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Sample records for sedentary control participants

  1. Relationship between Sedentary and Active Leisure Participation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study used the Catharsis Theory and the Stimulation Theory to examine the relationship between sedentary leisure participation (watching television (TV), videos or DVDs and computer or video game playing) and active leisure participation (strength sport, recreational sport and team sport) within a sample of 1134 ...

  2. Participatory workplace interventions can reduce sedentary time for office workers--a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Sharon; Straker, Leon; Gilson, Nicholas D; Smith, Anne J

    2013-01-01

    Occupational sedentary behaviour is an important contributor to overall sedentary risk. There is limited evidence for effective workplace interventions to reduce occupational sedentary time and increase light activity during work hours. The purpose of the study was to determine if participatory workplace interventions could reduce total sedentary time, sustained sedentary time (bouts >30 minutes), increase the frequency of breaks in sedentary time and promote light intensity activity and moderate/vigorous activity (MVPA) during work hours. A randomised controlled trial (ANZCTR NUMBER: ACTN12612000743864) was conducted using clerical, call centre and data processing workers (n = 62, aged 25-59 years) in 3 large government organisations in Perth, Australia. Three groups developed interventions with a participatory approach: 'Active office' (n = 19), 'Active Workstation' and promotion of incidental office activity; 'Traditional physical activity' (n = 14), pedometer challenge to increase activity between productive work time and 'Office ergonomics' (n = 29), computer workstation design and breaking up computer tasks. Accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X, 7 days) determined sedentary time, sustained sedentary time, breaks in sedentary time, light intensity activity and MVPA on work days and during work hours were measured before and following a 12 week intervention period. For all participants there was a significant reduction in sedentary time on work days (-1.6%, p = 0.006) and during work hours (-1.7%, p = 0.014) and a significant increase in number of breaks/sedentary hour on work days (0.64, p = 0.005) and during work hours (0.72, p = 0.015); there was a concurrent significant increase in light activity during work hours (1.5%, p = 0.012) and MVPA on work days (0.6%, p = 0.012). This study explored novel ways to modify work practices to reduce occupational sedentary behaviour. Participatory workplace interventions can reduce

  3. Participatory workplace interventions can reduce sedentary time for office workers--a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Parry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational sedentary behaviour is an important contributor to overall sedentary risk. There is limited evidence for effective workplace interventions to reduce occupational sedentary time and increase light activity during work hours. The purpose of the study was to determine if participatory workplace interventions could reduce total sedentary time, sustained sedentary time (bouts >30 minutes, increase the frequency of breaks in sedentary time and promote light intensity activity and moderate/vigorous activity (MVPA during work hours. METHODS: A randomised controlled trial (ANZCTR NUMBER: ACTN12612000743864 was conducted using clerical, call centre and data processing workers (n = 62, aged 25-59 years in 3 large government organisations in Perth, Australia. Three groups developed interventions with a participatory approach: 'Active office' (n = 19, 'Active Workstation' and promotion of incidental office activity; 'Traditional physical activity' (n = 14, pedometer challenge to increase activity between productive work time and 'Office ergonomics' (n = 29, computer workstation design and breaking up computer tasks. Accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X, 7 days determined sedentary time, sustained sedentary time, breaks in sedentary time, light intensity activity and MVPA on work days and during work hours were measured before and following a 12 week intervention period. RESULTS: For all participants there was a significant reduction in sedentary time on work days (-1.6%, p = 0.006 and during work hours (-1.7%, p = 0.014 and a significant increase in number of breaks/sedentary hour on work days (0.64, p = 0.005 and during work hours (0.72, p = 0.015; there was a concurrent significant increase in light activity during work hours (1.5%, p = 0.012 and MVPA on work days (0.6%, p = 0.012. CONCLUSIONS: This study explored novel ways to modify work practices to reduce occupational sedentary behaviour

  4. Sedentary and active: self-reported sitting time among marathon and half-marathon participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Geoffrey; Pettee Gabriel, Kelley K; Kohl, Harold William

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that combined physical activity (PA) and inactivity may be more important for chronic disease risk than PA alone. A highly active yet highly sedentary population is needed to study this interaction. The present purpose is to describe the sitting habits of a group of recreational runners and determine if sitting varies with reported training duration or anticipated running velocity. Marathon and half-marathon participants completed the Multicontext Sitting Time Questionnaire and reported peak training duration, anticipated finishing time, and demographic information. Sitting time was described across 5 contexts for workdays and nonworkdays. Total sitting time was analyzed by tertiles of training duration and anticipated event running velocity. 218 participants took part in this study. Median reported training time was 6.5 hours per week. Median total sitting time was higher on workdays than nonworkdays (645 and 480 minutes, respectively, P training duration or anticipated event running velocity. These results suggest that recreational distance runners are simultaneously highly sedentary and highly active, supporting independence of sedentary behaviors and moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA. This population may provide the characteristics needed to study the joint effects of active and sedentary behaviors on health outcomes.

  5. Rationale and study design for a randomised controlled trial to reduce sedentary time in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: project stand (Sedentary Time ANd diabetes

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    Wilmot Emma G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM is a major public health problem. There is an urgent need for effective lifestyle interventions to prevent the development of T2DM. Sedentary behaviour (sitting time has recently been identified as a risk factor for diabetes, often independent of the time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Project STAND (Sedentary Time ANd Diabetes is a study which aims to reduce sedentary behaviour in younger adults at high risk of T2DM. Methods/Design A reduction in sedentary time is targeted using theory driven group structured education. The STAND programme is subject to piloting and process evaluation in line with the MRC framework for complex interventions. Participants are encouraged to self-monitor and self-regulate their behaviour. The intervention is being assessed in a randomised controlled trial with 12 month follow up. Inclusion criteria are a aged 18-40 years with a BMI in the obese range; b 18-40 years with a BMI in the overweight range plus an additional risk factor for T2DM. Participants are randomised to the intervention (n = 89 or control (n = 89 arm. The primary outcome is a reduction in sedentary behaviour at 12 months as measured by an accelerometer (count Conclusions This is the first UK trial to address sedentary behaviour change in a population of younger adults at risk of T2DM. The results will provide a platform for the development of a range of future multidisciplinary interventions in this rapidly expanding high-risk population. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN08434554, MRC project 91409.

  6. A Randomised Controlled Trial to Reduce Sedentary Time in Young Adults at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Project STAND (Sedentary Time ANd Diabetes.

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    Stuart J H Biddle

    . Moreover, some participants reported a focus on physical activity rather than reductions in sitting per se. The habitual nature of sedentary behaviour means that behaviour change is challenging.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN08434554.

  7. Effects of a DVD-delivered exercise program on patterns of sedentary behavior in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, J; Porter, G; Awick, E A; Wójcicki, T R; Gothe, N P; Roberts, S A; Ehlers, D K; Motl, R W; McAuley, E

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we examined the influence of a home-based, DVD-delivered exercise intervention on daily sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time in older adults. Between 2010 and 2012, older adults (i.e., aged 65 or older) residing in Illinois (N = 307) were randomized into a 6-month home-based, DVD-delivered exercise program (i.e., FlexToBa; FTB) or a waitlist control. Participants completed measurements prior to the first week (baseline), following the intervention period (month 6), and after a 6 month no-contact follow-up (month 12). Sedentary behavior was measured objectively using accelerometers for 7 consecutive days at each time point. Differences in daily sedentary time and breaks between groups and across the three time points were examined using mixed-factor analysis of variance (mixed ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Mixed ANOVA models revealed that daily minutes of sedentary time did not differ by group or time. The FTB condition, however, demonstrated a greater number of daily breaks in sedentary time relative to the control condition (p = .02). ANCOVA models revealed a non-significant effect favoring FTB at month 6, and a significant difference between groups at month 12 (p = .02). While overall sedentary time did not differ between groups, the DVD-delivered exercise intervention was effective for maintaining a greater number of breaks when compared with the control condition. Given the accumulating evidence emphasizing the importance of breaking up sedentary time, these findings have important implications for the design of future health behavior interventions.

  8. High blood pressure and sedentary behavior in adolescents are associated even after controlling for confounding factors.

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    Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; De Andrade, Selma Maffei; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; Codogno, Jamile Sanches; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether high blood pressure (HBP) is associated with sedentary behavior in young people even after controlling for potential confounders (gender, age, socioeconomic level, tobacco, alcohol, obesity and physical activity). In this epidemiological study, 1231 adolescents were evaluated. Blood pressure was measured with an oscillometric device and waist circumference with an inextensible tape. Sedentary behavior (watching television, computer use and playing video games) and physical activity were assessed by a questionnaire. We used mean and standard deviation to describe the statistical analysis, and the association between HBP and sedentary behavior was assessed by the chi-squared test. Binary logistic regression was used to observe the magnitude of association and cluster analyses (sedentary behavior and abdominal obesity; sedentary behavior and physical inactivity). HBP was associated with sedentary behaviors [odds ratio (OR) = 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.41-3.96], even after controlling for various confounders (OR = 1.68, CI = 1.03-2.75). In cluster analysis the combination of sedentary behavior and elevated abdominal obesity contributed significantly to an increased likelihood of having HBP (OR = 13.51, CI 7.21-23.97). Sedentary behavior was associated with HBP, and excess fat in the abdominal region contributed to the modulation of this association.

  9. Sedentary Patterns, Physical Activity, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Association to Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

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    Luís B. Sardinha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sedentary behavior has been considered an independent risk factor for type-2 diabetes (T2D, with a negative impact on several physiological outcomes, whereas breaks in sedentary time (BST have been proposed as a viable solution to mitigate some of these effects. However, little is known about the independent associations of sedentary pursuits, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF variables with glycemic control. We investigated the independent associations of total sedentary time, BST, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and CRF with glycemic outcomes in patients with T2D.Methods: Total sedentary time, BST, and MVPA were assessed in 66 participants (29 women with T2D, using accelerometry. Glucose and insulin were measured during a mixed meal tolerance test, with the respective calculations of HOMA-IR and Matsuda index. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c was also analyzed. CRF was measured in a maximal treadmill test with breath-by-breath gases analysis. Multiple regressions were used for data analysis.Results: Regardless of CRF, total sedentary time was positively associated with HbA1c (β = 0.25, p = 0.044. Adjusting for MVPA, total sedentary time was related to fasting glucose (β = 0.32, p = 0.037. No associations between total sedentary time and the remaining glycemic outcomes, after adjusting for MVPA. BST had favorable associations with HOMA-IR (β = −0.28, p = 0.047 and fasting glucose (β = −0.25, p = 0.046, when adjusted for MVPA, and with HOMA-IR (β = −0.25, p = 0.036, Matsuda index (β = 0.26, p = 0.036, and fasting glucose (β = −0.22, p = 0.038, following adjustment for CRF. When adjusting for total sedentary time, only CRF yielded favorable associations with HOMA-IR (β = −0.29, p = 0.039, fasting glucose (β = −0.32, p = 0.012, and glucose at 120-min (β = −0.26, p = 0.035, and no associations were found for MVPA with none of the metabolic outcomes.Conclusion: The results from this

  10. Correspondence Between Physical Self-Concept and Participation in, and Fitness Change After, Biweekly Body Conditioning Classes in Sedentary Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasa, Ulrika; Paulin, Johan; Madison, Guy

    2017-02-01

    Aasa, U, Paulin, J, and Madison, G. Correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, biweekly body conditioning classes in sedentary women. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 451-461, 2017-The aims of the study were (a) to investigate the effects of participation in low impact body conditioning classes on physical fitness in sedentary women at different ages and (b) to examine the correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, the participation. Ninety-two sedentary women (mean age 44.2 years) participated in 11 weeks of biweekly classes that included cardiovascular, strength, core, endurance, and mobility exercises, all performed in synchrony with music. Cardiorespiratory fitness, maximal lifting strength, mobility, and balance tests were performed before and after the exercise period and the short-form of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ-S) was completed. Zero-order Spearman correlation analyses showed that women who rated the PSDQ-S dimension sport competence higher participated in a larger number of sessions (rs = 0.24, p = 0.040). At posttests, all participants had increased their balance, the participants aged 20-34 years had increased their lifting strength, and the participants aged 35-65 years had increased their cardiorespiratory fitness and mobility. Most PSDQ-S dimensions did not affect performance change, but the perception of being physically active was related to increased cardiovascular fitness. We conclude that women with a sedentary lifestyle who wish to increase their physical capacity benefit from music exercise and that inquiries about perceived sport competence and physical activity can improve recommendations made by strength and conditioning professionals.

  11. High-intensity endurance training increases nocturnal heart rate variability in sedentary participants

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    A Nummela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the first 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7, who performed three high-intensity endurance training sessions per week; and CONTROL group (n = 8 who did not change their training. An incremental treadmill test was performed before and after the two 4-weektraining periods. Furthermore, nocturnal RR-intervals were recorded after each training day. In the second 4-weektraining period HIGH group increased their V0Zmax (P = 0.005 more than CONTROL group. At the same time, nocturnal HR decreased (P = 0.039 and high-frequency power (HFP increased (P = 0.003 in HIGH group while no changes were observed in CONTROL group. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between the changes in nocturnal HFP and changes in V0Zmax during the second 4-week training period (r = 0.90, P < 0.001. The present study showed that the increased HFP is related to improved VO2max in sedentary subjects suggesting that nocturnal HFP can provide a useful method in monitoring individual responses to endurance training.

  12. Accelerometer-assessed sedentary work, leisure time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers during one year: Effectiveness of a cluster randomized controlled trial in parents with a sedentary occupation and young children.

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    Arto J Pesola

    Full Text Available It is unknown whether reducing sedentary time at work and during leisure time is possible and effective during one year.Office workers with young children were recruited for this one-year cluster-randomized controlled trial through kindergartens and primary schools from 7 clusters in the city of Jyväskylä, Finland. After a lecture, face-to-face tailored counseling was used to set contractually binding goals regarding reducing and breaking up sitting periods and increasing light intensity physical activity during work and leisure time. Primary outcomes of total, work and leisure sedentary time (<100 counts/min, cpm, light activity time (<2020 cpm, moderate-to-vigorous activity time (MVPA and breaks/sedentary hour were assessed with a waist-worn Alive -accelerometer for 7 days, 5 times during the year. Anthropometrics (DXA, fasting biomarkers and self-reported diet were assessed as secondary outcomes. Data were collected between 2011-2013 and analyzed between 2013-2016 with a linear mixed-effects model fit by REML using likelihood ratio test and intention-to-treat-principle.Participants from intervention (N = 71 and control (N = 62 regions were assessed at baseline and 117 completed the study. Sedentary leisure time decreased [-21.2 (95% CI -37.3 to -5.1 min/8 hours, likelihood ratio P<0.001] and light activity time [13.4 (-2.2 to 29.0 min/8 hours, P = 0.008] and breaks per sedentary hour [1.0 (-0.2 to 2.2, P = 0.010] increased in the intervention group as compared to controls at 3 months. The decrease in sedentary leisure time was maintained throughout the year [-7.9 (-24.0 to 8.3 min/8 hours, P = 0.029]. Small decreases in the control group's work and leisure MVPA were observed mostly at 3 months. Small favorable intervention effects were observed for fasting plasma glucose at 3 months and for leg lean mass and apoB/apoA-1 ratio at 12 months, with no changes in other outcomes.Behavioral counseling induced a small decline in sedentary leisure

  13. Social participation among older adults not engaged in full- or part-time work is associated with more physical activity and less sedentary time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Shigeru; Fukushima, Noritoshi; Takamiya, Tomoko; Odagiri, Yuko; Ohya, Yumiko; Amagasa, Shiho; Oka, Koichiro; Owen, Neville

    2017-11-01

    Social participation provides health benefits for older adults. However, there is the need to identify whether higher social participation is associated with older adults being more physically active and less sedentary (sitting time). We examined the associations of social participation with physical activity, and sedentary time, in a population-based sample of older Japanese adults. A population-based, cross-sectional mail survey carried out in 2010 was used to collect data on social participation, physical activity, sedentary time and sociodemographic characteristics. Data were examined from 1146 community-dwelling, unemployed older adults (mean age 70.1 years, 43% men). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for associations of social participation with physical activity and total sedentary time; and, for associations with passive and mentally-active sedentary (sitting) time. For both men and women, those with higher social participation were more physically active (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.44-3.06 among men; OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.39-2.68 among women). Total sedentary time had significant associations among men (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.42-0.90), but not among women (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.58-1.11). Social participation was associated with less passive sedentary time (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.38-0.81 for men; OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.51-0.99 for women). Promoting social participation among older adults could contribute to increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time, with potential benefits for chronic disease. Further research is required to elucidate the deleterious and beneficial roles of passive and mentally-active sedentary time for older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1921-1927. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Postural control during one-leg stance in active and sedentary older people

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    Leonardo George Victorio Victor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity and aging are functional disability factors for older individuals, causing loss of balance and increasing the risk of falls. The purpose of this study was to compare the balance of physically independent older individuals, both participants and non-participants in a regular exercise program. Fifty six physically independent older participants were divided into G1ACTIVE = 28 individuals who participate in a regular exercise program and G2SEDENTARY = 28 individuals who did not participate in any physical exercise program. All participants underwent an eyes-open during one-leg balance test on a force platform. The postural oscillation parameters included center of pressure (COP; sway mean velocity and frequency of COP oscillations. G2 SEDENTARY showed higher postural instability than G1ACTIVE. Significant differences were observed for the main balance parameters. The results of this study support the concept that participation in regular physical activity is beneficial for postural balance of older individuals.

  15. Accelerometer-assessed sedentary work, leisure time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers during one year: Effectiveness of a cluster randomized controlled trial in parents with a sedentary occupation and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesola, Arto J; Laukkanen, Arto; Heikkinen, Risto; Sipilä, Sarianna; Sääkslahti, Arja; Finni, Taija

    2017-01-01

    It is unknown whether reducing sedentary time at work and during leisure time is possible and effective during one year. Office workers with young children were recruited for this one-year cluster-randomized controlled trial through kindergartens and primary schools from 7 clusters in the city of Jyväskylä, Finland. After a lecture, face-to-face tailored counseling was used to set contractually binding goals regarding reducing and breaking up sitting periods and increasing light intensity physical activity during work and leisure time. Primary outcomes of total, work and leisure sedentary time (sedentary hour were assessed with a waist-worn Alive -accelerometer for 7 days, 5 times during the year. Anthropometrics (DXA), fasting biomarkers and self-reported diet were assessed as secondary outcomes. Data were collected between 2011-2013 and analyzed between 2013-2016 with a linear mixed-effects model fit by REML using likelihood ratio test and intention-to-treat-principle. Participants from intervention (N = 71) and control (N = 62) regions were assessed at baseline and 117 completed the study. Sedentary leisure time decreased [-21.2 (95% CI -37.3 to -5.1) min/8 hours, likelihood ratio Psedentary hour [1.0 (-0.2 to 2.2), P = 0.010] increased in the intervention group as compared to controls at 3 months. The decrease in sedentary leisure time was maintained throughout the year [-7.9 (-24.0 to 8.3) min/8 hours, P = 0.029]. Small decreases in the control group's work and leisure MVPA were observed mostly at 3 months. Small favorable intervention effects were observed for fasting plasma glucose at 3 months and for leg lean mass and apoB/apoA-1 ratio at 12 months, with no changes in other outcomes. Behavioral counseling induced a small decline in sedentary leisure time throughout one year in parents with a sedentary occupation and young children. Small concurrent changes in different biomarkers suggest that reducing sedentary leisure time during one year may be

  16. Muscle inactivity and activity patterns after sedentary time--targeted randomized controlled trial.

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    Pesola, Arto J; Laukkanen, Arto; Haakana, Piia; Havu, Marko; Sääkslahti, Arja; Sipilä, Sarianna; Finni, Taija

    2014-11-01

    Interventions targeting sedentary time are needed. We used detailed EMG recordings to study the short-term effectiveness of simple sedentary time-targeted tailored counseling on the total physical activity spectrum. This cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted between 2011 and 2013 (InPact, ISRCTN28668090), and short-term effectiveness of counseling is reported in the present study. A total of 133 office workers volunteered to participate, from which muscle activity data were analyzed from 48 (intervention, n = 24; control, n = 24). After a lecture, face-to-face tailored counseling was used to set contractually binding goals regarding breaking up sitting periods and increasing family based physical activity. Primary outcome measures were assessed 11.8 ± 1.1 h before and a maximum of 2 wk after counseling including quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity time, sum of the five longest muscle inactivity periods, and light muscle activity time during work, commute, and leisure time. Compared with those in the controls, counseling decreased the intervention group's muscle inactivity time by 32.6 ± 71.8 min from 69.1% ± 8.5% to 64.6% ± 10.9% (whole day, P work, P activity time increased by 20.6 ± 52.6 min, from 22.2% ± 7.9% to 25.0% ± 9.7% (whole day, P work, P work time, average EMG amplitude (percentage of EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) (%EMG MVC)) increased from 1.6% ± 0.9% to 1.8% ± 1.0% (P activity. During work time, average EMG amplitude increased by 13%, reaching an average of 1.8% of EMG MVC. If maintained, this observed short-term effect may have health-benefiting consequences.

  17. Do Motion Controllers Make Action Video Games Less Sedentary? A Randomized Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Bowling, J. Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    Sports- and fitness-themed video games using motion controllers have been found to produce physical activity. It is possible that motion controllers may also enhance energy expenditure when applied to more sedentary games such as action games. Young adults (N = 100) were randomized to play three games using either motion-based or traditional controllers. No main effect was found for controller or game pair (P > .12). An interaction was found such that in one pair, motion control (mean [SD] 0....

  18. The influence of a consumer-wearable activity tracker on sedentary time and prolonged sedentary bouts: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

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    Sloan, Robert A; Kim, Youngdeok; Sahasranaman, Aarti; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk; Biddle, Stuart J H; Finkelstein, Eric A

    2018-03-22

    A recent meta-analysis surmised pedometers were a useful panacea to independently reduce sedentary time (ST). To further test and expand on this deduction, we analyzed the ability of a consumer-wearable activity tracker to reduce ST and prolonged sedentary bouts (PSB). We originally conducted a 12-month randomized control trial where 800 employees from 13 organizations were assigned to control, activity tracker, or one of two activity tracker plus incentive groups designed to increase step count. The primary outcome was accelerometer measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. We conducted a secondary analysis on accelerometer measured daily ST and PSB bouts. A general linear mixed model was used to examine changes in ST and prolonged sedentary bouts, followed by between-group pairwise comparisons. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of changes in step counts with ST and PSB. The changes in ST and PSB were not statistically significant and not different between the groups (P consumer-wearable activity trackers as a means to reduce sedentary behavior. Trial registration NCT01855776 Registered: August 8, 2012.

  19. Do Motion Controllers Make Action Video Games Less Sedentary? A Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Bowling, J. Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    Sports- and fitness-themed video games using motion controllers have been found to produce physical activity. It is possible that motion controllers may also enhance energy expenditure when applied to more sedentary games such as action games. Young adults (N = 100) were randomized to play three games using either motion-based or traditional controllers. No main effect was found for controller or game pair (P > .12). An interaction was found such that in one pair, motion control (mean [SD] 0.96 [0.20] kcal · kg−1 · hr−1) produced 0.10 kcal · kg−1 · hr−1 (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.17) greater energy expenditure than traditional control (0.86 [0.17] kcal · kg−1 · hr−1, P = .048). All games were sedentary. As currently implemented, motion control is unlikely to produce moderate intensity physical activity in action games. However, some games produce small but significant increases in energy expenditure, which may benefit health by decreasing sedentary behavior. PMID:22028959

  20. Do Motion Controllers Make Action Video Games Less Sedentary? A Randomized Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Lyons

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sports- and fitness-themed video games using motion controllers have been found to produce physical activity. It is possible that motion controllers may also enhance energy expenditure when applied to more sedentary games such as action games. Young adults (N = 100 were randomized to play three games using either motion-based or traditional controllers. No main effect was found for controller or game pair (P > .12. An interaction was found such that in one pair, motion control (mean [SD] 0.96 [0.20] kcal ⋅ kg-1 ⋅ hr-1 produced 0.10 kcal ⋅ kg-1 ⋅ hr-1 (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.17 greater energy expenditure than traditional control (0.86 [0.17] kcal ⋅ kg-1 ⋅ hr-1, P = .048. All games were sedentary. As currently implemented, motion control is unlikely to produce moderate intensity physical activity in action games. However, some games produce small but significant increases in energy expenditure, which may benefit health by decreasing sedentary behavior.

  1. Do motion controllers make action video games less sedentary? A randomized experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Ribisl, Kurt M; Bowling, J Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    Sports- and fitness-themed video games using motion controllers have been found to produce physical activity. It is possible that motion controllers may also enhance energy expenditure when applied to more sedentary games such as action games. Young adults (N = 100) were randomized to play three games using either motion-based or traditional controllers. No main effect was found for controller or game pair (P > .12). An interaction was found such that in one pair, motion control (mean [SD] 0.96 [0.20] kcal · kg(-1) · hr(-1)) produced 0.10 kcal · kg(-1) · hr(-1) (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.17) greater energy expenditure than traditional control (0.86 [0.17] kcal · kg(-1) · hr(-1), P = .048). All games were sedentary. As currently implemented, motion control is unlikely to produce moderate intensity physical activity in action games. However, some games produce small but significant increases in energy expenditure, which may benefit health by decreasing sedentary behavior.

  2. Participatory Workplace Interventions Can Reduce Sedentary Time for Office Workers?A Randomised Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Parry, Sharon; Straker, Leon; Gilson, Nicholas D.; Smith, Anne J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occupational sedentary behaviour is an important contributor to overall sedentary risk. There is limited evidence for effective workplace interventions to reduce occupational sedentary time and increase light activity during work hours. The purpose of the study was to determine if participatory workplace interventions could reduce total sedentary time, sustained sedentary time (bouts >30 minutes), increase the frequency of breaks in sedentary time and promote light intensity activ...

  3. Community participation in disease control.

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    Bermejo, A; Bekui, A

    1993-05-01

    The main determinants of community participation in disease control programmes are identified and a framework with eleven variables is developed. Attention is drawn to the political background, community characteristics, the managerial capacity of the provider and the epidemiology of the disease. The framework is designed to guide health professionals in the systematic assessment and monitoring of participation in disease control programmes. Analysis of the Ghanaian Guinea Worm Eradication Programme and the Nicaraguan Tuberculosis Control Programme are presented as case studies. They show that political support does not guarantee community participation in disease control programmes and stress the importance of other determinants such as commitment to PHC, intersectoral coordination, the project approach and human resources. The relevance of the epidemiology of the disease in determining what degree of community participation will be most effective is highlighted by the case studies.

  4. Home-based walking during pregnancy affects mood and birth outcomes among sedentary women: A randomized controlled trial.

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    Taniguchi, Chie; Sato, Chifumi

    2016-10-01

    We examined the effects of home-based walking on sedentary Japanese women's pregnancy outcomes and mood. A randomized controlled trial was conducted, involving 118 women aged 22-36 years. Participants were randomly assigned to walking intervention (n = 60) or control (n = 58) groups. The walking group was instructed to walk briskly for 30 min, three times weekly from 30 weeks' gestation until delivery. Both groups counted their daily steps using pedometers. Pregnancy and delivery outcomes were assessed, participants completed the Profile of Mood States, and we used the intention-to-treat principle. Groups showed no differences regarding pregnancy or delivery outcomes. The walking group exhibited decreased scores on the depression-dejection and confusion subscales of the Profile of Mood States. Five of the 54 women in the intervention group who remained in the study (9.2%) completed 100% of the prescribed walking program; 32 (59.3%) women completed 80% or more. Unsupervised walking improves sedentary pregnant women's mood, indicating that regular walking during pregnancy should be promoted in this group. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Maternal sleep deprivation, sedentary lifestyle and cooking smoke: Risk factors for miscarriage: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaraweera, Yasindu; Abeysena, Chrishantha

    2010-08-01

    To determine risk factors for miscarriage. A case control study was carried out at the gynaecological wards and antenatal clinics of the De Soysa Maternity Hospital in Sri Lanka. A case was defined as that of mothers with a confirmed diagnosis of partial or full expulsion of the fetus during the first 28 weeks of gestation. Controls comprised ante-natal clinic attendees whose period of gestation was sedentary lifestyle, exposure to cooking smoke and physical trauma during pregnancy were risk factors for miscarriage. Most of the risk factors are therefore modifiable.

  6. Rationale and methods for a randomized controlled trial of a movement-to-music video program for decreasing sedentary time among mother-child pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Pipsa P A; Husu, Pauliina; Raitanen, Jani; Luoto, Riitta M

    2015-10-05

    Measured objectively, under a quarter of adults and fewer than half of preschool children meet the criteria set in the aerobic physical activity recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Moreover, adults reportedly are sedentary (seated or lying down) for most of their waking hours. Importantly, greater amounts of sedentary time on parents' part are associated with an increased risk of more sedentary time among their children. A randomized controlled trial targeting mother-child pairs has been designed, to examine whether a movement-to-music video program may be effective in reducing sedentary time and increasing physical activity in the home environment. Mother-child pairs (child age of 4-7 years) will be recruited from among NELLI lifestyle-modification study five-year follow-up cohort participants, encompassing 14 municipalities in Pirkanmaa region, Finland. Accelerometer and exercise diary data are to be collected for intervention and control groups at the first, second and eighth week after the baseline measurements. Background factors, physical activity, screen time, motivation to exercise, and self-reported height and weight, along with quality of life, will be assessed via questionnaires. After the baseline and first week measurements, the participants of the intervention group will receive a movement-to-music video program designed to reduce sedentary time and increase physical activity. Intervention group mother-child pairs will be instructed to exercise every other day while watching the video program over the next seven weeks. Information on experiences of the use of the movement-to-music video program will be collected 8 weeks after baseline. Effects of the intervention will be analyzed in line with the intention-to-treat principle through comparison of the changes in the main outcomes between intervention and control group participants. The study has received ethics approval from the Pirkanmaa Ethics Committee in Human

  7. A behaviour change intervention to reduce sedentary time in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sonia Wing Mei; Alison, Jennifer; Dennis, Sarah; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Spencer, Lissa; McNamara, Renae; Sims, Susan; McKeough, Zoe

    2017-07-01

    Replacing sedentary behaviour with light intensity physical activity (ie, activities classified as less than three metabolic equivalents, such as slow-paced walking) may be a more realistic strategy for reducing cardiometabolic risk in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than only aiming to increase levels of moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity. Behaviour change interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have not yet been developed or tested. Is a 6-week behaviour change intervention effective and feasible in reducing sedentary time in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? This study will be a multi-centre, randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding, and intention-to-treat analysis, comparing a 6-week behaviour change intervention aimed at reducing sedentary time with a sham intervention in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Seventy participants will be recruited from the waiting lists for pulmonary rehabilitation programs at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia. The behaviour change intervention aims to reduce sedentary time through a process of guided goal setting with participants to achieve two target behaviours: (1) replace sitting and lying down with light-intensity physical activity where possible, and (2) stand up and move for 2minutes after 30minutes of continuous sedentary time. Three face-to-face sessions and three phone sessions will be held with a physiotherapist over the 6-week intervention period. The 'capability', 'opportunity', 'motivation' and 'behaviour' (COM-B) model will be applied to each participant to determine which components of behaviour (capability, opportunity or motivation) need to change in order to reduce sedentary time. Based on this 'behavioural diagnosis', the Behaviour Change Wheel will be used to systematically select appropriate behaviour change

  8. Body fat loss and compensatory mechanisms in response to different doses of aerobic exercise - a randomized controlled trial in overweight sedentary males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mads Rosenkilde; Auerbach, Pernille Landrock; Reichkendler, Michala Holm

    2012-01-01

    The amount of weight loss induced by exercise is often disappointing. A diet-induced negative energy balance triggers compensatory mechanisms, e.g. lower metabolic rate and increased appetite. However, knowledge about potential compensatory mechanisms triggered by increased aerobic exercise...... is limited. A randomized controlled trial was performed in healthy sedentary moderately overweight young men to examine the effects of increasing doses of aerobic exercise on body composition, accumulated energy balance, and the degree of compensation. Eighteen participants were randomized to a continuous...... sedentary control group, 21 to a moderate (MOD; 300 kcal/day) and 22 to a high dose (HIGH; 600 kcal/day) exercise group for 13 weeks, corresponding to approximately 30 and 60 minutes of daily aerobic exercise, respectively. Body weight (MOD: -3.6kg, P...

  9. Promoting physical activity in sedentary elderly Malays with type 2 diabetes: a protocol for randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazlina, Shariff-Ghazali; Browning, Colette Joy; Yasin, Shajahan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Like many countries Malaysia is facing an increase in the number of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus diabetes (T2DM) and modifiable lifestyle factors such as sedentary behaviour are important drivers of this increase. The level of physical activity is low among elderly Malay people. In Malaysia, strategies to promote physical activity in elderly Malay people with T2DM are not well documented in the research literature. This paper discusses an intervention to increase physical activity in elderly Malay people with T2DM. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of personalised feedback alone and in combination with peer support in promoting and maintaining physical activity in comparison with usual care. Methods and analysis A three-arm randomised controlled trial will be conducted among sedentary Malay adults aged 60 years and above with T2DM attending an urban primary healthcare clinic in Malaysia. The participants will be randomised into three groups for a 12-week intervention with a follow-up at 24 and 36 weeks to assess adherence. The primary outcome of this study is pedometer-determined physical activity. Glycaemic and blood pressure control, body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, balance, lipid profile, health-related quality of life, psychological well-being, social support and self-efficacy for exercise are the secondary measures. Linear mixed models will be used to determine the effect of the intervention over time and between groups. Ethical and dissemination The Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee and the Malaysian Ministry of Health's Medical Research Ethics Committee approved this protocol. The findings of this study will be presented at international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration This study protocol has been registered with the Malaysian National Medical Research Registry and with the Current Controlled Trial Ltd (http://www.controlled

  10. Promoting physical activity in sedentary elderly Malays with type 2 diabetes: a protocol for randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazlina, Shariff-Ghazali; Browning, Colette Joy; Yasin, Shajahan

    2012-01-01

    Like many countries Malaysia is facing an increase in the number of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus diabetes (T2DM) and modifiable lifestyle factors such as sedentary behaviour are important drivers of this increase. The level of physical activity is low among elderly Malay people. In Malaysia, strategies to promote physical activity in elderly Malay people with T2DM are not well documented in the research literature. This paper discusses an intervention to increase physical activity in elderly Malay people with T2DM. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of personalised feedback alone and in combination with peer support in promoting and maintaining physical activity in comparison with usual care. A three-arm randomised controlled trial will be conducted among sedentary Malay adults aged 60 years and above with T2DM attending an urban primary healthcare clinic in Malaysia. The participants will be randomised into three groups for a 12-week intervention with a follow-up at 24 and 36 weeks to assess adherence. The primary outcome of this study is pedometer-determined physical activity. Glycaemic and blood pressure control, body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, balance, lipid profile, health-related quality of life, psychological well-being, social support and self-efficacy for exercise are the secondary measures. Linear mixed models will be used to determine the effect of the intervention over time and between groups. ETHICAL AND DISSEMINATION: The Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee and the Malaysian Ministry of Health's Medical Research Ethics Committee approved this protocol. The findings of this study will be presented at international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. This study protocol has been registered with the Malaysian National Medical Research Registry and with the Current Controlled Trial Ltd (http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN71447000/).

  11. An acute exercise session increases self-efficacy in sedentary endometrial cancer survivors and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Daniel; Baum, George; Jovanovic, Jennifer; Carmack, Cindy; Greisinger, Anthony; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2010-11-01

    Self-efficacy can be affected by mastery experiences and somatic sensations. A novel exercise experience and associated sensations may impact self-efficacy and subsequent behaviors. We investigated the effect of a single exercise session on self-efficacy for sedentary endometrial cancer survivors compared with sedentary women of a similar age, but with no cancer history. Twenty survivors and 19 controls completed an exercise session performed as a submaximal cycle ergometry test. Sensations and efficacy were measured before and after exercise. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. Regression models were used to determine predictors of self-efficacy and subsequent exercise. Self-efficacy increased for both survivors and controls, but survivors had a higher rate of increase, and the change predicted subsequent exercise. The association between exercise-related somatic sensations and self-efficacy differed between the 2 groups. A novel exercise experience had a larger effect on self-efficacy and subsequent exercise activity for endometrial cancer survivors than controls. Somatic sensations experienced during exercise may differ for survivors, which may be related to the experience of having cancer. Understanding factors affecting confidence in novel exercise experiences for populations with specific cancer histories is of the utmost importance in the adoption of exercise behaviors.

  12. Interrelationships between lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant status in sedentary controls and unprofessional athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, Gregorio; Canino, Baldassare; Lo Presti, Rosalia

    2010-01-01

    We examined the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) as an index of lipid peroxidation, and the total antioxidant status (TAS) in 81 unprofessional athletes subdivided into three subgroups. The first group included 28 subjects who practised endurance sports, the second included 30 subjects who practised mixed sports, the third included 23 subjects who practised power sports. We enrolled also a group of 61 sedentary controls (SC). TBARS were increased and TAS was decreased in the whole group of athletes in comparison with SC; an almost similar behaviour was present also subdividing athletes according to the practised sport. A significant negative correlation between these two parameters emerged in SC but not in the whole group of athletes. Unless for the athletes that practised endurance sports a similar trend was found in athletes that practised mixed and power sports. In conclusion, at rest the symmetrical behaviour between the lipid peroxidation increase and the TAS decrease, observed in sedentary controls, was not evident in unprofessional athletes who practised different sports.

  13. Associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and glycemic control in a large cohort of adolescents with type 1 diabetes: the Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aman, J; Skinner, T C; de Beaufort, C E

    2009-01-01

    whether differences in physical activity or sedentary behavior could explain the variation in metabolic outcomes between centers. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional international study in 21 centers, with demographic and clinical data obtained by questionnaire from participants. Hemoglobin A1c (Hb......-SF]), with well-being and leisure time activity assessed using measures developed by Health Behaviour in School Children WHO Project. RESULTS: Older participants (p physical activity. Physical activity was associated with positive health perception (p ... in reported physical activity (p Physical activity is strongly associated with psychological well-being but has weak associations with metabolic control. Leisure time...

  14. A mobile technology intervention to reduce sedentary behaviour in 2- to 4-year-old children (Mini Movers): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Katherine L; Salmon, Jo; Hinkley, Trina; Hnatiuk, Jill A; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2017-03-03

    Sedentary behaviour (e.g. television viewing, sitting time) tracks over time and is associated with adverse health and developmental outcomes across the lifespan. Young children (5 years or younger) spend up to 12 h/day sedentary, of which around 2 h is spent in screen time (e.g. watching television). Interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour in early childhood report mixed results and many have limited potential for scalability. Mobile phones offer a wide-reaching, low-cost avenue for the delivery of health behaviour programmes to parents but their potential to reduce young children's sedentary behaviour has not been widely tested. This study aims to test the feasibility and efficacy of a parent-focused, predominantly mobile telephone-delivered intervention to support parents to minimise the amount of time their child spends using screens and in overall sitting time. Mini Movers is a pilot randomised controlled trial recruiting 100 parents and children. Inclusion criteria include having a child aged between 2 and 4 years, being able to speak, read and write English, and smartphone ownership. Participants will be randomised to the intervention or a wait-list control group at a 1:1 ratio. Intervention group parents will receive printed materials including a content booklet and goal-checking magnet and will participate in a one-on-one discussion with the interventionist to plan two goals to reduce their child's sedentary behaviour. Subsequently, the intervention will be delivered over 6 weeks via personalised and interactive text messages promoting positive health behaviours (strategies for decreasing screen time and overall sitting time), goal setting and self-monitoring. Outcomes to be assessed include intervention feasibility and children's screen time and objectively-assessed sitting time. Few studies have used mobile phone technology to deliver health behaviour programmes to parents of young children. Findings will inform the development of larger

  15. Energy expenditure of interruptions to sedentary behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strath Scott J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in technology, social influences and environmental attributes have resulted in substan-tial portions of the day spent in sedentary pursuits. Sedentary behavior may be a cause of many chronic diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Research demonstrated that breaking up sedentary time was beneficially associated with markers of body composition, cardiovascular health and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the total energy expenditure of three different durations of physical activity within a 30-minute sedentary period and to examine the potential benefits of interrupting sedentary behavior with physical activity for weight control. Methods Participants completed four consecutive 30-minute bouts of sedentary behavior (reading, working on the computer, or doing other desk activities with and without interruptions of walking at a self-selected pace. Bout one contained no walking interruptions. Bout two contained a 1-minute walking period. Bout three contained a 2-minute walking period. Bout four contained a 5-minute walking period. Body composition and resting metabolic rate were assessed. Result Twenty males and females (18-39 years completed this study. Results of the repeated measures analysis of variance with post-hoc testing showed that significantly more energy was expended during each 30 minute sedentary bout with a walking break than in the 30 minute sedentary bout (p Conclusions This study demonstrated that making small changes, such as taking a five minute walking break every hour could yield beneficial weight control or weight loss results. Therefore, taking breaks from sedentary time is a potential outlet to prevent obesity and the rise of obesity in developed countries.

  16. One session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) every 5 days, improves muscle power but not static balance in lifelong sedentary ageing men: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculthorpe, Nicholas F; Herbert, Peter; Grace, Fergal

    2017-02-01

    Declining muscle power during advancing age predicts falls and loss of independence. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may improve muscle power, but remains largely unstudied in ageing participants. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated the efficacy of a low-frequency HIIT (LfHIIT) intervention on peak muscle power (peak power output [PPO]), body composition, and balance in lifelong sedentary but otherwise healthy males. Thirty-three lifelong sedentary ageing men were randomly assigned to either intervention (INT; n = 22, age 62.3 ± 4.1 years) or control (n = 11, age 61.6 ± 5.0 years) who were both assessed at 3 distinct measurement points (phase A), after 6 weeks of conditioning exercise (phase B), and after 6 weeks of HIIT once every 5 days in INT (phase C), where control remained inactive throughout the study. Static balance remained unaffected, and both absolute and relative PPO were not different between groups at phases A or B, but increased significantly in INT after LfHIIT (P < 0.01). Lean body mass displayed a significant interaction (P < 0.01) due to an increase in INT between phases B and C (P < 0.05). 6 weeks of LfHIIT exercise feasible and effective method to induce clinically relevant improvements in absolute and relative PPO, but does not improve static balance in sedentary ageing men.

  17. Automatic activation of exercise and sedentary stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tanya; Spence, John C

    2009-09-01

    We examined the automatic activation of "sedentary" and "exerciser" stereotypes using a social prime Stroop task. Results showed significantly slower response times between the exercise words and the exercise control words and between the sedentary words and the exercise control words when preceded by an attractive exerciser prime. Words preceded by a normal-weight exerciser prime showed significantly slower response times for sedentary words over sedentary control words and exercise words. An overweight sedentary prime resulted in significantly slower response times for sedentary words over exercise words and exercise control words. These results highlight the need for increased awareness of how active and sedentary lifestyles are portrayed in the media.

  18. Acute effects of advertisements on children's choices, preferences, and ratings of liking for physical activities and sedentary behaviours: a randomised controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantis, Evan; Salmon, Jo; Bauman, Adrian

    2008-11-01

    The acute decision prompting effects of social marketing via television (TV) advertisements promoting physical activity to children are unknown. This pilot study aimed to determine the acute effects of an Australian government-sponsored TV advertisement (called 'Get Moving'), promoting more physical activity and less sedentary behaviour, on children's choices, preferences, and ratings of liking for physical activities and sedentary behaviours. Thirty-one children aged 10-12 years were recruited from a single public school, and randomised to one of two treatment groups or two control groups (Solomon four-group design). Treatment participants watched an episode of The Simpsons embedded every 10min with three 30s Get Moving advertisements plus standard advertisements. Control participants watched the same episode plus standard advertisements, but without the Get Moving advertisements. The following dependent variables were assessed immediately before and/or after exposure: activity preference (participants selected either verbally or by pointing to one of eight picture cards depicting four physical activities and four sedentary behaviours); ratings of liking (participants rated how much they liked or disliked each of these activities/behaviours either verbally or by pointing to one of nine values with an adjacent smile or frown on a Likert-type scale); and time spent in physical activities was assessed by direct observation during a 10min free-time session. No significant effects or trends were seen for any of the dependent variables. Further research is needed to determine whether different content and/or higher doses of exposure to physical activity promoting advertisements are needed to influence children's activity choices.

  19. Examining the association between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sport participation with e-cigarette use and smoking status in a large sample of Canadian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicic, Sandra; Piérard, Emma; DeCicca, Philip; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-11-01

    Youth e-cigarette use is common worldwide, but the profile of e-cigarette users compared with tobacco users is unclear. This study examines how sport participation and activity levels among youth differ between e-cigarette users and smokers. Using Canadian data from 38,977 grade 9 to 12 students who participated in Year 3 (2014-15) of the COMPASS study, logistic regression models were used to examine the likelihood of sport participation and activity level based on e-cigarette use and smoking status. Pearson's chi-square tests were used to examine subgroup differences by gender. E-cigarette users are more likely to participate in intramural, competitive, and team sports compared to non-users. Current and former smokers are less likely to participate in those sports than non-smokers. Youth e-cigarette users are more likely than non-users to meet the physical activity guidelines. Current smokers are more likely than non-smokers to undertake physical activity at least 60 minutes daily but less likely than non-smokers to tone at least 3 times per week. Youth e-cigarette users are less likely than non-users to be sedentary less than 2 hours daily. Gender differences among males and females show that male e-cigarettes users drive the general relationship. Results suggest that e-cigarette users are more likely to engage in physical activity compared to non e-cigarette users. Youth e-cigarette users are more likely to be physically active while the opposite is true for smokers. Although e-cigarettes may be less harmful to health compared to cigarette smoking, the increased uptake among youth of differing profiles should be considered in prevention efforts. These results highlight the importance of addressing e-cigarette use in youth who undertake health promoting behaviours. Prevention efforts should not focus only on youth who may undertake riskier health habits; e-cigarette prevention programs should go beyond the domain of tobacco control. © The Author 2017. Published

  20. Differences in sedentary time and physical activity between female patients with fibromyalgia and healthy controls : the al-Ándalus project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Estévez-López, Fernando; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ortega, Francisco B; Aparicio, Virginia A; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Mota, Jorge; Silva, Pedro; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the levels of objectively measured time spent in sedentary activities (sedentary time) and physical activities in female patients with fibromyalgia and compare them with the levels in age-matched healthy control women. METHODS: The study comprised 413 female patients with

  1.  Female fibromyalgia patients have the same ability to improve aerobic fitness as healthy sedentary controls

    OpenAIRE

    Hafstad, Arild

    2010-01-01

    Background: Several cross-sectional studies have reported lower aerobic fitness among fibromyalgia (FM) patients compared to healthy controls. At present it is unknown whether the inferior aerobic fitness is a cause or a consequence of the illness. Objective: To examine if female FM patients have the same ability to enhance their aerobic fitness as healthy sedentary controls matched on age and BMI. A second objective was to investigate whether the FM patients experience an increase in pre...

  2. Associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and glycemic control in a large cohort of adolescents with type 1 diabetes: the Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, J; Skinner, T C; de Beaufort, C E; Swift, P G F; Aanstoot, H-J; Cameron, F

    2009-06-01

    The Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes has demonstrated persistent differences in metabolic outcomes between pediatric diabetes centers. These differences cannot be accounted for by differences in demographic, medical, or treatment variables. Therefore, we sought to explore whether differences in physical activity or sedentary behavior could explain the variation in metabolic outcomes between centers. An observational cross-sectional international study in 21 centers, with demographic and clinical data obtained by questionnaire from participants. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were assayed in one central laboratory. All individuals with diabetes aged 11-18 yr (49.4% female), with duration of diabetes of at least 1 yr, were invited to participate. Individuals completed a self-reported measure of quality of life (Diabetes Quality of Life - Short Form [DQOL-SF]), with well-being and leisure time activity assessed using measures developed by Health Behaviour in School Children WHO Project. Older participants (p physical activity. Physical activity was associated with positive health perception (p physical activity (p sedentary behavior (p Physical activity is strongly associated with psychological well-being but has weak associations with metabolic control. Leisure time activity is associated with individual differences in HbA1c but not with intercenter differences.

  3. Altered differential control of sympathetic outflow following sedentary conditions: Role of subregional neuroplasticity in the RVLM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhan Subramanian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the classically held belief of an all-or-none activation of the sympathetic nervous system, differential responses in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA can occur acutely at varying magnitudes and in opposing directions. Sympathetic nerves also appear to contribute differentially to various disease states including hypertension and heart failure. Previously we have reported that sedentary conditions enhanced responses of splanchnic SNA (SSNA but not lumbar SNA (LSNA to activation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM in rats. Bulbospinal RVLM neurons from sedentary rats also exhibit increased dendritic branching in rostral regions of the RVLM. We hypothesized that regionally specific structural neuroplasticity would manifest as enhanced SSNA but not LSNA following activation of the rostral RVLM. To test this hypothesis, groups of physically active (10-12 weeks on running wheels or sedentary, male Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented to record mean arterial pressure, LSNA and SSNA under Inactin anesthesia and during microinjections of glutamate (30 nl, 10 mM into multiple sites within the RVLM. Sedentary conditions enhanced SSNA but not LSNA responses and SSNA responses were enhanced at more central and rostral sites. Results suggest that enhanced SSNA responses in rostral RVLM coincide with enhanced dendritic branching in rostral RVLM observed previously. Identifying structural and functional neuroplasticity in specific populations of RVLM neurons may help identify new treatments for cardiovascular diseases, known to be more prevalent in sedentary individuals.

  4. Associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and glycemic control in a large cohort of adolescents with type 1 diabetes: the Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aman, J; Skinner, T C; de Beaufort, C E

    2009-01-01

    A1c) levels were assayed in one central laboratory. All individuals with diabetes aged 11-18 yr (49.4% female), with duration of diabetes of at least 1 yr, were invited to participate. Individuals completed a self-reported measure of quality of life (Diabetes Quality of Life - Short Form [DQOL...... whether differences in physical activity or sedentary behavior could explain the variation in metabolic outcomes between centers. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional international study in 21 centers, with demographic and clinical data obtained by questionnaire from participants. Hemoglobin A1c (Hb.......001) but not with glycemic control, body mass index, frequency of hypoglycemia, or diabetic ketoacidosis. The more time spent on the computer (r = 0.06; p

  5. The motivation to be sedentary predicts weight change when sedentary behaviors are reduced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paluch Rocco A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is correlated with a sedentary lifestyle, and the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with obesity. The present study tests the hypothesis that the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with weight change when children reduce their sedentary behavior. Methods The motivation to be active or sedentary, changes in weight, and accelerometer assessed physical activity were collected for 55 families with overweight/obese children who participated in a nine-week field study to examine behavior and weight change as a function of reducing sedentary behavior. Children were studied in three 3-week phases, baseline, reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 25% and reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 50%. The targeted sedentary behaviors included television, video game playing, video watching, and computer use. Results The reinforcing value of sedentary behavior but not physical activity, was correlated with weight change, as losing weight was associated with lower reinforcing value of sedentary behaviors. Reducing sedentary behavior was not associated with a significant change in objectively measured physical activity, suggesting the main way in which reducing sedentary behavior influenced weight change is by complementary changes in energy intake. Estimated energy intake supported the hypothesis that reducing sedentary behaviors influences weight by reducing energy intake. Conclusions These data show that the motivation to be sedentary limits the effects of reducing sedentary behavior on weight change in obese children. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00962247

  6. The motivation to be sedentary predicts weight change when sedentary behaviors are reduced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Roemmich, James N; Cavanaugh, Meghan D; Paluch, Rocco A

    2011-02-22

    Obesity is correlated with a sedentary lifestyle, and the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with obesity. The present study tests the hypothesis that the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with weight change when children reduce their sedentary behavior. The motivation to be active or sedentary, changes in weight, and accelerometer assessed physical activity were collected for 55 families with overweight/obese children who participated in a nine-week field study to examine behavior and weight change as a function of reducing sedentary behavior. Children were studied in three 3-week phases, baseline, reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 25% and reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 50%. The targeted sedentary behaviors included television, video game playing, video watching, and computer use. The reinforcing value of sedentary behavior but not physical activity, was correlated with weight change, as losing weight was associated with lower reinforcing value of sedentary behaviors. Reducing sedentary behavior was not associated with a significant change in objectively measured physical activity, suggesting the main way in which reducing sedentary behavior influenced weight change is by complementary changes in energy intake. Estimated energy intake supported the hypothesis that reducing sedentary behaviors influences weight by reducing energy intake. These data show that the motivation to be sedentary limits the effects of reducing sedentary behavior on weight change in obese children. © 2011 Epstein et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  7. Promotion of physical activity and fitness in sedentary patients with Parkinson's disease: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nimwegen, Marlies; Speelman, Arlène D; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Smulders, Katrijn; Dontje, Manon L; Borm, George F; Backx, Frank J G; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Munneke, Marten

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate whether a multifaceted behavioural change programme increases physical activities in patients with Parkinson's disease. Multicentre randomised controlled trial. 32 community hospitals in the Netherlands, collaborating in a nationwide network (ParkinsonNet). 586 sedentary patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease aged between 40 and 75 years with mild to moderate disease severity (Hoehn and Yahr stage ≤ 3). Patients were randomly assigned to the ParkFit programme or a matched general physiotherapy intervention. ParkFit is a multifaceted behavioural change programme, designed specifically to achieve an enduring increase in the level of physical activity (coaches using motivational strategies; ambulatory feedback). The primary endpoint was the level of physical activity, measured every six months with a standardised seven day recall (LASA physical activity questionnaire-LAPAQ). Secondary endpoints included two other measures of physical activity (activity diary and ambulatory activity monitor), quality of life (Parkinson's disease questionnaire-PDQ-39), and fitness (six minute walk test). 540 (92.2%) patients completed the primary outcome. During follow-up, overall time spent on physical activities (LAPAQ) was comparable between the groups (adjusted group difference 7%, 95% confidence interval -3 to 17%; P=0.19). Analyses of three secondary outcomes indicated increased physical activity in ParkFit patients, as suggested by the activity diary (difference 30%; Pactivity monitor (difference 12%; Pphysical activity, as measured with the LAPAQ. The analysis of the secondary endpoints justifies further work into the possible merits of behavioural change programmes to increase physical activities in daily life in Parkinson's disease. Clinical trials NCT00748488.

  8. Psychiatric disorders and cardiac anxiety in exercising and sedentary coronary artery disease patients: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sardinha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical exercise has been shown to favorably influence mood and anxiety; however, there are few studies regarding psychiatric aspects of physically active patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. The objective of the present study was to compare the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and cardiac anxiety in sedentary and exercising CAD patients. A total sample of 119 CAD patients (74 men were enrolled in a case-control study. The subjects were interviewed to identify psychiatric disorders and responded to the Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire. In the exercise group (N = 60, there was a lower prevalence (45 vs 81%; P < 0.001 of at least one psychiatric diagnosis, as well as multiple comorbidities, when compared to the sedentary group (N = 59. Considering the Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire, sedentary patients presented higher scores compared to exercisers (mean ± SEM = 55.8 ± 1.9 vs 37.3 ± 1.6; P < 0.001. In a regression model, to be attending a medically supervised exercise program presented a relevant potential for a 35% reduction in cardiac anxiety. CAD patients regularly attending an exercise program presented less current psychiatric diagnoses and multiple mental-related comorbidities and lower scores of cardiac anxiety. These salutary mental effects add to the already known health benefits of exercise for CAD patients.

  9. Parental Education and Pre-School Children’s Objectively Measured Sedentary Time: The Role of Co-Participation in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Määttä

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Parental co-participation in physical activity (PA may be a beneficial parenting practice for diminishing children’s sedentary time (ST. Less information is available, however, on the explanatory role of co-participation in PA regarding parental educational differences in children's ST. Preschool-aged children (N = 864, mean age 4.8, 52% boys with their parents participated in a cross-sectional DAGIS (Increased Health and Wellbeing in Pre-schools study between years 2015 and 2016. Children (N = 821 wore an accelerometer for one week. Parents were informed of their educational background, and the frequency of visits with their child in nature, to parks or playgrounds, their own yard, and indoor sport facilities (N = 808. Testing the associations required multiple regression analyses. Parents with a low educational background reported more frequent visits with their child to their own yard, and these visits were associated with children’s lower ST. More highly educated parents co-visited indoor sport facilities more frequently, although this did not have a significant association with children’s ST. More frequent visits in nature were associated with a lower ST at weekdays, regardless of educational background. Future health promotion strategies should inform parents that frequent co-participation in PA, for example, in one’s own yard, is beneficial for lowering children’s ST.

  10. Dietary intake modification in response to a participation in a resistance training program for sedentary older adults with prediabetes: findings from the Resist Diabetes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Tanya M; Davy, Brenda M; Clark, Adrienne G; Baugh, Mary Elizabeth; Hedrick, Valisa E; Marinik, Elaina L; Flack, Kyle D; Savla, J; Winett, Sheila; Winett, Richard A

    2014-08-01

    Engagement in one type of health behavior change may exert a "spillover" effect resulting in other behavior changes. Few studies have examined dietary intake following prolonged training, and none have evaluated spontaneous dietary changes beyond alterations in energy or macronutrient intake following initiation of strength/resistance training (RT). The purpose of this observational investigation was to determine if spontaneous dietary intake modifications occur in response to initiation of an RT program, among older adults. Previously sedentary adults with prediabetes (n=134, age=59±1 years) were enrolled in a supervised 12-week RT program. Participants were not given dietary advice or encouraged to change eating behaviors. Three non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were collected at baseline and after 12 weeks of RT. Reductions in intake of energy (1914±40 kcal vs. 1834±427 kcal, p=0.010), carbohydrate (211.6±4.9 g vs. 201.7±5.2 g, p=0.015), total sugar (87.4±2.7 g vs. 81.5±3.1 g, p=0.030), glycemic load (113.4±3.0 vs. 108.1±3.2, p=0.031), fruits and vegetables (4.6±0.2 servings vs. 4.1±0.2 servings, p=0.018), and sweets and desserts (1.1±0.07 servings vs. 0.89±0.07 servings, p=0.023) were detected over time. No changes in other dietary intake variables were observed. Mode of exercise and disease state may be important factors in determining whether dietary modifications occur with exercise initiation, among previously sedentary adults. Successful initiation of RT may represent an opportunity for health care professionals to promote beneficial changes in dietary habits, among older adults with prediabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Objectively Measured Sedentary Time and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Control in US Hispanics/Latinos With Diabetes Mellitus: Results From the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueyin; Strizich, Garrett; Hua, Simin; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Buelna, Christina; Gallo, Linda C; Gellman, Marc D; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; O'Brien, Matthew J; Stoutenberg, Mark; Wang, Tao; Avilés-Santa, M Larissa; Kaplan, Robert C; Qi, Qibin

    2017-05-25

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor control is a cornerstone of diabetes mellitus management. Little is known about relationships of objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity with major CVD risk factor control in individuals with diabetes mellitus. We examined associations of objectively measured sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity with reaching major CVD risk factor control goals among US Hispanic/Latino adults with diabetes mellitus. This cross-sectional analysis included 1699 participants with diabetes mellitus from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (2008-2011). Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of meeting the following 5 major CVD risk factor control goals: hemoglobin A 1c 40/50 mg/dL for men/women. After adjustment for covariates including moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, less sedentary time was associated with increased odds of reaching hemoglobin A 1c (OR=1.76 [95% CI: 1.10, 2.82]) and triglyceride control goals (OR=2.16 [1.36, 3.46]), and reaching ≥3 CVD risk factor control goals (OR=2.08 [1.34, 3.23]) (all ORs for comparisons of extreme tertiles of sedentary time). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was not associated with reaching any CVD risk factor control goals. Substituting 60-min/day of sedentary time with light-intensity physical activity was associated with increased odds of reaching hemoglobin A 1c (OR=1.18 [1.04, 1.35]), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR=1.17 [1.04, 1.32]), and triglyceride (OR=1.20 [1.05, 1.36]) control goals. Among US Hispanic/Latino adults with diabetes mellitus, less sedentary time, but not moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, was associated with improved CVD risk factor control, specifically in reaching hemoglobin A 1c and triglyceride control goals. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  12. A cluster-randomized controlled trial to reduce sedentary behavior and promote physical activity and health of 8-9 year olds: The Transform-Us! Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball Kylie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA is associated with positive cardio-metabolic health and emerging evidence suggests sedentary behavior (SB may be detrimental to children's health independent of PA. The primary aim of the Transform-Us! study is to determine whether an 18-month, behavioral and environmental intervention in the school and family settings results in higher levels of PA and lower rates of SB among 8-9 year old children compared with usual practice (post-intervention and 12-months follow-up. The secondary aims are to determine the independent and combined effects of PA and SB on children's cardio-metabolic health risk factors; identify the factors that mediate the success of the intervention; and determine whether the intervention is cost-effective. Methods/design A four-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT with a 2 × 2 factorial design, with schools as the unit of randomization. Twenty schools will be allocated to one of four intervention groups, sedentary behavior (SB-I, physical activity (PA-I, combined SB and PA (SB+PA-I or current practice control (C, which will be evaluated among approximately 600 children aged 8-9 years in school year 3 living in Melbourne, Australia. All children in year 3 at intervention schools in 2010 (8-9 years will receive the intervention over an 18-month period with a maintenance 'booster' delivered in 2012 and children at all schools will be invited to participate in the evaluation assessments. To maximize the sample and to capture new students arriving at intervention and control schools, recruitment will be on-going up to the post-intervention time point. Primary outcomes are time spent sitting and in PA assessed via accelerometers and inclinometers and survey. Discussion To our knowledge, Transform-Us! is the first RCT to examine the effectiveness of intervention strategies for reducing children's overall sedentary time, promoting PA and optimizing health outcomes. The integration

  13. Low-calorie energy drink improves physiological response to exercise in previously sedentary men: a placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Christopher M; Moon, Jordan R; Smith, Abbie E; Tobkin, Sarah E; Kendall, Kristina L; Graef, Jennifer L; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2010-08-01

    Energy drink use has grown despite limited research to support efficacy or safety and amid concerns when combined with exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of 10 weeks of once-daily energy drink consumption or energy drink consumption with exercise on measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, mood, and safety in previously sedentary males. Thirty-eight males were randomly assigned to energy drink + exercise (EX-A), energy drink (NEX-A), placebo + exercise (EX-B), or placebo (NEX-B). All participants consumed 1 drink per day for 10 weeks; EX-A and EX-B participated in 10 weeks of resistance and endurance exercise. Testing was performed before (PRE) and after (POST) the 10-week intervention. No significant (p > 0.05) changes were observed for body composition, fitness, or strength in NEX-A; however, significantly greater decreases in fat mass and percentage body fat and increases in VO2peak were observed in EX-A versus EX-B. Ventilatory threshold (VT), minute ventilation, VO2 at VT, and power output at VT improved significantly PRE to POST in EX-A but not in EX-B or nonexercising groups. Clinical markers for hepatic, renal, cardiovascular, and immune function, as determined by PRE and POST blood work revealed no adverse effects in response to the energy drink. Mood was not affected by energy drink use. Absent energy restriction or other dietary controls, chronic ingestion of a once-daily low-calorie energy drink appears ineffective at improving body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, or strength in sedentary males. However, when combined with exercise, preworkout energy drink consumption may significantly improve some physiological adaptations to combined aerobic and resistance training.

