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; McVay, Jason C.; Kreitler, Jason R.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Vaillant, Nicole; Lowe, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Increased sedimentation following wildland fire can negatively impact water supply and water quality. Understanding how changing fire frequency, extent, and location will affect watersheds and the ecosystem services they supply to communities is of great societal importance in the western USA and throughout the world. In this work we assess the utility of the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) Sediment Retention Model to accurately characterize erosion and sedimentation of burned watersheds. InVEST was developed by the Natural Capital Project at Stanford University (Tallis et al., 2014) and is a suite of GIS-based implementations of common process models, engineered for high-end computing to allow the faster simulation of larger landscapes and incorporation into decision-making. The InVEST Sediment Retention Model is based on common soil erosion models (e.g., USLE – Universal Soil Loss Equation) and determines which areas of the landscape contribute the greatest sediment loads to a hydrological network and conversely evaluate the ecosystem service of sediment retention on a watershed basis. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy and uncertainties for InVEST predictions of increased sedimentation after fire, using measured postfire sediment yields available for many watersheds throughout the western USA from an existing, published large database. We show that the model can be parameterized in a relatively simple fashion to predict post-fire sediment yield with accuracy. Our ultimate goal is to use the model to accurately predict variability in post-fire sediment yield at a watershed scale as a function of future wildfire conditions.

  6. Natural radionuclide dose and lifetime cancer risk due to ingestion of fish and water from fresh water reservoirs near the proposed uranium mining site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Selvaraj, Rajaram

    2017-06-01

    Ten sampling locations in Nagarjuna Sagar Dam have been selected to assess the suitability of the reservoir water for human consumption. The sediment, water, and fish samples were collected and analyzed for radionuclide ( 238 U, 232 Th, 210 Po, 226 Ra, 210 Pb) and physicochemical parameters like pH, TOC, total hardness, alkalinity, DO, cation exchange capacity, and particle size. The spatial variations among the radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th, 210 Po, 226 Ra, 210 Pb) in water and bottom sediments of Nagarjuna Sagar Dam were determined. The uranium concentration in the sediment and water was in BDL (water samples of the analyzed radionuclides are 238 U-10 Bq/l, 210 Po-0.1 Bq/l, 226 Ra-1 Bq/l, and 210 Pb-0.1 Bq/l. The radionuclides in our water samples were approximately 50 times far below the recommended limit. The ingestion of water and fish would not pose any significant radiological impact on health or cancer risk to the public, implicating that the fishes from Nagarjuna Sagar Dam reservoir are safe for human consumption except the fisherman community.

  7. Effect of Carbohydrate and Caffeine Ingestion on Badminton Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Neil D; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of ingesting carbohydrate and caffeine solutions on measures that are central to success in badminton. Twelve male badminton players performed a badminton serve-accuracy test, coincidence-anticipation timing (CAT), and a choice reaction-time sprint test 60 min before exercise. Participants then consumed 7 mL/kg body mass of either water (PLA), 6.4% carbohydrate solution (CHO), a solution containing a caffeine dose of 4 mg/kg, or 6.4% carbohydrate and 4 mg/kg caffeine (C+C). All solutions were flavored with orange-flavored concentrate. During the 33-min fatigue protocol, participants were provided with an additional 3 mL/kg body mass of solution, which was ingested before the end of the protocol. As soon as the 33-min fatigue protocol was completed, all measures were recorded again. Short-serve accuracy was improved after the ingestion of CHO and C+C compared with PLA (P = .001, η(p)(2) = .50). Long-serve accuracy was improved after the ingestion of C+C compared with PLA (P badminton match can maintain serve accuracy, anticipation timing, and sprinting actions around the court.

  8. Foreign body ingestion in Iranian children: a 4 years observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Amini-Ranjbar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Foreign body ingestion is common in children due to playing with everything. This study was done to identify type, site, and complication, as well as knowledge about the state of foreign body ingestion in children in Kerman/Iran. Methods – In this prospective study, during 4 years, 85 children less than 14 years old presented to the Emergency Department of Afzalipour Hospital in Kerman were studied. All children, regardless of their clinical symptoms, underwent total radiography (from neck to Pelvic within the first hour of admission. In symptomatic patients, or sharp, long objects, and narcotic substances ingestion, prompt endoscopy was performed and in the case of foreign body lodging in the subglottic area, the patient was being referred to an ear, nose and throat specialist. For asymptomatic patients or far-access foreign body; lactulose, polyethylene glycol solution and high-fiber substances (for ingestion of diskette batteries, heroine and sharp objects respectively were administered as medical treatments. Asymptomatic subjects who had ingested sharp objects or narcotic substances were hospitalized and observed, but other cases were followed out patiently (by phone call or face to face observation. Results – Mean age of subjects was 3.7 years with no significant difference between the two sexes. Mean age was 3.7 year. The most frequent ingested foreign body was diskette battery (28.2% followed by coin (21.2%. The majority of subjects had no symptom (67%. the most frequent endoscopic location (21.8% was subglot. Most complications occurred after battery ingestion. Endoscopic intervention was required in 31.8% that mostly in cases with ingestion of organic substances (77.8% and coin (61.1%. There was a significant relationship between age and the type of foreign body (p=0.033 and its location (p= 0.012. Medical treatment was completely successful in 68.2%. There was no mortality. Conclusion – Manufacturing clockwork toys

  9. Risk Analysis Reveals Global Hotspots for Marine Debris Ingestion by Sea Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Q. A.; Wilcox, C.; Townsend, K.; Wedemeyer-Strombel, K.; Balazs, G.; van Sebille, E.; Hardesty, B. D.

    2016-02-01

    Plastic marine debris pollution is rapidly becoming one of the critical environmental concerns facing wildlife in the 21st century. Here we present a risk analysis for plastic ingestion by sea turtles on a global scale. We combined global marine plastic distributions based on ocean drifter data with sea turtle habitat maps to predict exposure levels to plastic pollution. Empirical data from necropsies of deceased animals were then utilised to assess the consequence of exposure to plastics. We modelled the risk (probability of debris ingestion) by incorporating exposure to debris and consequence of exposure, and included life history stage, species of sea turtle, and date of stranding observation as possible additional explanatory factors. Life history stage is the best predictor of debris ingestion, but the best-fit model also incorporates encounter rates within a limited distance from stranding location, marine debris predictions specific to the date of the stranding study, and turtle species. There was no difference in ingestion rates between stranded turtles vs. those caught as bycatch from fishing activity, suggesting that stranded animals are not a biased representation of debris ingestion rates in the background population. Oceanic life-stage sea turtles are at the highest risk of debris ingestion, and olive ridley turtles are the most at-risk species. The regions of highest risk to global sea turtle populations are off of the east coasts of the USA, Australia, and South Africa; the east Indian Ocean, and Southeast Asia. Model results can be used to predict the number of sea turtles globally at risk of debris ingestion. Based on currently available data, initial calculations indicate that up to 52% of sea turtles may have ingested debris.

  10. Suicidal Ingestion of Potassium Permanganate Crystals: A Rare Encounter

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A. C.; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ...

  11. Purus River suspended sediment variability and contributions to the Amazon River from satellite data (2000-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Andre Luis Martinelli Real dos; Martinez, Jean Michel; Filizola, Naziano Pantoja; Armijos, Elisa; Alves, Luna Gripp Simões

    2018-01-01

    The Purus River is one of the major tributaries of Solimões River in Brazil, draining an area of 370,091 km2 and stretching over 2765 km. Unlike those of the other main tributaries of the Amazon River, the Purus River's sediment discharge is poorly characterized. In this study, as an alternative to the logistic difficulties and considering high monitoring costs, we report an experiment where field measurement data and 2700 satellite (MODIS) images are combined to retrieve both seasonal and interannual dynamics in terms of the Purus river sediment discharge near its confluence with the Solimões River. Field radiometric and hydrologic measurements were acquired during 18 sampling trips, including 115 surface water samples and 61 river discharge measurements. Remote sensing reflectance gave important results in the red and infrared levels. They were very well correlated with suspended sediment concentration. The values of R2 are greater than 0.8 (red band) and 0.9 (NIR band). A retrieval algorithm based on the reflectance in both the red and the infrared was calibrated using the water samples collected for the determination of the surface-suspended sediment concentration (SSS). The algorithm was used to calculate 16 years of SSS time series with MODIS images at the Purus River near its confluence with the Solimões River. Results from satellite data correlated with in situ SSS values validate the use of satellite data to be used as a tool to monitor SSS in the Purus River. We evidenced a very short and intense sediment discharge pulse with 55% of the annual sediment budget discharged during the months of January and February. Using river discharge records, we calculated the mean annual sediment discharge of the Purus River at about of 17 Mt·yr-1.

  12. The influence of turbulent bursting on sediment resuspension under unidirectional currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments were conducted in an open channel flume with a flat sandy bed to examine the role of turbulence on sediment resuspension. An acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV was used to measure the instantaneous three-dimensional velocity components and acoustic backscatter as a proxy to suspended sediment concentration. Estimates of sediment transport assume that there is a mean critical velocity that needs to be exceeded before sediment transport is initiated. This approach does not consider the turbulent flow field that may initiate sediment resuspension through event-based processes such as the bursting phenomenon. In this paper, laboratory measurements were used to examine the sediment resuspension processes below and above the mean critical velocity. The results within a range above and below the measured mean critical velocity suggested that (1 the contribution of turbulent bursting events remained identical in both experimental conditions, (2 ejection and sweep events contributed more to the total sediment flux than up-acceleration and down-deceleration events, and (3 wavelet transform revealed a correlation between the momentum and sediment flux in both test conditions. Such similarities in conditions above and below the measured mean critical velocity highlight the need to re-evaluate the accuracy of a single time-averaged mean critical velocity for the initiation of sediment entrainment.

  13. Developing a Digital Medicine System in Psychiatry: Ingestion Detection Rate and Latency Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profit, Deborah; Rohatagi, Shashank; Zhao, Cathy; Hatch, Ainslie; Docherty, John P; Peters-Strickland, Timothy S

    2016-09-01

    A digital medicine system (DMS) has been developed to measure and report adherence to an atypical antipsychotic, aripiprazole, in psychiatric patients. The DMS consists of 3 components: ingestible sensor embedded in a medication tablet, wearable sensor, and secure mobile and cloud-based applications. An umbrella study protocol was designed to rapidly assess the technical performance and safety of the DMS in multiple substudies to guide the technology development. Two sequential substudies enrolled 30 and 29 healthy volunteers between March-April 2014 and February-March 2015, respectively, to assess detection accuracy of the ingestible sensor by the DMS and the latency period between ingestion and detection of the ingestion by the wearable sensor or the cloud-based server. The first substudy identified areas for improvement using early versions of the wearable sensor and the mobile application. The second substudy tested updated versions of the components and showed an overall ingestion detection rate of 96.6%. Mean latency times for the signal transmission were 1.1-1.3 minutes (from ingestion to the wearable sensor detection) and 6.2-10.3 minutes (from the wearable sensor detection to the server detection). Half of transmissions were completed in < 2 minutes, and ~90% of ingestions were registered by the smartphone within 30 minutes of ingestion. No serious adverse events, discontinuations, or clinically significant laboratory/vital signs findings were reported. The DMS implementing modified versions of the smartphone application and the wearable sensor has the technical capability to detect and report tablet ingestion with high accuracy and acceptable latency time. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02091882. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  14. Influence of Sensor Ingestion Timing on Consistency of Temperature Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    volunteers orally ingested an ITS (VitalSense Jonah Ingestible Capsule ; Minimitter Inc.). From 1300 to 1700 h, volunteers per- formed structured...emptying and gastrointes- tinal transit. Clin Investig. 1992;70(6):487–91. 24. Rao SS, Welcher K, Zimmerman B, Stumbo P. Is coffee a colonic stimulant? Eur J

  15. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic diagnosis of acute alcohol ingestion with hidden history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pungavkar, S.A.; Joshi, V.; Patkar, D.P.; Lawande, M.; Gadani, S.; Shah-Mehta, N.

    2006-01-01

    Parenchymal changes within the brain in chronic alcoholics are well known, and specific MRI and MR spectroscopy findings have been described. However, recent alcohol ingestion goes undetected on routine MRI because of lack of specific parenchymal changes in the acute setting. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy can detect the presence of ethanol as a metabolite in the brain accurately and can provide valuable information regarding acute ingestion of alcohol. This may be useful especially in cases where history of alcohol ingestion is withheld. Copyright (2006) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  16. Coastal sediment dynamics in Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloffre, J.; Lafite, R.; Baltzer, A.; Marlin, C.; Delangle, E.; Dethleff, D.; Petit, F.

    2010-12-01

    In arctic knowledge on coastal sediment dynamics and sedimentary processes is limited. The studied area is located in the microtidal Kongsfjorden glacial fjord on the North-western coast of Spitsbergen in the Artic Ocean (79°N). In this area sediment contributions to the coastal zone is provided by small temporary rivers that flows into the fjord. The objectives of this study are to (i) assess the origin and fate of fine-grained particles (sea ice cover on sediment dynamics. The sampling strategy is based on characterization of sediment and SPM (grain-size, X-rays diffraction, SEM images, carbonates and organic matter contents) from the glacier to the coastal zone completed by a bottom-sediment map on the nearshore using side-scan sonar validated with Ekman binge sampling. River inputs (i.e. river plumes) to the coastal zone were punctually followed using CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth and turbidity) profiles. OBS (water level, temperature and turbidity) operating at high-frequency and during at least 1 years (including under sea ice cover) was settled at the mouth of rivers at 10m depth. In the coastal zone the fine-grained sediment deposit is limited to mud patches located at river mouths that originate the piedmont glacier. However a significant amount of sediment originates the coastal glacier located in the eastern part of the fjord via two processes: direct transfer and ice-drop. Results from turbidity measurements show that the sediment dynamics is controlled by river inputs in particular during melting period. During winter sediment resuspension can occurs directly linked to significant wind-events. When the sea ice cover is present (January to April) no sediment dynamics is observed. Sediment processes in the coastal zone of arctic fjords is significant however only a small amount of SPM that originates the river plume settles in the coastal zone; only the coarser material settles at the mouth of the river while the finer one is deposited further

  17. The potential of carbon and nitrogen isotopes to conservatively discriminate between subsoil sediment sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceby, J. Patrick; Olley, Jon

    2013-04-01

    Moreton Bay, in South East Queensland, Australia, is a Ramsar wetland of international significance. A decline of the bay's ecosystem health has been primarily attributed to sediments and nutrients from catchment sources. Sediment budgets for three catchments indicated gully erosion dominates the supply of sediment in Knapp Creek and the Upper Bremer River whereas erosion from cultivated soils is the primary sediment source in Blackfellow Creek. Sediment tracing with fallout-radionuclides confirmed subsoil erosion processes dominate the supply of sediment in Knapp Creek and the Upper Bremer River whereas in Blackfellow Creek cultivated and subsoil sources contribute >90% of sediments. Other sediment properties are required to determine the relative sediment contributions of channel bank, gully and cultivated sources in these catchments. The potential of total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) to conservatively discriminate between subsoil sediment sources is presented. The conservativeness of these sediment properties was examined through evaluating particle size variations in depth core soil samples and investigating whether they remain constant in source soils over two sampling occasions. Varying conservative behavior and source discrimination was observed. TN in the

  18. Hummingbirds fuel hovering flight with newly ingested sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kenneth C; Bakken, Bradley Hartman; Martinez del Rio, Carlos; Suarez, Raul K

    2006-01-01

    We sought to characterize the ability of hummingbirds to fuel their energetically expensive hovering flight using dietary sugar by a combination of respirometry and stable carbon isotope techniques. Broadtailed hummingbirds (Selasphorus platycercus) were maintained on a diet containing beet sugar with an isotopic composition characteristic of C3 plants. Hummingbirds were fasted and then offered a solution containing cane sugar with an isotopic composition characteristic of C4 plants. By monitoring the rates of CO2 production and O2 consumption, as well as the stable carbon isotope composition of expired CO2, we were able to estimate the relative contributions of carbohydrate and fat, as well as the absolute rate at which dietary sucrose was oxidized during hovering. The combination of respirometry and carbon isotope analysis revealed that hummingbirds initially oxidized endogenous fat following a fast and then progressively oxidized proportionately more carbohydrates. The contribution from dietary sources increased with each feeding bout, and by 20 min after the first meal, dietary sugar supported approximately 74% of hovering metabolism. The ability of hummingbirds to satisfy the energetic requirements of hovering flight mainly with recently ingested sugar is unique among vertebrates. Our finding provides an example of evolutionary convergence in physiological and biochemical traits among unrelated nectar-feeding animals.

  19. Plastic ingestion in marine-associated bird species from the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, S; Provencher, J F; Morgan, K H; Bertram, D F

    2013-07-15

    In addition to monitoring trends in plastic pollution, multi-species surveys are needed to fully understand the pervasiveness of plastic ingestion. We examined the stomach contents of 20 bird species collected from the coastal waters of the eastern North Pacific, a region known to have high levels of plastic pollution. We observed no evidence of plastic ingestion in Rhinoceros Auklet, Marbled Murrelet, Ancient Murrelet or Pigeon Guillemot, and low levels in Common Murre (2.7% incidence rate). Small sample sizes limit our ability to draw conclusions about population level trends for the remaining fifteen species, though evidence of plastic ingestion was found in Glaucous-Winged Gull and Sooty Shearwater. Documenting levels of plastic ingestion in a wide array of species is necessary to gain a comprehensive understanding about the impacts of plastic pollution. We propose that those working with bird carcasses follow standard protocols to assess the levels of plastic ingestion whenever possible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hunger and thirst interact to regulate ingestive behavior in flies and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourjine, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    In animals, nervous systems regulate the ingestion of food and water in a manner that reflects internal metabolic need. While the coordination of these two ingestive behaviors is essential for homeostasis, it has been unclear how internal signals of hunger and thirst interact to effectively coordinate food and water ingestion. In the last year, work in insects and mammals has begun to elucidate some of these interactions. As reviewed here, these studies have identified novel molecular and neural mechanisms that coordinate the regulation of food and water ingestion behaviors. These mechanisms include peptide signals that modulate neural circuits for both thirst and hunger, neurons that regulate both food and water ingestion, and neurons that integrate sensory information about both food and water in the external world. These studies argue that a deeper understanding of hunger and thirst will require closer examination of how these two biological drives interact. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Retrospective evaluation of xylitol ingestion in dogs: 192 cases (2007-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuHadway, Meghan R; Sharp, Claire R; Meyers, Katherine E; Koenigshof, Amy M

    2015-01-01

    To summarize the signalment, clinical signs, prevalence of decreased blood glucose concentration (BG), prevalence of increased liver values, treatment, and outcome in dogs known to have ingested xylitol. Retrospective study from December 2007 to February 2012 SETTING: Three university teaching hospitals. One hundred ninety-two client-owned dogs with known or suspected xylitol ingestion. None. The median ingested xylitol dose was 0.32 g/kg (range 0.03-3.64 g/kg). Clinical signs were present in 39 (20%) dogs on presentation to the veterinary teaching hospitals. The most common clinical sign was vomiting (n = 25), followed by lethargy (12). The median duration of clinical signs prior to presentation was 93 minutes (range 0-5,040 minutes). Dogs that developed clinical signs ingested a significantly higher dose of xylitol than those that were asymptomatic. Thirty dogs became hypoglycemic (BG ≤ 3.3 mmol/L [60 mg/dL]) at some time point during their hospitalization. When evaluating all dogs, there was a significant difference between the initial and lowest BGs. Thirty dogs had increased alanine aminotransferase activity or total serum bilirubin concentration. Dogs with increases in alanine aminotransferase activity or total serum bilirubin concentration had a significantly lower nadir BG. All dogs survived to discharge and 158 were known to be alive at 28 days. The rest were lost to follow up. The prognosis for dogs evaluated by a veterinarian that ingest lower doses of xylitol and do not develop liver failure is excellent. Dogs ingesting xylitol should be hospitalized and monitored for variations in BG, because BG drops in most dogs following presentation. Additional studies are needed in dogs ingesting higher doses of xylitol before correlations between dose and the development of clinical signs or liver failure can be established. Treatment and prognosis for these dogs warrants further investigation. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  2. Nearshore sediment thickness, Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, Stanley D.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Buster, Noreen A.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Wadman, Heidi M.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Forde, Arnell S.; Stalk, Chelsea A.

    2017-04-03

    Investigations of coastal change at Fire Island, New York (N.Y.), sought to characterize sediment budgets and determine geologic framework controls on coastal processes. Nearshore sediment thickness is critical for assessing coastal system sediment availability, but it is largely unquantified due to the difficulty of conducting geological or geophysical surveys across the nearshore. This study used an amphibious vessel to acquire chirp subbottom profiles. These profiles were used to characterize nearshore geology and provide an assessment of nearshore sediment volume. Two resulting sediment-thickness maps are provided: total Holocene sediment thickness and the thickness of the active shoreface. The Holocene sediment section represents deposition above the maximum flooding surface that is related to the most recent marine transgression. The active shoreface section is the uppermost Holocene sediment, which is interpreted to represent the portion of the shoreface thought to contribute to present and future coastal behavior. The sediment distribution patterns correspond to previously defined zones of erosion, accretion, and stability along the island, demonstrating the importance of sediment availability in the coastal response to storms and seasonal variability. The eastern zone has a thin nearshore sediment thickness, except for an ebb-tidal deposit at the wilderness breach caused by Hurricane Sandy. Thicker sediment is found along a central zone that includes shoreface-attached sand ridges, which is consistent with a stable or accretional coastline in this area. The thickest overall Holocene section is found in the western zone of the study, where a thicker lower section of Holocene sediment appears related to the westward migration of Fire Island Inlet over several hundred years.

  3. Risk analysis reveals global hotspots for marine debris ingestion by sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar A; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy A; Wedemeyer-Strombel, Kathryn R; Balazs, George; van Sebille, Erik; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2016-02-01

    Plastic marine debris pollution is rapidly becoming one of the critical environmental concerns facing wildlife in the 21st century. Here we present a risk analysis for plastic ingestion by sea turtles on a global scale. We combined global marine plastic distributions based on ocean drifter data with sea turtle habitat maps to predict exposure levels to plastic pollution. Empirical data from necropsies of deceased animals were then utilised to assess the consequence of exposure to plastics. We modelled the risk (probability of debris ingestion) by incorporating exposure to debris and consequence of exposure, and included life history stage, species of sea turtle and date of stranding observation as possible additional explanatory factors. Life history stage is the best predictor of debris ingestion, but the best-fit model also incorporates encounter rates within a limited distance from stranding location, marine debris predictions specific to the date of the stranding study and turtle species. There is no difference in ingestion rates between stranded turtles vs. those caught as bycatch from fishing activity, suggesting that stranded animals are not a biased representation of debris ingestion rates in the background population. Oceanic life-stage sea turtles are at the highest risk of debris ingestion, and olive ridley turtles are the most at-risk species. The regions of highest risk to global sea turtle populations are off of the east coasts of the USA, Australia and South Africa; the east Indian Ocean, and Southeast Asia. Model results can be used to predict the number of sea turtles globally at risk of debris ingestion. Based on currently available data, initial calculations indicate that up to 52% of sea turtles may have ingested debris. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Survey of food radioactivity and estimation of internal dose from ingestion in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingyuan; Zhu Hongda; Han Peizhen

    1988-01-01

    In order to provide necessary bases for establishing 'Radionuclide Concentration Limits in Food stuffs', survey on radionuclide contents in Chinese food and estimation of internal dose from ingestion were carried out with the cooperation of 30 radiation protection establishments during the period 1982-1986. Activity concentrations in 14 categories (27 kinds) of Chinese food for 22 radionuclides were determined. In the light of three principal types of Chinese diet, food samples were collected from normal radiation background areas in 14 provinces or autonomous regions and three similarly elevated natural background areas. Annual intake by ingestion and resultant committed dose equivalents to general public for 15 radionuclides in these areas were estimated. In normal background areas the total annual intake of the 15 radionuclides by the public (adlut males) is about 4.2 x 10 4 Bq, and the resultant total committed dose equivalent is about 3.43 x 10 -4 Sv, but in two elevated natural background area the public annual intake and resulting committed dose equivalents for some natural radionulides are much higher than those in normal areas, while no obvious radiocontamination was discoveried relative contribution of each food category or each radionuclide to the total are discussed

  5. Acute chloroform ingestion successfully treated with intravenously administered N-acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Aglio, Damon M; Sutter, Mark E; Schwartz, Michael D; Koch, David D; Algren, D A; Morgan, Brent W

    2010-06-01

    Chloroform, a halogenated hydrocarbon, causes central nervous system depression, cardiac arrhythmias, and hepatotoxicity. We describe a case of chloroform ingestion with a confirmatory serum level and resultant hepatotoxicity successfully treated with intravenously administered N-acetylcysteine (NAC). A 19-year-old man attempting suicide ingested approximately 75 mL of chloroform. He was unresponsive and intubated upon arrival. Intravenously administered NAC was started after initial stabilization was complete. His vital signs were normal. Admission laboratory values revealed normal serum electrolytes, AST, ALT, PT, BUN, creatinine, and bilirubin. Serum ethanol level was 15 mg/dL, and aspirin and acetaminophen were undetectable. The patient was extubated but developed liver function abnormalities with a peak AST of 224 IU/L, ALT of 583 IU/L, and bilirubin level reaching 16.3 mg/dL. NAC was continued through hospital day 6. Serum chloroform level obtained on admission was 91 μg/mL. The patient was discharged to psychiatry without known sequelae and normal liver function tests. The average serum chloroform level in fatal cases of inhalational chloroform poisoning was 64 μg/mL, significantly lower than our patient. The toxicity is believed to be similar in both inhalation and ingestion routes of exposure, with mortality predominantly resulting from anoxia secondary to central nervous system depression. Hepatocellular toxicity is thought to result from free radical-induced oxidative damage. Previous reports describe survival after treatment with orally administered NAC, we report the first use of intravenously administered NAC for chloroform ingestion. Acute oral ingestion of chloroform is extremely rare. Our case illustrates that with appropriate supportive care, patients can recover from chloroform ingestion, and intravenously administered NAC may be of benefit in such cases.

