WorldWideScience

Sample records for security policy enforcement

  1. Trust in Security-Policy Enforcement Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, Fred B; Morrisett, Greg

    2006-01-01

    .... but provides the strong security guarantees of modern languages such as Java. A second avenue of language-based work explored a general class of policy enforcement mechanism based on in-line reference monitors (IRM...

  2. Verification of Security Policy Enforcement in Enterprise Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Puneet; Stoller, Scott D.

    Many security requirements for enterprise systems can be expressed in a natural way as high-level access control policies. A high-level policy may refer to abstract information resources, independent of where the information is stored; it controls both direct and indirect accesses to the information; it may refer to the context of a request, i.e., the request’s path through the system; and its enforcement point and enforcement mechanism may be unspecified. Enforcement of a high-level policy may depend on the system architecture and the configurations of a variety of security mechanisms, such as firewalls, host login permissions, file permissions, DBMS access control, and application-specific security mechanisms. This paper presents a framework in which all of these can be conveniently and formally expressed, a method to verify that a high-level policy is enforced, and an algorithm to determine a trusted computing base for each resource.

  3. Trust in Security-Policy Enforcement Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, Fred B; Morrisett, Greg

    2005-01-01

    .... One avenue of language-based work produced Cyclone, a type-safe variant of C. The Cyclone language retains the familiar syntax and semantics of C code, but provides the strong security guarantees of modem languages such as Java...

  4. ESPOON$_{{ERBAC}}$: Enforcing Security Policies In Outsourced Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Asghar, Muhammad Rizwan; Ion, Mihaela; Russello, Giovanni; Crispo, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Data outsourcing is a growing business model offering services to individuals and enterprises for processing and storing a huge amount of data. It is not only economical but also promises higher availability, scalability, and more effective quality of service than in-house solutions. Despite all its benefits, data outsourcing raises serious security concerns for preserving data confidentiality. There are solutions for preserving confidentiality of data while supporting search on the data stor...

  5. General statement of policy and procedures for NRC enforcement actions: Enforcement policy. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This document includes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s or Commission`s) revised General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Actions (Enforcement Policy) as it was published in the Federal Register on May 13, 1998 (63 ER 26630). The Enforcement Policy is a general statement of policy explaining the NRC`s policies and procedures in initiating enforcement actions, and of the presiding officers and the Commission in reviewing these actions. This policy statement is applicable to enforcement matters involving the radiological health and safety of the public, including employees` health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment.

  6. General statement of policy and procedures for NRC enforcement actions: Enforcement policy. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This document includes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's or Commission's) revised General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Actions (Enforcement Policy) as it was published in the Federal Register on May 13, 1998 (63 ER 26630). The Enforcement Policy is a general statement of policy explaining the NRC's policies and procedures in initiating enforcement actions, and of the presiding officers and the Commission in reviewing these actions. This policy statement is applicable to enforcement matters involving the radiological health and safety of the public, including employees' health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment

  7. 75 FR 60485 - NRC Enforcement Policy Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2008-0497] NRC Enforcement Policy Revision AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Policy statement. SUMMARY: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or Commission) is publishing a major revision to its Enforcement Policy (Enforcement Policy or Policy) to...

  8. A Quantitative Study on the Relationship of Information Security Policy Awareness, Enforcement, and Maintenance to Information Security Program Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Today's organizations rely heavily on information technology to conduct their daily activities. Therefore, their information security systems are an area of heightened security concern. As a result, organizations implement information security programs to address and mitigate that concern. However, even with the emphasis on information security,…

  9. The RAppArmor Package: Enforcing Security Policies in R Using Dynamic Sandboxing on Linux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Ooms

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of cloud computing and scientific super computers brings great potential for making R accessible through public or shared resources. This allows us to efficiently run code requiring lots of cycles and memory, or embed R functionality into, e.g., systems and web services. However some important security concerns need to be addressed before this can be put in production. The prime use case in the design of R has always been a single statistician running R on the local machine through the interactive console. Therefore the execution environment of R is entirely unrestricted, which could result in malicious behavior or excessive use of hardware resources in a shared environment. Properly securing an R process turns out to be a complex problem. We describe various approaches and illustrate potential issues using some of our personal experiences in hosting public web services. Finally we introduce the RAppArmor package: a Linux based reference implementation for dynamic sandboxing in R on the level of the operating system.

  10. Analyzing Security-Enhanced Linux Policy Specifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archer, Myla

    2003-01-01

    NSA's Security-Enhanced (SE) Linux enhances Linux by providing a specification language for security policies and a Flask-like architecture with a security server for enforcing policies defined in the language...

  11. 76 FR 76192 - NRC Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0273] NRC Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed enforcement policy revision; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear... licensees, vendors, and contractors), on proposed revisions to the NRC's Enforcement Policy (the Policy) and...

  12. 50 CFR 600.740 - Enforcement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enforcement policy. 600.740 Section 600... § 600.740 Enforcement policy. (a) The Magnuson-Stevens Act provides four basic enforcement remedies for... and its catch. (4) Criminal prosecution of the owner or operator for some offenses. It shall be the...

  13. 78 FR 5838 - NRC Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0014] NRC Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Policy revision; issuance and request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory... Nuclear Regulatory Commission Enforcement Policy,'' December 30, 2009 (ADAMS Accession No. ML093200520);(2...

  14. 76 FR 54986 - NRC Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Chapter I [NRC-2011-0209] NRC Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed enforcement policy revision; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is soliciting comments from interested...

  15. US statutes for enforcement by security inspectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, J.J.; Ruger, C.J.

    1995-12-01

    This document is one of a three volume set. BNL 52201 is titled `Selected Text of Atomic Energy Act Executive Orders and Other Laws of General Interest to Safeguards and Security Executives`, and it contains detailed information for use by executives. BNL 52202 is titled `U.S. Statutes of General Interest to Safeguards and Security Officers`, and contains less detail than BNL 52201. It is intended for use by officers. BNL 52203 is titled `U.S. Statutes for Enforcement by Security Inspectors`, and it contains statutes to be applied by uniformed security inspectors.

  16. National Cyber Security Policy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    National Cyber Security Policy. Salient Features: Caters to ... Creating a secure cyber ecosystem. Creating an assurance framework. Encouraging Open Standards. Strengthening the Regulatory framework. Creating mechanisms for security threat early warning, vulnerability management and response to security threats.

  17. 3PAC: Enforcing Access Policies for Web Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bemmel, J.; Wegdam, M.; Lagerberg, K.

    Web Services fail to deliver on the promise of ubiquitous deployment and seamless interoperability due to the lack of a uniform, standards-based approach to all aspects of security. In particular, the enforcement of access policies in a Service Oriented Architecture is not addressed adequately. We

  18. Hybrid Security Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu CONSTANTINESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy is defined as the rules and regulations set by the organization. They are laid down by management in compliance with industry regulations, law and internal decisions. Policies are mandatory. Security policies rules how the information is protected against security vulnerabilities and they are the basis for security awareness, training and vital for security audits. Policies are focused on desired results. The means of achieving the goals are defined on controls, standards and procedures.

  19. 20 CFR 638.805 - Security and law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security and law enforcement. 638.805 Section... and law enforcement. (a) The Job Corps Director shall provide guidelines to protect the security of... jurisdiction with the appropriate State and locality with respect to criminal law enforcement as long as a...

  20. 16 CFR 1602.1 - Enforcement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement policy. 1602.1 Section 1602.1 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STATEMENTS OF..., set aside, or repealed by the Consumer Product Safety Commission, by any court of competent...

  1. 78 FR 44165 - Nuclear Regulatory Commission Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0159] Nuclear Regulatory Commission Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Enforcement policy; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S... Policy. In SRM-SECY-12-0047, ``Revisions to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Enforcement Policy,'' dated...

  2. 43 CFR 422.3 - Reclamation law enforcement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reclamation law enforcement policy. 422.3 Section 422.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS § 422.3 Reclamation law enforcement policy. The law enforcement...

  3. REGULATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Competition policy starts by shaping a legislative framework. This is aimed to establish boundaries for conducting competition and also sets limits of licit and illicit demarcation, for competitive and anticompetitive practices. The Romanian Competition Law has a divalent approach and it aims to provide specific behavioral conditions in order to stimulate and protect free-market competition, with the ultimate goal of developing a balanced, efficient and competitive economy. Our country’s Competition policy is based on punishing the behavior. There are three such types of anti-competitive behavior, namely: agreements between undertakings, abuse of dominant position and mergers and other concentrations between undertakings. Recent Practice proved that this “enforcement-conduct-punishment” structure is not necessary the best way to address competition and it is high time for authorities to switch both regulation and enforcement of competition from the “classical perspective” towards concepts like “competition advocacy” and “soft power” and give competition policy a new, reshaped face.

  4. Aspects with Program Analysis for Security Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan

    Enforcing security policies to IT systems, especially for a mobile distributed system, is challenging. As society becomes more IT-savvy, our expectations about security and privacy evolve. This is usually followed by changes in regulation in the form of standards and legislation. In many cases......, small modification of the security requirement might lead to substantial changes in a number of modules within a large mobile distributed system. Indeed, security is a crosscutting concern which can spread to many business modules within a system, and is difficult to be integrated in a modular way....... This dissertation explores the principles of adding challenging security policies to existing systems with great flexibility and modularity. The policies concerned cover both classical access control and explicit information flow policies. We built our solution by combining aspect-oriented programming techniques...