  14. Long-term sedentary work and the risk of subsite-specific colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Terry; Fritschi, Lin; Heyworth, Jane; Bull, Fiona

    2011-05-15

    Research suggests that sedentary behavior may increase the risk of some chronic diseases. The aims of the study were to examine whether sedentary work is associated with colorectal cancer and to determine whether the association differs by subsite. A total of 918 cases and 1,021 controls participated in a population-based case-control study of colorectal cancer in Western Australia in 2005-2007. Data were collected on lifestyle, physical activity, and lifetime job history. The estimated effects of sedentary work on the risk of cancers of the proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum were analyzed by using multinomial logistic regression. Compared with participants who did not spend any time in sedentary work, participants who spent 10 or more years in sedentary work had almost twice the risk of distal colon cancer (adjusted odds ratio = 1.94, 95% confidence interval: 1.28, 2.93) and a 44% increased risk of rectal cancer (adjusted odds ratio = 1.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.96, 2.18). This association was independent of recreational physical activity and was seen even among the most recreationally active participants. Sedentary work was not associated with the risk of proximal colon cancer. These results suggest that long-term sedentary work may increase the risk of distal colon cancer and rectal cancer.

  15. The Impact of Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program on Physical Activity, Sedentary Time and Fruit, Vegetable and Junk Food Consumption among Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Waitlist Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Leon M.; Howie, Erin K.; Smith, Kyla L.; Fenner, Ashley A.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Olds, Tim S.; Abbott, Rebecca A.; Smith, Anne J.

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the effects of participation in Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program (CAFAP), a community-based, family-centered behavioural intervention, on the physical activity, sedentary time, and healthy eating behaviours of overweight and obese adolescents. Methods In this waitlist controlled clinical trial in Western Australia, adolescents (n = 69, 71% female, mean age 14.1 (SD 1.6) years) and parents completed an 8-week intervention followed by 12 months of telephone and text message support. Assessments were completed at baseline, before beginning the intervention, immediately following the intervention, and at 3-, 6-, and 12- months follow-up. The primary outcomes were physical activity and sedentary time assessed by accelerometers and servings of fruit, vegetables and junk food assessed by 3-day food records. Results During the intensive 8-week intervention sedentary time decreased by −5.1 min/day/month (95% CI: −11.0, 0.8) which was significantly greater than the rate of change during the waitlist period (p = .014). Moderate physical activity increased by 1.8 min/day/month (95% CI: −0.04, 3.6) during the intervention period, which was significantly greater than the rate of change during the waitlist period (p = .041). Fruit consumption increased during the intervention period (monthly incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.3, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.56) and junk food consumption decreased (monthly IRR 0.8, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.94) and these changes were different to those seen during the waitlist period (p = .004 and p = .020 respectively). Conclusions Participating in CAFAP appeared to have a positive influence on the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviours of overweight and obese adolescents and many of these changes were maintained for one year following the intensive intervention. Trial Registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611001187932 PMID:25375109

  16. The impact of Curtin University's activity, food and attitudes program on physical activity, sedentary time and fruit, vegetable and junk food consumption among overweight and obese adolescents: a waitlist controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Leon M; Howie, Erin K; Smith, Kyla L; Fenner, Ashley A; Kerr, Deborah A; Olds, Tim S; Abbott, Rebecca A; Smith, Anne J

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of participation in Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program (CAFAP), a community-based, family-centered behavioural intervention, on the physical activity, sedentary time, and healthy eating behaviours of overweight and obese adolescents. In this waitlist controlled clinical trial in Western Australia, adolescents (n = 69, 71% female, mean age 14.1 (SD 1.6) years) and parents completed an 8-week intervention followed by 12 months of telephone and text message support. Assessments were completed at baseline, before beginning the intervention, immediately following the intervention, and at 3-, 6-, and 12- months follow-up. The primary outcomes were physical activity and sedentary time assessed by accelerometers and servings of fruit, vegetables and junk food assessed by 3-day food records. During the intensive 8-week intervention sedentary time decreased by -5.1 min/day/month (95% CI: -11.0, 0.8) which was significantly greater than the rate of change during the waitlist period (p = .014). Moderate physical activity increased by 1.8 min/day/month (95% CI: -0.04, 3.6) during the intervention period, which was significantly greater than the rate of change during the waitlist period (p = .041). Fruit consumption increased during the intervention period (monthly incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.3, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.56) and junk food consumption decreased (monthly IRR 0.8, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.94) and these changes were different to those seen during the waitlist period (p = .004 and p = .020 respectively). Participating in CAFAP appeared to have a positive influence on the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviours of overweight and obese adolescents and many of these changes were maintained for one year following the intensive intervention. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611001187932.

  17. The impact of Curtin University's activity, food and attitudes program on physical activity, sedentary time and fruit, vegetable and junk food consumption among overweight and obese adolescents: a waitlist controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon M Straker

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of participation in Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program (CAFAP, a community-based, family-centered behavioural intervention, on the physical activity, sedentary time, and healthy eating behaviours of overweight and obese adolescents.In this waitlist controlled clinical trial in Western Australia, adolescents (n = 69, 71% female, mean age 14.1 (SD 1.6 years and parents completed an 8-week intervention followed by 12 months of telephone and text message support. Assessments were completed at baseline, before beginning the intervention, immediately following the intervention, and at 3-, 6-, and 12- months follow-up. The primary outcomes were physical activity and sedentary time assessed by accelerometers and servings of fruit, vegetables and junk food assessed by 3-day food records.During the intensive 8-week intervention sedentary time decreased by -5.1 min/day/month (95% CI: -11.0, 0.8 which was significantly greater than the rate of change during the waitlist period (p = .014. Moderate physical activity increased by 1.8 min/day/month (95% CI: -0.04, 3.6 during the intervention period, which was significantly greater than the rate of change during the waitlist period (p = .041. Fruit consumption increased during the intervention period (monthly incidence rate ratio (IRR 1.3, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.56 and junk food consumption decreased (monthly IRR 0.8, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.94 and these changes were different to those seen during the waitlist period (p = .004 and p = .020 respectively.Participating in CAFAP appeared to have a positive influence on the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviours of overweight and obese adolescents and many of these changes were maintained for one year following the intensive intervention.Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611001187932.

  18. Associations between participation in organised physical activity in the school or community outside school hours and neighbourhood play with child physical activity and sedentary time: a cross-sectional analysis of primary school-aged children from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Solomon-Moore, Emma; Thompson, Janice L; Lawlor, Debbie A; Sebire, Simon J

    2017-09-14

    To assess the extent to which participation in organised physical activity in the school or community outside school hours and neighbourhood play was associated with children's physical activity and sedentary time. Cross-sectional study. Children were recruited from 47 state-funded primary schools in South West England. 1223 children aged 8-9 years old. Accelerometer-assessed moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time. Children wore an accelerometer, and the mean minutes of MVPA and sedentary time per day were derived. Children reported their attendance at organised physical activity in the school or community outside school hours and neighbourhood play using a piloted questionnaire. Cross-sectional linear and logistic regression were used to examine if attendance frequency at each setting (and all settings combined) was associated with MVPA and sedentary time. Multiple imputation methods were used to account for missing data and increase sample size. Children who attended clubs at school 3-4 days per week obtained an average of 7.58 (95% CI 2.7 to 12.4) more minutes of MVPA per day than children who never attended. Participation in the three other non-school-based activities was similarly associated with MVPA. Evidence for associations with sedentary time was generally weaker. Associations were similar in girls and boys. When the four different contexts were combined, each additional one to two activities participated in per week increased participants' odds (OR: 1.18, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.25) of meeting the government recommendations for 60 min of MVPA per day. Participating in organised physical activity at school and in the community is associated with greater physical activity and reduced sedentary time among both boys and girls. All four types of activity contribute to overall physical activity, which provides parents with a range of settings in which to help their child be active. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  19. Food habits, physical activities and sedentary lifestyles of eutrophic and obese school children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchis-Gil, Jenny; Galván-Portillo, Marcia; Klünder-Klünder, Miguel; Cruz, Miguel; Flores-Huerta, Samuel

    2015-02-11

    Civilization has produced lifestyle changes; currently, people ingest more calories than are expended, resulting in obesity. This study assessed the association between dietary habits, physical activities, and sedentary behaviors and the risk of obesity in schoolchildren in Mexico City. Of 1,441 children (6-12 years old) screened in elementary schools, 202 obese (BMI ≥95(th) pc) and 200 normal-weight children (BMI 25(th)- 75(th) pc), as defined by the 2000 CDC criteria, were included in a case-control study. The children's eating, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle habits were recorded using validated questionnaires. The quantity and quality of the foods were obtained, and the energy that was expended was transformed into METs. Sedentary behavior was assessed in hours. Logistic regression models were used to determine the risks of certain habits and their association with obesity. Obese children ingested around of 270 Kcal less than eutrophic children. However, compared with the eutrophic children, obese children had significantly worse lifestyle habits; the children with healthy dietary habits (eating breakfast at home, bringing a school lunch, and not bringing money to purchase food) had a lower risk of obesity (OR 0.59, CI 0.46; 0.75). The quality of the eaten food was associated with a risk of obesity. Consuming fruit demonstrated an inverse association with risk of obesity (p Trend = 0.01); consumption of sweetened beverages (p Trend < 0.04) and refined carbohydrates with added fat (p Trend = 0.002) were associated with an increased risk of obesity. Children who were more physically active at school had an OR of 0.37 (CI 0.16; 0.89), those who had 3-4 televisions at home had an OR of 2.13 (CI 1.20; 3.78), and the risk of developing obesity was independent of caloric intake. Poorer eating habits as well as less physical activity were associated with the risk of obesity. An obesogenic environment could change if teachers and parents worked

  20. Associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and glycemic control in a large cohort of adolescents with type 1 diabetes : the Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aman, J.; Skinner, T. C.; de Beaufort, C. E.; Swift, P. G. F.; Aanstoot, H-J; Cameron, F.

    angstrom man J, Skinner TC, de Beaufort CE, Swift PGF, Aanstoot H-J, Cameron F, for and on behalf of the Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes. Associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and glycemic control in a large cohort of adolescents with type 1 diabetes: the Hvidoere

  1. The Potential Impact of Displacing Sedentary Time in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    FALCONER, CATHERINE L.; PAGE, ANGIE S.; ANDREWS, ROB C.; COOPER, ASHLEY R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Sedentary time, in particular, prolonged unbroken sedentary time, is detrimental to health and displaces time spent in either light or moderate intensity physical activity. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the potential impact of reallocating time from sedentary behaviors to more active behaviors on measures of body composition and metabolic health in people with type 2 diabetes. Methods Participants were 519 adults with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes who had been recruited to the Early Activity in Diabetes (Early ACTID) randomized controlled trial. Waist-worn accelerometers were used to obtain objective measurement of sedentary time, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at baseline alongside clinical measurements and fasting blood samples to determine cholesterol, triglycerides, HOMA-IR, and glucose. Isotemporal substitution modeling was performed to determine the potential impact of reallocating 30 min of sedentary time accumulated in a single bout (long bout) with 30 min of interrupted sedentary time, LPA, or MVPA. Results Sedentary time accounted for 65% of the waking day, of which 45% was accumulated in prolonged (≥30 min) bouts. Reallocation of 30 min of long-bout sedentary time with 30 min of short-bout sedentary time was associated with lower body mass index (BMI) (adjusted β, −0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], −1.00, −0.21) and waist circumference (WC) (adjusted β, −1.16; 95% CI, −2.08, −0.25). Stronger effects were seen for LPA and MVPA. Reallocation of 30 min of long-bout sedentary time with LPA was associated with higher HDL-cholesterol (adjusted β, 0.02; 95% CI, 0.00–0.03 mmol·L−1). Conclusions Encouraging adults with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes to break up prolonged periods of sedentary time may be an effective strategy for improving body composition and metabolic health. PMID:26378943

  2. Beneficial effects of dark chocolate on exercise capacity in sedentary subjects: underlying mechanisms. A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Pam R; Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; Patel, Minal; Higginbotham, Erin; Moreno-Ulloa, Aldo; Román-Pintos, Luis Miguel; Phillips, Paul; Perkins, Guy; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2016-09-14

    In heart failure patients the consumption of (-)-epicatechin ((-)-Epi)-rich cocoa can restore skeletal muscle (SkM) mitochondrial structure and decrease biomarkers of oxidative stress. However, nothing is known about its effects on exercise capacity and underlying mechanisms in normal, sedentary subjects. Twenty normal, sedentary subjects (∼50 years old) were randomized to placebo or dark chocolate (DC) groups and consumed 20 g of the products for 3 months. Subjects underwent before and after treatment, bicycle ergometry to assess VO2 max and work, SkM biopsy to assess changes in mitochondrial density, function and oxidative stress and blood sampling to assess metabolic endpoints. Seventeen subjects completed the trial. In the DC group (n = 9), VO2 max increased (17% increase, p = 0.056) as well as maximum work (watts) achieved (p = 0.026) with no changes with placebo (n = 8). The DC group evidenced increases in HDL levels (p = 0.005) and decreased triglycerides (p = 0.07). With DC, SkM evidenced significant increases in protein levels for LKB1, AMPK and PGC1α and in their active forms (phosphorylated AMPK and LKB1) as well as in citrate synthase activity while no changes were observed in mitochondrial density. With DC, significant increases in SkM reduced glutathione levels and decreases in protein carbonylation were observed. Improvements in maximum work achieved and VO2 max may be due to DC activation of upstream control systems and enhancement of SkM mitochondria efficiency. Larger clinical studies are warranted to confirm these observations.

  3. Using a technology-based intervention to promote weight loss in sedentary overweight or obese adults: a randomized controlled trial study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughn W Barry

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Vaughn W Barry1, Amanda C McClain1, Sara Shuger1, Xuemei Sui1, James W Hardin2, Gregory A Hand1, Sara Wilcox1, Steven N Blair1,21Department of Exercise Science; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USAPurpose: The SenseWear™ Armband is an activity monitor developed to improve lifestyle self-monitoring. Currently, few studies assess electronic self-monitoring and weight loss with a lifestyle intervention program. To our knowledge, only one study has used the SenseWear Armband in combination with a lifestyle intervention to improve weight loss, and no studies have evaluated whether a self-monitoring intervention based solely on the armband can promote weight loss. Consequently, the aims of the study were to assess weight loss from electronic self-monitoring, to compare these values to the lifestyle intervention and standard care groups, and to compare weight loss with lifestyle intervention with and without the armband.Patients and methods: We recruited 197 sedentary overweight or obese adults (age, 46.8 ± 10.8 years; BMI, 33.3 ± 5.2 kg/m2 to participate in the 9-month study. Participants were randomized into one of four weight loss groups: 1 the standard care group received a self-directed weight loss program, complete with an evidence-based weight loss manual (standard care, n = 50; 2 a 14-week group-based behavioral weight loss program followed by weekly, biweekly, and monthly telephone counseling calls (GWL, n = 49; 3 the use of the armband to help improve lifestyle self-monitoring (SWA alone, n = 49; or (4 the group-based behavioral weight loss program and follow-up telephone counseling calls plus the armband (GWL + SWA, n = 49. All participants received the evidence-based weight loss manual at baseline. All measures were performed at baseline and months 4 and 9. The primary outcomes were weight loss and waist circumference reduction.Results: This study is a well-designed randomized

  4. The SITLESS project: exercise referral schemes enhanced by self-management strategies to battle sedentary behaviour in older adults: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné-Garriga, Maria; Coll-Planas, Laura; Guerra, Míriam; Domingo, Àlex; Roqué, Marta; Caserotti, Paolo; Denkinger, Michael; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Tully, Mark A; Kee, Frank; McIntosh, Emma; Martín-Borràs, Carme; Oviedo, Guillermo R; Jerez-Roig, Javier; Santiago, Marta; Sansano, Oriol; Varela, Guillermo; Skjødt, Mathias; Wirth, Katharina; Dallmeier, Dhayana; Klenk, Jochen; Wilson, Jason J; Blackburn, Nicole E; Deidda, Manuela; Lefebvre, Guillaume; González, Denise; Salvà, Antoni

    2017-05-18

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the world's population. Recent evidence indicates that excessive sitting time is harmful to health, independent of meeting the recommended moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA) guidelines. The SITLESS project aims to determine whether exercise referral schemes (ERS) can be enhanced by self-management strategies (SMSs) to reduce sedentary behaviour (SB), increase PA and improve health, quality of life and function in the long term, as well as psychosocial outcomes in community-dwelling older European citizens from four countries, within a three-armed pragmatic randomised controlled trial, compared with ERS alone and also with general recommendations about PA. A total of 1338 older adults will be included in this study, recruited from four European countries through different existing primary prevention pathways. Participants will be randomly allocated into an ERS of 16 weeks (32 sessions, 45-60 min per session), ERS enhanced by seven sessions of SMSs and four telephone prompts, or a control group. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, month 4 (end of ERS intervention), month 16 (12 months post intervention) and month 22 (18 months post intervention). Primary outcomes will include measures of SB (time spent sedentary) and PA (counts per minute). Secondary outcomes will include muscle and physical function, health economics' related outcomes, anthropometry, quality of life, social networks, anxiety and depressive symptoms, disability, fear of falling, executive function and fatigue. A process evaluation will be conducted throughout the trial. The full analysis set will follow an intention-to-treat principle and will include all randomised participants for whom a baseline assessment is conducted. The study hypothesis will be tested with mixed linear models with repeated measures, to assess changes in the main outcomes (SB and PA) over time (baseline to month 22) and between study arms. The findings of this

  5. Stand Out in Class: restructuring the classroom environment to reduce sedentary behaviour in 9-10-year-olds - study protocol for a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemes, Stacy A; Bingham, Daniel D; Pearson, Natalie; Chen, Yu-Ling; Edwardson, Charlotte; McEachan, Rosemary; Tolfrey, Keith; Cale, Lorraine; Richardson, Gerry; Fray, Mike; Bandelow, Stephan; Jaicim, Nishal Bhupendra; Salmon, Jo; Dunstan, David; Barber, Sally E

    2018-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour (sitting) is a highly prevalent negative health behaviour, with individuals of all ages exposed to environments that promote prolonged sitting. Excessive sedentary behaviour adversely affects health in children and adults. As sedentary behaviour tracks from childhood into adulthood, the reduction of sedentary time in young people is key for the prevention of chronic diseases that result from excessive sitting in later life. The sedentary school classroom represents an ideal setting for environmental change, through the provision of sit-stand desks. Whilst the use of sit-stand desks in classrooms demonstrates positive effects in some key outcomes, evidence is currently limited by small samples and/or short intervention durations, with few studies adopting randomised controlled trial (RCT) designs. This paper describes the protocol of a pilot cluster RCT of a sit-stand desk intervention in primary school classrooms. A two-arm pilot cluster RCT will be conducted in eight primary schools (four intervention, four control) with at least 120 year 5 children (aged 9-10 years). Sit-stand desks will replace six standard desks in the intervention classrooms. Teachers will be encouraged to ensure all pupils are exposed to the sit-stand desks for at least 1 h/day on average using a rotation system. Schools assigned to the control arm will continue with their usual practice, no environmental changes will be made to their classrooms. Measurements will be taken at baseline, before randomisation, and at the end of the schools' academic year. In this study, the primary outcomes of interest will be school and participant recruitment and attrition, acceptability of the intervention, and acceptability and compliance to the proposed outcome measures (including activPAL-measured school-time and school-day sitting, accelerometer-measured physical activity, adiposity, blood pressure, cognitive function, academic progress, engagement, and behaviour) for inclusion in a

  6. A behaviour change intervention to reduce sedentary time in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Wing Mei Cheng

    2017-07-01

    Discussion/significance: If behaviour change interventions are found to be an effective and feasible method for reducing sedentary time, such interventions may be used to reduce cardiometabolic risk in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. An approach that emphasises participation in light-intensity physical activity may increase the confidence and willingness of people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to engage in more intense physical activity, and may serve as an intermediate goal to increase uptake of pulmonary rehabilitation.

  7. Examination of mid-intervention mediating effects on objectively assessed sedentary time among children in the Transform-Us! cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Valerie; Salmon, Jo; Arundell, Lauren; Ridgers, Nicola D; Cerin, Ester; Brown, Helen; Hesketh, Kylie D; Ball, Kylie; Chinapaw, Mai; Yildirim, Mine; Daly, Robin M; Dunstan, David W; Crawford, David

    2013-05-20

    The optimal targets and strategies for effectively reducing sedentary behavior among young people are unknown. Intervention research that explores changes in mediated effects as well as in outcome behaviors is needed to help inform more effective interventions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the mid-intervention mediating effects on children's objectively assessed classroom and total weekday sedentary time in the Transform-Us! intervention. The results are based on 293 children, aged 7- to 9-years-old at baseline, from 20 schools in Melbourne, Australia. Each school was randomly allocated to one of four groups, which targeted reducing sedentary time in the school and family settings (SB; n = 74), increasing or maintaining moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity in the school and family settings (PA; n = 75), combined SB and PA (SB + PA; n = 80), or the current practice control (C; n = 64). Baseline and mid-intervention data (5-9 months) were collected in 2010 and analyzed in 2012. Classroom and total weekday sedentary time was objectively assessed using ActiGraph accelerometers. The hypothesized mediators including, child enjoyment, parent and teacher outcome expectancies, and child perceived access to standing opportunities in the classroom environment, were assessed by questionnaire. The SB + PA group spent 13.3 min/day less in weekday sedentary time at mid-intervention compared to the control group. At mid-intervention, children in the SB group had higher enjoyment of standing in class (0.9 units; 5-unit scale) and all intervention groups had more positive perceptions of access to standing opportunities in the classroom environment (0.3-0.4 units; 3-unit scale), compared to the control group. However, none of the hypothesized mediator variables had an effect on sedentary time; thus, no mediating effects were observed. While beneficial intervention effects were observed on some hypothesized mediating

  8. Investigation of Cardiovascular Endurance Levels of Sedentary High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Betül; Sögüt, Kayhan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of our study is to examine the cardiovascular endurance systems of sedentary high school students. The 112 sedentary individual was taken to the 1600 meter walking test run, and the 120 sedentary individual Harward step test. While both individuals were participating in the same test, weight, height, oxygen saturation, and heart rate of…

  9. Participation in Southeast Asian pollution control policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Peter; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.; Huitema, Dave; O'Toole, Laurence J.

    1998-01-01

    Although public awareness of environmental issues in Southeast Asian countries has increased dramatically during the nineties, there has not been a corresponding rise in the level of participation in environmental decision-making. Public participation often takes places at the end of a

  10. The effect of a movement-to-music video program on the objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity of preschool-aged children and their mothers: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Pipsa P A; Husu, Pauliina; Raitanen, Jani; Kujala, Urho M; Luoto, Riitta M

    2017-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) and the avoidance of prolonged sitting are essential for children's healthy growth, and for the physical and mental wellbeing of both children and adults. In the context of exercise, music may promote behavioral change through increased exercise adherence and participation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a movement-to-music video program could reduce sedentary behavior (SB) and increase PA in mother-child pairs in the home environment. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Pirkanmaa region, Finland, in 2014-2016. The participants consisted of 228 mother-child pairs (child age 5-7 years). The primary outcomes of interest were tri-axial accelerometer-derived SB and PA, which were measured in weeks one (baseline), two, and eight in both the intervention and control groups. Further, the mothers and children in the intervention group used a movement-to-music video program from the beginning of week two to the end of week eight. Secondary outcomes included self-reported screen time. The statistical methods employed comprised an intention-to-treat and linear mixed effects model design. No statistically significant differences between groups were found in primary or secondary outcomes. Among the children in the control group, light PA decreased significantly over time and screen time increased from 89 (standard deviation, SD 37) to 99 (SD 41) min/d. Among mothers and children in the intervention group, no statistical differences were found. In supplementary analysis, the children who stayed at home instead of attending daycare/preschool had on average 25 (95% confidence interval, CI 19-30) min/d more sedentary time and 11 (95% CI 8-14) min/d less moderate-to-vigorous PA than those who were at daycare/preschool. The higher body mass index of mothers was related with 5 (95% CI 2-7) min/d more sedentary time and 1 (95% CI 0-2) min/d less moderate-to-vigorous PA. The movement-to-music video program did not change

  11. Empowering Sedentary Adults to Reduce Sedentary Behavior and Increase Physical Activity Levels and Energy Expenditure: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Barwais, Faisal A.; Cuddihy, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 4-week intervention in which an online personal activity monitor (Gruve-Technologies™) was used to reduce sedentary behavior among sedentary adults. Method: Eighteen, sedentary adult volunteers (12 men, six women, mean age 29 ± 4.0 years) were recruited to participate in the study. Time spent in sedentary activities and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed duri...

  12. Diurnal Patterns and Correlates of Older Adults' Sedentary Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle Van Cauwenberg

    Full Text Available Insights into the diurnal patterns of sedentary behavior and the identification of subgroups that are at increased risk for engaging in high levels of sedentary behavior are needed to inform potential interventions for reducing older adults' sedentary time. Therefore, we examined the diurnal patterns and sociodemographic correlates of older adults' sedentary behavior(s.Stratified cluster sampling was used to recruit 508 non-institutionalized Belgian older adults (≥ 65 years. Morning, afternoon, evening and total sedentary time was assessed objectively using accelerometers. Specific sedentary behaviors, total sitting time and sociodemographic attributes were assessed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire.Participants self-reported a median of 475 (Q1-Q3 = 383-599 minutes/day of total sitting time and they accumulated a mean of 580 ± 98 minutes/day of accelerometer-derived sedentary time. Sedentary time was lowest during the morning and highest during the evening. Older participants were as sedentary as younger participants during the evening, but they were more sedentary during daytime. Compared to married participants, widowers were more sedentary during daytime. Younger participants (< 75 years, men and the higher educated were more likely to engage in (high levels of sitting while driving a car and using the computer. Those with tertiary education viewed 29% and 22% minutes/day less television compared to those with primary or secondary education, respectively. Older participants accumulated 35 sedentary minutes/day more than did younger participants and men accumulated 32 sedentary minutes/day more than did women.These findings highlight diurnal variations and potential opportunities to tailor approaches to reducing sedentary time for subgroups of the older adult population.

  13. Do the correlates of screen time and sedentary time differ in preschool children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L Downing

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preschool children can spend up to 12 h a day in sedentary time and few meet current recommendations for screen time. Little is known about ecological correlates that could be targeted to decrease specific versus total sedentary behaviour. This study examined whether the correlates of screen time and sedentary time differ in preschool boys and girls. Methods Parents participating in the HAPPY Study in 2008/09 in Melbourne, Australia reported their child’s usual screen time and potential individual, social and physical environment correlates. Children wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers for eight days to objectively assess sedentary time (<100 counts.min−1. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed, stratified by sex and controlling for child age, preschool/childcare attendance and clustering by centre of recruitment. Correlates significantly associated with screen time or sedentary time in individual models (p < 0.05 were included in final combined models. Results Children were sedentary for 301.1 (SD 34.1 minutes/day and spent 108.5 (SD 69.6 minutes/day in screen time. There were no sex differences in screen or sedentary time. In the final models, sleep duration was inversely associated with girls’ sedentary time and boys’ screen time. The only other consistent correlates for boys and girls were parental self-efficacy to limit screen time and screen time rules, which were inversely associated with screen time for both sexes. Parents reporting that they get bored watching their child play was inversely associated and maternal television viewing was positively associated with boys’ screen time. Paternal age was positively associated with boys’ sedentary time. Maternal ethnicity was inversely associated and paternal education, child preferences for sedentary behaviour, and parental concerns about child’s physical activity and sedentary behaviour were positively associated with girls’ screen time

  14. The Seated Inactivity Trial (SIT): Physical Activity and Dietary Outcomes Associated With 8 Weeks of Imposed Sedentary Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, Brooke J; Haub, Mark D; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Lawler, Thomas; Rosenkranz, Sara K

    2016-03-01

    Sedentary time is an independent risk factor for chronic diseases and mortality. It is unknown whether active adults alter their dietary and/or physical activity behaviors in response to imposed sedentary time, possibly modifying risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether imposed sedentary time would alter typical behaviors of active adults. Sixteen physically active, young adults were randomized to the no-intervention control (CON, n = 8) group or the sedentary-intervention (SIT, n = 8) group. SIT participants attended monitored sedentary sessions (8 wk, 10 h/wk). Assessments including diet and physical activity occurred at baseline, week 4, and week 9. There were no differences (P > .05) between CON and SIT groups for step counts or time spent in sedentary, light, moderate, or vigorous physical activity when comparing a week during imposed sedentary time (week 4) to baseline and week 9. At week 4, caloric intake was not different from baseline (P > .05) in either group. Caloric intake decreased significantly (P > .05) in SIT from baseline to week 9. Active adults did not alter physical activity or dietary behaviors during the imposed sedentary intervention. However, SIT reduced caloric intake from baseline to week 9, indicating a possible compensatory response to imposed sitting in active adults.

  15. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquis Hawkins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234 women and non-pregnant (n = 1146 women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥10 h/day. A count threshold of <100 cpm was used to describe sedentary behavior as: 1 total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2 accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3 mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4 and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting <10 min. The women averaged less than two prolonged sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥30 min per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  16. Association of sedentary behaviour with colon and rectal cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Y J; Gan, Y; Sun, H L; Deng, J; Cao, S Y; Xu, X; Lu, Z X

    2014-02-04

    Sedentary behaviour is ubiquitous in modern society. Emerging studies have focused on the health consequences of sedentary behaviour, including colorectal cancer, but whether sedentary behaviour is associated with the risks of colon and rectal cancer remains unclear. No systematic reviews have applied quantitative techniques to independently compute summary risk estimates. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to investigate this issue. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar databases up to May 2013 to identify cohort and case-control studies that evaluated the association between sedentary behaviour and colon or rectal cancer. A random-effect model was used to pool the results of included studies. Publication bias was assessed by using Begg's funnel plot. Twenty-three studies with 63 reports were included in our meta-analysis. These groups included 4,324,462 participants (27,231 colon cancer cases and 13,813 rectal cancer cases). Sedentary behaviour was significantly associated with colon cancer (relative risk (RR): 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22-1.39) but did not have a statistically significant association with rectal cancer (RR 1.05, 95% CI, 0.98-1.13). Subgroup analyses suggested that the odds ratio (OR) of colon cancer was 1.46 (95% CI: 1.22-1.68) in the case-control studies, and the RR was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.18-1.36) in the cohort studies, the OR of rectal cancer was 1.06 (95% CI: 0.85-1.33) in the case-control studies, and the RR was 1.06 (95% CI, 1.01-1.12) in the cohort studies. Sedentary behaviour is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. Subgroup analyses suggest a positive association between sedentary behaviour and risk of rectal cancer in cohort studies. Reducing sedentary behaviour is potentially important for the prevention of colorectal cancer.

  17. Leisure-Time Physical Activity Does not Attenuate the Association Between Occupational Sedentary Behavior and Obesity: Results From Alberta's Tomorrow Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Joshua A; Lo Siou, Geraldine; Lynch, Brigid M; Robson, Paula J; Friedenreich, Christine M; Csizmadi, Ilona

    2015-12-01

    Sedentary behavior has been proposed as a risk factor for obesity that is distinct from physical inactivity. This study aimed to examine the association between occupational sedentary behavior and obesity, and to determine if this association is independent of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). Fully employed participants enrolled between 2001 and 2008 to Alberta's Tomorrow Project, a prospective cohort study in Alberta, Canada, were studied (n = 12,409). Associations between occupational sedentary behavior and waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index (BMI) were examined using multiple binary and multinomial logistic regressions. In men, a positive association was observed between daily occupational sedentary hours and WC, WHR, BMI, and with high risk profiles that incorporated both BMI and WC (P < .01). Controlling for vigorous-intensity LTPA in all models strengthened associations between sedentary behavior and measures of obesity. In contrast, inverse associations were observed for occupational sedentary hours and WHR for women (P < .05). In fully employed men, occupational sedentary behavior was positively associated with obesity risk that was not attenuated by physical activity. In women, an increase in obesity risk was not observed with sedentary behavior. Gender differences in the health effects of sedentary behavior require further study.

  18. 42 CFR 482.42 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Hospital Functions § 482.42 Condition of participation: Infection control. The hospital must provide a... be an active program for the prevention, control, and investigation of infections and communicable... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Infection control. 482...

  19. Food habits, physical activities and sedentary lifestyles of eutrophic and obese school children: a case?control study

    OpenAIRE

    Vilchis-Gil, Jenny; Galv?n-Portillo, Marcia; Kl?nder-Kl?nder, Miguel; Cruz, Miguel; Flores-Huerta, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Civilization has produced lifestyle changes; currently, people ingest more calories than are expended, resulting in obesity. This study assessed the association between dietary habits, physical activities, and sedentary behaviors and the risk of obesity in schoolchildren in Mexico City. Methods Of 1,441 children (6?12 years old) screened in elementary schools, 202 obese (BMI ?95th pc) and 200 normal-weight children (BMI 25th- 75th pc), as defined by the 2000 CDC criteria, were incl...

  20. A social cognitive theory-based programme for eating patterns and sedentary activity among overweight adolescents in Makassar, South Sulawesi : a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayanty, Healthy; Bardosono, Saptawati; Khusun, Helda; Damayanti, Rita; Kolopaking, Risatianti

    2016-12-01

    Social cognitive theory provides the opportunity for program development to enhance healthy personal behvioural characteristics. We devised study to employ social cognitive theory to reduce snacking habits and sedentary activity among overweight adolescents . Eight junior high schools in Makassar city were randomly assigned as intervention and control schools. A total of 238 overweight students aged 11-15 years (BMI z-score >=1 SD, according to a 2007 report from the WHO) were recruited. Adolescents from the intervention schools attended 12 weekly 75-min nutrition education group sessions, which focused on behavioural modification assisted by trained facilitators; furthermore, their parents received weekly nutrition education leaflets. Adolescents from the control schools, but not their parents, received leaflets on evidenced-based nutrition information. The BMI z-scores, waist circumference, snacking habits, sedentary activity, and the adolescents' self-efficacy data were assessed prior to and after 3 months of intervention. The outcomes were analysed on an intent-to-treat basis. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed a higher reduction in BMI z-scores (-0.08; p<0.05) and waist circumference (-1.5; p<0.05) at 3 months. Significant between-group differences were also observed for decreased snacking habits, but not for sedentary activity. Additionally, the programme improved self-efficacy for reducing these behaviours. Mean compliance and satisfaction with the programme were 95% and 92%, respectively. These high reduction rates suggest that the programme is promising and may address the problem of overweightness in adolescents. Additional studies are required to develop the programme in community settings.

  1. Participant recruitment into a randomised controlled trial of exercise therapy for people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anouska; Humphreys, Liam; Snowdon, Nicky; Sharrack, Basil; Daley, Amanda; Petty, Jane; Woodroofe, Nicola; Saxton, John

    2015-10-15

    The success of a clinical trial is often dependant on whether recruitment targets can be met in the required time frame. Despite an increase in research into the benefits of exercise in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), no trial has reported detailed data on effective recruitment strategies for large-scale randomised controlled trials. The main purpose of this report is to provide a detailed outline of recruitment strategies, rates and estimated costs in the Exercise Intervention for Multiple Sclerosis (ExIMS) trial to identify best practices for future trials involving multiple sclerosis (MS) patient recruitment. The ExIMS researchers recruited 120 PwMS to participate in a 12-week exercise intervention. Participants were randomly allocated to either exercise or usual-care control groups. Participants were sedentary, aged 18-65 years and had Expanded Disability Status Scale scores of 1.0-6.5. Recruitment strategies included attendance at MS outpatient clinics, consultant mail-out and trial awareness-raising activities. A total of 120 participants were recruited over the course of 34 months. To achieve this target, 369 potentially eligible and interested participants were identified. A total of 60 % of participants were recruited via MS clinics, 29.2 % from consultant mail-outs and 10.8 % through trial awareness. The randomisation yields were 33.2 %, 31.0 % and 68.4 % for MS clinic, consultant mail-outs and trial awareness strategies, respectively. The main reason for ineligibility was being too active (69.2 %), whilst for eligible participants the most common reason for non-participation was the need to travel to the study site (15.8 %). Recruitment via consultant mail-out was the most cost-effective strategy, with MS clinics being the most time-consuming and most costly. To reach recruitment targets in a timely fashion, a variety of methods were employed. Although consultant mail-outs were the most cost-effective recruitment strategy, use of this

  2. Impact of a Mobile Phone Intervention to Reduce Sedentary Behavior in a Community Sample of Adults: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Shuval, Kerem; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Businelle, Michael S; Ma, Ping; High, Robin R; Cuate, Erica L; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Rios, Debra M; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Swartz, Michael D; Wetter, David W

    2016-01-25

    Greater time spent sedentary is linked with increased risk of breast, colorectal, ovarian, endometrial, and prostate cancers. Given steadily increasing rates of mobile phone ownership, mobile phone interventions may have the potential to broadly influence sedentary behavior across settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term impact of a mobile phone intervention that targeted sedentary time in a diverse community sample. Adults participated in a quasi-experimental evaluation of a mobile phone intervention designed to reduce sedentary time through prompts to interrupt periods of sitting. Participants carried mobile phones and wore accelerometers for 7 consecutive days. Intervention participants additionally received mobile phone prompts during self-reported sitting and information about the negative health impact of prolonged sedentariness. The study was conducted from December 2012 to November 2013 in Dallas, Texas. Linear mixed model regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the influence of the intervention on daily accelerometer-determined estimates of sedentary and active time. Participants (N=215) were predominantly female (67.9%, 146/215) and nonwhite (black: 50.7%, 109/215; Latino: 12.1%, 26/215; other: 5.6%, 12/215). Analyses revealed that participants who received the mobile phone intervention had significantly fewer daily minutes of sedentary time (B=-22.09, P=.045) and more daily active minutes (B=23.01, P=.04) than control participants. A simple mobile phone intervention was associated with engaging in less sedentary time and more physical activity. Findings underscore the potential impact of mobile phone interventions to positively influence sedentary behavior and physical activity.

  3. Comparison of Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviors between Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Without

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Stephanie M.; Jakicic, John M.; Barone Gibbs, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Body mass index classification, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behaviors were compared in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to typically developing adolescents. Participants included 42,747 adolescents (ASD, n = 915) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. After controlling for covariates, adolescents were…

  4. [Associations of sedentary behavior and physical activity with dyslipidemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Zhou, Q; Wang, D P; Zhang, T; Wang, H J; Song, Y; He, H Z; Wang, M; Wang, P Y; Liu, A P

    2017-06-18

    To analyze associations of sedentary behavior and physical activity with dyslipidemia among residents in Wuhai city. Data about social demographic characteristics, life style, health status and other covariate required for analysis in this study was obtained from a cross-sectional study on a total of 11 497 18-79 years old residents in Wuhai City by questionnaire, body mea-surement and laboratory examination. In this study, sedentary behavior and physical activity were evaluated using international physical activity questionnaire long version (IPAQ). IPAQ is widely used all over the world, and its reliability and validity have been tested in Chinese population. 2016 Chinese Guideline for the Management of Dyslipidemia in Adults was used to define dyslipidemia in this study. According to IPAQ scoring protocol, 124 participants were excluded as a result of reporting more than 960 min of physical activity per day. 50.58% of 11 373 participants included in the analysis reported more than 4 hours of sedentary behavior per day in this study, thus 49.42% participants reported no more than 4 hours of sedentary behavior per day; the proportions of these 11 373 participants who reached Low level physical activity, Moderate level physical activity and high level physical activity were 23.43%, 37.29% and 39.28% respectively; and the detection ratios of new cases and prevalent cases of dyslipidemia in Wuhai City were 20.46% and 16.13% respectively. After controlling for confounders in this study, we found out that sedentary behavior increased the risk of new cases of dyslipidemia in women (OR=1.17, 95% CI: 1.00-1.36), and increased the risk of prevalent cases of dyslipidemia in both men (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.02-1.44) and women (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.04-1.48); as for association of physical activity with dyslipidemia, association was found between high level physical activity and prevalent cases of dyslipidemia in men in this study (OR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.62-0.98), suggested that high

  5. Office workers' objectively measured sedentary behavior and physical activity during and outside working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemes, Stacy A; O'Connell, Sophie E; Edwardson, Charlotte L

    2014-03-01

    To examine objectively determined sedentary behavior and physical activity (PA) during and outside working hours in full-time office workers. A total of 170 participants wore an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer for 7 days. Time spent sedentary (working hours and nonworking hours) and nonworkdays. Participants accumulated significantly higher levels of sedentary behavior (68% vs 60%) and lower levels of light-intensity activity (28% vs 36%) on workdays in comparison with nonworkdays. Up to 71% of working hours were spent sedentary. Individuals who were most sedentary at work were also more sedentary outside work. Those who are most sedentary at work do not compensate by increasing their PA or reducing their sedentary time outside work. Occupational interventions should address workplace and leisure-time sedentary behavior.

  6. mHealth Technologies to Influence Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors: Behavior Change Techniques, Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Artur; Carraça, Eliana; Rawstorn, Jonathan; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2017-04-01

    mHealth programs offer potential for practical and cost-effective delivery of interventions capable of reaching many individuals. To (1) compare the effectiveness of mHealth interventions to promote physical activity (PA) and reduce sedentary behavior (SB) in free-living young people and adults with a comparator exposed to usual care/minimal intervention; (2) determine whether, and to what extent, such interventions affect PA and SB levels and (3) use the taxonomy of behavior change techniques (BCTs) to describe intervention characteristics. A systematic review and meta-analysis following PRISMA guidelines was undertaken to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing mHealth interventions with usual or minimal care among individuals free from conditions that could limit PA. Total PA, moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA), walking and SB outcomes were extracted. Intervention content was independently coded following the 93-item taxonomy of BCTs. Twenty-one RCTs (1701 participants-700 with objectively measured PA) met eligibility criteria. SB decreased more following mHealth interventions than after usual care (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.26, 95 % confidence interval (CI) -0.53 to -0.00). Summary effects across studies were small to moderate and non-significant for total PA (SMD 0.14, 95 % CI -0.12 to 0.41); MVPA (SMD 0.37, 95 % CI -0.03 to 0.77); and walking (SMD 0.14, 95 % CI -0.01 to 0.29). BCTs were employed more frequently in intervention (mean = 6.9, range 2 to 12) than in comparator conditions (mean = 3.1, range 0 to 10). Of all BCTs, only 31 were employed in intervention conditions. Current mHealth interventions have small effects on PA/SB. Technological advancements will enable more comprehensive, interactive and responsive intervention delivery. Future mHealth PA studies should ensure that all the active ingredients of the intervention are reported in sufficient detail.

  7. Radioactive wastes and residues: government participation in a control policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelli, Guido

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the politic aspects of the State participation in inspection and control of the radioactive wastes residues with the supervise of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), by a national program

  8. Findings of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease-Sitting and Exacerbations Trial (COPD-SEAT) in Reducing Sedentary Time Using Wearable and Mobile Technologies With Educational Support: Randomized Controlled Feasibility Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Mark W; Weedon, Amie E; Saukko, Paula M; Esliger, Dale W; Morgan, Mike D; Steiner, Michael C; Downey, John W; Sherar, Lauren B; Singh, Sally J

    2018-04-11

    Targeting sedentary time post exacerbation may be more relevant than targeting structured exercise for individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Focusing interventions on sitting less and moving more after an exacerbation may act as a stepping stone to increase uptake to pulmonary rehabilitation. The aim of this paper was to conduct a randomized trial examining trial feasibility and the acceptability of an education and self-monitoring intervention using wearable technology to reduce sedentary behavior for individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to hospital for an acute exacerbation. Participants were recruited and randomized in hospital into 3 groups, with the intervention lasting 2 weeks post discharge. The Education group received verbal and written information about reducing their time in sedentary behavior, sitting face-to-face with a study researcher. The Education+Feedback group received the same education component along with real-time feedback on their sitting time, stand-ups, and steps at home through a waist-worn inclinometer linked to an app. Patients were shown how to use the technology by the same study researcher. The inclinometer also provided vibration prompts to encourage movement at patient-defined intervals of time. Patients and health care professionals involved in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation care were interviewed to investigate trial feasibility and acceptability of trial design and methods. Main quantitative outcomes of trial feasibility were eligibility, uptake, and retention, and for acceptability, were behavioral responses to the vibration prompts. In total, 111 patients were approached with 33 patients recruited (11 Control, 10 Education, and 12 Education+Feedback). Retention at 2-week follow-up was 52% (17/33; n=6 for Control, n=3 for Education, and n=8 for Education+Feedback). No study-related adverse events occurred. Collectively, patients responded to 106 out of 325

  9. Experimentally increasing sedentary behavior results in decreased life satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Meghan K.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: No study has experimentally manipulated sedentary behavior and evaluated its effect on life satisfaction. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a free-living, sedentary behavior-inducing randomized controlled intervention on life satisfaction. Methods: Active, young adults between the ages of 18-35 were recruited and randomly assigned into a sedentary behavior intervention group (n = 26) or a control group (n = 13). The intervention group par...

  10. Effort/reward imbalance and sedentary lifestyle: an observational study in a large occupational cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvonen, A; Kivimäki, M; Elovainio, M; Pentti, J; Linna, A; Virtanen, M; Vahtera, J

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the association between effort/reward imbalance (ERI) at work and sedentary lifestyle. Cross sectional data from the ongoing Finnish Public Sector Study related to 30,433 women and 7718 men aged 17-64 were used (n = 35,918 after exclusion of participants with missing values in covariates). From the responses to a questionnaire, an aggregated mean score for ERI in a work unit was assigned to each participant. The outcome was sedentary lifestyle defined as work unit level predictors in the models. Adjustments were made for age, marital status, occupational status, job contract, smoking, and heavy drinking. Twenty five per cent of women and 27% of men had a sedentary lifestyle. High individual level ERI was associated with a higher likelihood of sedentary lifestyle both among women (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.16) and men (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.33). These associations were not explained by relevant confounders and they were also independent of work unit level job strain measured as a ratio of job demands and control. A mismatch between high occupational effort spent and low reward received in turn seems to be associated with an increased risk of sedentary lifestyle, although this association is relatively weak.

  11. Effort/reward imbalance and sedentary lifestyle: an observational study in a large occupational cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvonen, A; Kivimäki, M; Elovainio, M; Pentti, J; Linna, A; Virtanen, M; Vahtera, J

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between effort/reward imbalance (ERI) at work and sedentary lifestyle. Methods Cross sectional data from the ongoing Finnish Public Sector Study related to 30 433 women and 7718 men aged 17–64 were used (n = 35 918 after exclusion of participants with missing values in covariates). From the responses to a questionnaire, an aggregated mean score for ERI in a work unit was assigned to each participant. The outcome was sedentary lifestyle defined as sedentary lifestyle. High individual level ERI was associated with a higher likelihood of sedentary lifestyle both among women (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.16) and men (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.33). These associations were not explained by relevant confounders and they were also independent of work unit level job strain measured as a ratio of job demands and control. Conclusions A mismatch between high occupational effort spent and low reward received in turn seems to be associated with an increased risk of sedentary lifestyle, although this association is relatively weak. PMID:16497854

  12. The role of serious mental illness in motivation, participation and adoption of health behavior change among obese/sedentary Latino adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Daniel E; Thomas, Lauren; Bartels, Stephen J

    2017-11-10

    Serious mental illness (SMI; e.g. schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, bipolar disorder, severe major depressive disorder, and psychotic disorders) and Latino ethnicity can produce a compounded health disparity, placing individuals at particularly high risk for excess morbidity and premature mortality. In this study we sought to identify the role of SMI in motivation, participation, and adoption of health behavior change among overweight Latino adults. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 overweight Latinos with SMI who were enrolled in a randomized trial evaluating the effectiveness of a motivational health promotion intervention adapted for persons with SMI, In SHAPE. The interviews explored the complicated role having an SMI had in the lives of the Latino participants. SMI had both positive and negative impact on Latino participants' health behaviors. The nature of their mental illness along with medication side effects (e.g. lethargy, weight gain, etc.) negatively impacted their ability to making lasting health behavior change. However, the regular appointments with various specialists provided them with structure that they otherwise would have lacked and gave them a reason to get out of the house. This exploratory research provides insight into the experience of overweight Latinos with SMI and the ways in which SMI impacts their participation in health behavior change. An understanding of the positive and negative effects of SMI on health behavior change will inform the development of health promotion interventions targeted at Latinos with SMI.

  13. Perceived neighborhood safety related to physical activity but not recreational screen-based sedentary behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Clare M; Wiemken, Andrew; Hanlon, Alexandra; Perkett, Mackenzie; Patterson, Freda

    2017-09-18

    A growing proportion of adolescents have poor cardiovascular health behaviors, including low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behavior, thus increasing the likelihood of poor heart health in later years. This study tested the hypothesis that low perceived neighborhood safety would be associated with low levels of physical activity and high levels of recreational sedentary behavior in high-school students. Using cross-sectional, weighted data from the 2015 Pennsylvania (USA) State and Philadelphia city Youth Risk Behavior Survey, multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to examine the association between perceived neighborhood safety, and physical activity levels and recreational screen-based sedentary behavior time respectively, while controlling for potential confounders. After adjustment for other significant correlates of physical activity, students with low perceived neighborhood safety had a 21% reduced odds of being physically active on 5 or more days of the last week as compared to those who felt safe (p = 0.044). Perceived safety was not related to sedentary behavior; but sports team participation emerged as a strong correlate of low screen-based sedentary behavior (OR = 0.73, p = .002). These data add to a growing body of work demonstrating the importance of perceived safety with physical activity levels in youth. Sports team participation may be a viable target to reduce screen-based sedentary time.

  14. Perceived neighborhood safety related to physical activity but not recreational screen-based sedentary behavior in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare M. Lenhart

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing proportion of adolescents have poor cardiovascular health behaviors, including low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behavior, thus increasing the likelihood of poor heart health in later years. This study tested the hypothesis that low perceived neighborhood safety would be associated with low levels of physical activity and high levels of recreational sedentary behavior in high-school students. Methods Using cross-sectional, weighted data from the 2015 Pennsylvania (USA State and Philadelphia city Youth Risk Behavior Survey, multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to examine the association between perceived neighborhood safety, and physical activity levels and recreational screen-based sedentary behavior time respectively, while controlling for potential confounders. Results After adjustment for other significant correlates of physical activity, students with low perceived neighborhood safety had a 21% reduced odds of being physically active on 5 or more days of the last week as compared to those who felt safe (p = 0.044. Perceived safety was not related to sedentary behavior; but sports team participation emerged as a strong correlate of low screen-based sedentary behavior (OR = 0.73, p = .002. Conclusion These data add to a growing body of work demonstrating the importance of perceived safety with physical activity levels in youth. Sports team participation may be a viable target to reduce screen-based sedentary time.

  15. The design of remote participation platform for EAST plasma control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Q.P., E-mail: qpyuan@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Xiao, B.J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); University of Science & Technology of China, Hefei (China); Zhang, R.R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Chai, W.T.; Liu, J.; Xiao, R.; Zhou, Z.C.; Pei, X.F. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); University of Science & Technology of China, Hefei (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The remote participation platform for EAST plasma control is composed of real time control service and scenario management. • The web based interface has been developed for supporting remote participation. • The functionality module has been designed and assistant tools have been developed. - Abstract: EAST has become a physics experimental platform for high parameter and steady-state long-pulse plasma operation. A new remote participation platform for EAST plasma control is designed, which is composed of gatekeeper system, web-based user interface system, discharge scenario management system, online simulation system and data interface with on-site plasma control system (PCS). The identification and access privilege of remote participator is validated by the gatekeeper system. Only authorized users can set control parameters for next shot plasma control or making discharge scenario for future shot through WebPCS which is a web-based user interface and designed based on B/S structure. The systematic architecture design and preliminary deployment of such remote platform will be presented in this paper.

  16. Associations between change in sedentary behavior and outcome in standard behavioral weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Stephanie G; Call, Christine; Schaumberg, Katherine; Forman, Evan; Butryn, Meghan L

    2018-03-01

    Sedentary behavior, particularly in prolonged periods, is an important determinant of health. Little research exploring changes in sedentary behavior during behavioral weight loss programs exists. This study evaluated the magnitude of changes in total and prolonged sedentary behavior and how these changes related to changes in weight and cardiovascular outcomes during a behavioral weight loss program. Participants (n = 450) in two lifestyle modification programs underwent assessments of sedentary behavior (by accelerometry), weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and resting heart rate at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Sedentary behavior was defined as both total and prolonged (≥30 continuous minutes) sedentary minutes/day. Reductions in total and prolonged sedentary time were significant and were accounted for by increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Only changes in MVPA significantly predicted change in weight when entered into a model simultaneously with changes in sedentary behavior. Changes in total and prolonged sedentary time were not associated with changes in waist circumference, heart rate, or blood pressure. Change in sedentary time was not independently associated with change in health outcomes during a behavioral weight loss treatment. High variability in changes in sedentary time indicate that individual differences may be important to examine. Reducing sedentary time may not be powerful enough to impact these health outcomes above the effects of other changes made during these programs; alternatively, it may be that increasing focus in treatment on reducing sedentary time may engender greater decreases in sedentariness, which could lead to better health outcomes.

  17. Sedentary behavior, physical activity, and psychological health of Korean older adults with hypertension: effect of an empowerment intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Fritschi, Cynthia; Kim, Mi Ja

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an 8-week empowerment intervention on sedentary behavior, physical activity, and psychological health in Korean older adults with hypertension. Using a quasi-experimental design, older adults participated in either an experimental group (n = 27) or control group (n = 21). The experimental group received an empowerment intervention including lifestyle modification education, group discussion, and exercise training for 8 weeks, and the control group received standard hypertension education. After 8 weeks, participants in the experimental group had significantly decreased sedentary behavior, increased physical activity, increased self-efficacy for physical activity, and increased perceived health (p decreasing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity, self-efficacy for physical activity, and perceived health in Korean older adults with hypertension. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors with Dietary Behaviors among US High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lowry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical activity (PA, sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors are each associated with overweight and obesity among youth. However, the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors are complex and not well understood. Purpose. To describe the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors among a representative sample of US high school students. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS. Using logistic regression models which controlled for sex, race/ethnicity, grade, body weight status, and weight management goals, we compared dietary behaviors among students who did and did not meet national recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviors. Results. Students who participated in recommended levels of daily PA (DPA and muscle strengthening PA (MSPA were more likely than those who did not to eat fruits and vegetables. Students who exceeded recommended limits for television (TV and computer/video game (C/VG screen time were less likely than those who did not to consume fruits and vegetables and were more likely to consume fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusions. Researchers may want to address PA, sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors jointly when developing health promotion and obesity prevention programs for youth.

  19. Benefits of EMU Participation : Estimates using the Synthetic Control Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, Loes; van Groezen, Bas; Meijdam, Lex

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates quantitatively the benefits from participation in the Economic and Monetary Union for individual Euro area countries. Using the synthetic control method, we estimate how real GDP per capita would have developed for the EMU member states, if those countries had not joined the

  20. The relationship between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and mental health in Ghanaian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Asare, Mavis; Danquah, Samuel A

    2015-01-01

    Background Research development is needed in physical activity and sedentary behaviour and their associations with mental health in young people. In Western countries the weather is a key contributing factor of sedentary behaviour in youth. The likely contributing factor of sedentary behaviour among African youth has not been explored. This study examined the association between sedentary behaviour and mental health in African young people. Methods Participants were 296 adolescents (150 males...

  1. Development of sedentary behavior across childhood and adolescence: longitudinal analysis of the Gateshead Millennium Study

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Xanne; Mann, Kay D.; Basterfield, Laura; Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Pearce, Mark S.; Reilly, Jessica K.; Adamson, Ashley J.; Reilly, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In many parts of the world policy and research interventions to modify sedentary behavior of children and adolescents are now being developed. However, the evidence to inform these interventions (e.g. how sedentary behavior changes across childhood and adolescence) is limited. This study aimed to assess longitudinal changes in sedentary behavior, and examine the degree of tracking of sedentary behavior from age 7y to 15y. Methods Participants were part of the Gateshead Millennium S...

  2. Participative planning and information flow within management control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Dyczkowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationships between two different approaches to planning processes (participa- tive and non-participative and information flows within management control in companies. It augments the existing theoretical and empirical research by coupling management control and management infor- mation with participative planning, not only in operational but also in the strategic perspective. The re- sults presented in the paper stem from two consecutive studies, conducted between November 2010 and January 2012 and between November 2013 and January 2014. The studies comprised 397 and 179 Polish companies respectively. The authors formulated two hypotheses linking participative planning with upward and downward management information flows. The paper employed a quantitative approach, using the Spearman rank correlation analysis and hierarchical clustering using the Ward method, which enabled comparative analyses both in reference to various groups of companies included in particular research samples and over time. The results obtained showed the positive influence of participative plan- ning both on upward and downward information flows in enterprises. In particular, participative planning reduced information imbalances between top (the management and lower (employees of functional departments tiers in organisation structures.

  3. Effectiveness of Personalized Feedback Alone or Combined with Peer Support to Improve Physical Activity in Sedentary Older Malays with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazlina, Shariff-Ghazali; Browning, Colette Joy; Yasin, Shajahan

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity is an important aspect of self-management among older people with type 2 diabetes but many remain inactive. Interventions to improve physical activity levels have been studied but few studies have evaluated the effects of personalized feedback (PF) or peer support (PS); and there was no study on older people of Asian heritage. Hence, this trial evaluated whether PF only or combined with PS improves physical activity among older Malays with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) compared to usual care only. A three-arm randomized controlled trial was conducted in a primary healthcare clinic in Malaysia. Sixty-nine sedentary Malays aged 60 years and older with T2DM who received usual diabetes care were randomized to PF or PS interventions or as controls for 12 weeks with follow-ups at weeks 24 and 36. Intervention groups performed unsupervised walking activity and received written feedback on physical activity. The PS group also received group and telephone contacts from trained peer mentors. The primary outcome was pedometer steps. Secondary outcomes were self-reported physical activity, cardiovascular risk factors, cardiorespiratory fitness, balance, quality of life, and psychosocial wellbeing. Fifty-two (75.4%) completed the 36-week study. The PS group showed greater daily pedometer readings than the PF and controls (p = 0.001). The PS group also had greater improvement in weekly duration (p fitness, and support from friends. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN71447000.

  4. N-Acetylcysteine Supplementation Controls Total Antioxidant Capacity, Creatine Kinase, Lactate, and Tumor Necrotic Factor-Alpha against Oxidative Stress Induced by Graded Exercise in Sedentary Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donrawee Leelarungrayub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term (7 days N-acetylcysteine (NAC at 1,200 mg daily supplementation on muscle fatigue, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, lactate, creatine kinase (CK, and tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-α. Twenty-nine sedentary men (13 controls; 16 in the supplement group from a randomized control were included. At before and after supplementation, fatigue index (FI was evaluated in the quadriceps muscle, and performed a graded exercise treadmill test to induce oxidative stress, and as a measure of VO2max. Blood samples were taken before exercise and 20 minutes after it at before and after supplementation, to determine TAC, CK, lactate, and TNF-α levels. Results showed that FI and VO2max increased significantly in the supplement group. After exercise decreased the levels of TAC and increased lactate, CK, and TNF-α of both groups at before supplementation. After supplementation, lactate, CK, and TNF-α levels significantly increased and TAC decreased after exercise in the control group. Whereas the TAC and lactate levels did not change significantly, but CK and TNF-α increased significantly in the supplement group. Therefore, this results showed that NAC improved the muscle fatigue, VO2max, maintained TAC, controlled lactate production, but had no influence on CK and TNF-α.

  5. Associations of Total and Domain-Specific Sedentary Time With Type 2 Diabetes in Taiwanese Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chun Hsueh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in older adults has become a public health concern. We investigated the associations of total and domain-specific sedentary time with risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults. Methods: The sample comprised 1046 older people (aged ≥65 years. Analyses were performed using crosssectional data collected via computer-assisted telephone-based interviews in 2014. Data on six self-reported domains of sedentary time (Measure of Older Adults’ Sedentary Time, type 2 diabetes status, and sociodemographic variables were included in the study. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for total and individual sedentary behavior components and likelihood of type 2 diabetes. Results: A total of 17.5% of the participants reported type 2 diabetes. No significant associations were found between total sitting time and risk of type 2 diabetes, after controlling for confounding factors. After total sedentary behavior was stratified into six domains, only watching television for more than 2 hours per day was associated with higher odds of type 2 diabetes (OR 1.56; 95% CI, 1.10–2.21, but no significant associations were found between other domains of sedentary behavior (computer use, reading, socializing, transport, and hobbies and risk of type 2 diabetes. Conclusions: These findings suggest that, among domain-specific sedentary behavior, excessive television viewing might increase the risk of type 2 diabetes among older adults more than other forms of sedentary behavior.

  6. Sedentary Time in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atkin, Andrew J; Ekelund, Ulf; Møller, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Accelerometry is increasingly being used to assess sedentary time in epidemiological studies, yet the most appropriate means of processing this data remains uncertain. This cross-sectional study examined the influence of selected accelerometer cutpoints and non-wear criteria on associati...

  7. Cardiovascular responses in sedentary adult men, following a 12 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    body vibration training intervention on cardiovascular performance of apparently healthy, but sedentary male adults. Fifty (50) adult males (age 18 – 40 years) were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups to participate in a 12-week ...

  8. Controlling patient participation during robot-assisted gait training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The overall goal of this paper was to investigate approaches to controlling active participation in stroke patients during robot-assisted gait therapy. Although active physical participation during gait rehabilitation after stroke was shown to improve therapy outcome, some patients can behave passively during rehabilitation, not maximally benefiting from the gait training. Up to now, there has not been an effective method for forcing patient activity to the desired level that would most benefit stroke patients with a broad variety of cognitive and biomechanical impairments. Methods Patient activity was quantified in two ways: by heart rate (HR), a physiological parameter that reflected physical effort during body weight supported treadmill training, and by a weighted sum of the interaction torques (WIT) between robot and patient, recorded from hip and knee joints of both legs. We recorded data in three experiments, each with five stroke patients, and controlled HR and WIT to a desired temporal profile. Depending on the patient's cognitive capabilities, two different approaches were taken: either by allowing voluntary patient effort via visual instructions or by forcing the patient to vary physical effort by adapting the treadmill speed. Results We successfully controlled patient activity quantified by WIT and by HR to a desired level. The setup was thereby individually adaptable to the specific cognitive and biomechanical needs of each patient. Conclusion Based on the three successful approaches to controlling patient participation, we propose a metric which enables clinicians to select the best strategy for each patient, according to the patient's physical and cognitive capabilities. Our framework will enable therapists to challenge the patient to more activity by automatically controlling the patient effort to a desired level. We expect that the increase in activity will lead to improved rehabilitation outcome. PMID:21429200

  9. Adolescents' Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: A Pathway in Reducing Overweight and Obesity. The PRALIMAP 2-Year Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omorou, Abdou Y; Langlois, Johanne; Lecomte, Edith; Vuillemin, Anne; Briançon, Serge

    2015-05-01

    explaining why and how overweight prevention programs were effective was a real need; especially the potential role of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) should be highlighted. This study aimed to evaluate the 2-year effectiveness of a screening and care strategy in adolescents' weight reduction with regards to PA and SB change. 1745 adolescents aged 15.1 years from PRALIMAP trial was included (n = 840 for screening and care group and n = 905 for control group). PA and SB time (international physical activity questionnaire: IPAQ), body mass index (BMI), and BMI z-score were assessed at inclusion and after 2-year intervention. Hierarchical mixed models were applied. Compared with the control group, screening and care strategy was associated with an increase in global PA (58 min/week), a moderate PA (43 min/week), the adherence to the French PA guidelines (OR = 1.3), and a decrease in SB (-198 min/week). The 2-year weight change decreased when adjusted for PA and SB suggesting that the effect of screening and care strategy was partly mediated by PA and SB. Screening and care intervention seemed to be effective in increasing PA and decreasing SB. The induced PA and SB modifications contributed to the observed weight change.