  6. Measurement and modeling of polychlorinated biphenyl bioaccumulation from sediment for the marine polychaete neanthes arenaceodentata and response to sorbent amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, E.M.-L.; Croteau, M.-N.; Luoma, S.N.; Luthy, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Bioaccumulation rates of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata were characterized, including PCB uptake rates from water and sediment, and the effect of sorbent amendment to the sediment on PCB bioavailability, organism growth, and lipid content. Physiological parameters were incorporated into a biodynamic model to predict contaminant uptake. The results indicate rapid PCB uptake from contaminated sediment and significant organism growth dilution during time-series exposure studies. PCB uptake from the aqueous phase accounted for less than 3% of the total uptake for this deposit-feeder. Proportional increase of gut residence time and assimilation efficiency as a consequence of the organism's growth was assessed by PCB uptake and a reactor theory model of gut architecture. Pulse-chase feeding and multilabeled stable isotope tracing techniques proved high sediment ingestion rates (i.e., 6?10 times of dry body weight per day) indicating that such deposit-feeders are promising biological indicators for sediment risk assessment. Activated carbon amendment reduced PCB uptake by 95% in laboratory experiments with no observed adverse growth effects on the marine polychaete. Biodynamic modeling explained the observed PCB body burdens for N. arenaceodentata, with and without sorbent amendment. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  7. An ingested foreign body: two sides of the same coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadharajan, Kiran; Magill, Jennifer; Patel, Kalpesh

    2014-04-09

    A 2-year-old child presented to the emergency department with an acute onset of dysphagia and stertor. A plain anteroposterior chest X-ray revealed a single circular opacity in the middle third of the oesophagus consistent with an ingested coin. The child was taken to the theatre for rigid pharyngo-oesophagoscopy and removal of the coin. After the first coin was removed subsequent endoscopic examination revealed a second coin at the same location. This extremely rare case of two ingested coins becoming impacted with perfect radiological alignment emphasises the importance of thorough examination on endoscopy and the potential limitations of an X-ray in initial assessment of an ingested foreign body.

  8. Caffeine Ingestion Increases Estimated Glycolytic Metabolism during Taekwondo Combat Simulation but Does Not Improve Performance or Parasympathetic Reactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Lopes-Silva

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caffeine ingestion on performance and estimated energy system contribution during simulated taekwondo combat and on post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation.Ten taekwondo athletes completed two experimental sessions separated by at least 48 hours. Athletes consumed a capsule containing either caffeine (5 mg∙kg-1 or placebo (cellulose one hour before the combat simulation (3 rounds of 2 min separated by 1 min passive recovery, in a double-blind, randomized, repeated-measures crossover design. All simulated combat was filmed to quantify the time spent fighting in each round. Lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion were measured before and after each round, while heart rate (HR and the estimated contribution of the oxidative (WAER, ATP-PCr (WPCR, and glycolytic (W[La-] systems were calculated during the combat simulation. Furthermore, parasympathetic reactivation after the combat simulation was evaluated through 1 taking absolute difference between the final HR observed at the end of third round and the HR recorded 60-s after (HRR60s, 2 taking the time constant of HR decay obtained by fitting the 6-min post-exercise HRR into a first-order exponential decay curve (HRRτ, or by 3 analyzing the first 30-s via logarithmic regression analysis (T30.Caffeine ingestion increased estimated glycolytic energy contribution in relation to placebo (12.5 ± 1.7 kJ and 8.9 ± 1.2 kJ, P = 0.04. However, caffeine did not improve performance as measured by attack number (CAF: 26. 7 ± 1.9; PLA: 27.3 ± 2.1, P = 0.48 or attack time (CAF: 33.8 ± 1.9 s; PLA: 36.6 ± 4.5 s, P = 0.58. Similarly, RPE (CAF: 11.7 ± 0.4 a.u.; PLA: 11.5 ± 0.3 a.u., P = 0.62, HR (CAF: 170 ± 3.5 bpm; PLA: 174.2 bpm, P = 0.12, oxidative (CAF: 109.3 ± 4.5 kJ; PLA: 107.9 kJ, P = 0.61 and ATP-PCr energy contributions (CAF: 45.3 ± 3.4 kJ; PLA: 46.8 ± 3.6 kJ, P = 0.72 during the combat simulation were unaffected. Furthermore

  9. Caffeine Ingestion Increases Estimated Glycolytic Metabolism during Taekwondo Combat Simulation but Does Not Improve Performance or Parasympathetic Reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, João Paulo; Silva Santos, Jonatas Ferreira da; Branco, Braulio Henrique Magnani; Abad, César Cavinato Cal; Oliveira, Luana Farias de; Loturco, Irineu; Franchini, Emerson

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caffeine ingestion on performance and estimated energy system contribution during simulated taekwondo combat and on post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation. Ten taekwondo athletes completed two experimental sessions separated by at least 48 hours. Athletes consumed a capsule containing either caffeine (5 mg∙kg-1) or placebo (cellulose) one hour before the combat simulation (3 rounds of 2 min separated by 1 min passive recovery), in a double-blind, randomized, repeated-measures crossover design. All simulated combat was filmed to quantify the time spent fighting in each round. Lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion were measured before and after each round, while heart rate (HR) and the estimated contribution of the oxidative (WAER), ATP-PCr (WPCR), and glycolytic (W[La-]) systems were calculated during the combat simulation. Furthermore, parasympathetic reactivation after the combat simulation was evaluated through 1) taking absolute difference between the final HR observed at the end of third round and the HR recorded 60-s after (HRR60s), 2) taking the time constant of HR decay obtained by fitting the 6-min post-exercise HRR into a first-order exponential decay curve (HRRτ), or by 3) analyzing the first 30-s via logarithmic regression analysis (T30). Caffeine ingestion increased estimated glycolytic energy contribution in relation to placebo (12.5 ± 1.7 kJ and 8.9 ± 1.2 kJ, P = 0.04). However, caffeine did not improve performance as measured by attack number (CAF: 26. 7 ± 1.9; PLA: 27.3 ± 2.1, P = 0.48) or attack time (CAF: 33.8 ± 1.9 s; PLA: 36.6 ± 4.5 s, P = 0.58). Similarly, RPE (CAF: 11.7 ± 0.4 a.u.; PLA: 11.5 ± 0.3 a.u., P = 0.62), HR (CAF: 170 ± 3.5 bpm; PLA: 174.2 bpm, P = 0.12), oxidative (CAF: 109.3 ± 4.5 kJ; PLA: 107.9 kJ, P = 0.61) and ATP-PCr energy contributions (CAF: 45.3 ± 3.4 kJ; PLA: 46.8 ± 3.6 kJ, P = 0.72) during the combat simulation were unaffected

  10. Quantification of Soil Ingested by Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothe, M.; Boden, W.

    2006-01-01

    Direct ingestion of soil is a possible essential exposition path for radionuclides and toxic substances, in particular for playing children. To quantify the soil ingested by children 22 test persons in 4 age groups (< 1 year, 1 to 2 years, 2 to 7 years, 7 to 12 years) were investigated for 12 days. We used some chemical elements as tracers. For the investigation purpose tracer elements should comply following conditions as best as possible: high concentration in soil, low intake by food, low gastrointestinal resorption. So we selected the elements Al, Si, Sc, Ti, Ga, Y, Zr, Nb, La, Ce and Nd. To determine the amount of ingested soil we sampled diet and stool of all 22 children for 12 days in summer 2002. We also sampled soil of the main playgrounds and house dust of the children homes. The behaviour of the children was recorded by the parents or childminders, particularly diet, defecation and outdoor playing. The mean values for all test persons are for the grain size fraction < 500 μm 53 mg/d or 19 mg/h playing time and for the grain size fraction < 63 μm 31 mg/d or 12 mg/ h playing time.The combined standard uncertainty is about 50 % for the data in mg/d and about 60 % for the data in mg/h playing time.The results are presented in tables and curves. (N.C.)

  11. Quantification of Soil Ingested by Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothe, M.; Boden, W. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Inc., Dresden (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Direct ingestion of soil is a possible essential exposition path for radionuclides and toxic substances, in particular for playing children. To quantify the soil ingested by children 22 test persons in 4 age groups (< 1 year, 1 to 2 years, 2 to 7 years, 7 to 12 years) were investigated for 12 days. We used some chemical elements as tracers. For the investigation purpose tracer elements should comply following conditions as best as possible: high concentration in soil, low intake by food, low gastrointestinal resorption. So we selected the elements Al, Si, Sc, Ti, Ga, Y, Zr, Nb, La, Ce and Nd. To determine the amount of ingested soil we sampled diet and stool of all 22 children for 12 days in summer 2002. We also sampled soil of the main playgrounds and house dust of thildren homes. The behaviour of the children was recorded by the parents or childminders, particularly diet, defecation and outdoor playing. The mean values for all test persons are for the grain size fraction < 500 {mu}m 53 mg/d or 19 mg/h playing time and for the grain size fraction < 63 {mu}m 31 mg/d or 12 mg/ h playing time.The combined standard uncertainty is about 50 % for the data in mg/d and about 60 % for the data in mg/h playing time.The results are presented in tables and curves. (N.C.)

  12. Evaluation of skin and ingestion exposure pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaberg, Rosanne [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Logsdon, Joe E [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation Programs, Washington, DC (United States)

    1989-06-01

    After a nuclear accident when there has been a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere with consequential deposition on the ground, decisions are necessary on whether protective action guides should be implemented. In order to do this, several pathways for radiation exposure must be evaluated to determine the projected dose to individuals. The objective of this study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is to provide background information on exposure pathways for use in the development of Protective Action Guides. The relative importance of three exposure pathways that are usually considered to be unimportant compared to other pathways expected to control relocation decisions following a nuclear power plant accident is evaluated. The three pathways are the skin dose from contact with radionuclides transferred from the ground, the skin dose from radionuclides on the ground surface, and ingestion of radionuclides transferred directly to the mouth from the hands or other contaminated surfaces. Ingestion of contaminated food is not included in this evaluation, except for situations where the food is contaminated as a result of actions by the person who consumes the food (e.g., transfer of contamination from hands to food). Estimates of skin and ingestion doses are based on a source term with a radionuclide mix predicted for an SST2-type nuclear accident in an area where the first year reference whole-body dose equivalent from whole body external exposure to gamma radiation plus the committed effective dose equivalent from inhalation of resuspended radionuclides is 1 rem. Appendixes have been included to allow the reader to examine dose factor calculations, source-term data, and quantification of contact and ingestion parameters in more detail.

  13. Evaluation of skin and ingestion exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, Rosanne; Logsdon, Joe E.

    1989-06-01

    After a nuclear accident when there has been a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere with consequential deposition on the ground, decisions are necessary on whether protective action guides should be implemented. In order to do this, several pathways for radiation exposure must be evaluated to determine the projected dose to individuals. The objective of this study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is to provide background information on exposure pathways for use in the development of Protective Action Guides. The relative importance of three exposure pathways that are usually considered to be unimportant compared to other pathways expected to control relocation decisions following a nuclear power plant accident is evaluated. The three pathways are the skin dose from contact with radionuclides transferred from the ground, the skin dose from radionuclides on the ground surface, and ingestion of radionuclides transferred directly to the mouth from the hands or other contaminated surfaces. Ingestion of contaminated food is not included in this evaluation, except for situations where the food is contaminated as a result of actions by the person who consumes the food (e.g., transfer of contamination from hands to food). Estimates of skin and ingestion doses are based on a source term with a radionuclide mix predicted for an SST2-type nuclear accident in an area where the first year reference whole-body dose equivalent from whole body external exposure to gamma radiation plus the committed effective dose equivalent from inhalation of resuspended radionuclides is 1 rem. Appendixes have been included to allow the reader to examine dose factor calculations, source-term data, and quantification of contact and ingestion parameters in more detail

  14. Importance and variability in processes relevant to environmental tritium ingestion dose models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.; Barry, P.

    1997-01-01

    The Aiken List was devised in 1990 to help decide which transport processes should be investigated experimentally so as to derive the greatest improvement in performance of environmental tritium assessment models. Each process was rated high, medium and low on each of two criteria. These were ''Importance'', which rated processes by how much each contributed to ingestion doses, and ''State of Modelling'', which rated the adequacy of the knowledge base on which models were built. Ratings, though unanimous, were, nevertheless, qualitative and subjective opinions. This paper describes how we have tried to quantify the ratings. To do this, we use, as measures of ''Importance'', sensitivities of predicted ingestion doses to changes in values of parameters in mathematical descriptions of individual processes. Measures of ''ModellinStatus'' were taken from a recently completed BIOMOVS study of HTO transport model performance and based either on by how much predicted transport by individual processes differed amongst participating modellers or by the variety of different ways that modellers chose to describe individual processes. The tritium transport model UFOTRI was used, and because environmental transport of HTO varies according to the weather at and after release time, sensitivities were measured in a sample of all conditions likely to arise in central Europe. (Author)

  15. A simplified ingestion procedure for esophageal capsule endoscopy: initial evaluation in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralnek, I M; Rabinovitz, R; Afik, D; Eliakim, R

    2006-09-01

    Initial studies on esophageal capsule endoscopy (PillCam ESO) reported excellent sensitivity and specificity, but these were followed by mixed results in several subsequent studies, probably due to deviations from the recommended ingestion protocol and the inconvenience of capsule ingestion in the supine position. The aim of this study was therefore to test a simplified ingestion procedure (SIP) for PillCam ESO. Using a cross-over study design, the SIP was prospectively compared with the original ingestion procedure for PillCam ESO in 24 healthy volunteers (15 men, nine women; mean age 44, range 27 - 70) and evaluated for: bubbles/saliva interference at the Z-line, Z-line circumferential visualization (quadrants), and convenience and ease of the ingestion procedure. All Rapid 4 videos were reviewed in a randomized manner and read by an experienced PillCam ESO reader blinded to the ingestion procedure used. It was found that the SIP significantly improved visualization in comparison with the original ingestion procedure, with less interference due to bubbles/saliva observed at the gastroesophageal junction ( P = 0.002) and improved visualization of the Z-line ( P = 0.025). Although the esophageal transit time was significantly faster with the SIP (3 : 45 min vs. 0 : 38 min; P = 0.0001), there were no differences in the number of Z-line frames/images captured. This new, simplified ingestion procedure for PillCam ESO provides significantly improved visualization of the Z-line in healthy volunteers. The overall test characteristics of PillCam ESO using SIP should be tested in patients with esophageal disease.

  16. Health Risk Assessment of Trace Metals in Various Environmental Media, Crops and Human Hair from a Mining Affected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wushuang Xie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Long term exposure to trace metals in various media is of great concern for people living in known pollution sources, such as mining and industrial activities. Health risk assessment and human hair analysis can provide important information for local environmental management. Information on distribution characteristics of trace metals in soil, water, sediment, air, local crops, and human hair from a typical mining area in southern China was collected. Results show there exists severely trace metal contamination in soil, sediment, and air. Arsenic and Pb contents in the local children’s hair are higher than the upper reference values, and the accumulation of residents’ hair trace metals shows great correlation with the ingestion and inhalation pathways. Arsenic contributes 52.27% and 58.51% to the total non-cancer risk of adults and children, respectively. The cancer risk of Cd in adults and children are 4.66 and 3.22 times higher than the safe level, respectively. Ingestion exposure pathway of trace metals largely contributes to the total non-cancer and cancer effect. The metals As, Cd, and Pb are major risk sources and pollutants that should be given priority for management, and ingestion pathway exposure to trace metals through soil and crops should be controlled.

  17. Manganese in the shelf sediments off the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, P.S.N.; Rao, Ch.M.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    shows that the contribution is practically from land. Higher rates of sedimentation was also observed on the inner shelf particularly between Alleppey and Karwar. The sediments in the slope region were slightly enriched in their manganese content than...

  18. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A. Cunningham MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol.

  19. Ingestion dose from 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 40K and 137CS in cereals, pulses and drinking water to adult population in a high background radiation area, Odisha (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenka, P.; Sahoo, S. K.; Mohapatra, S.; Patra, A. C.; Dubey, J. S.; Vidyasagar, D.; Tripathi, R. M.; Puranik, V. D.

    2013-01-01

    A natural high background radiation area is located in Chhatrapur, Odisha in the eastern part of India. The inhabitants of this area are exposed to external radiation levels higher than the global average background values, due to the presence of uranium, thorium and its decay products in the monazite sands bearing placer deposits in its beaches. The concentrations of 232 Th, 238 U, 226 Ra, 40 K and 137 Cs were determined in cereals (rice and wheat), pulses and drinking water consumed by the population residing around this region and the corresponding annual ingestion dose was calculated. The annual ingestion doses from cereals, pulses and drinking water varied in the range of 109.4-936.8, 10.2-307.5 and 0.5-2.8 μSv y -1 , respectively. The estimated total annual average effective dose due to the ingestion of these radionuclides in cereals, pulses and drinking water was 530 μSv y -1 . The ingestion dose from cereals was the highest mainly due to a high consumption rate. The highest contribution of dose was found to be from 226 Ra for cereals and drinking water and 40 K was the major dose contributor from the intake of pulses. The contribution of man-made radionuclide 137 Cs to the total dose was found to be minimum. 226 Ra was found to be the largest contributor to ingestion dose from all sources. (authors)

  20. Human Health Impact of Natural and Artificial Radioactivity Levels in the Sediments and Fish of Bonny Estuary, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji B. Babatunde

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread contamination of the environment of the Niger Delta, which may include enhanced background levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM due to oil production and rapid urbanization activities. Sediments and seafood from the Bonny estuary, Niger Delta, were collected for the purpose of determining baseline data on artificial and natural radioactivity and estimation of effective doses for the public due to ingestion of seafood from the study area. The highest and lowest activity concentrations were reported for 40K and 137Cs in both sediments and fish samples of the Bonny estuary. There was some evidence of spatial variability in the 40K and 137Cs data, with the latter being the likely result of dredging. Other radionuclides were not significantly different between sites impacted by industrial activities or not. Activity of radionuclides measured in the sediments of the study area were higher than reported elsewhere in the Niger Delta and Nigeria and higher than reported global averages by UNSCEAR. The total highest activity concentration in all fish species of gamma emitting radionuclides was observed for 40K, followed by 238U, 232Th and 226Ra, respectively, while 137Cs had the lowest activity concentration. However, 210Po activities were the most important in terms of dose contribution. Consumption of molluscs at typical rates could result in doses exceeding 1 mSv·y−1. Although this baseline data may not be conclusive on prevailing trends in radioactivity in the study area, higher consumption rates of the species studied may have public health consequences due to effects of low dose ionising radiation.

  1. Sediment Budgets and Sources Inform a Novel Valley Bottom Restoration Practice Impacted by Legacy Sediment: The Big Spring Run, PA, Restoration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, R. C.; Merritts, D.; Rahnis, M. A.; Gellis, A.; Hartranft, J.; Mayer, P. M.; Langland, M.; Forshay, K.; Weitzman, J. N.; Schwarz, E.; Bai, Y.; Blair, A.; Carter, A.; Daniels, S. S.; Lewis, E.; Ohlson, E.; Peck, E. K.; Schulte, K.; Smith, D.; Stein, Z.; Verna, D.; Wilson, E.

    2017-12-01

    Big Spring Run (BSR), a small agricultural watershed in southeastern Pennsylvania, is located in the Piedmont Physiographic Province, which has the highest nutrient and sediment yields in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. To effectively reduce nutrient and sediment loading it is important to monitor the effect of management practices on pollutant reduction. Here we present results of an ongoing study, begun in 2008, to understand the impact of a new valley bottom restoration strategy for reducing surface water sediment and nutrient loads. We test the hypotheses that removing legacy sediments will reduce sediment and phosphorus loads, and that restoring eco-hydrological functions of a buried Holocene wetland (Walter & Merritts 2008) will improve surface and groundwater quality by creating accommodation space to trap sediment and process nutrients. Comparisons of pre- and post-restoration gage data show that restoration lowered the annual sediment load by at least 118 t yr-1, or >75%, from the 1000 m-long restoration reach, with the entire reduction accounted for by legacy sediment removal. Repeat RTK-GPS surveys of pre-restoration stream banks verified that >90 t yr-1 of suspended sediment was from bank erosion within the restoration reach. Mass balance calculations of 137Cs data indicate 85-100% of both the pre-restoration and post-restoration suspended sediment storm load was from stream bank sources. This is consistent with trace element data which show that 80-90 % of the pre-restoration outgoing suspended sediment load at BSR was from bank erosion. Meanwhile, an inventory of fallout 137Cs activity from two hill slope transects adjacent to BSR yields average modern upland erosion rates of 2.7 t ha-1 yr-1 and 5.1 t ha-1 yr-1, showing modest erosion on slopes and deposition at toe of slopes. We conclude that upland farm slopes contribute little soil to the suspended sediment supply within this study area, and removal of historic valley bottom sediment effectively

  2. Study on the spatial distribution of 137Cs content in bottom sediment and benthic species of Mumbai off Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugandhi, S.; Joshi, V.M.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The sediment compartment in marine system is receptor of radionuclides, is considered as indicator matrice. 137 Cs is globally distributed in the environment as a fallout of atmospheric nuclear explosions carried out in 60 s by USA,USSR and in 70 s by China. Bottom sediment and benthic species from various locations of Mumbai off coast were collected between 2007 to 2012 and the observed 137 Cs content in them varied between 2 to 370.3 Bq/kg (dry) , (wet) respectively. The average estimated ingestion dose to 'general public' due to the consumption of benthic species is 0.02-0.03 μSv/y, is infinitesimally smaller in comparison to the internationally accepted public dose limit of 1000 μSv/y. (author)

  3. Safety-pin ingestion in children: a cultural fact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gün, Feryal; Salman, Tansu; Abbasoglu, Latif; Celik, Rüya; Celik, Alaaddin

    2003-08-01

    Pediatric foreign-body (FB) ingestion is a common problem. Many of these FBs are sharp objects such as needles, toothpicks and safety pins (SP). This report reviews the management of SP ingestion in children. During a 16-year period, we recorded 49 pediatric cases of witnessed SP ingestion. In all children, SPs were used to attach the blue beads to the child's suits with the belief of averting the evil eye. The mean age was 8 months ranging from 4 months to 2 years, and 30 patients were males and 19 were females. SPs were most commonly sited in esophagus (37%) and stomach (37%). In the remainder, the SPs have already reached the duodenum and intestine. In this series, 20 (41%) children passed SPs spontaneously, 14 (28.5%) required endoscopic removal and 15 (30.5%) underwent surgery. The outcome of all patients was uneventful. All of the esophageal SPs require endoscopic intervention, however, after passing into stomach the patients can be observed with keeping the surgical intervention in mind if the SP displays a fixed position for more than three days.

  4. Ingestion of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli by human peritoneal mesothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, C. E.; Brouwer-Steenbergen, J. J.; Schadee-Eestermans, I. L.; Meijer, S.; Krediet, R. T.; Beelen, R. H.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we examined whether mesothelial cells can ingest and digest bacteria. The results showed that all strains were ingested. Ingested staphylococci proliferated abundantly, and only a few were digested. Escherichia coli, however, was digested during the first 8 h, whereafter the

  5. Soil ingestion rates for children under 3 years old in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil and dust ingestion rates by children are among the most critical exposure factors in determining risks to children from exposures to environmental contaminants in soil and dust. This is the first published soil ingestion study for children in Taiwan using tracer element meth...

  6. Fine scale distributions of porosity and particulate excess 210Pb, organic carbon and CaCO3 in surface sediments of the deep equatorial Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, R.A.; Emerson, S.R.; Cochran, J.K.; Hirschberg, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Sediment samples were recovered from the central equatorial Pacific Ocean, sectioned at 1-mm intervals, and analyzed for porosity, organic carbon, excess 210 Pb and CaCO 3 . Steep porosity gradients were measured in the upper 1 cm of the sediment column with extremely high values observed near the sediment surface. Similarly, particulate organic carbon contents are highest at the sediment surface, decrease sharply in the upper 1 cm, and are relatively constant between 1 and 5 cm. CaCO 3 values, on the other hand, are lowest at the sediment surface and increase to a constant value below 5-10 mm depth. At the carbonate ooze sites, excess 210 Pb is present throughout the upper 5 cm of the sediments suggesting relatively rapid particle mixing rates. However, extremely high excess 210 Pb activities (> 100 dpm/g) are observed at the sediment surface with sharp gradients present in the upper 1 cm which would suggest slow rates of mixing. This apparent contradiction along with the major features of the CaCO 3 and particulate organic carbon profiles can be explained by a particle-selective feeding mechanism in which organic carbon, excess 210 Pb-enriched particles are preferentially maintained at the sediment surface via ingestion and defecation by benthic organisms. (orig.)

  7. Contribution of radioactive 137Cs discharge by suspended sediment, coarse organic matter, and dissolved fraction from a headwater catchment in Fukushima after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, Sho; Onda, Yuichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Abe, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Radiocesium ( 137 Cs) migration from headwaters in forested areas provides important information, as the output from forest streams subsequently enters various land-use areas and downstream rivers. Thus, it is important to determine the composition of 137 Cs fluxes (dissolved fraction, suspended sediment, or coarse organic matter) that migrate through a headwater stream. In this study, the 137 Cs discharge by suspended sediment and coarse organic matter from a forest headwater catchment was monitored. The 137 Cs concentrations in suspended sediment and coarse organic matter, such as leaves and branches, and the amounts of suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were measured at stream sites in three headwater catchments in Yamakiya District, located ∼35 km northwest of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) from August 2012 to September 2013, following the earthquake and tsunami disaster. Suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were sampled at intervals of approximately 1-2 months. The 137 Cs concentrations of suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were 2.4-49 kBq/kg and 0.85-14 kBq/kg, respectively. The 137 Cs concentrations of the suspended sediment were closely correlated with the average deposition density of the catchment. The annual proportions of contribution of 137 Cs discharge by suspended sediment, coarse organic matter, and dissolved fraction were 96-99%, 0.0092-0.069%, and 0.73-3.7%, respectively. The total annual 137 Cs discharge from the catchment was 0.02-0.3% of the deposition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Button battery ingestion: the Greek experience and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanatidou, Virginia; Sofidiotou, Vassiliki; Fountas, Kostas; Kalostou, Angeliki; Tsamadou, Athina; Papathanassiou, Vassiliki; Neou, Polyxeni

    2011-03-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common cause of admission in the pediatric emergency room. In the past, button batteries accounted for less than 2% of the foreign bodies ingested by small children, but in the last 2 decades, they show a rapidly increased frequency. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential risk after button battery ingestion in relation with the clinical manifestations and to perform a treatment-observation protocol in accordance with the international procedure. In a prospective observational analysis from November 2007 through February 2008, 31 cases of button battery ingestion were recorded by the Greek Poison Information Center. The interval between the accidental ingestion and first medical contact ranged from 5 minutes to 10 days. After initial evaluation including clinical examination and radiological localization of the foreign body, all cases were treated as outpatients. Reported complications included "black stools" in 9% and diarrhea in 3% of cases. In 1 case, the battery was endoscopically removed. The role of primary care physicians in informing the public about the potential danger of button battery digestion is crucial. Pediatricians should educate the parents about this hazard, as part of the routine guidelines for childproofing at home. Once again, prolepsis is the best policy.