  5. NRC Enforcement Policy Review, July 1995-July 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.; Pedersen, R.M.

    1998-04-01

    On June 30, 1995, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued a complete revision of its General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Action (Enforcement Policy) (60 FR 34381). In approving the 1995 revision to the Enforcement Policy, the Commission directed the staff to perform a review of its implementation of the Policy after approximately 2 years of experience and to consider public comments. This report represents the results of that review

  6. Dynamic Enforcement of the Strict Integrity Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGXiangfeng; LIANGHongliang; SUNYufang

    2005-01-01

    The Strict integrity policy (SIP) in Biba's integrity model is widely used in protecting information integrity, but the static integrity labels of both subjects and objects increase compatibility cost of applications and might prevent some operations that are indeed harmless.In order to improve compatibility, Dynamic enforcement of the Strict integrity policy (DESIP) is put forward. The current integrity label attribute of a subject in SIP is replaced with two attributes in DESIP, which are used to confine dynamically the range of objects a subject could be allowed to access. The new rules of access control in DESIP are given for each kind of access mode (observe,modify and invoke) together with the proofs of their valid-ity. Comparison between SIP and DESIP shows that after a sequence of operations, a subject controlled by DESIP tends to behave in a similar way as it is controlled by SIP and DESIP is more compatible than SIP.

  7. 78 FR 5122 - NASA Security and Protective Services Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Parts 1203a, 1203b, and 1204 [Docket No NASA-2012-0007] RIN 2700-AD89 NASA Security and Protective Services Enforcement AGENCY: National Aeronautics... nonsubstantive changes to NASA regulations to clarify the procedures for establishing controlled/ secure areas...

  8. Constitutional Basis for the Enforcement of ''Executive'' Policies that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although "executive" policies remain an important governance tool, there appears to be confusion on the status and possible basis for their judicial enforcement in South Africa. The aim of this article is to critically reflect on the status and possible constitutional basis for the enforceability of "executive" policies that give effect ...

  9. Internal Security Cooperation under Functional Expectations: Initial Law Enforcement Europeanization - Case of Finland and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Loik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Law enforcement cooperation as a central part of the EU internal security policy to combat cross-border organised crime and terrorism needs to be more effective by adopting specific provisions and tools. This paper argues that functional expectations require removal of barriers and construction of a common security area, but sometimes better cooperation in practice does not fit, as Europeanization of law enforcement still lacks understanding of objectives, values and principles for improving international trust, consensus, sincere cooperation and effective national coordination. The level of Europeanization of law enforcement could be evaluated as based on the level of implementation of the EU provisions on police cooperation related to practical enforcement, factors promoting or hindering law enforcement and changes in discursive practices due to EU provisions and professional socialisation processes. Some aspects of observed inertia characterizes the slow process of transition or tendencies for absorption in which resilience meets the necessary degree of flexibility allowing for some mutual learning and cooperation, but the result is expectedly a form of accommodation of needful policy requirements in the lack of substantial change perspective.

  10. A Review on Regulatory Enforcement Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ji Han; Lee, Kyung Joo; Choi, Young Sung

    2017-01-01

    This paper examine the meaning and principle of enforcement through examples from other countries. Regulatory enforcement is the last stage of safety regulation and how it is exercised when one failing to meet regulatory requirements can have significant ripple effect across the industry. Thus, right philosophy and principle should be established. It is not recommended to emphasize neither deterrence approach nor behavior modification approach. This should be also taken into consideration when setting up the principle and system of regulatory enforcement. In the process of Vienna Declaration, Europe and the U.S showed the fundamental differences in their approaches to safety regulation. Considering this, it is required to remain cautious at all times on what to be improved in the aspect of internal consistency within our system and also in the aspect of procedure.

  11. Security and policy driven computing

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Lei

    2010-01-01

    Security and Policy Driven Computing covers recent advances in security, storage, parallelization, and computing as well as applications. The author incorporates a wealth of analysis, including studies on intrusion detection and key management, computer storage policy, and transactional management.The book first describes multiple variables and index structure derivation for high dimensional data distribution and applies numeric methods to proposed search methods. It also focuses on discovering relations, logic, and knowledge for policy management. To manage performance, the text discusses con

  12. Retailers' Views of Tobacco Policy and Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Bonita; Carver, Vivien; Range, Lillian M.; Pike, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Tobacco retailers are in a unique position to implement policies that can influence sales and ultimately tobacco use, so the present survey explored retailers' tobacco policies, involvement and problems with law enforcement, and pessimism about whether youth will obtain tobacco products. Methods: 144 randomly selected tobacco retailers…

  13. Policy Pathways: Monitoring, Verification and Enforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA estimates that, if implemented globally without delay, the 25 IEA Energy Efficiency recommendations could save 8.2 Gt CO2 per year by 2030. Yet many governments struggle with their implementation and thus miss a great part of the energy efficiency potential. The new IEA series Policy Pathways: Showing the way to energy efficiency implementation now aims to assist countries with improving energy efficiency policies. It features practical 'how-to' guides for designing, implementing and evaluating energy efficiency policies and achieving greater improvement.

  14. Policy Pathways: Monitoring, Verification and Enforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA estimates that, if implemented globally without delay, the 25 IEA Energy Efficiency recommendations could save 8.2 Gt CO2 per year by 2030. Yet many governments struggle with their implementation and thus miss a great part of the energy efficiency potential. The new IEA series Policy Pathways: Showing the way to energy efficiency implementation now aims to assist countries with improving energy efficiency policies. It features practical 'how-to' guides for designing, implementing and evaluating energy efficiency policies and achieving greater improvement.

  15. Cyber security policy guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Bayuk, nifer L; Rohmeyer, l; Sachs, cus; Schmidt, frey; Weiss, eph

    2012-01-01

    This book is a taxonomy and thesaurus of current cybersecurity policy issues, including a thorough description of each issue and a corresponding list of pros and cons with respect to identified stances on each issue. It documents policy alternatives for the sake of clarity with respect to policy alone, and dives into organizational implementation issues. Without using technical jargon, the book emphasizes the importance of critical and analytical thinking when making policy decisions.  It also equips the reader with descriptions of the impact of specific policy ch

  16. 17 CFR 240.19g2-1 - Enforcement of compliance by national securities exchanges and registered securities associations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... national securities exchanges and registered securities associations with the Act and rules and regulations... Enforcement of compliance by national securities exchanges and registered securities associations with the Act... associated with its members, a national securities exchange or registered securities association is not...

  17. Human security policy challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Morton

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available All evidence points towards climate- and environmentallyinduced migration becoming one of the major policychallenges of this century. Adequate planning for andmanagement of this phenomenon will be critical forhuman security.

  18. 45 CFR 307.13 - Security and confidentiality for computerized support enforcement systems in operation after...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.13 Security and confidentiality for computerized support enforcement systems in... systems in operation after October 1, 1997. (a) Information integrity and security. Have safeguards... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security and confidentiality for computerized...

  19. 75 FR 36062 - Notice of Enforcement Policy Symposium on Combating Counterfeiting in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... second panel on criminal procedure will involve a discussion of enforcement policy involving the... Enforcement Policy Symposium on Combating Counterfeiting in the 21st Century AGENCY: United States Patent and... United States Government enforcement policy regarding counterfeit goods involving health and safety...

  20. Would Enforcing Competition Law Compromise Industry Policy Objectives?

    OpenAIRE

    Evenett, Simon J.

    2005-01-01

    One recurring concern in the debate over the efficacy of enacting competition laws in developing countries is that its enforcement may compromise important industrial policy goals. This concern has been raised in regional fora and in multilateral organizations such as the World Trade Organization, where officials have considered the pros and cons of including competition provisions in international trade agreements. However, the concern is broader and often national debates over the merits of...

  1. 78 FR 5565 - Modifications to the HIPAA Privacy, Security, Enforcement, and Breach Notification Rules Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... RIN 0945-AA03 Modifications to the HIPAA Privacy, Security, Enforcement, and Breach Notification Rules... HIPAA Privacy, Security, Breach Notification, and Enforcement Rules (the HIPAA Rules) to improve their... entities Total cost Notices of Privacy Practices.. 700,000 covered $55.9 million. entities. Breach...

  2. Alcohol policy enforcement and changes in student drinking rates in a statewide public college system: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Sion K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy alcohol use among U.S. college students is a major contributor to young adult morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether college alcohol policy enforcement levels predict changes in student drinking and related behaviors in a state system of public colleges and universities, following a system-wide change to a stricter policy. Methods Students and administrators at 11 Massachusetts public colleges/universities completed surveys in 1999 (N of students = 1252, one year after the policy change, and again in 2001 (N = 1074. We calculated policy enforcement scores for each school based on the reports of deans of students, campus security chiefs, and students, and examined the correlations between perceived enforcement levels and the change in student drinking rates over the subsequent two year period, after weighting the 2001 data to adjust for demographic changes in the student body. Results Overall rates of any past-30-days drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and usual heavy drinking among past-30-days drinkers were all lower in 2001 compared to 1999. School-level analyses (N = 11 found deans' baseline reports of stricter enforcement were strongly correlated with subsequent declines in heavy episodic drinking (Pearson's r = -0.73, p = 0.011. Moreover, consistently high enforcement levels across time, as reported by deans, were associated with greater declines in heavy episodic drinking. Such relationships were not found for students' and security chiefs' reports of enforcement. Marijuana use did not rise during this period of decline in heavy drinking. Conclusions Study findings suggest that stronger enforcement of a stricter alcohol policy may be associated with reductions in student heavy drinking rates over time. An aggressive enforcement stance by deans may be an important element of an effective college alcohol policy.