  10. It's not just the television: survey analysis of sedentary behaviour in New Zealand young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foley Louise S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behaviour has been linked with adverse health outcomes in young people; however, the nature and context of being sedentary is poorly understood. Accurate quantification and description of sedentary behaviour using population-level data is required. The aim of this research was to describe sedentary behaviour among New Zealand (NZ youth and examine whether sedentary behaviour differs by Body Mass Index (BMI status in this population. Methods A national representative cross-sectional survey of young people aged 5-24 years (n = 2,503 was conducted in 2008-2009. Data from this survey, which included subjectively (recall diary; n = 1,309 and objectively (accelerometry; n = 960 measured sedentary behaviour for participants aged 10-18 years were analysed using survey weighted methods. Results Participants self-reported spending on average 521 minutes per day (standard error [SE] 5.29 in total sedentary behaviour, 181 minutes per day (SE 3.91 in screen-based sedentary activities (e.g., television and video games, and 340 minutes per day (SE 5.22 in other non-screen sedentary behaviours (e.g., school, passive transport and self-care. Accelerometer-measured total sedentary behaviour was on average 420 minutes per day (SE 4.26, or 53% (SE 0.42% of monitored time. There were no statistically significant differences in time spent in sedentary behaviour among overweight, obese and healthy/underweight young people. Conclusions Both subjective and objective methods indicate that NZ youth spend much of their waking time being sedentary. No relationships were found between sedentary behaviour and BMI status. These findings extend previous research by describing engagement in specific sedentary activities, as well as quantifying the behaviour using an objective method. Differences in what aspects of sedentary behaviour the two methods are capturing are discussed. This research highlights the potential for future interventions to

  11. Effectiveness of personalised feedback alone or combined with peer support to improve physical activity in sedentary older Malays with type 2 diabetes: A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariff-Ghazali eSazlina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Regular physical activity is an important aspect of self management among older people with type 2 diabetes but many remain inactive. Interventions to improve physical activity levels have been studied but few studies have evaluated the effects of personalised feedback or peer support; and there was no study on older people of Asian heritage. Hence, this trial evaluated whether personalised feedback (PF only or combined with peer support (PS improves physical activity among older Malays with type 2 diabetes (T2DM compared to usual care only. Materials and methods: A three arm randomised controlled trial was conducted in a primary healthcare clinic in Malaysia. 69 sedentary Malays aged 60 years and older with T2DM who received usual diabetes care were randomised to PF or PS interventions or as controls for 12 weeks with follow-ups at weeks 24 and 36. Intervention groups performed unsupervised walking activity and received written feedback on physical activity. The PS group also received group and telephone contacts from trained peer mentors. The primary outcome was pedometer steps. Secondary outcomes were self-reported physical activity, cardiovascular risk factors, cardiorespiratory fitness, balance, quality of life and psychosocial wellbeing. Results: 52 (75.4% completed the 36-week study. The PS group showed greater daily pedometer readings than the PF and controls (p=0.001. The PS group also had greater improvement in weekly duration (p<0.001 and frequency (p<0.001 of moderate intensity physical activity, scores on the Physical Activity Scale for Elderly (p=0.003, six minute walk test (p<0.001 and social support from friends (p=0.032 than PF and control groups. Conclusions: The findings suggest personalised feedback combined with peer support in older Malays with T2DM improved their physical activity levels, cardiorespiratory fitness and support from friends. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN71447000.

  12. Improving participation rates by providing choice of participation mode: two randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, N.; Lieshout, J. van; Wensing, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low participation rates reduce effective sample size, statistical power and can increase risk for selection bias. Previous research suggests that offering choice of participation mode can improve participation rates. However, few head-to-head trials compared choice of participation mode

  13. Reducing sedentary time in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes: process evaluation of the STAND (Sedentary Time ANd Diabetes RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J. H. Biddle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing sedentary behaviour may have important health implications. This study evaluated the potential enablers and barriers for outcomes of a randomised controlled trial (RCT designed to evaluate a pragmatic education based intervention designed to reduce sedentary (sitting behaviour in young adults at high risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods Data were collected from participants in the intervention group immediately after an educational workshop addressing sedentary time and diabetes risk (n = 71, through phone interviews 6 weeks (n = 45 after the workshop, and at the conclusion of the 12-month trial (n = 10. The two education session facilitators were also interviewed about the intervention. Results The RCT showed no difference in sedentary time at 12 months between intervention and control arms. The lack of behaviour change appeared not to be attributed to the workshops, which were well led and very favourably received according to feedback. However, factors contributing to this lack of behaviour change include lack of perceived health risk from baseline measures feedback; the preference to adopt physically active behaviours rather than to sit less; certain barriers to sitting less; motivational drift after the 3-month follow-up measurements where participants had no contact for a further 9 months; and, for some, unreliability of the self-monitoring tool. Conclusions The workshop was well led and well received by the attendees but future interventions need to consider more contact with participants, discuss any specific benefits around simply standing to reduce sitting time, address the barriers to sitting less, and provide a more user-friendly and reliable self-monitoring tool. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN08434554 , MRC project 91409. Registered retrospectively on 22 February 2011.

  14. Prospective associations between sedentary lifestyle and BMI in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Laust H; Siegler, Ilene C; Barefoot, John C; Grønbaek, Morten; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2006-08-01

    A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle. Using data from four follow-ups of the University of North Carolina Alumni Heart Study, we examined the prospective associations between BMI and sedentary lifestyle in a cohort of 4595 middle-aged men and women who had responded to questionnaires at the ages of 41 (standard deviation 2.3), 44 (2.3), 46 (2.0), and 54 (2.0). BMI was consistently related to increased risk of becoming sedentary in both men and women. The odds ratios of becoming sedentary as predicted by BMI were 1.04 (95% confidence limits, 1.00, 1.07) per 1 kg/m(2) from ages 41 to 44, 1.10 (1.07, 1.14) from ages 44 to 46, and 1.12 (1.08, 1.17) from ages 46 to 54. Controlling for concurrent changes in BMI marginally attenuated the effects. Sedentary lifestyle did not predict changes in BMI, except when concurrent changes in physical activity were taken into account (p sedentary lifestyle but did not provide unambiguous evidence for an effect of sedentary lifestyle on weight gain.

  15. Associations of sedentary time and patterns of sedentary time accumulation with health-related quality of life in colorectal cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline H. van Roekel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior (sitting/lying at low energy expenditure while awake is emerging as an important risk factor that may compromise the health-related quality of life (HRQoL of colorectal cancer (CRC survivors. We examined associations of sedentary time with HRQoL in CRC survivors, 2–10 years post-diagnosis. In a cross-sectional study, stage I–III CRC survivors (n = 145 diagnosed (2002−2010 at Maastricht University Medical Center+, the Netherlands, wore the thigh-mounted MOX activity monitor 24 h/day for seven consecutive days. HRQoL outcomes were assessed by validated questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30, WHODAS II, Checklist Individual Strength, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Confounder-adjusted linear regression models were used to estimate associations with HRQoL outcomes of MOX-derived total and prolonged sedentary time (in prolonged sedentary bouts ≥30 min, and usual sedentary bout duration, corrected for waking wear time. On average, participants spent 10.2 h/day sedentary (SD, 1.6, and 4.5 h/day in prolonged sedentary time (2.3. Mean usual sedentary bout duration was 27.3 min (SD, 16.8. Greater total and prolonged sedentary time, and longer usual sedentary bout duration were associated with significantly (P < 0.05 lower physical functioning, and higher disability and fatigue scores. Greater prolonged sedentary time and longer usual sedentary bout duration also showed significant associations with lower global quality of life and role functioning. Associations with distress and social functioning were non-significant. Sedentary time was cross-sectionally associated with poorer HRQoL outcomes in CRC survivors. Prospective studies are needed to investigate whether sedentary time reduction is a potential target for lifestyle interventions aiming to improve the HRQoL of CRC survivors.

  16. Control, data acquisition, data analysis and remote participation in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Y.; Emoto, M.; Nakanishi, H.; Sudo, S.; Imazu, S.; Inagaki, S.; Iwata, C.; Kojima, M.; Nonomura, M.; Ohsuna, M.; Tsuda, K.; Yoshida, M.; Chikaraishi, H.; Funaba, H.; Horiuchi, R.; Ishiguro, S.; Ito, Y.; Kubo, S.; Mase, A.; Mito, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the control, data acquisition, data analysis and remote participation facilities of the Large Helical Device (LHD), which is designed to confine the plasma in steady state. In LHD the plasma duration exceeds 3000 s by controlling the plasma position, the density and the ICRF heating. The 'LABCOM' data acquisition system takes both the short-pulse and the steady-state data. A two-layer Mass Storage System with RAIDs and Blu-ray Disk jukeboxes in a storage area network has been developed to increase capacity of storage. The steady-state data can be monitored with a Web browser in real time. A high-level data analysis system with Web interfaces is being developed in order to provide easier usage of LHD data and large FORTRAN codes in a supercomputer. A virtual laboratory system for the Japanese fusion community has been developed with Multi-protocol Label Switching Virtual Private Network Technology. Collaborators at remote sites can join the LHD experiment or use the NIFS supercomputer system as if they were working in the LHD control room

  17. Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldfield Gary

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that, independent of physical activity levels, sedentary behaviours are associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease, all-cause mortality, and a variety of physiological and psychological problems. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to determine the relationship between sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO, personal libraries and government documents were searched for relevant studies examining time spent engaging in sedentary behaviours and six specific health indicators (body composition, fitness, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, self-esteem, pro-social behaviour and academic achievement. 232 studies including 983,840 participants met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Television (TV watching was the most common measure of sedentary behaviour and body composition was the most common outcome measure. Qualitative analysis of all studies revealed a dose-response relation between increased sedentary behaviour and unfavourable health outcomes. Watching TV for more than 2 hours per day was associated with unfavourable body composition, decreased fitness, lowered scores for self-esteem and pro-social behaviour and decreased academic achievement. Meta-analysis was completed for randomized controlled studies that aimed to reduce sedentary time and reported change in body mass index (BMI as their primary outcome. In this regard, a meta-analysis revealed an overall significant effect of -0.81 (95% CI of -1.44 to -0.17, p = 0.01 indicating an overall decrease in mean BMI associated with the interventions. There is a large body of evidence from all study designs which suggests that decreasing any type of sedentary time is associated with lower health risk in youth aged 5-17 years. In particular, the evidence suggests that daily TV viewing in excess of 2

  18. Reconsidering the sedentary behaviour paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Maher

    Full Text Available AIMS: Recent literature has posed sedentary behaviour as an independent entity to physical inactivity. This study investigated whether associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers remain when analyses are adjusted for total physical activity. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on 4,618 adults from the 2003/04 and 2005/06 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Minutes of sedentary behaviour and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and total physical activity (total daily accelerometer counts minus counts accrued during sedentary minutes were determined from accelerometry. Associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers were examined using linear regression. RESULTS: Results showed that sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with 8/11 cardio-metabolic biomarkers when adjusted for MVPA. However, when adjusted for total physical activity, the associations effectively disappeared, except for C-reactive protein, which showed a very small, favourable association (β = -0.06 and triglycerides, which showed a very small, detrimental association (β = 0.04. Standardised betas suggested that total physical activity was consistently, favourably associated with cardio-metabolic biomarkers (9/11 biomarkers, standardized β = 0.08-0.30 while sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with just 1 biomarker (standardized β = 0.12. CONCLUSION: There is virtually no association between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers once analyses are adjusted for total physical activity. This suggests that sedentary behaviour may not have health effects independent of physical activity.

  19. Experimentally increasing sedentary behavior results in decreased life satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan K. Edwards

    2017-03-01

    behavior-inducing randomized controlled intervention on life satisfaction. Methods: Active, young adults between the ages of 18-35 were recruited and randomly assigned into a sedentary behavior intervention group (n = 26 or a control group (n = 13. The intervention group participants were instructed to eliminate all exercise and restrict daily steps (as measured via pedometry to 5000 or less per day for one week. The control group was instructed to maintain regular levels of exercise and other physical activity for one week. Both groups completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS pre-intervention and immediately post-intervention. Results: There was a significant group x time interaction (F = 32.75, P < 0.001, with post-hoc contrast tests indicating decreased SWLS score (indicating lower levels of life satisfaction in the intervention group during Visit 2 (post-intervention compared with Visit 1 (pre-intervention; this corresponded with a mean absolute (Visit 2 minus Visit 1 change of -8.58 (95% CI: -5.91, -11.24 for SWLS scores in the intervention group (31.1% reduction. Conclusion: A one-week sedentary behavior-inducing intervention may negatively impact life satisfaction in an active, young adult population. Regular physical activity may be imperative in avoiding negative life satisfaction-related consequences.

  20. The mPED randomized controlled clinical trial: applying mobile persuasive technologies to increase physical activity in sedentary women protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuoka Yoshimi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the significant health benefits of regular physical activity, approximately half of American adults, particularly women and minorities, do not meet the current physical activity recommendations. Mobile phone technologies are readily available, easily accessible and may provide a potentially powerful tool for delivering physical activity interventions. However, we need to understand how to effectively apply these mobile technologies to increase and maintain physical activity in physically inactive women. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study design and protocol of the mPED (mobile phone based physical activity education randomized controlled clinical trial that examines the efficacy of a 3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and compares two different 6-month maintenance interventions. Methods A randomized controlled trial (RCT with three arms; 1 PLUS (3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and 6-month mobile phone diary maintenance intervention, 2 REGULAR (3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and 6-month pedometer maintenance intervention, and 3 CONTROL (pedometer only, but no intervention will be conducted. A total of 192 physically inactive women who meet all inclusion criteria and successfully complete a 3-week run-in will be randomized into one of the three groups. The mobile phone serves as a means of delivering the physical activity intervention, setting individualized weekly physical activity goals, and providing self-monitoring (activity diary, immediate feedback and social support. The mobile phone also functions as a tool for communication and real-time data capture. The primary outcome is objectively measured physical activity. Discussion If efficacy of the intervention with a mobile phone is demonstrated, the results of this RCT will be able to provide new insights for current behavioral

  1. The mPED randomized controlled clinical trial: applying mobile persuasive technologies to increase physical activity in sedentary women protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Komatsu, Judith; Suarez, Larry; Vittinghoff, Eric; Haskell, William; Noorishad, Tina; Pham, Kristin

    2011-12-14

    Despite the significant health benefits of regular physical activity, approximately half of American adults, particularly women and minorities, do not meet the current physical activity recommendations. Mobile phone technologies are readily available, easily accessible and may provide a potentially powerful tool for delivering physical activity interventions. However, we need to understand how to effectively apply these mobile technologies to increase and maintain physical activity in physically inactive women. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study design and protocol of the mPED (mobile phone based physical activity education) randomized controlled clinical trial that examines the efficacy of a 3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and compares two different 6-month maintenance interventions. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) with three arms; 1) PLUS (3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and 6-month mobile phone diary maintenance intervention), 2) REGULAR (3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and 6-month pedometer maintenance intervention), and 3) CONTROL (pedometer only, but no intervention will be conducted). A total of 192 physically inactive women who meet all inclusion criteria and successfully complete a 3-week run-in will be randomized into one of the three groups. The mobile phone serves as a means of delivering the physical activity intervention, setting individualized weekly physical activity goals, and providing self-monitoring (activity diary), immediate feedback and social support. The mobile phone also functions as a tool for communication and real-time data capture. The primary outcome is objectively measured physical activity. If efficacy of the intervention with a mobile phone is demonstrated, the results of this RCT will be able to provide new insights for current behavioral sciences and mHealth. ClinicalTrials.gov#:NCTO1280812.

  2. Let Me Relax: Toward Automated Sedentary State Recognition and Ubiquitous Mental Wellness Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Rajanna

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in ubiquitous computing technology improve workplace productivity, reduce physical exertion, but ultimately result in a sedentary work style. Sedentary behavior is associated with an increased risk of stress, obesity, and other health complications. Let Me Relax is a fully automated sedentary-state recognition framework using a smartwatch and smartphone, which encourages mental wellness through interventions in the form of simple relaxation techniques. The system was evaluated through a comparative user study of 22 participants split into a test and a control group. An analysis of NASA Task Load Index pre- and post- study survey revealed that test subjects who followed relaxation methods, showed a trend of both increased activity as well as reduced mental stress. Reduced mental stress was found even in those test subjects that had increased inactivity. These results suggest that repeated interventions, driven by an intelligent activity recognition system, is an effective strategy for promoting healthy habits, which reduce stress, anxiety, and other health risks associated with sedentary workplaces.

  3. Characterizing energy expenditure during sedentary behavior after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, Olaf; de Haan, Femke; Mead, Gillian; Fengler, Ben; Visser-Meily, Anne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To objectively measure and calculate the energy expended by people with stroke during near sedentary behaviors (lying, supported and unsupported sitting, standing, wheelchair propulsion and walking), under controlled laboratory conditions, and compare these values to the energy

  4. Investigating parameters participating in the infant respiratory control system attractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Philip I; Wilson, Stephen J; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M; Dakin, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Theoretically, any participating parameter in a non-linear system represents the dynamics of the whole system. Taken's time delay embedding theory provides the fundamental basis for allowing non-linear analysis to be performed on physiological, time-series data. In practice, only one measurable parameter is required to be measured to convey an accurate representation of the system dynamics. In this paper, the infant respiratory control system is represented using three variables-a digitally sampled respiratory inductive plethysmography waveform, and the derived parameters tidal volume and inter-breath interval time series data. For 14 healthy infants, these data streams were analysed using recurrence plot analysis across one night of sleep. The measured attractor size of these variables followed the same qualitative trends across the nights study. Results suggest that the attractor size measures of the derived IBI and tidal volume are representative surrogates for the raw respiratory waveform. The extent to which the relative attractor sizes of IBI and tidal volume remain constant through changing sleep state could potentially be used to quantify pathology, or maturation of breathing control.

  5. Examination of mid-intervention mediating effects on objectively assessed sedentary time among children in the Transform-Us! cluster-randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carson, V.; Salmon, J.; Arundell, L.; Ridgers, N.D.; Cerin, E.; Brown, H.; Hesketh, K.D.; Ball, K.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Yildirim, M.; Daly, R.M.; Dunstan, D.W.; Crawford, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The optimal targets and strategies for effectively reducing sedentary behavior among young people are unknown. Intervention research that explores changes in mediated effects as well as in outcome behaviors is needed to help inform more effective interventions. Therefore, the purpose of

  6. Empowering Sedentary Adults to Reduce Sedentary Behavior and Increase Physical Activity Levels and Energy Expenditure: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal A. Barwais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 4-week intervention in which an online personal activity monitor (Gruve-Technologies™ was used to reduce sedentary behavior among sedentary adults. Method: Eighteen, sedentary adult volunteers (12 men, six women, mean age 29 ± 4.0 years were recruited to participate in the study. Time spent in sedentary activities and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed during waking hours using the monitor and the 7-day SLIPA Log at both baseline and post-intervention. Results: A significant decrease of 33% (3.1 h/day; p < 0.001 was found between the time spent in sedentary activities measured at baseline (9.4 ± 1.1 h/day and at the end of the 4-week intervention (6.3 ± 0.8 h/day. Consequent to the changes in sedentary time, significant increases were found in the amount of time spent in light- (45% (2.6 h/day, p < 0.001, moderate- (33% (1 h/day p < 0.001, vigorous-intensity physical activity (39% (0.16 h/day, p < 0.001, and energy expenditure (47% (216.7 kcal/day, p < 0.001. Conclusion: This monitor contributes to a meaningful reduction in time spent in sedentary activities and has a large effect on energy expenditure and physical activity patterns.

  7. Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns are associated with selected adolescent health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Melissa C; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2006-04-01

    Little is known about how physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and various adolescent health risk behaviors are associated. The objective of this study was to examine relationships between PA and sedentary behavior patterns and an array of risk behaviors, including leading causes of adolescent morbidity/mortality. Nationally representative self-reported data were collected (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health; wave I: 1994-1995; II: 1996; N = 11957). Previously developed and validated cluster analyses identified 7 homogeneous groups of adolescents sharing PA and sedentary behaviors. Poisson regression predicted the relative risk of health risk behaviors, other weekly activities, and self-esteem across the 7 PA/sedentary behavior clusters controlling for demographics and socioeconomic status. Main outcome measures were adolescent risk behaviors (eg, truancy, cigarette smoking, sexual intercourse, delinquency), other weekly activities (eg, work, academic performance, sleep), self-esteem. Relative to high television (TV) and video viewers, adolescents in clusters characterized by skating and video gaming, high overall sports and sports participation with parents, using neighborhood recreation center, strict parental control of TV, reporting few activities overall, and being active in school were less likely to participate in a range of risky behaviors, ranging from an adjusted risk ratio (ARR) of 0.42 (outcome: illegal drug use, cluster: strict parental control of TV) to 0.88 (outcome: violence, cluster: sports with parents). Active teens were less likely to have low self-esteem (eg, adolescents engaging in sports with parents, ARR: 0.73) and more likely to have higher grades (eg, active in school, ARR: 1.20). Participation in a range of PA-related behaviors, particularly those characterized by high parental sports/exercise involvement, was associated with favorable adolescent risk profiles. Adolescents with high TV/video viewership were less

  8. An active video game intervention does not improve physical activity and sedentary time of children at-risk for developmental coordination disorder: a crossover randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, E K; Campbell, A C; Straker, L M

    2016-03-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are highly inactive and sedentary. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a home-based active video game intervention on objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children at risk for DCD. In a crossover randomized clinical trial, 21 children (mean age 11.0, SD 1.0; n = 11 girls) in Perth, Western Australia participated in two 16-week periods: no active video games (AVGs) control period and AVGs intervention period. Two active input consoles were provided to participants along with a selection of non-violent AVGs for participants to play at home. Participants wore accelerometers at baseline and following each period to determine minutes of sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous times in addition to self-reported types of activities in a diary. Linear mixed models, adjusted for the order of periods, compared physical activity and sedentary time during the last week of each period. There were no significant differences between the intervention and control periods in time spent in sedentary (decrease of -1.0 min/day during the intervention period, 95%CI -12.1, 10.1), light (increase of 2.2 min/day, 95%CI -8.8, 13.2), moderate (decrease of 0.7 min/day, 95%CI -4.6, 3.3) or vigorous (decrease of -0.6 min/day, 95%CI -1.6, 0.4). Among children at risk for DCD, participating in this AVG intervention did not improve objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Sedentary behaviors, physical activity behaviors, and body fat in 6-year-old children: the generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Jansen, Wilma; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Raat, Hein

    2014-08-15

    Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health concern. Knowledge on modifiable risk factors is needed to design effective intervention programs. This study aimed to assess associations of children's sedentary behaviors (television viewing and computer game use) and physical activity behaviors (sports participation, outdoor play, and active transport to/from school) with three indicators of body fat, i.e., percent fat mass, body mass index (BMI) standard deviation scores, and weight status (normal weight, overweight). Cross-sectional data from 5913 6-year-old ethnically diverse children were analyzed. Children's weight and height were objectively measured and converted to BMI. Weight status was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points of the International Obesity Task Force. BMI standard deviation scores were created, based on Dutch reference growth curves. Fat mass was measured my dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Sedentary and physical activity behaviors were assessed by parent-reported questionnaires. Series of logistic and linear regression analyses were performed, controlling for confounders (i.e., socio-demographic factors, family lifestyle factors, and other sedentary behaviors and physical activity behaviors). Sports participation was inversely associated with fat mass (p sedentary behaviors and physical activity behaviors. No other independent associations were observed. The results of this study indicate that sports participation is inversely associated with percent body fat among ethnically diverse 6-year-old children. More research in varied populations including objective measurements and longitudinal designs are needed to confirm these current results.

  10. Excessive sedentary time during in-patient stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Matthew; Snow, John Charles; Kirkland, Megan C; Kelly, Liam P; Gehue, Maria; Downer, Matthew B; McCarthy, Jason; Ploughman, Michelle

    2018-04-03

    Background and Purpose Previous research suggests that patients receiving inpatient stroke rehabilitation are sedentary although there is little data to confirm this supposition within the Canadian healthcare system. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to observe two weeks of inpatient rehabilitation in a tertiary stroke center to determine patients' activity levels and sedentary time. Methods Heart rate (HR) and accelerometer data were measured using an Actiheart monitor for seven consecutive days, 24 h/day, on the second week and the last week of admission. Participants or their proxies completed a daily logbook. Metabolic equivalent (MET) values were calculated and time with MET rehabilitation, there was excessive sedentary time and therapy sessions were less frequent and of lower intensity than recommended levels. Conclusions In this sample of people attending inpatient stroke rehabilitation, institutional structure of rehabilitation rather than patient-related factors contributed to sedentary time.

  11. Identidade de gênero/sexo de atletas e sedentários Identidad de género/sexo de atletas y sedentarios Gender/sex identity of athletes and sedentary participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    -percept and self-quantified gender/sex identity of athletes from different sport modalities (180 men and 180 women in relation to sedentary participants (22 men and 22 women regarding to personality and childhood ludic preferences. Men perceived themselves as more masculine and women more feminine. There were more non-heterosexual women than men among the athletes. Men were more likely to enjoy breaking the rules and wanted to be a sports champion when younger. The female athletes who played more with boys in childhood rated themselves as more masculine, daring to transgress the boundaries of gender roles, which may have facilitated their interest in sports training.

  12. Is Sedentary Lifestyle Associated With Testicular Function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priskorn, Lærke; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bang, Anne Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    Based on cross-sectional data on 1,210 healthy young Danish men, we investigated whether sedentary lifestyle was associated with testicular function (semen quality and reproductive hormones) independent of physical activity. The men were invited to participate in the study between 2008 and 2012......, when they attended a compulsory medical examination to determine their fitness for military service. Information on sedentary behavior (television watching and computer time) and physical activity was obtained by questionnaire. The men had a physical examination, delivered a semen sample, and had...... ratio were detected in men watching many hours of television. Self-rated physical fitness, but not time spent on physical activity, was positively associated with sperm counts....

  13. Circulating irisin levels are positively associated with metabolic risk factors in sedentary subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Moreno

    Full Text Available A physically active life-style plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, activates thermogenesis in rodents through increasing beige fat cells abundance within white fat. We aimed to investigate circulating irisin levels in association with the degree of physical activity and various metabolic parameters in humans.Circulating irisin levels (ELISA and metabolic parameters were analyzed in 428 subjects (195 men/233 women. Participants were classified according to their self-reported physical activity and to their area of residence.Circulating irisin levels were higher in active than in sedentary subjects (p = 0.006. Rural inhabitants showed higher circulating irisin levels than urban subjects (p < 0.0001. The increase in irisin levels related to an active lifestyle was only observed in rural citizens (p = 0.014. Among sedentary participants, irisin levels were positively associated with metabolic risk factors (BMI, fasting insulin, HOMA and fasting triglycerides. The area of residence (β = - 0.592, p = < 0.0001 contributed independently to circulating irisin levels variance after controlling for age, gender, BMI, HOMAIR, triglycerides and physical activity.In sedentary participants, circulating irisin levels were positively associated with parameters related to an increased cardiometabolic risk. The present study confirmed that an active lifestyle increases circulating irisin levels, but only among subjects living in a rural environment. Area of residence might be a determinant of irisin levels.

  14. Sedentary behaviours and obesity in adults: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, I; Helajärvi, H; Pahkala, K; Heinonen, O J; Hirvensalo, M; Pälve, K; Tammelin, T; Yang, X; Juonala, M; Mikkilä, V; Kähönen, M; Lehtimäki, T; Viikari, J; Raitakari, O T

    2013-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behaviour may contribute to the development of obesity. We investigated the relations between different types of sedentary behaviour and adiposity markers in a well-characterised adult population after controlling for a wide range of potential confounders. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Multicenter Study. Participants Sedentary time (TV viewing, computer time, reading, music/radio listening and other relaxation) was assessed with a questionnaire for 1084 women and 909 men aged 30–45 years. Other study variables included occupational and leisure-time physical activity, sleep duration, socioeconomic status, smoking, alcohol consumption, energy intake, adherence to the recommended diet, multiple individual food items, age and genetic variants associated with body mass index (BMI). Primary outcome measures BMI in kg/m2 and waist circumference (WC in cm). Results Of the different sedentary behaviour types, TV viewing was most consistently related to higher BMI and WC, both in men and women. One additional daily TV hour was associated with a 1.81±0.44 cm larger WC in women and 2 cm±0.44 cm in men (both psedentary behaviour remained associated with adiposity indices only in women. Conclusions Out of the different types of sedentary behaviour, TV viewing was most consistently associated with adiposity markers in adults. Partial dilution of these associations after adjustments for covariates suggests that the obesogenic effects of TV viewing are partly mediated by other lifestyle factors. PMID:23794543

  15. Determinants of Change in Children’s Sedentary Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Andrew J.; Corder, Kirsten; Ekelund, Ulf; Wijndaele, Katrien; Griffin, Simon J.; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the determinants of sedentary time during childhood contributes to the development of effective intervention programmes. Purpose To examine family and home-environmental determinants of 1-year change in objectively measured sedentary time after-school and at the weekend. Methods Participants wore accelerometers at baseline and 1 year later. Longitudinal data for after-school and weekend analyses were available for 854 (41.5%male, mean±SD age 10.2±0.3years) and 718 (41.8%male, age 10.2±0.3years) participants. Information on 26 candidate determinants, including socioeconomic status (SES), availability of electronic media and parental rules for sedentary behaviours was self-reported by children or their parents at baseline. Change in the proportion of registered time spent sedentary was used as the outcome variable in multi-level linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and baseline sedentary time. Simple and multiple models were run and interactions with sex explored. Results Children from higher socioeconomic status families exhibited greater increases in after-school (beta; 95% CI for change in % time spent sedentary 1.02; 0.37, 1.66) and weekend (1.42; 0.65, 2.18) sedentary time. Smaller increases in after-school sedentary time were observed in children with more siblings (−1.00; −1.69, −0.30), greater availability of electronic media (−0.81; −1.29, −0.33) and, for boys, more frequent family visits to the park (−1.89; −3.28, −0.51) and family participation in sport (−1.28; −2.54, −0.02). Greater maternal weekend screen-time (0.45; 0.08, 0.83) and, in girls, greater parental restriction on playing outside (0.91; 0.08, 1.74) were associated with larger increases in weekend sedentary time. The analytical sample was younger, more likely to be female, had lower BMI and was of higher SES than the original baseline sample. Conclusions Intervention strategies aimed at reducing parents’ weekend

  16. Discrete features of sedentary behavior impact cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyden, Kate; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Staudenmayer, John; Braun, Barry; Freedson, Patty S

    2015-05-01

    Sedentary behavior is linked to numerous poor health outcomes. This study aims to determine the effects of 7 d of increased sitting on markers of cardiometabolic risk among free-living individuals. Ten recreationally active participants (>150 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per week; mean ± SD age, 25.2 ± 5.7 yr; mean ± SD body mass index, 24.9 ± 4.3 kg·m(-2)) completed a 7-d baseline period and a 7-d sedentary condition in their free-living environment. At baseline, participants maintained normal activity. After baseline, participants completed a 7-d sedentary condition. Participants were instructed to sit as much as possible, to limit standing and walking, and to refrain from structured exercise and leisure time physical activity. ActivPAL monitor was used to assess sedentary behavior and physical activity. Fasting lipids, glucose, and insulin were measured, and oral glucose tolerance test was performed after baseline and sedentary condition. In comparison to baseline, total sedentary time (mean Δ, 14.9%; 95% CI, 10.2-19.6) and time in prolonged/uninterrupted sedentary bouts significantly increased, whereas the rate of breaks from sedentary time was significantly reduced (mean Δ, 21.4%; 95% CI, 6.9-35.9). For oral glucose tolerance test, 2-h plasma insulin (mean Δ, 38.8 μU·mL(-1); 95% CI, 10.9-66.8) and area under the insulin curve (mean Δ, 3074.1 μU·mL(-1) per 120 min; 95% CI, 526.0-5622.3) were significantly elevated after the sedentary condition. Lipid concentrations did not change. Change in 2-h insulin was negatively associated with change in light-intensity activity (r = -0.62) and positively associated with change in time in sitting bouts longer than 30 min (r = 0.82) and 60 min (r = 0.83). Increased free-living sitting negatively impacts markers of cardiometabolic health, and specific features of sedentary behavior (e.g., time in prolonged sitting bouts) may be particularly important.

  17. Individual and environmental correlates of objectively measured sedentary time in Dutch and Belgian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke van Nassau

    Full Text Available As the detrimental health effects of sedentary behaviour are well established, insight into the individual and environmental factors that influence adults' sedentary behaviour is needed. Most studies to date rely on self-reported measures of sedentary time. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine individual and environmental correlates of objectively measured sedentary time in Dutch and Belgian adults. Between March and August 2014, Belgian (n = 133 and Dutch (n = 223 adults, recruited as sub-sample of the SPOTLIGHT survey, wore an ActiGraph accelerometer to provide objectively measured sedentary and moderate to vigorous physical activity time. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic (country of residence, age, gender and educational level, lifestyle (sleep, smoking, sugar-containing beverage consumption, alcohol intake, health (body mass index, self-rated health, work (employment status and type of work, happiness, physical environmental (owning a car, number of screens, socioeconomic status and residential density and social environmental factors (social network, social cohesion. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed that Belgian participants had a lower odds of being sedentary for at least 9 hours per day compared to Dutch participants. Women, older participants and those meeting the WHO recommendation for physical activity were also less likely to sit for 9 hours or more per day. Participants doing (heavy manual work or being in education, homemaker, unemployed had lower odds of being sedentary for at least 9 hours per day compared to participants with a sitting job. Those with a higher self-reported social network also had lower odds for sedentary time. No associations between physical and other social environmental characteristics and sedentary time were found. Our findings add to the growing evidence of factors associated with prolonged sedentary time in adults. These findings may

  18. ParticiPAte CP: a protocol of a randomised waitlist controlled trial of a motivational and behaviour change therapy intervention to increase physical activity through meaningful participation in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedman, Sarah Elizabeth; Boyd, Roslyn N; Elliott, Catherine; Sakzewski, Leanne

    2017-08-07

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) participate in leisure-time physical activities (PA) less often, with less intensity and reduced diversity than their typically developing peers. Participation in leisure-time physical activities may be an important source of habitual physical activity (HPA) for children with CP, who as a group have lower levels of HPA and increased sedentary time compared with their typically developing peers. The proposed study aims to compare the efficacy of a participation focused therapy (ParticiPAte CP) to usual care in a pragmatic, randomised waitlist controlled trial. Thirty-six children with CP (18 in each group), classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I to III, aged between 8 and 12 years will be recruited across South East Queensland, Australia. Children will be randomised to receive either ParticiPAte CP or waitlist usual care using concealed allocation. ParticiPAte CP is an individually tailored, goal-directed intervention model of pragmatic participation-focused therapy using a toolbox of evidence-based strategies in the treatment of children with CP. This will include goal-setting; identification of barriers and facilitators to participation goals, strategy formation and planning and communication guided by principles of Self-Determination Theory using strategies of Motivational Interviewing. The intervention comprises 8 weekly sessions of 1 hour duration conducted by a physiotherapist in the child's home or community. ACTRN12615001064594. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Executive function influences sedentary behavior: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: No study has evaluated the effects of executive function on follow-up sedentary behavior, which was this study’s purpose. Methods: A longitudinal design was employed among 18 young adult college students (Mage = 23.7 years; 88.9% female. Accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity, along with executive function, were assessed at baseline. Approximately 8 weeks later, re-assessment of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity occurred. Executive function was assessed using the Parametric Go/No-Go (PGNG computer task. From this, 2 primary executive function outcome parameters were evaluated, including the Simple Rule and Repeating Rule. Results: After adjusting for baseline sedentary behavior, age, gender, body mass index and baseline moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, for every 25% increase in the number of correctly identified targets for the Repeating rule at the baseline assessment, participants engaged in 91.8 fewer minutes of sedentary behavior at the follow-up assessment (β = -91.8; 95% CI: -173.5, -10.0; P = 0.03. Results were unchanged when also adjusting for total baseline or follow-up physical activity. Conclusion: Greater executive function is associated with less follow-up sedentary behavior.

  20. Data-Driven Participation: Algorithms, Cities, Citizens, and Corporate Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Tenney

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we critically explore the interplay of algorithms and civic participation in visions of a city governed by equation, sensor and tweet. We begin by discussing the rhetoric surrounding techno-enabled paths to participatory democracy. This leads to us interrogating how the city is impacted by a discourse that promises to harness social/human capital through data science. We move to a praxis level and examine the motivations of local planners to adopt and increasingly automate forms of VGI as a form of citizen engagement. We ground theory and praxis with a report on the uneven impacts of algorithmic civic participation underway in the Canadian city of Toronto.

  1. Groningen active living model (GALM) : Stimulating physical activity in sedentary older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, M; Lemmink, KAPM; de Greef, NHG; Rispens, P; de Greef, M.H.G.

    1999-01-01

    Background A significant number of Dutch older adults can be considered sedentary when it comes to regular participation in leisure-time physical activity. Sedentariness is considered a potential public health burden-all the more reason to develop a strategy for stimulating older adults toward

  2. Patterns of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time: Are Nigerian health professional students complying with public health guidelines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale L Oyeyemi

    Full Text Available Understanding patterns of physical activity and sedentary time is important to effective population-wide primary prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. This study examined the patterns of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time, and the prevalence of compliance with physical activity guidelines according to different public health recommendations in a sub-population of health professional students in Nigeria.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 102 health professional students (age = 19-34 years old, 43.1% women of the University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Participants wore Actigraph accelerometers on their waist for minimum of 5 days/week to objectively measure intensity and duration of physical activity and sedentary time. Prevalence and demographic patterns of physical activity and sedentary time were examined using descriptive and inferential statistics.The students spent most time in sedentary activity (458.6 ± minutes/day, about 61% of daily time and the least in vigorous-intensity activity (2.1 ± 4.4 minutes/day, about 0.3% of daily time. Sedentary time was higher among older than younger students (P<0.038 and among medical laboratory science students than physiotherapy and nursing students (P = 0.046. Total physical activity was higher among nursing and medical students than medical laboratory science students (P = 0.041. Although, 85.3% of the students engaged in 150 minutes/week of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, only 2.9% met the guideline of 75 minutes/week of vigorous intensity activity.Prevalence of sedentary time was high while that of vigorous-intensity activity was very low among health professional students in Nigeria. Compliance with physical activity guidelines was mainly through accumulation of moderate intensity activity. The results suggest that age and academic programme may influence physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of health professional students in Nigeria

  3. Determinants of Three-Year Change in Children's Objectively Measured Sedentary Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Andrew J; Foley, Louise; Corder, Kirsten; Ekelund, Ulf; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviours (SB) are highly prevalent in young people and may be adversely associated with physical and mental health. Understanding of the modifiable determinants of SB is necessary to inform the design of behaviour change interventions but much of the existing research is cross-sectional and focussed upon screen-based behaviours. To examine the social, psychological and environmental determinants of change in children's objectively measured sedentary time from age 11 to 14 years. Data are from the second (2008) and third (2011) waves of assessment in the Sport, Physical Activity, and Eating Behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young People (SPEEDY) study, conducted in the county of Norfolk, United Kingdom. Longitudinal data on accelerometer assessed sedentary time were available for 316 (53.5% female, 11.2±0.3 years at baseline) and 264 children after-school and at the weekend respectively. Information on 14 candidate determinants, including school travel mode and electronic media ownership, was self-reported. Change in the proportion of registered time spent sedentary was used as the outcome variable in cross-classified linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and baseline sedentary time. Simple and multiple models were run and interactions with sex explored. Daily sedentary time increased by 30-40 minutes after-school and at the weekend from baseline to follow-up. Participants who travelled to school by cycle exhibited smaller increases in after-school sedentary time (beta; 95%CI for change in % time spent sedentary: -3.3;-6.7,-0.07). No significant determinants of change in weekend sedentary time were identified. Time spent sedentary increased during the three-year duration of follow-up but few of the variables examined were significantly associated with changes in sedentary time. Children's mode of school travel may influence changes in their sedentary time over this period and should be examined further, alongside

  4. Efecto de la actividad física controlada sobre la composición corporal de mujeres sedentarias posmenopáusicas The effect of controlled physical activity on the body composition of postmenopausal sedentary women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Restrepo Calle

    2003-10-01

    ón corporal de este grupo de mujeres al disminuir los depósitos de grasa y aumentar la masa corporal magra.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a controlled physical activity program on the weight and body composition of healthy sedentary postmenopausal women. METHODS: From a group of 138 postmenopausal women volunteers, 18 of them were selected, using a survey that measured the frequency and intensity of their physical activity. These 18 women were classified as "sedentary," having an average daily energy expenditure (in terms of mL of oxygen per kg per minute that was below 60% of the maximum oxygen consumption for their age. These 18 women underwent a general physical examination, laboratory tests, and spirometry to make certain that they did not have illnesses that would prevent them from participating in the planned controlled physical activity program. The activity program lasted 4 months, with three one-hour sessions per week. Before and after the program the following characteristics were evaluated for each participant: weight, body fat, and the fatty area and the lean area of the arm, the thigh, and the leg. In addition, energy intake was determined based on a record of food consumption, with the frequency of the consumption of specific foods assessed semiquantitatively. The Student's t test was used to compare the averages for all the measurements before and after the exercise program. When the variables did not have a normal distribution, the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test was utilized. RESULTS: At the end the program we found a reduction of 1.2 kg in weight and of 2.0 kg in body fat, while the lean mass increased by 1.0 kg. Also increasing were the lean area of the arm, of the thigh, and of the leg; the areas of fat in those parts of the body decreased. The differences were statistically significant for all the variables observed except for the lean area of the thigh. There were no significant differences between the women's energy intake at the beginning and the

  5. Water levels shape fishing participation in flood-control reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Meals, K. O.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between fishing effort (hours fished) and average March–May water level in 3 flood control reservoirs in Mississippi. Fishing effort increased as water level rose, peaked at intermediate water levels, and decreased at high water levels. We suggest that the observed arched-shaped relationship is driven by the shifting influence of fishability (adequacy of the fishing circumstances from an angler's perspective) and catch rate along a water level continuum. Fishability reduces fishing effort during low water, despite the potential for higher catch rates. Conversely, reduced catch rates and fishability at high water also curtail effort. Thus, both high and low water levels seem to discourage fishing effort, whereas anglers seem to favor intermediate water levels. Our results have implications for water level management in reservoirs with large water level fluctuations.

  6. The relationship between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and mental health in Ghanaian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Mavis; Danquah, Samuel A

    2015-01-01

    Research development is needed in physical activity and sedentary behaviour and their associations with mental health in young people. In Western countries the weather is a key contributing factor of sedentary behaviour in youth. The likely contributing factor of sedentary behaviour among African youth has not been explored. This study examined the association between sedentary behaviour and mental health in African young people. Participants were 296 adolescents (150 males, 146 females) aged 13 to 18 years (mean = 14.85 years) living in Ghana. Participants' physical activity levels were assessed using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Adolescents (PAQ-A) and sedentary behaviour, using the Adolescents Sedentary Activity Questionnaire. Depression was assessed using the Children Depression Inventory and aspects of self-esteem were measured with the Physical Self-worth test and Body Image Silhouette test. There was a significant negative correlation between physical activity and mental health independent of sedentary behaviour [depression (r =-0.78, p < 0.001); physical self-worth (r = 0.71, p < 0.001); body dissatisfaction (r =-0.76, p < 0.001)]. Moreover, sedentary behaviour was significantly associated with higher depression (r = 0.68, p < 0.001). Affluence was a significant contributing factor of sedentary behaviour in African young people [t (294) =-7.30, p < 0.001]. The present study has found that sedentary behaviour is highly prevalent among African adolescents especially among adolescents from affluent homes. Low levels of physical activity as well as sedentary behaviour is significantly associated with mental health problems among African youth, which is consistent with reports from studies among Western young people. The present research, therefore, contributes new information to the existing literature. Increased physical activities can improve the mental health of adolescents.

  7. Application of the transtheoretical model to sedentary behaviors and its association with physical activity status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Han

    Full Text Available The Transtheoretical Model (TTM is a successful framework for guiding behavior change programs for several health behaviors, yet its application to reduce of sedentary behavior has been neglected. In addition, no data exist regarding the association between determinants of sedentary behaviors based on the TTM and physical activity behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate college students' stages of motivational readiness to avoid sedentary behaviors and relevant psychological determinants using newly developed TTM questionnaires and to identify the association between current physical activity and sedentary behaviors based on TTM constructs.Data were obtained from 225 college students enrolled in health education and physical education courses. Participants completed a package of questionnaires including validated TTM, physical activity and sitting time questionnaires. Participants also wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days. MANOVAs were conducted to determine mean differences in psychological constructs across the TTM stages, and Chi-square tests and Spearman correlation were used to evaluate the associations between current physical activity and sedentary behavior.A majority of the participants were in the sedentary stages, and men and women differed in proportion of individuals in the stages (78.0% vs. 68.1%, respectively. The gender difference was also found in use of the processes of change. In general, the mean scores of the TTM constructs increased as the stages progressed. No significant associations were found between the TTM constructs for sedentary behavior and current physical activity levels (p>0.05.A high proportion of college students were in sedentary stages regardless of physical activity levels, but different distributions in men and women. Participants in earlier stages were less likely to utilize the TTM constructs to reduce sedentary behaviors than those in later stages. A lack of association between

  8. Effects of Eight-Weeks of Aerobic Training on Resistin Levels and Insulin Resistance in Sedentary Middle-Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Abedi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Resistin is an adipocyte-specific hormone secreted from adipose tissue which plays a significant role in the energy homeostasis and regulation of energy metabolism. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of eight weeks of aerobic training on the resistin levels and insulin resistance in sedentary middle-aged women. Methods: In this quasi-experimental research, 20 sedentary women were randomly selected and assigned to two groups: experimental group, n=10, aged 47.70±5.35; and control, n=10, age 41.30±3.02, respectively. The participants in the training group performed an exercise protocol three times per week with the goal of 55 to 65 per cent of maximum heart rate. Before and after the completion, the resistin, insulin, glucose and insulin resistance levels were measured after 12 h of overnight fasting. Data were analyzed before and after the intervention by t-test. The significant level was defined as P≤0.05. Results: Aerobic training in compared with the control group showed significant effect in decreasing resistin levels (P=0.012, BMI (P=0.01, insulin resistance (P=0.01, and increasing VO2 max (P=0.004. Conclusion: It appears that eight weeks of aerobic training significantly changes the level of resistin and the insulin resistance index in sedentary middle-aged women. Plasma resistin may be associated with insulin resistance in sedentary women. In general, according to the results, we may say that an eight-week aerobic training with a significant reduction in plasma resistin has a preventive effect as a new and effective training method on insulin resistance in middle-aged sedentary women.

  9. Workers' Participation and the Distribution of Control as Perceived by Members of Ten German Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolke, Klaus; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A survey of 601 managers and workers in 10 German manufacturing companies studied the implications of workers' participation for the exercise of control. Statistical analysis of data on control over work environments, production organization, personnel, and finance indicated that, in more participative companies, distribution of control is more…

  10. Effect of a 16-week Bikram yoga program on perceived stress, self-efficacy and health-related quality of life in stressed and sedentary adults: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Zoe L; Pumpa, Kate L; Smith, Caroline A; Fahey, Paul P; Cheema, Birinder S

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 16 weeks of Bikram yoga on perceived stress, self-efficacy and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in sedentary, stressed adults. 16 week, parallel-arm, randomised controlled trial with flexible dosing. Physically inactive, stressed adults (37.2±10.8 years) were randomised to Bikram yoga (three to five classes per week) or control (no treatment) group for 16 weeks. Outcome measures, collected via self-report, included perceived stress, general self-efficacy, and HRQoL. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, midpoint and completion. Individuals were randomised to the experimental (n=29) or control group (n=34). Average attendance in the experimental group was 27±18 classes. Repeated measure analyses of variance (intention-to-treat) demonstrated significantly improved perceived stress (p=0.003, partial η 2 =0.109), general self-efficacy (p=0.034, partial η 2 =0.056), and the general health (p=0.034, partial η 2 =0.058) and energy/fatigue (p=0.019, partial η 2 =0.066) domains of HRQoL in the experimental group versus the control group. Attendance was significantly associated with reductions in perceived stress, and an increase in several domains of HRQoL. 16 weeks of Bikram yoga significantly improved perceived stress, general self-efficacy and HRQoL in sedentary, stressed adults. Future research should consider ways to optimise adherence, and should investigate effects of Bikram yoga intervention in other populations at risk for stress-related illness. Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12616000867493. Registered 04 July 2016. URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12616000867493.aspx. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ashley R; Goodman, Anna; Page, Angie S

    2015-01-01

    .8-18.4 years) who provided at least three days of valid accelerometer data. Linear regression was used to examine associations between age, sex, weight status, country and physical activity outcomes. RESULTS: Boys were less sedentary and more active than girls at all ages. After 5 years of age......BACKGROUND: Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in youth have been reported to vary by sex, age, weight status and country. However, supporting data are often self-reported and/or do not encompass a wide range of ages or geographical locations. This study aimed to describe objectively......-measured physical activity and sedentary time patterns in youth. METHODS: The International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD) consists of ActiGraph accelerometer data from 20 studies in ten countries, processed using common data reduction procedures. Analyses were conducted on 27,637 participants (2...

  12. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Levels and Patterns of Objectively Measured Sedentary Time in Adolescent Females

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harrington, Deirdre M.

    2011-10-28

    Abstract Background Adolescent females have been highlighted as a particularly sedentary population and the possible negative effects of a sedentary lifestyle are being uncovered. However, much of the past sedentary research is based on self-report or uses indirect methods to quantity sedentary time. Total time spent sedentary and the possible intricate sedentary patterns of adolescent females have not been described using objective and direct measure of body inclination. The objectives of this article are to examine the sedentary levels and patterns of a group of adolescent females using the ActivPAL™ and to highlight possible differences in sedentary levels and patterns across the week and within the school day. A full methodological description of how the data was analyzed is also presented. Methods One hundred and eleven adolescent females, age 15-18 yrs, were recruited from urban and rural areas in the Republic of Ireland. Participants wore an ActivPAL physical activity monitor for a 7.5 day period. The ActivPAL directly reports total time spent sitting\\/lying every 15 seconds and accumulation (frequency and duration) of sedentary activity was examined using a customized MATLAB ® computer software programme. Results While no significant difference was found in the total time spent sitting\\/lying over the full 24 hour day between weekday and weekend day (18.8 vs. 18.9 hours; p = .911), significantly more sedentary bouts of 1 to 5 minutes and 21 to 40 minutes in duration were accumulated on weekdays compared to weekend days (p < .001). The mean length of each sedentary bout was also longer (9.8 vs. 8.8 minutes; p < .001). When school hours (9 am-3 pm) and after school hours (4 pm-10 pm) were compared, there was no difference in total time spent sedentary (3.9 hours; p = .796) but the pattern of accumulation of the sedentary time differed. There were a greater number of bouts of > 20 minutes duration during school hours than after school hours (4.7 vs. 3

  13. Motivational Outcomes and Predictors of Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity and Sedentary Time for Adolescents in the Sigue La Huella Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Pardo, Berta; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Julián Clemente, José Antonio; Generelo Lanaspa, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the multicomponent Sigue la Huella intervention on selected motivational outcomes and whether any of these outcomes, in addition to relevant socio-demographic, biological, and behavioral factors, served as predictors of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time among participants through the intervention. This quasi-experimental, cohort study took place in four secondary schools in Huesca (Spain) during three academic years (students aged 12-15 years). Two schools were assigned to the experimental condition (n = 368) and two schools to the control condition (n = 314). Outcome variables were assessed objectively. A total of 553 participants met study inclusion criteria. Compared to the control group, participants in the experimental group reported greater enjoyment of physical activity, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in physical education, perceived autonomy in physical education, perceived competence in physical education, and perceived importance of physical education over time. Participants in this group reported also lower amotivation in physical education over time. In subsequent analyses, gender, organized physical activity out of school, sedentary time, and perceived importance of physical education predicted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Type of school (public vs. private), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and perceived autonomy in physical education emerged as predictors of sedentary time. Sigue la Huella had a positive effect on motivational outcomes relevant to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time, and, particularly, student engagement in physical education. The analyses identified shared and unique determinants of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time, suggesting that specific intervention strategies may be required to address each outcome.

  14. The relationship between cell phone use, physical and sedentary activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of U.S. college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepp, Andrew; Barkley, Jacob E; Sanders, Gabriel J; Rebold, Michael; Gates, Peter

    2013-06-21

    Today's cell phones increase opportunities for activities traditionally defined as sedentary behaviors (e.g., surfing the internet, playing video games). People who participate in large amounts of sedentary behaviors, relative to those who do not, tend to be less physically active, less physically fit, and at greater risk for health problems. However, cell phone use does not have to be a sedentary behavior as these devices are portable. It can occur while standing or during mild-to-moderate intensity physical activity. Thus, the relationship between cell phone use, physical and sedentary activity, and physical fitness is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate these relationships among a sample of healthy college students. Participants were first interviewed about their physical activity behavior and cell phone use. Then body composition was assessed and the validated self-efficacy survey for exercise behaviors completed. This was followed by a progressive exercise test on a treadmill to exhaustion. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) during exercise was used to measure cardiorespiratory fitness. Hierarchical regression was used to assess the relationship between cell phone use and cardiorespiratory fitness after controlling for sex, self-efficacy, and percent body fat. Interview data was transcribed, coded, and Chi-square analysis was used to compare the responses of low and high frequency cell phone users. Cell phone use was significantly (p = 0.047) and negatively (β = -0.25) related to cardio respiratory fitness independent of sex, self-efficacy, and percent fat which were also significant predictors (p cell phone use indicated a broader pattern of sedentary behaviors apart from cell phone use, such as watching television. Cell phone use, like traditional sedentary behaviors, may disrupt physical activity and reduce cardiorespiratory fitness.

  15. Effects of different aerobic exercise programmes with nutritional intervention in sedentary\\ud adults with overweight/obesity and hypertension: EXERDIET-HTA study

    OpenAIRE

    Gorostegi-Anduaga, I.; Corres, P.; Martinezaguirre-Betolaza, A.; Pérez-Asenjo, J.; Aispuru, R.; Fryer, Simon M; Maldonado-Martin, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Background: Both exercise training and diet are recommended to prevent and control\\ud hypertension (HTN) and overweight/obesity.\\ud Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of different 16-week aerobic exercise\\ud programs with hypocaloric diet on blood pressure (BP), body composition,\\ud cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and pharmacological treatment.\\ud Methods: Overweight/obese, sedentary participants (n=175, 54.08.2 yrs) with HTN,\\ud were randomized into attention control group (AC, physical...

  16. External validity of randomized controlled trials of glycaemic control and vascular disease: how representative are participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, C; Byrne, C D; Guthrie, B; Lindsay, R S; McKnight, J A; Philip, S; Sattar, N; Walker, J J; Wild, S H

    2013-03-01

    To describe the proportion of people with Type 2 diabetes living in Scotland who meet eligibility criteria for inclusion in several large randomized controlled trials of glycaemic control to inform physicians and guideline developers about the generalizibility of trial results. A literature review was performed to identify large trials assessing the impact of glycaemic control on risk of macrovascular disease. Inclusion and exclusion criteria from each trial were applied to data on the population of people with a diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes living in Scotland in 2008 (n = 180,590) in a population-based cross-sectional study and the number and proportion of people eligible for each trial was determined. Seven trials were identified. The proportion of people with Type 2 diabetes who met the eligibility criteria for the trials ranged from 3.5 to 50.7%. Trial participants were younger at age of diagnosis of diabetes and at time of trial recruitment than in the Scottish study population. The application of upper age criteria excluded the largest proportion of patients, with up to 39% of people with Type 2 diabetes ineligible for a trial with the most stringent criteria based on age alone. We found that many of the large trials of glycaemic control among people with Type 2 diabetes have limited external validity when applied to a population-based cohort of people with Type 2 diabetes. In particular, the age distribution of trial participants often does not reflect that of people with Type 2 diabetes in a contemporary British population. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  17. On Your Feet to Earn Your Seat: pilot RCT of a theory-based sedentary behaviour reduction intervention for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Isabelle; Smith, Lee; Aggio, Daniel; Shankar, Sahana; Begum, Saima; Matei, Raluca; Fox, Kenneth R; Hamer, Mark; Iliffe, Steve; Jefferis, Barbara J; Tyler, Nick; Gardner, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Of all age groups, older adults spend most of the time sitting and are least physically active. This sequential, mixed-methods feasibility study used a randomised controlled trial design to assess methods for trialling a habit-based intervention to displace older adults' sedentary behaviour with light activity and explore impact on behavioural outcomes. Eligibility criteria were age 60-74 years, retired, and ≥6 h/day leisure sitting. Data were collected across four sites in England. The intervention comprised a booklet outlining 15 'tips' for disrupting sedentary habits and integrating activity habits into normally inactive settings, and eight weekly self-monitoring sheets. The control was a non-habit-based factsheet promoting activity and sedentary reduction. A computer-generated 1:1 block-randomisation schedule was used, with participants blinded to allocation. Participants self-reported sedentary behaviour (two indices), sedentary habit, physical activity (walking, moderate, vigorous activity) and activity habit, at pre-treatment baseline, 8- and 12-week follow-ups and were interviewed at 12 weeks. Primary feasibility outcomes were attrition, adverse events and intervention adherence. The secondary outcome was behavioural change. Of 104 participants consented, 103 were randomised (intervention N  = 52, control N  = 51). Of 98 receiving allocated treatment, 91 (93%; intervention N  = 45; control N  = 46) completed the trial. One related adverse event was reported in the intervention group. Mean per-tip adherence across 7 weeks was ≥50% for 9/15 tips. Qualitative data suggested acceptability of procedures, and, particularly among intervention recipients, the allocated treatment. Both groups appeared to reduce sedentary behaviour and increase their physical activity, but there were no apparent differences between groups in the extent of change. Trial methods were acceptable and feasible, but the intervention conferred no apparent advantage

  18. The motivation to be sedentary predicts weight change when sedentary behaviors are reduced

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Leonard H; Roemmich, James N; Cavanaugh, Meghan D; Paluch, Rocco A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is correlated with a sedentary lifestyle, and the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with obesity. The present study tests the hypothesis that the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with weight change when children reduce their sedentary behavior. Methods The motivation to be active or sedentary, changes in weight, and accelerometer assessed physical activity were collected for 55 families with overweight/obese children who participa...

  19. Relationship of Personality and Locus of Control With Employment Outcomes among Participants with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, James S.; Broderick, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    We investigated relationships among personality, locus of control, and current post-injury employment status for 1,391 participants with spinal cord injury. Participants with higher internality locus-of-control scores and activity scores (personality) reported more favorable employment outcomes. Higher scores on chance and powerful others (locus…

  20. Leisure sedentary time is differentially associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia depending on occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Sup Lim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behavior is considered an independent cause of cardio-metabolic diseases, regardless of physical activity level and obesity. Few studies have reported the association between leisure sedentary time and cardio-vascular diseases in terms of occupation. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study using data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS for 240,086 participants assessed in 2011 and 2013. Occupation was categorized into four groups: farmer or fisherman, laborer, and soldier (Group I; service worker, salesperson, technician, mechanic, production worker, and engineer (Group II; manager, expert, specialist, and clerk (Group III; and unemployed (Group IV. Leisure sedentary time was divided into five groups: 0 h, 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, and 4+ h. The association between leisure sedentary time on weekdays and hypertension/diabetes mellitus/hyperlipidemia for different occupations was analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Results In Groups I, II and III, no length of sedentary time was associated with hypertension, and only 3 h or 4+ h of sedentary time was associated with diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. Group IV showed a significant association with hypertension and diabetes mellitus for the 2 h, 3 h, and 4+ h sedentary times. Conclusions The unemployed are more susceptible than other occupation groups to cardio-metabolic diseases when leisure time is sedentary.

  1. Leisure sedentary time is differentially associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia depending on occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Man Sup; Park, Bumjung; Kong, Il Gyu; Sim, Songyong; Kim, So Young; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2017-03-23

    Sedentary behavior is considered an independent cause of cardio-metabolic diseases, regardless of physical activity level and obesity. Few studies have reported the association between leisure sedentary time and cardio-vascular diseases in terms of occupation. We performed a cross-sectional study using data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) for 240,086 participants assessed in 2011 and 2013. Occupation was categorized into four groups: farmer or fisherman, laborer, and soldier (Group I); service worker, salesperson, technician, mechanic, production worker, and engineer (Group II); manager, expert, specialist, and clerk (Group III); and unemployed (Group IV). Leisure sedentary time was divided into five groups: 0 h, 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, and 4+ h. The association between leisure sedentary time on weekdays and hypertension/diabetes mellitus/hyperlipidemia for different occupations was analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In Groups I, II and III, no length of sedentary time was associated with hypertension, and only 3 h or 4+ h of sedentary time was associated with diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. Group IV showed a significant association with hypertension and diabetes mellitus for the 2 h, 3 h, and 4+ h sedentary times. The unemployed are more susceptible than other occupation groups to cardio-metabolic diseases when leisure time is sedentary.

  2. Descriptive epidemiology of screen and non-screen sedentary time in adolescents: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridley Kate

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been paid to adolescents' screen time, however very few studies have examined non-screen sedentary time (NSST. This study aimed to (1 describe the magnitude and composition of screen sedentary time (SST and NSST in Australian adolescents, (2 describe the socio-demographic correlates of SST and NSST, and (3 determine whether screen time is an adequate surrogate for total sedentary behaviour in this population. Methods 2200 9-16 year old Australians provided detailed use of time data for four days. Non-screen sedentary time (NSST included time spent participating in activities expected to elicit Results Adolescents spent a mean (SD of 345 (105 minutes/day in NSST, which constituted 60% of total sedentary time. School activities contributed 42% of NSST, socialising 19%, self-care (mainly eating 16%, and passive transport 15%. Screen time and NSST showed opposite patterns in relation to key socio-demographic characteristics, including sex, age, weight status, household income, parental education and day type. Because screen time was negatively correlated with NSST (r = -0.58, and exhibited a moderate correlation (r = 0.53 with total sedentary time, screen time was only a moderately effective surrogate for total sedentary time. Conclusions To capture a complete picture of young people's sedentary time, studies should endeavour to measure both screen time and NSST.