  9. Dynamics of river sediments in forested headwater streams: Plynlimon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. L. Leeks

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Long term studies of fluvial sediment processes in the Plynlimon catchments have contributed to the assessment and quantification of plantation forestry impacts in British upland catchments, at all stages of the forest cycle. The results from the Plynlimon studies are placed in the context of the observed impacts of particular forest practices and studies of forestry effects on sediment transport elsewhere in the world. The effects associated with drain excavation, ploughing, track construction, ground and channel disruption are outlined for both bedload and, particularly, for suspended load. Finally, recent data on sediment yields from 1995 to 1997 at Plynlimon are reported and discussed in the light of longer-term sediment yield estimates. This paper also provides background information relevant to other sediment process studies which use data from the main Plynlimon sediment monitoring network.

  10. The muscle protein synthetic response to food ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, Stefan H M; Rémond, Didier; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-11-01

    Preservation of skeletal muscle mass is of great importance for maintaining both metabolic health and functional capacity. Muscle mass maintenance is regulated by the balance between muscle protein breakdown and synthesis rates. Both muscle protein breakdown and synthesis rates have been shown to be highly responsive to physical activity and food intake. Food intake, and protein ingestion in particular, directly stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to feeding is regulated on a number of levels, including dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption, splanchnic amino acid retention, postprandial insulin release, skeletal muscle tissue perfusion, amino acid uptake by muscle, and intramyocellular signaling. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to feeding is blunted in many conditions characterized by skeletal muscle loss, such as aging and muscle disuse. Therefore, it is important to define food characteristics that modulate postprandial muscle protein synthesis. Previous work has shown that the muscle protein synthetic response to feeding can be modulated by changing the amount of protein ingested, the source of dietary protein, as well as the timing of protein consumption. Most of this work has studied the postprandial response to the ingestion of isolated protein sources. Only few studies have investigated the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to the ingestion of protein dense foods, such as dairy and meat. The current review will focus on the capacity of proteins and protein dense food products to stimulate postprandial muscle protein synthesis and identifies food characteristics that may modulate the anabolic properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stereochemical studies of acyclic isoprenoids-XII. Lipids of methanogenic bacteria and possible contributions to sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risatti, J.B.; Rowland, S.J.; Yon, D.A.; Maxwell, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Abundant volatile lipids of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and Methanosarcina barkeri include isoprenoid hydrocarbons (??? C30), and C15, C20 and C25 isoprenoid alcohols. M. barkeri contains 2,6,10,15,19-pentamethyleicosane, whose relative stereochemistry is the same as found in marine sediments, indicating that it is a marker of methanogenic activity. The C20, C30 and C25 alkenes in M. thermoautotrophicum also have a preferred sterochemistry; the latter have the 2,6,10,14,18-pentamethyleicosanyl skeleton, suggesting that the alkane in marine sediments may derive from methanogens. The stereochemistry of squalane in a marine sediment is also compatible with an origin in methanogens; in contrast, the stereochemistry of pristane in M. thermoautotrophicum indicates a fossil fuel contaminant origin, suggesting that this and certain other alkanes reported in archaebacteria might also be of contaminant origin. There is, therefore, little evidence at present that the pristane in immature marine sediments originates in methanogens. The C15 and C20 saturated alcohols in M. thermoautotrophicum have mainly the all-R configuration. If this is generally true for methanogens, the C20 alcohol in the Messel shale may originate mainly from methanogens, whereas that in the Green River shale may originate mainly from photosynthetic organisms. ?? 1984.

  12. Food Ingestion Factors of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Yeon Jang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish food ingestion factors needed to assess exposure to contaminants through food ingestion. The study reclassified the raw data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2001 into 12 subcategories including grain products, meat products, fish and shellfish, and vegetables for international comparability of exposure evaluation. The criteria for food intake calculation were unified according to the characteristics of food groups, and recommended values for food ingestion factors were calculated through moisture correction and recategorization of cooked, processed, and mixed foods for each group. The average intake rate for grain and grain products was 6.25 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was approximately 8% higher than that of the women. The average intake rate of meat and meat products was 1.62 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was 30% higher than that of the women, on average. The average intake rate of fish and shellfish was 1.53 g/kg-d per capita, and the age groups of 1 to 2 and 3 to 6 recorded higher capita intake rates than other age groups, 2.62 g/kg-d and 2.25 g/kg-d, respectively. The average intake rate of vegetables was 6.47 g/kg-d per capita, with the age group of 1 to 2 recording the highest per capita intake rate of 9.79 g/kg-d and that of 13 to 19 recording the lowest mean. The study also offers recommended values for food ingestion factors of other food groups by gender, age, and region. The food ingestion exposure factors will need future updates in consideration of ongoing changes in food consumption behavior.

  13. Food ingestion factors of the Korean exposure factors handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, Sun-Ja; Myung, Hyung-Nam; Kim, Cho-Il

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish food ingestion factors needed to assess exposure to contaminants through food ingestion. The study reclassified the raw data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2001 into 12 subcategories including grain products, meat products, fish and shellfish, and vegetables for international comparability of exposure evaluation. The criteria for food intake calculation were unified according to the characteristics of food groups, and recommended values for food ingestion factors were calculated through moisture correction and recategorization of cooked, processed, and mixed foods for each group. The average intake rate for grain and grain products was 6.25 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was approximately 8% higher than that of the women. The average intake rate of meat and meat products was 1.62 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was 30% higher than that of the women, on average. The average intake rate of fish and shellfish was 1.53 g/kg-d per capita, and the age groups of 1 to 2 and 3 to 6 recorded higher capita intake rates than other age groups, 2.62 g/kg-d and 2.25 g/kg-d, respectively. The average intake rate of vegetables was 6.47 g/kg-d per capita, with the age group of 1 to 2 recording the highest per capita intake rate of 9.79 g/kg-d and that of 13 to 19 recording the lowest mean. The study also offers recommended values for food ingestion factors of other food groups by gender, age, and region. The food ingestion exposure factors will need future updates in consideration of ongoing changes in food consumption behavior.

  14. Muscle glycogen resynthesis during recovery from cycle exercise: no effect of additional protein ingestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Shirreffs, S M; Calbet, J A

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the effect of carbohydrate and protein hydrolysate ingestion on muscle glycogen resynthesis during 4 h of recovery from intense cycle exercise. Five volunteers were studied during recovery while they ingested, immediately after exercise, a 600-ml bolus......, and 18 +/- 6 for the first 1.5 h of recovery and decreased to 30 +/- 6, 36 +/- 3, and 8 +/- 6 mmol. kg dry muscle(-1). h(-1) between 1.5 and 4 h for CHO/protein, CHO, and water ingestion, respectively. No differences could be observed between CHO/protein and CHO ingestion ingestion. It is concluded...... and then every 15 min a 150-ml bolus containing 1) 1.67 g. kg body wt(-1). l(-1) of sucrose and 0.5 g. kg body wt(-1). l(-1) of a whey protein hydrolysate (CHO/protein), 2) 1.67 g. kg body wt(-1). l(-1) of sucrose (CHO), and 3) water. CHO/protein and CHO ingestion caused an increased arterial glucose...

  15. Plastic and Non-plastic Debris Ingestion in Three Gull Species Feeding in an Urban Landfill Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, S; Provencher, J F; Avery-Gomm, S; Daoust, P-Y; Mallory, M L; Smith, P A

    2018-04-01

    Plastic debris is recognized as a widespread, common and problematic environmental pollutant. An important consequence of this pollution is the ingestion of plastic debris by wildlife. Assessing the degree to which different species ingest plastics, and the potential effects of these plastics on their health are important research needs for understanding the impacts of plastic pollution. We examined debris (plastic and other types) ingestion in three sympatric overwintering gull species (Herring gulls Larus smithsonianus, Great Black-backed Gulls Larus marinus, and Iceland Gulls Larus glaucoides) to understand how debris ingestion differs among species, age classes and sexes in gulls. We also assessed how plastic burdens were associated with body condition to investigate how gulls may be affected by debris ingestion. There were no differences among the species, age classes or sexes in the incidence of debris ingestion (plastic or otherwise), the mass or number of debris pieces ingested. We found no correlation between ingested plastics burdens and individual condition. Gulls ingested plastic debris, but also showed high levels of other debris types as well, including metal, glass and building materials, including a metal piece of debris found within an abscess in the stomach. Thus, when the health effects of debris ingestion on gulls, and other species that ingest debris, is of interest, either from a physical or chemical perspective, it may be necessary to consider all debris types and not just plastic burdens as is often currently done for seabirds.

  16. Refractory hypotension due to Rogaine® (minoxidil) ingestion managed with midodrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrard, Alexander; Wood, Adam; Sollee, Dawn; Aaronson, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    Minoxidil (Rogaine®) is a direct vasodilator that can cause significant toxicity when ingested. We report a case of ingestion of topical minoxidil [Rogaine® (Johnson & Johnson Healthcare Products, Division of McNeil-PPC, Inc)] resulting in refractory hypotension that was successfully managed with the oral α (1) agonist midodrine. A 48-year-old male who ingested an eight ounce bottle of Rogaine® presented to the emergency department. The patient presented with a blood pressure of 57/45 mmHg and a pulse of 84 beats per minute. The patient received IV fluids and multiple vasopressors to maintain an adequate mean arterial pressure. Midodrine, an oral α (1) vasopressor, was added 10 hours post ingestion and was able to maintain an adequate mean arterial pressure. Over the next two days, midodrine was titrated down as his blood pressure returned to baseline. Midodrine may serve as an additional option to treat toxicant induced hypotension.

  17. Runoff and sediment variation in the areas with high and coarse sediment yield of the middle Yellow River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan; Yao, Wenyi; Xiao, Peiqing; Sun, Weiying

    2018-02-01

    Massive water and soil conservation works (WSCW) have been conducted in the areas with high and coarse sediment yield of the middle Yellow River since 1982. With the impending effects of climate change, it is necessary to reconsider the effects of WSCW on runoff and sediment variation at decadal and regional scales. Using long-term official and synthesized data, the WSCW impacts on reducing water and soil loss were studied in Sanchuanhe River watershed. Results showed that the sediment and runoff generated from this area showed a decreasing trend in the past 50 years. A great progress has been achieved in erosion control since the 1970s. After the 4 soil and water conservation harnessing stages during the period from 1970 to 2006, the sediment and runoff yield showed decreases with the extension of harnessing. The results revealed that human activities exerted the largest effects on the sediment reduction and explained 66.6% of the variation in the specific sediment yield. The contribution of rainfall variation to runoff reduction was as large as human activities. A great benefit have been obtained in water and soil loss control in this area.

  18. The rising incidence of intentional ingestion of ethanol-containing hand sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Nicole J; Bronstein, Alvin C; Rasimas, Joseph J; Pao, Maryland; Wratney, Angela T; Sun, Junfeng; Austin, Howard A; Suffredini, Anthony F

    2012-01-01

    To describe a case of intentional ingestion of hand sanitizer in our hospital and to review published cases and those reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System. A case report, a literature review of published cases, and a query of the National Poison Data System. Medical intensive care unit. Seventeen-yr-old male 37-kg with an intentional ingestion of a hand sanitizer product into his gastrostomy tube. Intubation, ventilation, and hemodialysis. Incidence and outcome of reported cases of unintentional and intentional ethanol containing-hand sanitizer ingestion in the United States from 2005 through 2009. A literature search found 14 detailed case reports of intentional alcohol-based hand sanitizer ingestions with one death. From 2005 to 2009, the National Poison Data System received reports of 68,712 exposures to 96 ethanol-based hand sanitizers. The number of new cases increased by an average of 1,894 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1266-2521) cases per year (p =.002). In 2005, the rate of exposures, per year, per million U.S. residents was 33.7 (95% CI 28.4-39.1); from 2005 to 2009, this rate increased on average by 5.87 per year (95% CI 3.70-8.04; p = .003). In 2005, the rate of intentional exposures, per year, per million U.S. residents, was 0.68 (95% CI 0.17-1.20); from 2005 to 2009, this rate increased on average by 0.32 per year (95% CI 0.11-0.53; p = .02). The number of new cases per year of intentional hand sanitizer ingestion significantly increased during this 5-yr period. Although the majority of cases of hand sanitizer ingestion have a favorable outcome, 288 moderate and 12 major medical outcomes were reported in this National Poison Data System cohort. Increased awareness of the risks associated with intentional ingestion is warranted, particularly among healthcare providers caring for persons with a history of substance abuse, risk-taking behavior, or suicidal ideation.

  19. Source Apportionment of Suspended Sediment Sources using 137Cs and 210Pbxs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, J.; Karthikeyan, K.; Thompson, A.

    2017-12-01

    A study was conducted in the Pleasant Valley Watershed (50 km 2) in South Central Wisconsin to better understand sediment transport processes using sediment fingerprinting technique. Previous studies conducted in this watershed showed that resuspension of fine sediment deposited on the stream bed is an important source of suspended sediment. To better understand the role of fine sediment deposited on the stream bed, fallout radionuclides,137Cs and 210Pbxs were used to determine relative contribution to suspended sediment from in-stream (stream bank and stream bed) and upland sediment sources. Suspended sediment samples were collected during the crop growing season. Potential sources of suspended sediment considered in this study included cropland, pasture and in-stream (stream bed and stream bank). Suspended sediment sources were determined at a subwatershed level. Results of this study showed that in-stream sediment sources are important sources of suspended sediment. Future research should be conducted to better understand the role of legacy sediment in watershed-level sediment transport processes.

  20. Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.; Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Ligouis, B.; Werth, C.J. [University of Illinois Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375{sup o}C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods.

  1. Acute neurotoxicity after yohimbine ingestion by a body builder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampreti, Andrea; Lonati, Davide; Locatelli, Carlo; Rocchi, Loretta; Campailla, Maria Teresa

    2009-09-01

    Yohimbine is an alkaloid obtained from the Corynanthe yohimbe tree and other biological sources. Yohimbine is currently approved in the United States for erectile dysfunction and has undergone resurgence in street use as an aphrodisiac and mild hallucinogen. In recent years yohimbine use has become common in body-building communities for its presumed lipolytic and sympathomimetic effects. We describe a 37-year-old bodybuilder in which severe acute neurotoxic effects occurred in 2 h after yohimbine ingestion. The patient presented with malaise, vomiting, loss of consciousness, and repeated seizures after ingestion of 5 g of yohimbine during a body-building competition in a gymnasium. His Glasgow Coma Score was 3, requiring orotracheal intubation. Two hours after admission, vital signs were blood pressure 259/107 mmHg and heart rate 140 beats/min. Treatment with furosemide, labetalol, clonidine, and urapidil and gastrointestinal decontamination were performed. Twelve hours later the patient was extubated with normal hemodynamic parameters and neurological examination. The yohimbine blood levels at 3, 6, 14, and 22 h after ingestion were 5,240; 2,250; 1,530; and 865 ng/mL, respectively, with a mean half-life of 2 h. Few data are available about yohimbine toxicity and the related blood levels. This is a case of a large ingestion of yohimbine in which severe hemodynamic and neurological manifestations occurred and elevated blood levels of yohimbine were detected.

  2. Sedimentation rate and chronology of As and Zn in sediment of a recent former tin mining lake estimated using Pb-210 dating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharidah Abu Bakar; Ahmad Saat; Zaini Hamzah; Abdul Khalik Wood; Zaharudin Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Sedimentation in lake occurred through run-off from the land surface and settles on the bottom lake. Past mining activities might enhance sedimentation process in the former tin mining lakes either through natural or human activities. Former tin mining lakes were suspected to have high sedimentation rate due undisturbed environment for almost 50 years. To estimate sedimentation rate and metals contamination in this lake, Pb-210 dating technique was used. Two sediments cores were sampled using gravity corer from a former tin mining lake then analyzed using alpha-spectrometry and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). From this study, the results showed the sedimentation rate for sediment cores S1 and S2 are 0.26 cm y -1 and 0.23 cmy -1 respectively. According to sediment chronological sequences, high concentrations of As and Zn in the upper layer indicated that human activities contributed to these metals contamination in the lake sediment. Sedimentation rate and metals contamination possibly due to recent anthropogenic activities around the lake such as human settlement, farming and agricultures activities since the ceased of mining activities a few decades ago. (author)

  3. Estimating sediment discharge: Appendix D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Simões, Francisco J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Sediment-discharge measurements usually are available on a discrete or periodic basis. However, estimates of sediment transport often are needed for unmeasured periods, such as when daily or annual sediment-discharge values are sought, or when estimates of transport rates for unmeasured or hypothetical flows are required. Selected methods for estimating suspended-sediment, bed-load, bed- material-load, and total-load discharges have been presented in some detail elsewhere in this volume. The purposes of this contribution are to present some limitations and potential pitfalls associated with obtaining and using the requisite data and equations to estimate sediment discharges and to provide guidance for selecting appropriate estimating equations. Records of sediment discharge are derived from data collected with sufficient frequency to obtain reliable estimates for the computational interval and period. Most sediment- discharge records are computed at daily or annual intervals based on periodically collected data, although some partial records represent discrete or seasonal intervals such as those for flood periods. The method used to calculate sediment- discharge records is dependent on the types and frequency of available data. Records for suspended-sediment discharge computed by methods described by Porterfield (1972) are most prevalent, in part because measurement protocols and computational techniques are well established and because suspended sediment composes the bulk of sediment dis- charges for many rivers. Discharge records for bed load, total load, or in some cases bed-material load plus wash load are less common. Reliable estimation of sediment discharges presupposes that the data on which the estimates are based are comparable and reliable. Unfortunately, data describing a selected characteristic of sediment were not necessarily derived—collected, processed, analyzed, or interpreted—in a consistent manner. For example, bed-load data collected with

  4. Plastic microfibre ingestion by deep-sea organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. L.; Gwinnett, C.; Robinson, L. F.; Woodall, L. C.

    2016-09-01

    Plastic waste is a distinctive indicator of the world-wide impact of anthropogenic activities. Both macro- and micro-plastics are found in the ocean, but as yet little is known about their ultimate fate and their impact on marine ecosystems. In this study we present the first evidence that microplastics are already becoming integrated into deep-water organisms. By examining organisms that live on the deep-sea floor we show that plastic microfibres are ingested and internalised by members of at least three major phyla with different feeding mechanisms. These results demonstrate that, despite its remote location, the deep sea and its fragile habitats are already being exposed to human waste to the extent that diverse organisms are ingesting microplastics.

  5. Downstream mixing of sediment and tracers in agricultural catchments: Evidence of changing sediment sources and fluvial processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Timothy; Wethered, Adam; Smith, Hugh; Heijnis, Henk

    2014-05-01

    Land clearance, soil tillage and grazing in agricultural catchments have liberated sediment and altered hydrological connectivity between hillslopes and channels, leading to increased sediment availability, mobilisation and delivery to rivers. The type and amount of sediment supplied to rivers is critical for fluvial geomorphology and aquatic ecosystem health. Contemporary sediment dynamics are routinely investigated using environmental radionuclides such as caesium-137 (Cs-137) and excess lead-210 (Pb-210ex), which can provide information regarding sediment source types and fluvial processes if sediment sources can be distinguished from one another and mixing models applied to representative samples. However, downstream transport, mixing and dilution of radionuclide-labelled sediment (especially from sources with low initial concentrations) can obliterate the tracer signal; sometimes before anything of geomorphological importance happens in the catchment. Can these findings be used as evidence of sediment source variations and fluvial processes when the limits of detection (of Cs-137 in particular) are being exceeded so rapidly downstream? Sediment sources and downstream sediment dynamics were investigated in Coolbaggie Creek, a major supplier of sediment to the Macquarie River in an agricultural catchment with temperate to semi-arid climate in Australia. Radionuclides were used to discriminate between the banks and gullies (Cs-137 1.45 +/- 0.47 Bq/kg; Pb-210ex 4.67 +/- 1.93 Bq/kg). Within the trunk stream, suspended sediment, organic matter and Cs-137 and Pb-210ex concentrations declined downstream. Results from a mixing model suggest that agricultural topsoils account for 95% of fine sediment entering the channel in the upper reach (200 m2) downstream, with channel expansion and gullies contributing fine sediment to the system. A lack of topsoil being supplied to the channel suggests minimal lateral connectivity between the catchment and the trunk stream in all

  6. Acute Chloroform Ingestion Successfully Treated with Intravenously Administered N-acetylcysteine

    OpenAIRE

    Dell’Aglio, Damon M.; Sutter, Mark E.; Schwartz, Michael D.; Koch, David D.; Algren, D. A.; Morgan, Brent W.

    2010-01-01

    Chloroform, a halogenated hydrocarbon, causes central nervous system depression, cardiac arrhythmias, and hepatotoxicity. We describe a case of chloroform ingestion with a confirmatory serum level and resultant hepatotoxicity successfully treated with intravenously administered N-acetylcysteine (NAC). A 19-year-old man attempting suicide ingested approximately 75 mL of chloroform. He was unresponsive and intubated upon arrival. Intravenously administered NAC was started after initial stabiliz...

  7. Beverage can stay-tabs: still a source for inadvertently ingested foreign bodies in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, Lane F. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States); University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine, Departments of Radiology and Pediatrics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2010-09-15

    In the 1970s in part to avoid inadvertent ingestion, the beverage-can industry changed can construction from pull-tabs to the stay-tabs (remain attached to can after opening) used today. Our purpose is to identify the number of inadvertent ingestions of beverage-can stay-tabs by children recognized at our institution. The medical information system of a children's hospital was searched with key terms to identify cases in which a witnessed or self-reported inadvertent ingestion of a beverage-can stay-tab resulted in a radiograph to rule out presence of a foreign body. Demographics, identification of stay-tab on radiographs, associated abnormalities, and patient management were reviewed. Nineteen cases of stay-tab ingestion were identified over 16 years. Mean age of ingesters was 8.5 years with the majority being teenagers and 15 (79%) >5 years of age. The stay-tab could be seen radiographically only in 4 (21%) cases - all with the stay-tab identified in the stomach. The identification of 19 children who inadvertently ingested beverage-can stay-tabs at a single children's hospital suggests that such ingestions still occur. Radiologists should be aware that stay-tabs are radiographically visible in the minority (21%) of cases. (orig.)

  8. Beverage can stay-tabs: still a source for inadvertently ingested foreign bodies in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, Lane F.

    2010-01-01

    In the 1970s in part to avoid inadvertent ingestion, the beverage-can industry changed can construction from pull-tabs to the stay-tabs (remain attached to can after opening) used today. Our purpose is to identify the number of inadvertent ingestions of beverage-can stay-tabs by children recognized at our institution. The medical information system of a children's hospital was searched with key terms to identify cases in which a witnessed or self-reported inadvertent ingestion of a beverage-can stay-tab resulted in a radiograph to rule out presence of a foreign body. Demographics, identification of stay-tab on radiographs, associated abnormalities, and patient management were reviewed. Nineteen cases of stay-tab ingestion were identified over 16 years. Mean age of ingesters was 8.5 years with the majority being teenagers and 15 (79%) >5 years of age. The stay-tab could be seen radiographically only in 4 (21%) cases - all with the stay-tab identified in the stomach. The identification of 19 children who inadvertently ingested beverage-can stay-tabs at a single children's hospital suggests that such ingestions still occur. Radiologists should be aware that stay-tabs are radiographically visible in the minority (21%) of cases. (orig.)

  9. Presentation of an ingested foreign body as a vesical calculus: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presentation of an ingested foreign body as a vesical calculus: a common condition, but uncommon presentation. Shailendra Pal Singh a. , Anand Pandey a. , Vipin Gupta a. , Jigyasa Pandey b and. Rajesh Verma a. Vesical calculus is a common entity in children of developing countries. Foreign body ingestion is a common.