  3. US-Africa Security Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Nicolai Stahlfest

    This paper will discuss the United States security policy towards Africa based on the National Security Strategy from 2006 and the founding of US Africa Command, the new military combatant command that is supposed to unify US military efforts on the African continent. The paper will discuss whether...... AFRICOM and US actions in Africa could be seen as a true (newfound) American interest in Africa or whether actions that are considered low-key and low-budget in Washington are to be regarded as a true asymmetry because African states regard US action as important and significant. The paper will explain...

  4. Globally reasoning about localised security policies in distributed systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Alejandro Mario

    In this report, we aim at establishing proper ways for model checking the global security of distributed systems, which are designed consisting of set of localised security policies that enforce specific issues about the security expected. The systems are formally specified following a syntax......, defined in detail in this report, and their behaviour is clearly established by the Semantics, also defined in detail in this report. The systems include the formal attachment of security policies into their locations, whose intended interactions are trapped by the policies, aiming at taking access...... control decisions of the system, and the Semantics also takes care of this. Using the Semantics, a Labelled Transition System (LTS) can be induced for every particular system, and over this LTS some model checking tasks could be done. We identify how this LTS is indeed obtained, and propose an alternative...

  5. Content-addressable memory based enforcement of configurable policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Michael J

    2014-05-06

    A monitoring device for monitoring transactions on a bus includes content-addressable memory ("CAM") and a response policy unit. The CAM includes an input coupled to receive a bus transaction tag based on bus traffic on the bus. The CAM stores data tags associated with rules of a security policy to compare the bus transaction tag to the data tags. The CAM generates an output signal indicating whether one or more matches occurred. The response policy unit is coupled to the CAM to receive the output signal from the CAM and to execute a policy action in response to the output signal.

  6. Security Economics and European Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ross; Böhme, Rainer; Clayton, Richard; Moor, Tyler

    In September 2007, we were awarded a contract by the European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) to investigate failures in the market for secure electronic communications within the European Union, and come up with policy recommendations. In the process, we spoke to a large number of stakeholders, and held a consultative meeting in December 2007 in Brussels to present draft proposals, which established most had wide stakeholder support. The formal outcome of our work was a detailed report, “Security Economics and the Internal Market”, published by ENISA in March 2008. This paper presents a much abridged version: in it, we present the recommendations we made, along with a summary of our reasoning.

  7. Development and analysis of security policies in security enhanced Android

    OpenAIRE

    Rimando, Ryan A.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis examines Security Enhanced Android. Both its policy and its additional security features are explored. The policy is examined in depth, providing a better understanding of the security provided by SE Android. We analyze the default SE Android policy. We identify a potential weakness and change the policy to facilitate control over communication channels. A proof-of-concept set of applications is developed to demonstrate ho...

  8. Understanding Law Enforcement Support to National Security Problems and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davies, Jeffrey S

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores law enforcement as an element of national power, defines its contributions, limitations, and challenges, and provides recommendations to maximize interagency competencies and unity...

  9. Energy security and national policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    To achieve an energy secure future, energy cannot be viewed as an isolated concern. It is part and parcel of a nation's economic, social, and political context. In the past important implications for the economy and national security have been ignored. Crash programs to deal with oil shortages in the seventies, crashed. In the eighties, oil surplus has been enjoyed. The energy situation could be quite different in the nineties. Statistics on energy supply and consumption of oil, coal, natural gas and electricity from nuclear power show that much progress has been made worldwide. However, about half of the world's oil will come from the Persian Gulf by 1995. Continued low oil prices could raise US imports to 60% of consumption by 1995. Persian Gulf tensions serve as reminders of the link between energy policy and national security policy. Energy policy must be based on market forces and concerns for national security. Strategic oil reserves will expand along with the availability of domestic oil and gas resources. Increased attention to conservation, diversification of energy resources, and use of alternative fuels can help reduce imports. Continued high-risk long term research and development is needed. Improved technology can reduce environmental impacts. Global markets need global cooperation. Energy has emerged as an important aspect of East-West relations. Europeans need to diversify their sources of energy. The soviets have proposed expanded collaboration in magnetic fusion science. A series of initiatives are proposed that together will ensure that economies will not become overly dependent on a single source of energy

  10. Security Policy Alignment: A Formal Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Dimkov, T.; Pavlovic, Dusko

    2013-01-01

    Security policy alignment concerns the matching of security policies specified at different levels in socio-technical systems, and delegated to different agents, technical and human. For example, the policy that sales data should not leave an organization is refined into policies on door locks,

  11. 76 FR 21894 - Proposed Statement of Antitrust Enforcement Policy Regarding Accountable Care Organizations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... contractual clauses or provisions 2. Tying sales (either explicitly or implicitly through pricing policies) of... Enforcement Policy Regarding Accountable Care Organizations Participating in the Medicare Shared Savings... (the ``Agencies'') are proposing an enforcement policy regarding the application of the antitrust laws...

  12. 78 FR 41125 - Interim Enforcement Policy for Permanent Implant Brachytherapy Medical Event Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0114] Interim Enforcement Policy for Permanent Implant Brachytherapy Medical Event Reporting AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Policy statement; revision. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing an interim Enforcement Policy that allows...

  13. 29 CFR 783.37 - Enforcement policy for non-seaman's work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement policy for non-seaman's work. 783.37 Section... policy for non-seaman's work. In the enforcement of the Act, an employee will be regarded as “employed as... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR...

  14. 29 CFR 786.1 - Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work... OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS MISCELLANEOUS EXEMPTIONS Carriers by Air § 786.1 Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work...

  15. 29 CFR 786.150 - Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS MISCELLANEOUS EXEMPTIONS Employers Subject to Part 1 of Interstate Commerce Act § 786.150 Enforcement policy...

  16. 29 CFR 786.100 - Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS MISCELLANEOUS EXEMPTIONS Switchboard Operator Exemption § 786.100 Enforcement policy concerning performance of...

  17. 29 CFR 786.200 - Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS MISCELLANEOUS EXEMPTIONS Taxicab Operators § 786.200 Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work...

  18. Staffing Policy for Solving the Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Tolstoy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Determining staffing policy implementation of information security tasks is given. The basic requirements that must be taken into account when developing policies are defined. The policy framework is determined and recommendations for the design of such policies are formulated. Requirements for the implementation of the policy are defined.

  19. Iran's Security Policy in the Post-Revolutionary Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byman, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This report assesses Iran's security policy. It examines broad drivers of Iran's security policy, describes important security institutions, explores decisionmaking, and reviews Iran's relations with key countries...

  20. Unification of Information Security Policies for Network Security Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Chernyavskiy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of command languages on network security solutions’ (NSS interfaces causes problems in a process of information security policy (ISP deployment. Unified model for security policy representation and implementation in NSS could aid to avoid such problems and consequently enhance efficiency of the process. The proposed solution is Unified language for network security policy (ULNSP. The language is based on formal languages theory, and being coupled with its translator, ULNSP makes it possible to formalize and implement ISP independently of particular NSS.

  1. Information Security Policy Modeling for Network Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Sergeevich Chernyavskiy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy management for network security systems (NSSs is one of the most topical issues of network security management. Incorrect configurations of NSSs lead to system outages and appearance of vulnerabilities. Moreover, policy management process is a time-consuming task, which includes significant amount of manual work. These factors reduce efficiency of NSSs’ utilization. The paper discusses peculiarities of policy management process and existing approaches to policy modeling, presents a model aimed to formalize policies for NSSs independently on NSSs’ platforms and select the most effective NSSs for implementation of the policies.

  2. Generating WS-SecurityPolicy documents via security model transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Meiko

    2009-01-01

    When SOA-based business processes are to be enhanced with security properties, the model-driven business process development approach enables an easier and more reliable security definition compared to manually crafting the security realizations afterwards. In this paper, we outline an appropriat...... security model definition and transformation approach, targeting the WS-SecurityPolicy and WS-BPEL specifications, in order to enable a Web-Service-based secure business process development.......When SOA-based business processes are to be enhanced with security properties, the model-driven business process development approach enables an easier and more reliable security definition compared to manually crafting the security realizations afterwards. In this paper, we outline an appropriate...

  3. The impact of local immigration enforcement policies on the health of immigrant hispanics/latinos in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Mann, Lilli; Simán, Florence M; Song, Eunyoung; Alonzo, Jorge; Downs, Mario; Lawlor, Emma; Martinez, Omar; Sun, Christina J; O'Brien, Mary Claire; Reboussin, Beth A; Hall, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    We sought to understand how local immigration enforcement policies affect the utilization of health services among immigrant Hispanics/Latinos in North Carolina. In 2012, we analyzed vital records data to determine whether local implementation of section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act and the Secure Communities program, which authorizes local law enforcement agencies to enforce federal immigration laws, affected the prenatal care utilization of Hispanics/Latinas. We also conducted 6 focus groups and 17 interviews with Hispanic/Latino persons across North Carolina to explore the impact of immigration policies on their utilization of health services. We found no significant differences in utilization of prenatal care before and after implementation of section 287(g), but we did find that, in individual-level analysis, Hispanic/Latina mothers sought prenatal care later and had inadequate care when compared with non-Hispanic/Latina mothers. Participants reported profound mistrust of health services, avoiding health services, and sacrificing their health and the health of their family members. Fear of immigration enforcement policies is generalized across counties. Interventions are needed to increase immigrant Hispanics/Latinos' understanding of their rights and eligibility to utilize health services. Policy-level initiatives are also needed (e.g., driver's licenses) to help undocumented persons access and utilize these services.