  3. The influence of dog ownership on objective measures of free-living physical activity and sedentary behaviour in community-dwelling older adults: a longitudinal case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall, Philippa Margaret; Ellis, Sarah Lesley Helen; Ellis, Brian Martin; Grant, P Margaret; Colyer, Alison; Gee, Nancy Renee; Granat, Malcolm Howard; Mills, Daniel Simon

    2017-06-09

    There is some evidence to suggest that dog ownership may improve physical activity (PA) among older adults, but to date, studies examining this, have either depended on self-report or incomplete datasets due to the type of activity monitor used to record physical activity. Additionally, the effect of dog ownership on sedentary behaviour (SB) has not been explored. The aim of the current study was to address these issues by using activPAL monitors to evaluate the influence of dog ownership on health enhancing PA and SB in a longitudinal study of independently-mobile, community-dwelling older adults. Study participants (43 pairs of dog owners and non-dog owners, matched on a range of demographic variables) wore an activPAL monitor continuously for three, one-week data collection periods over the course of a year. Participants also reported information about their own and their dog demographics, caring responsibilities, and completed a diary of wake times. Diary data was used to isolate waking times, and outcome measures of time spent walking, time spent walking at a moderate cadence (>100 steps/min), time spent standing, time spent sitting, number of sitting events (continuous periods of sitting), and the number of and of time spent sitting in prolonged events (>30 min). For each measure, a linear mixed effects model with dog ownership as a fixed effect, and a random effects structure of measurement point nested in participant nested in pair was used to assess the effect of dog ownership. Owning a dog indicated a large, potentially health improving, average effect of 22 min additional time spent walking, 95%CI (12, 34), and 2760 additional steps per day, 95%CI (1667, 3991), with this additional walking undertaken at a moderate intensity cadence. Dog owners had significantly fewer sitting events. However, there were no significant differences between the groups for either the total time spent sitting, or the number or duration of prolonged sedentary events. The

  4. The influence of dog ownership on objective measures of free-living physical activity and sedentary behaviour in community-dwelling older adults: a longitudinal case-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Margaret Dall

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is some evidence to suggest that dog ownership may improve physical activity (PA among older adults, but to date, studies examining this, have either depended on self-report or incomplete datasets due to the type of activity monitor used to record physical activity. Additionally, the effect of dog ownership on sedentary behaviour (SB has not been explored. The aim of the current study was to address these issues by using activPAL monitors to evaluate the influence of dog ownership on health enhancing PA and SB in a longitudinal study of independently-mobile, community-dwelling older adults. Methods Study participants (43 pairs of dog owners and non-dog owners, matched on a range of demographic variables wore an activPAL monitor continuously for three, one-week data collection periods over the course of a year. Participants also reported information about their own and their dog demographics, caring responsibilities, and completed a diary of wake times. Diary data was used to isolate waking times, and outcome measures of time spent walking, time spent walking at a moderate cadence (>100 steps/min, time spent standing, time spent sitting, number of sitting events (continuous periods of sitting, and the number of and of time spent sitting in prolonged events (>30 min. For each measure, a linear mixed effects model with dog ownership as a fixed effect, and a random effects structure of measurement point nested in participant nested in pair was used to assess the effect of dog ownership. Results Owning a dog indicated a large, potentially health improving, average effect of 22 min additional time spent walking, 95%CI (12, 34, and 2760 additional steps per day, 95%CI (1667, 3991, with this additional walking undertaken at a moderate intensity cadence. Dog owners had significantly fewer sitting events. However, there were no significant differences between the groups for either the total time spent sitting, or the number or

  5. The effect of Pilates exercise on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şavkin, Raziye; Aslan, Ummuhan B

    2017-11-01

    Pilates is a popular exercise approach among women. Still there is poor empirical quantitative evidence indicating a positive effect of Pilates exercises on body composition. The aim of our study is to determine the effects of Pilates exercises on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women. Thirty-seven women, aged between 30 to 50 (43.79±4.88) years, included the study. Subjects are randomly divided into Pilates group (N.=19) and control group (N.=18). Pilates exercises was given for 90 minutes, 3 times/week, for 8 week with a gradual strength increase of 11-17 in the Rating of Perceived Exercise. Control group did not participate in any physical activity program. Bioelectric Impedance Analysis was used for determine the body composition of participants. Weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), body fat mass, lean body mass, waist, abdomen and hip circumference were measured at pre- and post-training period. In Pilates group, weight, BMI, fat percentage, waist, abdomen and hip circumference decreased significantly after training (P0.05). In control group, abdomen and hip circumference increased significantly (PPilates exercises have positive effects on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women. Pilates exercises can be applied for improving body composition.

  6. Screen and nonscreen sedentary behavior and sleep in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Vanessa C; O'Loughlin, Erin K; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Constantin, Evelyn; Pigeon, Étienne

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the associations between screen (computer, videogame, TV) and nonscreen (talking on the phone, doing homework, reading) sedentary time, and sleep in adolescents. Data were drawn from AdoQuest, a prospective investigation of 1843 grade 5 students aged 10-12 years at inception in the greater Montreal (Canada) area. Data for this cross-sectional analysis on screen and nonscreen sedentary time, sleep duration, and daytime sleepiness were collected in 2008-2009 from 1233 participants (67% of 1843) aged 14-16 years. Computer and videogame use >2 hours per day was associated with 17 and 11 fewer minutes of sleep per night, respectively. Computer use and talking on the phone were both associated with being a short sleeper (2 hours of computer use or talking on the phone per day had higher daytime sleepiness scores (11.9 and 13.9, respectively) than participants who reported d2 hours per day (9.7 and 10.3, respectively). Computer use and time spent talking on the phone are associated with short sleep and more daytime sleepiness in adolescents. Videogame time is also associated with less sleep. Clinicians, parents, and adolescents should be made aware that sedentary behavior and especially screen-related sedentary behavior may affect sleep duration negatively and is possibly associated with daytime sleepiness. Copyright \\© 2016 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sedentary lifestyle and state variation in coronary heart disease mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, K K; Anda, R F; Macera, C A; Donehoo, R S; Eaker, E D

    1995-01-01

    Using linear regression, the authors demonstrated a strong association between State-specific coronary heart disease mortality rates and State prevalence of sedentary lifestyle (r2 = 0.34; P = 0.0002) that remained significant after controlling for the prevalence of diagnosed hypertension, smoking, and overweight among the State's population. This ecologic analysis suggests that sedentary lifestyle may explain State variation in coronary heart disease mortality and reinforces the need to include physical activity promotion as a part of programs in the States to prevent heart disease. PMID:7838933

  8. Innovation to motivation--pilot study of a mobile phone intervention to increase physical activity among sedentary women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Vittinghoff, Eric; Jong, So Son; Haskell, William

    2010-01-01

    This uncontrolled pilot study assessed changes in pedometer-measured step counts and self-reported physical activity during a 3-week mobile phone-based intervention. We also explored whether age, BMI, and psychosocial factors were associated with changes in step counts. Forty-one sedentary adult women in San Francisco, California were asked to report their pedometer steps using a study-supplied mobile phone from June to September 2008. In the second and third weeks, daily prompts delivered by the mobile phone encouraged participants to increase steps by 20% from the previous week. Mean age was 48 years. Average daily total steps increased by approximately 800 or 15% over three weeks (pmotivate sedentary women to increase their physical activity. A randomized controlled clinical trial is warranted and feasible. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Urinary Estrogen Metabolites, Active and Sedentary Behaviors, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cross-sectional study of approximately 600 postmenopausal controls in the Breast Cancer Case-Control Study in Poland to assess urinary estrogen metabolites in relation to accelerometer-based measures of active and sedentary behaviors

  10. Sedentary time and markers of inflammation in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, C.L.; Cooper, A.R.; Walhin, J.P.; Thompson, D.; Page, A.S.; Peters, T.J.; Montgomery, A.A.; Sharp, D.J.; Dayan, C.M.; Andrews, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims We investigated whether objectively measured sedentary time was associated with markers of inflammation in adults with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Methods and results We studied 285 adults (184 men, 101 women, mean age 59.0 ± 9.7) who had been recruited to the Early ACTivity in Diabetes (Early ACTID) randomised controlled trial. C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and accelerometer-determined sedentary time and moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured at baseline and after six-months. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate the independent cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of sedentary time with markers of inflammation. At baseline, associations between sedentary time and IL-6 were observed in men and women, an association that was attenuated following adjustment for waist circumference. After 6 months of follow-up, sedentary time was reduced by 0.4 ± 1.2 h per day in women, with the change in sedentary time predicting CRP at follow-up. Every hour decrease in sedentary time between baseline and six-months was associated with 24% (1, 48) lower CRP. No changes in sedentary time between baseline and 6 months were seen in men. Conclusions Higher sedentary time is associated with IL-6 in men and women with type 2 diabetes, and reducing sedentary time is associated with improved levels of CRP in women. Interventions to reduce sedentary time may help to reduce inflammation in women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24925122

  11. Longitudinal changes in sedentary time and physical activity during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Sarah K; Page, Angie S; Falconer, Catherine; Cooper, Ashley R

    2015-04-01

    Low levels of physical activity and high time spent in sedentary activities have been associated with unfavourable health outcomes in adolescents. During adolescence, physical activity declines and sedentary time increases, however little is known about whether the magnitude of these changes differs within or between school-time, after-school time, or at weekends. Adolescents (n = 363) participating in the PEACH (Personal and Environmental Associations with Children's Health) project provided accelerometer data at 12 and 15 years of age. Data were collected in 2008/2009 and 2012/2013. Time spent sedentary (physical activity (LPA (100-2295 cpm) and in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA: ≥ 2296 cpm) were generated for school-time, after-school time and for weekends using school-specific start and finish times. All data were analysed in 2014. The proportion of time spent sedentary significantly increased during school (+8.23%, 95% CI = 7.35 to 9.13), after-school (+6.99%, 95% CI = 5.91 to 8.07) and at weekends (+6.86%, 95% CI = 5.10 to 8.62). A parallel decrease was found in the proportion of time spent in LPA during school (-7.62%, 95% CI = -8.26 to -6.98), after-school (-7.01%, 95% CI = -7.74 to -6.28) and at weekends (-6.72%, 95% CI = -7.80 to -5.65). The proportion of time spent in MVPA remained relatively stable during school (-0.64, 95% CI = -1.11 to -0.18), after-school (0.04%, 95% CI = -0.58 to 0.67) and at weekends (-0.14%, 95% CI = -1.18 to 0.90). Objectively measured sedentary time increased between 12 and 15 years of age during-school, after-school, and at weekends, suggesting that interventions aiming to reduce the age-associated changes in sedentary time are needed in all three time contexts. Future work should identify which sedentary activities change more than others to inform interventions which aim to minimise the increase in time spent sedentary during adolescence.

  12. Effect of physical activity and sedentary behavior on serum prostate-specific antigen concentrations: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Kohli, Manish

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association between accelerometer-derived sedentary and physical activity and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a nationally representative sample of men in the United States. Data from the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles were used in the present study, with data from 1672 adult male participants used in the analyses. The manuscript was prepared between July 7, 2012, and September 26, 2012. Sedentary and physical activity was objectively measured using an accelerometer. Covariates included various demographic, dietary, biological, and immunologic variables including age, height, weight, body mass index, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, and poverty-income ratio; dietary fiber, fat, protein, and carbohydrate intake and total energy intake; vitamin C and vitamin E; alcohol intake; medication use; concentrations of cotinine, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; blood pressure (elevated or not elevated); diabetes; C-reactive protein; and white blood cell count and number of basophils and eosinophils. Only after controlling for all covariates, for every 1-hour increase in sedentary behavior, participants were 16% more likely to have an elevated PSA concentration (odds ratio, 1.16 [95% CI, 1.06-1.27]; P=.001). For every 1-hour increase in light physical activity, participants were 18% less likely to have an elevated PSA concentration (odds ratio, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.68-1.00]; P=.05). Individuals who engage in more sedentary behavior and lower levels of light physical activity have higher PSA concentrations. Future studies are needed to better identify the potential underlying mechanisms delineating the association between sedentary and physical activity and PSA concentration. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intensive Versus Standard Blood Pressure Control in SPRINT-Eligible Participants of ACCORD-BP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Leo F; Dixon, Dave L; Wohlford, George F; Wijesinghe, Dayanjan S; Baker, William L; Van Tassell, Benjamin W

    2017-12-01

    We sought to determine the effect of intensive blood pressure (BP) control on cardiovascular outcomes in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was a post hoc, multivariate, subgroup analysis of ACCORD-BP (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Blood Pressure) participants. Participants were eligible for the analysis if they were in the standard glucose control arm of ACCORD-BP and also had the additional CVD risk factors required for SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) eligibility. We used a Cox proportional hazards regression model to compare the effect of intensive versus standard BP control on CVD outcomes. The "SPRINT-eligible" ACCORD-BP participants were pooled with SPRINT participants to determine whether the effects of intensive BP control interacted with T2DM. The mean baseline Framingham 10-year CVD risk scores were 14.5% and 14.8%, respectively, in the intensive and standard BP control groups. The mean achieved systolic BP values were 120 and 134 mmHg in the intensive and standard BP control groups ( P control reduced the composite of CVD death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), nonfatal stroke, any revascularization, and heart failure (hazard ratio 0.79; 95% CI 0.65-0.96; P = 0.02). Intensive BP control also reduced CVD death, nonfatal MI, and nonfatal stroke (hazard ratio 0.69; 95% CI 0.51-0.93; P = 0.01). Treatment-related adverse events occurred more frequently in participants receiving intensive BP control (4.1% vs. 2.1%; P = 0.003). The effect of intensive BP control on CVD outcomes did not differ between patients with and without T2DM ( P > 0.62). Intensive BP control reduced CVD outcomes in a cohort of participants with T2DM and additional CVD risk factors. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  14. Association of sedentary time with mortality independent of moderate to vigorous physical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Koster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sedentary behavior has emerged as a novel health risk factor independent of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Previous studies have shown self-reported sedentary time to be associated with mortality; however, no studies have investigated the effect of objectively measured sedentary time on mortality independent of MVPA. The objective our study was to examine the association between objectively measured sedentary time and all-cause mortality. METHODS: 7-day accelerometry data of 1906 participants aged 50 and over from the U.S. nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2004 were analyzed. All-cause mortality was assessed from the date of examination through December 31, 2006. RESULTS: Over an average follow-up of 2.8 years, there were 145 deaths reported. In a model adjusted for sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, multiple morbidities, mobility limitation, and MVPA, participants in third quartile (hazard ratio (HR:4.05; 95%CI:1.55-10.60 and fourth quartile (HR:5.94; 95%CI: 2.49-14.15 of having higher percent sedentary time had a significantly increased risk of death compared to those in the lowest quartile. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that sedentary behavior is a risk factor for mortality independent of MVPA. Further investigation, including studies with longer follow-up, is needed to address the health consequences of sedentary behavior.

  15. [Sedentary lifestyle is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors independent of physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Ana María; Martínez, María Adela; Cristi-Montero, Carlos; Salas, Carlos; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Díaz Martínez, Ximena; Aguilar-Farías, Nicolás; Celis-Morales, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Sedentary behavior is a main risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. To investigate the association between sedentary behavior and metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors. We assessed 322 participants aged between 18 to 65 years. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured with accelerometers (Actigraph®). Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, percentage of body fat, diet and blood markers (glucose, lipid profile, insulin and HOMA-IR) were measured with standardized protocols. Thirty four percent of participants were physically inactive and spent on average 8.7 h/day on sedentary activities. Per one hour increase in sedentary behavior there were significant adverse changes in glucose (4.79 mg/dl), insulin (2.73 pmol/l), HOMA-IR (0.75), BMI (0.69 kg/m²), waist circumference (1.95 cm), fat mass (1.03%), total cholesterol (9.73 mg/dl), HDL-cholesterol (-3.50 mg/dl), LDL-cholesterol (10.7 mg/dl) and triglycerides (12.4 mg/dl). These findings were independent of main confounding factors including total physical activity, dietary factors, BMI and socio-demographics. The detrimental effect of sedentary behaviors on cardiometabolic and obesity-related traits is independent of physical activity levels. Therefore, reducing sedentary time should be targeted in the population apart from increasing their physical activity levels.

  16. Increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary activity in adolescent girls – The Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study

    OpenAIRE

    Hergenroeder Albert; Kelder Steven H; Hoelscher Deanna M; Jones Desiree; Sharma Shreela V

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Lack of regular physical activity and consequent sub-optimal bone mass acquisition in youth has been implicated as a primary cause of adult-onset osteoporosis. IMPACT was a behavioral theory-based 1 1/2 year randomized controlled field study aimed at increasing bone accretion in middle school girls. The objective of this study was to determine the intervention effects of the IMPACT program upon key physical and sedentary activity endpoints among schools that participated i...

  17. Association of sedentary behaviour with metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte L Edwardson

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a growing interest in the relationship between sedentary behaviour (sitting and health outcomes. Only recently have there been studies assessing the association between time spent in sedentary behaviour and the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to quantify the association between sedentary behaviour and the metabolic syndrome in adults using meta-analysis.Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched using medical subject headings and key words related to sedentary behaviours and the metabolic syndrome. Reference lists of relevant articles and personal databases were hand searched. Inclusion criteria were: (1 cross sectional or prospective design; (2 include adults ≥ 18 years of age; (3 self-reported or objectively measured sedentary time; and (4 an outcome measure of metabolic syndrome. Odds Ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals for metabolic syndrome comparing the highest level of sedentary behaviour to the lowest were extracted for each study. Data were pooled using random effects models to take into account heterogeneity between studies. Ten cross-sectional studies (n = 21393 participants, one high, four moderate and five poor quality, were identified. Greater time spent sedentary increased the odds of metabolic syndrome by 73% (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.55-1.94, p<0.0001. There were no differences for subgroups of sex, sedentary behaviour measure, metabolic syndrome definition, study quality or country income. There was no evidence of statistical heterogeneity (I(2 = 0.0%, p = 0.61 or publication bias (Eggers test t = 1.05, p = 0.32.People who spend higher amounts of time in sedentary behaviours have greater odds of having metabolic syndrome. Reducing sedentary behaviours is potentially important for the prevention of metabolic syndrome.

  18. A pilot study of physical activity and sedentary behavior distribution patterns in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Emma; Mundell, Benjamin; Amin, Shreyasee; Kaufman, Kenton

    2017-09-01

    The study aims were to investigate free-living physical activity and sedentary behavior distribution patterns in a group of older women, and assess the cross-sectional associations with body mass index (BMI). Eleven older women (mean (SD) age: 77 (9) yrs) wore custom-built activity monitors, each containing a tri-axial accelerometer (±16g, 100Hz), on the waist and ankle for lab-based walking trials and 4 days in free-living. Daily active time, step counts, cadence, and sedentary break number were estimated from acceleration data. The sedentary bout length distribution and sedentary time accumulation pattern, using the Gini index, were investigated. Associations of the parameters' total daily values and coefficients of variation (CVs) of their hourly values with BMI were assessed using linear regression. The algorithm demonstrated median sensitivity, positive predictive value, and agreement values >98% and <1% mean error in cadence calculations with video identification during lab trials. Participants' sedentary bouts were found to be power law distributed with 56% of their sedentary time occurring in 20min bouts or longer. Meaningful associations were detectable in the relationships of total active time, step count, sedentary break number and their CVs with BMI. Active time and step counts had moderate negative associations with BMI while sedentary break number had a strong negative association. Active time, step count and sedentary break number CVs also had strong positive associations with BMI. The results highlight the importance of measuring sedentary behavior and suggest a more even distribution of physical activity throughout the day is associated with lower BMI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Influence of Neighbourhoods and the Social Environment on Sedentary Behaviour in Older Adults in Three Prospective Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Richard J; Čukić, Iva; Deary, Ian J; Gale, Catharine R; Chastin, Sebastien F M; Dall, Philippa M; Dontje, Manon L; Skelton, Dawn A; Macdonald, Laura; Der, Geoff

    2017-05-24

    Sedentary behaviour is an emerging risk factor for poor health. This study aimed to identify ecological determinants of sedentary behaviour, for which evidence is currently scarce. The study participants were community dwelling adults from, respectively, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (n = 271, mean age 79) and the 1930s (n = 119, mean age 83) and 1950s (n = 310, mean age 64) cohorts of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study. The outcome measure, percentage of waking time spent sedentary (sedentary time), was measured using an activPAL activity monitor worn continuously for seven days. Potential determinants included objective and subjective neighbourhood measures such as natural space, crime, social cohesion and fear of crime. Other determinants included measures of social participation such as social support, social group membership and providing care. Results from multivariable regression analyses indicated that providing care was associated with reduced sedentary time in retired participants in all cohorts. Fear of crime and perceived absence of services were associated with increased sedentary time for retired 1950s cohort members. Higher crime rates were associated with increased sedentary time in all cohorts but this was not significant after adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics. Most other neighbourhood and social participation measures showed no association with sedentary time.

  20. The interpretation of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviours by persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; Learmonth, Yvonne; Hubbard, Elizabeth; Pilutti, Lara; Roberts, Sarah; Fanning, Jason; Wójcicki, Thomas; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert

    2017-11-07

    This study adopted a qualitative research design with directed content analysis and examined the interpretations of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviour by persons with multiple sclerosis. Fifty three persons with multiple sclerosis who were enrolled in an exercise trial took part in semi-structured interviews regarding personal interpretations of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviours. Forty three percent of participants indicated a consistent understanding of physical activity, 42% of participants indicated a consistent understanding of exercise, and 83% of participants indicated a consistent understanding of sedentary behaviour with the standard definitions. There was evidence of definitional ambiguity (i.e., 57, 58, and 11% of the sample for physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviour, respectively); 6% of the sample inconsistently defined sedentary behaviour with standard definitions. Some participants described physical activity in a manner that more closely aligned with exercise and confused sedentary behaviour with exercise or sleeping/napping. Results highlight the need to provide and utilise consistent definitions for accurate understanding, proper evaluation and communication of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviours among persons with multiple sclerosis. The application of consistent definitions may minimise ambiguity, alleviate the equivocality of findings in the literature, and translate into improved communication about these behaviours in multiple sclerosis. Implications for Rehabilitation The symptoms of multiple sclerosis can be managed through participation in physical activity and exercise. Persons with multiple sclerosis are not engaging in sufficient levels of physical activity and exercise for health benefits. Rehabilitation professionals should use established definitions of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviours when communicating about these behaviours among persons with

  1. Active Participation of Air Conditioners in Power System Frequency Control Considering Users’ Thermal Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongxiang Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Air conditioners have great potential to participate in power system frequency control. This paper proposes a control strategy to facilitate the active participation of air conditioners. For each air conditioner, a decentralized control law is designed to adjust its temperature set point in response to the system frequency deviation. The decentralized control law accounts for the user’s thermal comfort that is evaluated by a fuzzy algorithm. The aggregation of air conditioners’ response is conducted by using the Monte Carlo simulation method. A structure preserving model is applied to the multi-bus power system, in which air conditioners are aggregated at certain load buses. An inner-outer iteration scheme is adopted to solve power system dynamics. An experiment is conducted on a test air conditioner to examine the performance of the proposed decentralized control law. Simulation results on a test power system verify the effectiveness of the proposed strategy for air conditioners participating in frequency control.

  2. Predictors of long-term benzodiazepine abstinence in participants of a randomized controlled benzodiazepine withdrawal program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Mol, A.J.J.; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van; Mulder, J.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Breteler, M.H.M.; Zitman, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of resumed benzodiazepine use after participation in a benzodiazepine discontinuation trial. METHOD: We performed multiple Cox regression analyses to predict the long-term outcome of a 3-condition, randomized, controlled benzodiazepine discontinuation trial in

  3. Predictors of long-term benzodiazepine abstinence in participants of a randomized controlled benzodiazepine withdrawal program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Mol, A.J.J.; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van; Mulder, J.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Breteler, M.H.M.; Zitman, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of resumed benzodiazepine use after participation in a benzodiazepine discontinuation trial. Method: We performed multiple Cox regression analyses to predict the long-term outcome of a 3-condition, randomized, controlled benzodiazepine discontinuation trial in

  4. Does long term sport rock climbing training affect on echocardiography and heart rate variability in sedentary adults? A randomized, and controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aras Dicle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Regular physical activity can cause some long term effects on human body. The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of sport rock climbing (SRC training at 70 % HRmax level on echocardiography (ECHO and heart rate variability (HRV for one hour a day and three days a week in an eight-week period. A total of 19 adults participated in this study voluntarily. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups as experimental (EG and control (CG. While the EG went and did climbing training by using the top-rope method for 60 minutes a day, three days a week for 8 weeks and didn’t join any other physical activity programs, CG didn’t train and take part in any physical activity during the course of the study. Same measurements were repeated at the end of eight weeks. According to the findings, no significant change was observed in any of the ECHO and HRV parameters. However, an improvement was seen in some HRV parameters [average heart rate (HRave, standard deviation of all NN intervals (SDNN, standard deviation of the averages of NN intervals in all five-minute segments of the entire recording (SDANN, percent of difference between adjacent NN intervals that are greater than 50 ms (PNN50, square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN interval (RMSSD] in EG. An exercise program based on SRC should be made more than eight weeks in order to have statistically significant changes with the purpose of observing an improvement in heart structure and functions. Keywords: Echocardiography, heart rate variability, sport rock climbing

  5. Chronic fatigue syndrome: illness severity, sedentary lifestyle, blood volume and evidence of diminished cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Barry E; Coryell, Virginia T; Parker, Meela; Martin, Pedro; Laperriere, Arthur; Klimas, Nancy G; Sfakianakis, George N; Bilsker, Martin S

    2009-10-19

    The study examined whether deficits in cardiac output and blood volume in a CFS (chronic fatigue syndrome) cohort were present and linked to illness severity and sedentary lifestyle. Follow-up analyses assessed whether differences in cardiac output levels between CFS and control groups were corrected by controlling for cardiac contractility and TBV (total blood volume). The 146 participants were subdivided into two CFS groups based on symptom severity data, severe (n=30) and non-severe (n=26), and two healthy non-CFS control groups based on physical activity, sedentary (n=58) and non-sedentary (n=32). Controls were matched to CFS participants using age, gender, ethnicity and body mass. Echocardiographic measures indicated that the severe CFS participants had 10.2% lower cardiac volume (i.e. stroke index and end-diastolic volume) and 25.1% lower contractility (velocity of circumferential shortening corrected by heart rate) than the control groups. Dual tag blood volume assessments indicated that the CFS groups had lower TBV, PV (plasma volume) and RBCV (red blood cell volume) than control groups. Of the CFS subjects with a TBV deficit (i.e. > or = 8% below ideal levels), the mean+/-S.D. percentage deficit in TBV, PV and RBCV were -15.4+/-4.0, -13.2+/-5.0 and -19.1+/-6.3% respectively. Lower cardiac volume levels in CFS were substantially corrected by controlling for prevailing TBV deficits, but were not affected by controlling for cardiac contractility levels. Analyses indicated that the TBV deficit explained 91-94% of the group differences in cardiac volume indices. Group differences in cardiac structure were offsetting and, hence, no differences emerged for left ventricular mass index. Therefore the findings indicate that lower cardiac volume levels, displayed primarily by subjects with severe CFS, were not linked to diminished cardiac contractility levels, but were probably a consequence of a co-morbid hypovolaemic condition. Further study is needed to address

  6. Sedentary behavior and residual-specific mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Paul D. Loprinzi; Meghan K. Edwards; Eveleen Sng; Ovuokerie Addoh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of accelerometer-assessed sedentary behavior and residual-specific mortality. Methods: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 5536), with follow-up through 2011. Sedentary behavior was objectively measured over 7 days via accelerometry. Results: When expressing sedentary behavior as a 60 min/day increase, the hazard ratio across the models ranged from 1.07-1.40 (P < 0...

  7. Participants' Understanding of Informed Consent in a Randomized Controlled Trial for Chronic Knee Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Marilys; Barnard, Emma; Walker, Hannah; Bennell, Kim; Hinman, Rana; Gillam, Lynn

    2015-12-01

    This study explored participants' experiences of randomized controlled trial (RCT) participation to examine their understanding of the trial design and whether their consent was indeed informed. A nested qualitative interview study was conducted with 38 participants from a sample of 282 who participated in a complex RCT evaluating the effectiveness of laser compared with needle acupuncture for chronic knee pain. Overall participants had a good understanding of the RCT, and concepts such as randomization and placebo. Their experiences of being in the trial were largely positive, even if they did not experience any knee pain improvement. Their responses to unblinding at the end of the study were accepting. Participants had a good functional understanding of the RCT, sufficient for valid informed consent. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Relationship between the level of physical activity and sedentary, overweight and health-related quality of life in scholar-age asthmatic children: an explanatory study in Seville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Rosa, Rosa María

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was: 1 To determine the differences between normal-weight asthmatic children and overweight asthmatic children in terms of HRQoL and amount of physical activity and sedentary and 2 To determine the relationship between amount of physical activity, sedentary and BMI and their influence on the HRQoL of this population in Seville. Method. We used a cohort design study that included 69 school-age children with controlled persistent asthma. The measures included in the study were: the questionnaire PAQL (S, to assess the HRQoL of children and the IPAQ-A questionnaire to assess the amount of physical activity and sedentary lifestyle of children. BMI was also calculated and determined if the participant was of normal-weight or overweight. Results. Overweight children scored worse on HRQoL and IPAQ-A values than their peers with normal-weight. Positive correlations were also observed between BMI and the amount of sedentary lifestyle. Negative correlations were observed between BMI and the amount of physical activity and also negative correlations were observed between BMI and HRQoL. Conclusion. BMI negatively affect HRQoL in school- age asthmatic children

  9. Art participation for psychosocial wellbeing during stroke rehabilitation: a feasibility randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jacqui H; Kelly, Chris; Joice, Sara; Kroll, Thilo; Mead, Gillian; Donnan, Peter; Toma, Madalina; Williams, Brian

    2017-08-30

    To examine the feasibility of undertaking a pragmatic single-blind randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a visual arts participation programme to evaluate effects on survivor wellbeing within stroke rehabilitation. Stroke survivors receiving in-patient rehabilitation were randomised to receive eight art participation sessions (n = 41) or usual care (n = 40). Recruitment, retention, preference for art participation and change in selected outcomes were evaluated at end of intervention outcome assessment and three-month follow-up. Of 315 potentially eligible participants 81 (29%) were recruited. 88% (n = 71) completed outcome and 77% (n = 62) follow-up assessments. Of eight intervention group non-completers, six had no preference for art participation. Outcome completion varied between 97% and 77%. Running groups was difficult because of randomisation timing. Effectiveness cannot be determined from this feasibility study but effects sizes suggested art participation may benefit emotional wellbeing, measured on the positive and negative affect schedule, and self-efficacy for Art (d = 0.24-0.42). Undertaking a RCT of art participation within stroke rehabilitation was feasible. Art participation may enhance self-efficacy and positively influence emotional wellbeing. These should be outcomes in a future definitive trial. A cluster RCT would ensure art groups could be reliably convened. Fewer measures, and better retention strategies are required. Implications for Rehabilitation This feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) showed that recruiting and retaining stroke survivors in an RCT of a visual arts participation intervention within stroke rehabilitation was feasible. Preference to participate in art activities may influence recruitment and drop-out rates, and should be addressed and evaluated fully. Art participation as part of rehabilitation may improve some aspects of post-stroke wellbeing, including positive affect and self-efficacy for art

  10. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Wonwoo; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  11. Source and Size of Social Support Network on Sedentary Behavior Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Crush, Elizabeth A

    2018-01-01

    To examine the association of source of social support and size of social support network on sedentary behavior among older adults. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2006. 2519 older adults (60+ years). Sedentary behavior was assessed via accelerometry over a 7-day period. Social support was assessed via self-report. Sources evaluated include spouse, son, daughter, sibling, neighbor, church member, and friend. Regarding size of social network, participants were asked, "In general, how many close friends do you have?" Multivariable linear regression. After adjustment, there was no evidence of an association between the size of social support network and sedentary behavior. With regard to specific sources of social support, spousal social support was associated with less sedentary behavior (β = -11.6; 95% confidence interval: -20.7 to -2.5), with evidence to suggest that this was only true for men. Further, an inverse association was observed between household size and sedentary behavior, with those having a greater number of individuals in the house having lower levels of sedentary behavior. These associations occurred independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, age, gender, race-ethnicity, measured body mass index, total cholesterol, self-reported smoking status, and physician diagnosis of congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, stroke, cancer, hypertension, or diabetes. Spouse-specific emotion-related social support (particularly for men) and household size were associated with less sedentary behavior.

  12. Friendship networks and physical activity and sedentary behavior among youth: a systematized review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Keri Jo; McCormack, Gavin R; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Hawe, Penelope; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K

    2013-12-01

    Low levels of physical activity and increased participation in sedentary leisure-time activities are two important obesity-risk behaviors that impact the health of today's youth. Friend's health behaviors have been shown to influence individual health behaviors; however, current evidence on the specific role of friendship networks in relation to levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior is limited. The purpose of this review was to summarize evidence on friendship networks and both physical activity and sedentary behavior among children and adolescents. After a search of seven scientific databases and reference scans, a total of thirteen articles were eligible for inclusion. All assessed the association between friendship networks and physical activity, while three also assessed sedentary behavior. Overall, higher levels of physical activity among friends are associated with higher levels of physical activity of the individual. Longitudinal studies reveal that an individual's level of physical activity changes to reflect his/her friends' higher level of physical activity. Boys tend to be influenced by their friendship network to a greater extent than girls. There is mixed evidence surrounding a friend's sedentary behavior and individual sedentary behavior. Friends' physical activity level appears to have a significant influence on individual's physical activity level. Evidence surrounding sedentary behavior is limited and mixed. Results from this review could inform effective public health interventions that harness the influence of friends to increase physical activity levels among children and adolescents.

  13. Sedentary behavior during school-time: Sociodemographic, weight status, physical education class, and school performance correlates in Brazilian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Bruno G G; da Silva, Kelly S; George, Amanda M; de Assis, Maria Alice A

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether sedentary behavior during school-time is associated with gender, age, mother's education, having physical education classes, weight status, and academic performance. Cross-sectional study. A sample of 571 children (7-12 years old) from five elementary schools in Florianopolis, South Brazil had their height and weight measured, and wore accelerometers during class time. Teachers completed a form to evaluate children's reading and writing skills. Parents provided sociodemographic and educational information. Data was analyzed using multilevel linear regression analyses. Children spent an average of 132min in sedentary behavior during school-time (64% of total school-time). Girls (137.5min), obese children (138.1min), older children (144.2min), and those who did not have physical education classes (140.2min) spent more time engaged in sedentary activities than their peers. Academic performance and mother's education were not associated with sedentary behaviors. Children spent most of their school-time in sedentary activities, with girls, older students, and obese students being even more sedentary than their peers. Physical education classes were a protective factor against excessive sedentary behavior in school. Interventions for reducing sedentary behavior during school-time could employ additional strategies to benefit the at risk groups. In addition, encouraging student's participation in physical education classes could minimize the time spent in sedentary behavior during school hours. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Canadian sedentary behaviour guidelines for children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Hicks, Audrey; Murumets, Kelly; Colley, Rachel C; Duggan, Mary

    2011-02-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), in partnership with the Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research Group (HALO) at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, and in collaboration with ParticipACTION, and others, has developed the Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for Children (aged 5-11 years) and Youth (aged 12-17 years). The guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations for sedentary behaviour. The entire development process was guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument, which is the international standard for clinical practice guideline development. Thus, the guidelines have gone through a rigorous and transparent developmental process and the recommendations are based on evidence from a systematic review and interpretation of the research evidence. The final guidelines benefitted from an extensive online consultation process with 230 domestic and international stakeholders and key informants. The final guideline recommendations state that for health benefits, children (aged 5-11 years) and youth (aged 12-17 years) should minimize the time that they spend being sedentary each day. This may be achieved by (i) limiting recreational screen time to no more than 2 h per day - lower levels are associated with additional health benefits; and (ii) limiting sedentary (motorized) transport, extended sitting time, and time spent indoors throughout the day. These are the first evidence-based Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for Children and Youth and provide important and timely recommendations for the advancement of public health based on a systematic synthesis, interpretation, and application of the current scientific evidence.

  15. School environment, sedentary behavior and physical activity in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Sara Crosatti; Coledam, Diogo Henrique Constantino; Stabelini Neto, Antonio; Elias, Rui Gonçalves Marques; Oliveira, Arli Ramos de

    2016-09-01

    To analyze physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschool children during their stay at school and the associated factors. 370 preschoolers, aged 4 to 6 years, stratified according to gender, age and school region in the city of Londrina, PR, participated in the study. A questionnaire was applied to principals of preschools to analyze the school infrastructure and environment. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were estimated using accelerometers for five consecutive days during the children's stay at school. The odds ratio (OR) was estimated through binary logistic regression. At school, regardless of age, preschoolers spend relatively more time in sedentary behaviors (89.6%-90.9%), followed by light (4.6%-7.6%), moderate (1.3%-3.0%) and vigorous (0.5%-2.3%) physical activity. The indoor recreation room (OR=0.20; 95%CI 0.05 to 0.83) and the playground (OR=0.08; 95%CI 0.00 to 0.80) protect four-year-old schoolchildren from highly sedentary behavior. An inverse association was found between the indoor recreation room and physical activity (OR=0.20; 95%CI 0.00 to 0.93) in five-year-old children. The indoor recreation room (OR=1.54; 95%CI 1.35 to 1.77), the playground (OR=2.82; 95%CI 1.14 to 6.96) and the recess (OR=1.54; 95%CI 1.35 to 1.77) are factors that increase the chance of six-year-old schoolchildren to be active. The school infrastructure and environment should be seen as strategies to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in preschool children. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Prediction of Children's Academic Competence from Their Effortful Control, Relationships, and Classroom Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Swanson, Jodi; Reiser, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the relations among children's effortful control, school relationships, classroom participation, and academic competence with a sample of 7- to 12-year-old children (N = 264). Parents and children reported on children's effortful control, and teachers and children reported on children's school relationships and classroom…

  17. 42 CFR 489.34 - Allowable charges: Hospitals participating in State reimbursement control systems or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. 489.34 Section 489.34 Public Health CENTERS FOR... CERTIFICATION PROVIDER AGREEMENTS AND SUPPLIER APPROVAL Allowable Charges § 489.34 Allowable charges: Hospitals participating in State reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. A hospital receiving payment for...

  18. Intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in Flores Island, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C.M.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    The success of a rabies control strategy depends on the commitment and collaboration of dog owners. In this study the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to identify the factors, which are associated with the intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in the

  19. The role of community participation in the control of bird hazards at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of measures to prevent bird hazards from occurring. One of the most important methods of bird hazard control involves participation of local communities around the airport. This paper illustrates the different ways in which the airport works with the community to control bird collisions with aircraft at Entebbe International ...

  20. Breast cancer survivors' beliefs and preferences regarding technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Gillian R; Oza, Sonal; Kozey-Keadle, Sarah; Pellegrini, Christine A; Conroy, David E; Penedo, Frank J; Spring, Bonnie J; Phillips, Siobhan M

    2016-01-01

    Less time spent in sedentary behaviors is associated with improved health and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, little is known about survivors' interest in sedentary behavior reduction interventions and how to effectively reduce this risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore breast cancer survivors' interest in and preferences for technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions. Breast cancer survivors [n=279; M age =60.7 ( SD =9.7)] completed a battery of online questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all data. To examine potential relationships between demographic, disease and behavioral factors, and survivors' interest in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention, we conducted logistic regression analyses. These same factors were examined in relation to the perceptions of the effectiveness of such intervention using multiple regression analyses. On average, survivors spent 10.1 ( SD =4.3) hours/day in sedentary activity. They believed prolonged periods of sedentary behavior were harmful to their health (87.0%) and that reducing sedentary behavior could improve their health (88.4%). Survivors believed they should move around after 30-60 (56.7%) or ≥60 (29.9%) minutes of sedentary behavior and indicated they were most likely to replace sedentary behaviors with walking around (97.1%) or walking in place (73.4%). The majority of survivors (79.9%) was interested in participating in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention and indicated they would use a smartphone application (61.3%) 2-3 times/day (48.0%), 6 to 7 days/week (52.0%). Most survivors (73.5%) believed reminders would help them decrease sedentary behavior and preferred they be delivered after sitting for 60 minutes (60.5%) via vibrations on a wrist worn activity tracker (77.3%) or text messages (54.4%). Technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions may be feasible and

  1. Breast Cancer Survivors’ Beliefs and Preferences Regarding Technology-Supported Sedentary Behavior Reduction Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie J. Spring

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Less time spent in sedentary behaviors is associated with improved health and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, little is known about survivors’ interest in sedentary behavior reduction interventions and how to effectively reduce this risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore breast cancer survivors’ interest in and preferences for technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions. Methods: Breast cancer survivors (n = 279; Mage = 60.7 (SD = 9.7 completed a battery of online questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all data. To examine potential relationships between demographic, disease and behavioral factors, and survivors’ interest in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention, we conducted logistic regression analyses. These same factors were examined in relation to the perceptions of the effectiveness of such intervention using multiple regression analyses. Results: On average, survivors spent 10.1 (SD = 4.3 hours/day in sedentary activity. They believed prolonged periods of sedentary behavior were harmful to their health (87.0% and that reducing sedentary behavior could improve their health (88.4%. Survivors believed they should move around after 30–60 (56.7% or ≥ 60 (29.9% minutes of sedentary behavior and indicated they were most likely to replace sedentary behaviors with walking around (97.1% or walking in place (73.4%. The majority of survivors (79.9% was interested in participating in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention and indicated they would use a smartphone application (61.3% 2–3 times/day (48.0%, 6 to 7 days/week (52.0%. Most survivors (73.5% believed reminders would help them decrease sedentary behavior and preferred they be delivered after sitting for 60 minutes (60.5% via vibrations on a wrist worn activity tracker (77.3% or text messages (54.4%. Conclusions: Technology-supported sedentary

  2. A family based tailored counselling to increase non-exercise physical activity in adults with a sedentary job and physical activity in their young children: design and methods of a year-long randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finni, Taija; Sääkslahti, Arja; Laukkanen, Arto; Pesola, Arto; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2011-12-20

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that decrease in sedentary behaviour is beneficial for health. This family based randomized controlled trial examines whether face-to-face delivered counselling is effective in reducing sedentary time and improving health in adults and increasing moderate-to-vigorous activities in children. The families are randomized after balancing socioeconomic and environmental factors in the Jyväskylä region, Finland. Inclusion criteria are: healthy men and women with children 3-8 years old, and having an occupation where they self-reportedly sit more than 50% of their work time and children in all-day day-care in kindergarten or in the first grade in primary school. Exclusion criteria are: body mass index > 35 kg/m2, self-reported chronic, long-term diseases, families with pregnant mother at baseline and children with disorders delaying motor development.From both adults and children accelerometer data is collected five times a year in one week periods. In addition, fasting blood samples for whole blood count and serum metabonomics, and diurnal heart rate variability for 3 days are assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months follow-up from adults. Quadriceps and hamstring muscle activities providing detailed information on muscle inactivity will be used to realize the maximum potential effect of the intervention. Fundamental motor skills from children and body composition from adults will be measured at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Questionnaires of family-influence-model, health and physical activity, and dietary records are assessed. After the baseline measurements the intervention group will receive tailored counselling targeted to decrease sitting time by focusing on commute and work time. The counselling regarding leisure time is especially targeted to encourage toward family physical activities such as visiting playgrounds and non-built environments, where children can get diversified stimulation for play and practice

  3. Social Role Participation in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Cross-Sectional Comparison With Population Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genderen, Simon; Plasqui, Guy; Landewé, Robert; Lacaille, Diane; Arends, Suzanne; van Gaalen, Floris; van der Heijde, Désirée; Heuft, Liesbeth; Luime, Jolanda; Spoorenberg, Anneke; Gignac, Monique; Boonen, Annelies

    2016-12-01

    Participation in social roles for persons with chronic disease is important for their quality of life, but interpretation of the data on participation is difficult in the absence of a benchmark. This study aimed to compare social role participation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) to population controls using the Social Role Participation Questionnaire (SRPQ). There were 246 AS patients and 510 population controls who completed the SRPQ, which assesses participation in 11 roles (with scores ranging 1-5) across 4 dimensions (importance, satisfaction with performance, satisfaction with time, and physical difficulty), and additionally ranked their 3 most important roles. The ranking of role importance, the SRPQ dimension scores, and the gap between importance and satisfaction with performance of roles were compared between patients and controls. Patients (62% male; mean ± SD age 51 ± 12 years) and controls (70% male; mean ± SD 42 ± 15 years) ranked intimate relationships, relationships with children/stepchildren/grandchildren, and employment as the most important roles. Compared to controls, patients gave higher scores on the SRPQ to importance (3.75 versus 3.43), but reported lower satisfaction with performance (3.19 versus 3.58) and greater physical difficulty (3.87 versus 4.67) (P ≤ 0.05 for all). The largest differences in gaps between importance and satisfaction with performance for patients compared to controls were seen in the physical leisure, hobbies, and traveling and vacation categories, in which patients assigned higher importance but reported especially low satisfaction. As society places increasing emphasis on individual responsibility to participate fully in social roles, the current data suggest that health care providers should pay more attention to participation restrictions experienced by patients with AS. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  4. Self-efficacy for exercise, more than disease-related factors, is associated with objectively assessed exercise time and sedentary behaviour in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, K M; Pieper, C F; Hall, K S; St Clair, E W; Kraus, W E

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, reports of physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were limited to self-report methods and/or leisure-time physical activity. Our objectives were to assess, determine correlates of, and compare to well-matched controls both exercise and sedentary time in a typical clinical cohort of RA. Persons with established RA (seropositive or radiographic erosions; n = 41) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease underwent assessments of traditional and disease-specific correlates of physical activity and 7 days of triaxial accelerometry. Twenty-seven age, gender, and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls were assessed. For persons with RA, objectively measured median (25th-75th percentile) exercise time was 3 (1-11) min/day; only 10% (n = 4) of participants exercised for ≥ 30 min/day. Time spent in sedentary activities was 92% (89-95%). Exercise time was not related to pain but was inversely related to disease activity (r = -0.3, p self-efficacy for endurance activity (r = 0.4, p self-efficacy for endurance activity (r = -0.4, p self-efficacy for physical activity but similar amounts of exercise and sedentary time. For persons with RA and without diabetes or cardiovascular disease, time spent in exercise was well below established guidelines and activity patterns were predominantly sedentary. For optimal care in RA, in addition to promoting exercise, clinicians should consider assessing sedentary behaviour and self-efficacy for exercise. Future interventions might determine whether increased self-efficacy can increase physical activity in RA.

  5. The relationship between cell phone use, physical and sedentary activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of U.S. college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Today’s cell phones increase opportunities for activities traditionally defined as sedentary behaviors (e.g., surfing the internet, playing video games). People who participate in large amounts of sedentary behaviors, relative to those who do not, tend to be less physically active, less physically fit, and at greater risk for health problems. However, cell phone use does not have to be a sedentary behavior as these devices are portable. It can occur while standing or during mild-to-moderate intensity physical activity. Thus, the relationship between cell phone use, physical and sedentary activity, and physical fitness is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate these relationships among a sample of healthy college students. Methods Participants were first interviewed about their physical activity behavior and cell phone use. Then body composition was assessed and the validated self-efficacy survey for exercise behaviors completed. This was followed by a progressive exercise test on a treadmill to exhaustion. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) during exercise was used to measure cardiorespiratory fitness. Hierarchical regression was used to assess the relationship between cell phone use and cardiorespiratory fitness after controlling for sex, self-efficacy, and percent body fat. Interview data was transcribed, coded, and Chi-square analysis was used to compare the responses of low and high frequency cell phone users. Results Cell phone use was significantly (p = 0.047) and negatively (β = −0.25) related to cardio respiratory fitness independent of sex, self-efficacy, and percent fat which were also significant predictors (p < 0.05). Interview data offered several possible explanations for this relationship. First, high frequency users were more likely than low frequency users to report forgoing opportunities for physical activity in order to use their cell phones for sedentary behaviors. Second, low frequency users were more

  6. Issues and Challenges in Sedentary Behavior Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minsoo; Rowe, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown the negative impact of sedentary behavior on health, including cardiovascular risk factors, chronic disease-related morbidity, and mortality. Accurate measurement of sedentary behavior is thus important to plan effective interventions and to inform public health messages. This article (a) provides an overview of the…

  7. The effects of a 2-year individualized and family-based lifestyle intervention on physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitasalo, Anna; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Lintu, Niina; Väistö, Juuso; Venäläinen, Taisa; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Karjalainen, Panu; Peltola, Jaana; Lampinen, Eeva-Kaarina; Haapala, Eero A; Paananen, Jussi; Schwab, Ursula; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of a long-term, individualized and family-based lifestyle intervention on physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet quality in children. We carried out a 2-year intervention study in a population sample of 506 children aged 6-8years in Finland in 2007-2012. We allocated the participants at baseline in the intervention and control group. We assessed physical activity and sedentary behavior by questionnaires and diet by food records. Total physical activity (+9min/d in intervention group vs. -5min/d in control group, p=0.001 for time*group interaction), unsupervised physical activity (+7min/d vs. -9min/d, psedentary behavior and enhanced diet quality in children. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01803776. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in Flores Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-04-01

    The success of a rabies control strategy depends on the commitment and collaboration of dog owners. In this study the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to identify the factors, which are associated with the intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in the Manggarai and Sikka regencies of Flores Island, Indonesia. Questionnaires were administered to 450 dog owners from 44 randomly selected villages in the two regencies. Ninety-six percent of the dog owners intended to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The intention decreased to 24% when dog owners were asked to pay a vaccination fee equal to the market price of the vaccine (Rp 18.000 per dose=US$2). Approximately 81% of the dog owners intended to keep their dogs inside their house or to leash them day and night during a period of at least three months in case of an incidence of rabies in the dog population within their village. Only 40% intended to cull their dogs in case of a rabies incident within their village. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, the attitude item 'vaccinating dogs reduces rabies cases in humans', and the perceived behavioural control items 'availability of time' and 'ability to confine dogs' were shown to be significantly associated with the intention to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The attitude item 'culling dogs reduces rabies cases in humans' was significantly associated with the intention to participate in a culling measure. The attitude item 'leashing of dogs reduces human rabies cases' and perceived behavioural controls 'availability of time' and 'money to buy a leash' were associated with the intention to leash dogs during a rabies outbreak. As the attitude variables were often significantly associated with intention to participate in a rabies control measure, an educational rabies campaign focusing on the benefit of rabies control measures is expected to increase the intention of dog owners to

  9. Informing potential participants about research: observational study with an embedded randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M Kirkby

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess: 1 the feasibility of electronic information provision; 2 gather evidence on the topics and level of detail of information potential research participant's accessed; 3 to assess satisfaction and understanding. DESIGN: Observational study with an embedded randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Low risk intervention study based in primary care. PARTICIPANTS: White British & Irish, South Asian and African-Caribbean subjects aged between 40-74 years eligible for a blood pressure monitoring study. INTERVENTIONS: PDF copy of the standard paper participant information sheet (PDF-PIS and an electronic Interactive Information Sheet (IIS where participants could choose both the type and level of detail accessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 1 Proportion of participants providing an email address and accessing electronic information 2 Willingness to participate in a recruitment clinic. 3 Type and depth of information accessed on the IIS. 4 Participant satisfaction and understanding. RESULTS: 1160 participants were eligible for the study. Of these, 276 (24% provided an active email address, of whom 84 did not respond to the email. 106 responded to the email but chose not to access any electronic information and were therefore ineligible for randomisation. 42 were randomised to receive the PDF-PIS and 44 to receive the IIS (with consent rates of 48% and 36%, respectively; odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval 0.25 to 1.4. Electronic observation of information accessed by potential participants showed 41% chose to access no information and only 9% accessed the detail presented on the Research Ethics Committee approved participant information sheet before booking to attend a recruitment clinic for the intervention study. 63 of the 106 participants (59% who chose not to access any electronic information also booked an appointment. CONCLUSIONS: Current written information about research may not be read, emphasising the importance of the consent

  10. "Pokémon Go!" May Promote Walking, Discourage Sedentary Behavior in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Jacob E; Lepp, Andrew; Glickman, Ellen L

    2017-06-01

    To assess self-reported walking and sedentary behavior in young adults before and after downloading "Pokémon Go!". In September 2016, a sample of 358 (19.8 ± 2.1 years old, n = 187 females) college students who had downloaded "Pokémon Go!" on their cellular telephones (i.e., cell phones) were surveyed for weekly walking and sedentary behavior via the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A single interview was administered to participants who estimated their walking and sedentary behavior at three time points: the week immediately preceding their download of "Pokémon Go!" (Baseline), the first week after downloading the game (Time 1), and the week the survey was completed (Time 2). Differences in self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior across the three time points and across the two genders were compared via analyses of variance. There was a significant main effect of time (F ≥ 49.3, P ≤ 0.001) for walking and sedentary behavior. Participants reported greater (t ≥ 9.5, P games hold promise as technology that may promote physical activity and discourage sedentary behavior.

  11. Neighborhood environment correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior among Latino adults in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfee, Valerie J; Rosal, Milagros C; Sreedhara, Meera; Lora, Vilma; Lemon, Stephenie C

    2016-09-13

    U.S. Latinos experience high rates of cardio-metabolic diseases and have high rates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior. Understanding the environmental factors associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviors among Latinos could inform future interventions. The purpose of this study is to explore the neighborhood environment correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in a sample of U.S. Latino adults. Cross-sectional study of 602 Latino adults in Lawrence, MA. Survey assessments of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and neighborhood environment were verbally administered. The neighborhood environment scale assessed violence, safety, aesthetic quality, walkability, availability of healthy foods, social cohesion, and activities with neighbors. After controlling forage, gender, education, body mass index (BMI), and smoking status, two variables were associated with the outcomes of interest. Living in more walkable neighborhoods was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in adequate levels of physical activity (>150 min per week, as recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)) (OR = 1.403, p = .018); and greater frequency of activities with neighbors was associated with greater sedentary behavior (β = .072, p = .05). There were different neighborhood environment correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in this Latino community. Focusing on a greater understanding of the distinct social and physical environmental correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior may provide important insights for reducing CVD risk and health disparities among Latinos.

  12. Neighborhood environment correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior among Latino adults in Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Silfee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background U.S. Latinos experience high rates of cardio-metabolic diseases and have high rates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior. Understanding the environmental factors associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviors among Latinos could inform future interventions. The purpose of this study is to explore the neighborhood environment correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in a sample of U.S. Latino adults. Methods Cross-sectional study of 602 Latino adults in Lawrence, MA. Survey assessments of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and neighborhood environment were verbally administered. The neighborhood environment scale assessed violence, safety, aesthetic quality, walkability, availability of healthy foods, social cohesion, and activities with neighbors. Results After controlling forage, gender, education, body mass index (BMI, and smoking status, two variables were associated with the outcomes of interest. Living in more walkable neighborhoods was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in adequate levels of physical activity (>150 min per week, as recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM (OR = 1.403, p = .018; and greater frequency of activities with neighbors was associated with greater sedentary behavior (β = .072, p = .05. Conclusions There were different neighborhood environment correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in this Latino community. Focusing on a greater understanding of the distinct social and physical environmental correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior may provide important insights for reducing CVD risk and health disparities among Latinos.

  13. [Physical activity, sedentary leisure, short sleeping and childhood overweight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo Vázquez, Isaac; Busto Zapico, Raquel; Herrero Díez, Javier; Fernández Rodríguez, Concepción

    2008-11-01

    In this study, using the path analysis, the relation between physical activity, non-regulated activity, sedentary leisure, hours of sleeping, and the body mass index (BMI) was analyzed. The sample was made up of 103 students, 59 girls and 44 boys, aged between 9 and 10 1/2 years. An individual interview was performed in which the children were asked about the TV programs they watched each day of the week; the time they played with the console and the computer; the time dedicated to sports, games and other activities. The results showed that sedentary leisure (number of hours of TV, computer and console) maintains a significant and inverse relation with the hours of sleeping, non-regulated activity (games and others activities), and physical sport activity. The difference between the results of this study and the previous one is discussed, taking into account the recruitment procedure of the participants.

  14. Determinants of Sedentary Behavior, Motivation, Barriers and Strategies to Reduce Sitting Time in Older Women: A Qualitative Investigation

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    Sebastien F. M. Chastin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior defined as time spent non-exercising seated or reclining posture has been identified has a health risk and associated with frailty and disablement for older adults. Older adults are the most sedentary segment of society. To date no study has investigated the determinants of sedentary behavior in older adults. This study reports a qualitative investigation of the determinants of sedentary behavior, strategies and motivator to reduce sitting time by structured interviews in a group of community dwelling older women (N = 11, age 65 and over. Older women expressed the view that their sedentary behavior is mostly determined by pain which acts both as an incentive to sit and a motivator to stand up, lack of energy in the afternoon, pressure from direct social circle to sit and rest, societal and environmental typecasting that older adult are meant to sit, lack of environmental facilities to allow activity pacing. This qualitative investigation highlighted some factors that older adults consider determinants of their sedentary behavior. Some are identical to those affecting physical activity (self-efficacy, functional limitations, ageist stereotyping but some appear specific to sedentary behavior (locus of control, pain and should be further investigated and considered during intervention design. Tailored interventions that pay attention to the pattern of sedentary behavior of individuals appear to be supported by the views of older women on their sedentary behavior.

  15. Brazilian adults' sedentary behaviors by life domain: population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Grégore I; da Silva, Inácio C M; Owen, Neville; Hallal, Pedro C

    2014-01-01

    There is rapidly-emerging evidence on the harmful health effects of sedentary behaviors. The aim of this paper was to quantify time in sedentary behaviors and document socio-demographic variations in different life domains among adults. A population-based survey was carried out in 2012 through face-to-face interviews with Brazilian adults aged 20+ years (N = 2,927). Information about time spent sedentary in a typical weekday was collected for five different domains (workplace, commuting, school/university, watching TV, and computer use at home). Descriptive and bivariate analyses examined variations in overall and domain-specific sedentary time by gender, age, educational attainment and socioeconomic position. On average, participants reported spending 5.8 (SD 4.5) hours per day sitting. The median value was 4.5 (interquartile range: 2.5-8) hours. Men, younger adults, those with higher schooling and from the wealthiest socioeconomic groups had higher overall sedentary scores. TV time was higher in women, older adults and among those with low schooling and socioeconomic position. Sedentary time in transport was higher in men, younger adults, and participants with high schooling and high socioeconomic position. Computer use at home was more frequent among young adults and those from high socioeconomic groups. Sitting at work was higher in those with higher schooling and from the wealthiest socioeconomic groups. Sedentary behavior at school was related inversely to age and directly to schooling. Patterns of sedentary behavior are different by life domains. Initiatives to reduce prolonged sitting among Brazilian adults will be required on multiple levels for different life domains.

  16. Brazilian adults' sedentary behaviors by life domain: population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégore I Mielke

    Full Text Available There is rapidly-emerging evidence on the harmful health effects of sedentary behaviors. The aim of this paper was to quantify time in sedentary behaviors and document socio-demographic variations in different life domains among adults.A population-based survey was carried out in 2012 through face-to-face interviews with Brazilian adults aged 20+ years (N = 2,927. Information about time spent sedentary in a typical weekday was collected for five different domains (workplace, commuting, school/university, watching TV, and computer use at home. Descriptive and bivariate analyses examined variations in overall and domain-specific sedentary time by gender, age, educational attainment and socioeconomic position.On average, participants reported spending 5.8 (SD 4.5 hours per day sitting. The median value was 4.5 (interquartile range: 2.5-8 hours. Men, younger adults, those with higher schooling and from the wealthiest socioeconomic groups had higher overall sedentary scores. TV time was higher in women, older adults and among those with low schooling and socioeconomic position. Sedentary time in transport was higher in men, younger adults, and participants with high schooling and high socioeconomic position. Computer use at home was more frequent among young adults and those from high socioeconomic groups. Sitting at work was higher in those with higher schooling and from the wealthiest socioeconomic groups. Sedentary behavior at school was related inversely to age and directly to schooling.Patterns of sedentary behavior are different by life domains. Initiatives to reduce prolonged sitting among Brazilian adults will be required on multiple levels for different life domains.