  10. Quantifying sediment sources in a lowland agricultural catchment pond using {sup 137}Cs activities and radiogenic {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gall, Marion; Evrard, Olivier [Laboratoire des Sciences et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, Domaine du CNRS, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Foucher, Anthony [E.A 6293, Laboratoire GéoHydrosystèmes Continentaux (GéHCO), Université F. Rabelais de Tours, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Laceby, J. Patrick [Laboratoire des Sciences et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, Domaine du CNRS, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien [E.A 6293, Laboratoire GéoHydrosystèmes Continentaux (GéHCO), Université F. Rabelais de Tours, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Thil, François; Dapoigny, Arnaud; Lefèvre, Irène [Laboratoire des Sciences et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, Domaine du CNRS, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Cerdan, Olivier [Département Risques et Prévention, Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, 3 avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans (France); and others

    2016-10-01

    Soil erosion often supplies high sediment loads to rivers, degrading water quality and contributing to the siltation of reservoirs and lowland river channels. These impacts are exacerbated in agricultural catchments where modifications in land management and agricultural practices were shown to accelerate sediment supply. In this study, sediment sources were identified with a novel tracing approach combining cesium ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium isotopes ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) in the Louroux pond, at the outlet of a lowland cultivated catchment (24 km{sup 2}, Loire River basin, France) representative of drained agricultural areas of Northwestern Europe. Surface soil (n = 36) and subsurface channel bank (n = 17) samples were collected to characterize potential sources. Deposited sediment (n = 41) was sampled across the entire surface of the pond to examine spatial variation in sediment deposits. In addition, a 1.10 m sediment core was sampled in the middle of the pond to reconstruct source variations throughout time. {sup 137}Cs was used to discriminate between surface and subsurface sources, whereas {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios discriminated between lithological sources. A distribution modeling approach quantified the relative contribution of these sources to the sampled sediment. Results indicate that surface sources contributed to the majority of pond (μ 82%, σ 1%) and core (μ 88%, σ 2%) sediment with elevated subsurface contributions modeled near specific sites close to the banks of the Louroux pond. Contributions of the lithological sources were well mixed in surface sediment across the pond (i.e., carbonate sediment contribution, μ 48%, σ 1% and non-carbonate sediment contribution, μ 52%, σ 3%) although there were significant variations of these source contributions modeled for the sediment core between 1955 and 2013. These fluctuations reflect both the progressive implementation of land consolidation schemes in the catchment and the eutrophication of

  11. Consumo de macronutrientes e ingestão inadequada de micronutrientes em adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Campos Araujo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar o consumo de energia e nutrientes e a prevalência de ingestão inadequada de micronutrientes entre adultos brasileiros. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados do Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação da Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar 2008-2009. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por dois dias de registro alimentar não consecutivos. Um total de 21.003 indivíduos (52,5% mulheres entre 20 e 59 anos de idade participou do estudo. A ingestão usual de nutrientes foi estimada pelo método proposto pelo National Cancer Institute. As prevalências de ingestão inadequada de micronutrientes foram obtidas pelo método da necessidade média estimada (EAR como ponto de corte. Para manganês e potássio, a Ingestão Adequada (AI foi usada como ponto de corte. A ingestão de sódio foi comparada com o nível de ingestão máximo tolerável (UL. A prevalência de inadequação da ingestão de ferro foi determinada por abordagem probabilística. Os dados foram analisados de acordo com a localização do domicílio (área urbana ou rural e as macrorregiões do país. RESULTADOS: A média do consumo energético foi de 2.083 kcal entre os homens e 1.698 kcal entre as mulheres. Prevalências de inadequação maiores ou iguais a 70% foram observadas para cálcio entre os homens e magnésio, vitamina A, sódio em ambos os sexos. Prevalências maiores ou iguais a 90% foram encontradas para cálcio entre as mulheres e vitaminas D e E em ambos os sexos. Prevalências menores que 5% foram encontradas para ferro entre os homens e niacina para homens e mulheres. No geral, a prevalência de ingestão inadequada foi mais acentuada na área rural e na região Nordeste. CONCLUSÕES: O consumo de energia é maior entre indivíduos residentes em áreas urbanas e da região Norte. Os grupos com maior risco de ingestão inadequada de micronutrientes são as mulheres e os que residem na área rural e na região Nordeste.

  12. Simple battery armor to protect against gastrointestinal injury from accidental ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulicht, Bryan; Traverso, Giovanni; Deshpande, Vikram; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2014-11-18

    Inadvertent battery ingestion in children and the associated morbidity and mortality results in thousands of emergency room visits every year. Given the risk for serious electrochemical burns within hours of ingestion, the current standard of care for the treatment of batteries in the esophagus is emergent endoscopic removal. Safety standards now regulate locked battery compartments in toys, which have resulted in a modest reduction in inadvertent battery ingestion; specifically, 3,461 ingestions were reported in 2009, and 3,366 in 2013. Aside from legislation, minimal technological development has taken place at the level of the battery to limit injury. We have constructed a waterproof, pressure-sensitive coating, harnessing a commercially available quantum tunneling composite. Quantum tunneling composite coated (QTCC) batteries are nonconductive in the low-pressure gastrointestinal environment yet conduct within the higher pressure of standard battery housings. Importantly, this coating technology enables most battery-operated equipment to be powered without modification. If these new batteries are swallowed, they limit the external electrolytic currents responsible for tissue injury. We demonstrate in a large-animal model a significant decrease in tissue injury with QTCC batteries compared with uncoated control batteries. In summary, here we describe a facile approach to increasing the safety of batteries by minimizing the risk for electrochemical burn if the batteries are inadvertently ingested, without the need for modification of most battery-powered devices.

  13. Simple battery armor to protect against gastrointestinal injury from accidental ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulicht, Bryan; Deshpande, Vikram; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Inadvertent battery ingestion in children and the associated morbidity and mortality results in thousands of emergency room visits every year. Given the risk for serious electrochemical burns within hours of ingestion, the current standard of care for the treatment of batteries in the esophagus is emergent endoscopic removal. Safety standards now regulate locked battery compartments in toys, which have resulted in a modest reduction in inadvertent battery ingestion; specifically, 3,461 ingestions were reported in 2009, and 3,366 in 2013. Aside from legislation, minimal technological development has taken place at the level of the battery to limit injury. We have constructed a waterproof, pressure-sensitive coating, harnessing a commercially available quantum tunneling composite. Quantum tunneling composite coated (QTCC) batteries are nonconductive in the low-pressure gastrointestinal environment yet conduct within the higher pressure of standard battery housings. Importantly, this coating technology enables most battery-operated equipment to be powered without modification. If these new batteries are swallowed, they limit the external electrolytic currents responsible for tissue injury. We demonstrate in a large-animal model a significant decrease in tissue injury with QTCC batteries compared with uncoated control batteries. In summary, here we describe a facile approach to increasing the safety of batteries by minimizing the risk for electrochemical burn if the batteries are inadvertently ingested, without the need for modification of most battery-powered devices. PMID:25368176

  14. Digital Pills to Measure Opioid Ingestion Patterns in Emergency Department Patients With Acute Fracture Pain: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Peter R; Carreiro, Stephanie; Innes, Brendan J; Rosen, Rochelle K; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H; Boyer, Edward W

    2017-01-13

    Nonadherence to prescribed regimens for opioid analgesic agents contributes to increasing opioid abuse and overdose death. Opioids are frequently prescribed on an as-needed basis, placing the responsibility to determine opioid dose and frequency with the patient. There is wide variability in physician prescribing patterns because of the lack of data describing how patients actually use as-needed opioid analgesics. Digital pill systems have a radiofrequency emitter that directly measures medication ingestion events, and they provide an opportunity to discover the dose, timing, and duration of opioid therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a novel digital pill system to measure as-needed opioid ingestion patterns in patients discharged from the emergency department (ED) after an acute bony fracture. We used a digital pill with individuals who presented to a teaching hospital ED with an acute extremity fracture. The digital pill consisted of a digital radiofrequency emitter within a standard gelatin capsule that encapsulated an oxycodone tablet. When ingested, the gastric chloride ion gradient activated the digital pill, transmitting a radiofrequency signal that was received by a hip-worn receiver, which then transmitted the ingestion data to a cloud-based server. After a brief, hands-on training session in the ED, study participants were discharged home and used the digital pill system to ingest oxycodone prescribed as needed for pain for one week. We conducted pill counts to verify digital pill data and open-ended interviews with participants at their follow-up appointment with orthopedics or at one week after enrollment in the study to determine the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding digital pills. We analyzed open-ended interviews using applied thematic analysis. We recruited 10 study participants and recorded 96 ingestion events (87.3%, 96/110 accuracy). Study participants reported being able to operate all

  15. Boron in Pariette Wetland Sediments, Aquatic Vegetation & Benthic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudeva, P.; Jones, C. P.; Powelson, D.; Jacobson, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Pariette Wetlands are comprised of 20 ponds located in Utah's Uintah Basin. Boron concentration in the Pariette Wetlands have been observed to exceed the total maximum daily limit of 750 µg L-1. Considering water flow in and out of the wetlands, boron is accumulating within the wetlands where it is sorbed to sediments and bioconcentrated by wetland plant and macro invertebrates. Since boron is an avian teratogen, an estimate of boron ingestion exposure is warranted. Samples from 3 of the 23 Pariette Wetland ponds with one pond near the inlet, one near the outlet, and one in the middle were collected. Five sampling points were designated along a 100 m transect of each pond. At each sampling point duplicate (or triplicate) samples of water, sediments, benthic organisms and wetland vegetation were collected. The sediments were collected with a KB-corer and divided at depths of 0-2 cm, 2-7 cm, and 7+ cm from the sediment surface. Sample splits were sent to the USU Bug lab for identification of invertebrate species. Whenever this transect was not intercepting vegetation, 2-3 additional sample sites were identified at the pond within stands of representative vegetation where bird nests are located. The plant parts used for boron analyses will include seeds, shoot and roots of vascular plants, as well as algae or duckweeds skimmed from the surface. Samples were processed within 2 days of collection. Water samples filtered through a 0.45 μ membrane filter were analyzed for DOC, pH and ECe. The dried and washed vegetation samples were ground and stored. The benthic organisms and macro invertebrates were netted at the water surface. The dried samples were weighed, ground and stored. Samples were weighed, oven dried and reweighed. For plant and macro-invertebrate samples, a nitric and hydrogen peroxide digestion procedure is used to dissolve environmentally available elements. The Hot Water extraction and DTPA-Sorbitol extraction were compared to estimate wetland plant

  16. Contribution of radioactive tracers to sediment transport study in fluvial flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson Junior, G.

    1995-01-01

    The uses of radioactive tracers in sediment transport studies are presented in this report to evidence the importance of: Open channel researches, to describe field applications in waterways; Simultaneous utilization of classical methods and radiotracer techniques, in fluvial and estuarine environments; Development of radiotracers techniques applied in dynamic sedimentology. The report illustrated with some experiments carried out in Brazil and France, in open channel and natural flows. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  17. Evaluation of radiation dose resulting from the ingestion of [3H]-and [14C]thymidine in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, H.; Iwakura, T.

    1987-01-01

    Average doses to rat tissues from the ingestion of 2-[ 14 C]thymidine were compared with those from methyl-[ 3 H]thymidine or 6-[ 3 H]thymidine. [ 14 C]thymidine gave the highest dose to spleen and small intestine. Doses to other tissues from [ 14 ]thymidine were almost the same or lower compared with those from [ 3 H]thymidine, irrespective of the 9 times higher β-ray energy of 14 C than that of 3 H. In the case of [ 14 C]thymidine, most of the dose was given by radioactivity incorporated into the organic tissue constituents (non-volatile radioactivity). In the case of [ 3 H]thymidine, the dose contributions by non-volatile radioactivity were very small and major contributions were rather from volatile radioactivity ( 3 HHO), formed by degradation of [ 3 H]thymidine. No significant difference in their total doses was found between the two [ 3 H]precursors, but the dose from non-volatile radioactivity alone was 2-3 times higher with methyl-[ 3 H]thymidine than with 6-[ 3 H]thymidine. Estimates of dose to cell nuclei in various tissues after ingestion of [ 3 H]thymidine were also made in order to predict more precisely possible radiation hazards. (author)

  18. Pattern of corrosive ingestion in southwestern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlBinali Ali M; AlShehri, Mohammed A; AlFifi, Suliman H; Abdelmoneim, Ismail; Shomrani, Ali S

    2009-01-01

    Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive ingestion to Aseer Central Hospital over a period of five years period from 1990 to 1995. The records of 72 patients (38 males and 34 females) were reviewed. The data included age, sex, time lapse till admission, action taken by parents, presenting symptoms, general management given to the child, barium study, endoscopy, and the postcorrosive ingestion outcome of the child. The mean age of the pediatric patients was 28 + - 20 months. Different types of corrosives were encountered. The most common type was 5.25% hypochlorite in 36 patients (50%), kerosene in 12 patients (16.7%), caustic soda in nine patients (12.5%), hydrogen chloride and N-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HC and ADB) in eight patients (11.1%), and other material in seven patients (9.7%). Endoscopy was done in 30 patients (31.7%), 14 of whom were abnormal. Barium swallow was performed in 11 patients; five of them showed strictures that required frequent dilatation whereas one needed interposition surgery. Corrosive injury is still a major pediatric emergency among young children. It carries a major risk of complications (mainly stricture) and requires standardized management based on evidence-based medicine. (author)

  19. Presentation of an ingested foreign body as a vesical calculus: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vesical calculus is a common entity in children of developing countries. Foreign body ingestion is a common occurrence in the pediatric population. An ingested foreign body eroding into the urinary bladder and leading to the formation of a vesical calculus is an extremely rare condition. We encountered a 14-year-old girl ...

  20. Clay mineralogy indicates the muddy sediment provenance in the estuarine-inner shelf of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yifei; Zou, Xinqing; Liu, Qing; Wang, Chenglong; Ge, Chendong; Xu, Min

    2018-02-01

    The estuarine-inner shelf mud regions of the East China Sea (ECS) are valuable for studying the source-to-sink processes of fluvial sediments deposited since the Holocene. In this study, we present evidence of the provenance and environmental evolution of two cores (S5-2 and JC07) from the estuarine-inner shelf regions of the ECS over the past 100 years based on 210Pb dating, high-resolution grain size measurements and clay mineral analyses. The results indicate that the clay mineral assemblages of cores S5-2 and JC07 are dominated by illite, followed by kaolinite and chlorite, and present scarce amounts of smectite. A comparison of these clay mineral assemblages with several major sources reveals that the fine sediments on the estuarine-inner shelf of the ECS represent a mixture of provenances associated with the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, as well as smaller rivers. However, the contribution of each provenance has varied greatly over the past hundred years, as indicated by the down-core variability due to strong sediment reworking and transport on the inner shelf and the reduction of the sediment load from the Yangtze River basin. In the mud region of the Yangtze River estuary, the sediment from 1930 to 1956 was primarily derived from the Yangtze River, although the Yellow River was also an important influence. From 1956 to 2013, the Yellow River contribution decreased, whereas the Yangtze River contribution correspondingly increased. In the Zhe-Min mud region, the Yangtze River contributed more sediment than did other rivers from 1910 to 1950; however, the Yangtze River contribution gradually decreased from 1950 to 2013. Moreover, the other small rivers accounted for minor contributions, and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) played an important role in the sediment transport process in the ECS. Our results indicate that the weakening/strengthening of the EAWM and a decrease in the sediment load of the Yangtze River influenced the transport and fate of sediment

  1. Ingestion of safety razor blade and delayed hanging in a complex suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Mohit Singh; Behera, C; Naagar, Sunil; Sreenivas, M

    2016-12-01

    Ingestion of a foreign body is mostly accidental in children and intentional in prisoners to achieve hospitalization; however, use of this method of suicide is rare. We report a case where the victim first ingested a safety razor blade, but failed to die and then hanged himself, but failed again and finally succumbed to the complications on the sixth day. He had also attempted suicide by inflicting multiple incised wounds on his neck four days before the safety blade ingestion, but none were fatal. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Epidemiology and prevention of caustic ingestion in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, H B

    1994-01-01

    A total of 102 children less than 16 years of age admitted for caustic ingestion in the period 1976-1991 were registered. The annual incidence rate of hospitalization was 10.8:100,000 for the city of Aarhus, Denmark. Esophageal burns occurred with a frequency of 5.0:100,000 per year. Ninety-four ...... of toddlers is recommended. Information material should stress that caustics should always be inaccessible to children and stored separately, and should never be decanted.......A total of 102 children less than 16 years of age admitted for caustic ingestion in the period 1976-1991 were registered. The annual incidence rate of hospitalization was 10.8:100,000 for the city of Aarhus, Denmark. Esophageal burns occurred with a frequency of 5.0:100,000 per year. Ninety......-four percent of the children were less than 5 years old. For this age group, the incidence rates of admission and esophageal burns were 34.6:100,000 and 15.8:100,000, respectively. All ingestions were accidental. The incidence rates of esophageal burns in children 0-4 years old (p = 0.019) decreased...

  3. Plastic and other microfibers in sediments, macroinvertebrates and shorebirds from three intertidal wetlands of southern Europe and west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Pedro M; Serra-Gonçalves, Catarina; Ferreira, Joana Lia; Catry, Teresa; Granadeiro, José P

    2017-12-01

    Microplastics are widespread in aquatic environments and can be ingested by a wide range of organisms. They can also be transferred along food webs. Estuaries and other tidal wetlands may be particularly prone to this type of pollution due to their particular hydrological characteristics and sewage input, but few studies have compared wetlands with different anthropogenic pressure. Furthermore, there is no information on microplastic transfer to secondary intertidal consumers such as shorebirds. We analysed intertidal sediments, macroinvertebrates and shorebirds, from three important wetlands along the Eastern Atlantic (Tejo estuary, Portugal; Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania and Bijagós archipelago, Guinea-Bissau), in order to evaluate the prevalence and transfer of microplastics along the intertidal food web. We further investigated variables that could explain the distribution of microplastics within the intertidal areas of the Tejo estuary. Microfibers were recorded in a large proportion of sediment samples (91%), macroinvertebrates (60%) and shorebird faeces (49%). μ-FTIR analysis indicated only 52% of these microfibers were composed of synthetic polymers (i.e. plastics). Microfiber concentrations were generally higher in the Tejo and lower in the Bijagós, with intermediate values for Banc d'Arguin, thus following a latitudinal gradient. Heavier anthropogenic pressure in the Tejo explains this pattern, but the relatively high concentrations in a pristine site like the Banc d'Arguin demonstrate the spread of pollution in the oceans. Similar microfiber concentrations in faeces of shorebirds with different foraging behaviour and similar composition of fibres collected from invertebrate and faeces suggest shorebirds mainly ingest microfibers through their prey, confirming microfiber transfer along intertidal food webs. Within the Tejo estuary, concentration of microfibers in the sediment and bivalves were positively related with the percentage of fine sediments and

  4. Estimation of sediment sources using selected chemical tracers in the Perry lake basin, Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, K.E.; Ziegler, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to achieve meaningful decreases in sediment loads to reservoirs requires a determination of the relative importance of sediment sources within the contributing basins. In an investigation of sources of fine-grained sediment (clay and silt) within the Perry Lake Basin in northeast Kansas, representative samples of channel-bank sources, surface-soil sources (cropland and grassland), and reservoir bottom sediment were collected, chemically analyzed, and compared. The samples were sieved to isolate the TOC), and 137Cs were selected for use in the estimation of sediment sources. To further account for differences in particle-size composition between the sources and the reservoir bottom sediment, constituent ratio and clay-normalization techniques were used. Computed ratios included TOC to TN, TOC to TP, and TN to TP. Constituent concentrations (TN, TP, TOC) and activities (137Cs) were normalized by dividing by the percentage of clay. Thus, the sediment-source estimations involved the use of seven sediment-source indicators. Within the Perry Lake Basin, the consensus of the seven indicators was that both channel-bank and surface-soil sources were important in the Atchison County Lake and Banner Creek Reservoir subbasins, whereas channel-bank sources were dominant in the Mission Lake subbasin. On the sole basis of 137Cs activity, surface-soil sources contributed the most fine-grained sediment to Atchison County Lake, and channel-bank sources contributed the most fine-grained sediment to Banner Creek Reservoir and Mission Lake. Both the seven-indicator consensus and 137Cs indicated that channel-bank sources were dominant for Perry Lake and that channel-bank sources increased in importance with distance downstream in the basin. ?? 2009 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  5. Influence of body size on Cu bioaccumulation in zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha exposed to different sources of particle-associated Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Huan, E-mail: huanzhong1982@hotmail.com [Environmental and Resource Studies Program, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada); Nanjing University, School of Environment, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Kraemer, Lisa; Evans, Douglas [Environmental and Resource Studies Program, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Mussels exposed to algal/sediment-Cu have different size-related Cu accumulation. • Size-related Cu accumulation in mussels could be more dependant on algal-Cu uptake. • Importance of algal/sediment-Cu to Cu bioaccumulation varies with mussel body size. • Cu sources (algae and sediments) should be considered in “mussel watch” programs. • Cu stable isotope offers many advantages in Cu bioaccumulation studies. -- Abstract: Size of organisms is critical in controlling metal bioavailability and bioaccumulation, while mechanisms of size-related metal bioaccumulation are not fully understood. To investigate the influences of different sources of particle-associated Cu on body size-related Cu bioavailability and bioaccumulation, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) of different sizes were exposed to stable Cu isotope ({sup 65}Cu) spiked algae (Chlorella vulgaris) or sediments in the laboratory and the Cu tissue concentration-size relationships were compared with that in unexposed mussels. Copper tissue concentrations decreased with mussel size (tissue or shell dry weight) in both unexposed and algal-exposed mussels with similar decreasing patterns, but were independent of size in sediment-exposed mussels. Furthermore, the relative contribution of Cu uptake from algae (65–91%) to Cu bioaccumulation is always higher than that from sediments (9–35%), possibly due to the higher bioavailability of algal-Cu. Therefore, the size-related ingestion of algae could be more important in influencing the size-related variations in Cu bioaccumulation. However, the relative contribution of sediment-Cu to Cu bioaccumulation increased with body size and thus sediment ingestion may also affect the size-related Cu variations in larger mussels (tissue weight >7.5 mg). This study highlights the importance of considering exposure pathways in normalization of metal concentration variation when using bivalves as biomonitors.

  6. Bolus Ingestion of Whey Protein Immediately Post-Exercise Does Not Influence Rehydration Compared to Energy-Matched Carbohydrate Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gethin H. Evans

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Whey protein is a commonly ingested nutritional supplement amongst athletes and regular exercisers; however, its role in post-exercise rehydration remains unclear. Eight healthy male and female participants completed two experimental trials involving the ingestion of 35 g of whey protein (WP or maltodextrin (MD at the onset of a rehydration period, followed by ingestion of water to a volume equivalent to 150% of the amount of body mass lost during exercise in the heat. The gastric emptying rates of the solutions were measured using 13C breath tests. Recovery was monitored for a further 3 h by the collection of blood and urine samples. The time taken to empty half of the initial solution (T1/2 was different between the trials (WP = 65.5 ± 11.4 min; MD = 56.7 ± 6.3 min; p = 0.05; however, there was no difference in cumulative urine volume throughout the recovery period (WP = 1306 ± 306 mL; MD = 1428 ± 443 mL; p = 0.314. Participants returned to net negative fluid balance 2 h after the recovery period with MD and 3 h with WP. The results of this study suggest that whey protein empties from the stomach at a slower rate than MD; however, this does not seem to exert any positive or negative effects on the maintenance of fluid balance in the post-exercise period.

  7. Use of spatially distributed time-integrated sediment sampling networks and distributed fine sediment modelling to inform catchment management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, M T; Warburton, J; Bracken, L J; Reaney, S M; Emery, S B; Hirst, S

    2017-11-01

    Under the EU Water Framework Directive, suspended sediment is omitted from environmental quality standards and compliance targets. This omission is partly explained by difficulties in assessing the complex dose-response of ecological communities. But equally, it is hindered by a lack of spatially distributed estimates of suspended sediment variability across catchments. In this paper, we demonstrate the inability of traditional, discrete sampling campaigns for assessing exposure to fine sediment. Sampling frequencies based on Environmental Quality Standard protocols, whilst reflecting typical manual sampling constraints, are unable to determine the magnitude of sediment exposure with an acceptable level of precision. Deviations from actual concentrations range between -35 and +20% based on the interquartile range of simulations. As an alternative, we assess the value of low-cost, suspended sediment sampling networks for quantifying suspended sediment transfer (SST). In this study of the 362 km 2 upland Esk catchment we observe that spatial patterns of sediment flux are consistent over the two year monitoring period across a network of 17 monitoring sites. This enables the key contributing sub-catchments of Butter Beck (SST: 1141 t km 2 yr -1 ) and Glaisdale Beck (SST: 841 t km 2 yr -1 ) to be identified. The time-integrated samplers offer a feasible alternative to traditional infrequent and discrete sampling approaches for assessing spatio-temporal changes in contamination. In conjunction with a spatially distributed diffuse pollution model (SCIMAP), time-integrated sediment sampling is an effective means of identifying critical sediment source areas in the catchment, which can better inform sediment management strategies for pollution prevention and control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Plastic ingestion by fish in the Southern Hemisphere: A baseline study and review of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Seon M E; Lavers, Jennifer L; Figueiredo, Bianca

    2016-06-15

    Plastic ingestion is well documented among marine birds and sea turtles but fewer studies have investigated ingestion in fish, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigated the frequency of plastic ingestion in 21 species of fish and one species of cephalopod. The overall occurrence of plastic ingestion was 0.3%. Two micro-plastic items were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract of a single Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni). Ingestion rates were similar to other studies of fish conducted in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, however comparisons across species and locations are challenging due to the lack of consistency in the identification and classification of plastic debris. In response, we propose a standardised sampling protocol based on the available literature to provide a stronger basis for comparisons among existing and future studies of plastic ingestion in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Interplay between spatially explicit sediment sourcing, hierarchical river-network structure, and in-channel bed material sediment transport and storage dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Jonathan A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Gran, Karen B.; Belmont, Patrick; Wilcock, Peter R.

    2017-05-01

    Understanding how sediment moves along source to sink pathways through watersheds—from hillslopes to channels and in and out of floodplains—is a fundamental problem in geomorphology. We contribute to advancing this understanding by modeling the transport and in-channel storage dynamics of bed material sediment on a river network over a 600 year time period. Specifically, we present spatiotemporal changes in bed sediment thickness along an entire river network to elucidate how river networks organize and process sediment supply. We apply our model to sand transport in the agricultural Greater Blue Earth River Basin in Minnesota. By casting the arrival of sediment to links of the network as a Poisson process, we derive analytically (under supply-limited conditions) the time-averaged probability distribution function of bed sediment thickness for each link of the river network for any spatial distribution of inputs. Under transport-limited conditions, the analytical assumptions of the Poisson arrival process are violated (due to in-channel storage dynamics) where we find large fluctuations and periodicity in the time series of bed sediment thickness. The time series of bed sediment thickness is the result of dynamics on a network in propagating, altering, and amalgamating sediment inputs in sometimes unexpected ways. One key insight gleaned from the model is that there can be a small fraction of reaches with relatively low-transport capacity within a nonequilibrium river network acting as "bottlenecks" that control sediment to downstream reaches, whereby fluctuations in bed elevation can dissociate from signals in sediment supply.