  4. Validity of information security policy models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Onome Imoniana

    Full Text Available Validity is concerned with establishing evidence for the use of a method to be used with a particular set of population. Thus, when we address the issue of application of security policy models, we are concerned with the implementation of a certain policy, taking into consideration the standards required, through attribution of scores to every item in the research instrument. En today's globalized economic scenarios, the implementation of information security policy, in an information technology environment, is a condition sine qua non for the strategic management process of any organization. Regarding this topic, various studies present evidences that, the responsibility for maintaining a policy rests primarily with the Chief Security Officer. The Chief Security Officer, in doing so, strives to enhance the updating of technologies, in order to meet all-inclusive business continuity planning policies. Therefore, for such policy to be effective, it has to be entirely embraced by the Chief Executive Officer. This study was developed with the purpose of validating specific theoretical models, whose designs were based on literature review, by sampling 10 of the Automobile Industries located in the ABC region of Metropolitan São Paulo City. This sampling was based on the representativeness of such industries, particularly with regards to each one's implementation of information technology in the region. The current study concludes, presenting evidence of the discriminating validity of four key dimensions of the security policy, being such: the Physical Security, the Logical Access Security, the Administrative Security, and the Legal & Environmental Security. On analyzing the Alpha of Crombach structure of these security items, results not only attest that the capacity of those industries to implement security policies is indisputable, but also, the items involved, homogeneously correlate to each other.

  5. Leveraging State And Local Law Enforcement Maritime Homeland Security Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    recreation, national defense, and tourism . To understand the maritime homeland security efforts put into place after 9/11 better, a study of the practices...fire service venturing beyond its fire suppression or emergency medical services role and asserted the value of having firefighters better integrated...national defense, and tourism , so too must be the approach to maritime homeland security. This research examined only the role of state and local law

  6. Enforcing a security pattern in stakeholder goal models

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yijun; Kaiya, Haruhiko; Washizaki, Hironori; Xiong, Yingfei; Hu, Zhenjiang; Yoshioka, Nobukazu

    2008-01-01

    Patterns are useful knowledge about recurring problems and solutions. Detecting a security problem using patterns in requirements models may lead to its early solution. In order to facilitate early detection and resolution of security problems, in this paper, we formally describe a role-based access control (RBAC) as a pattern that may occur in stakeholder requirements models. We also implemented in our goal-oriented modeling tool the formally described pattern using model-driven queries and ...

  7. Information security policy development for compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Barry L

    2013-01-01

    Although compliance standards can be helpful guides to writing comprehensive security policies, many of the standards state the same requirements in slightly different ways. Information Security Policy Development for Compliance: ISO/IEC 27001, NIST SP 800-53, HIPAA Standard, PCI DSS V2.0, and AUP V5.0 provides a simplified way to write policies that meet the major regulatory requirements, without having to manually look up each and every control. Explaining how to write policy statements that address multiple compliance standards and regulatory requirements, the book will he

  8. Guide to National Security Policy and Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bartholomees, Jr, J. B

    2006-01-01

    ...: Theory of War and Strategy and National Security Policy and Strategy. The result for this book is the expansion of the block on strategic theory and the introduction of a block on specific strategic issues...

  9. Security Policies for Mitigating the Risk of Load Altering Attacks on Smart Grid Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, Tatyana; AlMajali, Anas; Neuman, Clifford

    2015-04-01

    While demand response programs implement energy efficiency and power quality objectives, they bring potential security threats to the Smart Grid. The ability to influence load in a system enables attackers to cause system failures and impacts the quality and integrity of power delivered to customers. This paper presents a security mechanism to monitor and control load according to a set of security policies during normal system operation. The mechanism monitors, detects, and responds to load altering attacks. We examined the security requirements of Smart Grid stakeholders and constructed a set of load control policies enforced by the mechanism. We implemented a proof of concept prototype and tested it using the simulation environment. By enforcing the proposed policies in this prototype, the system is maintained in a safe state in the presence of load drop attacks.

  10. Regulatory aspects of the enforcement policy applied to teletherapy equipment obsolescence (1995-2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truppa, Walter A.; Rey, Hugo L.; Rojas, Carlos A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the way in which the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) has implemented an 'enforcement' policy for the services of radiotherapy that operated obsolete cobalt therapy units. Without doubt one of the greater advances has been the simulation and planning of the treatment, indispensable tools in a system of quality in radiotherapy where the equipment acquires a preponderant paper. In Argentina the distribution of equipment was inhomogeneous, and within it coexisted, as primary and unique units, great amount with a technology today already obsolete. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) took a strong regulatory attitude directed to change or to retire many of the units, as its characteristics of design and antiquity did not fulfill the criteria of radiological security established in the norms (optimization of the dose, distances source to skin, yield in surface, adequate maintenance, etc.). On this matter a policy was applied to impose within suitable terms, the change of the obsolete equipment for this practice, particularly those distances source to skin minor than 80 cm. As result of the applied coercive measures at this moment, 28 equipment of cobalt therapy in advanced degree of obsolescence were retired by regulatory decision. Part of these equipment were replaced by their owners by more modern equipment whose operation adjusts to the requirements of the radiological security norm, whereas the majority was replaced by linear accelerators. At the moment there are 86 of cobalt therapy units and 52 accelerators operating in our country, against 104 and 32 respectively, that operated in 1995. (author)

  11. 16 CFR 1020.5 - What is the Small Business Enforcement Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (5) The small business failed to make a good faith effort to comply with the law. (6) The small... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the Small Business Enforcement... BUSINESS § 1020.5 What is the Small Business Enforcement Policy? (a) When appropriate, the Commission will...

  12. 8 CFR 1003.47 - Identity, law enforcement, or security investigations or examinations relating to applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identity, law enforcement, or security investigations or examinations relating to applications for immigration relief, protection, or restriction on removal. 1003.47 Section 1003.47 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS...

  13. Japan's National Security: Structures, norms, and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzenstein, P.J.; Okawara, N.

    1993-01-01

    Japan's national security policy has two distinctive aspects that deserve analysis. First, Japan's definition of national security goes far beyond traditional military notions. National security is viewed in comprehensive terms that also include economic and political dimensions. The second feature of Japan's security policy worth explanation is a distinctive mixture of flexibility and rigidity in the process of policy adaptation to change: flexibility on issues of economic security, rigidity on issues of military security, and flexibility combined with rigidity on issues of political security. With the end of the Cold War and changes in the structure of the international system, it is only natural that we ask whether and how Japan's national security policy will change as well. Optimists insist that the Asian balance of power and the US-Japan relationship will make Japan aspire to be a competitive, noninterventionist trading state that heeds the universal interest of peace and profit rather than narrow aspirations for national power. Pessimists warn us instead that the new international system will finally confirm Herman Kahn's prediction of 1970: Japan will quickly change to the status of a nuclear superpower, spurred perhaps by what some see as a dangerous rise of Japanese militarism in the 1970s and 1980s

  14. Security Policy and Developments in Central Asia : Security Documents Compared with Security Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the security policy of the Central Asian (CA) states, by comparing theory (security documents) with practice (the actual security challenges). The lack of CA regional (security) cooperation and authoritarian rule puts political and economic stability at stake. The internal and

  15. Energy supply security and foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The title memo has been sent to the Dutch Lower House. This memo reflects the response of the cabinet to the advice on Energetic Foreign Policy of the Dutch Advisory Council on International Affairs (AIV) and the Dutch Energy Council (AER). Moreover, the development of foreign policy with respect to energy supply security is depicted. [mk] [nl

  16. College law enforcement and security department responses to alcohol-related incidents: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Debra H; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Winters, Ken C; Toomey, Traci L

    2014-08-01

    Campus police and security personnel are often the first to respond to alcohol-related incidents on campus. The purpose of this study is to examine how campus law enforcement and security respond to alcohol-related incidents, and how consequences and communication differ based on characteristics of the incident. Directors of campus police/security from 343 colleges across the United States completed a survey regarding usual practice following serious, underage, and less serious alcohol incidents on and off campus. Campus law enforcement and security most commonly reported contacting campus officials. A minority reported issuing citations and referring students to the health center. Enforcement actions were more commonly reported for serious and underage incidents than for less serious incidents. Large (vs. small) colleges, public (vs. private) colleges, and those located in small (vs. large) towns more consistently reported taking actions against drinkers. Understanding how campus police and security respond to alcohol-related incidents is essential for reducing alcohol-related problems on college campuses. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Enforcement actions and their effectiveness in securities regulation: Empirical evidence from management earnings forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunling Song

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to resource constraints, securities regulators cannot find or punish all firms that have conducted irregular or even illegal activities (hereafter referred to as fraud. Those who study securities regulations can only find the instances of fraud that have been punished, not those that have not been punished, and it is these unknown cases that would make the best control sample for studies of enforcement action criteria. China’s mandatory management earnings forecasts solve this sampling problem. In the A-share market, firms that have not forecasted as mandated are likely in a position to be punished by securities regulators or are attempting to escape punishment, and their identification allows researchers to build suitable study and control samples when examining securities regulations. Our results indicate that enforcement actions taken by securities regulators are selective. The probability that a firm will be punished for irregular management forecasting is significantly related to proxies for survival rates. Specifically, fraudulent firms with lower return on assets (ROAs or higher cash flow risk are more likely to be punished. Further analysis shows that selective enforcement of regulations has had little positive effect on the quality of listed firms’ management forecasts.