  17. Determinants of Three-Year Change in Children’s Objectively Measured Sedentary Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Louise; Corder, Kirsten; Ekelund, Ulf; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sedentary behaviours (SB) are highly prevalent in young people and may be adversely associated with physical and mental health. Understanding of the modifiable determinants of SB is necessary to inform the design of behaviour change interventions but much of the existing research is cross-sectional and focussed upon screen-based behaviours. Purpose To examine the social, psychological and environmental determinants of change in children’s objectively measured sedentary time from age 11 to 14 years. Methods Data are from the second (2008) and third (2011) waves of assessment in the Sport, Physical Activity, and Eating Behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young People (SPEEDY) study, conducted in the county of Norfolk, United Kingdom. Longitudinal data on accelerometer assessed sedentary time were available for 316 (53.5% female, 11.2±0.3 years at baseline) and 264 children after-school and at the weekend respectively. Information on 14 candidate determinants, including school travel mode and electronic media ownership, was self-reported. Change in the proportion of registered time spent sedentary was used as the outcome variable in cross-classified linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and baseline sedentary time. Simple and multiple models were run and interactions with sex explored. Results Daily sedentary time increased by 30–40 minutes after-school and at the weekend from baseline to follow-up. Participants who travelled to school by cycle exhibited smaller increases in after-school sedentary time (beta; 95%CI for change in % time spent sedentary: -3.3;-6.7,-0.07). No significant determinants of change in weekend sedentary time were identified. Conclusions Time spent sedentary increased during the three-year duration of follow-up but few of the variables examined were significantly associated with changes in sedentary time. Children’s mode of school travel may influence changes in their sedentary time over this

  18. Determinants of Three-Year Change in Children's Objectively Measured Sedentary Time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Atkin

    Full Text Available Sedentary behaviours (SB are highly prevalent in young people and may be adversely associated with physical and mental health. Understanding of the modifiable determinants of SB is necessary to inform the design of behaviour change interventions but much of the existing research is cross-sectional and focussed upon screen-based behaviours.To examine the social, psychological and environmental determinants of change in children's objectively measured sedentary time from age 11 to 14 years.Data are from the second (2008 and third (2011 waves of assessment in the Sport, Physical Activity, and Eating Behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young People (SPEEDY study, conducted in the county of Norfolk, United Kingdom. Longitudinal data on accelerometer assessed sedentary time were available for 316 (53.5% female, 11.2±0.3 years at baseline and 264 children after-school and at the weekend respectively. Information on 14 candidate determinants, including school travel mode and electronic media ownership, was self-reported. Change in the proportion of registered time spent sedentary was used as the outcome variable in cross-classified linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and baseline sedentary time. Simple and multiple models were run and interactions with sex explored.Daily sedentary time increased by 30-40 minutes after-school and at the weekend from baseline to follow-up. Participants who travelled to school by cycle exhibited smaller increases in after-school sedentary time (beta; 95%CI for change in % time spent sedentary: -3.3;-6.7,-0.07. No significant determinants of change in weekend sedentary time were identified.Time spent sedentary increased during the three-year duration of follow-up but few of the variables examined were significantly associated with changes in sedentary time. Children's mode of school travel may influence changes in their sedentary time over this period and should be examined further

  19. Cross-Sectional Associations between Home Environmental Factors and Domain-Specific Sedentary Behaviors in Adults: The Moderating Role of Socio-Demographic Variables and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compernolle, Sofie; Busschaert, Cedric; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Chastin, Sebastien F M; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Cocker, Katrien

    2017-10-31

    Despite the negative health effects of too much sitting, the majority of adults are too sedentary. To develop effective interventions, insight is needed into home environmental correlates of adults' sedentary behaviors, and into the susceptibility of population subgroups to these home environmental cues. In total, 559 Flemish adults reported socio-demographics, weight and height, home environmental factors and domain-specific sedentary behaviors. Generalized linear modeling was conducted to examine main associations between home environmental factors and domain-specific sedentary behaviors, and to test the moderating role of socio-demographics and BMI on these associations. In case of significant interactions, stratified analyses were performed. Results showed that, among those who did use a computer/laptop during the last week, a one-unit increase in the number of computers or laptops was associated with 17% (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.34) and 24% (OR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) more minutes computer time per day, respectively. The proximity of the remote controller ( p vehicles (95% CI = 0.001, 0.12) was positively associated with the odds of participation in transport-related sitting time. The latter two associations were moderated by BMI, with significant positive associations limited to those not overweight. To conclude, home environmental factors were associated with domain-specific sedentary behaviors, especially in healthy weight adults. If confirmed by longitudinal studies, public health professionals should encourage adults to limit the number of indoor entertainment devices and motorized vehicles.

  20. Outdoor time, physical activity, sedentary time, and health indicators at ages 7 to 14: 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, Richard; Garriguet, Didier; Gunnell, Katie E; Goldfield, Gary S; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-09-21

    International data show that the majority of children and youth are not sufficiently active. According to recent research, children who spend more time outdoors accumulate more daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and engage in less sedentary behaviour. However, the generalizability of these findings is uncertain, and few studies investigated whether outdoor time is associated with other physical and psychosocial health indicators. This study examined associations between outdoor time and measures of physical activity, sedentary time, and physical and psychosocial health in a nationally representative sample of 7-to-14-year-olds (n = 1,159) who participated in the 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured with Actical accelerometers. Direct measures of height, weight, waist circumference, grip strength, blood pressure, cholesterol, and glycohemoglobin were obtained. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to assess psychosocial health. Relationships between outdoor time and physical health measures were examined with multi-variable linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, parental education, and household income. Logistic regression models controlling for the same variables were used for psychosocial health. Each additional hour spent outdoors per day was associated with 7.0 more minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, 762 more steps, and 13 fewer minutes of sedentary time. As well, each hour outdoors was associated with lower odds of negative psychosocial outcomes (specifically, peer relationship problems and total difficulties score). Outdoor time was not associated with any of the measures of physical health. Children reporting more time outdoors are more active, less sedentary, and less likely to have peer relationship problems, compared with those who spend less time outdoors.

  1. Participation in the workforce after a traumatic brain injury: a matter of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Annica E M; Haugstad, Tor; Berg, Marie; Johansson, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to explore individual experience in developing a mastery of daily activities and roles after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) with the objective of returning to work. Eight 30-60-year-old men, employed at the time of injury, were each interviewed three times over a 6-month period. Ten to 21 months after the injuries, four participants had returned to work at least part time. Grounded theory was adapted for analyses. A single core category emerged: a desire for control: focusing on high-priority issues. Still, 2 years after injury, the participants were uncertain about their abilities with respect to what was expected of them at work. They felt they would do better as time progressed. The participants' uncertainty about their efficacy cast doubt on their beliefs in improving their skills, balancing daily activities and work. They wondered about the sustainability of their health and efficacy at work. Wanting to control their own improvement, the participants asked for counselling in strategies and techniques to help with their progress. This issue could be taken into account in follow-up rehabilitation programmes. Additionally, the workplace might be the ideal context in which to develop the structures and routines necessary to master life in general. Two years after injury, the participants remained uncertain about their abilities with respect to what was expected of them at work. The participants felt they would do better as time progressed. The participants, wanting to control their own improvement, sought counselling to help sort out their priorities and found it could contribute to help with their progress in finding a suitable balance between daily activities and work. A consequence of our main finding, in a multidisciplinary context, is that counselling in structures and routines with respect to work-related tasks should be considered to be an integral part of any rehabilitation programme after TBI.

  2. Sedentary behavior and dietary intake in children, adolescents, and adults. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2011-08-01

    Sedentary behavior is implicated in youth and adult overweight and obesity. However, the relationship between sedentary behavior and weight status is often small or inconsistent, with few studies controlling for confounding factors such as diet and physical activity. Diet has been hypothesized to covary with some sedentary behaviors. It is opportune, therefore, to review whether dietary intake is associated with sedentary behavior in young people and adults. This may allow for better interpretation of the diversity of findings concerning sedentary behavior and weight status. Published English-language studies were located from computerized and manual searches in early 2010. Included studies were observational studies assessing an association between at least one sedentary behavior and at least one aspect of dietary intake in children (aged 18 years). Fifty-three studies, totaling 111 independent samples, were eligible for this review. Sedentary behavior in children (n=19, independent samples=24), adolescents (n=26, independent samples=72), and adults (n=11, independent samples=14) appears to be clearly associated with elements of a less healthy diet including lower fruit and vegetable consumption; higher consumption of energy-dense snacks, drinks, and fast foods; and higher total energy intake. Strengths of association were mainly in the small-to-moderate range. The association drawn mainly from cross-sectional studies is that sedentary behavior, usually assessed as screen time and predominantly TV viewing, is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors in children, adolescents, and adults. Interventions need to be developed that target reductions in sedentary time to test whether diet also changes. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Temporality of Participation in School Science: Coordination of Teacher Control and the Pace of Students' Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocksén, Miranda

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates classroom organisation and interaction focusing on phases of activity. The detailed in-depth case study is based on video recordings of 1 science unit consisting of 11 lessons about biological evolution in a Swedish ninth-grade class (aged 15). The study illuminates the temporality of student participation as a fundamental…

  4. Accelerometer-measured sedentary time among Hispanic adults: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL

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    Gina Merchant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive sedentary behavior is associated with negative health outcomes independent of physical activity. Objective estimates of time spent in sedentary behaviors are lacking among adults from diverse Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. The objective of this study was to describe accelerometer-assessed sedentary time in a large, representative sample of Hispanic/Latino adults living in the United States, and compare sedentary estimates by Hispanic/Latino background, sociodemographic characteristics and weight categories. This study utilized baseline data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL that included adults aged 18–74 years from four metropolitan areas (N = 16,415. Measured with the Actical accelerometer over 6 days, 76.9% (n = 12,631 of participants had >10 h/day and >3 days of data. Participants spent 11.9 h/day (SD 3.0, or 74% of their monitored time in sedentary behaviors. Adjusting for differences in wear time, adults of Mexican background were the least (11.6 h/day, whereas adults of Dominican background were the most (12.3 h/day, sedentary. Women were more sedentary than men, and older adults were more sedentary than younger adults. Household income was positively associated, whereas employment was negatively associated, with sedentary time. There were no differences in sedentary time by weight categories, marital status, or proxies of acculturation. To reduce sedentariness among these populations, future research should examine how the accumulation of various sedentary behaviors differs by background and region, and which sedentary behaviors are amenable to intervention.

  5. The Association between Dry Eye Disease and Physical Activity as well as Sedentary Behavior: Results from the Osaka Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Miki; Yokoi, Norihiko; Uchino, Yuichi; Dogru, Murat; Komuro, Aoi; Sonomura, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the association of dry eye disease (DED) with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Methods. The cross-sectional survey conducted included Japanese office workers who use visual display terminals (n = 672). DED was assessed according to the Japanese Dry Eye Diagnostic Criteria, and participants were categorized into “definite DED,” “probable DED,” or “non-DED” groups based on the results of DED examinations. Physical activity and sedentary behavior of participants were ...

  6. Neighborhood street scale elements, sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk factors in inactive ethnic minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; Mama, Scherezade K; Adamus-Leach, Heather J

    2012-01-01

    Cardiometabolic risk factors such as obesity, excess percent body fat, high blood pressure, elevated resting heart rate and sedentary behavior have increased in recent decades due to changes in the environment and lifestyle. Neighborhood micro-environmental, street scale elements may contribute to health above and beyond individual characteristics of residents. To investigate the relationship between neighborhood street scale elements and cardiometabolic risk factors among inactive ethnic minority women. Women (N = 410) completed measures of BMI, percent body fat, blood pressure, resting heart rate, sedentary behavior and demographics. Trained field assessors completed the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan in participants' neighborhoods. Data were collected from 2006-2008. Multiple regression models were conducted in 2011 to estimate the effect of environmental factors on cardiometabolic risk factors. Adjusted regression models found an inverse association between sidewalk buffers and blood pressure, between traffic control devices and resting heart rate, and a positive association between presence of pedestrian crossing aids and BMI (psattractiveness and safety for walking and cycling were related to more time spent in a motor vehicle (psrelationships among micro-environmental, street scale elements that may confer important cardiometabolic benefits and risks for residents. Living in the most attractive and safe neighborhoods for physical activity may be associated with longer times spent sitting in the car.

  7. Neighborhood street scale elements, sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk factors in inactive ethnic minority women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E Lee

    Full Text Available Cardiometabolic risk factors such as obesity, excess percent body fat, high blood pressure, elevated resting heart rate and sedentary behavior have increased in recent decades due to changes in the environment and lifestyle. Neighborhood micro-environmental, street scale elements may contribute to health above and beyond individual characteristics of residents.To investigate the relationship between neighborhood street scale elements and cardiometabolic risk factors among inactive ethnic minority women.Women (N = 410 completed measures of BMI, percent body fat, blood pressure, resting heart rate, sedentary behavior and demographics. Trained field assessors completed the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan in participants' neighborhoods. Data were collected from 2006-2008. Multiple regression models were conducted in 2011 to estimate the effect of environmental factors on cardiometabolic risk factors.Adjusted regression models found an inverse association between sidewalk buffers and blood pressure, between traffic control devices and resting heart rate, and a positive association between presence of pedestrian crossing aids and BMI (ps<.05. Neighborhood attractiveness and safety for walking and cycling were related to more time spent in a motor vehicle (ps<.05.Findings suggest complex relationships among micro-environmental, street scale elements that may confer important cardiometabolic benefits and risks for residents. Living in the most attractive and safe neighborhoods for physical activity may be associated with longer times spent sitting in the car.

  8. Relation between working memory and self-control capacity in participants with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dučić Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is activated in situations which require active control of directing attention, processing information and making it available for a short time. Its content is limited in capacity and changes with regard to the context of a performed activity. Self-control is the capacity of a voluntary conscious effort to persist in achieving a previously set goal. The aim of this research was to determine the relation of verbal and visuospatial aspects of working memory with self-control skills in persons with mild intellectual disability (ID. The sample included 40 participants 8-12 years of age (M=10.65, SD=1.19. Memorizing a Maze task, adapted for participants with ID, was used to determine the capacity of visuospatial aspect of working memory. Memorizing Animals task was used to assess verbal aspect of working memory, and Self-Control Rating Scale was used to determine the acquisition level of self-control skills. It was determined that verbal aspects of working memory were significantly related to the acquired level of self-control skills (p=0.002. There was no significant relation between the results of tasks assessing the capacity of visuospatial working memory and the success on the scale assessing self-control capacity (p=0.089. The relation between self-control and verbal aspect of working memory may be explained by close links between using speech and applying self-regulation strategies.

  9. Participants' perception of pharmaceutical clinical research: a cross-sectional controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Saldivar G

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gerardo González-Saldivar,1 René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez,2 José Luis Viramontes-Madrid,3 Alejandro Salcido-Montenegro,2 Kevin Erick Gabriel Carlos-Reyna,2 Andrés Marcelo Treviño-Alvarez,2 Neri Alejandro Álvarez-Villalobos,4 José Gerardo González-González2 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Endocrinology Division, Hospital Universitario “Dr. José E. González”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, 3Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Morelos, 4Medical Statistics Department, Hospital Universitario “Dr. José E. González”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico Background: There is scarce scientific information assessing participants’ perception of pharmaceutical research in developed and developing countries concerning the risks, safety, and purpose of clinical trials.Methods: To assess the perception that 604 trial participants (cases and 604 nonparticipants (controls of pharmaceutical clinical trials have about pharmaceutical clinical research, we surveyed participants with one of four chronic diseases from 12 research sites throughout Mexico.Results: Participation in clinical trials positively influences the perception of pharmaceutical clinical research. More cases (65.4% than controls (50.7% perceived that the main purpose of pharmaceutical research is to cure more diseases and to do so more effectively. In addition, more cases considered that there are significant benefits when participating in a research study, such as excellent medical care and extra free services, with this being the most important motivation to participate for both groups (cases 52%, controls 54.5%. We also found a sense of trust in their physicians to deal with adverse events, and the perception that clinical research is a benefit to their health, rather than a risk. More controls believed that clinical trial participants’ health is put at risk

  10. Convergence and divergence of neuroanatomic correlates and executive task performance in healthy controls and psychiatric participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Tak Chung, Dennis; Jerram, Matthew W; Lee, Jonathan K; Katz, Harvey; Gansler, David A

    2013-12-30

    The associations between brain matter volume in the cerebral cortex and set shifting and attentional control as operationalized by the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST) and Condition Three of the Delis-Kaplan version of the Color Word Interference Test (CWIT) were investigated in 15 healthy controls and 16 heterogeneously diagnosed psychiatric patients with self-control problems using voxel based morphometry. Both groups underwent standardized magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessment. WCST and CWIT variables, and a composite, were regressed across the whole brain. Although CWIT performance levels were the same in both groups, neuroanatomic correlates for the psychiatric participants invoked the left hemisphere language system, but the bilateral dorsal attention system in the healthy controls. On its own, no neuroanatomic correlates were observed for the WCST. But when part of a composite with CWIT, neuroanatomic correlates in the dorsal attention system emerged for the psychiatric participants. Psychometric combinations of manifest executive task variables may best represent higher level latent neuro-cognitive control systems. Factor analytic studies of neuropsychological test performances suggest the constructs being measured are the same across psychiatric and non-diagnosed participants, however, imaging modalities indicate the relevant neural architecture can vary by group. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Brain responses to sound intensity changes dissociate depressed participants and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohonen, Elisa M; Astikainen, Piia

    2017-07-01

    Depression is associated with bias in emotional information processing, but less is known about the processing of neutral sensory stimuli. Of particular interest is processing of sound intensity which is suggested to indicate central serotonergic function. We tested weather event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to occasional changes in sound intensity can dissociate first-episode depressed, recurrent depressed and healthy control participants. The first-episode depressed showed larger N1 amplitude to deviant sounds compared to recurrent depression group and control participants. In addition, both depression groups, but not the control group, showed larger N1 amplitude to deviant than standard sounds. Whether these manifestations of sensory over-excitability in depression are directly related to the serotonergic neurotransmission requires further research. The method based on ERPs to sound intensity change is fast and low-cost way to objectively measure brain activation and holds promise as a future diagnostic tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Control, data acquisition and remote participation for steady-state operation in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, S.; Nagayama, Y.; Emoto, M.; Nakanishi, H.; Chikaraishi, H.; Imazu, S.; Iwata, C.; Kogi, Y.; Kojima, M.; Komada, S.; Kubo, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Mase, A.; Miyazawa, J.; Mutoh, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Nonomura, M.; Ohsuna, M.; Saito, K.; Sakamoto, R.; Seki, T.; Shoji, M.; Tsuda, K.; Yoshida, M.

    2006-01-01

    Control, data acquisition, plasma monitoring and remote participation for steady state operation in the large helical device (LHD) are reviewed. By controlling the impedance matching of ICH, the plasma position and the electron density, high temperature plasma is confined for 1905s. The plasma parameters are monitored in real time. Data are continuously sampled by the YOKOGAWA WE7000 system and by the NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS CompactPCI system. Those data are managed by the object-oriented database system based on ObjectStore in distributed servers with mass storage. By using the multi protocol label switching-virtual private network (MPLS-VPN) technology, the local area network of LHD is expanded to the Japanese fusion community. This provides the remote participants with the same environment of the LHD control room

  13. Control, data acquisition and remote participation for steady-state operation in LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, S. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)]. E-mail: sudo@nifs.ac.jp; Nagayama, Y. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Emoto, M. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nakanishi, H. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Chikaraishi, H. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Imazu, S. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Iwata, C. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Kogi, Y. [KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Kojima, M. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Komada, S. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Kubo, S. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Kumazawa, R. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Mase, A. [KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Miyazawa, J. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Mutoh, T. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nakamura, Y. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nonomura, M. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Ohsuna, M. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Saito, K. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Sakamoto, R.; Seki, T.; Shoji, M.; Tsuda, K.; Yoshida, M. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2006-07-15

    Control, data acquisition, plasma monitoring and remote participation for steady state operation in the large helical device (LHD) are reviewed. By controlling the impedance matching of ICH, the plasma position and the electron density, high temperature plasma is confined for 1905s. The plasma parameters are monitored in real time. Data are continuously sampled by the YOKOGAWA WE7000 system and by the NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS CompactPCI system. Those data are managed by the object-oriented database system based on ObjectStore in distributed servers with mass storage. By using the multi protocol label switching-virtual private network (MPLS-VPN) technology, the local area network of LHD is expanded to the Japanese fusion community. This provides the remote participants with the same environment of the LHD control room.

  14. Sedentary behavior and psychiatric symptoms in overweight and obese adults with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders (WAIST Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janney, Carol A; Ganguli, Rohan; Richardson, Caroline R; Holleman, Rob G; Tang, Gong; Cauley, Jane A; Kriska, Andrea M

    2013-04-01

    Examine the association between sedentary behavior and psychiatric symptoms among overweight and obese adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (SZO/SA). Randomized clinical trial; Weight Assessment and Intervention in Schizophrenia Treatment (WAIST) Study: baseline data collected 2005-2008. University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Community-dwelling adults diagnosed with SZO/SA, with mild symptom severity [Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)losing weight, age 18-70years, BMI>27kg/m(2). Objectively measured sedentary behavior by accelerometry, and psychopathology assessed by PANSS. Participants wore the actigraphs for 7 consecutive days during their waking hours. Sedentary behavior was defined as ≤100 counts per minute during wear-time and excluded sleep and non-wear time. On average, 81% of the participant's monitoring time or 756min/day was classified as sedentary behavior using accelerometry. No association was observed between sedentary behaviors and PANSS psychiatric symptoms [total (p≥0.75), positive (p≥0.81), negative (p≥0.59) and general psychopathology (p≥0.65) subscales]. No association was observed between sedentary behaviors and age, race, gender and BMI. From a clinical and public health perspective, the amount of time (approximately 13h) and percentage of time (81% excluding non-wear time associated with sleeping) engaged in sedentary behavior among overweight and obese adults in this population is alarming, and points to an urgent need for interventions to decrease sedentary behaviors. The lack of associations between sedentary behavior and psychiatric symptoms may be due to a ceiling effect for sedentary behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byun Wonwoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03, after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04, and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009 periods. School type (Montessori or traditional, preschool setting (private or public, socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  16. Influence of sedentary, social, and physical alternatives on food reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Katelyn A; Epstein, Leonard H

    2018-02-01

    This study examined the potential for nonfood alternative activities to compete with the reinforcing value of food. Participants rated the frequency and pleasantness of engaging in a variety of activities and made hypothetical choices between food and 4 types of alternatives; cognitive-enriching (reading, listening to music), social (attending a party or event), sedentary (watching TV), and physically active (running, biking). Two-hundred seventy-six adults completed an online survey using a crowdsourcing platform. Adults with higher BMI reported engaging in fewer activities within the cognitive-enriching, social, and physically active categories. When examining how well each alternative activity type was able to compete with food, sedentary alternatives were associated with the highest food reinforcement, or were least able to compete with food reinforcers, as compared with cognitive-enriching, social, and physical. Social activities were associated with the lowest food reinforcement, or the best able to compete with food reinforcers. These results suggest that increasing the frequency and range of nonfood alternative activities may be important to obesity. This study also suggests that the class of social activities may have the biggest impact on reducing food reinforcement, and the class of sedentary may have the smallest effect on food reinforcement. These tools have relevance to clinical interventions that capitalize on increasing access to behaviors that can reduce the motivation to eat in clinical interventions for obesity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Exercise training improves free testosterone in lifelong sedentary aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lawrence D; Herbert, Peter; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F; Grace, Fergal M

    2017-07-01

    As the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on systemic hormones in aging men is unstudied to date, we investigated whether total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free testosterone (free-T) and cortisol (all in serum) were altered following HIIT in a cohort of 22 lifelong sedentary (62 ± 2 years) older men. As HIIT requires preconditioning exercise in sedentary cohorts, participants were tested at three phases, each separated by six-week training; baseline (phase A), following conditioning exercise (phase B) and post-HIIT (phase C). Each measurement phase used identical methods. TT was significantly increased following HIIT (~17%; P  HIIT compared to baseline (~4.5%; P  = 0.023). Cortisol remained unchanged from A to C ( P  = 0.138). The present data indicate a combination of preconditioning, and HIIT increases TT and SHBG in sedentary older males, with the HIIT stimulus accounting for a small but statistically significant increase in free-T. Further study is required to determine the biological importance of small improvements in free-T in aging men. © 2017 The authors.

  18. Efficacy of interventions that use apps to improve diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeppe, Stephanie; Alley, Stephanie; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Bray, Nicola A; Williams, Susan L; Duncan, Mitch J; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-12-07

    , and three of them demonstrated that higher app usage was associated with improved health outcomes. This review provided modest evidence that app-based interventions to improve diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviours can be effective. Multi-component interventions appear to be more effective than stand-alone app interventions, however, this remains to be confirmed in controlled trials. Future research is needed on the optimal number and combination of app features, behaviour change techniques, and level of participant contact needed to maximise user engagement and intervention efficacy.

  19. Children’s sedentary behaviour: descriptive epidemiology and associations with objectively-measured sedentary time

    OpenAIRE

    Klitsie, Tessa; Corder, Kirsten; Visscher, Tommy LS; Atkin, Andrew J; Jones, Andrew P; van Sluijs, Esther MF

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known regarding the patterning and socio-demographic distribution of multiple sedentary behaviours in children. The aims of this study were to: 1) describe the leisure-time sedentary behaviour of 9-10 year old British children, and 2) establish associations with objectively-measured sedentary time. Methods. Cross-sectional analysis in the SPEEDY study (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people) (N=1513, 44.3% boys). Twelve ...

  20. Profiles of sedentary and non-sedentary young men ? a population-based MOPO study

    OpenAIRE

    Pyky, Riitta; Jauho, Anna-Maiju; Ahola, Riikka; Ik?heimo, Tiina M.; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; M?ntysaari, Matti; J?ms?, Timo; Korpelainen, Raija

    2015-01-01

    Background Sedentary behavior is associated with poor well-being in youth with adverse trajectories spanning to adulthood. Still, its determinants are poorly known. Our aim was to profile sedentary and non-sedentary young men and to clarify their differences in a population-based setting. Methods A total of 616 men (mean age 17.9, SD 0.6) attending compulsory conscription for military service completed a questionnaire on health, health behavior, socioeconomic situation and media use. They und...

  1. Sedentary bout durations and metabolic syndrome among working adults: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takanori; Chen, Sanmei; Yonemoto, Koji; Kishimoto, Hiro; Chen, Tao; Narazaki, Kenji; Haeuchi, Yuka; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2016-08-26

    This study aimed to examine the associations between time spent in prolonged and non-prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. We used data from a prospective study of Japanese workers. Baseline examination was conducted between 2010 and 2011. A total of 430 office workers (58 women) aged 40-64 years without metabolic syndrome were followed up by annual health checkups until 2014. Metabolic syndrome was defined as having ≥ 3 out of 5 diagnostic criteria from the Joint Interim Statement 2009 definition. Sedentary time was assessed using a tri-axial accelerometer. Time spent in total, prolonged (accumulated ≥ 30 min) and non-prolonged sedentary bouts (accumulated metabolic syndrome. During a median follow-up of 3 years, 83 participants developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for age, sex, education, smoking, and family income, positive associations were observed between time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. After additional adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, those in the three highest quartiles of time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts showed higher risk of metabolic syndrome compared to the lowest quartile group, with adjusted hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals) of 2.72 (1.30 - 5.73), 2.42 (1.11 - 5.50), and 2.85 (1.31 - 6.18), respectively. No associations were seen for time spent in total and non-prolonged sedentary bouts. Sedentary behavior accumulated in a prolonged manner was associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. In devising public health recommendations for the prevention of metabolic disease, the avoidance of prolonged uninterrupted periods of sedentary behavior should be considered.

  2. Sedentary behavior and incident cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Shen

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior is ubiquitous in modern adults' daily lives and it has been suggested to be associated with incident cancer. However, the results have been inconsistent. In this study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to clarify the association between sedentary behavior and incident cancer.PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to March 2014. All prospective cohort studies on the association between sedentary behavior and incident cancer were included. The summary relative risks (RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using random effect model.A total of 17 prospective studies from 14 articles, including a total of 857,581 participants and 18,553 cases, were included in the analysis for sedentary behavior and risk of incident cancer. The overall meta-analysis suggested that sedentary behavior increased risk of cancer (RR = 1.20, 95%CI = 1.12-1.28, with no evidence of heterogeneity between studies (I(2 = 7.3%, P = 0.368. Subgroup analyses demonstrated that there were statistical associations between sedentary behavior and some cancer types (endometrial cancer: RR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.08-1.53; colorectal cancer: RR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.12-1.49; breast cancer: RR = 1.17, 95%CI = 1.03-1.33; lung cancer: RR = 1.27, 95%CI = 1.06-1.52. However, there was no association of sedentary behavior with ovarian cancer (RR = 1.26, 95%CI = 0.87-1.82, renal cell carcinoma (RR = 1.11, 95%CI = 0.87-1.41 or non-Hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms (RR = 1.09, 95%CI = 0.82-1.43.The present meta-analysis suggested that prolonged sedentary behavior was independently associated with an increased risk of incident endometrial, colorectal, breast, and lung cancers, but not with ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma or non-Hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms.

  3. Sedentary bout durations and metabolic syndrome among working adults: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Honda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine the associations between time spent in prolonged and non-prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. Methods We used data from a prospective study of Japanese workers. Baseline examination was conducted between 2010 and 2011. A total of 430 office workers (58 women aged 40-64 years without metabolic syndrome were followed up by annual health checkups until 2014. Metabolic syndrome was defined as having ≥ 3 out of 5 diagnostic criteria from the Joint Interim Statement 2009 definition. Sedentary time was assessed using a tri-axial accelerometer. Time spent in total, prolonged (accumulated ≥ 30 min and non-prolonged sedentary bouts (accumulated < 30 min was calculated. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Results During a median follow-up of 3 years, 83 participants developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for age, sex, education, smoking, and family income, positive associations were observed between time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. After additional adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, those in the three highest quartiles of time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts showed higher risk of metabolic syndrome compared to the lowest quartile group, with adjusted hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals of 2.72 (1.30 – 5.73, 2.42 (1.11 – 5.50, and 2.85 (1.31 – 6.18, respectively. No associations were seen for time spent in total and non-prolonged sedentary bouts. Conclusions Sedentary behavior accumulated in a prolonged manner was associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. In devising public health recommendations for the prevention of metabolic disease, the avoidance of prolonged uninterrupted periods of sedentary behavior should be considered.

  4. Some aspects of public associations’ participation in implementing public control at municipal level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman V. Gornev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to clarify the status of public associations as subjects of public control and to analyze the problems of participation of citizens 39 associations in conducting public expertise and public audits. Methods the methodology of research includes general scientific methods such as dialectic method. Specific jurisprudence methods of scientific cognition have also been used. Systematic method was used for the analysis of forms of public control by citizens39 associations at the municipal level. The principle of scientific objectivity has allowed for a comprehensive and objective analysis of the factual material the totality of factors affecting the interaction of public associations with local authorities in the implementation of public control. The formallegal method allowed to analyze the normativelegal acts to reveal the signs of fixing of such public control forms as public expertise and public audit. In the present study other research methods were also applied allowing to study the theme in detail. Results the study identified the lack of legal regulation of the legal status of public associations as subjects of public control as well as some forms of public control. The additions to the list of subjects of public control by public associations were proposed as well as improvements in the implementation of public expertise and public audit by the citizens39 associations as forms of social control. Scientific novelty the author found a lack of regulation of public associationsrsquo participation in some forms of social control and justified proposals for their improvement from a scientific point of view. Practical significance the possibility to apply the research results in legislative activity aimed at improving the provisions of the Federal Laws quotOn fundamentals of public control in the Russian Federationquot and quotOn the general principles of local selfgovernment organization in the Russian Federationquot. In addition the

  5. Physical activity, energy intake, sedentary behavior, and adiposity in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Janet E; Dai, Shifan; Steffen, Lyn M; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Shah, Syed M; Labarthe, Darwin R

    2009-07-01

    It is unclear to what extent factors affecting energy balance contribute to the development of body fatness in youth. The objective of the current study was to describe the relationship of physical activity, energy intake, and sedentary behavior to BMI, fat free-mass index (FFMI), and fat mass index (FMI) in children aged 10-18 years. In the subsample studied, participants were 245 girls and 227 boys (aged > or =10 years at entry or during follow-up assessments, or aged 11-14 years at entry) followed for 4 years from entry at ages 8, 11, or 14 years. At baseline and anniversary examinations, trained interviewers used a questionnaire to assess time spent daily in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior, and energy intake (kcal/day). Sexual maturation was assessed by direct observation of pubic-hair development (Tanner Stages 1-5). Triplicate recordings of height and weight were used to estimate BMI by the standard formula (kg/m(2)); bioelectric impedance was used to estimate percent body fat for calculating FFMI and FMI (kg/m(2)). Multilevel models were used to examine the association of MVPA, energy intake, and sedentary behavior with BMI, FFMI, and FMI. Data were analyzed in 2007-2008. Energy intake was unrelated to FMI or FFMI in models adjusted for age or sexual maturation or in any model to BMI. Sedentary behavior was unrelated to FMI in any model or to FFMI or BMI in models adjusted for age or sexual maturation. MVPA was inversely related to FMI. In children aged 10-18 years, MVPA was inversely associated with fat mass and with BMI. Investigations in youth of dietary intake and physical activity, including interventions to prevent or reverse overweight as represented by BMI, should address its fat and lean components and not BMI alone.

  6. One session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) every 5 days, improves muscle power but not static balance in lifelong sedentary ageing men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculthorpe, Nicholas F.; Herbert, Peter; Grace, Fergal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Declining muscle power during advancing age predicts falls and loss of independence. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may improve muscle power, but remains largely unstudied in ageing participants. Methods: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated the efficacy of a low-frequency HIIT (LfHIIT) intervention on peak muscle power (peak power output [PPO]), body composition, and balance in lifelong sedentary but otherwise healthy males. Methods: Thirty-three lifelong sedentary ageing men were randomly assigned to either intervention (INT; n = 22, age 62.3 ± 4.1 years) or control (n = 11, age 61.6 ± 5.0 years) who were both assessed at 3 distinct measurement points (phase A), after 6 weeks of conditioning exercise (phase B), and after 6 weeks of HIIT once every 5 days in INT (phase C), where control remained inactive throughout the study. Results: Static balance remained unaffected, and both absolute and relative PPO were not different between groups at phases A or B, but increased significantly in INT after LfHIIT (P balance in sedentary ageing men. PMID:28178145

  7. Schoolyard Characteristics, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Kann, Dave H H; de Vries, Sanne I; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is decreasing among children, while sedentary behavior (SB) is increasing. Schoolyards seem suitable settings to influence children's PA behavior. This study investigated the associations between schoolyard characteristics and moderate-to-vigorous physical activ...

  8. Effectiveness of energy conservation management on fatigue and participation in multiple sclerosis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blikman, Lyan Jm; van Meeteren, Jetty; Twisk, Jos Wr; de Laat, Fred Aj; de Groot, Vincent; Beckerman, Heleen; Stam, Henk J; Bussmann, Johannes Bj

    2017-10-01

    Fatigue is a frequently reported and disabling symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate the effectiveness of an individual energy conservation management (ECM) intervention on fatigue and participation in persons with primary MS-related fatigue. A total of 86 severely fatigued and ambulatory adults with a definite diagnosis of MS were randomized in a single-blind, two-parallel-arm randomized clinical trial to the ECM group or the information-only control group in outpatient rehabilitation departments. Blinded assessments were carried out at baseline and at 8, 16, 26 and 52 weeks after randomization. Primary outcomes were fatigue (fatigue subscale of Checklist Individual Strength - CIS20r) and participation (Impact on Participation and Autonomy scale - IPA). Modified intention-to-treat analysis was based on 76 randomized patients (ECM, n = 36; MS nurse, n=40). No significant ECM effects were found for fatigue (overall difference CIS20r between the groups = -0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI), -3.71 to 2.11) or for four out of five IPA domains. An overall unfavourable effect was found in the ECM group for the IPA domain social relations (difference between the groups = 0.19; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.35). The individual ECM format used in this study did not reduce MS-related fatigue and restrictions in participation more than an information-only control condition.

  9. Participation in a National Lifestyle Change Program is associated with improved diabetes Control outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sandra L; Staimez, Lisa R; Safo, Sandra; Long, Qi; Rhee, Mary K; Cunningham, Solveig A; Olson, Darin E; Tomolo, Anne M; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Narayan, Venkat K M; Phillips, Lawrence S

    2017-09-01

    Clinical trials show lifestyle change programs are beneficial, yet large-scale, successful translation of these programs is scarce. We investigated the association between participation in the largest U.S. lifestyle change program, MOVE!, and diabetes control outcomes. This longitudinal, retrospective cohort study used Veterans Health Administration databases of patients with diabetes who participated in MOVE! between 2005 and 2012, or met eligibility criteria (BMI ≥25kg/m 2 ) but did not participate. Main outcomes were diabetic eye disease, renal disease, and medication intensification. There were 400,170 eligible patients with diabetes, including 87,366 (22%) MOVE! Included patients were 96% male, 77% white, with mean age 58years and BMI 34kg/m 2 . Controlling for baseline measurements and age, race, sex, BMI, and antidiabetes medications, MOVE! participants had lower body weight (-0.6kg), random plasma glucose (-2.8mg/dL), and HbA1c (-0.1%) at 12months compared to nonparticipants (each plifestyle change programs in U.S. health systems may improve health among the growing patient population with diabetes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Effort-reward imbalance and sedentary lifestyle: an observational study in a large occupational cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Kouvonen, Anne; Kivimäki, Mika; Elovainio, Marko; Pentti, Jaana; Linna, Anne; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association between effort-reward imbalance (ERI) at work and sedentary lifestyle.\\ud Methods: Cross-sectional data from the ongoing Finnish Public Sector Study related to 30 433 women and 7718 men aged 17-64 were used (n = 35 918 after exclusion of participants with missing values in covariates). From the responses to a questionnaire, an aggregated mean score for ERI in a work unit was assigned to each participant. The outcome was sedentary lifestyle defined as

  11. Delay discounting, self-control, and substance use among adult drug court participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Craig G A; Fearnley, Helen; Panagiotopoulos, Barbara; Kemp, Richard I

    2015-08-01

    The current study examined the relationship between two measures of impulsiveness and the odds of substance use among a sample of participants on an Australian drug court (n=80). Participants completed a computer-based delay discounting task, a paper-based delay discounting task, and a questionnaire-based measure of self-control. The delay discounting tasks measured individual differences in the value attributed to distal outcomes, which is one aspect of impulsive behavior that has been found to be over-represented among illicit drug users. The relationship between the measures of impulsiveness and the odds of substance use was assessed by fitting longitudinal panel regression models with adjustment for informative treatment dropout. Consistent with previous research, drug court participants were found to have higher discount rates (i.e. were more impulsive) than a noncriminal population of university students (n=101). Drug court participants also discounted delayed gains more than delayed losses. Delay discounting was not significantly associated with the odds of substance use on the drug court program. There was a positive relationship between the survey-based measure of impulsivity and the mean substance use frequency. The authors conclude that impulsivity is correlated with substance use among drug court participants but not when measuring impulsivity using a delay discounting paradigm.

  12. Blood Pressure Treatment Adherence and Control after Participation in the ReHOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Silva de Jesus

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Lack of adherence to pharmacological treatment is one of the main causes of low control rates in hypertension. Objective: To verify treatment adherence and associated factors, as well as blood pressure (BP control in participants of the Resistant Hypertension Optimal Treatment (ReHOT clinical trial. Method: Cross-sectional study including all 109 patients who had completed the ReHOT for at least 6 months. We excluded those participants who failed to respond to the new recruitment after three phone contact attempts. We evaluated the BP control by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM; controlled levels: 24-hour systolic and diastolic BP < 130 x 80 mmHg and analyzed the patients' treatment adherence using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS questionnaire validated by Bloch, Melo, and Nogueira (2008. The statistical analysis was performed with the software IBM SPSS statistics 21.0. We tested the normality of the data distribution with kurtosis and skewness. The variables tested in the study are presented with descriptive statistics. Comparisons between treatment adherence and other variables were performed with Student's t test for independent variables and Pearson's chi-square or Fisher's exact test. To conduct analyses among patients considering adherence to treatment and BP control, we created four groups: G0, G1, G2, and G3. We considered a 5% significance level in all tests. Results: During the ReHOT, 80% of the patients had good BP control and treatment adherence. Of 96 patients reevaluated in the present study, only 52.1% had controlled hypertension when assessed by ABPM, while 31.3% were considered adherent by the MMAS. Regarding other ABPM measures, we observed an absence of a nocturnal dip in 64.6% of the patients and a white-coat effect and false BP control in 23% and 12.5%, respectively. Patients' education level showed a trend towards being a determinant factor associated with lack of adherence (p = 0

  13. A Descriptive Survey of Weight Control Participants at a U.S. Army Community Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    participation in the survey was strictly voluntary; 3. only active duty Army personnel who were on the Army’s weight control program could volunteer ...A.R. 600-9 limit 2 I was singled out because I looked overweight 3 I volunteered for the program 4 Other, specify 18. Where was your initial weight...33. Wing, Rena R., and Epstein, Leonard H. "Prescribed Level of Caloric Restriction in Bahavioral Weight Loss Programs. Addictive Behaviors 6

  14. Novel strategies for sedentary behavior research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Dori E; Lee, I-Min; Young, Deborah Rohm; Prohaska, Thomas R; Owen, Neville; Buchner, David M

    2015-06-01

    This article reports on the "Novel Strategies for Sedentary Behavior Research" session of the Sedentary Behavior: Identifying Research Priorities workshop. The purpose of this session of the workshop were to propose strategies for accomplishing a research agenda in dealing with sedentary behavior and to consider research priorities for people at high risk for excess sedentary behavior. The four major recommendations from this workshop were as follows: 1) To add repeated objective measures of physical activity and sedentary behavior to existing cohort studies and standardize approaches to measurement and analysis. Epidemiologic studies will be the most efficient design for addressing some research questions. 2) To increase research efficiency, consider the advantages of a network of connected research studies and health systems. Advantages include access to existing data in electronic health records. 3) To carefully select a variety of high-risk study populations and preplan collaboration among studies in intervention research. This strategy can efficiently address the breadth of issues in sedentary behavior research. 4) To include comparative effectiveness designs and pure environmental interventions in intervention research. This strategy facilitates and enhances translation of interventions into practice.

  15. Quality control in public participation assessments of water quality: the OPAL Water Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, N L; Turner, S D; Goldsmith, B; Gosling, L; Davidson, T A

    2016-07-22

    Public participation in scientific data collection is a rapidly expanding field. In water quality surveys, the involvement of the public, usually as trained volunteers, generally includes the identification of aquatic invertebrates to a broad taxonomic level. However, quality assurance is often not addressed and remains a key concern for the acceptance of publicly-generated water quality data. The Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) Water Survey, launched in May 2010, aimed to encourage interest and participation in water science by developing a 'low-barrier-to-entry' water quality survey. During 2010, over 3000 participant-selected lakes and ponds were surveyed making this the largest public participation lake and pond survey undertaken to date in the UK. But the OPAL approach of using untrained volunteers and largely anonymous data submission exacerbates quality control concerns. A number of approaches were used in order to address data quality issues including: sensitivity analysis to determine differences due to operator, sampling effort and duration; direct comparisons of identification between participants and experienced scientists; the use of a self-assessment identification quiz; the use of multiple participant surveys to assess data variability at single sites over short periods of time; comparison of survey techniques with other measurement variables and with other metrics generally considered more accurate. These quality control approaches were then used to screen the OPAL Water Survey data to generate a more robust dataset. The OPAL Water Survey results provide a regional and national assessment of water quality as well as a first national picture of water clarity (as suspended solids concentrations). Less than 10 % of lakes and ponds surveyed were 'poor' quality while 26.8 % were in the highest water quality band. It is likely that there will always be a question mark over untrained volunteer generated data simply because quality assurance is uncertain

  16. CORBA-based solution for remote participation in SST-1 tokamak control and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahajan, Kirti [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)]. E-mail: kirti@ipr.res.in; Ravikiran, M. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Gulati, Hitesh [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Dave, H.J. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Kumar, Neeraj [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Patel, Kirit [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Kumar, Aveg [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Raju, D. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Bhandarkar, M. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Chudasama, H. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Kulkarni, S.V. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Saxena, Y.C. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2006-07-15

    The steady state superconducting tokamak (SST-1) central control system is a distributed heterogeneous process communication system built on socket programming. It consists of machine, experiment and discharge control plus timing and a database. The software controls and monitors SST-1 subsystems: water-cooling, power supplies, cryogenics and vacuum over a local area network (LAN). The SST-1 control room is the place where all the activities like session announcement, machine control, experiment control, discharge control and monitoring are performed. We have realized that, instead of having a single monitoring place, we should have multiple monitoring points and it should be made possible to control the experiment from any PC over the LAN. In order to meet such requirements for remote participation in tokamak operation, we are upgrading the existing software. The upgraded software is based on Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) technology. The software is utilizing CORBA-services such as event service, naming services, interface repository and security services. The inherent features of CORBA make the software, platform and language independent. The software supports a variety of communication paradigms including publish-subscribe, peer-to-peer, and request-reply. Based on this software, one can participate in SST-1 tokamak operation from the LAN, or a wide area network (WAN) connection anywhere on the Internet. Each user can customize plasma parameters and diagnostics data that he wants to monitor, at any time without any change in the software and a copy of these parameters will be available to him. This paper focuses on the publish-subscribe communication paradigm and its application for a machine monitoring system.

  17. CORBA-based solution for remote participation in SST-1 tokamak control and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, Kirti; Ravikiran, M.; Gulati, Hitesh; Dave, H.J.; Kumar, Neeraj; Patel, Kirit; Kumar, Aveg; Raju, D.; Bhandarkar, M.; Chudasama, H.; Kulkarni, S.V.; Saxena, Y.C.

    2006-01-01

    The steady state superconducting tokamak (SST-1) central control system is a distributed heterogeneous process communication system built on socket programming. It consists of machine, experiment and discharge control plus timing and a database. The software controls and monitors SST-1 subsystems: water-cooling, power supplies, cryogenics and vacuum over a local area network (LAN). The SST-1 control room is the place where all the activities like session announcement, machine control, experiment control, discharge control and monitoring are performed. We have realized that, instead of having a single monitoring place, we should have multiple monitoring points and it should be made possible to control the experiment from any PC over the LAN. In order to meet such requirements for remote participation in tokamak operation, we are upgrading the existing software. The upgraded software is based on Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) technology. The software is utilizing CORBA-services such as event service, naming services, interface repository and security services. The inherent features of CORBA make the software, platform and language independent. The software supports a variety of communication paradigms including publish-subscribe, peer-to-peer, and request-reply. Based on this software, one can participate in SST-1 tokamak operation from the LAN, or a wide area network (WAN) connection anywhere on the Internet. Each user can customize plasma parameters and diagnostics data that he wants to monitor, at any time without any change in the software and a copy of these parameters will be available to him. This paper focuses on the publish-subscribe communication paradigm and its application for a machine monitoring system

  18. Accelerometer-Derived Pattern of Sedentary and Physical Activity Time in Persons with Mobility Disability: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, Patricia; Ezeugwu, Victor; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Vallance, Jeff; Healy, Genevieve N

    2015-07-01

    To describe objectively determined sedentary and activity outcomes (volume and pattern) and their associations with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers in individuals with and without mobility disability. Cross-sectional. Population based. Community-dwelling older adults (≥60) living in the United States who were participants in the 2003 to 2004 or 2005 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were classified as with or without mobility disability according to responses to self-reported questions about ability to walk, climb stairs, and/or use of ambulatory aids. Accelerometer-derived sedentary and activity variables for volume (time in sedentary (activity and pattern (number of breaks from sedentary time, duration of sedentary bouts, duration of activity bouts). Survey-weighted regression models, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, education, and smoking, were used to examine the associations between pattern of activity and cardiometabolic health risk factors (blood pressure, waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). Of the 2,017 participants, 547 were classified as having a mobility disability. Participants with mobility disability had more sedentary time and less active time than those without. Sedentary bouts were longer and active bouts shorter in those with disability. The total number of sedentary breaks (transitions from sedentary to nonsedentary) differed between groups after adjustment for total sedentary time. Fewer breaks, longer sedentary bouts, and shorter activity bouts were associated with higher average waist circumference regardless of disability status. This study provides rationale for the development and testing of interventions to change the pattern of activity (e.g., include more breaks and longer activity bout durations) in older adults with mobility disability. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Family circumstance, sedentary behaviour and physical activity in adolescents living in England: Project STIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorely, Trish; Atkin, Andrew J; Biddle, Stuart JH; Marshall, Simon J

    2009-01-01

    Background Identification of non-modifiable correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in youth contributes to the development of effective targeted intervention strategies. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between family circumstances (e.g. socio-economic status, single vs. dual parent household, presence/absence of siblings) and leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behaviours in adolescents. Methods A total of 1171 adolescents (40% male; mean age 14.8 years) completed ecological momentary assessment diaries every 15 minutes for 3 weekdays outside of school hours and 1 weekend day. Analysed behaviours were sports/exercise, active travel, TV viewing, computer use, sedentary socialising (hanging-out, using the telephone, sitting and talking) and total sedentary behaviour. Linear regression was employed to estimate levels of association between individual family circumstance variables and each behaviour. Results Compared to girls from higher socioeconomic status (SES) groups, girls from low SES groups reported higher weekend TV viewing and higher weekday total sedentary behaviour. For boys, single parent status was associated with greater total sedentary behaviour compared to those from dual parent households. Boys and girls from low socio-economic neighbourhoods reported lower participation in sports/exercise compared to those living in higher socio-economic neighbourhoods. Conclusion Associations were not consistent across behaviours or between genders. Overall, findings indicate that boys from single parent households and girls from low socio-economic families may be at increased risk of high sedentary behaviour. Those living in low socioeconomic neighbourhoods may be at increased risk of reduced participation in sports and exercise. PMID:19519913

  20. Family circumstance, sedentary behaviour and physical activity in adolescents living in England: Project STIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorely Trish

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of non-modifiable correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in youth contributes to the development of effective targeted intervention strategies. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between family circumstances (e.g. socio-economic status, single vs. dual parent household, presence/absence of siblings and leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behaviours in adolescents. Methods A total of 1171 adolescents (40% male; mean age 14.8 years completed ecological momentary assessment diaries every 15 minutes for 3 weekdays outside of school hours and 1 weekend day. Analysed behaviours were sports/exercise, active travel, TV viewing, computer use, sedentary socialising (hanging-out, using the telephone, sitting and talking and total sedentary behaviour. Linear regression was employed to estimate levels of association between individual family circumstance variables and each behaviour. Results Compared to girls from higher socioeconomic status (SES groups, girls from low SES groups reported higher weekend TV viewing and higher weekday total sedentary behaviour. For boys, single parent status was associated with greater total sedentary behaviour compared to those from dual parent households. Boys and girls from low socio-economic neighbourhoods reported lower participation in sports/exercise compared to those living in higher socio-economic neighbourhoods. Conclusion Associations were not consistent across behaviours or between genders. Overall, findings indicate that boys from single parent households and girls from low socio-economic families may be at increased risk of high sedentary behaviour. Those living in low socioeconomic neighbourhoods may be at increased risk of reduced participation in sports and exercise.

  1. A multimedia consent tool for research participants in the Gambia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Muhammed Olanrewaju; McGrath, Nuala; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Kampmann, Beate; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Ravinetto, Raffaella M; Alexander, Neal; Larson, Heidi J; Chandramohan, Daniel; Bojang, Kalifa

    2015-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a multimedia informed consent tool for adults participating in a clinical trial in the Gambia. Adults eligible for inclusion in a malaria treatment trial (n = 311) were randomized to receive information needed for informed consent using either a multimedia tool (intervention arm) or a standard procedure (control arm). A computerized, audio questionnaire was used to assess participants' comprehension of informed consent. This was done immediately after consent had been obtained (at day 0) and at subsequent follow-up visits (days 7, 14, 21 and 28). The acceptability and ease of use of the multimedia tool were assessed in focus groups. On day 0, the median comprehension score in the intervention arm was 64% compared with 40% in the control arm (P = 0.042). The difference remained significant at all follow-up visits. Poorer comprehension was independently associated with female sex (odds ratio, OR: 0.29; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.12-0.70) and residing in Jahaly rather than Basse province (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.13-0.82). There was no significant independent association with educational level. The risk that a participant's comprehension score would drop to half of the initial value was lower in the intervention arm (hazard ratio 0.22, 95% CI: 0.16-0.31). Overall, 70% (42/60) of focus group participants from the intervention arm found the multimedia tool clear and easy to understand. A multimedia informed consent tool significantly improved comprehension and retention of consent information by research participants with low levels of literacy.

  2. The Analysis of Certain Differences in Motor Skills of Sedentary Male Children in the 9-14 Age Group Based on the Biological Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, Isik; Yaman, Nigar; Zorba, Erdal; Yaman, Metin; Günay, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study consists of the analysis of certain differences in motor skills of male children who are sedentary and in the age group of 9-14, in relation to the biological maturity. 522 sedentary male children from various parts of Turkey participated in this study. Body height and body weight measurements were taken from the participants…

  3. Experimental control of Triatoma infestans in poor rural villages of Bolivia through community participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardeux, Frédéric; Depickère, Stéphanie; Aliaga, Claudia; Chavez, Tamara; Zambrana, Lilian

    2015-02-01

    Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Chagas disease in the southern cone countries. Present control strategies based on indoor and outdoor residual insecticide spraying are not sufficient to control disease transmission, particularly in Bolivia. Techniques based on the management of the human environment may be good alternatives or supplements. Social and entomological surveys were carried out in four villages of Bolivia situated in the dry inter-Andean Valleys and the Chaco region. Risk factors for house infestation by T. infestans were identified, and an eco-health intervention based on education and community participation was carried out to reduce the risks of house infestation. It consisted of implementing simple and low cost vector control techniques such as coating of mud walls, cleaning activities and removal of poultry that enter rooms to lay eggs. The eco-health intervention significantly reduced the number of infested bedrooms, the mean abundance of T. infestans in bedrooms and beds, especially in the Chaco region. Mud wall coating was well accepted and could be proposed as a supplementary tool to the National Program of Chagas Disease Control to enhance the effects of insecticide sprayings. Even if cleaning activities were still neglected, community participation proved to be effective in reducing house infestation. © The author 2015. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  4. Associations of Sedentary Behavior, Sedentary Bouts and Breaks in Sedentary Time with Cardiometabolic Risk in Children with a Family History of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Travis John; Tremblay, Mark Stephen; Mathieu, Marie-?ve; Henderson, M?lanie; O?Loughlin, Jennifer; Tremblay, Angelo; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Background Although reports in adults suggest that breaks in sedentary time are associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk, these findings have yet to be replicated in children. Purpose To investigate whether objectively measured sedentary behavior, sedentary bouts or breaks in sedentary time are independently associated with cardiometabolic risk in a cohort of Canadian children aged 8?11 years with a family history of obesity. Methods Data from 286 boys and 236 girls living in Quebec, Cana...

  5. Impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity and sedentary behaviors, but not reflective intentions, prospectively predict non-exercise activity thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Sarrazin, Philippe; Pelletier, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the determinants of non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is crucial, given its extensive health benefits. Some scholars have assumed that a proneness to react differently to environmental cues promoting sedentary versus active behaviors could be responsible for inter-individual differences in NEAT. In line with this reflection and grounded on the Reflective-Impulsive Model, we test the assumption that impulsive processes related to sedentary and physical activity behaviors can prospectively predict NEAT, operationalized as spontaneous effort exerted to maintain low intensity muscle contractions within the release phases of an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. Participants (n = 91) completed a questionnaire assessing their intentions to adopt physical activity behaviors and a manikin task to assess impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity behaviors (IAPA) and sedentary behaviors (IASB). Participants were then instructed to perform a maximal handgrip strength task and an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. As hypothesized, multilevel regression analyses revealed that spontaneous effort was (a) positively predicted by IAPA, (b) negatively predicted by IASB, and (c) was not predicted by physical activity intentions, after controlling for some confounding variables such as age, sex, usual PA level and average force provided during the maximal-contraction phases of the task. These effects remained constant throughout all the phases of the task. This study demonstrated that impulsive processes may play a unique role in predicting spontaneous physical activity behaviors. Theoretically, this finding reinforces the utility of a motivational approach based on dual-process models to explain inter-individual differences in NEAT. Implications for health behavior theories and behavior change interventions are outlined.

  6. Impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity and sedentary behaviors, but not reflective intentions, prospectively predict non-exercise activity thermogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Cheval

    Full Text Available Understanding the determinants of non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT is crucial, given its extensive health benefits. Some scholars have assumed that a proneness to react differently to environmental cues promoting sedentary versus active behaviors could be responsible for inter-individual differences in NEAT. In line with this reflection and grounded on the Reflective-Impulsive Model, we test the assumption that impulsive processes related to sedentary and physical activity behaviors can prospectively predict NEAT, operationalized as spontaneous effort exerted to maintain low intensity muscle contractions within the release phases of an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. Participants (n = 91 completed a questionnaire assessing their intentions to adopt physical activity behaviors and a manikin task to assess impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity behaviors (IAPA and sedentary behaviors (IASB. Participants were then instructed to perform a maximal handgrip strength task and an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. As hypothesized, multilevel regression analyses revealed that spontaneous effort was (a positively predicted by IAPA, (b negatively predicted by IASB, and (c was not predicted by physical activity intentions, after controlling for some confounding variables such as age, sex, usual PA level and average force provided during the maximal-contraction phases of the task. These effects remained constant throughout all the phases of the task. This study demonstrated that impulsive processes may play a unique role in predicting spontaneous physical activity behaviors. Theoretically, this finding reinforces the utility of a motivational approach based on dual-process models to explain inter-individual differences in NEAT. Implications for health behavior theories and behavior change interventions are outlined.

  7. Sedentary behaviour profiling of office workers: a sensitivity analysis of sedentary cut-points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, Simone Theresa; Essink, Gerard B.; Tönis, Thijs; van Velsen, Lex Stefan; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring sedentary behaviour and physical activity with wearable sensors provides detailed information on activity patterns and can serve health interventions. At the basis of activity analysis stands the ability to distinguish sedentary from active time. As there is no consensus regarding the

  8. Dynamic participation of doubly fed induction generator in automatic generation control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Praghnesh [Department of Electrical Engineering, Charotar Institute of Technology, Changa, Gujarat-388421 (India); Roy, Ranjit [Department of Electrical Engineering, S.V. National Institute of Technology, Surat, Gujarat-395007 (India); Ghoshal, S.P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, West Bengal-713209 (India)

    2011-04-15

    Increasing levels of wind generation have resulted in an urgent need for the assessment of their impact on frequency control of power systems. The displacement of conventional generation with wind generation will result in erosion of system frequency. The paper analyzed the dynamic participation of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) to system frequency responses of two-area interconnected power system having variety of conventional generating units. Frequency control support function responding proportionally to frequency deviation is proposed to take out the kinetic energy of turbine blades in order to improve the frequency response of the system. Impacts of different wind penetrations in the system and varying active power support from wind farm on frequency control have been investigated. Integral gains of AGC loop are optimized through craziness-based particle swarm optimization (CRPSO) in order to have optimal transient responses of area frequencies, tie-line power deviation and DFIG parameters. (author)

  9. Physical activity and sedentary behavior of cancer survivors and non-cancer individuals: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Roy B; Phillips, Allison; Herrick, Kirsten; Helou, Marieka; Rafie, Carlin; Anscher, Mitchell S; Mikkelsen, Ross B; Ning, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary behavior are associated with a higher quality of life and lower mortality rates for cancer survivors, a growing population group. Studies detailing the behavior of cancer survivors are limited. Therefore, we investigated physical activity and sedentary behavior of cancer survivors using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010. Participants were those who provided physical activity and sedentary behavior data. Those who were pregnant, physical activity, compared to non-cancer participants. These patterns are similar for breast and prostate cancer survivors, with prostate cancer survivors more likely to engage in physical activity for more than one hour per day (OR = 1.98, 95% CI (1.05, 3.71)). Our findings suggest that cancer survivors tend to have more physical activity, but they are also more likely to engage in sedentary behavior.

  10. Employment and paid work among participants in a randomized controlled trial comparing diacetylmorphine and hydromorphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoo, Mohammadali; Vogel, Marc; Choi, Fiona; Song, Michael J; Burghardt, Jensen; Zafari, Zafar; Tabi, Katarina; Frank, Anastasia; Barbic, Skye; Schütz, Christian; Jang, Kerry; Krausz, Michael

    2018-04-12

    Employment is one of the less studied but a significant outcome of medication-assisted treatment. Thus, we aimed to explore employment outcomes of medication-assisted treatment with hydromorphone (HDM) or diacetylmorphine (DAM). The secondary aim was to estimate characteristics of this population as well as treatment-related factors associated with these outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of a randomized, double blind controlled trial. A total of 102 and 100 participants were randomized to receive injectable DAM or HDM for 6 months respectively. In stage 2, 144 participants were randomized again to receive either oral or injectable forms of the medication they received for another 6 months. Participants were interviewed at 5 timepoints: before and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after treatment assignment. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) with a logit link was fitted to determine factors related to paid work in the past 30 days. Mean age of participants was 44.3 (SD = 9.6) and 59 (29.2%) participants were men. At each timepoint, 6-8 (3.6%-4.1%) participants reported employment in the past 30 days and 40 to 52 (19.7%-26.7%) reported minimum 1 day of paid work. University or college education [OR = 2.12: 95% CI = (1.25, 3.62), P = 0.01] was significantly associated with paid work after adjustment for age, gender, treatment arms, timepoints, days receiving study treatment, physical health, psychological health and crack cocaine use in the past 30 days. The rate of employment was lower among participants of this study compared to similar studies on heroin-assisted treatment. Higher education was associated with increased odds of paid work. A large gap exists between employment rate and the proportion of participants who reported paid work. Supported employment and occupational therapy could optimize the employment outcomes of this population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical activity and sedentary time: male perceptions in a university work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Emma S; Kolt, Gregory S; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Guagliano, Justin M

    2014-03-01

    Promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary time in males can be challenging, and interventions tailored specifically for males are limited. Understanding male perceptions of physical activity and sedentary behavior is important to inform development of relevant interventions, especially for males working in an office setting. As part of a larger intervention study to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time, male university employees aged 35 to 64 years were invited to partake in focus groups to discuss benefits, motivators, and barriers related to physical activity and sedentary time. Five semistructured focus group sessions, ranging from 50 to 70 minutes in duration, were conducted on two campuses at an Australian university. A total of 15 participants (9 academic/faculty staff and 6 professional staff), with a mean (± SD) age of 46.1 (±8.0) years took part in the study. Health and family were commonly discussed motivators for physical activity, whereas time constraints and work commitments were major barriers to physical activity participation. Sedentary time was a perceived "by-product" of participants' university employment, as a substantial proportion of their days were spent sitting, primarily at a computer. Participants believed that physical activity should be recognized as a legitimate activity at work, embedded within the university culture and endorsed using a top-down approach. It is important to encourage breaks in sedentary time and recognize physical activity as a legitimate health-promoting activity that is supported and encouraged during working hours. These findings can be used as a platform from which to develop targeted strategies to promote physical activity in male university employees.

  12. Sedentary lifestyle among adults in Jordan, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi F. Sharkas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sedentary lifestyle is a major risk factor for physical and mental problems, such as cardiovascular, musculoskeletal diseases, and psychological stress. About 60% of the world’s population is not sufficiently physically active in leisure time or during work and social activities. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of inactive Jordanian adults and describe their demographic and behavioral characteristics. Methods: The study used data from the behavioral risk factors surveillance survey conducted in Jordan in 2007. The sample size was 3654. Respondents who were physically inactive for more than 240 min daily (sleep time not included were considered to have a sedentary lifestyle. Data were analyzed with the program SPSS. Results: The prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle was 82.8% (2965 respondents, with a mean sedentary time of 587 min (95% confidence interval 581–594 min. Among the physically inactive adults, 52.6% were men, one third of them aged 35–44 years. Sedentary lifestyle was reported by 30% of those with a secondary level of education or above. Of those with a sedentary lifestyle, 37.6% were housewives and 37.5% were employees; 66% of them were overweight and obese. Of the physically inactive people, 2.5% had a history of heart failure and 1.3% had a history of cerebrovascular accidents; 57.2% of them tried to engage more in physical activity and almost three quarters of them were interested in improving their dietary habits. Conclusion: Most Jordanian adults have a sedentary lifestyle, which emphasizes that there is a public health problem. Many of them are attempting to lead a healthier lifestyle. Therefore, there is an urgent need to launch an applicable national plan that enables people to practice a healthier lifestyle.

  13. Strategy for increasing the participation of masyarakat peduli api in forest fire control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni’mah, N. L. K.; Herdiansyah, H.; Soesilo, T. E. B.; Mutia, E. F.