  10. Fingerprinting of bed sediment in the Tay Estuary, Scotland: an environmental magnetism approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Jenkins

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediment fingerprinting is commonly used for sediment provenance studies in lakes, rivers and reservoirs and on hillslopes and floodplains. This investigation explores the mixing of terrestrial and marine-derived sediment in the Tay Estuary, Scotland, using mineral magnetic attributes for fingerprinting. Samples representative of the estuary sediments and of four sources (end-members were subjected to a suite of magnetic susceptibility and remanence measurements. Sediment samples from the beds of the Rivers Tay and Earn represented fluvial inputs while samples from the Angus and Fife coasts represented marine input. Multivariate discriminant and factor analysis showed that the sources could be separated on the basis of six magnetic parameters in a simple multivariate unmixing model to identify source contributions to estuarine bed sediments. Multi-domain magnetite signatures, characteristic of unweathered bedrock, dominate the magnetic measurements. Overall contributions of 3% from the River Earn, 17% from the River Tay, 29% from the Angus coast and 51% from the Fife coast source end-members, demonstrated the present-day regime of marine sediment derivation in the Tay Estuary. However, this conceals considerable spatial variability both along-estuary and in terms of sub-environments, with small-scale variations in sediment provenance reflecting local morphology, particularly areas of channel convergence. Keywords: bed sediment, environmental magnetism, fingerprinting, Tay Estuary, Scotland

  11. Multiple magnet ingestion: is there a role for early surgical intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Amrollah; Kooraki, Soheil; Esfahani, Shadi Abdar; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad

    2012-01-01

    Children often swallow foreign bodies. Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can result in serious complications. This study presents three unique cases of multiple magnet ingestion: one case an 8-year-old boy with multiple magnet ingestion resulting in gastric obstruction and the other two cases with intestinal perforations due to multiple magnet intake. History and physical examination are unreliable in children who swallow multiple magnets. Sometimes radiological findings are not conclusive, whether one magnet is swallowed or more. If magnets are not moved in sequential radiology images, we recommend early surgical intervention before gastrointestinal complications develop. Toy companies, parents, physicians, and radiologists should be warned about the potential complications of such toys.

  12. Heavy metal contents of road-deposited sediment along the urban-rural gradient around Beijing and its potential contribution to runoff pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Li, Xuyong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the contribution of road-deposited sediment (RDS) and its washoff process is essential for controlling urban runoff pollution. Ninety-seven RDS samples were collected along the urban-suburban-rural gradient from areas of five administrative units in the Beijing metropolitan region, including central urban (UCA), urban village (UVA), central suburban county (CSA), rural town (RTA), and rural village (RVA) areas. RDS washoff was evaluated with different particle sizes using a rainfall simulator. Heavy metal elements (i.e., Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were estimated in both RDS and runoff samples. The RDS mass per unit area increased in the order UCA (21 ± 24 g/m(2)) ≈ CSA (20 ± 16 g/m(2)) runoff pollution contributions per unit area. Our findings imply that controlling the first flush in the UCA and CSA, and improving existing street cleaning methods and road surface conditions in the TRA, UVA, and RVA will be appropriate strategies for controlling runoff pollution from RDS.

  13. [Intestinal perforation due to multiple magnet ingestion: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevizci, Mehmet Nuri; Karadağ, Cetin Ali; Demir, Mesut; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan

    2012-03-01

    Multiple magnet ingestion during childhood may result in emergency situations. A single magnet may be discharged with intestinal peristalsis, but multiple magnets may stick together and cause significant intestinal complications. Here we present a case with intestinal perforation due to ingestion of multiple magnets and metal pieces. An eight-year-old girl presented with abdominal pain and vomiting. She had abdominal tenderness and defense on the physical examination. Abdominal X-ray showed air and fluid levels. Metallic images were not considered at first as important in the diagnosis. Abdominal ultrasonography was reported as acute appendicitis. During the abdominal exploration, the appendix was normal, but there were dense adherences around the ileum and cecum. After adhesiolysis, intestinal perforations were seen in the cecum and 15 and 45 cm proximal to the cecum. Magnet and metal pieces were present in the perforated segments. Wedge resection and primary repair was performed. There were no postoperative complications, and she was discharged on the postoperative fifth day. Pediatric surgeons should be aware of the complications of multiple magnet ingestion. If the patient has a history of multiple magnet ingestion, follow-up with daily abdominal X-rays should be done, and in cases where magnets seem to cluster together or if acute abdominal signs develop, surgical exploration should be considered.

  14. Effects of kale ingestion on pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Izumi; Uotsu, Nobuo; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Takayanagi, Risa; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2011-12-01

    Kale is a cruciferous vegetable (Brassicaceae) that contains a large amount of health-promoting phytochemicals. The chronic ingestion of cabbage of the same family is known to accelerate conjugating acetaminophen (AA) and decrease the plasma AA level. Therefore, we examined to clarify the effects of kale on the pharmacokinetics of AA, its glucuronide (AA-G) and sulfate (AA-S). AA was orally administered to rats pre-treated with kale or cabbage (2000 mg/kg/day) for one week. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein, and the concentrations of AA, AA-G and AA-S were determined. In results, kale ingestion induced an increase in the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and a decrease in the clearance of AA, whereas cabbage had almost no influence. In addition, there were significant differences in the AUC of AA-G between the control and kale groups. mRNA expression levels of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, the enzymes involved in glucuronidation, in the kale group were significantly higher than those in the control group. In conclusion, kale ingestion increased the plasma concentrations of both AA and AA-G. The results suggest that kale ingestion accelerates the glucuronidation of AA, but an increase of plasma AA levels has a different cause than the cause of glucuronidation.

  15. Organism-Sediment Interactions Govern Post-Hypoxia Recovery of Ecosystem Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Colen, Carl; Rossi, Francesca; Montserrat, Francesc; Andersson, Maria G. I.; Gribsholt, Britta; Herman, Peter M. J.; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda; Ysebaert, Tom; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia represents one of the major causes of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning loss for coastal waters. Since eutrophication-induced hypoxic events are becoming increasingly frequent and intense, understanding the response of ecosystems to hypoxia is of primary importance to understand and predict the stability of ecosystem functioning. Such ecological stability may greatly depend on the recovery patterns of communities and the return time of the system properties associated to these patterns. Here, we have examined how the reassembly of a benthic community contributed to the recovery of ecosystem functioning following experimentally-induced hypoxia in a tidal flat. We demonstrate that organism-sediment interactions that depend on organism size and relate to mobility traits and sediment reworking capacities are generally more important than recovering species richness to set the return time of the measured sediment processes and properties. Specifically, increasing macrofauna bioturbation potential during community reassembly significantly contributed to the recovery of sediment processes and properties such as denitrification, bedload sediment transport, primary production and deep pore water ammonium concentration. Such bioturbation potential was due to the replacement of the small-sized organisms that recolonised at early stages by large-sized bioturbating organisms, which had a disproportionately stronger influence on sediment. This study suggests that the complete recovery of organism-sediment interactions is a necessary condition for ecosystem functioning recovery, and that such process requires long periods after disturbance due to the slow growth of juveniles into adult stages involved in these interactions. Consequently, repeated episodes of disturbance at intervals smaller than the time needed for the system to fully recover organism-sediment interactions may greatly impair the resilience of ecosystem functioning. PMID:23185440

  16. Ballpoint pen ingestion in a 2-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameau, Anaïs; Anand, Sumeet M; Nguyen, Lily H

    2011-07-01

    A 2-year-old girl ingested a ballpoint pen, which was found on chest x-ray to have lodged in the lower esophagus and stomach. The pen, which measured nearly 15 cm in length, was removed via rigid esophagoscopy without complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the longest nonflexible foreign body ingested by a young child ever reported in the English-language literature. We describe the presentation of this case and the current guidelines for safety as enumerated in the Small Parts Regulations established by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.

  17. Special Issue ;Sediment cascades in cold climate geosystems;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morche, David; Krautblatter, Michael; Beylich, Achim A.

    2017-06-01

    This Editorial introduces the Special Issue on sediment cascades in cold climate geosystems that evolved from the eighth I.A.G./A.I.G. SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments; http://www.geomorph.org/sedibud-working-group/) workshop. The workshop was held from 1st to 4th September 2014 at the Environmental Research Station ;Schneefernerhaus; (http://www.schneefernerhaus.de/en/home.html) located at Mt. Zugspitze, the highest peak of Germany, (2962 m asl). Paper and poster presentations focused on observations, measurements and modeling of geomorphological processes in sediment cascades in cold climate geosystems. This resulting Special Issue brings together ten selected contributions from arctic and alpine environments.

  18. Alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse in university students at Jequié-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Henrique Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epidemiologic researches about psychoactive substance use have shown an up-and-coming situation to abusive consumption of alcohol in adolescent and young-adult groups. This consumption over come the knowledge about damage caused by abusive of these substances, especially for the population part who is in the “top of life experiences”; the university students. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse in university students at Jequié-BA, and to verify the association between the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse with the gender, race, smoking and graduation area. Methods: Prevalence study with probabilistic randomized sample (n = 129 of a population of 3,644 university students, registered in three universities. It was used a Questionnaire contends socio-demographic data, asking for the alcoholic ingestion and test CAGE to abuse. Results: It has been found prevalence of 63.6% to alcohol ingestion, 21.7% of high risk in abuse, and 8.5% of alcohol abuse. Although they have not been gotten association statistics between these variable and gender, race, graduation area and smoking; the data had demonstrated highest rates of alcohol abuse, and high risk in developing in students of masculine gender, medium brown race, who attend a graduation course in the health area. Those who have used of the tobacco had presented percentile greater of high risk in becoming alcohol consumer abusive. Conclusions: Intent for data found, as much alcohol ingestion as abuse, since they reflect the necessity of prevention politics to the alcoholic abusive ingestion in this population

  19. Water-level fluctuations influence sediment porewater ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reservoirs typically have elevated fish mercury (Hg) levels compared to natural lakes and rivers. A unique feature of reservoirs is water-level management which can result in sediment exposure to the air. The objective of this study is to identify how reservoir water-level fluctuations impact Hg cycling, particularly the formation of the more toxic and bioaccumulative methylmercury (MeHg). Total-Hg (THg), MeHg, stable isotope methylation rates and several ancillary parameters were measured in reservoir sediments (including some in porewater and overlying water) that are seasonally and permanently inundated. The results showed that sediment and porewater MeHg concentrations were over 3-times higher in areas experiencing water-level fluctuations compared to permanently inundated sediments. Analysis of the data suggest that the enhanced breakdown of organic matter in sediments experiencing water-level fluctuations has a two-fold effect on stimulating Hg methylation: 1) it increases the partitioning of inorganic Hg from the solid phase into the porewater phase (lower log Kd values) where it is more bioavailable for methylation; and 2) it increases dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the porewater which can stimulate the microbial community that can methylate Hg. Sulfate concentrations and cycling were enhanced in the seasonally inundated sediments and may have also contributed to increased MeHg production. Overall, our results suggest that reservoir management a

  20. Concentration of 60Co by marine organisms through sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu; Koyanagi, Taku; Saiki, Masamichi

    1976-01-01

    Uptake of 60 Co absorbed on sea sands by benthic marine organisms was observed in laboratory experiments, since the radioactive cobalt released from nuclear power plants or other establishments into coastal seawater trends to be absorbed on sea sediments and also various kinds of marine organisms live in bottom sediments. Few kinds of flatfishes (Limanda spp.) and shrimp (Trachypenaeus curvirostris) were reared in aquariums contained seawater and sea sands which were highly contaminated with 60 Co previously, and whole body retention and distribution of radioactivity were measured on the organisms taken up from the aquariums occasionally by a scintillation counter. Uptake of 60 Co from ingested sea sands was also observed on the flatfishes administrating the contaminated sands orally. Concentration of 60 Co by the flatfishes reared in the sands was not significant while the shrimp showed high retention of the radioactivity. The food habit of shrimp which usually feeds on organic detritus with other small benthic organisms is different from that of flatfishes, one of the carnivorous, and considered to bring the difference on the pathway of radionuclides concentration. Assimilation of 60 Co via the digestive tract of flatfishes through the sands was estimated as about 10 per cent of the administrated radioactivity. (auth.)

  1. Acute abdomen caused by ingested chicken wishbone: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hoxha, Faton T; Hashani, Shemsedin I; Komoni, Driton S; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije H; Kurshumliu, Fisnik I; Hashimi, Medita SH; Krasniqi, Avdyl S

    2009-01-01

    Introduction An ingested foreign body often passes the gastrointestinal tract without any complications. Foreign bodies, such as dentures, fish bones, chicken bones, and toothpicks, have been known to cause perforation of the GI tract. Case presentation We are presenting a case of a fifty-year-old male with acute abdomen; diffuse fibro purulent peritonitis, i.e. ileum perforation, caused by accidentally ingesting a chicken wishbone. He was treated surgically with ileum resection, and temporar...

  2. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter; Stutenbecker, Laura; Bakker, Maarten; Silva, Tiago A.; Schlunegger, Fritz; Lane, Stuart N.; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2018-01-01

    Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( > 1000 km2) over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation-deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc.), transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation). Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity), and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply) in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment concentration through

  3. Feeding type and development drive the ingestion of microplastics by freshwater invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Christian; Brennholt, Nicole; Reifferscheid, Georg; Wagner, Martin

    2017-12-05

    Microscopic plastic items (microplastics) are ubiquitously present in aquatic ecosystems. With decreasing size their availability and potential to accumulate throughout food webs increase. However, little is known on the uptake of microplastics by freshwater invertebrates. To address this, we exposed species with different feeding strategies to 1, 10 and 90 µm fluorescent polystyrene spheres (3-3 000 particles mL -1 ). Additionally, we investigated how developmental stages and a co-exposure to natural particles (e.g., food) modulate microplastic ingestion. All species ingested microplastics in a concentration-dependent manner with Daphnia magna consuming up to 6 180 particles h -1 , followed by Chironomus riparius (226 particles h -1 ), Physella acuta (118 particles h -1 ), Gammarus pulex (10 particles h -1 ) and Lumbriculus variegatus (8 particles h -1 ). D. magna did not ingest 90 µm microplastics whereas the other species preferred larger microplastics over 1 µm in size. In C. riparius and D. magna, size preference depended on the life stage with larger specimens ingesting more and larger microplastics. The presence of natural particles generally reduced the microplastics uptake. Our results demonstrate that freshwater invertebrates have the capacity to ingest microplastics. However, the quantity of uptake depends on their feeding type and morphology as well as on the availability of microplastics.

  4. Plastic ingestion by sea turtles in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Poli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, plastics are recognized as a major pollutant of the marine environment, representing a serious threat to ocean wildlife. Here, we examined the occurrence and effects of plastic ingestion by sea turtles found stranded along the coast of Paraíba State, Brazil from August 2009 to July 2010. Ninety-eight digestive tracts were examined, with plastic found in 20 (20.4%. Sixty five percent (n = 13 of turtles with plastic in the digestive tract were green turtles (Chelonia mydas, 25% (n = 5 were hawksbills (Eretmochelys imbricata, and 10% (n = 2 were olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea. More plastic was found in the intestine (85% than in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. We observed complete blockage of the gastrointestinal tract due to the presence of plastic in 13 of the 20 turtles that had ingested plastic. No correlation was found between the curved carapace length (CCL and the number or mass of the plastic ingested items. Significant differences were found between the intake of hard and soft plastic and the ingestion of white/transparent and colored plastic, with soft and white/transparent plastics being more commonly ingested. This study reveals the serious problem of plastic pollution to sea turtles at the area.

  5. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... single bird, the single largest medium bird which can enter the inlet, and the large flocking bird must...) (d) Large flocking bird. An engine test will be performed as follows: (1) Large flocking bird engine.... (4) Ingestion of a large flocking bird under the conditions prescribed in this paragraph must not...

  6. Unintentional Cannabis Ingestion in Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John R; Smith, Nishelle E; Moulin, Aimee K

    2017-11-01

    To analyze published reports of unintentional cannabis ingestions in children to determine presenting signs and symptoms, route of exposure, treatment, and outcome. PubMed, OpenGrey, and Google Scholar were systematically searched. Articles were selected, reviewed, and graded using Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines. Of 3316 articles, 44 were included (3582 children age ≤12 years). We found no high quality (Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine level I or II) studies and 10 level III studies documenting lethargy as the most common presenting sign and confirming increasing incidence of unintentional ingestion in states having decriminalized medical and recreational cannabis. We identified 16 level IV case series, and 28 level V case reports with 114 children, mean age 25.2 ± 18.7 months, range 8 months to 12 years, and 50 female children (44%). The most common ingestion (n = 43, 38%) was cannabis resin, followed by cookies and joints (both n = 15, 13%). Other exposures included passive smoke, medical cannabis, candies, beverages, and hemp oil. Lethargy was the most common presenting sign (n = 81, 71%) followed by ataxia (n = 16, 14%). Tachycardia, mydriasis, and hypotonia were also commonly observed. All cases were cared for in the emergency department or admitted, and mean length of stay was 27.1 ± 27.0 hours. Twenty (18%) were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit, and 7 (6%) were intubated. Unintentional cannabis ingestion by children is a serious public health concern and is well-documented in numerous studies and case reports. Clinicians should consider cannabis toxicity in any child with sudden onset of lethargy or ataxia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fate of ingested Clostridium difficile spores in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Howerton

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, a major nosocomial complication. The infective form of C. difficile is the spore, a dormant and resistant structure that forms under stress. Although spore germination is the first committed step in CDI onset, the temporal and spatial distribution of ingested C. difficile spores is not clearly understood. We recently reported that CamSA, a synthetic bile salt analog, inhibits C. difficile spore germination in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we took advantage of the anti-germination activity of bile salts to determine the fate of ingested C. difficile spores. We tested four different bile salts for efficacy in preventing CDI. Since CamSA was the only anti-germinant tested able to prevent signs of CDI, we characterized CamSa's in vitro stability, distribution, and cytotoxicity. We report that CamSA is stable to simulated gastrointestinal (GI environments, but will be degraded by members of the natural microbiota found in a healthy gut. Our data suggest that CamSA will not be systemically available, but instead will be localized to the GI tract. Since in vitro pharmacological parameters were acceptable, CamSA was used to probe the mouse model of CDI. By varying the timing of CamSA dosage, we estimated that C. difficile spores germinated and established infection less than 10 hours after ingestion. We also showed that ingested C. difficile spores rapidly transited through the GI tract and accumulated in the colon and cecum of CamSA-treated mice. From there, C. difficile spores were slowly shed over a 96-hour period. To our knowledge, this is the first report of using molecular probes to obtain disease progression information for C. difficile infection.

  8. Export from Seagrass Meadows Contributes to Marine Carbon Sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Duarte, Carlos M.; Krause-Jensen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    Seagrasses export a substantial portion of their primary production, both in particulate and dissolved organic form, but the fate of this export production remains unaccounted for in terms of seagrass carbon sequestration. Here we review available evidence on the fate of seagrass carbon export to conclude that this represents a significant contribution to carbon sequestration, both in sediments outside seagrass meadows and in the deep sea. The evidence presented implies that the contribution of seagrass meadows to carbon sequestration has been underestimated by only including carbon burial within seagrass sediments.

  9. Export from Seagrass Meadows Contributes to Marine Carbon Sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-01-17

    Seagrasses export a substantial portion of their primary production, both in particulate and dissolved organic form, but the fate of this export production remains unaccounted for in terms of seagrass carbon sequestration. Here we review available evidence on the fate of seagrass carbon export to conclude that this represents a significant contribution to carbon sequestration, both in sediments outside seagrass meadows and in the deep sea. The evidence presented implies that the contribution of seagrass meadows to carbon sequestration has been underestimated by only including carbon burial within seagrass sediments.

  10. Sediment tracing in the upper Hunter catchment using elemental and mineralogical compositions: Implications for catchment-scale suspended sediment (dis)connectivity and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryirs, Kirstie; Gore, Damian

    2013-07-01

    River bed colmation layers clog the interstices of gravel-bed rivers, impeding the vertical exchange of water and nutrients that drives ecosystem function in the hyporheic zone. In catchments where fine-grained sediment supply has increased since human disturbance, understanding sediment provenance and the (dis)connectivity of supply allows practitioners to target sediment source problems and treat them within catchment management plans. Release of alluvial fine-grained sediment from channel bank erosion since European settlement has resulted in the formation of a colmation layer along the upper Hunter River at Muswellbrook, eastern Australia. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) are used to determine the elemental and mineralogical signatures of colmation layer and floodplain sediment sources across this 4480 km2 catchment. This sediment tracing technique is used to construct a picture of how suspended sediment supply and (dis)connectivity operates in this catchment. In this system, the primary source areas are subcatchments in which sediments are stored largely in partly confined floodplain pockets, but from which sediment supply is unimpeded and directly connected to the receiving reach. Subcatchments in which alluvial sediment storage is significant — and which contain large, laterally unconfined valleys — are essentially 'switched off' or disconnected from the receiving reach. This is because large sediment sinks act to trap fine-grained sediment before it reaches the receiving reach, forming a buffer along the sediment conveyor belt. Given the age structure of floodplains in the receiving reach, this pattern of source area contributions and (dis)connectivity must have occurred throughout the Holocene.

  11. Feasibility of an ingestible sensor-based system for monitoring adherence to tuberculosis therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Belknap

    Full Text Available Poor adherence to tuberculosis (TB treatment hinders the individual's recovery and threatens public health. Currently, directly observed therapy (DOT is the standard of care; however, high sustaining costs limit its availability, creating a need for more practical adherence confirmation methods. Techniques such as video monitoring and devices to time-register the opening of pill bottles are unable to confirm actual medication ingestions. A novel approach developed by Proteus Digital Health, Inc. consists of an ingestible sensor and an on-body wearable sensor; together, they electronically confirm unique ingestions and record the date/time of the ingestion. A feasibility study using an early prototype was conducted in active TB patients to determine the system's accuracy and safety in confirming co-ingestion of TB medications with sensors. Thirty patients completed 10 DOT visits and 1,080 co-ingestion events; the system showed 95.0% (95% CI 93.5-96.2% positive detection accuracy, defined as the number of detected sensors divided by the number of transmission capable sensors administered. The specificity was 99.7% [95% CI 99.2-99.9%] based on three false signals recorded by receivers. The system's identification accuracy, defined as the number of correctly identified ingestible sensors divided by the number of sensors detected, was 100%. Of 11 adverse events, four were deemed related or possibly related to the device; three mild skin rashes and one complaint of nausea. The system's positive detection accuracy was not affected by the subjects' Body Mass Index (p = 0.7309. Study results suggest the system is capable of correctly identifying ingestible sensors with high accuracy, poses a low risk to users, and may have high patient acceptance. The system has the potential to confirm medication specific treatment compliance on a dose-by-dose basis. When coupled with mobile technology, the system could allow wirelessly observed therapy (WOT for

  12. Maternal stress and high-fat diet effect on maternal behavior, milk composition, and pup ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Ryan H; Sun, Bo; Pass, Lauren L; Power, Michael L; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L K

    2011-09-01

    Chronic variable prenatal stress or maternal high-fat diet results in offspring that are significantly heavier by the end of the first postnatal week with increased adiposity by weaning. It is unclear, however, what role maternal care and diet play in the ontogenesis of this phenotype and what contributions come from differences already established in the rat pups. In the present studies, we examined maternal behavior and milk composition as well as offspring ingestive behavior. Our aim was to better understand the development of the obese phenotype in offspring from dams subjected to prenatal stress and/or fed a high-fat (HF) diet during gestation and lactation. We found that dams maintained on a HF diet through gestation and lactation spent significantly more time nursing their pups during the first postnatal week. In addition, offspring of prenatal stress dams consumed more milk at postnatal day (PND) 3 and offspring of HF dams consume more milk on PND 7 in an independent ingestion test. Milk from HF dams showed a significant increase in fat content from PND 10-21. Together these results suggest that gestational dietary or stress manipulations can alter the rat offspring's developmental environment, evidence of which is apparent by PND 3. Alterations in maternal care, milk composition, and pup consumption during the early postnatal period may contribute to long-term changes in body weight and adiposity induced by maternal prenatal stress or high-fat diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioavailability of sediment-associated and low-molecular-mass species of radionuclides/trace metals to the mussel Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borretzen, Peer [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 50003, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, N-1432 As (Norway)], E-mail: peer.borretzen@gmail.com; Salbu, Brit [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 50003, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, N-1432 As (Norway)

    2009-04-15

    Sediments can act as a sink for contaminants in effluents from industrial and nuclear installations or when released from dumped waste. However, contaminated sediments may also act as a potential source of radionuclides and trace metals to the water phase due to remobilisation of metals as dissolved species and resuspension of particles. The marine mussel Mytilus edulis is a filter-feeding organism that via the gills is subjected to contaminants in dissolved form and from contaminants associated to suspended particles via the digestive system. In this paper the bioavailability of sediment-associated and seawater diluted Cs, Co, Cd and Zn radioactive tracers to the filtering bivalve M. edulis has been examined. The mussels were exposed to tracers diluted in ultrafiltered (<10 kDa) seawater (Low Molecular Mass form) or to tracers associated with sediment particles from the Stepovogo Fjord at Novaya Zemlya in short-term uptake experiments, followed by 1-month depuration experiments in flow-through tanks. A toxicokinetic model was fitted to the uptake and depuration data, and the obtained parameters were used to simulate the significance of the two uptake pathways at different suspended sediment loads and sediment-seawater distribution coefficients. The results of the model simulations, assuming steady state conditions, suggest that resuspended particles from contaminated sediments can be a highly significant pathway for mussels in the order {sup 109}Cd {approx_equal} {sup 65}Zn < {sup 134}Cs < {sup 60}Co. The significance increases with higher suspended sediment load and with higher K{sub d}. Furthermore, the experimental depuration data suggest that Cs is retained longer and Co, Cd and Zn shorter by the mussels when associated with ingested sediments, than if the metals are taken up from the low molecular mass (LMM) phase.