  18. WRR-Policy Brief 6 : Big data and security policies: serving security, protecting freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, Dennis; Schrijvers, Erik; Hirsch Ballin, Ernst

    2017-01-01

    Big Data analytics in national security, law enforcement and the fight against fraud can reap great benefits for states, citizens and society but require extra safeguards to protect citizens’ fundamental rights. This requires new frameworks: a crucial shift is necessary from regulating the phase of

  19. The European Security and Defence Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), which is the operational military and civilian dimension of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), is today one of the most dynamic areas of the European Union. However, it is only recently that the EU has acquired explicit military decision....... The Union is thus gradually emerging as an important player on the international scene, with a strategic vision, as well as diplomatic, civilian and military crisis-management instruments that complement the existing economic, commercial, humanitarian and development policies on which the EU has hitherto...... built its reputation as a ‘soft power'. Despite its rapid development, many still regard the EU as weak and ineffi cient when it comes to security and defence policy. Moreover, the EU struggles with internal divisions and has a strained relationship with NATO. Nonetheless, there are good reasons...

  20. On financing the internal enforcement of illegal immigration policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, G A; Tenorio, R

    1996-02-01

    "We introduce a government budget constraint into an illegal immigration model, and show that the effect of increasing internal enforcement of immigration laws on the host country's disposable national income depends on the mix of employer fines and income taxation used to finance the added enforcement. These issues are addressed under alternative assumptions about (a) the ability of host country employers to discern between legal and illegal workers, and (b) host country labor market conditions. Empirical evidence for the United States indicates that the employer sanctions program may have had a negative impact on disposable national income." excerpt

  1. Energy security and climate policy. Assessing interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-28

    World energy demand is surging. Oil, coal and natural gas still meet most global energy needs, creating serious implications for the environment. One result is that CO2 emissions, the principal cause of global warming, are rising. This new study underlines the close link between efforts to ensure energy security and those to mitigate climate change. Decisions on one side affect the other. To optimise the efficiency of their energy policy, OECD countries must consider energy security and climate change mitigation priorities jointly. The book presents a framework to assess interactions between energy security and climate change policies, combining qualitative and quantitative analyses. The quantitative analysis is based on the development of energy security indicators, tracking the evolution of policy concerns linked to energy resource concentration. The 'indicators' are applied to a reference scenario and CO2 policy cases for five case-study countries: The Czech Republic, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Simultaneously resolving energy security and environmental concerns is a key challenge for policy makers today. This study helps chart the course.

  2. Enforcement of Security and Privacy in a Service-Oriented Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren Aagaard

    inhabitants. With the vision, it is therefore necessity to enforce privacy and security of the data in all phases of its life cycle. The life cycle starts from acquiring the data to it is stored. Therefore, this dissertation follows a system-level and application-level approach to manage data with respect...... to privacy and security. This includes first a design of a service-oriented architecture that allows for the deployment of home-oriented and grid-oriented IASs on a Home Energy Management System (HEMS) and in the cloud, respectively. Privacy and security of electricity data are addressed by letting...... the residential consumer control data dissemination in a two-stage process: first from the HEMS to the cloud and from the cloud to the IASs. Then the dissertation focuses on the critical phases in securing the residential home as well as securing the cloud. It presents a system-level threat model of the HEMS...

  3. Directed Security Policies: A Stateful Network Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Diekmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Large systems are commonly internetworked. A security policy describes the communication relationship between the networked entities. The security policy defines rules, for example that A can connect to B, which results in a directed graph. However, this policy is often implemented in the network, for example by firewalls, such that A can establish a connection to B and all packets belonging to established connections are allowed. This stateful implementation is usually required for the network's functionality, but it introduces the backflow from B to A, which might contradict the security policy. We derive compliance criteria for a policy and its stateful implementation. In particular, we provide a criterion to verify the lack of side effects in linear time. Algorithms to automatically construct a stateful implementation of security policy rules are presented, which narrows the gap between formalization and real-world implementation. The solution scales to large networks, which is confirmed by a large real-world case study. Its correctness is guaranteed by the Isabelle/HOL theorem prover.

  4. US oil policy and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-05-01

    Although the energy dependence reached its historical maximum and will continue to increase for the next 20 years, the USA keep their oil policy. For the economist this policy is reasonable because of the poor room for the US imports reduction costs. To explain these conclusions the author discusses on the following topics: the links between the oil dependence and the energy security, the oil policy after Reagan, the oil policy evolution - or no evolution - facing the increasing dependency and the Cheney report. (A.L.B.)

  5. Food security policies in India and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Elleby, Christian; Zobbe, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    dependence on price-based measures causes relatively larger and more volatile fiscal burdens, thereby likely making it more vulnerable in dealing with similar events in the future. These findings have important implications for food policy and food security in the two countries in the future.......Food insecurity is a much more serious concern in India than China. In addition to income and poverty differences, we argue in this paper that differences in food policies can further explain the different food security outcomes across the two countries. First, India mostly uses price-based input...

  6. 76 FR 7893 - FAA Policy Statement on Expungement of Certain Enforcement Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration FAA Policy Statement on Expungement.... SUMMARY: The FAA has temporarily suspended its policy of expunging certain records of legal enforcement... effects on pilots is available at: http://www.faa.gov/pilots/lic_cert/pria/guidance/pilotfaq . Further...

  7. Research Market Gap in Law Enforcement Technology: Lessons from Czech Security Research Funding Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luděk Moravec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While security research funding schemes are nothing new to the EU (Horizon 2020 and FP7, or to several Member States, their priorities and procedures are usually decided administratively or shaped by advisory groups of varying membership. Only recently did the EU shift its focus to the role of end users in security research programmes, seeking their input in order to maximise the utility of funded solutions. Such a hint to limited usefulness of some industrial solutions is not exactly inconspicuous. This paper discusses the gap between the stated needs of law enforcement agencies in terms of R&D funding and the grant project applications in the area of law enforcement. It aims to define and describe the gap, and consequently the market opportunities, between the supply and demand sides represented by industry-driven grant project applications and end-user-formulated calls. The study is based on empirical data from two Czech security research funding programmes that have been running since 2010 and should deliver their results by 2015. It seeks to contribute some preliminary observations about the structure of both end user needs and industry capabilities in such a particular area as law enforcement technology.

  8. Cyber security awareness toolkit for national security: an approach to South Africa's cyber security policy implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phahlamohlaka, LJ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose an approach that South Africa could follow in implementing its proposed cyber security policy. The paper proposes a Cyber Security Awareness Toolkit that is underpinned by key National Security imperatives...

  9. Security Force Assistance: Cases and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    theory , cases, and policy implications presented. 3 Methods, Assumptions, and Procedures The analytical narrative method was used to test the...underlying theory --developed separately as a principal-agent model with capacity building in the DwP project. These two cases were chosen as part...the following implications for U.S. national security policy: o Use aid to create incentives , especially via conditionality. Avoid apolitical

  10. Updating energy security and environmental policy: Energy security theories revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskuryakova, L

    2018-06-18

    The energy security theories are based on the premises of sufficient and reliable supply of fossil fuels at affordable prices in centralized supply systems. Policy-makers and company chief executives develop energy security strategies based on the energy security theories and definitions that dominate in the research and policy discourse. It is therefore of utmost importance that scientists revisit these theories in line with the latest changes in the energy industry: the rapid advancement of renewables and smart grid, decentralization of energy systems, new environmental and climate challenges. The study examines the classic energy security concepts (neorealism, neoliberalism, constructivism and international political economy) and assesses if energy technology changes are taken into consideration. This is done through integrative literature review, comparative analysis, identification of 'international relations' and 'energy' research discourse with the use of big data, and case studies of Germany, China, and Russia. The paper offers suggestions for revision of energy security concepts through integration of future technology considerations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modelling mobility aspects of security policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; van Eck, Pascal; Etalle, Sandro; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Barthe, G.; Burdy, L.; Huisman, Marieke; Lanet, J.-L.; Muntean, T.

    Security policies are rules that constrain the behaviour of a system. Different, largely unrelated sets of rules typically govern the physical and logical worlds. However, increased hardware and software mobility forces us to consider those rules in an integrated fashion. We present SPIN models of

  12. The Flask Security Architecture: System Support for Diverse Security Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Flask microkernel -based operating sys­ tem, that successfully overcomes these obstacles to pol- icy flexibility. The cleaner separation of mechanism and...other object managers in the system to en- force those access control decisions. Although the pro­ totype system is microkernel -based, the security...mecha­ nisms do not depend on a microkernel architecture and will easily generalize beyond it. The resulting system provides policy flexibility. It sup

  13. Study on defensive security concepts and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report begins by describing the background against which the proposal for the study emerged-the welcome developments brought about by the end of the cold war but also the emergence of new threats and the reappearance of long-standing problems. The study proceeds to examine current trends in the international security environment and how they may influence the peaceful settlement of dispute and the effecting of restraint and a defensive orientation in the development, maintenance and use of armed forces. A discussion of the substance and main features of defensive security concepts and policies follows. Existing studies and models designed to eliminate the offensive character of military force postures by effecting a defensive orientation of capabilities are surveyed. In addition, the study discusses political and military aspects of defensive security, pointing out how defensive security differs from those existing models

  14. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 824 - General Statement of Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... positive incentives for a DOE contractor's: (1) Timely self-identification of security deficiencies, (2..., when verification is received that corrective actions have been implemented, DOE will close the... Administrator who agrees that further enforcement action should not be pursued if verification is received that...

  15. Enforcement of Privacy Policies over Multiple Online Social Networks for Collaborative Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengping; Wang, Lifeng

    Our goal is to tend to develop an enforcement architecture of privacy policies over multiple online social networks. It is used to solve the problem of privacy protection when several social networks build permanent or temporary collaboration. Theoretically, this idea is practical, especially due to more and more social network tend to support open source framework “OpenSocial”. But as we known different social network websites may have the same privacy policy settings based on different enforcement mechanisms, this would cause problems. In this case, we have to manually write code for both sides to make the privacy policy settings enforceable. We can imagine that, this is a huge workload based on the huge number of current social networks. So we focus on proposing a middleware which is used to automatically generate privacy protection component for permanent integration or temporary interaction of social networks. This middleware provide functions, such as collecting of privacy policy of each participant in the new collaboration, generating a standard policy model for each participant and mapping all those standard policy to different enforcement mechanisms of those participants.