    2018-03-01

    Forest fires have negative impact on ecology, health, and damage economic activities. One of conservation areas facing the threat of forest fire is Gunung Ciremai National Park. This research aims to formulate a strategy to increase the participation of Masyarakat Peduli Api in the effort of forest fire control. This research use quantitative method with SWOT analysis. Expert consisting of representatives from the national park, Ministry of Environment and Forestry, and BPBD Kuningan Regency. An alternative strategy based on SWOT analysis is in quadrant 1 with coordinate point (0,39; 1,23). The position shows that sustainability of national park management through forest fire control can be done with an aggressive strategy. That is maximizing the strength that is owned with its potential as an ecotourism area to increase community motivation to engage in forest fire control activities. Provision of tourism management licenses will create employment opportunities and increase income for the community so it is expected to increase community participation to prevent the occurrence of forest fires rather than forest fire prevention.

  14. A comparison of the effects of hatha yoga and resistance exercise on mental health and well-being in sedentary adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taspinar, Betul; Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Agbuga, Bulent; Taspinar, Ferruh

    2014-06-01

    Physical activity has a positive effect on people's mental health and well-being. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of hatha yoga and resistance exercises on mental health and well-being in sedentary adults. Randomized controlled study. Fifty-one participants aged mean (SD) 25.6 (5.7) years were randomly divided into three groups: Hatha Yoga Group, Resistance Exercise Group and Control Group. The Hatha Yoga Group and Resistance Exercise Group participated in sessions three days per week for 7 weeks and the Control Group did not participate in any sessions. All the subjects were evaluated through the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Body Cathexis Scale, Nottingham Health Profile and Visual Analog Scale for fatigue pre-and post-session. Significant improvements were found in terms of all outcome measures in the Hatha Yoga Group and the resistance exercise group. No improvements were found in the Control Group. Hatha yoga more improved the dimensions fatigue, self-esteem, and quality of life, whilst resistance exercise training more improved body image. Hatha yoga and resistance exercise decreased depression symptoms at a similar level. The results indicated that hatha yoga and resistance exercise had positive effects on mental health and well-being in sedentary adults. Hatha yoga and resistance exercise may affect different aspects of mental health and well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sedentary behaviors of adults in relation to neighborhood walkability and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozo, Justine; Sallis, James F; Conway, Terry L; Kerr, Jacqueline; Cain, Kelli; Saelens, Brian E; Frank, Lawrence D; Owen, Neville

    2012-11-01

    Sedentary (sitting) time is a newly identified risk factor for obesity and chronic diseases, which is behaviorally and physiologically distinct from lack of physical activity. To inform public health approaches to influencing sedentary behaviors, an understanding of correlates is required. Participants were 2,199 adults aged 20-66 years living in King County/Seattle, WA, and Baltimore, MD, regions, recruited from neighborhoods high or low on a "walkability index" (derived from objective built environment indicators) and having high or low median incomes. Cross-sectional associations of walkability and income with total sedentary time (measured by accelerometers and by self-report) and with self-reported time in seven specific sitting-related behaviors were examined. Neighborhood walkability and income were unrelated to measures of total sitting time. Lower neighborhood walkability was significantly associated with more driving time (difference of 18.2 min/day, p walkability was not related to total sedentary time but was related to two specific sedentary behaviors associated with risk for obesity-driving time and TV viewing time. Future research could examine how these prevalent and often prolonged sedentary behaviors mediate relationships between neighborhood walkability and overweight/obesity. Initiatives to reduce chronic disease risk among residents of both higher-and lower-income low-walkable neighborhoods should include a focus on reducing TV viewing time and other sedentary behaviors and enacting policies that can lead to the development or redevelopment of more-walkable neighborhoods. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Association of Light Exposure on Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aggio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate whether light exposure was associated with objectively measured physical activity (PA and sedentary behaviour in young people. Methods: Participants (n = 229, 46.7% female were young people (mean 8.8 years [SD ± 2.2] from the borough of Camden, UK. Daily sedentary time, moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA and light exposure were measured using a tri-axial accelerometer with an ambient light sensor during the summer. Multiple linear regression models examined associations between average daily light exposure, sedentary time and time in MVPA. Models were repeated investigating weekdays and weekend days separately. Analyses were adjusted for pre-specified covariables, including age, sex, device wear time, ethnic group, school and body fat. Results: There were significant associations between average daily light exposure and time sedentary (β coefficient = −11.2, 95% CI, −19.0 to −3.4 and in MVPA (β coefficient = 3.5, 95% CI, 1.2 to 5.9. Light exposure was significantly associated with weekend sedentary time (β coefficient = −10.0, 95% CI, −17.6, −2.4, weekend MVPA (β coefficient = 3.7, 95% CI, 1.7, 5.7, weekday sedentary time (β coefficient = −15.0, 95% CI, −22.7 to −7.2, but not weekday MVPA (β coefficient = 2.0, 95% CI, −0.5 to 4.5. Conclusion: Average daily light exposure is positively associated with time in MVPA and negatively associated with sedentary time. Increasing daylight exposure may be a useful intervention strategy for promoting physical activity.

  17. Advances in population surveillance for physical activity and sedentary behavior: reliability and validity of time use surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Merom, Dafna; Chau, Josephine Y; Bittman, Michael; Trost, Stewart G; Bauman, Adrian E

    2010-11-15

    Many countries conduct regular national time use surveys, some of which date back as far as the 1960s. Time use surveys potentially provide more detailed and accurate national estimates of the prevalence of sedentary and physical activity behavior than more traditional self-report surveillance systems. In this study, the authors determined the reliability and validity of time use surveys for assessing sedentary and physical activity behavior. In 2006 and 2007, participants (n = 134) were recruited from work sites in the Australian state of New South Wales. Participants completed a 2-day time use diary twice, 7 days apart, and wore an accelerometer. The 2 diaries were compared for test-retest reliability, and comparison with the accelerometer determined concurrent validity. Participants with similar activity patterns during the 2 diary periods showed reliability intraclass correlations of 0.74 and 0.73 for nonoccupational sedentary behavior and moderate/vigorous physical activity, respectively. Comparison of the diary with the accelerometer showed Spearman correlations of 0.57-0.59 and 0.45-0.69 for nonoccupational sedentary behavior and moderate/vigorous physical activity, respectively. Time use surveys appear to be more valid for population surveillance of nonoccupational sedentary behavior and health-enhancing physical activity than more traditional surveillance systems. National time use surveys could be used to retrospectively study nonoccupational sedentary and physical activity behavior over the past 5 decades.

  18. [Survey of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus control measures in hospitals participating in the VINCat program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopena-Galindo, Nieves; Hornero-Lopez, Anna; Freixas-Sala, Núria; Bella-Cueto, Feliu; Pérez-Jové, Josefa; Limon-Cáceres, Enric; Gudiol-Munté, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    VINCat is a nosocomial infection surveillance program in hospitals in Catalonia. The aim of the study was to determine the surveillance and control measures of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in these centres. An e-mail survey was carried out from January to March 2013 with questions related to the characteristics of the hospitals and their control measures for MRSA. A response was received from 53 hospitals (>500 beds: 7; 200-500 beds: 14;prevent MRSA in hospitals participating in the VINCat program. Most of the centres have an MRSA protocol, however compliance with it should be improved, especially in areas such as active detection on admission in patients at risk, hand hygiene adherence, cleaning frequency and optimising the use of antibiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time during Childhood, Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B.; Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita; Mäestu, Jarek; Löf, Marie; Harro, Jaanus; Bellocco, Rino; Labayen, Idoia; Veidebaum, Toomas; Sjöström, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background To know how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time change across lifespan periods is needed for designing successful lifestyle interventions. We aimed to study changes in objectively measured (accelerometry) MVPA and sedentary time from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Estonian and Swedish participants from the European Youth Heart Study aged 9 and 15 years at baseline (N = 2312) were asked to participate in a second examination 6 (Sweden) to 9/10 (Estonia) years later. 1800 participants with valid accelerometer data were analyzed. Results MVPA decreased from childhood to adolescence (−1 to −2.5 min/d per year of follow-up, P = 0.01 and girls and boys respectively) and also from adolescence to young adulthood (−0.8 to −2.2 min/d per year, P = 0.02 and girls and boys, respectively). Sedentary time increased from childhood to adolescence (+15 and +20 min/d per year, for girls and boys respectively, Pboys than in girls. The magnitude of the change observed in sedentary time was 3–6 time larger than the change observed in MVPA. Conclusions The decline in MVPA (overall change = 30 min/d) and increase sedentary time (overall change = 2∶45 h/d) observed from childhood to adolescence are of concern and might increase the risk of developing obesity and other chronic diseases later in life. These findings substantially contribute to understand how key health-related behaviors (physical activity and sedentary) change across important periods of life. PMID:23637772

  20. Lessons in participant retention in the course of a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idoko, Olubukola T; Owolabi, Olumuyiwa A; Odutola, Aderonke A; Ogundare, Olatunde; Worwui, Archibald; Saidu, Yauba; Smith-Sanneh, Alison; Tunkara, Abdoulie; Sey, Gibbi; Sanyang, Assan; Mendy, Philip; Ota, Martin O C

    2014-10-09

    Clinical trials are increasingly being conducted as new products seek to enter the market. Deployment of such interventions is based on evidence obtained mainly from the gold standard of randomized controlled clinical trials (RCCT). A crucial factor in the ability of RCCTs to provide credible and generalisable data is sample size and retention of the required number of subjects at completion of the follow-up period. However, recruitment and retention in clinical trials are hindered by prevalent peculiar challenges in Africa that need to be circumvented. This article shares experiences from a phase II trial that recorded a high retention rate at 14 months follow-up at a new clinical trial site. Mothers bringing children less than two months of age to the health facility were given information and invited to have their child enrolled if the inclusion criteria were fulfilled. Participants were enrolled over 8 months. Trial procedures, duration and risks/benefits were painstakingly and sequentially explained to the communities, parents and relevant relatives before and during the trial period. The proportions of participants that completed or did not complete the trial were analyzed including the reasons for failure to complete all trial procedures. 1044 individuals received information regarding the trial of which 371 returned for screening. 300 (81%) of them who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and did not meet any exclusion criteria were enrolled and 94% of these completed the trial. Consent withdrawal was the main reason for not completing the trial largely (75%) due to the father not being involved at the point of consenting or parents no longer being comfortable with blood sampling. Participant retention in clinical trials remains a crucial factor in ensuring generalisability of trial data. Appropriate measures to enhance retention should include continuous community involvement in the process, adequate explanation of trial procedures and risks/benefits; and

  1. Acute effects of walking exercise on stair negotiation in sedentary and physically active older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunzler, Marcos R.; Da Rocha, Emmanuel S.; Bobbert, Maarten F.; Duysens, Jacques; Carpes, Felipe P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In negotiating stairs, low foot clearance increases the risk of tripping and a fall. Foot clearance may be related to physical fitness, which differs between active and sedentary participants, and be acutely affected by exercise. Impaired stair negotiation could be an acute response to

  2. Psychosocial Correlates of Physical and Sedentary Activities of Early Adolescent Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, Julie C.; Westling, Erika; Crowley, Ryann; Light, John M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines physical and sedentary activities of early adolescent boys and girls using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), a method that can link mood and behaviors in specific social situations. Twenty-seven assessments were collected across 7 days from 82 participating adolescents, three times in seventh grade and one time in eighth…

  3. Which type of sedentary behaviour intervention is more effective at reducing body mass index in children? A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Y; Liao, J; Durand, C P; Dunton, G F

    2014-03-01

    Sedentary behaviour is emerging as an independent risk factor for paediatric obesity. Some evidence suggests that limiting sedentary behaviour alone could be effective in reducing body mass index (BMI) in children. However, whether adding physical activity and diet-focused components to sedentary behaviour reduction interventions could lead to an additive effect is unclear. This meta-analysis aims to assess the overall effect size of sedentary behaviour interventions on BMI reduction and to compare whether interventions that have multiple components (sedentary behaviour, physical activity and diet) have a higher mean effect size than interventions with single (sedentary behaviour) component. Included studies (n = 25) were randomized controlled trials of children (sedentary behaviour and measured BMI at pre- and post-intervention. Effect size was calculated as the mean difference in BMI change between children in an intervention group and a control group. Results indicated that sedentary behaviour interventions had a significant effect on BMI reduction. The pooled effect sizes of multi-component interventions (g = -0.060∼-0.089) did not differ from the single-component interventions (g = -0.154), and neither of them had a significant effect size on its own. Future paediatric obesity interventions may consider focusing on developing strategies to decrease multiple screen-related sedentary behaviours. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  4. Comparison of the functionality of pelvic floor muscles in women who practice the Pilates method and sedentary women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferla, Lia; Paiva, Luciana Laureano; Darki, Caroline; Vieira, Adriane

    2016-01-01

    The Pilates method is a form of physical exercise that improves the control of the core muscles, improving the conditioning of all the muscle groups that comprise the core, including the pelvic floor muscles (PFM). Thus, this study had the goal of verifying the existence of differences in the functioning of the PFM in women who practice the Pilates method and sedentary women. This was an observational, cross-sectional pilot study. A sample size calculation was performed using preliminary data and it determined that the sample should have at least 24 individuals in each group. The participants were 60 women aged 20 to 40 years; 30 women practiced the Pilates method (PMG) and 30 were sedentary (SG). An anamnesis file was used to collect personal data and assess the knowledge and perception of the PFM. The Perina perineometer and vaginal palpation were used to determine the functionality of the PFM. There was no significant difference between the PMG and the SG in any of the variables analyzed. We concluded that the functionality of the PFM in younger women who practice the Pilates method is not different from that of sedentary women.

  5. International study of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with body mass index and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyck, D Van; Cerin, E; De Bourdeaudhuij, I

    2015-01-01

    Background:Physical activity (PA) has been consistently implicated in the etiology of obesity, whereas recent evidence on the importance of sedentary time remains inconsistent. Understanding of dose-response associations of PA and sedentary time with overweight and obesity in adults can be improved...... effects of study site and gender.Methods:Data from the International Physical activity and the Environment Network (IPEN) Adult study were used. IPEN Adult is an observational multi-country cross-sectional study, and 12 sites in 10 countries are included. Participants wore an accelerometer for seven...

  6. Weekly Trends in Preschoolers’ Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in Childcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh M. Vanderloo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to examine how the physical activity levels and sedentary time of preschoolers attending center-based childcare varied across the week. Sex differences were also explored. Participants (n = 101 wore Actical™ accelerometers (15 s epoch for five consecutive days during childcare hours only. A multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate levels of sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA physical activity across the five weekdays. Total physical activity (TPA was analyzed separately in a univariate repeated measures ANOVA. Sex was entered as an additional between-subjects factor. Levels of sedentary time, LPA, and TPA across the week were found to be statistically significant, and can best be described by quadratic effects. Participants’ activity levels and sedentary time typically peaked mid-week. Levels of physical activity and sedentary time were not found to significantly differ based on sex. Childcare centers may benefit from the introduction and/or modification of active play-based programming and curricula, particularly at the start and end of the week where preschoolers’ activity levels tend to be lower. Additional investigations are required to confirm these findings.

  7. The effects of shift work on free-living physical activity and sedentary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2015-07-01

    Although occupation may influence physical activity and shift work schedule may influence cardiovascular disease risk factors, our understanding of the effects of shift work schedule on overall physical activity behavior and sedentary behavior is limited. Data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Shift work schedule was defined as regular daytime shift, evening, night, rotating or another schedule. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were assessed via accelerometry. 1536 adult participants (≥20years) indicated they currently work and provided data on all study variables. After adjustments, and compared to adults working a regular daytime shift, those working an evening (RR=0.41, p=0.001) and night (RR=0.30, p=0.001) shift, respectively, engaged in 59% and 70% less sustained (bouts) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, but no differences occurred for overall moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. After adjustments, and compared to those working a regular daytime shift, those working a rotating shift engaged in more light-intensity physical activity (overall: β=26.3min/day; p=0.03; bouts: β=37.5, p=0.01) and less sedentary behavior (β=-28.5min/day, p=0.01). Shift work schedule differentially influences physical activity and sedentary behavior. Physical activity and sedentary intervention strategies may need to be tailored based on shift work schedule. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Associations of Parental Rules and Socioeconomic Position With Preschool Children's Sedentary Behaviour and Screen Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Katherine L; Hinkley, Trina; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2015-04-01

    There is little current understanding of the influences on sedentary behavior and screen time in preschool children. This study investigated socioeconomic position (SEP) and parental rules as potential correlates of preschool children's sedentary behavior and screen time. Data from the Healthy Active Preschool Years (HAPPY) Study were used. Participating parents reported their child's usual weekly screen time and their rules to regulate their child's screen time. Children wore accelerometers for 8 days to objectively measure sedentary time. Children whose parents limited television viewing spent significantly less time in that behavior and in total screen time; however, overall sedentary behavior was unaffected. An association between parents limiting computer/electronic game use and time spent on the computer was found for girls only. SEP was inversely associated with girls', but not boys', total screen time and television viewing. As parental rules were generally associated with lower levels of screen time, intervention strategies could potentially encourage parents to set limits on, and switch off, screen devices. Intervention strategies should target preschool children across all SEP areas, as there was no difference by SEP in overall sedentary behavior or screen time for boys.

  9. Multi-wave cohort study of sedentary work and risk of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Simone Visbjerg; Hannerz, Harald; Hansen, Aase Marie

    2016-01-01

    or hospital treatment due to IHD and second for purchase of medication that may prevent IHD from (re)occurring serving as a proxy for IHD. RESULTS: During 145 850 person-years of follow-up, 510 cases of fatal and non-fatal IHD occurred. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and socioeconomic...... status, no difference in risk of IHD was observed between sedentary and non-sedentary employees [hazard ratio (HR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.78-1.16]. During 44 949 and 42 456 person-years of follow-up among men and and women, respectively, 1263 men and 1364 women purchased IHD......-related medication. No differences in risk were observed between sedentary and non-sedentary participants, either for men or women. A dose-response relationship between occupational sitting time and the risk of IHD was also not detected. CONCLUSIONS: This study could not confirm the hypothesis that sedentary work...

  10. Cardio-respiratory fitness of young and older active and sedentary men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, L A; Dustman, R E; Ruhling, R O; Emmerson, R Y; Johnson, S C; Shearer, D E; Shigeoka, J W; Bonekat, W H

    1988-01-01

    Physiological profiles are described for 30 healthy young (20-31 years) and 30 healthy older (50-62 years) men. Half of the individuals in each group reported that during the previous five years they participated frequently in strenuous physical exercises; the other half reported sedentary lifestyles. A treadmill exercise test was used to determine maximal aerobic power (VO2 max). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured during rest, maximal exercise and recovery. The active older men demonstrated significantly lower resting heart rates, lower resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures, higher VO2 max, lower maximal exercise diastolic blood pressure and lower recovery heart rates than the age-matched sedentary men. Compared with the young sedentary men, the older active men had lower resting heart rates and higher VO2 max, walked longer on the treadmill, had lower recovery heart rates and weighed less. Older active men also had higher VO2 max levels than young sedentary men. In summary, physiological profiles of the older active men more closely resembled profiles of active men who were 30 years younger than those of older sedentary men. These results emphasize the range of benefits associated with exercise. PMID:3228686

  11. Longitudinal social cognitive influences on physical activity and sedentary time in Hispanic breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Scherezade K; Song, Jaejoon; Ortiz, Alexis; Tirado-Gomez, Maribel; Palacios, Cristina; Hughes, Daniel C; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of two home-based exercise interventions (one culturally adapted and one standard) on changes in social cognitive theory (SCT) variables, physical activity (PA), and sedentary time (ST), and determined the association between changes in SCT variables and changes in PA and ST in Hispanic breast cancer survivors. Project VIVA! was a 16-week randomized controlled pilot study to test the effectiveness and feasibility of a culturally adapted exercise intervention for Mexican American and Puerto Rican breast cancer survivors in Houston, Texas and San Juan, Puerto Rico, respectively. Women (N = 89) completed questionnaires on SCT variables, PA, and ST and were then randomized to a 16-week culturally adapted exercise program, a non-culturally adapted standard exercise intervention or a wait-list control group. Multiple regression models were used to determine associations between changes in SCT variables and changes in PA and ST. Participants were in their late 50s (58.5 ± 9.2 years) and obese (31.0 ± 6.5 kg/m 2 ). Women reported doing roughly 34.5 min/day of PA and spending over 11 h/day in sedentary activities. Across groups, women reported significant increases in exercise self-efficacy and moderate-intensity, vigorous-intensity, and total PA from baseline to follow-up (p cancer survivors benefit from PA interventions that focus on increasing social support from family and friends and social modeling. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Sedentary activity associated with metabolic syndrome independent of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bankoski, Andrea; Harris, Tamara B; McClain, James J

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults.......This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults....

  13. The architecture and effect of participation: a systematic review of community participation for communicable disease control and elimination. Implications for malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whittaker Maxine

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community engagement and participation has played a critical role in successful disease control and elimination campaigns in many countries. Despite this, its benefits for malaria control and elimination are yet to be fully realized. This may be due to a limited understanding of the influences on participation in developing countries as well as inadequate investment in infrastructure and resources to support sustainable community participation. This paper reports the findings of an atypical systematic review of 60 years of literature in order to arrive at a more comprehensive awareness of the constructs of participation for communicable disease control and elimination and provide guidance for the current malaria elimination campaign. Methods Evidence derived from quantitative research was considered both independently and collectively with qualitative research papers and case reports. All papers included in the review were systematically coded using a pre-determined qualitative coding matrix that identified influences on community participation at the individual, household, community and government/civil society levels. Colour coding was also carried out to reflect the key primary health care period in which community participation programmes originated. These processes allowed exhaustive content analysis and synthesis of data in an attempt to realize conceptual development beyond that able to be achieved by individual empirical studies or case reports. Results Of the 60 papers meeting the selection criteria, only four studies attempted to determine the effect of community participation on disease transmission. Due to inherent differences in their design, interventions and outcome measures, results could not be compared. However, these studies showed statistically significant reductions in disease incidence or prevalence using various forms of community participation. The use of locally selected volunteers provided with

  14. The contribution of office work to sedentary behaviour associated risk

    OpenAIRE

    Parry, Sharon; Straker, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Background Sedentary time has been found to be independently associated with poor health and mortality. Further, a greater proportion of the workforce is now employed in low activity occupations such as office work. To date, there is no research that specifically examines the contribution of sedentary work to overall sedentary exposure and thus risk. The purpose of the study was to determine the total exposure and exposure pattern for sedentary time, light activity and moderate/vigorous physi...

  15. Prospective associations between sedentary lifestyle and BMI in midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Siegler, Ilene C; Barefoot, John C

    2006-01-01

    A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle.......A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle....

  16. Change in Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, Bodyweight, and HbA1c in High-Risk Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Matthew; Edwardson, Charlotte L; Davies, Melanie J; Henson, Joseph; Gray, Laura; Khunti, Kamlesh; Yates, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, there has been a migration toward the use of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in determining glycemic control. This study aimed to quantify the associations between changes in body weight, sedentary time, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time with HbA1c levels for a 3-yr period among adults at high risk of type 2 diabetes. This study reports baseline and 3-yr follow-up data from the Walking Away from Type 2 Diabetes study. ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers captured sedentary time and MVPA. Linear regression examined the independent associations of changes in sedentary time, MVPA, and body weight with HbA1c between baseline and 3-yr follow-up. The sample composed of 489 participants (mean age = 64.2 ± 7.3 yr, body mass index = 31.7 ± 5.1, 63.4% male) with valid baseline and follow-up accelerometer, body weight, and HbA1c data. After adjustment for known confounders, an increase in MVPA time (per 30 min·d) was associated with a decrease in HbA1c percentage (β = -0.11 [-0.18 to -0.05], P = 0.001), and an increase in body weight (per 6 kg) was associated with an increase in HbA1c percentage (β = 0.08 [0.04-0.12], P HbA1c ≥ 6.0%) strengthened these associations (P HbA1c after adjustment for change in MVPA time. Increases in MVPA and body weight were associated with a reduction and increase in HbA1c, respectively, particularly in those with dysglycemia. Quantifying the effect that health behavior changes have on HbA1c can be used to inform prevention programs.

  17. Methods to estimate aspects of physical activity and sedentary behavior from high-frequency wrist accelerometer measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudenmayer, John; He, Shai; Hickey, Amanda; Sasaki, Jeffer; Freedson, Patty

    2015-08-15

    This investigation developed models to estimate aspects of physical activity and sedentary behavior from three-axis high-frequency wrist-worn accelerometer data. The models were developed and tested on 20 participants (n = 10 males, n = 10 females, mean age = 24.1, mean body mass index = 23.9), who wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer on their dominant wrist and an ActiGraph GT3X on the hip while performing a variety of scripted activities. Energy expenditure was concurrently measured by a portable indirect calorimetry system. Those calibration data were then used to develop and assess both machine-learning and simpler models with fewer unknown parameters (linear regression and decision trees) to estimate metabolic equivalent scores (METs) and to classify activity intensity, sedentary time, and locomotion time. The wrist models, applied to 15-s windows, estimated METs [random forest: root mean squared error (rSME) = 1.21 METs, hip: rMSE = 1.67 METs] and activity intensity (random forest: 75% correct, hip: 60% correct) better than a previously developed model that used counts per minute measured at the hip. In a separate set of comparisons, the simpler decision trees classified activity intensity (random forest: 75% correct, tree: 74% correct), sedentary time (random forest: 96% correct, decision tree: 97% correct), and locomotion time (random forest: 99% correct, decision tree: 96% correct) nearly as well or better than the machine-learning approaches. Preliminary investigation of the models' performance on two free-living people suggests that they may work well outside of controlled conditions. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Friendship Network Characteristics Are Associated with Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jennifer; de la Haye, Kayla; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is limited understanding of the association between peer social networks and physical activity (PA), sedentary and screen-related behaviors. This study reports on associations between personal network characteristics and these important health behaviors for early adolescents. Participants were 310 students, aged 11-13 years, from fifteen randomly selected Victorian primary schools (43% response rate). PA and sedentary behaviors were collected via accelerometer and self-report questionnaire, and anthropometric measures via trained researchers. Participants nominated up to fifteen friends, and described the frequency of interaction and perceived activity intensity of these friends. Personal network predictors were examined using regression modelling for PA and sedentary/screen behavior. Perceived activity levels of friends, and friendships with very frequent interaction were associated with outside-of-school PA and/or sedentary/screen time. Differences according to sex were also observed in the association between network characteristics and PA and sedentary time. A higher number of friends and greater proportion of same sex friends were associated with boys engaging in more moderate-to-vigorous PA outside of school hours. PA intensity during school-day breaks was positively associated with having a greater proportion of friends who played sports for girls, and a greater proportion of male friends for boys. Friendship network characteristics are associated with PA and sedentary/screen time in late childhood/early adolescence, and these associations differ by sex. The positive influence of very active peers may be a promising avenue to strengthen traditional interventions for the promotion of PA and reduction in screen time.

  19. Momentary assessment of adults’ physical activity and sedentary behavior: Feasibility and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Fridlund Dunton

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mobile phones are ubiquitous and easy to use, and thus have the capacity to collect real-time data from large numbers of people. Research tested the feasibility and validity of an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA self-report protocol using electronic surveys on mobile phones to assess adults’ physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Methods: Adults (N = 110 (73% female, 30% Hispanic, 62% overweight/obese completed a four-day signal-contingent EMA protocol (Sat. - Tues. with eight surveys randomly spaced throughout each day. EMA items assessed current activity (e.g., Watching TV/Movies, Reading/Computer, Physical Activity/Exercise. EMA responses were time-matched to minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and sedentary activity (SA measured by accelerometer immediately before and after each EMA prompt. Results: Unanswered EMA prompts had greater MVPA (±15 min. than answered EMA prompts (p = .029 for under/normal weight participants, indicating that activity level might influence the likelihood of responding. The 15-min. intervals before vs. after the EMA-reported physical activity (n = 296 occasions did not differ in MVPA (p > .05, suggesting that prompting did not disrupt physical activity. SA decreased after EMA-reported sedentary behavior (n = 904 occasions (p < .05 for overweight and obese participants. As compared with other activities, EMA-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior had significantly greater MVPA and SA, respectively, in the ±15 minutes of the EMA prompt (p’s < .001, providing evidence for criterion validity. Conclusions: Findings generally support the acceptability and validity of a four-day signal contingent EMA protocol using mobile phones to measure physical activity and sedentary behavior in adults. However, some MVPA may be missed among underweight and normal weight individuals, and EMA may disrupt sedentary behavior among overweight/obese individuals.

  20. Effect of personalised citizen assistance for social participation (APIC) on older adults' health and social participation: study protocol for a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Dubois, Marie-France; Filliatrault, Johanne; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Lacasse-Bédard, Joanie; Tourigny, André; Levert, Marie-Josée; Gabaude, Catherine; Lefebvre, Hélène; Berger, Valérie; Eymard, Chantal

    2018-03-31

    The challenges of global ageing and the growing burden of chronic diseases require innovative interventions acting on health determinants like social participation. Many older adults do not have equitable opportunities to achieve full social participation, and interventions might underempower their personal and environmental resources and only reach a minority. To optimise current practices, the Accompagnement-citoyen Personnalisé d'Intégration Communautaire (APIC), an intervention demonstrated as being feasible and having positive impacts, needs further evaluation. A pragmatic multicentre, prospective, two-armed, randomised controlled trial will evaluate: (1) the short-term and long-term effects of the APIC on older adults' health, social participation, life satisfaction and healthcare services utilisation and (2) its cost-effectiveness. A total of 376 participants restricted in at least one instrumental activity of daily living and living in three large cities in the province of Quebec, Canada, will be randomly assigned to the experimental or control group using a centralised computer-generated random number sequence procedure. The experimental group will receive weekly 3-hour personalised stimulation sessions given by a trained volunteer over the first 12 months. Sessions will encourage empowerment, gradual mobilisation of personal and environmental resources and community integration. The control group will receive the publicly funded universal healthcare services available to all Quebecers. Over 2 years (baseline and 12, 18 and 24 months later), self-administered questionnaires will assess physical and mental health (primary outcome; version 2 of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, converted to SF-6D utility scores for quality-adjusted life years), social participation (Social Participation Scale) and life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Index-Z). Healthcare services utilisation will be recorded and costs of each intervention calculated. The Research

  1. Participation of Flexible Loads in Load Frequency Control to Support High Wind Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uslu, Umur; Zhang, Boyang; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2016-01-01

    The increasing amount of fluctuating wind power penetration in power systems presents many challenges to its operation and control. The new wind power plants are replacing many of the conventional large power plants that ensure power balancing and ancillary services for stable and reliable...... operation of the grid. Therefore, new solutions for power balancing reserves have to be explored and utilized by the grid utilities. To meet these challenges, large sizable loads like alkaline electrolysers, heat pumps and electric vehicles which are gaining popularity can provide system support to the grid...... through their inherent flexibility and energy storage characteristics. This paper investigates the possibilities and potential of such flexible loads to participate in power system frequency regulation in a wind dominated power system. The results show that these consumption units provide better...

  2. Objectively-determined intensity- and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to percent body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheers, Tineke; Philippaerts, Renaat; Lefevre, Johan

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the independent and joint associations of overall, intensity-specific and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior with bioelectrical impedance-determined percent body fat. Physical activity was measured in 442 Flemish adults (41.4 ± 9.8 years) using the SenseWear Armband and an electronic diary. Two-way analyses of covariance investigated the interaction of physical activity and sedentary behavior with percent body fat. Multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted for potential confounders, examined the associations of intensity-specific and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior with percent body fat. Results showed a significant main effect for physical activity in both genders and for sedentary behavior in women, but no interaction effects. Light activity was positively (β = 0.41 for men and 0.43 for women) and moderate (β = -0.64 and -0.41), vigorous (β = -0.21 and -0.24) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) inversely associated with percent body fat, independent of sedentary time. Regarding domain-specific physical activity, significant associations were present for occupation, leisure time and household chores, irrespective of sedentary time. The positive associations between body fat and total and domain-specific sedentary behavior diminished after MVPA was controlled for. MVPA during leisure time, occupation and household chores may be essential to prevent fat gain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Health education and community participation in the control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryeetey, M E; Aholu, C; Wagatsuma, Y; Bentil, G; Nkrumah, F K; Kojima, S

    1999-06-01

    To study the role of health education and community participation for the provision of facilities necessary for the control of urinary schistosomiasis in southern Ghana. Health education facilitates community participation in the provision of facilities for the control of bilharzia. Three rural communities drained by the Densu river in southern Ghana. Individuals aged 14 years and above formed groups of 10-12 persons by age, sex, ethnic and educational background; 15-16 groups were formed. Based on existing structures, one community received active, another passive health education and the third had no education. All three communities received chemotherapy. Study was carried out in three phases: pre-intervention phase--during which baseline data on residents' knowledge, attitude, beliefs and perception about bilharzia were collected using focus group discussions (FGD) prior to the second phase, intervention. Another FGD was held after 18 months to evaluate the intervention--third phase. This study suggests that most community members were aware of schistosomiasis but not as a disease. Before the health education, some residents believed bilharzia was a sign of manhood while others attributed the red colour of the urine to the red colour of a variety of sugar cane eaten in the area. After the health education, residents in the three areas constructed hand-dug wells. In addition, those who received active health education constructed two toilets for the schools and weeded the banks of the rivers. Residents also associated the disease with the water snail. Health education was useful in changing community perception on bilharzia.

  4. Time spent in sedentary activities in a pediatric population in Pretoria Central, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Daniel T; Nsibambi, Constance A; Chebet, Milton

    2016-12-01

    Scant information exist on screen time behavior of South Africa children and whether they do not meet the recommendation of American Association of Pediatrics (AAP) concerning screen time activity for children is only speculative. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the time spent in sedentary activities, especially screen time of South African children with regard to gender. This cross-sectional study involved a random sample of 1136 school children (548 boys; 588 girls) aged 9-13 years attending public schools in Central Pretoria, South Africa. Questionnaire was used to collect data on the participants' sedentary behaviors. The prevalence estimates for sedentary time activity was based on the guidelines (i.e., <2 or ≥2 hours per day) of AAP. The mean age of the children was 11.1±1.4 years. Sedentary activity data were collected from 548 boys (48.2%) and 588 (51.8%) girls. The majority of children spent more than two hours per day (exceeding the AAP recommendation for sedentary activity) watching TV (3.0%), worked or played on the computer (25.4%), read (1.0%), played music (27.9%), played board games (14.7%), washing clothes (8.0%), floor sweeping (10.5%), art work (18.2%), and spent time on other unspecified activities (28.6%). Boys spent more time (2 hours, 3-4 hours) watching TV (38.3%; P=0.001), playing computer (31.8 %; P=0.024) and board games (17.4%; P=0.012) than girls. The corresponding figures for girls were 35.7%, 19.2% and 12.5% for TV, computer and board games, respectively. However, the proportion of those who spent more time playing music was higher among girls (32.7%) than boys (22.4%) (P=0.002). Overall, the time spent exceeding AAP recommendation (≥ 2 hours) was not statistically (P=0.427) different between boys and girls. The time spent in sedentary activities, particularly in screen time activity among urban primary school children in Pretoria Central is excessively higher than the recommendation (i.e., ≥2 hours per day

  5. Adolescents' Sedentary Behaviors in Two European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibar Solana, Alberto; Bois, Julien E.; Zaragoza, Javier; Bru, Noëlle; Paillard, Thierry; Generelo, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the correlates of objective sedentary behavior (SB) and nonschool self-reported SB in adolescents from 2 midsized cities, 1 in France (Tarbes) and 1 in Spain (Huesca). Stability of objective SB and nonschool self-reported SB were also assessed at different time points during 1 academic…

  6. Sedentary behavior at obese children and youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a research of sedentary behavior at obese children and youth, which was examined considering the amount of time spent on activities that include computers and television, and the amount of children's physical engagement. The sample is made of 375 obese children and adolescents, aged 12-18 years, 47.7% of which are male, and 52.1% female. They all filled in the questionnaire designed for the purpose of 'Cigotica' program. The questionnaire examined the amount of time spent on sedentary behavior. The children's perception of the amount of time spent watching television and using the computer is 4.9 hours, and it is lower than parent's perception, 5.2 hours . The frequency analysis shows that 79.9% of these children do not practice regular sports activities, and also that only 30.7% of them has hobbies, most of which include sedentary behavior. Differences between males and females were found by comparing means of the amount of time spent using television and computer, as well as the amount of physical engagement through sport activities and hobbies. These results are coherent to the results of previous research of effect of sedentary behavior on obesity.

  7. Four linked genes participate in controlling sporulation efficiency in budding yeast.

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    Giora Ben-Ari

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative traits are conditioned by several genetic determinants. Since such genes influence many important complex traits in various organisms, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs is of major interest, but still encounters serious difficulties. We detected four linked genes within one QTL, which participate in controlling sporulation efficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Following the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms by comparing the sequences of 145 genes between the parental strains SK1 and S288c, we analyzed the segregating progeny of the cross between them. Through reciprocal hemizygosity analysis, four genes, RAS2, PMS1, SWS2, and FKH2, located in a region of 60 kilobases on Chromosome 14, were found to be associated with sporulation efficiency. Three of the four "high" sporulation alleles are derived from the "low" sporulating strain. Two of these sporulation-related genes were verified through allele replacements. For RAS2, the causative variation was suggested to be a single nucleotide difference in the upstream region of the gene. This quantitative trait nucleotide accounts for sporulation variability among a set of ten closely related winery yeast strains. Our results provide a detailed view of genetic complexity in one "QTL region" that controls a quantitative trait and reports a single nucleotide polymorphism-trait association in wild strains. Moreover, these findings have implications on QTL identification in higher eukaryotes.

  8. Assessing a cognitive music training for older participants: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michele; Mangiacotti, Anthony

    2018-02-01

    In a randomised controlled trial, we investigated whether a cognitive training based on rhythm-music and music improvisation exercises had positive effects on executive functions in older participants. Thirty-five residents in a guest home with mild-moderate cognitive impairment and healthy ageing were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 18) featuring cognitive music training composed of 12 bi-weekly 70-min sessions, and a control group (n = 17) attended 12 bi-weekly 45-min sessions of gymnastic activities offered by the institute. A neuropsychological test battery was administered at baseline and at the end of treatment, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, verbal fluency test, Trail Making Test A, attentional matrices test and clock-drawing test. Pre-test and post-test comparison showed a significant improvement for the experimental group reflected in the Mini-Mental State Examination (F(1,33) = 13.906; p music-rhythmic exercises and music improvisation exercises is associated with improved cognitive functions in older people with mild-moderate cognitive impairment regardless of the individual's degree of cognitive reserve. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effects of a Sedentary Intervention on Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2018-03-01

    To examine the effects of a free-living, sedentary-inducing intervention on cognitive function. Randomized controlled, parallel group intervention. University campus. Thirty-three young adults (n = 23 intervention; n = 10 control). The intervention group was asked to eliminate all exercise and minimize steps to ≤5000 steps/day for 1 week, whereas the control group was asked to continue normal physical activity (PA) levels for 1 week. Both groups completed a series of 8 cognitive function assessments (assessing multiple parameters of cognition) preintervention and immediately postintervention. The intervention group was asked to resume normal PA levels for 1 week postintervention and completed the cognitive assessments for a third time at 2 weeks postintervention. Split-plot repeated-measures analysis of variance. The results of our statistical analyses showed that the group × time interaction effect was not significant ( P > .05) for any of the evaluated cognitive parameters. These findings demonstrate the need for future experimental investigations of sedentary behavior to better understand its effects on cognitive function. However, although previous work has demonstrated favorable effects of acute and chronic PA on cognitive function, our findings suggest that a 1-week period of reduced PA does not detrimentally affect cognitive function, which may have encouraging implications for individuals going through a temporary relapse in PA.

  10. Increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary activity in adolescent girls – The Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT study

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    Hergenroeder Albert

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of regular physical activity and consequent sub-optimal bone mass acquisition in youth has been implicated as a primary cause of adult-onset osteoporosis. IMPACT was a behavioral theory-based 1 1/2 year randomized controlled field study aimed at increasing bone accretion in middle school girls. The objective of this study was to determine the intervention effects of the IMPACT program upon key physical and sedentary activity endpoints among schools that participated in the IMPACT study. Endpoints examined included weight bearing physical activity (WBPA; moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; vigorous physical activity (VPA; MET (metabolic equivalent – weighted WBPA and MVPA; sedentary activity; before/after-school physical activity; and weekend physical activity. Methods Primary data analysis using a pretest-posttest control group design was conducted utilizing mixed model analysis of covariance. Data gathered from the IMPACT cohort from 2000–2002 were analyzed to determine baseline versus follow-up differences in activity endpoints. Confounders investigated included ethnicity, body mass index, menarcheal status, participation in 7th grade PE/athletics, friend/familial support and neighborhood safety. Results Follow-up means were higher for participating intervention schools relative to control schools for all physical activity variables but were statistically significant only for the following variables: daily minutes of vigorous physical activity (mean difference between Intervention (I and Control (C = 6.00↑ minutes, 95% CI = 5.82–6.18, p = 0.05, daily after school activity minutes (mean difference between I and C = 8.95↑ minutes, 95% CI = 8.69–9.21, p = 0.04, and daily weekend activity minutes (mean difference between I and C = 19.00↑ minutes, 95% CI = 18.40–19.60, p = 0.05. The intervention significantly reduced duration of student daily TV/Video watching (mean difference between I and C = 12

  11. The association of sedentary lifestyle with childhood asthma. The role of nurse as educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantaki, E; Priftis, K N; Antonogeorgos, G; Papoutsakis, C; Drakouli, M; Matziou, V

    2014-01-01

    To provide a summary of the existing published knowledge on the association between sedentary lifestyle and childhood asthma. Twelve years ago, the first longitudinal studies carried out in children showed a relationship between physical activity and asthma. Several epidemiological studies confirmed these findings, with sedentary lifestyle predicting the onset of asthma. A systematic review of epidemiological studies was conducted within the MEDLINE database. Epidemiological studies on children subjects, published in English were included in the review. A comprehensive literature search yielded 50 studies for further consideration. Following the application of the eligibility criteria, we identified 11 studies. A positive association and an excess risk of asthma during childhood were revealed to sedentary lifestyle. The findings proved the association between childhood asthma and sedentary lifestyle. The correlation between bronchial asthma and sedentary life during childhood and identifying whether preventable or treatable risk factors exist needs to be determined. Further research on the topic is essential for safer and standardised conclusions. Asthma can be controlled when managed properly. The role of the nurse as an educator should establish and maintain a relationship with patients in order to help them manage their disease. The steps towards asthma management will help paediatric patients to guide their approach to the condition. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. EFFECT OF LOW-IMPACT AEROBIC DANCE EXERCISE ON PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH (STRESS AMONG SEDENTARY WOMEN IN MALAYSIA

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    Mastura Johar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of twelve weeks of low-impact aerobic dance exercise intervention (“aero-mass” dance exercise on psychological health (stress among sedentary working women, specifically in Malaysia. Sedentary participants (age range = 40 – 55 years; N = 40: BMI > 25 were randomly assigned to two groups: an intervention treatment of “aero mass aerobic dancing” and conventional low-impact aerobic dancing. Classes were held for 50 minutes, 3 days per week, for 12 weeks. Repeated measures were examined at week 1, week 8 and week 12. Mixed repeated ANOVA revealed statistically significant time effects for Total Stress Scores (p < 0.01 with eta square =0.59 (large effect at week 8 and week 12. Furthermore, the time by group interaction was also statistically significant for total stress score (p < 0.05 with eta square = 0.18 (large effect. In addition, the result for between-subject effects indicates significant F (1, 38=7.74, p < 0.05, eta = 0.17, and therefore there was a significant difference in the stress level scores in the intervention group compared to the control group. Subjects of the intervention group, “aero mass aerobics dancing”, experienced the most benefits.

  13. Fundamental motor skill, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in socioeconomically disadvantaged kindergarteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiangli

    2016-10-01

    Guided by Stodden et al's conceptual model, the main purpose of the study was to examine the relation between fundamental motor skills (FMS; locomotor and objective control skills), different intensity levels of physical activity (light PA [LPA], moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA], and vigorous PA[VPA]), and sedentary behavior (SB) in socioeconomically disadvantaged kindergarteners. A prospective design was used in this study and the data were collected across the 2013-2014 academic school year. Participants were 256 (129 boys; 127 girls; Mage = 5.37, SD = 0.48) kindergarteners recruited from three public schools in the southern United States. Results found that FMS were significantly related to LPA, MVPA, VPA, and SB. Regression analyses indicate that locomotor skills explained significant variance for LPA (6.4%; p < .01), MVPA (7.9%; p < .001), and VPA (5.3%; p < .01) after controlling for weight status. Mediational analysis supports the significant indirect effect of MVPA on the relation between FMS and SB (95% CI: [-0.019, -0.006]). Adequate FMS development during early childhood may result in participating in more varied physical activities, thus leading to lower risk of obesity-related behaviors.

  14. Descriptive study of sedentary behaviours in 35,444 French working adults: cross-sectional findings from the ACTI-Cités study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidj, Madina; Menai, Mehdi; Charreire, Hélène; Weber, Christiane; Enaux, Christophe; Aadahl, Mette; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge; Simon, Chantal; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2015-04-14

    Given the unfavourable health outcomes associated with sedentary behaviours, there is a need to better understand the context in which these behaviours take place to better address this public health concern. We explored self-reported sedentary behaviours by type of day (work/non-work), occupation, and perceptions towards physical activity, in a large sample of adults. We assessed sedentary behaviours cross-sectionally in 35,444 working adults (mean ± SD age: 44.5 ± 13.0 y) from the French NutriNet-Santé web-based cohort. Participants self-reported sedentary behaviours, assessed as domain-specific sitting time (work, transport, leisure) and time spent in sedentary entertainment (TV/DVD, computer and other screen-based activities, non-screen-based activities) on workdays and non-workdays, along with occupation type (ranging from mainly sitting to heavy manual work) and perceptions towards physical activity. Associations of each type of sedentary behaviour with occupation type and perceptions towards physical activity were analysed by day type in multiple linear regression analyses. On workdays, adults spent a mean (SD) of 4.17 (3.07) h/day in work sitting, 1.10 (1.69) h/day in transport sitting, 2.19 (1.62) h/day in leisure-time sitting, 1.53 (1.24) h/day viewing TV/DVDs, 2.19 (2.62) h/day on other screen time, and 0.97 (1.49) on non-screen time. On non-workdays, this was 0.85 (1.53) h/day in transport sitting, 3.19 (2.05) h/day in leisure-time sitting, 2.24 (1.76) h/day viewing TV/DVDs, 1.85 (1.74) h/day on other screen time, and 1.30 (1.35) on non-screen time. Time spent in sedentary behaviours differed by occupation type, with more sedentary behaviour outside of work (both sitting and entertainment time), in those with sedentary occupations, especially on workdays. Negative perceptions towards physical activity were associated with more sedentary behaviour outside of work (both sitting and entertainment time), irrespective of day type. A substantial amount of

  15. Social Role Participation in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Cross-Sectional Comparison With Population Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Genderen, Simon; Plasqui, Guy; Landewe, Robert; Lacaille, Diane; Arends, Suzanne; van Gaalen, Floris; van der Heijde, Desiree; Heuft, Liesbeth; Luime, Jolanda; Spoorenberg, Anneke; Gignac, Monique; Boonen, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Participation in social roles for persons with chronic disease is important for their quality of life, but interpretation of the data on participation is difficult in the absence of a benchmark. This study aimed to compare social role participation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

  16. Social role participation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. A cross-sectional comparison with population controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Genderen, Simon; Plasqui, Guy; Landewé, Robert; Lacaille, Diane; Arends, Suzanne; van Gaalen, Floris; van der Heijde, Désirée; Heuft, Liesbeth; Luime, Jolanda; Spoorenberg, Anneke; Gignac, Monique A M; Boonen, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Social role participation of persons with a chronic disease is important for their lives, but interpretation of data on participation is difficult in the absence of a benchmark. This study aimed to compare social role participation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) to

  17. Physiological and health implications of a sedentary lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark Stephen; Colley, Rachel Christine; Saunders, Travis John; Healy, Genevieve Nissa; Owen, Neville

    2010-12-01

    Sedentary behaviour is associated with deleterious health outcomes, which differ from those that can be attributed to a lack of moderate to vigorous physical activity. This has led to the field of "sedentary physiology", which may be considered as separate and distinct from exercise physiology. This paper gives an overview of this emerging area of research and highlights the ways that it differs from traditional exercise physiology. Definitions of key terms associated with the field of sedentary physiology and a review of the self-report and objective methods for assessing sedentary behaviour are provided. Proposed mechanisms of sedentary physiology are examined, and how they differ from those linking physical activity and health are highlighted. Evidence relating to associations of sedentary behaviours with major health outcomes and the population prevalence and correlates of sedentary behaviours are reviewed. Recommendations for future research are proposed.

  18. The Association between Dry Eye Disease and Physical Activity as well as Sedentary Behavior: Results from the Osaka Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Kawashima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the association of dry eye disease (DED with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Methods. The cross-sectional survey conducted included Japanese office workers who use visual display terminals (n=672. DED was assessed according to the Japanese Dry Eye Diagnostic Criteria, and participants were categorized into “definite DED,” “probable DED,” or “non-DED” groups based on the results of DED examinations. Physical activity and sedentary behavior of participants were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, and physical activity level was calculated in metabolic equivalent units per week (MET, min/week. Participants were classified as having a high, moderate, or low level of physical activity. Results. Participants with abnormal tear break-up time (BUT (≤5 s were involved in sedentary behavior for significantly longer duration than those with normal BUT (P=0.035. Non-DED participants (14.5% tended to have higher levels of physical activity than definite DED participants (2.5%. Participants with definite DED had significantly lower MET scores than those with non-DED (P=0.025. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that a lower level of physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with DED; however, longitudinal/intervention studies with large groups of participants are needed to validate these findings.

  19. The Association between Dry Eye Disease and Physical Activity as well as Sedentary Behavior: Results from the Osaka Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Miki; Yokoi, Norihiko; Uchino, Yuichi; Dogru, Murat; Komuro, Aoi; Sonomura, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the association of dry eye disease (DED) with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Methods. The cross-sectional survey conducted included Japanese office workers who use visual display terminals (n = 672). DED was assessed according to the Japanese Dry Eye Diagnostic Criteria, and participants were categorized into "definite DED," "probable DED," or "non-DED" groups based on the results of DED examinations. Physical activity and sedentary behavior of participants were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and physical activity level was calculated in metabolic equivalent units per week (MET, min/week). Participants were classified as having a high, moderate, or low level of physical activity. Results. Participants with abnormal tear break-up time (BUT) (≤5 s) were involved in sedentary behavior for significantly longer duration than those with normal BUT (P = 0.035). Non-DED participants (14.5%) tended to have higher levels of physical activity than definite DED participants (2.5%). Participants with definite DED had significantly lower MET scores than those with non-DED (P = 0.025). Conclusions. Our findings suggest that a lower level of physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with DED; however, longitudinal/intervention studies with large groups of participants are needed to validate these findings.

  20. A prospective investigation of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and physical activity and sedentary behavior in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qian; Keadle, Sarah K; Berrigan, David; Matthews, Charles E

    2018-06-01

    Neighborhood conditions may have an important impact on physical activity and sedentary behaviors in the older population. Most previous studies in this area are cross-sectional and report mixed findings regarding the effects of neighborhood environment on different types of physical activity. Moreover, little is known about the prospective relationship between neighborhood environment and sedentary behaviors. Our analysis included 136,526 participants from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (age 51-70). Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was measured with an index based on census variables and developed using principal component analysis. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured both at baseline (1995-1996) and follow-up (2004-2006). Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the prospective relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exercise, non-exercise physical activity, and sedentary behaviors, adjusting for baseline physical activity and sedentary behaviors as well as potential confounders. We found that more severe neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was prospectively associated with reduced time for exercise (β Q5 vs Q1 (95% confidence interval), hour, -0.85 (-0.95, -0.75)) but increased time spent in non-exercise physical activities (1.16 (0.97, 1.34)), such as household activities, outdoor chores, and walking for transportation. Moreover, people from more deprived neighborhoods were also more likely to engage in prolonged (≥5 h/day) TV viewing (Odds ratio Q5 vs Q1 (95% confidence interval), 1.21 (1.15, 1.27)). In conclusion, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated with physical activity and sedentary behavior in the older population. These associations may differ for different types of physical activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Abahussain, Nada A; Al-Sobayel, Hana I; Qahwaji, Dina M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-12-21

    Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p sedentary, much less physically active, especially with vigorous physical activity, and there were fewer days per week when they consumed breakfast, fruit, milk and diary products, sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods and energy drinks than did males. However, the females' intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p intake but not with sedentary behaviors. The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among

  2. Acute Effects of Walking Exercise on Stair Negotiation in Sedentary and Physically Active Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzler, Marcos R; da Rocha, Emmanuel S; Bobbert, Maarten F; Duysens, Jacques; Carpes, Felipe P

    2017-07-01

    In negotiating stairs, low foot clearance increases the risk of tripping and a fall. Foot clearance may be related to physical fitness, which differs between active and sedentary participants, and be acutely affected by exercise. Impaired stair negotiation could be an acute response to exercise. Here we determined acute changes in foot clearances during stair walking in sedentary (n = 15) and physically active older adults (n = 15) after prolonged exercise. Kinematic data were acquired during negotiation with a 3-steps staircase while participants walked at preferred speed, before and after 30 min walking at preferred speed and using a treadmill. Foot clearances were compared before and after exercise and between the groups. Sedentary older adults presented larger (0.5 cm for lead and 2 cm for trail leg) toe clearances in ascent, smaller (0.7 cm) heel clearance in the leading foot in descent, and larger (1 cm) heel clearance in the trailing foot in descent than physically active. Sedentary older adults negotiate stairs in a slightly different way than active older adults, and 30 min walking at preferred speed does not affect clearance in stair negotiation.

  3. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour among Asian and Anglo-Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugnell, Claudia; M N Renzaho, Andre; Ridley, Kate; Burns, Cate

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) participation varies among culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) adolescents. The present study examined differences in PA and SB among a CALD sample of Chinese Australian, South-east Asian and Anglo-Australian adolescents. Data from 286 adolescents aged 12-16 years involved in the Chinese and Australian Adolescent Health Survey in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia, were analysed. Accelerometry outcomes included median activity counts per minute (counts x min(-1)) and minutes per day (min x day(-1)) spent in light-intensity PA (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) and sedentary time (ST). Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and sequential multiple hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine CALD differences in PA and ST. Multivariate analyses of accelerometry data found Chinese Australian and South-east Asian adolescents engaged in significantly less daily MVPA (5-8 min x day(-1)) and LPA (50-58 min x day(-1); P Asian adolescents compared with Anglo-Australian adolescents. These findings have important public health implications in furthering our understanding of CALD differences in PA and SB. SO WHAT? An understanding of the CALD differences in physical activity and sedentary behaviour among Australian adolescents has important implications for intervention planning and delivery as well as the wider health implications of these behaviours. This article furthers the current understanding of CALD adolescents' participation in physical activity and sedentary behaviour, of which limited information is available.

  4. Decreasing sedentary behavior by 30 minutes per day reduces cardiovascular disease risk factors in rural Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Zyad T; Lennie, Terry A; Mudd-Martin, Gia; Bailey, Alison L; Novak, Michael J; Biddle, Martha; Khalil, Amani A; Darawad, Muhammad; Moser, Debra K

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity has been associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; however, a decrease in the amount of time spent during the remainder of the day in sedentary behavior may be equally important. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a decrease in sedentary behavior on CVD risk factors among 205 individuals living in rural Appalachia. All participants received a comprehensive CVD risk reduction life-style intervention and measurement of major CVD risk factors and physical activity levels. Participants were divided into: 1) Adopters: those who decreased their sedentary behavior by 30 min or more per day post-intervention and 2) Non-adopters: those who did not. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant group by time interaction showing that Adopters had a greater reduction in body weight and BMI than Non-adopters. These findings demonstrate that decreasing sedentary behavior is important for achieving optimal body weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Objectively measured sedentary behavior and physical activity in office employees: relationships with presenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Ryde, Gemma C; Gilson, Nicholas D; Burton, Nicola W; Brown, Wendy J

    2013-08-01

    Employee presenteeism is the extent to which health conditions adversely affect at-work productivity. Given the links between health and activity, this study examined associations between objectively measured physical activity, sedentary behavior, and presenteeism. Participants were 108 office employees (70% women, mean age 40.7 ± 11.2 years). Activity was measured using ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers to determine sedentary (≤150 counts) and light (151 to 1689 counts) activity; presenteeism with the Work Limitations Questionnaire. Fifty-seven percent of time was spent in sedentary behavior and 38% in light activity. The median Work Limitations Questionnaire Index was 4.38; 6% of participants reported at least moderate impairment. Significant associations were reported for time spent in sedentary behavior before/after work (odds ratio [OR] = 2.58; 95% CI: 1.08 to 6.20) and in light activity, overall (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.97) and during workday lunch hours (OR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.77), and presenteeism. Future studies should seek greater variation in employee levels of activity and presenteeism to confirm these relationships.

  6. Acceptability of a theory-based sedentary behaviour reduction intervention for older adults ('On Your Feet to Earn Your Seat').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Raluca; Thuné-Boyle, Ingela; Hamer, Mark; Iliffe, Steve; Fox, Kenneth R; Jefferis, Barbara J; Gardner, Benjamin

    2015-07-02

    Adults aged 60 years and over spend most time sedentary and are the least physically active of all age groups. This early-phase study explored acceptability of a theory-based intervention to reduce sitting time and increase activity in older adults, as part of the intervention development process. An 8-week uncontrolled trial was run among two independent samples of UK adults aged 60-75 years. Sample 1, recruited from sheltered housing on the assumption that they were sedentary and insufficiently active, participated between December 2013 and March 2014. Sample 2, recruited through community and faith centres and a newsletter, on the basis of self-reported inactivity (habits, and self-monitoring 'tick-sheets'. At baseline, 4-week, and 8-week follow-ups, quantitative measures were taken of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and habit. At 8 weeks, tick-sheets were collected and a semi-structured interview conducted. Acceptability was assessed for each sample separately, through attrition and adherence to tips, ANOVAs for behaviour and habit changes, and, for both samples combined, thematic analysis of interviews. In Sample 1, 12 of 16 intervention recipients completed the study (25% attrition), mean adherence was 40% (per-tip range: 15-61%), and there were no clear patterns of changes in sedentary or physical activity behaviour or habit. In Sample 2, 23 of 27 intervention recipients completed (15% attrition), and mean adherence was 58% (per-tip range: 39-82%). Sample 2 decreased mean sitting time and sitting habit, and increased walking, moderate activity, and activity habit. Qualitative data indicated that both samples viewed the intervention positively, found the tips easy to follow, and reported health and wellbeing gains. Low attrition, moderate adherence, and favourability in both samples, and positive changes in Sample 2, indicate the intervention was acceptable. Higher attrition, lower adherence, and no apparent behavioural impact among Sample 1 could

  7. Participation in population-based case-control studies: does the observed decline vary by socio-economic status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloum, Marie; Bailey, Helen D; Heiden, Tamika; Armstrong, Bruce K; de Klerk, Nicholas; Milne, Elizabeth

    2012-05-01

    An Australian study of childhood leukaemia (Aus-ALL) previously reported that control participation was positively associated with socio-economic status (SES). A similar study of childhood brain tumours (Aus-CBT) was carried out 4 years later, and this paper compares control participation and its relationship with SES in the two studies. To assess the representativeness of controls in terms of SES, the addresses of controls were linked to Australian Bureau of Statistics Census 2006 Collection Districts (CDs), and hence to area-based indices of SES. Independent sample t-tests and chi-squared tests were used to compare the SES indices of CDs where Aus-CBT controls lived with those where Aus-ALL controls lived and with those of all CDs where Australian families lived. The overall percentage of eligible families who agreed to participate was lower in Aus-CBT (53.9%) than in Aus-ALL (70.3%). Control families in both studies were of higher SES than the general population, while the distribution of SES among recruited controls was similar in both studies. These findings provide some reassurance that the observed decline in research participation over time may not be associated with an increasingly unrepresentative participant population. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Break in Sedentary Behavior Reduces the Risk of Noncommunicable Diseases and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Workers in a Petroleum Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chutima Jalayondeja

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although prolonged sitting appears as a novel risk factor related to health outcomes for all ages, its association needs to be replicated in occupational conditions. This study explored the associations between sedentary behavior and four noncommunicable diseases (NCDs as well as two cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs among workers in a petroleum company, Thailand. All workers were invited to complete the online self-report questionnaire. Sedentary behavior was measured as the amount of time sitting at work, during recreation, and while commuting. Out of 3365 workers contacted, 1133 (34% participated. Prevalence of NCDs and CMRFs was 36% and was positively associated with sedentary behavior. After adjusting for age, BMI, and exercise, the risk of NCDs and CMRFs for sedentary office work was 40% greater compared with more active field work. Those who took a break without sitting more than twice a day and commuted by walking or cycling had less risk of NCDs and CMRFs. The total duration of sedentary behavior was 10 h/day, and two-thirds of that total was workplace sitting. This was significantly associated with NCDs and CMRFs (p < 0.001. Day-and-night rotating shiftwork was negatively associated with NCDs and CMRFs (p < 0.001. Sedentary behavior should be considered a health risk among workers. Hence, to promote a healthy lifestyle and safe workplace, organizations should encourage standing activities during break and physically active commutes, and have workers avoid prolonged sitting.

  9. All-cause mortality risk as a function of sedentary behavior, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-09-01

    Emerging work demonstrates individual associations of sedentary behavior, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on mortality risk. Limited research has evaluated all three of these parameters in a model when considering mortality risk, and their potential additive association on mortality risk has not been fully evaluated, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used (N = 2,295 adults 20-85 yrs), with follow-up through 2011. Sedentary behavior and MVPA were objectively assessed (accelerometry) with cardiorespiratory estimated from a prediction equation taking into consideration participant demographic, anthropometric and behavioral characteristics. Using the median values, a PACS (Physical Activity Cardiorespiratory Sedentary) score was created that ranged from 0-3, indicating the number of these three positive characteristics. Those with below median sedentary behavior did not have a reduced all-cause mortality risk (HR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.34-1.04; P = 0.07), but those with above median MVPA (HR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.15-0.82; P = 0.02) and above median CRF did (HR = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.09-0.43; P sedentary behavior, were independently associated with reduced mortality risk. Adults with all three characteristics (below median sedentary and above median MVPA and CRF), however, had the lowest mortality risk.