  14. Lead shot pellets dispersed by hunters: ingested by ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danell, K [Univ. of Umea, Sweden; Andersson, A; Marcstrom, V

    1977-01-01

    Many of the lead pellets shot by waterfowl hunters over shores and waters fall on the feeding grounds of ducks and geese. These pellets, picked up and ingested by the birds, can remain in the gizzard where they are eroded by mechanical and chemical action. In some cases the bird absorbs enough lead to cause lead poisoning. This report describes the incidence of ingested lead shot pellets found in 928 ducks collected in Sweden during hunting season. Pellets were found in both dabbling and diving ducks and were present in birds from six of the eight localities sampled. Usually one or two pellets were found but some ducks contained up to 62 pellets. As the incidence of ingested pellets in the present study is approximately the same as that found in North America, where the annual duck loss due to lead poisoning is estimated to be 2 to 3 percent of the population, it may be assumed that lead poisoning is a mortality factor for Swedish ducks also.

  15. Acute Caffeine Ingestion on Performance in Young Judo Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Camilla; Souza, Diego; Polito, Marcos

    2017-08-01

    To compare the acute effect of caffeine ingestion on performance in young judo athletes. In a randomized double-blind design, eighteen judo athletes (16.1 ± 1.4 yrs.) were evaluated on three nonconsecutive days. On the first day, the special judo fitness test (SJFT) was used as a control session. On the second day, the sample was randomly divided into two equal groups. One group received 4 mg.kg -1 of caffeine (capsule) and the other group received a placebo. After resting for 60 min, the sample performed the SJFT. On the final day of testing, the same procedure was performed but the substance ingested was exchanged between the groups. Heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded throughout the applications of the SJFTs. Caffeine ingestion did not induce changes in HR, but reduced the RPE compared with the placebo session (7.0 ± 1.1 vs 8.2 ± 2.0; p performance on SJFT in young judo athletes and reduced the RPE.

  16. Detection of β-lactoglobulin in human breast-milk 7 days after cow milk ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matangkasombut, Ponpan; Padungpak, Savitree; Thaloengsok, Sasikanya; Kamchaisatian, Wasu; Sasisakulporn, Cherapat; Jotikasthira, Wanlapa; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Manuyakorn, Wiparat

    2017-08-01

    β-lactoglobulin (BLG), a major allergen in cow milk (CM) can be detected in human breast-milk (BM) and is associated with exacerbation of symptoms in breastfed infants with cow milk protein allergy (CMPA). Currently, it is not known how long lactating mothers who consume dairy products need to withhold breastfeeding. To elucidate the kinetics of BLG in BM after maternal ingestion of a single dose of CM. Nineteen lactating mothers, four of whom had infants with CMPA, were instructed to avoid CM for 7 days before ingesting a single dose of CM and to continue to withhold CM thereafter throughout the study period. BLG was measured by ELISA in BM from 15 mothers of healthy infants before and at 3, 6 and 24 h, and 3 and 7 days after CM ingestion. Four pairs of mothers and CMPA infants were enrolled for BM challenge after the mothers had ingested CM. After CM ingestion, the level of BLG in BM increased significantly from 0.58 ng/ml (0.58 g/L) (IQR 0.38-0.88) to a peak level of 1.23 ng/ml (IQR 1.03-2.29), p < 0.001. The BLG level on day 3 (1.15 ng/ml, IQR 0.89-1.45) and day 7 (1.08 ng/ml (IQR 0.86-1.25) after CM ingestion was significantly higher than baseline (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively). BLG was detected in all BM samples from the four mothers of CMPA infants after CM ingestion, and the level was not different from that in the mothers of the 15 healthy infants. Three of the four CMPA infants developed symptoms such as maculopapular rash and hypersecretion in the airways after BM challenge. BLG can be detected in BM up to 7 days after CM ingestion. Lactating mothers should suspend breastfeeding to CMPA infants more than 7 days after CM ingestion.

  17. The effect of free glutamine and peptide ingestion on the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Saris, W H; van de Schoor, P A

    2000-01-01

    hydrolysate (26% glutamine) and 3) a whey hydrolysate (6.6% glutamine). Plasma glutamine, decreased by approximately 20% during recovery with ingestion of the control drink, no changes with ingestion of the protein hydrolysates drinks, and a 2-fold increase with ingestion of the free glutamine drinks....... The rate of glycogen resynthesis was not significantly different in the four tests: 28 +/- 5, 26 +/- 6, 33 +/- 4, and 34 +/- 3 mmol glucosyl units x kg(-1) dry weight muscle x h(-1) for the control, glutamine, wheat- and whey hydrolysate ingestion, respectively. It is concluded that ingestion...... of a glutamine/carbohydrate mixture does not increase the rate of glycogen resynthesis in muscle. Glycogen resynthesis rates were higher, although not statistically significant, after ingestion of the drink containing the wheat (21 +/- 8%) and whey protein hydrolysate (20 +/- 6%) compared to ingestion...

  18. Facial Muscle Coordination in Monkeys During Rhythmic Facial Expressions and Ingestive Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Stephen V.; Lanzilotto, Marco; Ghazanfar, Asif A.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the origins of communication signals generally, and primate orofacial communication signals in particular, suggest that these signals derive by ritualization of noncommunicative behaviors, notably including ingestive behaviors such as chewing and nursing. These theories are appealing in part because of the prominent periodicities in both types of behavior. Despite their intuitive appeal, however, there are little or no data with which to evaluate these theories because the coordination of muscles innervated by the facial nucleus has not been carefully compared between communicative and ingestive movements. Such data are especially crucial for reconciling neurophysiological assumptions regarding facial motor control in communication and ingestion. We here address this gap by contrasting the coordination of facial muscles during different types of rhythmic orofacial behavior in macaque monkeys, finding that the perioral muscles innervated by the facial nucleus are rhythmically coordinated during lipsmacks and that this coordination appears distinct from that observed during ingestion. PMID:22553017

  19. Sedimentation, sediment quality, and upstream channel stability, John Redmond Reservoir, east-central Kansas, 1964-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2010-01-01

    A combination of available bathymetric-survey information, bottom-sediment coring, and historical streamgage information was used to investigate sedimentation, sediment quality, and upstream channel stability for John Redmond Reservoir, east-central Kansas. Ongoing sedimentation is reducing the ability of the reservoir to serve several purposes including flood control, water supply, and recreation. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment deposited between 1964 and 2009 in the conservation pool of the reservoir was 1.46 billion cubic feet and 55.8 billion pounds, respectively. The estimated sediment volume occupied about 41 percent of the conservation-pool, water-storage capacity of the reservoir. Water-storage capacity in the conservation pool has been lost to sedimentation at a rate of about 1 percent annually. Mean annual net sediment deposition since 1964 in the conservation pool of the reservoir was estimated to be 1.24 billion pounds per year. Mean annual net sediment yield from the reservoir basin was estimated to be 411,000 pounds per square mile per year Information from sediment cores shows that throughout the history of John Redmond Reservoir, total nitrogen concentrations in the deposited sediment generally were uniform indicating consistent nitrogen inputs to the reservoir. Total phosphorus concentrations in the deposited sediment were more variable than total nitrogen indicating the possibility of changing phosphorus inputs to the reservoir. As the principal limiting factor for primary production in most freshwater environments, phosphorus is of particular importance because increased inputs can contribute to accelerated reservoir eutrophication and the production of algal toxins and taste-and-odor compounds. The mean annual net loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus deposited in the bottom sediment of the reservoir were estimated to be 2,350,000 pounds per year and 1,030,000 pounds per year, respectively. The estimated mean annual

  20. Sedimentation rates in eastern North America reveal strong links between regional climate, depositional environments, and sediment accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goring, S. J.; McLachlan, J. S.; Jackson, S. T.; Blaauw, M.; Christen, J.; Marlon, J.; Blois, J.; Williams, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    PalEON is a multidisciplinary project that combines paleo and modern ecological data with state-of-the-art statistical and modelling tools to examine the interactions between climate, fire and vegetation during the past two millennia in the northeastern United States. A fundamental challenge for PalEON (and paleo research more broadly) is to improve age modelling to yield more accurate sediment-core chronologies. To address this challenge, we assessed sedimentation rates and their controls for 218 lakes and mires in the northeastern U.S. Sedimentation rates (yr/cm) were calculated from age-depth models, which were obtained from the Neotoma database (www.neotomadb.org) and other contributed pollen records. The age models were recalibrated to IntCal09 and augmented in some cases using biostratigraphic markers (Picea decline, 16 kcal BP - 10.5 kcal BP; Quercus rise, 12 - 9.1 kcal BP; and Alnus decline, 11.5 - 10.6 kcal BP) as described in Blois et al. (2011). Relationships between sedimentation rates and sediment age, site longitude, and depositional environment (lacustrine or mire) are significant but weak. There are clear and significant links between variations in the NGRIP record of δ18O and sedimentation in mires across the PalEON region, but no links to lacustrine sedimentation rates. This result indicates that super-regional climatic control of primary productivity, and thus autochthonic sediment deposition, dominates in mires while deposition in lacustrine basins may be driven primarily by local and regional factors including watershed size, surficial materials,and regional vegetation. The shape of the gamma probability functions that best describe sedimentation rate distributions are calculated and presented here for use as priors in Bayesian age modelling applications such as BACON (Blaauw and Christen, in press). Future applications of this research are also discussed.

  1. X-ray diffraction analysis of particles ingested by filter-feeding animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, R.W.; Gersabeck, E.F.; Ross, D.H.; Mortland, M.M.

    1978-01-01

    The size and relative abundance of mineral particles ingested by two filter-feeding aquatic insects, Simulium vittatum Zett. (Diptera: Simuliidae) and Aedes triseriatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) were determined by X-ray diffraction methods. Different minerals representing different particle size categories were supplied larval black flies and mosquitoes. Since minerals possess characteristic diffraction properties, their presence and relative abundance can be determined. Early instars of the black fly ingested and retained particles of three different size ranges: however, more coarse particles relative to fine particles were retained by smaller instars as compared with the larger instars. With mosquito larvae, there was a proportional increase in coarser material ingested with increasing age and size of larvae. Other applications of this method are discussed. (Auth.)

  2. Organochlorine residues in sediments from selected tributaries to Manila Bay, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajet, C.M.; Varca, L.M.; Navarro, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment borne pesticides are the major route of transport of pesticides in the marine environment and benthic dwellers, filter feeders and the flora/fauna closely associated with the sediments could greatly be affected. This paper focuses on the monitoring of organochlorine pesticides in sediments collected from the mouth of rivers draining to Manila Bay and relate to the contribution of inland activities to the overall pollution of the Bay. Sediments from 14-25 tributaries were collected in 1996 to 1998 and analyzed for the presence of HCB, aldrin, dieldrin, lindane, DDT, DDE, DDD, endosulfan I, endosulfan II and endosulfan sulfate using GLC-ECD

  3. Frequency of Poison Center Exposures for Pediatric Accidental Unsupervised Ingestions of Acetaminophen after the Introduction of Flow Restrictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, Eric P; Reynolds, Kate M; Burnham, Randy I; Green, Jody L

    2018-04-02

    To assess the temporal association of flow restrictor introduction and the rate of accidental unsupervised ingestions (AUIs) of liquid acetaminophen products. The National Poison Data System was used to identify AUIs of single ingredient acetaminophen in patients aged poison centers obtained additional information using a structured telephone survey. Pediatric AUIs involving acetaminophen averaged 30 000 exposures per year between 2007 and 2012. From 2012 to 2015, after flow restrictor introduction, exposures steadily decreased at a rate of 2400 fewer exposures annually, reaching 21 877 exposures in 2015. Normalized to sales volume, exposures involving liquid acetaminophen products decreased by 40% from 2010 to 2015. Exposures involving products with flow restrictors tended to have a lower estimated ingestion per exposure, fewer exposures exceeding a 150 mg/kg acetaminophen threshold, and were associated with lower rates of hospital admissions when compared with products without restrictors. Caregivers reported improper storage and child confusion of the medicine with treats as common contributing factors to exposures. The introduction of flow restrictors was associated with a decrease in pediatric AUIs of liquid acetaminophen products. Decreases in the dose ingested and risk of hospital admission per exposure may also have resulted. Efforts to optimize flow restrictors and increase their use with medicines associated with high pediatric overdose risk should be encouraged. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gastric Perforation by Ingested Rabbit Bone Fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Gambaracci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of accidentally ingested foreign bodies is excreted from the gastrointestinal (GI tract without any complications. Sometimes sharp foreign bodies – like chicken and fish bones – can lead to intestinal perforation and may present insidiously with a wide range of symptoms and, consequently, different diagnoses. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman presenting with fever and a 1-month history of vague abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT showed the presence of a hyperdense linear image close to the gastric antrum surrounded by a fluid collection and free peritoneal air. At laparotomy, a 4-cm rabbit bone fragment covered in inflamed tissue was detected next to a gastric wall perforation. Rabbit bone fragment ingestion, even if rarely reported, should not be underestimated as a possible cause of GI tract perforation.

  5. A pair of pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons regulates caffeine-dependent ingestion in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaekyun Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste is an essential chemosensory modality that enables animals to identify appropriate food sources and control feeding behavior. In particular, the recognition of bitter taste prevents animals from feeding on harmful substances. Feeding is a complex behavior comprised of multiple steps, and food quality is continuously assessed. We here examined the role of pharyngeal gustatory organs in ingestion behavior. As a first step, we constructed a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map of the larval pharyngeal sense organs, and examined corresponding gustatory receptor neuron projections in the larval brain. Out of 22 candidate bitter compounds, we found 14 bitter compounds that elicit inhibition of ingestion in a dose-dependent manner. We provide evidence that certain pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons are necessary and sufficient for the ingestion response of larvae to caffeine. Additionally, we show that a specific pair of pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons, DP1, responds to caffeine by calcium imaging. In this study we show that a specific pair of gustatory receptor neurons in the pharyngeal sense organs coordinates caffeine sensing with regulation of behavioral responses such as ingestion. Our results indicate that in Drosophila larvae, the pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons have a major role in sensing food palatability to regulate ingestion behavior. The pharyngeal sense organs are prime candidates to influence ingestion due to their position in the pharynx, and they may act as first level sensors of ingested food.

  6. Evaluation of surficial sediment toxicity and sediment physico-chemical characteristics of representative sites in the Lagoon of Venice (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losso, C.; Arizzi Novelli, A.; Picone, M.; Marchetto, D.; Pessa, G.; Molinaroli, E.; Ghetti, P. F.; Volpi Ghirardini, A.

    2004-11-01

    Toxic hazard in sites with varying types and levels of contamination in the Lagoon of Venice was estimated by means of toxicity bioassays based on the early life-stages of the autochthonous sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Elutriate was chosen as the test matrix, due to its ability to highlight potential toxic effects towards sensitive biological components of the water column caused by sediment resuspension phenomena affecting the Lagoon. Surficial sediments (core-top 5 cm deep), directly influenced by resuspension/redeposition processes, and core sediments (core 20 cm deep), recording time-mediated contamination, were sampled in some sites located in the lagoonal area most greatly influenced by anthropogenic activities. Particle size, organic matter and water content were also analysed. In two sites, the results of physical parameters showed that the core-top sediments were coarser than the 20-cm core sediments. Sperm cell toxicity test results showed the negligible acute toxicity of elutriates from all investigated sites. The embryo toxicity test demonstrated a short-term chronic toxicity gradient for elutriates from the 20-cm core sediments, in general agreement both with the expected contamination gradient and with results of the Microtox® solid-phase test. Elutriates of the core-top 5-cm sediments revealed a totally inverted gradient, in comparison with that for the 20-cm core sediments, and the presence of a "hot spot" of contamination in the site chosen as a possible reference. Investigations on ammonia and sulphides as possible confounding factors excluded their contribution to this "hot spot". Integrated physico-chemical and toxicity results on sediments at various depths demonstrated the presence of disturbed sediments in the central basin of the Lagoon of Venice.

  7. The sedimentation rates in the Okinawa Trough during the Late Quaternary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon (AMS 14C) dating, sedimentation rates of 11 cores collected from the northern to southern Okinawa Trough are discussed. The sedimentation rates in the Okinawa Trough roughly range from 11 to 39 cm/ka, and the average is 23.0 cm/ka. China's continental matter is the main sediment source of the middle Okinawa Trough and has important contribution to the northern and southern Okinawa Trough. The sedimentation rates during the marine oxygen isotope (MIS)2 are uniformly higher than those during MIS 1 in the northern and middle Okinawa Trough while they are on the contrary in the southern Okinawa Trough. Sedimentation rates in the Okinawa Trough can be one of the proxies of sediment source and an indicator of cooling events.

  8. Phosphorus cycling and burial in sediments of a seasonally hypoxic marine basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulu-Gambari, F; Hagens, M.; Behrends, T; Seitaj, D.; Meysman, F.J.R.; Middelburg, J.; Slomp, C.P.

    2018-01-01

    Recycling of phosphorus (P) from sediments contributes to the development of bottom-water hypoxia in many coastal systems. Here, we present results of a year-long assessment of P dynamics in sediments of a seasonally hypoxic coastal marine basin (Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands) in 2012.

  9. Use of sediment rating curves and optical backscatter data to characterize sediment transport in the Upper Yuba River watershed, California, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jennifer A.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Alpers, Charles N.; Wright, Scott A.; Snyder, Noah P.

    2006-01-01

    sand concentrations at the South Yuba River (11417500) gage were typically higher than those at the Middle Yuba River (11410000) gage for a given streamflow throughout the three year project period. Factors contributing to differences in sediment loads and grain-size distributions at the Middle Yuba River (11410000) and South Yuba River (11417500) gages include contributing drainage area, flow diversions, and deposition of bed-material-sized sediment in reservoirs upstream of the Middle Yuba River (11410000) gage. Owing to its larger drainage area, higher flows, and absence of man-made structures that restrict sediment movement in the lower basin, the South Yuba River transports a greater and coarser sediment load.

  10. First post-fire flush in a Mediterranean temporary stream: source ascription in bed sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrany Bertos, Joan; García-Comendador, Julián; Fortesa, Josep; Calsamiglia, Aleix; Garcias, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    First flushes can be of great importance for suspended-sediment transport in fluvial systems of drylands, being temporary streams a characteristic feature of Mediterranean basins. After a wildfire, storm flows may enhance runoff delivery to channels and then increasing the first-flush effect. 137Cs and 210Pbex were used as tracers for recognizing the first post-fire flush effect in the source ascription of bed sediments temporarily stored in a Mediterranean temporary stream severely affected by a wildfire. Thirty potential sediment source samples were collected along the main stem of a catchment located in Mallorca (Spain) during a field campaign developed some weeks after the wildfire. The sample collection was designed considering the wildfire affection, and also distinguishing between soil surface and channel bank. To quantify the relative source contribution to the bed sediment temporarily stored, five sediment samples -deposited during the first storm occurred three months after the wildfire- were collected into the bed stream of the main channel. The 137Cs and 210Pbex concentrations were measured by gamma spectrometry. Then, a linear mixing model was used to establish the relative contribution of each source type to the bed sediments discerning between the most upstream and the downstream parts of the catchment. Post-fire first-flush effect was generated by a torrential event with a suspended-sediment concentration peak ca. 33,618 mg L-1, although transmission losses under a very low runoff coefficient (1%) promoted sediment deposition. Significant differences were observed in fallout radionuclide concentrations between burned surface soil and channel bank samples (p 0.05). Source ascription in bed sediments in the middle stream shows that 67% was generated in burned hillslopes, reaching 75% in the downstream part because downstream propagation of the sediment derived from the burned area. Bed sediments were mostly generated in burned hillslopes because of

  11. What Role do Hurricanes Play in Sediment Delivery to Subsiding River Deltas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. E., IV

    2016-02-01

    James E. Smith IV1, Samuel J. Bentley, Sr.1, Gregg A. Snedden2, Crawford White1 Department of Geology and Geophysics and Coastal Studies Institute, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 USA United States Geological Survey, National Wetlands Research Center, Baton Rouge LA 70803 USA The Mississippi River Delta has undergone tremendous land loss over the past century due to natural and anthropogenic influences, a fate shared by many river deltas globally. A globally unprecedented effort to restore and sustain the remaining subaerial portions of the delta is now underway, an endeavor that is expected to cost $50-100B over the next 50 yr. Success of this effort requires a thorough understanding of natural and anthropogenic controls on sediment supply, accumulation, and delta geomorphology. In the Mississippi River Delta, hurricanes have been paradoxically identified as both agents of widespread land loss, and positive influences for marsh vertical sediment accretion. We present the first multi-decadal chronostratigraphic assessment of sediment supply for a major coastal basin of the Mississippi River Delta that assesses both fluvial and hurricane-induced contributions to sediment accumulation in deltaic wetlands. Twenty seven cores have been analyzed for radioisotope geochronology and organic content to establish the chronology of mineral sediment supply to the wetlands over the past 70 years. Our findings indicate that over multidecadal timescales, hurricane-induced sediment delivery may be an important contributor for deltaic wetland vertical accretion, but the contribution from hurricanes to long-term sediment accumulation is substantially less than sediment delivery supplied by existing and planned river-sediment diversions at present-day river-sediment loads.

  12. Button battery ingestion: A therapeutic dilemma and clinical issues in management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashanjot Singh Bhangu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Button batteries, also known as disc batteries, are tiny, round batteries commonly present in numerous household electronic gadgets such as watches, calculators, cameras, hearing aids, penlights, remote control devices, and certain toys. Because of their easy accessibility to children, they pose a serious menace of accidental ingestion or inhalation. Most of the ingestions are benign. However, large-sized button batteries when ingested can become impacted in the esophagus or elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract with life-threatening repercussions. We report a 4-year-old female child brought to our setup by her parents with an alleged history of ingestion of a button battery of the watch approximately about 2 h back. The child, apart from being anxious, was asymptomatic. An initial radiograph of the chest and abdomen was taken, which showed the battery at the distal end of the stomach. Considering the small size of the battery cell and after seeking the gastroenterologist′s consultation, it was decided that the child would be managed conservatively with oral antacids and serial abdomen skiagrams were obtained. The button battery was eventually detected in the stools after 2 days.

  13. Feeding behaviour of sheep fed lucerne v. grass hays with controlled post-ingestive consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Favreau, Angelique; Ginane, Cécile; Baumont, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Understanding what determines feeding behaviour in herbivores is essential to optimise the use of forages in breeding systems. Herbivores can evaluate foods by associative learning of their pre-ingestive characteristics (taste, odour, etc.) and their postingestive consequences. Post-ingestive consequences are acknowledged as influencing intake and food choices, but the role of pre-ingestive characteristics is still being debated. Our experiment was designed to test their separate effects on d...

  14. Assessment of Hg Pollution Released from a WWII Submarine Wreck (U-864) by Hg Isotopic Analysis of Sediments and Cancer pagurus Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua-Ibarz, Ana; Bolea-Fernandez, Eduardo; Maage, Amund; Frantzen, Sylvia; Valdersnes, Stig; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2016-10-04

    Hg pollution released from the U-864 submarine sunk during WWII and potential introduction of that Hg into the marine food chain have been studied by a combination of quantitative Hg and MeHg determination and Hg isotopic analysis via cold vapor generation multicollector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (CVG-MC-ICP-MS) in sediment and Cancer pagurus samples. The sediment pollution could be unequivocally linked with the metallic Hg present in the wreck. Crabs were collected at the wreck location and 4 nmi north and south, and their brown and claw meat were analyzed separately. For brown meat, the δ 202 Hg values of the individuals from the wreck location were shifted toward the isotopic signature of the sediment and, thus, the submarine Hg. Such differences were not found for claw meat. The isotope ratio results suggest direct ingestion of metallic Hg by C. pagurus but do not offer any proof for any other introduction of the submarine Hg into the marine food chain.

  15. Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witek-Janusek, L.

    1986-01-01

    Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat

  16. Glucose ingestion during endurance training does not alter adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Fischer, Christian P; Plomgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    , 2) lower citrate synthase (CS) and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (beta-HAD) activity and glycogen content in skeletal muscle, and 3) attenuated endurance performance enhancement in the trained state. To investigate this we studied nine male subjects who performed 10 wk of one-legged knee...... extensor training. They trained one leg while ingesting a 6% glucose solution (Glc) and ingested a sweetened placebo while training the other leg (Plc). The subjects trained their respective legs 2 h at a time on alternate days 5 days a week. Endurance training increased peak power (P(max)) and time...

  17. A case of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Sari Dogan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute hepatitis is characterized by liver inflammation and liver cell necrosis. The most frequently observed underlying cause thereof is viruses, but various other causes, such as alcohol, medication, or toxins may also lead thereto.In this paper, a case of acute hepatitis presenting with bradycardia, hypotension, and a prominent increase in liver enzymes following mad honey ingestion is discussed. Since there are only few cases of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion in the literature, we want to present this subject matter. Keywords: Mad honey poisoning, Mad honey intoxication, Bradycardia, Hypotension, Acute hepatitis

  18. Poisoning by the ingestion of seeds of the fruit of the "cotieira" (Joannesia princeps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de Andrade Nishioka

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old boy ingested the core of two seeds of a fruit of Joannesia princeps, a large tree sometimes found planted in sidewalks on streets in Brazilian towns. Four hours after the ingestion, he had several episodes of vomiting and diarrhea, but recovered spontaneously th same day. Poisoning by the ingestion of seeds of Joannesia princeps is possibly not rare, considering that the tree gives plenty of fruit and the seeds have an agreeable flavor, but is probably underestimated as mild cases are unlikely to be reported. Ingestion by small children, that could lead to potentially more severe cases, is in part probably prevented by the hardness of the shells covering the seeds.