  16. Dynamic Enforcement of Knowledge-based Security Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    evaluation, 〈〈B〉〉C returns a convex polyhe- dron containing at least the points in C that satisfy B . • Expression count, C#B returns an upper bound on the...S′〉〉 (Pi | B) • Φn def= ∑n i=1 (Pi | ¬B) • ⊥P is a function that takes in any probabilistic polyhe- dron and produces a zero probabilistic polyhedron

  17. Improving Android security through real-time policy enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Chircop, Luke; Colombo, Christian; Pace, Gordon J.; Computer Science Annual Workshop CSAW’14

    2014-01-01

    The use of the Android operating system has become a very popular option with a vast variety of mobile devices. This popularity means that companies and other users are more likely to consider using android devices. Naturally there will be users and companies concerned with how their Android devices are used. Therefore, some sort of device management is required. Let us consider a coffee distribution company that has employees visiting its customers to showcase new products and take orders. S...

  18. European Union security policy through strategic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriša Hatidža

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we shall pay attention to the security policy of the European Union, through the strategic culture, starting from the existing various options for cooperation in the field of security and defense. Our goal is to look at the implementation of the Strategic Culture of the European Union (EU SK, research ways to improve the international position of the Union and its impact on policy cooperation and trust with other collectives. Analysis of flexible cooperation between the European Union, as well as access to special procedures in the field of security and defense policy, we will follow the ambition and capacity in implementing the same. Paper aims to introduce the idea of the European Union, which allows its members to rationally consider and check the box of options available to decision makers. In this regard, the EU seeks to build its own armed forces to protect the association of interests-investment terms. Reviewing and understanding the strategic culture of the EU by countries that are not its members can be seen as reasons for strengthening the capacity of the Union for the realization of the impact of the global security as well as predicting its future steps.

  19. Modeling Security-Enhanced Linux Policy Specifications for Analysis (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archer, Myla; Leonard, Elizabeth; Pradella, Matteo

    2003-01-01

    Security-Enhanced (SE) Linux is a modification of Linux initially released by NSA in January 2001 that provides a language for specifying Linux security policies and, as in the Flask architecture, a security server...

  20. Alignment of Organizational Security Policies -- Theory and Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.

    2012-01-01

    To address information security threats, an organization defines security policies that state how to deal with sensitive information. These policies are high-level policies that apply for the whole organization and span the three security domains: physical, digital and social. One example of a

  1. Favorable Decision Upholding Radioactive/Hazardous Mixed Waste Storage Civil Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a copy of the U.S. Court of Appeals (District of Columbia Circuit) decision in Edison Electric Institute, et al. v. EPA, No. 91-1586, which upheld the EPA's August 29, 1991, radioactive/hazardous 'mixed waste' storage civil enforcement policy

  2. Mobile, portable lightweight wireless video recording solutions for homeland security, defense, and law enforcement applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandy, Matt; Goldburt, Tim; Carapezza, Edward M.

    2015-05-01

    It is desirable for executive officers of law enforcement agencies and other executive officers in homeland security and defense, as well as first responders, to have some basic information about the latest trend on mobile, portable lightweight wireless video recording solutions available on the market. This paper reviews and discusses a number of studies on the use and effectiveness of wireless video recording solutions. It provides insights into the features of wearable video recording devices that offer excellent applications for the category of security agencies listed in this paper. It also provides answers to key questions such as: how to determine the type of video recording solutions most suitable for the needs of your agency, the essential features to look for when selecting a device for your video needs, and the privacy issues involved with wearable video recording devices.

  3. 75 FR 10507 - Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO) no later...

  4. Information systems security policies: a survey in Portuguese public administration

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Isabel Maria; Sá-Soares, Filipe de

    2010-01-01

    Information Systems Security is a relevant factor for present organizations. Among the security measures, policies assume a central role in literature. However, there is a reduced number of empirical studies about the adoption of information systems security policies. This paper contributes to mitigate this flaw by presenting the results of a survey in the adoption of Information System Security Policies in Local Public Administration in Portugal. The results are discussed in light of literat...

  5. What the Hell Do We Do Now? A Policy Options Analysis of State, Local, and Tribal Law Enforcement Participation in Immigration Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    enforcement is efficient from a logistical standpoint (dismissing valuation judgments of the policy)—resources are available elsewhere. Resources and...New York, Crown Business, 2012), 160–161. 247. Sonu Munshi, “Mesa Revises Immigration Status Policy,” East Valley Tribune July 2, 2008, http...municipalcodeofchicago?f=templates$fn=default.htm$3.0$vid=amleg al:chicago_il. Munshi, Sonu. “Mesa Revises Immigration Status Policy.” East Valley

  6. Speaker identification for the improvement of the security communication between law enforcement units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovarek, Jaromir; Partila, Pavol

    2017-05-01

    This article discusses the speaker identification for the improvement of the security communication between law enforcement units. The main task of this research was to develop the text-independent speaker identification system which can be used for real-time recognition. This system is designed for identification in the open set. It means that the unknown speaker can be anyone. Communication itself is secured, but we have to check the authorization of the communication parties. We have to decide if the unknown speaker is the authorized for the given action. The calls are recorded by IP telephony server and then these recordings are evaluate using classification If the system evaluates that the speaker is not authorized, it sends a warning message to the administrator. This message can detect, for example a stolen phone or other unusual situation. The administrator then performs the appropriate actions. Our novel proposal system uses multilayer neural network for classification and it consists of three layers (input layer, hidden layer, and output layer). A number of neurons in input layer corresponds with the length of speech features. Output layer then represents classified speakers. Artificial Neural Network classifies speech signal frame by frame, but the final decision is done over the complete record. This rule substantially increases accuracy of the classification. Input data for the neural network are a thirteen Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, which describe the behavior of the vocal tract. These parameters are the most used for speaker recognition. Parameters for training, testing and validation were extracted from recordings of authorized users. Recording conditions for training data correspond with the real traffic of the system (sampling frequency, bit rate). The main benefit of the research is the system developed for text-independent speaker identification which is applied to secure communication between law enforcement units.

  7. Security Engine Management of Router based on Security Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Su Hyung Jo; Ki Young Kim; Sang Ho Lee

    2007-01-01

    Security management has changed from the management of security equipments and useful interface to manager. It analyzes the whole security conditions of network and preserves the network services from attacks. Secure router technology has security functions, such as intrusion detection, IPsec(IP Security) and access control, are applied to legacy router for secure networking. It controls an unauthorized router access and detects an illegal network intrusion. This paper re...

  8. Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Young; Lee, Na-Young; Hwang, Young-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The cyber-attack against computer systems causes the loss of function which brings about the big economic loss, and it becomes a national-wide issue. In recent days the cyber threat has occurred in the national critical infrastructure around the world. In the nuclear industry, while discussing responses to various threats against nuclear facilities since 2006, cyber-terrorism was also discussed. But at that time, cyber-attacks against control networks in nuclear facilities were not seriously considered because those networks were isolated from the Internet thoroughly and it was evaluated that cyber penetration would not be possible. However Stuxnet worm virus which attacked Iran's nuclear facilities confirmed that the cyber security problem could occur even in other nuclear facilities. The facilities were isolated from the Internet. After the cyber incident, we began to discuss the topic of NPP cyber security. It is very difficult to predict whether or when or how the cyber-attack will be occurred, which is a characteristic of cyber-attack. They could be always detected only after when an incident had occurred. This paper summarizes the report, 'Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations' by issue committee in the Korea Nuclear Society, which reviewed the cyber security framework for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea being established to prevent nuclear facilities from cyber-attacks and to respond systematically. As a result this paper proposes several comments to improve the security and furthermore safety of nuclear facilities Digital technology will be used more widely at the national critical infrastructure including nuclear facilities in the future, and moreover wireless technologies and mobile devices will be soon introduced to nuclear industry. It is therefore anticipated that the rapid advance in digital technology will accelerate the opportunity of hacking these facilities

  9. Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheol-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Na-Young; Hwang, Young-Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The cyber-attack against computer systems causes the loss of function which brings about the big economic loss, and it becomes a national-wide issue. In recent days the cyber threat has occurred in the national critical infrastructure around the world. In the nuclear industry, while discussing responses to various threats against nuclear facilities since 2006, cyber-terrorism was also discussed. But at that time, cyber-attacks against control networks in nuclear facilities were not seriously considered because those networks were isolated from the Internet thoroughly and it was evaluated that cyber penetration would not be possible. However Stuxnet worm virus which attacked Iran's nuclear facilities confirmed that the cyber security problem could occur even in other nuclear facilities. The facilities were isolated from the Internet. After the cyber incident, we began to discuss the topic of NPP cyber security. It is very difficult to predict whether or when or how the cyber-attack will be occurred, which is a characteristic of cyber-attack. They could be always detected only after when an incident had occurred. This paper summarizes the report, 'Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations' by issue committee in the Korea Nuclear Society, which reviewed the cyber security framework for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea being established to prevent nuclear facilities from cyber-attacks and to respond systematically. As a result this paper proposes several comments to improve the security and furthermore safety of nuclear facilities Digital technology will be used more widely at the national critical infrastructure including nuclear facilities in the future, and moreover wireless technologies and mobile devices will be soon introduced to nuclear industry. It is therefore anticipated that the rapid advance in digital technology will accelerate the opportunity of hacking these facilities.