  10. The accuracy of the 24-h activity recall method for assessing sedentary behaviour: the physical activity measurement survey (PAMS) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngwon; Welk, Gregory J

    2017-02-01

    Sedentary behaviour (SB) has emerged as a modifiable risk factor, but little is known about measurement errors of SB. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 24-h Physical Activity Recall (24PAR) relative to SenseWear Armband (SWA) for assessing SB. Each participant (n = 1485) undertook a series of data collection procedures on two randomly selected days: wearing a SWA for full 24-h, and then completing the telephone-administered 24PAR the following day to recall the past 24-h activities. Estimates of total sedentary time (TST) were computed without the inclusion of reported or recorded sleep time. Equivalence testing was used to compare estimates of TST. Analyses from equivalence testing showed no significant equivalence of 24PAR for TST (90% CI: 443.0 and 457.6 min · day -1 ) relative to SWA (equivalence zone: 580.7 and 709.8 min · day -1 ). Bland-Altman plots indicated individuals that were extremely or minimally sedentary provided relatively comparable sedentary time between 24PAR and SWA. Overweight/obese and/or older individuals were more likely to under-estimate sedentary time than normal weight and/or younger individuals. Measurement errors of 24PAR varied by the level of sedentary time and demographic indicators. This evidence informs future work to develop measurement error models to correct for errors of self-reports.

  11. Physical activity, sedentary behavior time and lipid levels in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2015-08-11

    Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. While many studies have investigated general physical activity (PA) in relation to blood lipid levels, the current study aimed to examine the intensity of activity, including sedentary behavior time, and time spent engaging in moderate and intense PA, with concentrations of HDL and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Participants comprised 1331 individuals, aged 18 to 70 years, from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors (screen time on a workday and a day off, and total sitting time on a work day), and moderate and intense PA, were related to levels of HDL and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analyses were conducted in the whole sample, and then with stratification according to BMI (normal weight versus overweight/obese). Both lower screen time during days off and higher intense PA time were significantly associated with higher HDL-cholesterol after full adjustment for socio-demographic factors, dietary factors and smoking (both p sedentary behavior time variables were observed (all p sedentary behavior time variable and lipid levels in those overweight or obese. Spending less time in sedentary behaviors, and engaging in medium levels of intense physical activity may be associated with a more favorable blood lipid profile, particularly with regard to levels of HDL and triglycerides.

  12. Associations between Aspects of Friendship Networks, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviour among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Gavin R.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Blackstaffe, Anita; Perry, Rosemary; Hawe, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    Background. Adolescent friendships have been linked to physical activity levels; however, network characteristics have not been broadly examined. Method. In a cross-sectional analysis of 1061 adolescents (11–15 years), achieving 60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and participating in over 2 hours/day of sedentary behaviour were determined based on friendship network characteristics (density; proportion of active/sedentary friends; betweenness centrality; popularity; clique membership) and perceived social support. Results. Adolescents with no friendship nominations participated in less MVPA. For boys and girls, a ten percent point increase in active friends was positively associated with achievement of 60 minutes/day of MVPA (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02–1.21, OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.02–1.27, resp.). For boys, higher social support from friends was negatively associated with achieving 60 minutes/day of MVPA (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.42–0.96). Compared with low density networks, boys in higher density networks were more likely to participate in over 2 hours/day of sedentary behaviour (OR 2.93; 95% CI 1.32–6.49). Social support from friends also modified associations between network characteristics and MVPA and sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Different network characteristics appeared to have different consequences. The proportion of active close friends was associated with MVPA, while network density was associated with sedentary behaviour. This poses challenges for intervention design. PMID:25328690

  13. Modifying Older Adults’ Daily Sedentary Behaviour Using an Asset-based Solution: Views from Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn A Skelton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There is a growing public health focus on the promotion of successful and active ageing. Interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour (SB in older adults are feasible and are improved by tailoring to individuals’ context and circumstances. SB is ubiquitous; therefore part of the tailoring process is to ensure individuals’ daily sedentary routine can be modified. The aim of this study was to understand the views of older adults and identify important considerations when creating a solution to modify daily sedentary patterns. Method: This was a qualitative research study. Fifteen older adult volunteers (mean age = 78 years participated in 1 of 4 focus groups to identify solutions to modify daily sedentary routine. Two researchers conducted the focus groups whilst a third took detailed fieldnotes on a flipchart to member check the findings. Data were recorded and analysed thematically. Results: Participants wanted a solution with a range of options which could be tailored to individual needs and circumstances. The strategy suggested was to use the activities of daily routine and reasons why individuals already naturally interrupting their SB, collectively framed as assets. These assets were categorised into 5 sub-themes: physical assets (eg. standing up to reduce stiffness; psychological assets (eg. standing up to reduce feelings of guilt; interpersonal assets (eg. standing up to answer the phone; knowledge assets (eg. standing up due to knowing the benefits of breaking SB and activities of daily living assets (eg. standing up to get a drink. Conclusion: This study provides important considerations from older adults’ perspectives to modify their daily sedentary patterns. The assets identified by participants could be used to co-create a tailored intervention with older adults to reduce SB, which may increase effectiveness and adherence.

  14. Modifying Older Adults' Daily Sedentary Behaviour Using an Asset-based Solution: Views from Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leask, Calum F; Sandlund, Marlene; Skelton, Dawn A; Tulle, Emmanuelle; Chastin, Sebastien Fm

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing public health focus on the promotion of successful and active ageing. Interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour (SB) in older adults are feasible and are improved by tailoring to individuals' context and circumstances. SB is ubiquitous; therefore part of the tailoring process is to ensure individuals' daily sedentary routine can be modified. The aim of this study was to understand the views of older adults and identify important considerations when creating a solution to modify daily sedentary patterns. This was a qualitative research study. Fifteen older adult volunteers (mean age = 78 years) participated in 1 of 4 focus groups to identify solutions to modify daily sedentary routine. Two researchers conducted the focus groups whilst a third took detailed fieldnotes on a flipchart to member check the findings. Data were recorded and analysed thematically. Participants wanted a solution with a range of options which could be tailored to individual needs and circumstances. The strategy suggested was to use the activities of daily routine and reasons why individuals already naturally interrupting their SB, collectively framed as assets. These assets were categorised into 5 sub-themes: physical assets (eg. standing up to reduce stiffness); psychological assets (eg. standing up to reduce feelings of guilt); interpersonal assets (eg. standing up to answer the phone); knowledge assets (eg. standing up due to knowing the benefits of breaking SB) and activities of daily living assets (eg. standing up to get a drink). This study provides important considerations from older adults' perspectives to modify their daily sedentary patterns. The assets identified by participants could be used to co-create a tailored intervention with older adults to reduce SB, which may increase effectiveness and adherence.

  15. Associations between Aspects of Friendship Networks, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviour among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri Jo Sawka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescent friendships have been linked to physical activity levels; however, network characteristics have not been broadly examined. Method. In a cross-sectional analysis of 1061 adolescents (11–15 years, achieving 60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and participating in over 2 hours/day of sedentary behaviour were determined based on friendship network characteristics (density; proportion of active/sedentary friends; betweenness centrality; popularity; clique membership and perceived social support. Results. Adolescents with no friendship nominations participated in less MVPA. For boys and girls, a ten percent point increase in active friends was positively associated with achievement of 60 minutes/day of MVPA (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02–1.21, OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.02–1.27, resp.. For boys, higher social support from friends was negatively associated with achieving 60 minutes/day of MVPA (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.42–0.96. Compared with low density networks, boys in higher density networks were more likely to participate in over 2 hours/day of sedentary behaviour (OR 2.93; 95% CI 1.32–6.49. Social support from friends also modified associations between network characteristics and MVPA and sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Different network characteristics appeared to have different consequences. The proportion of active close friends was associated with MVPA, while network density was associated with sedentary behaviour. This poses challenges for intervention design.

  16. Effects of physical activity and sedentary time on the risk of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Deborah Rohm; Reynolds, Kristi; Sidell, Margo; Brar, Somjot; Ghai, Nirupa R; Sternfeld, Barbara; Jacobsen, Steven J; Slezak, Jeffrey M; Caan, Bette; Quinn, Virginia P

    2014-01-01

    Although the benefits of physical activity for risk of coronary heart disease are well established, less is known about its effects on heart failure (HF). The risk of prolonged sedentary behavior on HF is unknown. The study cohort included 82 695 men aged≥45 years from the California Men's Health Study without prevalent HF who were followed up for 10 years. Physical activity, sedentary time, and behavioral covariates were obtained from questionnaires, and clinical covariates were determined from electronic medical records. Incident HF was identified through International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes recorded in electronic records. During a mean follow-up of 7.8 years (646 989 person-years), 3473 men were diagnosed with HF. Controlling for sedentary time, sociodemographics, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, unfavorable lipid levels, body mass index, smoking, and diet, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) of HF in the lowest physical activity category compared with those in the highest category was 1.52 (95% CI, 1.39-1.68). Those in the medium physical activity category were also at increased risk (hazard ratio, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.06-1.29]). Controlling for the same covariates and physical activity, the hazard ratio (95% CI) of HF in the highest sedentary category compared with the lowest was 1.34 (95% CI, 1.21-1.48). Medium sedentary time also conveyed risk (hazard ratio, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.04-1.24]). Results showed similar trends across white and Hispanic subgroups, body mass index categories, baseline hypertension status, and prevalent coronary heart disease. Both physical activity and sedentary time may be appropriate intervention targets for preventing HF.

  17. Does diet mediate associations of volume and bouts of sedentary time with cardiometabolic health indicators in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Elly A; Carson, Valerie; McNaughton, Sarah A; Dunstan, David W; Healy, Genevieve N; Salmon, Jo

    2017-03-01

    Examine the mediating role of diet in the relationship between volume and duration of sedentary time with cardiometabolic health in adolescents. Adolescents (12-19 years) participating in the 2003/04 and 2005/06 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were examined. Cardiometabolic health indicators were body mass index z-scores (zBMI) (n = 1,797) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) (n = 812). An ActiGraph hip-worn accelerometer was used to derive total sedentary time and usual sedentary bout duration. Dietary intake was assessed using two 24-hour dietary recalls. Mediation analyses were conducted to examine five dietary mediators [total energy intake, discretionary foods, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), fruits and vegetables, and dietary quality] of the relationship between total sedentary time and usual sedentary bout duration with zBMI and MetS. Total sedentary time was inversely associated with zBMI (β = -1.33; 95% CI -2.53 to -0.13) but attenuated after adjusting for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. No significant associations were observed between usual sedentary bout duration with zBMI or either sedentary measure with MetS. None of the five dietary variables mediated any of the relationships examined. Further studies are needed to explore associations of specific time periods (e.g., after school) and bout durations with both cardiometabolic health indicators and dietary behaviors. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  18. Objectively assessed physical activity and associated factors of sedentary behavior among survivors of stroke living in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Conran; Conradsson, David; Hagströmer, Maria; Lawal, Isa; Rhoda, Anthea

    2017-06-18

    To investigate objectively measured physical activity in stroke survivors living in low-income areas of Cape Town, South Africa, specifically to: (a) describe the volume of daily physical activity and time spent in different intensity levels and (b) investigate the association of factors covering the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health with sedentary behavior. A cross-sectional design was used, where forty-five ambulatory community-dwelling stroke survivors participated. Volume and intensity of physical activity were assessed with accelerometers for three to five consecutive days. Personal and environmental factors, along with body function and activity, were captured. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate factors associated with the percentage of days spent sedentary. The median number of steps per day was 2393, and of the average 703 minutes of wear time, 80% were spent in sedentary, 15% in light, and 5% in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. Age, stroke severity, and failing to receive outpatient rehabilitation were independently associated with sedentary, which, taken together, explained 52% of the variance. Low volumes of physical activity and high amount of sedentary time emphasize the need to develop strategies that will increase physical activity. Providing outpatient rehabilitation in a systematic manner post-stroke is a potential target of health care programs in order to reduce sedentary behavior. Implications for rehabilitation Objectively measured physical activity among community-dwelling survivors of stroke in Cape Town, South Africa was low in volume, and the majority did not meet the recommendations of 150 minutes of at least moderate intensity physical activity. The majority of stroke survivors in South Africa spent most of their time sedentary, which could further increase the risk of cardiovascular impairments. Outpatient rehabilitation should be provided to all patients after stroke

  19. Sedentary Behavior and Sleep Duration Are Associated with Both Stress Symptoms and Suicidal Thoughts in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Keun Ok; Jang, Jae Yong; Kim, Junghoon

    2015-12-01

    Prolonged sedentary time and sleep deprivation are associated with mental health problems such as depression and stress symptoms. Moreover, mental illness is linked with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts. However, it is not clear whether sedentary time and sleep duration are associated with stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts independent of physical activity. Thus, our study aimed to identify if sedentary time and sleep duration were associated with both stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts. The participants in present cross-sectional study were 4,674 general Korean adults (1,938 male; 2,736 female), aged ≥ 20 years. Prolonged sedentary time (≥ 420 min/day) was significantly associated with the increased risk of stress symptoms (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.04-1.62) compared with sedentary time of stress symptoms was significant for individuals who had ≤ 5 h/day of sleep time (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.48-2.38) compared with sleep duration of ≥ 7 h/day. Moreover, prolonged sedentary time (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.01-2.42 in ≥ 420 min/day vs. sleep duration (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.17-2.62 in ≤ 5 h/day vs. ≥ 7 h/day) were significantly associated with an increased risk for suicidal thoughts after adjusting for confounding factors including physical activity. Thus, prolonged sedentary time and sleep deprivation are independently associated with both the risk of stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts. From a public health perspective, reducing sedentary time and improvement of sleep deprivation may serve as an effective strategy for preventing mental illness.

  20. Comparison of Total Antioxidant Capacity Oxidative Stress and Blood Lipoprotein Parameters in Volleyball Players and Sedentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhan, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to measure, then compare sedentary blood lipoproteins, oxidant- antioxidant state and oxidative stress index in volleyball players. The experimental group of the research consists of regularly practising 20 boys between the ages of 12 and 17, and the control group comprises 32 children practising no particular sports branch, 12 of…

  1. Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior of Youth with Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bryan G.; Li, Dongmei; Heinrich, Katie M.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in childhood are important indicators of present and future health and are associated with school-related outcomes such as academic achievement, behavior, peer relationships, and self-esteem. Using logistic regression models that controlled for gender, age, ethnicity/race, and socioeconomic…

  2. Cross-Sectional Relationships of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior With Cognitive Function in Older Adults With Probable Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Ryan S; Landry, Glenn J; Best, John R; Davis, Jennifer C; Chiu, Bryan K; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-10-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a transition between normal cognitive aging and dementia and may represent a critical time frame for promoting cognitive health through behavioral strategies. Current evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior are important for cognition. However, it is unclear whether there are differences in PA and sedentary behavior between people with probable MCI and people without MCI or whether the relationships of PA and sedentary behavior with cognitive function differ by MCI status. The aims of this study were to examine differences in PA and sedentary behavior between people with probable MCI and people without MCI and whether associations of PA and sedentary behavior with cognitive function differed by MCI status. This was a cross-sectional study. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in adults dwelling in the community (N = 151; at least 55 years old) were measured using a wrist-worn actigraphy unit. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment was used to categorize participants with probable MCI (scores of Cognitive function was indexed using the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive-Plus (ADAS-Cog Plus). Physical activity and sedentary behavior were compared based on probable MCI status, and relationships of ADAS-Cog Plus with PA and sedentary behavior were examined by probable MCI status. Participants with probable MCI (n = 82) had lower PA and higher sedentary behavior than participants without MCI (n = 69). Higher PA and lower sedentary behavior were associated with better ADAS-Cog Plus performance in participants without MCI (β = -.022 and β = .012, respectively) but not in participants with probable MCI (β cognitive function. The diagnosis of MCI was not confirmed with a physician; therefore, this study could not conclude how many of the participants categorized as having probable MCI would actually have been diagnosed with MCI by a physician. Participants with probable MCI were less active

  3. Understanding and Influencing Workplace Sedentary Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    NYSSA TEGAN HADGRAFT

    2017-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour (or sitting) is a recently identified chronic disease risk factor. Many adults spend the majority of their working hours sitting, making the workplace a key setting for public health interventions. This thesis aimed to identify factors that influence workplace sitting time and the feasibility of reducing this behaviour. The most prominent factors identified were: the nature of work, social norms and workplace culture, and the workplace physical environment. These findings ...

  4. Prospective association between objective measures of childhood motor coordination and sedentary behaviour in adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lee; Fisher, Abigail; Hamer, Mark

    2015-06-10

    Higher levels of gross motor coordination are positively associated with physical activity in childhood, but little is known about how they relate to sedentary behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal association between gross motor coordination at childhood and sedentary behaviour in adolescence and adulthood. Data were from the 1970 British Cohort Study (the age 10, 16, and 42-year surveys). At age 10 the participant's mother provided information on how often participants watched TV and played sports and a health visitor administered several tests to assess gross motor coordination. At aged 16 and 42-years participants reported their daily screen and TV time, respectively, and physical activity status. We examined associations between gross motor coordination at age 10 with sedentary behaviour and physical activity at age 16 and 42, using logistic regression. In multivariable models, higher levels of gross motor coordination were associated with lower odds of high screen time (n = 3073; OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.64, 0.98) at 16-years although no associations with physical activity were observed (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.93, 1.44). Similar associations were observed with TV time in adulthood when participants were aged 42, and in addition high gross motor coordination was also associated with physical activity participation (n = 4879; OR 1.18, 95 % CI 1.02, 1.36). Intervention efforts to increase physical activity participation and reduce sedentary behaviour over the life course may be best targeted towards children with low gross motor coordination.

  5. Prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among stroke survivors in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Eboneé N; Evenson, Kelly R

    2014-01-01

    The risk of stroke is greatest among adults who have experienced a previous stroke, transient ischemic attack, or myocardial infarction. Physical activity may reduce the secondary risk of stroke through mediating effects on blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and circulating lipid concentrations; however, little is known about the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among stroke survivors in the United States. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we describe self-reported and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior among adults with a self-reported history of stroke. We also contrast physical activity among stroke survivors with that of adults without stroke (unexposed) to illustrate expected behavior in the absence of disease. Fewer participants with stroke met weekly physical activity guidelines as outlined in the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans when compared with unexposed participants (17.9% vs 25.0%) according to self-reported data. In addition, participants with stroke reported less moderate (46.1% vs 54.7%) and vigorous (9.1% vs 19.6%) leisure activity compared with unexposed participants. As measured by accelerometer, time since diagnosis was inversely associated with physical activity engagement, and participants with stroke recorded more daily hours of sedentary behavior compared with unexposed participants (10.1 hours vs 8.9 hours). Findings from this study provide a basis for future work seeking to measure the impact of physical activity on the secondary prevention of stroke by characterizing the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among stroke survivors in the United States.

  6. Redesigning a control room from an ergonomic point of view : a case study of user participation in a chemical plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, van der T.W.; Kragt, H.; Kragt, H.

    1992-01-01

    A field study in a chemical industry was conducted to redesign a control room with panel instrumentation into one with visual display units (VDUs). The authors had been asked to advise the project team and to participate in the application. First, a general evaluation of the central control room

  7. Does school physical education really contribute to accelerometer-measured daily physical activity and non sedentary behaviour in high school students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Martínez-Baena, Alejandro; Viciana, Jesús

    2018-01-11

    Physical education has been highlighted as an important environment for physical activity promotion, however, to our knowledge there are no previous studies examining the contribution of physical education to daily accelerometer-measured physical activity and non sedentary behaviour. The purpose was to compare the accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour between physical education, non-physical education and weekend days in adolescents. Of the 394 students from a Spanish high school that were invited to participate, 158 students (83 boys and 75 girls) aged 13-16 years were analyzed (wear time ≥ 600 min). Participants' physical activity and sedentary behaviour were objectively-measured by GT3X+ accelerometers during physical education (one session), non-physical education and weekend days. Results indicated that overall adolescents had statistically significant greater physical activity levels and lower values of sedentary behaviour on physical education days than on non-physical education and weekend days (e.g., moderate-to-vigorous physical activity = 71, 54 and 57 min; sedentary = 710, 740 and 723 min) (p education contributes significantly to reducing students' daily physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. Increasing the number of physical education classes seems to be an effective strategy to reduce the high current prevalence of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour in adolescence.

  8. Proceedings (slides, posters) of the 7. IAEA Technical Meeting on Control, Data Acquisition, and Remote Participation for Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this meeting is to present and discuss new developments and perspectives in the areas of control, data acquisition and remote participation for nuclear research around the world. The following topics have been covered: 1) plasma control, 2) machine control, monitoring, safety and remote manipulation, 3) data acquisition and signal processing, 4) database techniques for information storage and retrieval, 5) advanced computing and massive data analysis, 6) remote participation and virtual laboratory, 7) fast network technology and its application, and 8) ITER

  9. Geographical Inequality in Tobacco Control in China: Multilevel Evidence From 98 058 Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Zhang, Mei; Feng, Xiaoqi; Wang, Limin; Li, Yichong; Page, Andrew; Zhou, Maigeng; Wang, Linhong

    2018-05-03

    We investigated the spatial patterning and correlates of tobacco smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke, smoking in public places, workplace smoking prohibition, pro- and counter-tobacco advertisements in mainland China. Choropleth maps and multilevel models were used to assess geographical variation and correlates of the aforementioned outcome variables for 98 058 participants across 31 provinces of China in 2010. Current tobacco smoking prevalence was higher in the central provinces for men and in the north eastern provinces and Tibet for women. Secondhand smoke was higher for both genders in Qinghai and Hunan provinces. Workplace tobacco restrictions was higher in the north and east, whereas smoking in public places was more common in the west, central, and far northeast. Protobacco advertising was observed in public places more often by men (18.5%) than women (13.1%). Men (35.5%) were also more likely to sight counter-tobacco advertising in public places than women (30.1%). Awareness of workplace tobacco restrictions was more common in affluent urban areas. Lower awareness of workplace tobacco restrictions was in less affluent urban and rural areas. Sightings of tobacco smoking in public places was highest in restaurants (80.4% for men, 75.0% for women) and also commonly reported in less affluent urban and rural areas. Exposure to secondhand smoke was lower among women (but not men) where workplace tobacco restrictions was more common and higher regardless of gender in areas where smoking in public places was more commonly observed. Geographical and gender-sensitive targeting of tobacco prevention and control initiatives are warranted. This study demonstrates spatial patterning of China's 300 million smokers across the country that are different for men and women. Many of the factors that influence tobacco use, such as pro- and counter-advertising, also vary geographically. Workplace smoking restrictions are more commonly reported among individuals with higher

  10. Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and vitamin D metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibler, Elizabeth A; Sardo Molmenti, Christine L; Dai, Qi; Kohler, Lindsay N; Warren Anderson, Shaneda; Jurutka, Peter W; Jacobs, Elizabeth T

    2016-02-01

    Physical activity is associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). However, the influence of activity and/or sedentary behavior on the biologically active, seco-steroid hormone 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) randomized trial participants (n=876) to evaluate associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and circulating vitamin D metabolite concentrations. Continuous vitamin D metabolite measurements and clinical thresholds were evaluated using multiple linear and logistic regression models, mutually adjusted for either 1,25(OH)2D or 25(OH)D and additional confounding factors. A statistically significant linear association between 1,25(OH)2D and moderate-vigorous physical activity per week was strongest among women (β (95% CI): 3.10 (1.51-6.35)) versus men (β (95% CI): 1.35 (0.79-2.29)) in the highest tertile of activity compared to the lowest (p-interaction=0.003). Furthermore, 25(OH)D was 1.54ng/ml (95% CI 1.09-1.98) higher per hour increase in moderate-vigorous activity (p=0.001) and odds of sufficient 25(OH)D status was higher among physically active participants (p=0.001). Sedentary behavior was not significantly associated with either metabolite in linear regression models, nor was a statistically significant interaction by sex identified. The current study identified novel associations between physical activity and serum 1,25(OH)2D levels, adjusted for 25(OH)D concentrations. These results identify the biologically active form of vitamin D as a potential physiologic mechanism related to observed population-level associations between moderate-vigorous physical activity with bone health and chronic disease risk. However, future longitudinal studies are needed to further evaluate the role of physical activity and vitamin D metabolites in chronic disease prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A randomized controlled trial of physical activity with individual goal-setting and volunteer mentors to overcome sedentary lifestyle in older adults at risk of cognitive decline: the INDIGO trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Kay L; Cyarto, Elizabeth V; Etherton-Beer, Christopher; Ellis, Kathryn A; Alfonso, Helman; Clare, Linda; Liew, Danny; Ames, David; Flicker, Leon; Almeida, Osvaldo P; LoGiudice, Dina; Lautenschlager, Nicola T

    2017-09-13

    Increasing physical activity (PA) effectively in those who are inactive is challenging. For those who have subjective memory complaints (SMC) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) this is a greater challenge necessitating the need for more engaging and innovative approaches. The primary aim of this trial is to determine whether a home-based 6-month PA intervention with individual goal-setting and peer mentors (GM-PA) can significantly increase PA levels in insufficiently active older adults at increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Community living 60-80 year olds with SMC or MCI who do not engage in more than 60 min per week of moderate intensity PA will be recruited from memory clinics and the community via media advertisements to participate in this randomized, single-blind controlled trial. All participants will receive an individually tailored home-based PA program of 150 min of moderate intensity walking/week for 6 months. The intervention group will undertake individual goal-setting and behavioral education workshops with mentor support via telephone (GM-PA). Those randomized to the control group will have standard education workshops and Physical Activity Liaison (PAL) contact via telephone (CO-PA). Increase in PA is the primary outcome, fitness, cognitive, personality, demographic and clinical parameters will be measured and a health economic analysis performed. A saliva sample will be collected for APOE e4 genotyping. All participants will have a goal-setting interview to determine their PA goals. Active volunteers aged 50-85 years will be recruited from the community randomized and trained to provide peer support as mentors (intervention group) or PALS (control group) for the 6-month intervention. Mentors and PALS will have PA, exercise self-efficacy and mentoring self-efficacy measured. Participants in both groups are asked to attend 3 workshops in 6 months. At the first workshop, they will meet their allocated Mentor or PAL who will

  12. Effect of once a week endurance exercise on fitness status in sedentary subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruntrakul, Ashira; Nanagara, Ratanavadee; Emasithi, Alongkot; Borer, Katarina T

    2010-09-01

    To study whether 3-months aerobic exercise training at moderate intensity once a week can increase fitness status in healthy sedentary young men. Randomized controlled study was performed in 37 sedentary young men, 18 to 25 years old. The exercise group (19) was assigned to work on bicycle ergometry at 60% of maximal effort, once a week for 12 weeks. The control group (18) lived a normal life style. Before and after training, aerobic fitness (VO2(max)), resting heart rate, lipid profile, and isokinetic power and strength of shoulder and knee were evaluated. In the exercise group, there was a significant increase in most fitness parameters compared with control, VO2(max) (19.7%), isokinetic power and strength of shoulder and knee (14.9%), and resting heart rate decreased (7.4%). Moderate-intensity training once a week for at least 12 weeks was sufficient to increase aerobic fitness in sedentary young men. This low frequency of exercise training may be used to encourage sedentary individuals for more compliance with physical activity.

  13. The Influence of Daily Stress on Sedentary Behavior: Group and Person (N of 1) Level Results of a 1-Year Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Keith M; Thanataveerat, Anusorn; Parsons, Faith E; Yoon, Sunmoo; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Alcantara, Carmela; Duran, Andrea T; Ensari, Ipek; Krupka, David J; Schwartz, Joseph E; Burg, Matthew M; Davidson, Karina W

    2018-05-24

    The purpose of this study, which used mobile technologies to continuously collect data over 1 year, was to examine the association of psychological stress with objectively measured sedentary behavior in adults at both the group (e.g. nomothetic approach) and individual (e.g. idiographic approach) level. Data were collected in an observational study of healthy adults (n=79) residing in the New York City metro area who were studied for 365 days from 2014-2015. Sedentary behavior was objectively measured via accelerometry. A smartphone-based electronic diary was used to assess level of stress ("Overall, how stressful was your day?"; 0-10 scale) and sources of stress. The end-of-day stress rating was not associated with total sedentary time (B= -1.34, p=0.767) at the group-level. When specific sources of stress were evaluated at the group-level, argument-related stress was associated with increased sedentariness; while running late- and work-related stress were associated with decreased sedentariness. There was a substantial degree of inter-individual variability in the relationship of stress with sedentary behavior. Both the level and sources of stress were associated with increased sedentariness for some, decreased sedentariness for others, and had no effect for many (within-person variance p-value stress on sedentary behavior varies by source of stress and from person-to-person. A precision medicine approach may be warranted to target reductions in sedentary time; although further studies are needed to confirm the observed findings in light of study limitations including a small sample size and enrollment of participants from a single, urban metropolitan area.

  14. [Leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behaviors among Chinese adults in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-rong; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Li-min; Li, Yi-chong; Zhang, Mei; Hu, Nan; Zhao, Wen-hua

    2012-05-01

    To understand the prevalence of participation in leisure-time physical activity, and sedentary behaviors among Chinese adults. Data from Chinese Chronic Disease Surveillance (2010) was used. Among adults aged 18 years old and over, the information on frequency and duration of occupational activity, house chores, commuting and leisure time activity was collected by an interview with Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). The time spent on watching TV, reading, using computers or playing games after work was also surveyed. This present study only analyzed the percentage of participating in leisure time moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity at least 10 minutes three days per week and the time spent on TV, reading, using computer and playing games during after hours among Chinese adults of 98 649 subjects. 11.9% (95%CI: 10.5% - 13.3%) of all adults took part in leisure time moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity at least 10 minutes for three days per week, with-group the percentage highest among age-group 18 - 24 (15.6%, 95%CI: 10.5% - 13.3%) and lowest among age 25 - 34 (9.9%, 95%CI: 8.0% - 11.7%) and 75 years old and over (9.9%, 95%CI: 8.2% - 11.6%) (P sedentary behaviors, such as watching TV, reading, using computers or playing games during after hours. Those aged 18 - 24 years-old spent most time (3.8 ± 2.6) hours per day in sedentary behaviors and the time reduced with age (P Sedentary behaviors were taken by male (2.9 ± 2.1 hours per day) than by female ((2.6 ± 1.9) hours per day) (P 0.05). The percentage of taking part in moderate and vigorous activity during leisure time was generally low. Average time spent in after hours sedentary behaviors was long.

  15. Diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and perceptions of the environment in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, A A; Townshend, T; Alvanides, S; Stamp, E; Adamson, A J

    2009-10-01

    Few studies have explored both food behaviour and physical activity in an environmental context. Most research in this area has focused on adults; the aim of the present study was to describe perceptions of the environment, diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour patterns in 16-20 year olds in full-time education (Newcastle, UK). Participants (n = 73) recruited from a college and sixth-form college completed a UK version of the Youth Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Survey, which included measures of sedentary behaviour. A validated food frequency questionnaire was completed and a factor applied to produce an estimated mean daily frequency of intake of each item, which was converted to nutrient intakes. A rank for Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) was assigned to their home postcode. Analysis explored associations between sedentary behaviours and nutrient intake. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, most participants reported being physically active for at least 1 h day(-1) on 3-4 (n = 28) or 5-7 days (n = 31). There were no significant differences in nutrient intake according to sample quartile IMD position. Sedentary behaviours were significantly associated with less healthy eating patterns. Higher total energy (P = 0.02), higher fat (P = 0.005), percentage energy from fat (P = 0.035) and lower carbohydrate intakes (P = 0.004) were significantly associated with more time spent watching DVDs at the weekend. This combination of sedentary behaviour and less healthy eating patterns has important implications for long-term health (e.g. the tracking of being overweight and obesity from adolescence into adulthood). Understanding behaviour relationships is an important step in developing interventions in this age group.

  16. The influence of smoking, sedentary lifestyle and obesity on cognitive impairment-free life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Kaarin Jane; Kingston, Andrew; Kiely, Kim Matthew; Luszcz, Mary Alice; Mitchell, Paul; Jagger, Carol

    2014-12-01

    Smoking, sedentary lifestyle and obesity are risk factors for mortality and dementia. However, their impact on cognitive impairment-free life expectancy (CIFLE)has not previously been estimated. Data were drawn from the DYNOPTA dataset which was derived by harmonizing and pooling common measures from five longitudinal ageing studies. Participants for whom the Mini-Mental State Examination was available were included (N¼8111,48.6% men). Data on education, sex, body mass index, smoking and sedentary lifestyle were collected and mortality data were obtained from Government Records via data linkage.Total life expectancy (LE), CIFLE and years spent with cognitive impairment (CILE)were estimated for each risk factor and total burden of risk factors. CILE was approximately 2 years for men and 3 years for women, regardless of age. For men and women respectively, reduced LE associated with smoking was 3.82and 5.88 years, associated with obesity was 0.62 and 1.72 years and associated with being sedentary was 2.50 and 2.89 years. Absence of each risk factor was associated with longer LE and CIFLE, but also longer CILE for smoking in women and being sedentary in both sexes. Compared with participants with no risk factors, those with 2þ had shorter CIFLE of up to 3.5 years depending on gender and education level. Population level reductions in smoking, sedentary lifestyle and obesity increase longevity and number of years lived without cognitive impairment. Years lived with cognitive impairment may also increase.

  17. A place for play? The influence of the home physical environment on children’s physical activity and sedentary behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The home environment is an important influence on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children, who have limited independent mobility and spend much of their time at home. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the influence of the home physical environment on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children aged 8–14 years. A literature search of peer reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2011 resulted in 38 observational studies (21 with activity outcomes, 23 with sedentary outcomes) and 11 experimental studies included in the review. The most commonly investigated behavioural outcomes were television watching and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Media equipment in the home and to a lesser extent the bedroom were positively associated with children’s sedentary behaviour. Physical activity equipment and the house and yard were not associated with physical activity, although environmental measures were exclusively self-reported. On the other hand, physical activity equipment was inversely associated with sedentary behaviours in half of studies. Observational studies that investigated the influence of the physical and social environment within the home space, found that the social environment, particularly the role of parents, was important. Experimental studies that changed the home physical environment by introducing a television limiting device successfully decreased television viewing, whereas the influence of introducing an active video game on activity outcomes was inconsistent. Results highlight that the home environment is an important influence on children’s sedentary behaviour and physical activity, about which much is still unknown. While changing or controlling the home physical environment shows promise for reducing screen based sedentary behaviour, further interventions are needed to understand the broader impact of these changes. Future studies should prioritise investigating the influence of the

  18. A place for play? The influence of the home physical environment on children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Clover; Stratton, Gareth; Foster, Sarah; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2013-08-17

    The home environment is an important influence on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children, who have limited independent mobility and spend much of their time at home. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the influence of the home physical environment on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children aged 8-14 years. A literature search of peer reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2011 resulted in 38 observational studies (21 with activity outcomes, 23 with sedentary outcomes) and 11 experimental studies included in the review. The most commonly investigated behavioural outcomes were television watching and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Media equipment in the home and to a lesser extent the bedroom were positively associated with children's sedentary behaviour. Physical activity equipment and the house and yard were not associated with physical activity, although environmental measures were exclusively self-reported. On the other hand, physical activity equipment was inversely associated with sedentary behaviours in half of studies. Observational studies that investigated the influence of the physical and social environment within the home space, found that the social environment, particularly the role of parents, was important. Experimental studies that changed the home physical environment by introducing a television limiting device successfully decreased television viewing, whereas the influence of introducing an active video game on activity outcomes was inconsistent. Results highlight that the home environment is an important influence on children's sedentary behaviour and physical activity, about which much is still unknown. While changing or controlling the home physical environment shows promise for reducing screen based sedentary behaviour, further interventions are needed to understand the broader impact of these changes. Future studies should prioritise investigating the influence of the home

  19. Using sit-stand workstations to decrease sedentary time in office workers: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Nirjhar; Koepp, Gabriel A; Stovitz, Steven D; Levine, James A; Pereira, Mark A

    2014-06-25

    This study was conducted to determine whether installation of sit-stand desks (SSDs) could lead to decreased sitting time during the workday among sedentary office workers. A randomized cross-over trial was conducted from January to April, 2012 at a business in Minneapolis. 28 (nine men, 26 full-time) sedentary office workers took part in a 4 week intervention period which included the use of SSDs to gradually replace 50% of sitting time with standing during the workday. Physical activity was the primary outcome. Mood, energy level, fatigue, appetite, dietary intake, and productivity were explored as secondary outcomes. The intervention reduced sitting time at work by 21% (95% CI 18%-25%) and sedentary time by 4.8 min/work-hr (95% CI 4.1-5.4 min/work-hr). For a 40 h work-week, this translates into replacement of 8 h of sitting time with standing and sedentary time being reduced by 3.2 h. Activity level during non-work hours did not change. The intervention also increased overall sense of well-being, energy, decreased fatigue, had no impact on productivity, and reduced appetite and dietary intake. The workstations were popular with the participants. The SSD intervention was successful in increasing work-time activity level, without changing activity level during non-work hours.

  20. Using Sit-Stand Workstations to Decrease Sedentary Time in Office Workers: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirjhar Dutta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine whether installation of sit-stand desks (SSDs could lead to decreased sitting time during the workday among sedentary office workers. Methods: A randomized cross-over trial was conducted from January to April, 2012 at a business in Minneapolis. 28 (nine men, 26 full-time sedentary office workers took part in a 4 week intervention period which included the use of SSDs to gradually replace 50% of sitting time with standing during the workday. Physical activity was the primary outcome. Mood, energy level, fatigue, appetite, dietary intake, and productivity were explored as secondary outcomes. Results: The intervention reduced sitting time at work by 21% (95% CI 18%–25% and sedentary time by 4.8 min/work-hr (95% CI 4.1–5.4 min/work-hr. For a 40 h work-week, this translates into replacement of 8 h of sitting time with standing and sedentary time being reduced by 3.2 h. Activity level during non-work hours did not change. The intervention also increased overall sense of well-being, energy, decreased fatigue, had no impact on productivity, and reduced appetite and dietary intake. The workstations were popular with the participants. Conclusion: The SSD intervention was successful in increasing work-time activity level, without changing activity level during non-work hours.

  1. Investigating Elementary School Children's Daily Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors during Weekdays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Chen, Senlin; Huang, Chaoqun; Stodden, David F.; Xiang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to quantify the contributions of physical education, exergaming (active video games that also are a type of exercise), recess, lunch break and after-school time segments to children's daily physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Methods Participants were 138 second and third graders (71 girls) who attended 20-minute recess and 75-minute lunch time daily, 25-minute regular physical education or exergaming-based classes being alternated daily. The after-school period was defined as 3:20-10:00pm. Physical activity was assessed via accelerometry and the dependent variables were children's time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Results Children's percentages of time spent in MVPA (p < .001; except for the difference between exergaming and lunch break: p = .63), light physical activity (p < .001), and sedentary behavior (p < .001) differed significantly across the time segments (i.e., physical education/exergaming, recess, lunch break, and after-school). Additionally, children accumulated significantly more MVPA (t = 10.22, p < .001) but less light physical activity (t = -3.17, p = .002) and sedentary behavior (t = -3.91, p < .001) in physical education than in exergaming. Conclusions Overall, physical education was more effective in generating MVPA than other segments over the school day. The after-school segment holds potential as an avenue for promoting children's MVPA, as this long period could be better utilized to organize structured physical activity. PMID:26950823

  2. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401 and females (1507 aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use, physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p p p p Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

  3. An objective assessment of toddlers' physical activity and sedentary levels: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderloo, Leigh M; Tucker, Patricia

    2015-09-26

    Little evidence exists on the physical activity and sedentary time of Canadian toddlers; this study objectively measured such behaviors and compared participants' activity levels to national guidelines. Levels of screen-viewing among toddlers were also explored. Forty toddlers (mean age = 25.7 months) wore Actical accelerometers for seven consecutive days (15 s epoch). Parents/guardians completed a wear-time log and a demographic and screen-viewing questionnaire. Descriptive analyses were used to determine participants' levels of physical activity and sedentary time, to identify whether toddlers were meeting physical activity/sedentary guidelines, and to explore demographic variables. T-tests were used to assess whether toddlers' activity levels differed based on cut-points applied and various demographic and screen-related variables. Regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between toddlers' sedentary time and screen-viewing levels. Toddlers engaged in 37.27 (SD = 3.79) to 49.40 (SD = 3.29) mins/hr of sedentary time, 9.79 (SD = 2.90) to 18.78 (SD = 3.22) mins/hr of light-intensity physical activity (LPA), 0.82 (SD = 0.72) to 3.95 (SD = 1.93) mins/hr of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), and 10.60 (SD =3.29) to 22.73 (SD = 3.97) mins/hr of total physical activity (TPA), based on the Trost et al. and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) cut-points respectively; these rates were significantly different (p physical activity guidelines. No statistically significant differences in sedentary time or physical activity (all intensities) based on sex were reported (p sedentary behavior guidelines on weekdays and weekend days, respectively. The implications of this work suggest that a greater understanding of toddlers' activity patterns is needed; additional mechanisms of promoting active behaviors among this group should be explored.

  4. Effect of hippotherapy on motor control, adaptive behaviors, and participation in children with autism spectrum disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajzenman, Heather F; Standeven, John W; Shurtleff, Tim L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether hippotherapy increased function and participation in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We hypothesized improvements in motor control, which might increase adaptive behaviors and participation in daily activities. Six children with ASD ages 5-12 participated in 12 weekly 45-min hippotherapy sessions. Measures pre- and post-hippotherapy included the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II and the Child Activity Card Sort. Motor control was measured preintervention and postintervention using a video motion capture system and force plates. Postural sway significantly decreased postintervention. Significant increases were observed in overall adaptive behaviors (receptive communication and coping) and in participation in self-care, low-demand leisure, and social interactions. These results suggest that hippotherapy has a positive influence on children with ASD and can be a useful treatment tool for this population. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  5. Using Balance Tests to Discriminate Between Participants With a Recent Index Lateral Ankle Sprain and Healthy Control Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourkazemi, Fereshteh; Hiller, Claire; Raymond, Jacqueline; Black, Deborah; Nightingale, Elizabeth; Refshauge, Kathryn

    2016-03-01

    The first step to identifying factors that increase the risk of recurrent ankle sprains is to identify impairments after a first sprain and compare performance with individuals who have never sustained a sprain. Few researchers have restricted recruitment to a homogeneous group of patients with first sprains, thereby introducing the potential for confounding. To identify impairments that differ in participants with a recent index lateral ankle sprain versus participants with no history of ankle sprain. Cross-sectional study. We recruited a sample of convenience from May 2010 to April 2013 that included 70 volunteers (age = 27.4 ± 8.3 years, height = 168.7 ± 9.5 cm, mass = 65.0 ± 12.5 kg) serving as controls and 30 volunteers (age = 31.1 ± 13.3 years, height = 168.3 ± 9.1 cm, mass = 67.3 ± 13.7 kg) with index ankle sprains. We collected demographic and physical performance variables, including ankle-joint range of motion, balance (time to balance after perturbation, Star Excursion Balance Test, foot lifts during single-legged stance, demi-pointe balance test), proprioception, motor planning, inversion-eversion peak power, and timed stair tests. Discriminant analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between explanatory variables and sprain status. Sequential discriminant analysis was performed to identify the most relevant variables that explained the greatest variance. The average time since the sprain was 3.5 ± 1.5 months. The model, including all variables, correctly predicted a sprain status of 77% (n = 23) of the sprain group and 80% (n = 56) of the control group and explained 40% of the variance between groups ([Formula: see text] = 42.16, P = .03). Backward stepwise discriminant analysis revealed associations between sprain status and only 2 tests: Star Excursion Balance Test in the anterior direction and foot lifts during single-legged stance ([Formula: see text] = 15.2, P = .001). These 2 tests explained 15% of the between-groups variance

  6. Effect of sports participation on Internet addiction mediated by self-control: A case of Korean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Ahm Park

    2016-09-01

    SEM indicated a significant effect of sports participation on Internet addiction mediated by self-control. The results suggest the effectiveness of and need for sport and physical activity in Internet addiction treatment programs and for other addictions as well. Moreover, sports participation has a wider variety of psychological and physical benefits unlike intervention strategies or pharmacological treatments. Thus, the adoption of sports needs to be broadened from physical development to treating diverse psychological problems among adolescents.

  7. Sedentary behavior, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on leukocyte telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-01-01

    Background: Emerging work is starting to investigate the cumulative effects of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness on health. The objective of this study was to examine the cumulative and independent associations of MVPA, sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness on leukocyte telomere length (LTL). Methods: Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 1868 adults 20+ years); analyzed in 2016. Sedentary behavior and MVPA were subjectively assessed with cardiorespiratory fitness determined from a submaximal treadmill-based test; participants were classified as above or below the median values for each of these three parameters. A blood sample was obtained from each participant to assess LTL via quantitative polymerase chain reaction, with participants grouped into LTL tertiles. Results: Participants who engaged in higher MVPA, sat less and had higher cardiorespiratory fitness had an increased odds (ranging from 85% to 105%) of being in LTL tertile 3 (vs. 1). In an extended adjusted multinomial logistic regression model, only MVPA was positively associated with LTL (odds ration [OR] = 1.37; 95% CI: 0.99-1.90; P = 0.05). Conclusion: All three behavior characteristics, but particularly MVPA, may be important in preserving LTLs.

  8. Comparison of energy expenditure in adolescents when playing new generation and sedentary computer games: cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the energy expenditure of adolescents when playing sedentary and new generation active computer games. Design Cross sectional comparison of four computer games. Setting Research laboratories. Participants Six boys and five girls aged 13-15 years. Procedure Participants were fitted with a monitoring device validated to predict energy expenditure. They played four computer games for 15 minutes each. One of the games was sedentary (XBOX 360) and the other three were active (Wii Sports). Main outcome measure Predicted energy expenditure, compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Mean (standard deviation) predicted energy expenditure when playing Wii Sports bowling (190.6 (22.2) kJ/kg/min), tennis (202.5 (31.5) kJ/kg/min), and boxing (198.1 (33.9) kJ/kg/min) was significantly greater than when playing sedentary games (125.5 (13.7) kJ/kg/min) (P<0.001). Predicted energy expenditure was at least 65.1 (95% confidence interval 47.3 to 82.9) kJ/kg/min greater when playing active rather than sedentary games. Conclusions Playing new generation active computer games uses significantly more energy than playing sedentary computer games but not as much energy as playing the sport itself. The energy used when playing active Wii Sports games was not of high enough intensity to contribute towards the recommended daily amount of exercise in children. PMID:18156227

  9. Performance of thigh-mounted triaxial accelerometer algorithms in objective quantification of sedentary behaviour and physical activity in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgen A Wullems

    Full Text Available Accurate monitoring of sedentary behaviour and physical activity is key to investigate their exact role in healthy ageing. To date, accelerometers using cut-off point models are most preferred for this, however, machine learning seems a highly promising future alternative. Hence, the current study compared between cut-off point and machine learning algorithms, for optimal quantification of sedentary behaviour and physical activity intensities in the elderly. Thus, in a heterogeneous sample of forty participants (aged ≥60 years, 50% female energy expenditure during laboratory-based activities (ranging from sedentary behaviour through to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was estimated by indirect calorimetry, whilst wearing triaxial thigh-mounted accelerometers. Three cut-off point algorithms and a Random Forest machine learning model were developed and cross-validated using the collected data. Detailed analyses were performed to check algorithm robustness, and examine and benchmark both overall and participant-specific balanced accuracies. This revealed that the four models can at least be used to confidently monitor sedentary behaviour and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Nevertheless, the machine learning algorithm outperformed the cut-off point models by being robust for all individual's physiological and non-physiological characteristics and showing more performance of an acceptable level over the whole range of physical activity intensities. Therefore, we propose that Random Forest machine learning may be optimal for objective assessment of sedentary behaviour and physical activity in older adults using thigh-mounted triaxial accelerometry.

  10. Performance of thigh-mounted triaxial accelerometer algorithms in objective quantification of sedentary behaviour and physical activity in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschueren, Sabine M. P.; Degens, Hans; Morse, Christopher I.; Onambélé, Gladys L.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate monitoring of sedentary behaviour and physical activity is key to investigate their exact role in healthy ageing. To date, accelerometers using cut-off point models are most preferred for this, however, machine learning seems a highly promising future alternative. Hence, the current study compared between cut-off point and machine learning algorithms, for optimal quantification of sedentary behaviour and physical activity intensities in the elderly. Thus, in a heterogeneous sample of forty participants (aged ≥60 years, 50% female) energy expenditure during laboratory-based activities (ranging from sedentary behaviour through to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) was estimated by indirect calorimetry, whilst wearing triaxial thigh-mounted accelerometers. Three cut-off point algorithms and a Random Forest machine learning model were developed and cross-validated using the collected data. Detailed analyses were performed to check algorithm robustness, and examine and benchmark both overall and participant-specific balanced accuracies. This revealed that the four models can at least be used to confidently monitor sedentary behaviour and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Nevertheless, the machine learning algorithm outperformed the cut-off point models by being robust for all individual’s physiological and non-physiological characteristics and showing more performance of an acceptable level over the whole range of physical activity intensities. Therefore, we propose that Random Forest machine learning may be optimal for objective assessment of sedentary behaviour and physical activity in older adults using thigh-mounted triaxial accelerometry. PMID:29155839

  11. Quality of Life Profile, Overweight-Obesity and Sedentary Behavior in Elementary and High School Children of Guanacaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ureña-Bonilla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the quality of life profile, overweight-obesity and sedentary behavior in a group of elementary and high school children of Guanacaste. 635 students participated in the study. The participants completed a protocol by which they were anthropometrically evaluated, and also filled up a questionnaire related to sedentary behavior and quality of life. In general, the findings reflected a prevalence of overweight and obesity of 13, 9%. The most important sedentary activities were, in descending order, the small screen (watching TV, video games, computer, and certain social and cultural activities. The self-reported quality of life index was within acceptable limits but not exceeding 80 points on a scale of 1-100. There was no significant relationship between the rate of the overall quality of life, overweight, obesity and some sedentary behaviors, although some anthropometric parameters like percentage of body fat and body weight showed significant correlation with sedentary behavior and specific aspects belonging to quality of life. The study provides valuable information to health authorities, directors of educational institutions and parents about key issues related to child development.

  12. Microfinance Participation, Control Over Resources, and Justification of IPV: Results From a Nationally Representative Sample of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Nadine Shaanta

    2016-04-13

    A high percentage of men and women are purported to justify intimate partner violence (IPV) in countries that are steeped in patriarchy even in the presence of programs such as microfinance that aim to address gender equity. This article examines two assertions that emerge from the literature on microfinance and its potential for positive outcomes for women who participate in it: (a) Microfinance participation is associated with reduced justification of IPV, and (b) microfinance participants with control over their own resources are less likely to justify IPV when compared with microfinance participants who do not have control over their resources. Couples data from a nationally representative survey, the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, were used in the present study. Propensity score matching and logistic regression analyses were conducted to reveal that (a) microfinance participation was not associated with justification of IPV and that (b) women who participated in microfinance were less likely to justify IPV when they had no control over their resources. Implications for practitioners and policymakers are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Is sedentary behaviour just physical inactivity by another name?

    OpenAIRE

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Hillsdon, Melvyn

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between sedentary behaviour and physical activity and their role in the development of health conditions is an ongoing topic of research. This debate paper presents arguments in favour and against the statement: “Is sedentary behaviour just physical inactivity by another name?” The paper finishes with recommendations for future research in the field of sedentary behaviour, physical activity and public health.

  14. [Is a sedentary lifestyle a risk factor for sleep-related respiratory disturbance?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teculescu, D; Chenuel, B; Benamghar, L; Michaely, J-P; Hannhart, B

    2010-09-01

    This questionnaire-based epidemiological study was aimed at identifying possible sleep disturbance in a sample of active French males. Eight hundred and fifty male subjects, aged 22 to 66 years, completed a structured sleep questionnaire supplemented by information about their life habits and medical history. The study compared the prevalence of positive responses between an "at risk" group of sedentary people (with no declared leisure exercise) and a control group of "exercising" subjects (with more than 5 hours of planned exercise weekly). Among the symptoms suggesting sleep-disordered breathing, only the question "Have you ever been told that you snore?" significantly separated the two groups. In addition, the sedentary group declared a history of treated hypertension significantly more often. The present survey identified only one item that differed significantly between a sedentary of men and an exercising group - a history of treated hypertension. The result may be explained by the limitations of a questionnaire survey and by the limited contrast in exercise practice: the "sedentary" subjects had an occupational labour demand (not quantified), and the control group had a relatively modest leisure physical activity. Copyright © 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of moderate to vigorous aerobic exercise on the sleep need of sedentary young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shi N; Halaki, Mark; Chow, Chin-Moi

    2013-01-01

    Exercise has been recommended for enhancing sleep; a claim linked to the belief that sleep need - defined by sleep duration and depth - is increased post-exercise to allow tissue recovery. Objective studies investigating exercise-sleep responses have produced mixed outcomes, and the disparity in results between studies may be due to differences in individual characteristics and/or exercise protocol, emphasising the importance of carefully controlled trials. We investigated the role of exercise on the sleep need of sedentary adults, after controlling for exercise mode, timing and duration. Twelve healthy volunteers (25.2 ± 4.0 years, 9 females, [Vdot]O(2)max 35.4 ± 8.8 ml· kg(-1) · min(-1)) were randomised to no-exercise or to a bout of treadmill exercise at 45%, 55%, 65% or 75% [Vdot]O(2)max in a crossover design. Sleep on no-exercise and exercise nights were assessed by polysomnography. Participants spent a greater proportion of sleep in light sleep (stage 1 + stage 2) after exercise at both 65% and 75% [Vdot]O(2)max (P sleep with increased exercise intensity (P = 0.067). No other changes were observed in any other sleep variables. Two findings emerged: vigorous exercise did not increase sleep need; however, this level of exercise increased light sleep.

  16. Effect of alternating postures on cognitive performance for healthy people performing sedentary work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Bernhard; Kapellusch, Jay M; Schrempf, Andreas; Probst, Kathrin; Haller, Michael; Baca, Arnold

    2018-06-01

    Prolonged sitting is a risk factor for several diseases and the prevalence of worksite-based interventions such as sit-to-stand workstations is increasing. Although their impact on sedentary behaviour has been regularly investigated, the effect of working in alternating body postures on cognitive performance is unclear. To address this uncertainty, 45 students participated in a two-arm, randomised controlled cross-over trial under laboratory conditions. Subjects executed validated cognitive tests (working speed, reaction time, concentration performance) either in sitting or alternating working postures on two separate days (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02863731). MANOVA results showed no significant difference in cognitive performance between trials executed in alternating, standing or sitting postures. Perceived workload did not differ between sitting and alternating days. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant learning effects regarding concentration performance and working speed for both days. These results suggest that working posture did not affect cognitive performance in the short term. Practitioner Summary: Prior reports indicated health-related benefits based on alternated (sit/stand) body postures. Nevertheless, their effect on cognitive performance is unknown. This randomised controlled trial showed that working in alternating body postures did not influence reaction time, concentration performance, working speed or workload perception in the short term.

  17. Sedentary leisure time behavior, snacking habits and cardiovascular biomarkers: the Inter99 Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydenlund, Gitte; Jørgensen, Torben; Toft, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To explore the association between sedentary leisure time behavior (SLTB) and cardiovascular biomarkers, taking into account snacking habits, alcohol intake and physical activity level. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Study participants were recruited from the 5-year follow-up of a populat......Aim: To explore the association between sedentary leisure time behavior (SLTB) and cardiovascular biomarkers, taking into account snacking habits, alcohol intake and physical activity level. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Study participants were recruited from the 5-year follow...... non-significant in men (ß = 0.9924, [0.9839; 1.0011]) and women (ß = 0.9932, [0.8605; 1.0014]). Conclusion: SLTB appears to be an independent CVD risk factor, regardless of snacking habits and physical activity....

  18. Bone mineral density among female sports participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Elizabeth; Reilly, Thomas; Giacomoni, Magali; Redmond, Louise; Turner, Clare

    2006-02-01

    Training for and participation in impact-loading sports are associated with alterations in bone strength which are specific to anatomical site and type of strain. The effect of exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) depends on the type of activity engaged in. Sports with high impact loading seem to have a positive effect in promoting bone mineralisation, whereas those with low impacts may have negative or no effects. The aims of the present study were to compare BMD and body composition measures among female participants in three distinctly different sports and investigate differences from sedentary control subjects. Participants were club and university level Rugby Union football players (n = 30, age: 21.4 +/- 1.9 years, height: 1.67 +/- 0.05 m, mass: 73.3 +/- 10.7 kg), netball players (n = 20, 20.7 +/- 1.3 years, 1.68 +/- 0.07 m, 64.3 +/- 7.2 kg), distance runners (n = 11, 21.5 +/- 2.6 years, 1.68 +/- 0.04 m, 57.1 +/- 6.1 kg), and sedentary controls (n = 25, 21.4 +/- 1.1 years; 1.64 +/- 0.07 m, 56.8 +/- 6.8 kg). With the exception of three distance runners, all participants were eumenorrhoeic. Bone mineral density scans were performed for whole-body, left proximal femur, and lumbar spine (L1-4) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fat mass, percent body fat, and fat-free soft tissue mass were assessed from whole-body scans. Regional and segmental analysis was also carried out on whole-body BMD data using standard procedures. The runners had a lower fat mass and percent body fat compared to the other sports participants and the controls. All sports groups had higher BMD values than had the controls. Density of bone in the upper body was most pronounced in the rugby football players and least pronounced in the runners. Positive effects were evident at all sites for the rugby players. There were significant correlations between BMD and fat-free soft tissue mass, BMD and body mass, and BMD and training volume. It is concluded that sports participation has positive

  19. The Effect of Changes in Physical Activity on Sedentary Behavior: Results From a Randomized Lifestyle Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Juned; de Chavez, Peter John; Craft, Lynette L; Freedson, Patty; Spring, Bonnie

    2017-07-01

    To investigate whether changes in physical activity (PA) have an impact on sedentary behavior (SB) during a lifestyle intervention. Study design was a randomized trial. Participants (n = 204) were individuals with low PA and high sedentary leisure screen time from the Chicago area. Participants were randomized to either increase PA (iPA) or decrease sedentary leisure (dSED). The intervention consisted of decision support, coaching, and financial incentives. For iPA participants, the goal was at least 60 min/d of self-reported moderate-tovigorous-intensity PA (MVPA). For dSED participants the goal was less than 90 min/d of sedentary leisure screen time. Daily accelerometer-based measures of SB and bout-corrected MVPA were obtained. Linear mixed-effects models were fit to estimate the effect of the intervention on MVPA and total SB and to estimate the effect of daily changes in MVPA on daily SB. The iPA participants increased their bout-corrected MVPA by 14 min/d (p much of this time by reducing their SB.

  20. Physiology of Sedentary Behavior and Its Relationship to Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyfault, John P; Du, Mengmeng; Kraus, William E; Levine, James A; Booth, Frank W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This paper reports on the findings and recommendations of the “Physiology of Sedentary Behavior and its Relationship to Health Outcomes” group, a part of a larger workshop entitled Sedentary Behavior: Identifying Research Priorities sponsored by the National Heart, and Lung and Blood Institute and the National Institute on Aging, which aimed to establish sedentary behavior research priorities. Methods The discussion within our workshop lead to the formation of critical physiological research objectives related to sedentary behaviors, that if appropriately researched would greatly impact our overall understanding of human health and longevity. Results and Conclusions Primary questions are related to physiological “health outcomes” including the influence of physical activity vs. sedentary behavior on function of a number of critical physiological systems (aerobic capacity, skeletal muscle metabolism and function, telomeres/genetic stability, and cognitive function). The group also derived important recommendations related to the “central and peripheral mechanisms” that govern sedentary behavior and how energy balance has a role in mediating these processes. General recommendations for future sedentary physiology research efforts include that studies of sedentary behavior, including that of sitting time only, should focus on the physiological impact of a “lack of human movement” in contradistinction to the effects of physical movement and that new models or strategies for studying sedentary behavior induced adaptations and links to disease development are needed to elucidate underlying mechanism(s). PMID:25222820

  1. Why older adults spend time sedentary and break their sedentary behaviour: a mixed methods approach using life-logging equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon L Dontje

    2015-10-01

    It can be concluded that a mixed methods approach, by combining objective data of an activity monitor with contextual information from time-lapse photos and subjective information from people regarding their own behaviour, is an useful method to provide indepth information about (breaking sedentary behaviour in older adults. The results of this study showed that there is a difference in what older adults believe that are reasons for them to remain sedentary or break their sedentary time and what their actual reasons are. A personal story board based on objective measurements of sedentary behaviour can be a useful method to raise awareness and find individual and tailored ways to reduce sedentary behaviour and to increase the number of breaks in sedentary behaviour without much interference in daily routine.

  2. Participant-selected music and physical activity in older adults following cardiac rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Imogen N; Baker, Felicity A; Peiris, Casey L; Shoebridge, Georgie; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate effects of participant-selected music on older adults' achievement of activity levels recommended in the physical activity guidelines following cardiac rehabilitation. A parallel group randomized controlled trial with measurements at Weeks 0, 6 and 26. A multisite outpatient rehabilitation programme of a publicly funded metropolitan health service. Adults aged 60 years and older who had completed a cardiac rehabilitation programme. Experimental participants selected music to support walking with guidance from a music therapist. Control participants received usual care only. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants achieving activity levels recommended in physical activity guidelines. Secondary outcomes compared amounts of physical activity, exercise capacity, cardiac risk factors, and exercise self-efficacy. A total of 56 participants, mean age 68.2 years (SD = 6.5), were randomized to the experimental ( n = 28) and control groups ( n = 28). There were no differences between groups in proportions of participants achieving activity recommended in physical activity guidelines at Week 6 or 26. Secondary outcomes demonstrated between-group differences in male waist circumference at both measurements (Week 6 difference -2.0 cm, 95% CI -4.0 to 0; Week 26 difference -2.8 cm, 95% CI -5.4 to -0.1), and observed effect sizes favoured the experimental group for amounts of physical activity (d = 0.30), exercise capacity (d = 0.48), and blood pressure (d = -0.32). Participant-selected music did not increase the proportion of participants achieving recommended amounts of physical activity, but may have contributed to exercise-related benefits.