  19. Oil pollution in soils and sediments from the Northern Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Moraleda-Cibrián, Núria; Cartró-Sabaté, Mar; Colomer-Ventura, Ferran; Mayor, Pedro; Orta-Martínez, Martí

    2018-01-01

    Oil has been extracted from the Northern Peruvian Amazon for over four decades. However, few scientific studies have assessed the impacts of such activities in the environment and health of indigenous communities in the region. We have investigated the occurrence of petrogenic hydrocarbon pollution in soils and sediments from areas favoured as hunting or fishing grounds by local indigenous inhabitants. The study was conducted in one of the most productive oil blocks in Peru, located in the headwaters of the Amazon river. Soils and river sediments, in the vicinity of oil extraction and processing infrastructure, contained an oil pollution signature as attested by the occurrence of hopanes and steranes. Given the lack of any other significant source of oil pollution in the region, the sources of hydrocarbons are likely to be the activities of the oil industry in the oil block, from voluntary discharges or accidental spills. Spillage of produced water was commonplace until 2009. Moreover, petrogenic compounds were absent in control samples in sites far removed from any oil infrastructure in the oil block. Our findings suggest that wildlife and indigenous populations in this region of the Amazon are exposed to the ingestion of oil polluted soils and sediments. The data obtained supports previous claims that the local spillage of oil and produced waters in the water courses in the Corrientes and Pastaza basins could have eventually reached the main water course of the Amazon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sources of heavy metals in sediments of the Hudson River Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.C.; Simpson, H.J.; Olsen, C.R.; Bopp, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    Sediments in the Hudson Estuary contain zinc, copper and lead from metal pollutants discharged to the harbor in the New York City area, from dispersed sources of contamination introduced upstream, and from natural weathering processes. The magnitude of the contribution from each of these three sources to particular sites can be estimated on the basis of total metal abundances, relative proportions of several metals, and other sediment properties. The pattern of recent heavy-metal contamination in Hudson sediments closely follows the distribution in sediments of 137 Cs which was derived over the past two decades from global fallout and local releases from a commercial nuclear reactor. Several simple empirical corrections related to grain size and mineralogy variations are suggested for comparing heavy-metal contamination levels of sandy continental shelf sediments with fine-grained estuarine and coastal sediments. Iron has little variation in Hudson sediments while manganese is greater in surface sediment of some low-salinity and fresh-water areas than deeper in the sediments, and generally less in the high-salinity area of rapid sediment deposition in New York harbor. Much of the pollutant Cu added to the harbor appears to be rapidly deposited in the sediments. (Auth.)

  1. Medication adherence assessment: high accuracy of the new Ingestible Sensor System in kidney transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberger, Ute; Wüthrich, Rudolf P; Bock, Andreas; Ambühl, Patrice; Steiger, Jürg; Intondi, Allison; Kuranoff, Susan; Maier, Thomas; Green, Damian; DiCarlo, Lorenzo; Feutren, Gilles; De Geest, Sabina

    2013-08-15

    This open-label single-arm exploratory study evaluated the accuracy of the Ingestible Sensor System (ISS), a novel technology for directly assessing the ingestion of oral medications and treatment adherence. ISS consists of an ingestible event marker (IEM), a microsensor that becomes activated in gastric fluid, and an adhesive personal monitor (APM) that detects IEM activation. In this study, the IEM was combined to enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (ECMPS). Twenty stable adult kidney transplants received IEM-ECMPS for a mean of 9.2 weeks totaling 1227 cumulative days. Eight patients prematurely discontinued treatment due to ECMPS gastrointestinal symptoms (n=2), skin intolerance to APM (n=2), and insufficient system usability (n=4). Rash or erythema due to APM was reported in 7 (37%) patients, all during the first month of use. No serious or severe adverse events and no rejection episode were reported. IEM detection accuracy was 100% over 34 directly observed ingestions; Taking Adherence was 99.4% over a total of 2824 prescribed IEM-ECMPS ingestions. ISS could detect accurately the ingestion of two IEM-ECMPS capsules taken at the same time (detection rate of 99.3%, n=2376). ISS is a promising new technology that provides highly reliable measurements of intake and timing of intake of drugs that are combined with the IEM.

  2. Spent shot availability and ingestion on areas managed for mourning doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, J.H.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Washburn, B.E.; Wester, G.R.; Lanigan, J. T.; Franson, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) hunting is becoming increasingly popular, especially in managed shooting fields. Given the possible increase in the availability of lead (Pb) shot on these areas, our objective was to estimate availability and ingestion of spent shot at the Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area (EBCA, hunted with nontoxic shot) and the James A. Reed Memorial Wildlife Area (JARWA, hunted with Pb shot) in Missouri. During 1998, we collected soil samples one or 2 weeks prior to the hunting season (prehunt) and after 4 days of dove hunting (posthunt). We also collected information on number of doves harvested, number of shots fired, shotgun gauge, and shotshell size used. Dove carcasses were collected on both areas during 1998-99. At EBCA, 60 hunters deposited an estimated 64,775 pellets/ha of nontoxic shot on or around the managed field. At JARWA, approximately 1,086,275 pellets/ha of Pb shot were deposited by 728 hunters. Our posthunt estimates of spent-shot availability from soil sampling were 0 pellets/ha for EBCA and 6,342 pellets/ha for JARWA. Our findings suggest that existing soil sampling protocols may not provide accurate estimates of spent-shot availability in managed dove shooting fields. During 1998-99, 15 of 310 (4.8%) mourning doves collected from EBCA had ingested nontoxic shot. Of those doves, 6 (40.0%) contained a?Y7 shot pellets. In comparison, only 2 of 574 (0.3%) doves collected from JARWA had ingested Pb shot. Because a greater proportion of doves ingested multiple steel pellets compared to Pb pellets, we suggest that doves feeding in fields hunted with Pb shot may succumb to acute Pb toxicosis and thus become unavailable to harvest, resulting in an underestimate of ingestion rates. Although further research is needed to test this hypothesis, our findings may partially explain why previous studies have shown few doves with ingested Pb shot despite their feeding on areas with high Pb shot availability.

  3. Estimation of sediment sources using selected chemical tracers in the Perry lake basin, Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, K.E.; Ziegler, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to achieve meaningful decreases in sediment loads to reservoirs requires a determination of the relative importance of sediment sources within the contributing basins. In an investigation of sources of fine-grained sediment (clay and silt) within the Perry Lake Basin in northeast Kansas, representative samples of channel-bank sources, surface-soil sources (cropland and grassland), and reservoir bottom sediment were collected, chemically analyzed, and compared. The samples were sieved to isolate the phosphorus), organic and total carbon, 25 trace elements, and the radionuclide cesium-137 (137Cs). On the basis of substantial and consistent compositional differences among the source types, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total organic carbon (TOC), and 137Cs were selected for use in the estimation of sediment sources. To further account for differences in particle-size composition between the sources and the reservoir bottom sediment, constituent ratio and clay-normalization techniques were used. Computed ratios included TOC to TN, TOC to TP, and TN to TP. Constituent concentrations (TN, TP, TOC) and activities (137Cs) were normalized by dividing by the percentage of clay. Thus, the sediment-source estimations involved the use of seven sediment-source indicators. Within the Perry Lake Basin, the consensus of the seven indicators was that both channel-bank and surface-soil sources were important in the Atchison County Lake and Banner Creek Reservoir subbasins, whereas channel-bank sources were dominant in the Mission Lake subbasin. On the sole basis of 137Cs activity, surface-soil sources contributed the most fine-grained sediment to Atchison County Lake, and channel-bank sources contributed the most fine-grained sediment to Banner Creek Reservoir and Mission Lake. Both the seven-indicator consensus and 137Cs indicated that channel-bank sources were dominant for Perry Lake and that channel-bank sources increased in importance with distance

  4. OU3 sediment dating and sedimentation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, R.B.; Wolaver, H.A.; Burger, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental Technologies at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFS) investigated the sediment history of Standley Lake, Great Western Reservoir, and Mower Reservoir using 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu global fall-out as dating indicators. These Colorado Front Range reservoirs have been the subject of study by various city, state and national agencies due to suspected Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant impacts. We performed sediment dating as part of the RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for Operable Unit 3. A sediment chronology profile assists scientist in determining the year of sedimentation for a particular peak concentration of contaminants. Radioisotope sediment dating for the three reservoirs indicated sedimentation rates of 0.7 to 0.8 in./yr. for Standley Lake (SL), 0.9 in./yr. for Great Western Reservoir (GWR), and 0.3 in./yr. in Mower Reservoir (MR). RFS sediment dating for Operable Unit 3 compared favorably with the Hardy, Livingston, Burke, and Volchok Standley Lake study. This report describes the cesium/plutonium sediment dating method, estimates sedimentation rates for Operable Unit 3 reservoirs, and compares these results to previous investigations

  5. Predictors of Recurrent Ingestion of Gastrointestinal Foreign Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian C Grimes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal foreign bodies are commonly encountered; however, little knowledge exists as to the causes of foreign body ingestions and why they occur repeatedly in some patients.

  6. Glucose ingestion during endurance training in men attenuates expression of myokine receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Petersen, Anne Marie Winther

    2009-01-01

    -leg) while ingesting a glucose solution (Glc) and ingested a placebo (Plc) while training the other leg (Plc-leg). Endurance training increased peak power by 14% and reduced the exercise-induced gene expression of IL-6 and IL-6Ralpha in skeletal muscle and IL-6 plasma concentration. The IL-6Ralpha density...

  7. Successful treatment of rare-earth magnet ingestion via minimally invasive techniques: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosut, Jessica S; Johnson, Sidney M; King, Jeremy L; Garnett, Gwendolyn; Woo, Russell K

    2013-04-01

    Cases of rare-earth magnet ingestions have been increasingly reported in the literature. However, these descriptions have focused on the severity of the injuries, rather than the clinical presentation and/or therapeutic approach. We report a series of eight children, ranging in age from 2 to 10 years, who ingested powerful rare-earth magnets. The rare-earth magnets were marketed in 2009 under the trade name Buckyballs(®) (Maxfield & Oberton, New York, NY). They are about 5 mm in size, spherical, and brightly colored, making them appealing for young children to play with and place in their mouths. Three children presented within hours of ingestion, and the magnets were successfully removed via endoscopy in two, whereas the third child required laparoscopy. No fistulas were found in these children. A fourth child presented 2 days after ingestion with evidence of bowel wall erosion, but without fistula formation; the magnets were removed via laparoscopy. A fifth child ingested nine magnets in a ring formation, which were removed via colonoscopy without evidence of injury or fistula formation. The three remaining children presented late (5-8 days after ingestion) and were found to have associated fistulas. They were treated successfully with a combination of endoscopy and laparoscopy with fluoroscopy. None of the children in our series required an open surgical procedure. All children were discharged home without complications. This case series highlights the potential dangers of rare-earth magnet ingestion in children. Our experience suggests that prompt intervention using minimally invasive approaches can lead to successful outcomes.

  8. Dynamics of carbon sources supporting burial in seagrass sediments under increasing anthropogenic pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, Inés

    2017-03-15

    Seagrass meadows are strong coastal carbon sinks of autochthonous and allochthonous carbon. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of coastal anthropogenic pressure on the variability of carbon sources in seagrass carbon sinks during the last 150 yr. We did so by examining the composition of the sediment organic carbon (Corg) stocks by measuring the δ13Corg signature and C : N ratio in 210Pb dated sediments of 11 Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows around the Balearic Islands (Spain, Western Mediterranean) under different levels of human pressure. On average, the top meter sediment carbon deposits were mainly (59% ± 12%) composed by P. oceanica derived carbon whereas seston contribution was generally lower (41% ± 8%). The contribution of P. oceanica to the total sediment carbon stock was the highest (∼ 80%) in the most pristine sites whereas the sestonic contribution was the highest (∼ 40–80%) in the meadows located in areas under moderate to very high human pressure. Furthermore, an increase in the contribution of sestonic carbon and a decrease in that of seagrass derived carbon toward present was observed in most of the meadows examined, coincident with the onset of the tourism industry development and coastal urbanization in the region. Our results demonstrate a general increase of total carbon accumulation rate in P. oceanica sediments during the last century, mainly driven by the increase in sestonic Corg carbon burial, which may have important implications in the long-term carbon sink capacity of the seagrass meadows in the region examined.

  9. Trends in suspended-sediment loads and concentrations in the Mississippi River Basin, 1950–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Sprague, Lori A.; Blevins, Dale W.

    2011-01-01

    Trends in loads and concentrations of suspended sediment and suspended sand generally were downward for stations within the Mississippi River Basin during the 60-, 34-, and 12-year periods analyzed. Sediment transport in the lower Mississippi River has historically been, and continues to be, most closely correlative to sediment contributions from the Missouri River, which generally carried the largest annual suspended-sediment load of the major Mississippi River subbasins. The closure of Fort Randall Dam in the upper Missouri River in 1952 was the single largest event in the recorded historical decline of suspended-sediment loads in the Mississippi River Basin. Impoundments on tributaries and sediment reductions as a result of implementation of agricultural conservation practices throughout the basin likely account for much of the remaining Mississippi River sediment transport decline. Scour of the main-stem channel downstream from the upper Missouri River impoundments is likely the largest source of suspended sand in the lower Missouri River. The Ohio River was second to the Missouri River in terms of sediment contributions, followed by the upper Mississippi and Arkansas Rivers. Declines in sediment loads and concentrations continued through the most recent analysis period (1998–2009) at available Mississippi River Basin stations. Analyses of flow-adjusted concentrations of suspended sediment indicate the recent downward temporal changes generally can be explained by corresponding decreases in streamflows.

  10. On the relevance of droplet sedimentation in stratocumulus-top mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, Juan Pedro; de Lozar, Alberto

    2017-11-01

    The interaction between droplet sedimentation, turbulent mixing, evaporative cooling, and radiative cooling at the top of stratocumulus clouds has been studied using direct numerical simulations. This interaction is important to determine the mixing rate of the cloud and dry air above it, which eventually determines the cloud lifetime. By investigating the entrainment-rate equation, which is an analytical relationship between the contributions to cloud-top entrainment from the phenomena indicated above, we have found that the reduction of entrainment velocity by droplet sedimentation can be 2 to 3 times larger than previously conjectured. The reason is twofold. First, the reduction of evaporative cooling as droplets fall out of the inversion is stronger than previously observed in large-eddy simulations, where excessive mixing by turbulence models and numerical artifacts may have partially masked this effect of sedimentation on entrainment. Second, there is a non-negligible direct contribution from mass loading, as falling droplets leave behind more buoyant air in the inversion. This contribution is proportional to the fifth moment of the droplet-size distribution, which provides further evidence for the need to better understand the evolution of the droplet-size distribution.

  11. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Costa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( >  1000 km2 over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation–deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc., transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation. Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity, and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment

  12. Soft-sediment mullions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution I describe the appearance, formation and significance of soft-sediment mullions. I use several examples from synorogenic turbidites of the Alps and the Pyrenees to show their appearance in the field. Soft-sediment mullions are elongate, slightly irregular bulges at the base of coarse-grained clastic beds (sand to conglomerate), separated by narrow, elongate flames of fine-grained material (mud) protruding into the coarse-grained bed. Various processes may lead to the formation of such structures: (1) longitudinal furrows parallel to the sediment transport direction may form by spiral motion in flow rolls during sediment transport (Dzulinski, 1966; Dzulinski & Simpson, 1966). (2) Loading combined with downslope movement can produce elongate structures parallelling the dowslope direction (Anketell et al., 1970). (3) Soft-sediment mullions are oriented perpendicular or oblique to the downslope direction, and show evidence of bedding-parallel shortening. Thus, they resemble cuspate-lobate folds or mullions, which are well-known in ductile structural geology (e.g. Urai et al., 2001). Soft-sediment mullions have been observed in two cases: Either bedding-parallel shortening can be achieved by slump processes, or by active tectonic shortening. Slumping is characterized by an alternation of stretching and shortening (e.g. Ortner, 2007; Alsop & Marco 2014), and therefore mullions do overprint or are overprinted by normal faults. In active depositional systems that are subject to tectonic shortening growth strata will form, but sediments already deposited will be shortened during lithification. In some cases, the formation of soft-sediment mullions predates folding, but the most widespread expression of syn-lithification shortening seems to be soft-sediment mullions, that form in the inner arcs of fold hinges. In the examples documented so far, the size of soft-sediment mullions is dependent on the grain-size of the coarse-grained layer, in which the

  13. Estimation of sediment inflows to Lake Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 2009-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Tuscaloosa, evaluated the concentrations, loads, and yields of suspended sediment in the tributaries to Lake Tuscaloosa in west-central Alabama, from October 1, 2008, to January 31, 2012. The collection and analysis of these data will facilitate the comparison with historical data, serve as a baseline for future sediment-collection efforts, and help to identify areas of concern. Lake Tuscaloosa, at the reservoir dam, receives runoff from a drainage area of 423 square miles (mi2). Basinwide in 2006, forested land was the primary land cover (68 percent). Comparison of historical imagery with the National Land Cover Database (2001 and 2006) indicated that the greatest temporal land-use change was timber harvest. The land cover in 2006 was indicative of this change, with shrub/scrub land (12 percent) being the secondary land use in the basin. Agricultural land use (10 percent) was represented predominantly by hay and pasture or grasslands. Urban land use was minimal, accounting for 4 percent of the entire basin. The remaining 6 percent of the basin has a land use of open water or wetlands. Storm and monthly suspended-sediment samples were collected from seven tributaries to Lake Tuscaloosa: North River, Turkey Creek, Binion Creek, Pole Bridge Creek, Tierce Creek, Carroll Creek, and Brush Creek. Suspended-sediment concentrations and streamflow measurements were statistically analyzed to estimate annual suspended-sediment loads and yields from each of these contributing watersheds. Estimated annual suspended-sediment yields in 2009 were 360, 540, and 840 tons per square mile (tons/mi2) at the North River, Turkey Creek, and Carroll Creek streamflow-gaging stations, respectively. Estimated annual suspended-sediment yields in 2010 were 120 and 86 tons/mi2 at the Binion Creek and Pole Bridge Creek streamflow-gaging stations, respectively. Estimated annual suspended-sediment yields in 2011 were 190 and 300 tons/mi2

  14. Hemorrhagic shock secondary to button battery ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Andreia Takesaki

    Full Text Available CONTEXT:Button battery ingestion is a frequent pediatric complaint. The serious complications resulting from accidental ingestion have increased significantly over the last two decades due to easy access to gadgets and electronic toys. Over recent years, the increasing use of lithium batteries of diameter 20 mm has brought new challenges, because these are more detrimental to the mucosa, compared with other types, with high morbidity and mortality. The clinical complaints, which are often nonspecific, may lead to delayed diagnosis, thereby increasing the risk of severe complications.CASE REPORT:A five-year-old boy who had been complaining of abdominal pain for ten days, was brought to the emergency service with a clinical condition of hematemesis that started two hours earlier. On admission, he presented pallor, tachycardia and hypotension. A plain abdominal x-ray produced an image suggestive of a button battery. Digestive endoscopy showed a deep ulcerated lesion in the esophagus without active bleeding. After this procedure, the patient presented profuse hematemesis and severe hypotension, followed by cardiorespiratory arrest, which was reversed. He then underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy and presented a new episode of cardiorespiratory arrest, which he did not survive. The battery was removed through rectal exploration.CONCLUSION:This case describes a fatal evolution of button battery ingestion with late diagnosis and severe associated injury of the digestive mucosa. A high level of clinical suspicion is essential for preventing this evolution. Preventive strategies are required, as well as health education, with warnings to parents, caregivers and healthcare professionals.

  15. Modeling Benthic Sediment Processes to Predict Water Quality and Ecology in Narragansett Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benthic sediment acts as a huge reservoir of particulate and dissolved material (within interstitial water) which can contribute to loading of contaminants and nutrients to the water column. A benthic sediment model is presented in this report to predict spatial and temporal ...

  16. Recent metalliferous sediment in the North Pacific manganese nodule area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Quaternary sediments cored in the northeast Pacific nodule area (DOMES site C, 14??N, 126??W) contain a significant amount of hydrothermal metalliferous mud. Water content, color, mineralogy, and chemical composition are analogous to metalliferous sediments of the subequatorial East Pacific Rise. Correction for contribution of pelagic clay indicates the metalliferous fraction to be about 40% of the sediment. SiO2 and Mg are major components in the corrected composition, as they are for other metalliferous sediments similarly corrected from a variety of East Pacific Rise and DSDP metalliferous sediments. A correlation between Mg and SiO2 for these corrected sediments could indicate a hydrothermal origin for a significant portion of the SiO2. Results from DSDP in the nodule area suggest that metalliferous globules are a ubiquitous minor component of the Clipperton Oceanic Formation, which underlies much of the Pacific ferromanganese nodule belt. This indicates that deposition of hydrothermal precipitates is not confined to spreading centers. ?? 1977.

  17. The Resistome of Farmed Fish Feces Contributes to the Enrichment of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Sediments below Baltic Sea Fish Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muziasari, Windi I; Pitkänen, Leena K; Sørum, Henning; Stedtfeld, Robert D; Tiedje, James M; Virta, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that particular antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were enriched locally in sediments below fish farms in the Northern Baltic Sea, Finland, even when the selection pressure from antibiotics was negligible. We assumed that a constant influx of farmed fish feces could be the plausible source of the ARGs enriched in the farm sediments. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of the antibiotic resistome from the intestinal contents of 20 fish from the Baltic Sea farms. We used a high-throughput method, WaferGen qPCR array with 364 primer sets to detect and quantify ARGs, mobile genetic elements (MGE), and the 16S rRNA gene. Despite a considerably wide selection of qPCR primer sets, only 28 genes were detected in the intestinal contents. The detected genes were ARGs encoding resistance to sulfonamide ( sul1 ), trimethoprim ( dfrA1 ), tetracycline [ tet(32), tetM, tetO, tetW ], aminoglycoside ( aadA1, aadA2 ), chloramphenicol ( catA1 ), and efflux-pumps resistance genes ( emrB, matA, mefA, msrA ). The detected genes also included class 1 integron-associated genes ( intI1, qacE Δ 1 ) and transposases ( tnpA ). Importantly, most of the detected genes were the same genes enriched in the farm sediments. This preliminary study suggests that feces from farmed fish contribute to the ARG enrichment in farm sediments despite the lack of contemporaneous antibiotic treatments at the farms. We observed that the intestinal contents of individual farmed fish had their own resistome compositions. Our result also showed that the total relative abundances of transposases and tet genes were significantly correlated ( p = 0.001, R 2 = 0.71). In addition, we analyzed the mucosal skin and gill filament resistomes of the farmed fish but only one multidrug-efflux resistance gene ( emrB ) was detected. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the resistome of farmed fish using a culture-independent method. Determining the possible sources of

  18. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: wasoares@sp.gov.br, E-mail: gquinaglia@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2013-07-01

    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  19. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Quinaglia, Gilson A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2013-01-01

    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  20. Acute Hepatic Failure in a Dog after Xylitol Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Renee D; Hovda, Lynn R

    2016-06-01

    Xylitol is a five-carbon sugar alcohol produced from natural resources frequently used as a sugar substitute for humans. We report the development and successful treatment of acute hepatic failure and coagulopathy in a dog after xylitol ingestion. A 9-year-old 4.95 kg (10.9 lb) neutered male Chihuahua was evaluated at a veterinary clinic for vomiting after ingesting 224 g (45 g/kg, 20.5 g/lb) of granulated xylitol. Hypoglycemia developed within 1-2 h, elevated liver values, suggesting the development of acute hepatic failure, within 12 h and coagulopathy less than 24 h after ingestion. Treatment included maropitant, intravenous dextrose, phytonadione, metronidazole, and fresh frozen plasma. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and S-adensoyl-L-methionine (SAMe) provided hepatic detoxification and support. The dog survived and liver values returned to normal within 1 month post ingestion. No adverse effects to hepatic function have been identified 2 years after acute xylitol toxicity. This paper is one of the few reports of successful management of a dog with hypoglycemia, hepatic failure, and coagulopathy caused by xylitol toxicity. To date, this is the highest published xylitol dose survived by a dog, as well as the only reported case that documents laboratory changes throughout the course of toxicity and includes normal hepatic indices for 7 months following xylitol toxicity. The rapidly expanding use of xylitol in a variety of products intended for human consumption has led to a rise in xylitol toxicity cases reported in dogs, and clinicians should be aware that more dogs may potentially be exposed and develop similar manifestations.

  1. Biomarkers in sedimentary sequences: Indicators to track sediment sources over decadal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F. X.; Fang, N. F.; Wang, Y. X.; Tong, L. S.; Shi, Z. H.

    2017-02-01

    Long-term sedimentary sequence research can reveal how human activities and climate interact to affect catchment vegetation, flooding, soil erosion, and sediment sources. In this study, a biomarker sediment fingerprinting technique based on n-alkanes was used to identify long timescale (decadal) sediment sources in a small agricultural catchment. However, the highly saline carbonate environment and bacterial and algal activities elevated the levels of even-chain n-alkanes in the sediments, leading to an obvious even-over-odd predominance of short and middle components (C15-C26). Therefore, by analyzing three odd, long-chain n-alkanes (C27, C29 and C31) in 27 source samples from cropland, gully, and steep slope areas and one sediment sequence (one cultivated horizon and 47 flood couplets), a composite fingerprinting method and genetic algorithm optimization were applied to find the optimal source contributions to sediments. The biomarker fingerprinting results demonstrated that the primary sediment source is gullies, followed by cropland and steep slope areas. The average median source contributions associated with 47 flood couples collected from sediment core samples ranged from 0 ± 0.1% to 91.9 ± 0.4% with an average of 45.0% for gullies, 0 ± 0.4% to 95.6 ± 1.6% with an average of 38.2% for cropland, and 0 ± 2.1% to 60.7 ± 0.4% with an average of 16.8% for steep slopes. However, because farmers were highly motivated to manage the cropland after the 1980s, over half the sediments were derived from cropland in the 1980s. Biomarkers have significant advantages in the identification of sediments derived from different landscape units (e.g., gully and steep slope areas), and n-alkanes have considerable potential in high-resolution research of environmental change based on soil erosion in the hilly Loess Plateau region.

  2. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Yin, Guoyu; Zheng, Yanling; Deng, Fengyu

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM) rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg-1 d-1 in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase) activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 105 t N yr-1, and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12–15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication. PMID:26991904

  3. Quantifying the provenance of aeolian sediments using multiple composite fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Benli; Niu, Qinghe; Qu, Jianjun; Zu, Ruiping

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a new fingerprinting method that uses multiple composite fingerprints for studies of aeolian sediment provenance. We used this method to quantify the provenance of sediments on both sides of the Qinghai-Tibetan Railway (QTR) in the Cuona Lake section of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), in an environment characterized by aeolian and fluvial interactions. The method involves repeatedly solving a linear mixing model based on mass conservation; the model is not limited to spatial scale or transport types and uses all the tracer groups that passed the range check, Kruskal-Wallis H-test, and a strict analytical solution screening. The proportional estimates that result from using different composite fingerprints are highly variable; however, the average of these fingerprints has a greater accuracy and certainty than any single fingerprint. The results show that sand from the lake beach, hilly surface, and gullies contribute, respectively, 48%, 31% and 21% to the western railway sediments and 43%, 33% and 24% to the eastern railway sediments. The difference between contributions from various sources on either side of the railway, which may increase in the future, was clearly related to variations in local transport characteristics, a conclusion that is supported by grain size analysis. The construction of the QTR changed the local cycling of materials, and the difference in provenance between the sediments that are separated by the railway reflects the changed sedimentary conditions on either side of the railway. The effectiveness of this method suggests that it will be useful in other studies of aeolian sediments.