  10. Assessing the Effectiveness of Competition Law Enforcement Policy in Relation to Cartels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Mändmaa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high fines for cartel infringements it is claimed that the current competition law enforcement lacks deterrent effect for the avoidance of cartel infringements and is procedurally fragile. This article analyses the current competition law enforcement policy in relation to cartels. More specifically, the article assesses the effectiveness of the policy in deterring the formation of cartels and pursuing the goals of competition law by analysing the theory of deterrence, case law, procedural norms, imposed fines and academic literature. The main conclusions are that wrong targets are aimed at under the deterrence principle, the proceedings are of a criminal law nature and require a separation of powers, and that the current level of fines does not pose a threat on the economy and continually fail to deter price-fixing.

  11. Examining the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters among people who inject drugs after implementation of Mexico's drug policy reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Tommi L; Beletsky, Leo; Arredondo, Jaime; Werb, Daniel; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Brouwer, Kimberly

    2015-04-01

    In 2009, Mexico decriminalized the possession of small amounts of illicit drugs for personal use in order to refocus law enforcement resources on drug dealers and traffickers. This study examines the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters reported by people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico to identify concentrated areas of policing activity after implementation of the new drug policy. Mapping the physical location of law enforcement encounters provided by PWID (n = 461) recruited through targeted sampling, we identified hotspots of extra-judicial encounters (e.g., physical/sexual abuse, syringe confiscation, and money extortion by law enforcement) and routine authorized encounters (e.g., being arrested or stopped but not arrested) using point density maps and the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic calculated at the neighborhood-level. Approximately half of the participants encountered law enforcement more than once in a calendar year and nearly one third of these encounters did not result in arrest but involved harassment or abuse by law enforcement. Statistically significant hotspots of law enforcement encounters were identified in a limited number of neighborhoods located in areas with known drug markets. At the local-level, law enforcement activities continue to target drug users despite a national drug policy that emphasizes drug treatment diversion rather than punitive enforcement. There is a need for law enforcement training and improved monitoring of policing tactics to better align policing with public health goals.

  12. 15 CFR 758.7 - Authority of the Office of Export Enforcement, the Bureau of Industry and Security, Customs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... forfeiture. In addition to the authority of Customs officers to seize and detain items, both Customs... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority of the Office of Export Enforcement, the Bureau of Industry and Security, Customs offices and Postmasters in clearing shipments 758.7...

  13. 78 FR 28867 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement-014...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... related to travel and identity documents; latent and patent finger and palm prints; and audio and video... Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) that provides a broad range of forensic, intelligence, and... finger and palm prints; and audio and video files in support of law enforcement investigations and...

  14. Security policies and trust in ubiquitous computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anupam; Finin, Tim; Kagal, Lalana; Parker, Jim; Patwardhan, Anand

    2008-10-28

    Ubiquitous environments comprise resource-constrained mobile and wearable devices and computational elements embedded in everyday artefacts. These are connected to each other using both infrastructure-based as well as short-range ad hoc networks. Limited Internet connectivity limits the use of conventional security mechanisms such as public key infrastructures and other forms of server-centric authentication. Under these circumstances, peer-to-peer interactions are well suited for not just information interchange, but also managing security and privacy. However, practical solutions for protecting mobile devices, preserving privacy, evaluating trust and determining the reliability and accuracy of peer-provided data in such interactions are still in their infancy. Our research is directed towards providing stronger assurances of the reliability and trustworthiness of information and services, and the use of declarative policy-driven approaches to handle the open and dynamic nature of such systems. This paper provides an overview of some of the challenges and issues, and points out directions for progress.

  15. Enforcing the Right to Family Life in Hong Kong Courts: The Case of Dependant Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Chuen Ngai Tang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the Hong Kong courts’ seemingly robust protection of fundamental rights and civil liberties, enforcing family rights remains extremely difficult. While the right to family life is safeguarded by both domestic and international human right instruments, applicants in judicial review cases are usually not able to rely on it to challenge the decisions made by the immigration authority. This paper examines the challenges in enforcing the right to family life in Hong Kong’s Dependant Policy with a particular focus on the Hong Kong Court of Appeal’s recent decision in BI v Director of Immigration. The immigration reservation, entered into by the United Kingdom when ratifying the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, has become a justification for a restrictive immigration regime even after the transfer of sovereignty. The Hong Kong courts also repeatedly accord wide discretion to immigration authority. The courts’ reluctance to scrutinize socio-economic policies reveals one of the key weaknesses in enforcing fundamental rights in Hong Kong by the way of judicial review.

  16. Economics of international energy security policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, I.K.

    1992-01-01

    Because there is no inexpensive substitute for crude oil and petroleum products at the present time, an oil supply disruption inevitably leads to higher oil prices and economic losses. Wealth transfer to oil producing nations, reduced output increased unemployment and inflation. For these reasons, major oil-consuming countries currently have in place various oil emergency response measures to protect themselves from adverse economic consequences of oil supply disruptions: stockpiling emergency oil reserves to augment supplies, if necessary, in an emergency; and lowering oil demand through non-price mechanisms. The main purpose of this paper is to show that while, supply enhancement and demand reduction could have the same effect on oil prices in the event of an oil supply shortfall, they may have significantly different effects on the economies. Section I discusses the principal oil emergency response measures of the members of the International Energy Agency (IEA) -- emergency oil stockpiles and demand restraint -- and their policies for implementing the measures. Section II describes the analytical method used to perform comparative economic analysis of releasing emergency stocks and restraining demand in an oil emergency. Section III presents quantitative results of the analysis, and Section IV, conclusions of the analytical results and their energy security policy implications

  17. Security for grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.

    2005-08-14

    Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.

  18. National Institute of Justice (NIJ): improving the effectiveness of law enforcement via homeland security technology improvements (Keynote Address)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John S.

    2005-05-01

    Law enforcement agencies play a key role in protecting the nation from and responding to terrorist attacks. Preventing terrorism and promoting the nation"s security is the Department of Justice"s number one strategic priority. This is reflected in its technology development efforts, as well as its operational focus. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the national focal point for the research, development, test and evaluation of technology for law enforcement. In addition to its responsibilities in supporting day-to-day criminal justice needs in areas such as less lethal weapons and forensic science, NIJ also provides critical support for counter-terrorism capacity improvements in state and local law enforcement in several areas. The most important of these areas are bomb response, concealed weapons detection, communications and information technology, which together offer the greatest potential benefit with respect to improving the ability to law enforcement agencies to respond to all types of crime including terrorist acts. NIJ coordinates its activities with several other key federal partners, including the Department of Homeland Security"s Science and Technology Directorate, the Technical Support Working Group, and the Department of Defense.

  19. European security and defense policy and its implications for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Özköse, Ö Faruk

    2002-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. The “European Security and Defense Policy” is an evolving process. Since the Maastricht Treaty (1991), the European Union members have been trying to constitute a common security and defense policy within the framework of Common Foreign and Security Policy, second pillar of the European Union. The efforts to create “separable but not separate” European forces within NATO have increased speed in the last years and changed direction towar...

  20. Combining Static Model Checking with Dynamic Enforcement Using the Statecall Policy Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavapeddy, Anil

    Internet protocols encapsulate a significant amount of state, making implementing the host software complex. In this paper, we define the Statecall Policy Language (SPL) which provides a usable middle ground between ad-hoc coding and formal reasoning. It enables programmers to embed automata in their code which can be statically model-checked using SPIN and dynamically enforced. The performance overheads are minimal, and the automata also provide higher-level debugging capabilities. We also describe some practical uses of SPL by describing the automata used in an SSH server written entirely in OCaml/SPL.

  1. Information security policies and procedures a practitioner's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    INFORMATION SECURITY POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Introduction Corporate Policies Organizationwide (Tier 1) Policies Organizationwide Policy Document Legal Requirements Duty of Loyalty Duty of Care Other Laws and Regulations Business Requirements Where to Begin? Summary Why Manage This Process as a Project? Introduction First Things First: Identify the Sponsor Defining the Scope of Work Time Management Cost Management Planning for Quality Managing Human Resources Creating a Communications Plan Summary Planning and Preparation Introduction Objectives of Policies, Stand

  2. Three Essays on Information Security Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yubao

    2011-01-01

    Information security breaches pose a significant and increasing threat to national security and economic well-being. In the Symantec Internet Security Threat Report (2003), companies surveyed experienced an average of about 30 attacks per week. Anecdotal evidence suggests that losses from cyber-attacks can run into millions of dollars. The CSI-FBI…

  3. Handbook of space security policies, applications and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Hays, Peter; Robinson, Jana; Moura, Denis; Giannopapa, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Space Security involves the use of space (in particular communication, navigation, earth observation, and electronic intelligence satellites) for military and security purposes on earth and also the maintenance of space (in particular the earth orbits) as safe and secure areas for conducting peaceful activities. The two aspects can be summarized as "space for security on earth" and “the safeguarding of space for peaceful endeavors.” The Handbook will provide a sophisticated, cutting-edge resource on the space security policy portfolio and the associated assets, assisting fellow members of the global space community and other interested policy-making and academic audiences in keeping abreast of the current and future directions of this vital dimension of international space policy. The debate on coordinated space security measures, including relevant 'Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures,' remains at a relatively early stage of development. The book offers a comprehensive description of the variou...

  4. ESCAPE. Energy Security and ClimAte Policy Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessels, J.R.; Bakker, S.J.A.