  3. A randomized, controlled trial of team-based competition to increase learner participation in quality-improvement education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Charles D; Moin, Tannaz; Fink, Arlene; Berry, Sandra H; Afsar-Manesh, Nasim; Mangione, Carol M; Kerfoot, B Price

    2016-04-01

    Several barriers challenge resident engagement in learning quality improvement (QI). We investigated whether the incorporation of team-based game mechanics into an evidence-based online learning platform could increase resident participation in a QI curriculum. Randomized, controlled trial. Tertiary-care medical center residency training programs. Resident physicians (n = 422) from nine training programs (anesthesia, emergency medicine, family medicine, internal medicine, ophthalmology, orthopedics, pediatrics, psychiatry and general surgery) randomly allocated to a team competition environment (n = 200) or the control group (n = 222). Specialty-based team assignment with leaderboards to foster competition, and alias assignment to de-identify individual participants. Participation in online learning, as measured by percentage of questions attempted (primary outcome) and additional secondary measures of engagement (i.e. response time). Changes in participation measures over time between groups were assessed with a repeated measures ANOVA framework. Residents in the intervention arm demonstrated greater participation than the control group. The percentage of questions attempted at least once was greater in the competition group (79% [SD ± 32] versus control, 68% [SD ± 37], P= 0.03). Median response time was faster in the competition group (P= 0.006). Differences in participation continued to increase over the duration of the intervention, as measured by average response time and cumulative percent of questions attempted (each Ponline course delivering QI content. Medical educators should consider game mechanics to optimize participation when designing learning experiences. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Virtual Reality to control active participation in a subacute stroke patient during robot-assisted gait training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, J; Krewer, C; Müller, F; Koenig, A; Riener, R

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) provides a promising medium to enrich robot assisted rehabilitation. VR applications present the opportunity to engage patients in therapy and control participation. The aim of this study was to investigate two strategies to control active participation of a stroke patient focusing on the involvement of the paretic leg in task solution. A subacute stroke patient with a severe hemiparesis performed two experiments on the driven gait orthosis Lokomat. Patient activity was quantified by weighted interaction torques measured in both legs (experiment A) and the paretic leg only (experiment B). The patient was able to successfully implement both the bilateral and unilateral control modality. Both control modes increased the motor output of the paretic leg, however the paretic leg control mode resulted in a much more differentiated regulation of the activity in the leg. Both control modes are appropriate approaches to enhance active participation and increase motor output in the paretic leg. Further research should evaluate the therapeutic benefit of patients with hemiparesis using the unilateral control mode depending on the severity of their impairment. © 2011 IEEE

  5. Cognitive and Motivational Factors Associated with Sedentary Behavior: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Rollo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive time spent in sedentary behavior (SB is associated with numerous health risks. These associations remain even after controlling for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA and body mass index, indicating that efforts to promote leisure time physical activity alone are insufficient. Cognitive and motivation variables represent potentially modifiable factors and have the potential of furthering our understanding of sedentary behavior. Hence, a systematic review was conducted to synthesize and critique the literature on the relationship between cognitive and motivational factors and sedentary behaviors. In April 2016, four electronic databases (Psych info, Pub Med, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science were searched and a total of 4866 titles and abstracts were reviewed. After meeting inclusion criteria, study characteristics were extracted and the methodological quality of each study was assessed according to the Downs and Black Checklist. PRISMA guidelines for reporting of systematic reviews were followed. Twenty-five studies (16 cross-sectional, 8 longitudinal and one examining two populations and employing both a cross-sectional and prospective design assessed 23 different cognitive and motivational factors. Seventeen studies were theory-based and 8 did not employ a theoretical model. Results showed that among SB-related cognitions, risk factors for greater sedentary time included having a more positive attitude towards SB, perceiving greater social support/norms for SB, reporting greater SB habits, having greater intentions to be sedentary, and having higher intrinsic, introjected, and external motivation towards SB. Protective factors associated with lower sedentary time included having greater feelings of self-efficacy/control over SB and greater intentions to reduce SB. Among PA-related cognitions, protective factors for lower SB included a more positive attitude towards PA, having greater social support/norms for PA, greater self-efficacy/control

  6. Participation of gibberellin in the control of apical dominance in soybean and redwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruddat, M.; Pharis, R.P.

    1966-01-01

    Loss of apical dominance in soybeans and redwood was increased when the plants were treated with the growth retardant AMO-1618. Simultaneous application of gibberellin reduced the number of elongating buds and promoted growth of the first or second uppermost auxillary bud, thus restoring apical dominance. It is concluded that gibberellin participates in the expression of apical dominance. 30 references, 2 tables.

  7. Exit interviews administered to patients participating in the COSTOP placebo controlled randomised trial in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nunn

    2016-08-01

    Discussion: The exit interview demonstrated that there was some evidence of open label drug being taken by the participants. However, the results from the interview do not suggest that the trial results would have been seriously compromised. We would recommend the exit interview as a valuable way of assessing adherence to trial procedures.

  8. Evaluation of the Wise Guys Male Responsibility Curriculum: Participant-Control Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruchow, Harvey William; Brown, Roger K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although males are often the initiators of teen sexual activity, pregnancy prevention programs generally target females. To address this deficiency, the Wise Guys Male Responsibility Curriculum was developed to be delivered to adolescent males in weekly classroom sessions. Methods: Seventh grade participants (n = 124) in the Wise Guys…

  9. Does Sedentary Behavior Predict Academic Performance in Adolescents or the Other Way Round? A Longitudinal Path Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizandra, Jorge; Devís-Devís, José; Pérez-Gimeno, Esther; Valencia-Peris, Alexandra; Peiró-Velert, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether adolescents' time spent on sedentary behaviors (academic, technological-based and social-based activities) was a better predictor of academic performance than the reverse. A cohort of 755 adolescents participated in a three-year period study. Structural Equation Modeling techniques were used to test plausible causal hypotheses. Four competing models were analyzed to determine which model best fitted the data. The Best Model was separately tested by gender. The Best Model showed that academic performance was a better predictor of sedentary behaviors than the other way round. It also indicated that students who obtained excellent academic results were more likely to succeed academically three years later. Moreover, adolescents who spent more time in the three different types of sedentary behaviors were more likely to engage longer in those sedentary behaviors after the three-year period. The better the adolescents performed academically, the less time they devoted to social-based activities and more to academic activities. An inverse relationship emerged between time dedicated to technological-based activities and academic sedentary activities. A moderating auto-regressive effect by gender indicated that boys were more likely to spend more time on technological-based activities three years later than girls. To conclude, previous academic performance predicts better sedentary behaviors three years later than the reverse. The positive longitudinal auto-regressive effects on the four variables under study reinforce the 'success breeds success' hypothesis, with academic performance and social-based activities emerging as the strongest ones. Technological-based activities showed a moderating effect by gender and a negative longitudinal association with academic activities that supports a displacement hypothesis. Other longitudinal and covariate effects reflect the complex relationships among sedentary behaviors and academic performance and the

  10. Sedentary behaviour in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tanja; Beyer, Nina; Aadahl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite increasing interest in investigating sedentary behaviour (SB) in the general population and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is little documentation of the subjective experiences of SB in patients with RA. This study aimed to examine how patients with RA...... modification of physical activity level causing increase in SB, especially during periods of disease flare. Prioritizing and planning of SB also functioned as part of self-management strategies. 3) It has nothing to do with my arthritis; for some patients, SB was not related to RA, but simply reflected a way...

  11. [Immunometabolism of exercise and sedentary lifestyle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle leads to the accumulation of visceral fat. This is accompanied by the infiltration of immune cells with pro-inflammatory characteristics in adipose tissue, causing an increased release of cytokines and generating a low-grade inflammatory state. It has been associated with the development of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration, and development of tumors. Exercise can be used as a treatment to improve symptoms of many of these conditions because it promotes an anti-inflammatory effect. In this review we analyze the pro-inflammatory factors present in obesity and the induction of antiinflammatory factors that occur with exercise.

  12. Context-Specific Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior With Cognition in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggio, Daniel; Smith, Lee; Fisher, Abigail; Hamer, Mark

    2016-06-15

    In the present study, we investigated how overall and specific domains of physical activity and sedentary behavior at the age of 7 years were associated with cognition at the age of 11 years in 8,462 children from the Millennium Cohort Study. Data were collected from 2001 to 2013. Participation in domains of physical activity and sedentary behavior at 7 years of age were reported. Activity levels were also measured objectively. Cognition was assessed using the British Ability Scales. General linear models were used to assess longitudinal associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior, measured both objectively and via self-report, with cognition. Analyses were adjusted for prespecified covariates. Sports/physical activity club attendance (B = 0.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 1.1), doing homework (B = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.0, 0.9), and objectively measured sedentary time (B = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.1, 1.4) at age 7 years were positively associated with cognition at age 11 years in final the models. Television viewing was negatively associated with cognition (B = -1.7, 95% CI: -2.4, -1.0), although the association was attenuated to the null after adjustments for baseline cognition. Objectively measured light physical activity was inversely associated with cognition (B = -0.7, 95% CI: -1.3, -0.1). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was also inversely associated with cognition in girls only (B = -1.1, 95% CI: -2.0, -0.3). Associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior with cognition appear to be context-specific in young people. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  13. Brief scales to assess physical activity and sedentary equipment in the home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durant Nefertiti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behaviors such as TV viewing are associated with childhood obesity, while physical activity promotes healthy weight. The role of the home environment in shaping these behaviors among youth is poorly understood. The study purpose was to examine the reliability of brief parental proxy-report and adolescent self-report measures of electronic equipment and physical activity equipment in the home and to assess the construct validity of these scales by examining their relationship to physical activity, sedentary behavior, and weight status of children and adolescents. Methods Participants were adolescents (n = 189; mean age = 14.6, parents of adolescents (n = 171; mean age = 45.0, and parents of younger children (n = 116; parents mean age = 39.6; children's mean age = 8.3 who completed two surveys approximately one month apart. Measures included a 21-item electronic equipment scale (to assess sedentary behavior facilitators in the home, in the child or adolescent's bedroom, and portable electronics and a 14-item home physical activity equipment scale. Home environment factors were examined as correlates of children's and adolescents' physical activity, sedentary behavior, and weight status after adjusting for child age, sex, race/ethnicity, household income, and number of children in the home. Results Most scales had acceptable test-retest reliability (intraclass correlations were .54 - .92. Parent and adolescent reports were correlated. Electronic equipment in adolescents' bedrooms was positively related to sedentary behavior. Activity equipment in the home was inversely associated with television time in adolescents and children, and positively correlated with adolescents' physical activity. Children's BMI z-score was positively associated with having a television in their bedroom. Conclusions The measures of home electronic equipment and activity equipment were similarly reliable when reported by parents and by

  14. Evaluation of frequency of positive exercise-induced bronchospasm between swimmers and sedentary individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laricy Martins da Mata

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Despite the prevalence of prescribed asthma, there is uncertainty about the incidence of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB. Objective: Compare the frequency of EIB between swimmers and sedentary individuals, and observe heart rate variability during bronchial activity. Methods: In total, 18 swimmers (group 1 and 18 sedentary individuals (group 2 were included. The participants rested for 30 minutes for evaluation of HRV. Blood pressure (PA, respiratory rate (RR, and pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 were measured. The volunteers remained seated for the spirometry test (maneuver of forced vital capacity - FVC. This was repeated 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes after the exercise test. The statistical analysis used the Student t, Mann Whitney, and Shapiro-Wilks tests. The significance level was p <0.05. Results: The spirometry findings showed 3 sedentary individuals and 10 swimmers with obstructive ventilatory disorder (OVD. Only 2 of the sedentary and none of the swimmer group demonstrated positive bronchial provocation. A key criterion for diagnosing OVD, the relationship between forced expiratory volume in one second and FVC (FEV1/FVC, was statistically lower in the swimmer group. The measures of the root mean square of the successive differences between adjacent normal RR intervals, in a time interval (RMSSD, and the standard deviation of all normal RR intervals recorded in a time interval (SDNN were significantly higher among the athletes. Conclusion: The bronchial provocation test identified a higher prevalence of bronchospasm among sedentary individuals. However, there was a reduction in the FEV1/FVC ratio and higher HRV in the group of swimmers.

  15. Effects of Neighborhood Walkability on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Long-Term Post-Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ryan E R; Carver, Tamara E; Reid, Tyler G R; Picard-Turcot, Marie-Aude; Andersen, Kathleen M; Christou, Nicolas V; Andersen, Ross E

    2017-06-01

    ᅟ: Chronic inactivity and weight regain are serious health concerns following bariatric surgery. Neighborhood walkability is associated with higher physical activity and lower obesity rates in normal weight populations. Explore the influence of neighborhood walkability on physical activity and sedentarism among long-term post-bariatric surgery patients. Fifty-eight adults aged 50.5 ± 9.1 years, with a BMI of 34.6 ± 9.7 kg/m 2 having undergone surgery 9.8 ± 3.15 years earlier participated in this study. Participants were asked to wear an ActivPAL™ tri-axial accelerometer attached to their mid-thigh for 7-consecutive days, 24 hours/day. The sample was separated into those that live in Car-Dependent (n = 23), Somewhat Walkable (n = 14), Very Walkable (n = 16), and Walker's Paradise (n = 5) neighborhoods as defined using Walk Score®. ANCOVA was performed comparing Walk Score® categories on steps and sedentary time controlling for age and sex. Neighborhood walkability did not influence either daily steps (F (3, 54) = 0.921, p = 0.437) or sedentary time (F (3, 54) = 0.465, p = 0.708), Car-Dependent (6359 ± 2712 steps, 9.54 ± 2.46 hrs), Somewhat Walkable (6563 ± 2989 steps, 9.07 ± 2.70 hrs), Very Walkable (5261 ± 2255 steps, 9.97 ± 2.06 hrs), and Walker's Paradise (6901 ± 1877 steps, 10.14 ± 0.815 hrs). Walkability does not appear to affect sedentary time or physical activity long-term post-surgery. As the built-environment does not seem to influence activity, sedentarism, or obesity as it does with a normal weight population, work needs to be done to tailor physical activity programming after bariatric surgery.

  16. Can sedentary behavior be made more active? A randomized pilot study of TV commercial stepping versus walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Jeremy A; Bassett, David R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Raynor, Hollie A; Thompson, Dixie L

    2012-08-06

    There is a growing problem of physical inactivity in America, and approximately a quarter of the population report being completely sedentary during their leisure time. In the U.S., TV viewing is the most common leisure-time activity. Stepping in place during TV commercials (TV Commercial Stepping) could increase physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of incorporating physical activity (PA) into a traditionally sedentary activity, by comparing TV Commercial Stepping during 90 min/d of TV programming to traditional exercise (Walking). A randomized controlled pilot study of the impact of 6 months of TV Commercial Stepping versus Walking 30 min/day in adults was conducted. 58 sedentary, overweight (body mass index 33.5 ± 4.8 kg/m2) adults (age 52.0 ± 8.6 y) were randomly assigned to one of two 6-mo behavioral PA programs: 1) TV Commercial Stepping; or 2) Walking 30 min/day. To help facilitate behavior changes participants received 6 monthly phone calls, attended monthly meetings for the first 3 months, and received monthly newsletters for the last 3 months. Using intent-to-treat analysis, changes in daily steps, TV viewing, diet, body weight, waist and hip circumference, and percent fat were compared at baseline, 3, and 6 mo. Data were collected in 2010-2011, and analyzed in 2011. Of the 58 subjects, 47 (81%) were retained for follow-up at the completion of the 6-mo program. From baseline to 6-mo, both groups significantly increased their daily steps [4611 ± 1553 steps/d vs. 7605 ± 2471 steps/d (TV Commercial Stepping); 4909 ± 1335 steps/d vs. 7865 ± 1939 steps/d (Walking); P TV viewing and dietary intake decreased significantly in both groups. Body weight did not change, but both groups had significant decreases in percent body fat (3-mo to 6-mo), and waist and hip circumference (baseline to 6-mo) over time. Participants in both the TV Commercial Stepping and Walking groups had favorable changes in

  17. Can sedentary behavior be made more active? A randomized pilot study of TV commercial stepping versus walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steeves Jeremy A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing problem of physical inactivity in America, and approximately a quarter of the population report being completely sedentary during their leisure time. In the U.S., TV viewing is the most common leisure-time activity. Stepping in place during TV commercials (TV Commercial Stepping could increase physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of incorporating physical activity (PA into a traditionally sedentary activity, by comparing TV Commercial Stepping during 90 min/d of TV programming to traditional exercise (Walking. Methods A randomized controlled pilot study of the impact of 6 months of TV Commercial Stepping versus Walking 30 min/day in adults was conducted. 58 sedentary, overweight (body mass index 33.5 ± 4.8 kg/m2 adults (age 52.0 ± 8.6 y were randomly assigned to one of two 6-mo behavioral PA programs: 1 TV Commercial Stepping; or 2 Walking 30 min/day. To help facilitate behavior changes participants received 6 monthly phone calls, attended monthly meetings for the first 3 months, and received monthly newsletters for the last 3 months. Using intent-to-treat analysis, changes in daily steps, TV viewing, diet, body weight, waist and hip circumference, and percent fat were compared at baseline, 3, and 6 mo. Data were collected in 2010–2011, and analyzed in 2011. Results Of the 58 subjects, 47 (81% were retained for follow-up at the completion of the 6-mo program. From baseline to 6-mo, both groups significantly increased their daily steps [4611 ± 1553 steps/d vs. 7605 ± 2471 steps/d (TV Commercial Stepping; 4909 ± 1335 steps/d vs. 7865 ± 1939 steps/d (Walking; P  Conclusions Participants in both the TV Commercial Stepping and Walking groups had favorable changes in daily steps, TV viewing, diet, and anthropometrics. PA can be performed while viewing TV commercials and this may be a feasible alternative to traditional approaches for

  18. Associations of sedentary behavior, sedentary bouts and breaks in sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk in children with a family history of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Travis John; Tremblay, Mark Stephen; Mathieu, Marie-Ève; Henderson, Mélanie; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Tremblay, Angelo; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Although reports in adults suggest that breaks in sedentary time are associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk, these findings have yet to be replicated in children. To investigate whether objectively measured sedentary behavior, sedentary bouts or breaks in sedentary time are independently associated with cardiometabolic risk in a cohort of Canadian children aged 8-11 years with a family history of obesity. Data from 286 boys and 236 girls living in Quebec, Canada, with at least one biological parent with obesity (QUALITY cohort) were collected from 2005-2008, and analyzed in 2013. Sedentary behavior, light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured over 7 days using accelerometry. Leisure time computer/video game use and TV viewing over the past 7 days were self-reported. Outcomes included waist circumference, body mass index Z-score, fasting insulin, fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, C-reactive protein and a continuous cardiometabolic risk score. After adjustment for confounders, breaks in sedentary time and the number of sedentary bouts lasting 1-4 minutes were associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk score and lower BMI Z-score in both sexes (all pfasting glucose in girls, and with BMI Z-score in boys (all pobesity.

  19. Participant demographics reported in "Table 1" of randomised controlled trials: a case of "inverse evidence"?

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    Furler John

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Data supporting external validity of trial results allows clinicians to assess the applicability of a study's findings to their practice population. Socio-economic status (SES of trial participants may be critical to external validity given the relationship between social and economic circumstances and health. We explored how this is documented in reports of RCTs in four major general medical journals. Methods The contents lists of four leading general medical journals were hand searched to identify 25 consecutive papers reporting RCT results in each journal (n = 100. Data on demographic characteristics were extracted from each paper's Table 1 only (or equivalent. Results Authors infrequently reported key demographic characteristics relating to SES of RCT participants. Age and gender of participants were commonly reported. Less than 10% reported occupational group, employment status, income or area based measures of disadvantage. Conclusions Without adequate reporting of key indicators of SES in trial participants it is unclear if lower SES groups are under-represented. If such groups are systematically under-recruited into trials, this may limit the external validity and applicability of study findings to these groups. This is in spite of the higher health-care need in more disadvantaged populations. Under-representation of low SES groups could underestimate the reported effect of an intervention for those with a higher baseline risk. The marginal benefit identified in a trial with poor or no representation of lower SES participants could significantly underestimate the potential benefit to a low SES community. More transparency in this reporting and greater attention to the impact of SES on intervention outcomes in clinical trials is needed. This could be considered in the next revision of the CONSORT statement.

  20. [Status of exercise and sedentary activities in the leisure time among third and fourth grade pupils in three cities of Shandong province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chao; Yu Xinping; Ding, Caicui; Zhen, Baojie; Chen, Jian; Wang, Yanyong; Li, Li; Liu, Ailing

    2015-05-01

    To analyze the status and the influence factors of exercise and sedentary activities in the leisure time among third and fourth grade pupils in Qingdao, Tai' an and Yantai city of Shandong province. With random cluster sampling, a total of 2283 primary students were selected from three cities of Shandong province. Questionnaires were used to collect the information on their exercise, sedentary activities. In the past week the participation rate of exercise in the leisure time among the pupils was 65.9%. Among the pupils who participated exercise, the average days of moderate and high-intensity exercise was four, and the average daily exercise time was 30 minutes. The average time of sedentary activities in the leisure time was 0.9 h/d, and the rate of 2 hours and over per day of sedentary activities was 13.6%. Pupils participating the exercise was related to their area, gender, their satisfaction of their body image and their parents' exercise. Their sedentary patterns was related to their understanding of their own body weight and their parents' sedentary behavior. Intervention related to physical activity should be strengthened among pupils and their parents to promote their physical activity level.

  1. Physical activity level and sedentary behavior among students

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    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n3p299   The objective of this study was to determine the physical activity level (PAL and sedentary behavior of students from the city of Aracaju (SE. A total of 1028 students of both genders participated in the study, with a mean age of 15.38 (2.44 years for girls and 15.24 (2.40 years for boys. Among the sample, 24.7% were children and 75.3% were adolescents, with a mean age of 12.07 (0.88 and 16.39 (1.72 years, respectively. An instrument already used in Brazilian studies was applied to identify the average time (hours watching TV per day (hTV and PAL – PAQ-C. Descriptive statistics, t-test for independent samples, Fisher’s exact test and comparison test between two proportions were used for data analysis, with the level of significance set at 5% (p≤0.05. Boys presented a significantly higher physical activity score 2.25 (0.60 than girls. The prevalence of sedentarism was 72.5, 89.3 and 85.2% in the groups of children and adolescents and in the group as a whole, respectively, for girls, and 55.4, 74.8 and 69.8% for boys. No differences in hTV were observed between genders or between sedentary and physically active students (p > 0.05. We conclude that a there is a high prevalence of “sedentary” and “very sedentary” children and adolescents; b boys present a higher PAL than girls; c adolescents are less active than children, and d the number of hTV is high in the group studied.

  2. Physical activity level and sedentary behavior among students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the physical activity level (PAL and sedentary behavior of students from the city of Aracaju (SE. A total of 1028 students of both genders participated in the study, with a mean age of 15.38 (2.44 years for girls and 15.24 (2.40 years for boys. Among the sample, 24.7% were children and 75.3% were adolescents, with a mean age of 12.07 (0.88 and 16.39 (1.72 years, respectively. An instrument already used in Brazilian studies was applied to identify the average time (hours watching TV per day (hTV and PAL – PAQ-C. Descriptive statistics, t-test for independent samples, Fisher’s exact test and comparison test between two proportions were used for data analysis, with the level of significance set at 5% (p≤0.05. Boys presented a significantly higher physical activity score 2.25 (0.60 than girls. The prevalence of sedentarism was 72.5, 89.3 and 85.2% in the groups of children and adolescents and in the group as a whole, respectively, for girls, and 55.4, 74.8 and 69.8% for boys. No differences in hTV were observed between genders or between sedentary and physically active students (p > 0.05. We conclude that a there is a high prevalence of “sedentary” and “very sedentary” children and adolescents; b boys present a higher PAL than girls; c adolescents are less active than children, and d the number of hTV is high in the group studied.

  3. Arterial stiffness and sedentary lifestyle: Role of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessiani, Gianfranco; Santilli, Francesca; Boccatonda, Andrea; Iodice, Pierpaolo; Liani, Rossella; Tripaldi, Romina; Saggini, Raoul; Davì, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, and leads to a quantifiable impairment in vascular function and arterial wall stiffening. We tested the hypothesis of oxidative stress as a determinant of arterial stiffness (AS) in physically inactive subjects, and challenged the reversibility of these processes after the completion of an eight-week, high-intensity exercise training (ET). AS was assessed before and after ET, measuring carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) with a Vicorder device. At baseline and after ET, participants performed urine collection and underwent fasting blood sampling. Urinary 8-iso-PGF2α, an in vivo marker of lipid peroxidation, total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations were measured. ET was associated with significantly reduced urinary 8-iso-PGF2α(p<0.0001) levels. PWV was significantly reduced after ET completion (p<0.0001), and was directly related to urinary 8-iso-PGF2α(Rho=0.383, p=0.021). After ET, cardiovascular fitness improved [peak oxygen consumption (p<0.0001), peak heart rate (p<0.0001)]. However, no improvement in lipid profile was observed, apart from a significant reduction of triglycerides (p=0.022). PWV and triglycerides were significantly related (Rho=0.466, p=0.005) throughout the study period. PWV levels were also related to urinary 8-iso-PGF2α in our previously sedentary subjects. We conclude that regular physical exercise may be a natural antioxidant strategy, lowering oxidant stress and thereby the AS degree. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Circulating irisin levels are positively associated with metabolic risk factors in sedentary subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, María; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Serrano, Marta; Ortega, Francisco; Delgado, Elías; Sanchez-Ragnarsson, Cecilia; Valdés, Sergio; Botas, Patricia; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A physically active life-style plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, activates thermogenesis in rodents through increasing beige fat cells abundance within white fat. We aimed to investigate circulating irisin levels in association with the degree of physical activity and various metabolic parameters in humans. Circulating irisin levels (ELISA) and metabolic parameters were analyzed in 428 subjects (195 men/233 women). Participants were classified according to their self-reported physical activity and to their area of residence. Circulating irisin levels were higher in active than in sedentary subjects (p = 0.006). Rural inhabitants showed higher circulating irisin levels than urban subjects (p sedentary participants, irisin levels were positively associated with metabolic risk factors (BMI, fasting insulin, HOMA and fasting triglycerides). The area of residence (β = - 0.592, p = sedentary participants, circulating irisin levels were positively associated with parameters related to an increased cardiometabolic risk. The present study confirmed that an active lifestyle increases circulating irisin levels, but only among subjects living in a rural environment. Area of residence might be a determinant of irisin levels.

  5. [Sport habits and sedentary lifestyle among elementary school children in Obuda, Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Viktória Anna; Gábor, Anita; Fajcsák, Zsuzsanna; Martos, Eva

    2010-04-18

    Childhood obesity has become a worldwide epidemic. Declining physical activity is one of the major contributors. To obtain data on Hungarian primary school students' weight status, sport club participation and sedentary behaviors. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to all primary schools (n=18) in Obuda, Budapest. Children (1648 boys, 1654 girls; 11.3+/-2.3 years) completed questionnaires about sedentary behaviors and sport participation. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured. According to the IOTF criteria, 14.5% of the children were overweight and 4.6% were obese. The rate of those children who did not attend any extracurricular sport increased parallel with age in both gender. At the lower end of the range, 15.3% of the 9-year-old boys and 21% of the 10-year old girls did not sport. These numbers increased up to 31.0% in boys and 53.8% in girls by the age of 15 years. Screening time on weekdays and on weekends was 2.2+/-1.9 and 3.6+/-2.6 hours/day, respectively. One third of participants (32.2%) spent >2 h/day in front of a screen on weekdays, whereas 61.8% did on weekends. The frequency of sedentary behaviors was high among urban Hungarian school children. Health promotion strategies should start in early ages.

  6. Obesity and Other Correlates of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors among US High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lowry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding correlates of physical activity (PA can help inform and improve programs that promote PA among youth. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a representative sample of US students in grades 9–12. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between PA correlates (obesity, physical education classes, sports team participation, attitude toward PA, adult support for PA, and environmental support for PA and participation in daily PA (DPA, vigorous PA (VPA, muscle-strengthening activity (MSA, viewing television (TV, and using computers or video games (C/VG. A positive attitude toward PA and adult support for PA were both associated with increased PA and decreased sedentary behavior. However, among students who lived in neighborhoods that were not safe for PA, a positive attitude toward PA was not associated with increased DPA or decreased sedentary behavior and was less strongly associated with VPA and MSA. Efforts to increase PA among youth should promote a positive attitude toward PA among youth and encourage adult family members to support their efforts to be active. Policies that promote safe neighborhoods may work synergistically with a positive attitude toward PA to increase participation in PA and decrease sedentary behaviors.

  7. Recruitment of Participants and Delivery of Online Mental Health Resources for Depressed Individuals Using Tumblr: Pilot Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Erin; Moreno, Megan; Wilt, Megan Pumper

    2018-04-12

    Adolescents and young adults frequently post depression symptom references on social media; previous studies show positive associations between depression posts and self-reported depression symptoms. Depression is common among young people and this population often experiences many barriers to mental health care. Thus, social media may be a new resource to identify, recruit, and intervene with young people at risk for depression. The purpose of this pilot study was to test a social media intervention on Tumblr. We used social media to identify and recruit participants and to deliver the intervention of online depression resources. This randomized pilot intervention identified Tumblr users age 15-23 who posted about depression using the search term "#depress". Eligible participants were recruited via Tumblr messages; consented participants completed depression surveys and were then randomized to an intervention of online mental health resources delivered via a Tumblr message, while control participants did not receive resources. Postintervention online surveys assessed resource access and usefulness and control groups were asked whether they would have liked to receive resources. Analyses included t tests. A total of 25 participants met eligibility criteria. The mean age of the participants was 17.5 (SD 1.9) and 65% were female with average score on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 of 17.5 (SD 5.9). Among the 11 intervention participants, 36% (4/11) reported accessing intervention resources and 64% (7/11) felt the intervention was acceptable. Among the 14 control participants, only 29% (4/14) of reported that receiving resources online would be acceptable (P=.02). Participants suggested anonymity and ease of use as important characteristics in an online depression resource. The intervention was appropriately targeted to young people at risk for depression, and recruitment via Tumblr was feasible. Most participants in the intervention group felt the social media

  8. Associations between physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors among adolescents in 10 cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You; Zheng, Zhonghui; Yi, Jinyao; Yao, Shuqiao

    2014-07-22

    Studies in western countries have revealed that excessive sedentary behavior is a major risk factor for physical inactivity in adolescents. This study was performed to investigate the association between sedentary behavior and physical inactivity in Chinese adolescents using a large-scale cross-sectional survey design. This study was part of the 2011 Chinese Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Between March and September 2011, 10,214 11-18-year-olds were recruited for survey participation in 18 schools in 10 cities in China. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, and the prevalences of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors, were examined. Correlations between sedentary behavior and physical inactivity were analyzed using baseline logistic regression. Among the final 9,901 students, physical inactivity (~80%) and sedentary behaviors (television viewing, 43%; computer use, 30.2%) were prevalent. More male than female students reported sedentary behaviors (television viewing > 2 h: 5.5% vs. 3.9%; computer use > 2 h: 7.2% vs. 3.5%; both p physically active than females (25.1% vs.14.6%; p physical activity (No PA) in males [0-2 h: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.68-0.96; >4 h: OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.18-0.64], but not in females. A similar pattern between insufficient physical activity and >4 h TV viewing (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.23-0.76) and >4 h computer use (AOR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.30-0.78) was observed in males. In females, 0-2 h daily computer use was associated with higher odds of physical inactivity (No PA: AOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.10-1.82; Insufficient PA: AOR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.24-2.01), while TV viewing was not associated with No PA or Insufficient PA. The probability of physical inactivity significantly increased with grade and decreased with socioeconomic status. Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors were prevalent in Chinese adolescents. Further support, including parental guidance and the provision of

  9. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in an Ethnically Diverse Group of South African School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne McVeigh, Rebecca Meiring

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined physical activity and inactivity levels in an urban South African setting across 12 years of formal schooling. This information is important for implementing strategies to curb increasing trends of physical inactivity and related negative consequences, especially in low to middle income countries facing multiple challenges on overburdened health care systems. We examined levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour cross-sectionally over 12 school years from childhood to adolescence in Black, White and Indian boys and girls. The aim of our study was to describe gender and race related patterns of physical and sedentary activity levels in a sample of South African children and to determine whether there were associations between these variables and body mass status. Physical activity questionnaires, previously validated in a South African setting, were used to gather information about activity and sedentary behaviours among 767 Black, White and Indian children (5-18 years of age across the 12 grades of formal schooling. Body mass and height were also measured. Time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity declined over the school years for all race groups and was consistently lower for girls than boys (p = 0.03, while time spent in sedentary activity increased with increasing grade (p 0.05 whereas time spent in sedentary activities was significantly and positively correlated with body mass across all race groups: Indian (r = 0.25, p < 0.001, White (r = 0.22, p < 0.001 and Black (r = 0.37, p = 0.001. The strength of the associations was similar for boys and girls. Black and Indian children were less physically active than their white peers (p < 0.05, and Black children also spent more time in sedentary activity (p < 0.05. Additionally, Black children had the highest proportion of overweight participants (30%, and Indian children the most number of underweight children (13%. Regardless of ethnicity, children who

  10. Bias due to differential participation in case-control studies and review of available approaches for adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Annette; Grittner, Ulrike; Becher, Heiko

    2018-01-01

    Low response rates in epidemiologic research potentially lead to the recruitment of a non-representative sample of controls in case-control studies. Problems in the unbiased estimation of odds ratios arise when characteristics causing the probability of participation are associated with exposure and outcome. This is a specific setting of selection bias and a realistic hazard in many case-control studies. This paper formally describes the problem and shows its potential extent, reviews existing approaches for bias adjustment applicable under certain conditions, compares and applies them. We focus on two scenarios: a characteristic C causing differential participation of controls is linked to the outcome through its association with risk factor E (scenario I), and C is additionally a genuine risk factor itself (scenario II). We further assume external data sources are available which provide an unbiased estimate of C in the underlying population. Given these scenarios, we (i) review available approaches and their performance in the setting of bias due to differential participation; (ii) describe two existing approaches to correct for the bias in both scenarios in more detail; (iii) present the magnitude of the resulting bias by simulation if the selection of a non-representative sample is ignored; and (iv) demonstrate the approaches' application via data from a case-control study on stroke. The bias of the effect measure for variable E in scenario I and C in scenario II can be large and should therefore be adjusted for in any analysis. It is positively associated with the difference in response rates between groups of the characteristic causing differential participation, and inversely associated with the total response rate in the controls. Adjustment in a standard logistic regression framework is possible in both scenarios if the population distribution of the characteristic causing differential participation is known or can be approximated well.

  11. Associations of sedentary behavior, sedentary bouts and breaks in sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk in children with a family history of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis John Saunders

    Full Text Available Although reports in adults suggest that breaks in sedentary time are associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk, these findings have yet to be replicated in children.To investigate whether objectively measured sedentary behavior, sedentary bouts or breaks in sedentary time are independently associated with cardiometabolic risk in a cohort of Canadian children aged 8-11 years with a family history of obesity.Data from 286 boys and 236 girls living in Quebec, Canada, with at least one biological parent with obesity (QUALITY cohort were collected from 2005-2008, and analyzed in 2013. Sedentary behavior, light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured over 7 days using accelerometry. Leisure time computer/video game use and TV viewing over the past 7 days were self-reported. Outcomes included waist circumference, body mass index Z-score, fasting insulin, fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, C-reactive protein and a continuous cardiometabolic risk score.After adjustment for confounders, breaks in sedentary time and the number of sedentary bouts lasting 1-4 minutes were associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk score and lower BMI Z-score in both sexes (all p<0.05. The number of sedentary bouts lasting 5-9 minutes was negatively associated with waist circumference in girls only, while the number of bouts lasting 10-14 minutes was positively associated with fasting glucose in girls, and with BMI Z-score in boys (all p<0.05. Leisure time computer/video game use was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk score and waist circumference in boys, while TV viewing was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk, waist circumference, and BMI Z-score in girls (all p<0.05.These results suggest that frequent interruptions in sedentary time are associated with a favourable cardiometabolic risk profile and highlight the deleterious relationship between screen time and cardiometabolic risk among children with a family

  12. Associations of Physical Activity, Sports Participation and Active Commuting on Mathematic Performance and Inhibitory Control in Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domazet, Sidsel L; Tarp, Jakob; Huang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents. METHODS: The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh gra...

  13. Sensation Seeking and Locus of Control in University Students in the Context of Regular Exercise Participation and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Ali; Tekin, Gülcan; Çalisir, Melih

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the locus of control (LC) and sensation seeking (SS) levels of university female students according to regular exercise participation (REP) and gender (G). This descriptive study was initiated in 2016 and finished in 2017. A total of 623 students, 306 females and 317 males, from different academic departments…

  14. Family influences on physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Chinese junior high school students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Qing-Min; Ren, Yan-Jun; Lv, Jun; Li, Li-Ming

    2015-03-25

    Family influence plays an important role in a child's physical activity (PA). This study aimed to describe the level of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behaviours among Chinese junior high school students and examine the associations between different types of family influence and MVPA or sedentary behaviours. Participants of two independent cross-sectional surveys, conducted in 2009 and 2011, were students in Grade 7 and 9 from all junior high schools in Hangzhou, China. The daily duration and frequency of MVPA, amount of sedentary time and frequency of family support were self-reported. Multi-level mixed-effects logistic regression was used to examine the associations between different types or levels of family influence and MVPA or sedentary behaviours. A total of 7286 students were analysed finally. Overall, only 9.0% of the students participated in MVPA at least 60 minutes/day; 63.9% spent no more than 2 hours/day in sedentary behaviours. Frequent verbal encouragement and watching were associated with less leisure-time sedentary behaviours. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for verbal encouragement and watching were 1.29 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.55) and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1.45) for 5-7 days per week. The involvement of family in the children's activity in most days of the week was associated with both higher level of MVPA and less leisure-time sedentary behaviours. The respective ORs among students who reported familial support 5-7 days per week, were 1.50 (95% CI, 1.21 to 1.86) for engaging in seven days of MVPA per week, 1.67 (95% CI, 1.19 to 2.32) for at least 60 minutes of MVPA daily, and 1.48 (95% CI, 1.19 to 1.84) for no more than 2 hours of leisure-time sedentary behaviours daily. This study found that less than 10.0% of urban Chinese adolescents engaged in MVPA at least 60 minutes/day. Family involving themselves in the children's activity exerted the most significant influence on children's behaviours

  15. Sedentary and Physical Activity Patterns in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Guillermo R.; Travier, Noémie; Guerra-Balic, Myriam

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the patterns of sedentary time (ST) and physical activity (PA) levels throughout the week among adults and older adults with Intellectual Disability (ID). We analyzed ST and PA patterns of adults and older adults with ID. Forty-two adults and 42 older adults with mild to severe ID participated in this study. Height and weight were obtained to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). Body fat and fat-free mass percentages were also obtained. Patterns of PA levels and ST were assessed with GT3X Actigraph accelerometers. Adults performed higher amounts of total PA and moderate to vigorous PA than older adults during the week, on weekdays and in center time (all p > 0.05). No differences between males and females were found for either PA levels or ST. Only 10.7% of the participants met the global recommendations on PA for health. The participants of the current study showed low PA levels and a high prevalence of ST. Interestingly, when comparing age and/or sex groups, no differences were observed for ST. Our findings provide novel and valuable information to be considered in future interventions aiming to increase PA levels and reduce ST. PMID:28880236

  16. Sedentary and Physical Activity Patterns in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo R. Oviedo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the patterns of sedentary time (ST and physical activity (PA levels throughout the week among adults and older adults with Intellectual Disability (ID. We analyzed ST and PA patterns of adults and older adults with ID. Forty-two adults and 42 older adults with mild to severe ID participated in this study. Height and weight were obtained to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI. Body fat and fat-free mass percentages were also obtained. Patterns of PA levels and ST were assessed with GT3X Actigraph accelerometers. Adults performed higher amounts of total PA and moderate to vigorous PA than older adults during the week, on weekdays and in center time (all p > 0.05. No differences between males and females were found for either PA levels or ST. Only 10.7% of the participants met the global recommendations on PA for health. The participants of the current study showed low PA levels and a high prevalence of ST. Interestingly, when comparing age and/or sex groups, no differences were observed for ST. Our findings provide novel and valuable information to be considered in future interventions aiming to increase PA levels and reduce ST.

  17. Exercise alters myostatin protein expression in sedentary and exercised streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Daniela; Bueno, Patricia de Godoy; Nonaka, Keico Okino; Selistre-Araujo, Heloisa Sobreiro; Leal, Angela Merice de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of exercise on the pattern of muscle myostatin (MSTN) protein expression in two important metabolic disorders, i.e., obesity and diabetes mellitus. MSTN, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. We evaluated the effect of exercise on MSTN protein expression in diabetes mellitus and high fat diet-induced obesity. MSTN protein expression in gastrocnemius muscle was analyzed by Western Blot. P sedentary or exercised obese animals. Diabetes reduced gastrocnemius muscle weight in sedentary animals. However, gastrocnemius muscle weight increased in diabetic exercised animals. Both the precursor and processed forms of muscle MSTN protein were significantly higher in sedentary diabetic rats than in control rats. The precursor form was significantly lower in diabetic exercised animals than in diabetic sedentary animals. However, the processed form did not change. These results demonstrate that exercise can modulate the muscle expression of MSTN protein in diabetic rats and suggest that MSTN may be involved in energy homeostasis.

  18. Developing Novel Machine Learning Algorithms to Improve Sedentary Assessment for Youth Health Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golla, Gowtham Kumar; Carlson, Jordan A; Huan, Jun; Kerr, Jacqueline; Mitchell, Tarrah; Borner, Kelsey

    2016-10-01

    Sedentary behavior of youth is an important determinant of health. However, better measures are needed to improve understanding of this relationship and the mechanisms at play, as well as to evaluate health promotion interventions. Wearable accelerometers are considered as the standard for assessing physical activity in research, but do not perform well for assessing posture (i.e., sitting vs. standing), a critical component of sedentary behavior. The machine learning algorithms that we propose for assessing sedentary behavior will allow us to re-examine existing accelerometer data to better understand the association between sedentary time and health in various populations. We collected two datasets, a laboratory-controlled dataset and a free-living dataset. We trained machine learning classifiers separately on each dataset and compared performance across datasets. The classifiers predict five postures: sit, stand, sit-stand, stand-sit, and stand\\walk. We compared a manually constructed Hidden Markov model (HMM) with an automated HMM from existing software. The manually constructed HMM gave more F1-Macro score on both datasets.

  19. Genetic influences on exercise participation in 37.051 twin pairs from seven countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbe, J.H.; Boomsma, D.I.; Vink, J.M.; Cornes, B.; Martin, N.G.; Skytthe, A.; Kyvik, K.; Rose, R.J.; Kujala, U.; Kaprio, J.; Harris, J.R.; Pedersen, N.L.; Hunkin, J.; Spector, T.D.; de Geus, E.J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Background. A sedentary lifestyle remains a major threat to health in contemporary societies. To get more insight in the relative contribution of genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in exercise participation, twin samples from seven countries participating in the

  20. Change in explicit and implicit motivation toward physical activity and sedentary behavior in pulmonary rehabilitation and associations with postrehabilitation behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevance, Guillaume; Héraud, Nelly; Varray, Alain; Boiché, Julie

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to determine whether Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) variables and implicit attitudes toward physical activity and sedentary behavior would change during a 5-week pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program, and (b) to investigate the relationships between behavioral intentions, implicit attitudes, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in postrehabilitation. Out of 142 patients with respiratory disease included in this study, 119 completed 2 questionnaires measuring TPB variables with regard to physical activity and sedentary behavior, and an Implicit Association Test (IAT) measuring implicit attitudes toward physical activity in contrast to sedentary behavior. The TPB questionnaires and the IAT were administered at the beginning (Time 1) and the end of the program (Time 2). Six months after the program (Time 3), 62 patients provided self-reported measures of their recreational physical activity and screen-based, leisure-time sedentary behavior. Over the course of pulmonary rehabilitation, perceived behavioral control and intentions toward physical activity increased, as did social norms and perceived behavioral control toward sedentary behavior; implicit attitudes were also more positive toward physical activity. Implicit attitudes at the end of PR (Time 2) were significantly associated with postrehabilitation physical activity (Time 3). TPB variables toward physical activity and sedentary behavior as well as implicit attitudes were enhanced during PR. At 6 months, implicit attitudes were significantly associated with physical activity. These results suggest that motivation, particularly implicit attitudes, should be targeted in future behavioral interventions in order to optimize the effects of rehabilitation on physical activity maintenance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with prediabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swindell, Nils; Mackintosh, Kelly; McNarry, Melitta

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to examine the association among physical activity (PA), sedentary time (ST), and cardiometabolic risk in adults with prediabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants (n = 2,326; 25-70 years old, 67% female) from eight countries...

  2. Predictive Control of Demand Side Units Participating in the Primary Frequency Reserve Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2013-01-01

    We consider an aggregator controlling a mixed portfolio of conventional power generators and demand side units. The generators are controllable within certain power and ramp limitations while the demand side units are characterized by flexible consumptions and therefore can be treated as energy...

  3. Community participation in mosquito breeding site control: an interdisciplinary mixed methods study in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsinga, Jelte; van der Veen, Henry T.; Gerstenbluth, Izzy; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Dijkstra, Arie; Grobusch, Martin P.; Tami, Adriana; Bailey, Ajay

    2017-01-01

    Background: As the arboviral diseases dengue, chikungunya and Zika emerge in the Americas, so does the need for sustainable vector control policies. To successfully achieve mosquito control, joint efforts of both communities and governments are essential. This study investigates this important, but

  4. Effect of major school playground reconstruction on physical activity and sedentary behaviour: Camden active spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hamer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical school environment is a promising setting to increase children’s physical activity although robust evidence is sparse. We examined the effects of major playground reconstruction on physical activity and sedentary time in primary schools using a quasi-experimental design (comparison group pre-test/post-test design. Methods Five experimental and two control schools from deprived areas of inner city London were recruited at baseline. Main outcome was physical activity and sedentary time measured from objective monitoring (Actigraph accelerometer at one year follow up. Pupils’ impressions of the new playground were qualitatively assessed post construction. Results A total of 347 pupils (mean age = 8 years, 55% boys; 36% Caucasian were recruited into the study at baseline; 303 provided valid baseline Actigraph data. Of those, 231 (76% completed follow-up (n = 169 intervention; n = 62 control and 77.4% of the sample recorded at least 4 days of Actigraph wear. In mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, ratio activity or sedentary/wear time at baseline, wear time at follow up, and school, no differences were observed in total moderate – vigorous activity (B = −1.4, 95% CI, −7.1, 4.2 min/d, light activity (B = 4.1, 95% CI, −17.9, 26.1, or sedentary time (B = −3.8, 95% CI, −29.2, 21.6 min/d between groups. There were significant age interactions for sedentary (p = 0.002 and light intensity physical activity (p = 0.008. We observed significant reductions in total sedentary (−28.0, 95% CI, −1.9, −54.1 min/d, p = 0.037 and increases in total light intensity activity (24.6, 95% CI, 0.3, 48.9 min/d, p = 0.047 for children aged under 9 yrs. old in the intervention. Conclusion Major playground reconstruction had limited effects on physical activity, but reduced sedentary time was observed in younger children. Qualitative data suggested that the children enjoyed the new

  5. Importance of Active Participation in Obesity Management Through Mobile Health Care Programs: Substudy of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Bumjo; Yi, Ga-Hye; Han, Min Kyu; Kim, Jong Seung; Lee, Chang Hee; Cho, Belong; Kang, Hee Cheol

    2018-01-03

    Due to the prevalence of the westernized dietary pattern and lack of physical activity, the numbers of overweight or obese individuals are increasing, resulting in a growing health burden because of various related diseases. A lifestyle modification approach has additional advantages compared with pharmacological therapies or bariatric surgery. In our randomized controlled trial conducted in 2015, we successfully used a ubiquitous health care (SmartCare) service for patients with metabolic syndrome to achieve a significant weight loss effect. Various useful apps have been developed for the SmartCare Service, which involves using a mobile phone to manage chronic diseases, minimizing time and space restrictions. Many studies have demonstrated weight loss effects using a SmartCare service, but limited data are available regarding the effect of active participation in relation to weight loss. We aimed to assess the weight loss effect achieved after using the SmartCare service in terms of adherence and participation. We divided the intervention group of the previous study according to participation level, and analyzed whether there was a significant difference in the outcome. We classified participants into 3 groups according to their adherence. Within the intervention group using the SmartCare service, the active group comprised those transmitting anthropometric measurement data using a mobile phone 3 or more times per week or who had a health consultation 5 or more times during a 24-week period. The passive group comprised those who did not adhere to these levels of engagement. The control group comprised those who did not use the SmartCare service. We compared changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist circumference, and lipid profile among the 3 groups. We identified 422 participants and analyzed 405, excluding 17 who were missing necessary data for analysis. The active group consisted of 116 participants, compared with 80 in the

  6. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of different sedentary behaviors with cognitive performance in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot

    Full Text Available The deleterious health effects of sedentary behaviors, independent of physical activity, are increasingly being recognized. However, associations with cognitive performance are not known.To estimate the associations between different sedentary behaviors and cognitive performance in healthy older adults.Computer use, time spent watching television (TV, time spent reading and habitual physical activity levels were self-reported twice (in 2001 and 2007 by participants in the SUpplémentation en Vitamines et MinérauX (SU.VI.MAX and SU.VI.MAX2 study. Cognitive performance was assessed at follow-up (in 2007-2009 via a battery of 6 neuropsychological tests used to derive verbal memory and executive functioning scores. Analyses (ANCOVA were performed among 1425 men and 1154 women aged 65.6 ± 4.5 at the time of the neuropsychological evaluation. We estimated mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI in cognitive performance across categories of each type of sedentary behavior.In multivariable cross-sectional models, compared to non-users, participants using the computer for >1 h/day displayed better verbal memory (mean difference=1.86; 95%CI: 0.95, 2.77 and executive functioning (mean difference=2.15; 95%CI: 1.22, 3.08. A negative association was also observed between TV viewing and executive functioning. Additionally, participants who increased their computer use by more than 30 min between 2001 and 2007 showed better performance on both verbal memory (mean difference=1.41; 95%CI: 0.55, 2.27 and executive functioning (mean difference=1.41; 95%CI: 0.53, 2.28 compared to those who decreased their computer use during that period.Specific sedentary behaviors are differentially associated with cognitive performance. In contrast to TV viewing, regular computer use may help maintain cognitive function during the aging process.clinicaltrial.gov (number NCT00272428.

  7. Genetics of regular exercise and sedentary behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Geus, Eco J C; Bartels, Meike; Kaprio, Jaakko; Lightfoot, J Timothy; Thomis, Martine

    2014-08-01

    Studies on the determinants of physical activity have traditionally focused on social factors and environmental barriers, but recent research has shown the additional importance of biological factors, including genetic variation. Here we review the major tenets of this research to arrive at three major conclusions: First, individual differences in physical activity traits are significantly influenced by genetic factors, but genetic contribution varies strongly over age, with heritability of leisure time exercise behavior ranging from 27% to 84% and heritability of sedentary behaviors ranging from 9% to 48%. Second, candidate gene approaches based on animal or human QTLs or on biological relevance (e.g., dopaminergic or cannabinoid activity in the brain, or exercise performance influencing muscle physiology) have not yet yielded the necessary evidence to specify the genetic mechanisms underlying the heritability of physical activity traits. Third, there is significant genetic modulation of the beneficial effects of daily physical activity patterns on strength and endurance improvements and on health-related parameters like body mass index. Further increases in our understanding of the genetic determinants of sedentary and exercise behaviors as well as the genetic modulation of their effects on fitness and health will be key to meaningful future intervention on these behaviors.

  8. Parenting Style Associated with Sedentary Behaviour in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    There is an absence of studies exploring the relationship between parental style and sedentary behaviour in preschool-aged children. Given the link between parenting style and other health behaviours, and given that preschool children engage in relatively high levels of sedentary behaviour, this study's purpose was to examine if a preschool…

  9. Public participation in wilderness and backcountry litter control: a review of research and management experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Muth; Roger N. Clark

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Incentive System for Litter Control to wilderness and backcountry environments. Based on research, observation, and management experience, a set of procedures was developed and is presented here. Additional management considerations are discussed.

  10. Intention to be Physically Active is Influenced by Physical Activity and Fitness, Sedentary Behaviours, and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Nuviala, Alberto; Pérez-Turpin, José A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of levels of physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF), sedentary lifestyle and life satisfaction with the intention to be physically active after secondary school graduation, in teenagers of both genders. A total of 1986 Spanish adolescents (12-16 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. PA, sedentary lifestyle, life satisfaction and intention to be physically active were assessed through validated questionnaires, and PF was evaluated objectively with the ALPHA battery tests. In both genders, adolescents who had significantly higher odds ratios (OR) of showing low intention to be physically active had low level of PA, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness in the lower body, and they were more sedentary in front of the computer. The girls that spent a lot of time watching TV and the boys with low life satisfaction also showed higher OR of having low intention to be physically active.

  11. Comparison of Physical Fitness Parameters with EUROFIT Test Battery of Male Adolescent Soccer Players and Sedentary Counterparts

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    Özgür ERİKOĞLU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare physical fitness parameters of male adolescent soccer players and sedentary counterparts. A total of 26 male adolescents participated in this study voluntarily: Active soccer players (n: 3, age x : 13,00 ± 0,00 and sedentary counterparts (n: 13, age x :12,92 ± 0,75. The EUROFIT test battery was used to determine physical fitness. The test battery includes body height and weight measurements, touching the discs, flamingo balan ce, throwing health ball, vertical jumping, sit and reach, sit - up for 30 s, 20 meter sprint run, and 20 meter shuttle run tests. Data were analyzed by Mann Whitney U test. Significance was defined as p.05. In conclusion, children who do sports are more successful on most of the fitness parameters than sedentary children.

  12. The energy expenditure of an activity-promoting video game compared to sedentary video games and TV watching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitre, Naim; Foster, Randal C; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Levine, James A

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the effect of television watching and the use of activity-promoting video games on energy expenditure in obese and lean children. Energy expenditure and physical activity were measured while participants were watching television, playing a video game on a traditional sedentary video game console, and while playing the same video game on an activity-promoting video game console. Energy expenditure was significantly greater than television watching and playing video games on a sedentary video game console when children played the video game on the activity-promoting console. When examining movement with accelerometry, children moved significantly more when playing the video game on the Nintendo Wii console. Activity-promoting video games have shown to increase movement, and be an important tool to raise energy expenditure by 50% when compared to sedentary activities of daily living.

  13. Does aerobic training alleviate fatigue and improve societal participation in patients with multiple sclerosis? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Martin; Verschuren, Olaf; Hoogervorst, Erwin Lj; van Munster, Erik; Hacking, Hub Ga; Visser-Meily, Anne; Twisk, Jos Wr; Beckerman, Heleen; de Groot, Vincent; Kwakkel, Gert

    2017-10-01

    Evidence supporting the effectiveness of aerobic training, specific for fatigue, in severely fatigued patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is lacking. To estimate the effectiveness of aerobic training on MS-related fatigue and societal participation in ambulant patients with severe MS-related fatigue. Patients ( N = 90) with severe MS-related fatigue were allocated to 16-week aerobic training or control intervention. Primary outcomes were perceived fatigue (Checklist Individual Strength (CIS20r) fatigue subscale) and societal participation. An improvement of ⩾8 points on the CIS20r fatigue subscale was considered clinically relevant. Outcomes were assessed by a blinded observer at baseline, 2, 4, 6 and 12 months. Of the 89 patients that started treatment (median Expanded Disability Status Scale (interquartile range), 3.0 (2.0-3.6); mean CIS20r fatigue subscale (standard deviation (SD)), 42.6 (8.0)), 43 received aerobic training and 46 received the control intervention. A significant post-intervention between-group mean difference (MD) on the CIS20r fatigue subscale of 4.708 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.003-8.412; p  = 0.014) points was found in favour of aerobic training that, however, was not sustained during follow-up. No effect was found on societal participation. Aerobic training in MS patients with severe fatigue does not lead to a clinically meaningful reduction in fatigue or societal participation when compared to a low-intensity control intervention.

  14. The Need for Popular Participation Effectiveness and Social Control in Public Administration for the Brazilian Democratic Process Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Couto de Oliveira Contigli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current article aims to seek the correlation between popular participation and social control in public administration in the consolidation of the Brazilian democratic process, from the perspective of participatory democracy, as well as conditions for increasing this participation. In participatory democracy, having as the theoretical framework Bobbio (2006, p.30 and Santos (2002, p.62 and 63, it emphasizes public participation as one of the forms of management, where it plays an important role, as legitimating the decisions. This article discusses the ways of popular participation in government, with no claim to exhaust the subject, and was based on Perez settings (2004, Enterría (1998 and Di Pietro (1993, plus other institutes of participation popular. Search thus contribute including other popular participation instruments besides those already mentioned by these authors, emphasize the difficulties and to suggest some measures to minimize them. The methodology used to develop the work, dogmatic and legal, was developed through bibliographic research, done through a literature review and analytical reading on the subject.

  15. Category 3 and 4 Controlled Drugs Users' Perceptions of Participating in Drug-Abuse-Health Prevention Lectures in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fan-Ko; Long, Ann; Yu, Pei-Jane; Huang, Hui-Man; Chiang, Chun-Ying; Yao, YuChun

    2017-08-01

    This study was designed to explore Category 3 and 4 controlled drug users' perceptions of participating in health-prevention lectures. A phenomenological approach was used. Twelve participants were interviewed after completing the lectures. Findings revealed five themes (1) mixed emotions; (2) self-development; (3) finding the lectures lacked practicality and relevance; (4) highlighting three stages for discontinuing drug-usage; and, (5) suggesting tips for the advancement of lectures. These findings could be used as a map to help health professionals understand drug users' perceptions of attending health prevention lectures and provide insight into how young people might stop using drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Nirla Gomes; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Moreira, Rafaella Pessoa; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; de Araujo, Thelma Leite

    2010-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 310 individuals with high blood pressure. The prevalence of the diagnosis of sedentary lifestyle was 60%. The more common defining characteristics were "lack of physical conditioning" and "lack of practice for physical exercises." The nursing diagnosis was associated with age and presence of diabetes. Individuals who presented with a sedentary lifestyle related to lack of motivation were significantly younger. This study showed a high prevalence of "sedentary lifestyle" and its associations with age and the presence of diabetes. IMPLICATIONS TO NURSING PRACTICE: The acknowledgement of "sedentary lifestyle" contributes to the choice for nursing interventions that promote physical activity centered on the subject and the surroundings.

  17. Perception of young adults with sickle cell disease or sickle cell trait about participation in the CHOICES randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Patricia E; Gallo, Agatha M; Molokie, Robert; Thompson, Alexis A; Suarez, Marie L; Yao, Yingwei; Wilkie, Diana J

    2016-06-01

    To gain an in-depth understanding of the perceptions of young adults with sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait about parenthood and participating in the CHOICES randomized controlled trial that used computer-based, educational programmes. In the USA, there is insufficient education to assure that all young adults with sickle cell disease or sickle cell trait understand genetic inheritance risks and reproductive options to make informed reproductive decisions. To address this educational need, we developed a computer-based, multimedia program (CHOICES) and reformatted usual care into a computer-based (e-Book) program. We then conducted a two-year randomized controlled trial that included a qualitative component that would deepen understanding of young adults' perceptions of parenthood and use of computer-based, educational programmes. A qualitative descriptive approach completed after a randomized controlled trial. Sixty-eight men and women of childbearing age participated in semi-structured interviews at the completion of the randomized controlled trial from 2012-2013. Thematic content analysis guided the qualitative description. Three main themes were identified: (1) increasing knowledge and new ways of thinking and behaving; (2) rethinking parenting plans; and (3) appraising the program design and delivery. Most participants reported increased knowledge and rethinking of their parenting plans and were supportive of computer-based learning. Some participants expressed difficulty in determining individual transmission risks. Participants perceived the computer programs as beneficial to their learning. Future development of an Internet-based educational programme is warranted, with emphasis on providing tailored education or memory boosters about individual transmission risks. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A Closed-Loop Control Strategy for Air Conditioning Loads to Participate in Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Hu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs, such as air conditioners (ACs, are important demand response resources—they have a certain heat storage capacity. A change in the operating status of an air conditioner in a small range will not noticeably affect the users’ comfort level. Load control of TCLs is considered to be equivalent to a power plant of the same capacity in effect, and it can significantly reduce the system pressure to peak load shift. The thermodynamic model of air conditioning can be used to study the aggregate power of a number of ACs that respond to the step signal of a temperature set point. This paper analyzes the influence of the parameters of each AC in the group to the indoor temperature and the total load, and derives a simplified control model based on the two order linear time invariant transfer function. Then, the stability of the model and designs its Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID controller based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is also studied. The case study presented in this paper simulates both scenarios of constant ambient temperature and changing ambient temperature to verify the proposed transfer function model and control strategy can closely track the reference peak load shifting curves. The study also demonstrates minimal changes in the indoor temperature and the users’ comfort level.

  19. Spectral Parameters of HRV In Yoga Practitioners, Athletes And Sedentary Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Rosemary; Sood, Sushma; Dhawan, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Exercise is considered an acceptable method for improving and maintaining physical and emotional health. Although yoga is historically a spiritual discipline, a growing body of evidence supports the belief that yoga benefits physical and mental health. The objective of this study was to evaluate heart rate variability which reflects autonomic control of heart among yoga practitioners, athletes and individuals with sedentary lifestyle. The study was carried out in the departments of physiology at MAMC Agroha, Hisar and Pt. BD Sharma PGIMS Rohtak, Haryana. The study group comprised of 1200 healthy male volunteers of 16 to 55 years of age. The study group was divided into four age groups: Group A of age 16 to 25 years; Group B of age 26 to 35 years; Group C of age 36 to 45 years and Group D of age 46 to 55 years. All age groups were further divided into three categories i.e athlete (runner), yoga (yoga practitioners) and sedentary in which individuals with sedentary life style were included. The basal recording of ECG in lead II was done for 5 minutes. The Polyrite-D ECG data was used for analysis of heart rate variability by frequency domain method. Two spectral components were recorded namely high frequency (HF) component (0.15-0.4 Hz), an indicator of vagal efferent activity and low frequency (LF) component (0.04-.15 Hz), replicator of composite sympatho-vagal interplay. HF component in normalized unit was found significantly high in age group B and C in yoga practitioners and athletes as compared to sedentary individuals and in age group D significantly high in yoga practitioners as compared to athletes and sedentary individuals. Significantly decreased LF/HF ratio was found in age group B and C in yoga and athlete subjects as compared to sedentary individuals and in age group D in yoga practitioners as compared to athletes and sedentary individuals. This indicates that

  20. Feasibility of retrofitting a university library with active workstations to reduce sedentary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hotaka; Quartiroli, Alessandro; Vos, Paul W; Carr, Lucas J; Mahar, Matthew T

    2014-05-01

    Libraries are an inherently sedentary environment, but are an understudied setting for sedentary behavior interventions. To investigate the feasibility of incorporating portable pedal machines in a university library to reduce sedentary behaviors. The 11-week intervention targeted students at a university library. Thirteen portable pedal machines were placed in the library. Four forms of prompts (e-mail, library website, advertisement monitors, and poster) encouraging pedal machine use were employed during the first 4 weeks. Pedal machine use was measured via automatic timers on each machine and momentary time sampling. Daily library visits were measured using a gate counter. Individualized data were measured by survey. Data were collected in fall 2012 and analyzed in 2013. Mean (SD) cumulative pedal time per day was 95.5 (66.1) minutes. One or more pedal machines were observed being used 15% of the time (N=589). Pedal machines were used at least once by 7% of students (n=527). Controlled for gate count, no linear change of pedal machine use across days was found (b=-0.1 minutes, p=0.75) and the presence of the prompts did not change daily pedal time (p=0.63). Seven of eight items that assessed attitudes toward the intervention supported intervention feasibility (plibrary with pedal machines to reduce sedentary behavior seems feasible, but improvement of its effectiveness is needed. This study could inform future studies aimed at reshaping traditionally sedentary settings to improve public health. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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