  4. Urbanization is a major influence on microplastic ingestion by sunfish in the Brazos River Basin, Central Texas, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Colleen A.; Bratton, Susan P.

    2016-01-01

    Microplastics, degraded and weathered polymer-based particles, and manufactured products ranging between 50 and 5000 μm in size, are found within marine, freshwater, and estuarine environments. While numerous peer-reviewed papers have quantified the ingestion of microplastics by marine vertebrates, relatively few studies have focused on microplastic ingestion by freshwater organisms. This study documents microplastic and manufactured fiber ingestion by bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and longear (Lepomis megalotis) sunfish (Centrarchidae) from the Brazos River Basin, between Lake Whitney and Marlin, Texas, USA. Fourteen sample sites were studied and categorized into urban, downstream, and upstream areas. A total of 436 sunfish were collected, and 196 (45%) stomachs contained microplastics. Four percent (4%) of items sampled were debris on the macro size scale (i.e. >5 mm) and consisted of masses of plastic, metal, Styrofoam, or fishing material, while 96% of items sampled were in the form of microplastic threads. Fish length was statistically correlated to the number of microplastics detected (p = 0.019). Fish collected from urban sites displayed the highest mean number of microplastics ingested, followed by downstream and upstream sites. Microplastics were associated with the ingestion of other debris items (e.g. sand and wood) and correlated to the ingestion of fish eggs, earthworms, and mollusks, suggesting that sunfish incidentally ingest microplastics during their normal feeding methods. The high frequency of microplastic ingestion suggest that further research is needed to determine the residence time of microplastics within the stomach and gut, potential for food web transfer, and adverse effects on wildlife and ecosystemic health. - Highlights: • Sunfish ingest microplastics and manufactured materials at significant levels. • Local urbanization influences microplastic ingestion. • Sunfish incidentally ingest microplastics during their normal

  5. Chloroform ingestion causing severe gastrointestinal injury, hepatotoxicity and dermatitis confirmed with plasma chloroform concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaweera, Dushan; Islam, Shawkat; Gunja, Naren; Cowie, Chris; Broska, James; Poojara, Latesh; Roberts, Michael S; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2017-02-01

    Poisoning due to chloroform ingestion is rare. The classic features of acute chloroform toxicity include central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory depression, and delayed hepatotoxicity. A 30-year-old female ingested 20-30 mL of 99% chloroform solution, which caused rapid loss of consciousness, transient hypotension and severe respiratory depression requiring endotracheal intubation and ventilation. She was alert by 12 h and extubated 16 h post-overdose. At 38-h post-ingestion, her liver function tests started to rise and she was commenced on intravenous acetylcysteine. Her alanine transaminase (1283 U/L), aspartate transaminase (734 U/L) and international normalized ratio (2.3) peaked 67- to 72-h post-ingestion. She also developed severe abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. An abdominal CT scan was consistent with severe enterocolitis, and an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed erosive oesophagitis, severe erosive gastritis and ulceration. She was treated with opioid analgesia, proton pump inhibitors, sucralfate and total parenteral nutrition. Secretions caused a contact dermatitis of her face and back. Nine days post-ingestion she was able to tolerate food. Her liver function tests normalized and the dermatitis resolved. Chloroform was measured using headspace gas chromatograph mass spectrometry, with a peak concentration of 2.00 μg/mL, 4 h 20 min post-ingestion. The concentration-time data fitted a 1-compartment model with elimination half-life 6.5 h. In addition to early CNS depression and delayed hepatotoxicity, we report severe gastrointestinal injury and dermatitis with chloroform ingestion. Recovery occurred with good supportive care, acetylcysteine and management of gastrointestinal complications.

  6. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M.

    2014-05-01

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area.

  7. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M

    2014-05-15

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area.

  8. Thyrotoxicosis after a massive levothyroxine ingestion in a 3-year-old patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Hannah L; Jolliff, Heath A; Casavant, Marcel J

    2013-11-01

    Most children with exploratory levothyroxine ingestions remain asymptomatic or suffer only minor effects, and most patients can be managed in the home or with supportive care in the hospital. We present a case of a 3-year-old girl who was found after a witnessed massive ingestion of levothyroxine. The patient was initially seen in an emergency department and discharged in stable condition, only to return 4 days after ingestion with thyrotoxicosis, hypertension, tachycardia, 24 hours of persistent vomiting, and clinical and laboratory evidence of dehydration. On the day of hospital admission, her thyroid-stimulating hormone was 0.018 µIU/mL (reference range, 0.6-4.5 µIU/mL); free T4 (tetraiodothyronine) was greater than 6.0 ng/dL (reference range, 0.7-2.1 ng/dL); and T3 (triiodothyronine) total was 494 ng/dL (reference range, 100-200 ng/dL). During a 3-day hospital admission, she was managed with supportive care, including intravenous fluid rehydration and antiemetics, and was ultimately discharged in good condition. The patient was followed up until 2 months after ingestion and remained asymptomatic. Although most exploratory levothyroxine ingestions suffer little to no clinical effects, serious symptoms can occur. Because serious symptoms can occur in a delayed fashion, it is important for clinicians to give proper anticipatory guidance regarding home symptom monitoring, follow-up, and reasons to return to the emergency department when patients present for medical evaluation.

  9. Magnetic susceptibility as a simple tracer for fluvial sediment source ascription during storm events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowntree, Kate M; van der Waal, Bennie W; Pulley, Simon

    2017-06-01

    Sediment tracing using a single tracer, low frequency magnetic susceptibility (X lf ), was used to apportion suspended sediment to geologically defined source areas and to interpret sediment source changes during flood events in the degraded catchment of the Vuvu River, a headwater tributary of the Mzimbubu River, South Africa. The method was tested as a simple tool for use by catchment managers concerned with controlling erosion. The geology of the 58 km 2 catchment comprises two distinct formations: basalt in the upper catchment with a characteristically high magnetic susceptibility and shales with a low magnetic susceptibility in the lower catchment. Application of an unmixing model incorporating a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis showed that X lf provided a means to assign the proportion of each geological province contributing to the river's sediment load. Grab water samples were collected at ten-minute intervals during flood events for subsequent analysis of suspended sediment concentration and the magnetic susceptibility of the filtered sediment. Two floods are presented in detail, the first represents a significant event at the start of the wet season (max. discharge 32 m 3  s -1 ); the second was a smaller flood (max discharge 14 m 3  s -1 ) that occurred a month later. Suspended sediment concentrations during the twelve monitored events showed a characteristic decline over the wet season. The main source of suspended sediment was shown to be from the mudstones in the lower catchment, which contributed 86% of the total measured load. The sediment dynamics during the two floods monitored in detail were quite different from each other. In the first the sediment concentration was high (11 g L -1 ), peaking after the flood peak. The X lf value increased during the event, indicating that contribution to the sediment load from basalt in the upper catchment increased during the recession limb. In the second, smaller flood the sediment peak (6 g L -1

  10. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Ingestion Stimulates Muscle Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis following Resistance Exercise in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Jackman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ingestion of intact protein or essential amino acids (EAA stimulates mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1 signaling and muscle protein synthesis (MPS following resistance exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of myofibrillar-MPS to ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs only (i.e., without concurrent ingestion of other EAA, intact protein, or other macronutrients following resistance exercise in humans. Ten young (20.1 ± 1.3 years, resistance-trained men completed two trials, ingesting either 5.6 g BCAA or a placebo (PLA drink immediately after resistance exercise. Myofibrillar-MPS was measured during exercise recovery with a primed, constant infusion of L-[ring13C6] phenylalanine and collection of muscle biopsies pre and 4 h-post drink ingestion. Blood samples were collected at time-points before and after drink ingestion. Western blotting was used to measure the phosphorylation status of mTORC1 signaling proteins in biopsies collected pre, 1-, and 4 h-post drink. The percentage increase from baseline in plasma leucine (300 ± 96%, isoleucine (300 ± 88%, and valine (144 ± 59% concentrations peaked 0.5 h-post drink in BCAA. A greater phosphorylation status of S6K1Thr389 (P = 0.017 and PRAS40 (P = 0.037 was observed in BCAA than PLA at 1 h-post drink ingestion. Myofibrillar-MPS was 22% higher (P = 0.012 in BCAA (0.110 ± 0.009%/h than PLA (0.090 ± 0.006%/h. Phenylalanine Ra was ~6% lower in BCAA (18.00 ± 4.31 μmol·kgBM−1 than PLA (21.75 ± 4.89 μmol·kgBM−1; P = 0.028 after drink ingestion. We conclude that ingesting BCAAs alone increases the post-exercise stimulation of myofibrillar-MPS and phosphorylation status mTORC1 signaling.

  11. Rate of Loaded Sediments in Honda Bay, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Becira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A study in Honda Bay, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines was conducted to determine and compare the rate of loaded sediments of and among six sites in Honda Bay and during two seasons, and to discuss sedimentation rate in relation to selected environmental parameters commencing on April 2003 to November 2003.Results showed that the Babuyan River significantly contributed to the amounts of sediments being loaded to Honda Bay, Puerto Princesa City of which the amount of sediments loaded between the two sampling season and among the six sampling events had no significant difference. Sediment's color and texture affirmed the land-based activities in Babuyan and Mauyon watersheds, which eventually carried into the Bay during storm weather condition.The amount of trapped sediments in all stations is probably affected by the river's discharge capacity and the river's water velocity, although the duration sediment traps were mounted could also affect the measurement of sedimentation rate.

  12. Appetitive and consummatory ingestive behavior : Role of taste, dopamine and NPY

    OpenAIRE

    Sederholm, Fredrik

    2001-01-01

    The present thesis has examined the role of taste, dopamine and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the regulation of the two phases of ingestive behavior: appetitive (approaching and handling of food) and consummatory ingestive behavior (chewing and swallowing). Behavioral studies were performed in male and female rats. THE ROLE OF TASTE: Background. A sweet stimulus loses its pleasantness to humans preloaded with glucose, but not if the subjects are food deprived. Thus, physiologi...

  13. Accumulation rates and sediment deposition in the northwestern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Z.; Eisma, D.; Gieles, R.; Beks, J.

    As part of the EROS 2000 programme, sediment mixing and accumulation rates in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea were determined, applying the 210Pb dating method to a total of 49 cores, and the results from 29 sediment cores are presented here. On the basis of the results from the 49 sediment cores, an attempt was made to present a general picture of sediment accumulation for the area of the northwestern Mediterranean. The total deposition of sediment in the area is estimated to be of the order of 34±15 × 106 ton year-1, which is half the value reported earlier by Got and Aloisi (1990) (Continental Shelf Research, 10, 841-855) for the same region. The activity-depth profiles of 210Pb show the presence of intensive mixing in the upper layer of near-shore sediments, but little or no mixing is observed in the deep-water sediments. Based on a diffusion model, sediment mixing rates calculated from excess 210Pb gradients vary from 0·002 to 7· cm2 year-1, and the deposition rates from 0·01 to 0·60 cm year-1. A linear dependence of sedimentation rate on water depth derived from the sediment cores indicates an inverse correlation between these two. The relatively high sedimentation rates and mixing rates found near the Rhône River suggest that the contribution from the river dominates the deposition system in the northwestern Mediterranean. In the deep-water basin, however, atmospheric input and biological production are clearly more important.

  14. Foreign body ingestion in an adolescent – A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan Yu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body ingestion (FBI more commonly occurs in paediatric, psychiatric and intellectually impaired patients. Current guidelines primarily focus on paediatrics and adults with less emphasis on the adolescent population. We present a case of a 16-year-old male with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, who presented with generalised abdominal tenderness. Abdominal X-Ray showed a radioopaque sharp object in the right upper quadrant. Subsequent CT revealed a needle-like object in the proximal small bowel. Clinically, his symptoms continued to worsen despite no radiographic evidence of complications. However, his symptoms markedly improved without intervention and he was managed conservatively. This patient subsequently passed a 5cm needle three days after presentation. This article discusses the challenges involved in managing and communicating with intellectually impaired patients who present with foreign body ingestion. Guidelines from the most recent literature on managing adolescents with foreign body ingestion, particularly sharp object ingestion, are also discussed.

  15. How marine debris ingestion differs among megafauna species in a tropical coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira; Awabdi, Danielle Rodrigues

    2014-11-15

    The marine debris ingested by megafauna species (Trichiurus lepturus, Chelonia mydas, Pontoporia blainvillei, and Sotalia guianensis) was recorded in a coastal area of southeastern Brazil (21-23°S). Marine debris was recorded in all species, mainly consisting of plastic material (flexible and hard plastics - clear, white, and colored- and nylon filaments). The 'pelagic predators' T. lepturus and S. guianesis showed the lowest percent frequencies of debris ingestion (0.7% and 1.3%, respectively), followed by the 'benthic predator' P. blainvillei (15.7%) and the 'benthic herbivorous C. mydas (59.2%). The debris found in C. mydas stomachs was opportunistically ingested during feeding activities on local macroalgal banks. In the study area, the benthic environment accumulates more anthropogenic debris than the pelagic environment, and benthic/demersal feeders are more susceptible to encounters and ingestion. The sub-lethal effects observed in C. mydas, such as intestinal obstruction due to hardened fecal material, should be considered a local conservation concern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Widespread microplastic ingestion by fish assemblages in tropical estuaries subjected to anthropogenic pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendel, A L; Bessa, F; Alves, V E N; Amorim, A L A; Patrício, J; Palma, A R T

    2017-04-15

    Our aim was to quantify microplastic ingestion by fish assemblages in two tropical Brazilian estuaries and to evaluate whether biological and ecological factors influence the ingestion of microplastics by fish species. Of 2233 fish from both estuaries (from 69 species) examined in this study, 9% of the individuals (24 species) had microplastics in their gut contents. Microplastic ingestion occurred irrespective of fish size and functional group. The diet of fish species was analyzed based on prey items identified in the fish's full stomach contents and five feeding guilds were defined. Microplastics were common throughout all feeding guilds. Low (average ingestion values 1.06±0.30 items/total fish) but widespread occurrence among estuaries also indicates proliferation of microplastic pollution. Our findings highlight the need to focus on assemblage level studies to understand the real magnitude of the problem and emphasize the urgency of mitigation measures directed at microplastic pollution in estuarine ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Organic carbon accumulation in Brazilian mangal sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Sanders, Luciana M.; Sathy Naidu, A.; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.

    2010-12-01

    This study reviews the organic carbon (OC) accumulation rates in mangrove forests, margins and intertidal mudflats in geographically distinct areas along the Brazilian coastline (Northeastern to Southern). Our initial results indicate that the mangrove forests in the Northeastern region of Brazil are accumulating more OC (353 g/m 2/y) than in the Southeastern areas (192 g/m 2/y) being that the sediment accumulation rates, 2.8 and 2.5 mm/y, and OC content ˜7.1% and ˜5.8% (dry sediment weight) were contributing factors to the discrepancies between the forests. The intertidal mudflats on the other hand showed substantially greater OC accumulation rates, sedimentation rates and content 1129 g/m 2/y and 234 g/m 2/y; 7.3 and 3.4 mm/y; 10.3% and ˜2.7% (OC of dry sediment weight content), respectively, in the Northeastern compared to the Southeastern region. Mangrove forests in the South-Southeastern regions of Brazil may be more susceptible to the rising sea level, as they are geographically constricted by the vast mountain ranges along the coastline.

  18. Interaction of fine sediment with alluvial streambeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Harvey E.; Carey, William P.

    1989-01-01

    More knowledge is needed about the physical processes that control the transport of fine sediment moving over an alluvial bed. The knowledge is needed to design rational sampling and monitoring programs that assess the transport and fate of toxic substances in surface waters because the toxics are often associated with silt- and clay-sized particles. This technical note reviews some of the past research in areas that may contribute to an increased understanding of the processes involved. An alluvial streambed can have a large capacity to store fine sediments that are extracted from the flow when instream concentrations are high and it can gradually release fine sediment to the flow when the instream concentrations are low. Several types of storage mechanisms are available depending on the relative size distribution of the suspended load and bed material, as well as the flow hydraulics. Alluvial flow tends to segregate the deposited material according to size and density. Some of the storage locations are temporary, but some can store the fine sediment for very long periods of time.

  19. Ingested Nitrate and Breast Cancer in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study on Cancer (MCC-Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo-Herrera, Nadia; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Pollan, Marina; Aragonés, Nuria; Boldo, Elena; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Altzibar, Jone M.; Amiano, Pilar; Zabala, Ana Jiménez; Ardanaz, Eva; Guevara, Marcela; Molina, Antonio J.; Barrio, Juan Pablo; Gómez-Acebo, Ines; Tardón, Adonina; Peiró, Rosana; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Palau, Margarita; Muñoz, Montse; Font-Ribera, Laia; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ingested nitrate leads to endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds that are breast carcinogens in animals, but human evidence is limited. Objective: We evaluated ingested nitrate as a risk factor for breast cancer (BC) in a multicase–control study. Methods: Hospital-based incident BC cases and population-based controls were recruited in eight Spanish regions in 2008–2013; participants provided residential and water consumption from 18 years of age and information on known BC risk factors. Long-term nitrate levels (1940–2010) were estimated and linked with residential histories and water consumption to calculate waterborne ingested nitrate (milligrams/day). Dietary ingested nitrate (milligrams/day) was calculated using food frequency questionnaires and published dietary nitrate contents. Interactions with endogenous nitrosation factors and other variables were evaluated. A total of 1,245 cases and 1,520 controls were included in the statistical analysis. Results: Among the study regions, average ± SD waterborne ingested nitrate ranged from 2.9 ± 1.9 to 13.5 ± 7.5 mg/day, and dietary ingested nitrate ranged from 88.5 ± 48.7 to 154 ± 87.8 mg/day. Waterborne ingested nitrate was not associated with BC overall, but among postmenopausal women, those with both high nitrate (> 6 vs. Zabala AJ, Ardanaz E, Guevara M, Molina AJ, Barrio JP, Gómez-Acebo I, Tardón A, Peiró R, Chirlaque MD, Palau M, Muñoz M, Font-Ribera L, Castaño-Vinyals G, Kogevinas M, Villanueva CM. 2016. Ingested nitrate and breast cancer in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study on Cancer (MCC-Spain). Environ Health Perspect 124:1042–1049; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510334 PMID:26942716

  20. Age determination of bottom sediments from Lake Hovsgol, Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kazumi; Nakamura, Toshio; Duller, Geoff; Hasebe, Noriko; Kashiwaya, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Dating plays a key role in determining past environmental changes in lake sediments cores. The feldspar post-IR infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) procedure is one of the IRSL procedures and has a great potential to date older samples compared to quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). In this study, the post-IR IRSL (pIRIR) procedure was applied to the polymineral fine grained sediments from Lake Khuvsgul (Hovsgol), Mongolia, and these ages were compared to 14 C ages of bulk samples from the certain depths. The pIRIR ages are always younger than 14 C ages from bulk samples, however, it was possible to construct the suitable age model based on luminescence and 14 C ages. Therefore, pIRIR 225 protocol can be contributed to estimate the sedimentation age of lake sediments as well as 14 C dating. (author)

  1. Sediment problems in reservoirs. Control of sediment deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Tom

    1997-12-31

    When a reservoir is formed on a river, sediment will deposit in the reservoir. Such processes are unfortunate, for instance, for the implementation of hydroelectric energy. This thesis studies the problem of reservoir sedimentation and discusses methods of removing the sediments. Various aspects of reservoir sedimentation are discussed. Anthropogenic impacts seem to greatly affect the erosion processes. Temporal distribution is uneven, mainly because of the very large flood events. A world map showing the Reservoir Capacity: Annual Sediment Inflow ratio for reservoirs with volume equal to 10% of annual inflow has been prepared. The map shows that sedimentation is severe in the western parts of North and South America, eastern, southern and northern Africa, parts of Australia and most of Asia. The development of medium-sized reservoirs is difficult, as they are too large for conventional flushing technique and too small to store the sediment that accumulates during their economic lifetime. A computer model, SSIIM, was used with good results in a case study of two flood drawdown trials in Lake Roxburg, New Zealand. Two techniques have been developed that permits controlled suction of sediment and water into a pipe: the Slotted Pipe Sediment Sluicer (SPSS) and the Saxophone Sediment Sluicer (SSS). The techniques exploit the inflow pattern in through a slot in a pipe. An equation describing this inflow pattern was derived and verified experimentally. The SPSS is fixed near the reservoir bed, and sediment that deposits on top of it is removed in the sluicing process. The SSS sluices sediment from the surface of the sediment deposits. Some technical and economic conditions affecting the economics of sediment removal from reservoirs have been identified and studied. 79 refs., 112 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. Effects of carbohydrate and caffeine ingestion on performance during a rugby union simulation protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Simon P; Stokes, Keith A; Trewartha, Grant; Doyle, J; Hogben, P; Thompson, Dylan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of ingesting carbohydrate alone or with caffeine on performance of a rugby union-specific shuttle running protocol. On three occasions, at least one week apart in a counterbalanced trial order, eight male rugby union forwards ingested either placebo or carbohydrate (1.2g center dot kg-1 body mass center dot h-1) before and during a rugby union-specific protocol, with pre-exercise caffeine ingestion (4mg center dot kg-1) before one of the carbohydrate ...

  3. Ingested metallic foreign body lodged in the appendix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Sarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old child ingested a metallic screw 3 months prior to admission. At laparotomy, the foreign body was found to be lodged inside the vermiform appendix, and was removed by appendicectomy.

  4. Nonsurgical Management of Severe Esophageal and Gastric Injury Following Alkali Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy D Abaskharoun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The ingestion of caustic substances may result in significant gastrointestinal injury. Endoscopy can play a major role in the initial evaluation and subsequent therapy of such injuries. The case of a 50-year-old man who ingested an alkaline floor stripper is described, including the endoscopic management of esophageal and pyloric strictures, with good functional results. The role of endoscopy, steroids and acid suppression in the management of such patients is also explored.

  5. Death caused by ingestion of an ethanol-based hand sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneir, Aaron B; Clark, Richard F

    2013-09-01

    The use of hand sanitizer is effective in preventing the transmission of disease. Many hand sanitizers are alcohol-based, and significant intoxications have occurred, often in health care facilities, including the emergency department (ED). We present this case to highlight potential toxicity after the ingestion of an ethanol-based hand sanitizer. A 36-year-old man presented to the ED with ethanol intoxication. Ethanol breath analysis was measured at 278 mg/dL. After 4 h, the patient was less intoxicated and left the ED. Thirty minutes later, he was found apneic and pulseless in the ED waiting room bathroom after having ingested an ethanol-based hand sanitizer. Soon after a brief resuscitation, his serum ethanol was 526 mg/dL. He never regained consciousness and died 7 days later. No other cause of death was found. The case highlights the potential for significant toxicity after the ingestion of a product found throughout health care facilities. Balancing the benefit of hand sanitizers for preventing disease transmission and their potential misuse remains a challenge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Recovery of brodifacoum in vomitus following induction of emesis in dogs that had ingested rodenticide bait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, K H; Willson, E K; Collett, M G; Booth, L H

    2018-01-01

    To assess the benefit of inducing emesis in dogs that have ingested rodenticide bait containing brodifacoum (BDF), by determining the amount of BDF in bait recovered from the vomitus relative to the estimated amount consumed. Between 2014 and 2015 samples of vomitus from seven dogs that ingested rodenticide baits containing BDF were submitted by veterinarians in New Zealand. All seven dogs had been given apomorphine by the veterinarian and vomited within 1 hour of ingesting the bait. Some or all of the bait particles were retrieved from each sample and were analysed for concentrations of BDF using HPLC. Based on estimations of the mass of bait consumed, the concentration of BDF stated on the product label, and the estimated mass of bait in the vomitus of each dog, the amount of BDF in the vomited bait was calculated as a percentage of the amount ingested. For five dogs an estimation of the mass of bait ingested was provided by the submitting veterinarian. For these dogs the estimated percentage of BDF in the bait retrieved from the vomitus was between 10-77%. All dogs were well after discharge but only one dog returned for further testing. This dog had a normal prothrombin time 3 days after ingestion. The induction of emesis within 1 hour of ingestion can be a useful tool in reducing the exposure of dogs to a toxic dose of BDF. The BDF was not fully absorbed within 1 hour of ingestion suggesting that the early induction of emesis can remove bait containing BDF before it can be fully absorbed.

  7. Soil Microbial Community Contribution to Small Headwater Stream Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapcott, J. E.; Gooderham, J. P.; Barmuta, L. A.; Davies, P. E.

    2005-05-01

    The temporal dynamics of sediment respiration were examined in seven small headwater streams in forested catchments in 2004. A strong seasonal response was observed with higher respiration rates in depositional zones than in gravel runs. The data were also examined in the context of proportional habitat distributions that highlighted the importance of high flow events in shaping whole stream metabolic budgets. This study specifically examines the question of terrestrial soil respiration contribution to whole stream metabolism by the controlled inundation of terrestrial soils. The experiment included six experimentally inundated terrestrial zones, six terrestrial controls, and six in-stream depositional zones. Sediment bacterial respiration was measured using 14C leucine incorporation and cotton strip bioassays were also employed to provide an indicative measure of sediment microbial activity. Despite high variability and exhibiting significantly lower bacterial activity than in-stream sediments, modelling using flow data and habitat mapping illustrated the important contribution of terrestrial soil respiration to the whole stream metabolic budgets of small headwater streams. In addition, microbial community composition examined using phospholipid fatty acid analysis clearly differentiated between terrestrial and aquatic communities. Freshly inundated terrestrial communities remained similar to un-inundated controls after 28 days.

  8. [Child poisoning after ingestion of a wild apiaceae: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)