    2005-05-01

    Climate change and energy supply security policy are currently not integrated in most countries, despite possible synergies. The ESCAPE approach suggests that linking climate change policy with security of energy supply could improve climate change policy at both a national and international level. The report explores the interaction between policies of energy security and climate change and the options of inclusion of energy security issues into national and international post-2012 climate negotiations. It emphasises the importance of the US in this regard and takes a close look at US energy policy documents. It appears that current US energy policy is not directed towards reducing its reliance on imported fossil fuel, even though the government has a strong preference for this. This study shows that measures to reduce import dependency are mostly synergetic with climate policy and gives some options that can be implemented. On an international level, linkages of energy security into post-2012 climate policy may be possible in sectoral bottom-up approaches or technology frameworks. As well, inclusion of a security of supply criterion in international emission trading instruments may provide potential benefits

  5. 76 FR 67484 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office... made for the following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters...

  6. 76 FR 28099 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office... made for the following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters...

  7. 76 FR 6636 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office... made for the following committee meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy...

  8. Security versus bank finance : the importance of a proper enforcement of legal rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modigliani, F.; Perotti, E.C.

    2000-01-01

    We argue that in an unreliable enforcement regime, transactions tend to become intermediated through institutions or concentrated among agents bound by some form of private enforcement. Provision of funding shifts from risk capital to debt, and from markets to institutions with long term relations.

  9. Security versus bank finance : the importance of a proper enforcement of legal rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modigliani, F.; Perotti, E.C.; van Oijen, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    We argue that in an unreliable enforcement regime, transactions tend to become intermediated through institutions or concentrated among agents bound by some form of private enforcement. Provision of funding shifts from risk capital to debt, and from markets to institutions with long term relations.

  10. Advanced shortwave infrared and Raman hyperspectral sensors for homeland security and law enforcement operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueva, Oksana; Nelson, Matthew P.; Gardner, Charles W.; Gomer, Nathaniel R.

    2015-05-01

    Proliferation of chemical and explosive threats as well as illicit drugs continues to be an escalating danger to civilian and military personnel. Conventional means of detecting and identifying hazardous materials often require the use of reagents and/or physical sampling, which is a time-consuming, costly and often dangerous process. Stand-off detection allows the operator to detect threat residues from a safer distance minimizing danger to people and equipment. Current fielded technologies for standoff detection of chemical and explosive threats are challenged by low area search rates, poor targeting efficiency, lack of sensitivity and specificity or use of costly and potentially unsafe equipment such as lasers. A demand exists for stand-off systems that are fast, safe, reliable and user-friendly. To address this need, ChemImage Sensor Systems™ (CISS) has developed reagent-less, non-contact, non-destructive sensors for the real-time detection of hazardous materials based on widefield shortwave infrared (SWIR) and Raman hyperspectral imaging (HSI). Hyperspectral imaging enables automated target detection displayed in the form of image making result analysis intuitive and user-friendly. Application of the CISS' SWIR-HSI and Raman sensing technologies to Homeland Security and Law Enforcement for standoff detection of homemade explosives and illicit drugs and their precursors in vehicle and personnel checkpoints is discussed. Sensing technologies include a portable, robot-mounted and standalone variants of the technology. Test data is shown that supports the use of SWIR and Raman HSI for explosive and drug screening at checkpoints as well as screening for explosives and drugs at suspected clandestine manufacturing facilities.

  11. Competing policy packages and the complexity of energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Saunders, Harry

    2014-01-01

    To underscore both the diversity and severity of energy security tradeoffs, this study examines five different energy security policy packages—five distinct strategies aimed at reducing oil dependence, enhancing energy affordability, expanding access to modern energy services, responding to climate change, and minimizing the water intensity of energy production. It identifies both compelling synergies and conflicts between each of the five strategies. The central value of the study is that it turns on its head the widely accepted notion of a “portfolio approach” or “all of the above” strategy to energy policymaking. To make this case, the article begins by elucidating the complexity and multidimensionality of energy security as a concept. It then introduces our five energy security policy packages to illustrate how some energy security objectives complement each other whereas others counteract each other. It concludes by noting that energy security is not an absolute state, and that achieving it only “works” by prioritizing some dimensions, or policy goals and packages, more than others. - Highlights: • Energy security is a complex, multidimensional concept. • Policy packages aimed at achieving energy security often conflict with each other. • Energy security only “works” by prioritizing some dimensions more than others

  12. External dimension of Ukraine’s security policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vonsovych

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the external dimension of security policy of Ukraine is stipulated for the need to analyse the current state of relations with organizations such as the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and The Collective Security Treaty Organization, and relations within the Common European Security and Defence Policy. Ukraine’s European Integration means inclusion in the global space security with countries that it shares common values and principles. It does not exclude the collaboration with the countries that belong to other systems of collective security in the scope that is appropriate to basic national interests of Ukraine. It is proved that the activities of the OSCE Special Monitoring Mission is an important contribution to the process of peaceful conflict resolution, and helps to develop democratic principles and foundations of foreign policy. It is determined that the further development of the constructive cooperation between the EU advisory mission under CSDP will provide an opportunity to improve and increase the security of national borders from external threats and challenges, and help to accelerate the process of integration into the European security space. The attention is paid to the fact that, taken into consideration the state of relations with Russia, the further cooperation with the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO may adversely affect the overall security situation in Ukraine and lead to further tension with Russia today.

  13. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khun, Vuthy; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong

    2016-01-01

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia

  14. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, Vuthy; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong

    2016-01-01

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia.

  15. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khun, Vuthy, E-mail: vuthy.khun@gmail.com; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-01-22

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia.

  16. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bieniek, Piotr S

    2006-01-01

    ...) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Polish security policy and strategy is shaped by its geographical location, which places Poland in NATO's main strategic area opposite the Russian Federation and Belarus...

  17. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bieniek, Piotr S

    2006-01-01

    ... goals to eliminate current threats and risks such as terrorism. As far as Poland is concerned, its priority is to be an active leader in improving common security policy within the boundaries of the European Union (EU...

  18. Critical Perspective on ASEAN's Security Policy Under ASEAN Political and Security Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawan Jati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available   Despite economic integration challenges, ASEAN faces greater security challenges. It is obvious to assert that a stable economic development requires a secure regional atmosphere. The most probable threats against ASEAN are ranging from hostile foreign entities infiltration, intra and inter states disputes, radical religious movements, human trafficking, drugs and narcotics smuggling, cybercrimes and environmental disasters. In 2009, ASEAN established the ASEAN Political and Security Community as the umbrella of ASEAN’s political and security initiatives. APSC slots in some significant fora; ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR, ASEAN Foreign Ministers Meeting (AMM,  ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF, ASEAN Defense Minister’s Meeting (ADMM, ASEAN Law Ministers Meeting (ALAWMM, and ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Transnational Crimes (AMMTC. The wide array of these forums signify ASEAN efforts to confront double features of security; the traditional and nontraditional or critical security. The traditional security considers state security as the primary object security. While the critical security tends to focus on non-state aspects such as individual human being as its referent object. Even though some argue that APSC has been able to preserve the stability in the region, it still lack of confidence in solving critical issues such as territorial disputes and irregular migrants problems.Therefore, this piece would examine the fundamental questions: How does ASEAN address beyond state security issues in its security policy through APSC? To search for the answer this paper would apply critical security studies approach. Critical security posits that threats are not always for the states but in many cases for the people. Based on the examination of ASEAN security policies, this paper argues that ASEAN’s security policy has touched the non-traditional security issues but showing slow progress on its development and application. 

  19. Impact of smoke-free housing policy lease exemptions on compliance, enforcement and smoking behavior: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Kaufman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of smoke-free housing policies on compliance, enforcement and smoking behavior. From 2012 to 2014, we studied two affordable housing providers in Canada with comprehensive smoke-free policies: Waterloo Regional Housing that required new leases to be non-smoking and exempted existing leases, and Yukon Housing Corporation that required all leases (existing and new to be non-smoking. Focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted with 31 housing and public health staff involved in policy development and implementation, and qualitative interviews with 56 tenants. Both types of smoke-free policies helped tenants to reduce and quit smoking. However, exempting existing tenants from the policy created challenges for monitoring compliance and enforcing the policy, and resulted in ongoing tobacco smoke exposure. Moreover, some new tenants were smoking in exempted units, which undermined the policy and maintained smoking behavior. Our findings support the implementation of complete smoke-free housing policies that do not exempt existing leases to avoid many of the problems experienced by staff and tenants. In jurisdictions where exempting existing leases is still required by law, adequate staff resources for monitoring and enforcement, along with consistent and clear communication (particularly regarding balconies, patios and outdoor spaces will encourage compliance. Keywords: Smoke-free policy, Housing, Tobacco smoke pollution, Smoking cessation, Qualitative research

  20. Using the social security system to deliver housing policy

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Louise, Gee Wing

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines the interaction between housing policy and the social security benefits that support housing costs. Analysis concerns the extent and type of State intervention in housing, thus explaining the dynamic between State and individual responsibility in housing policy. This thesis involves an exploration of the different treatment of the owner-occupied and the rented housing sectors, with reference to the social security benefits which fund ongoing housing costs. This thesis see...

  1. Agriculture development and food security policy in Eritrea - An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agriculture development and food security policy in Eritrea - An analysis. ... per cent of its total food needs and in poor years, it produces no more than 25 per cent. ... food security by introducing modern technology, irrigation, terracing, soil and ...

  2. Managing Law Enforcement Presence in the Emergency Department: Highlighting the Need for New Policy Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahouni, Morsal R; Liscord, Emory; Mowafi, Hani

    2015-10-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) is the portal of entry to the health care system for a large percentage of patients. This is especially true for victims and perpetrators of interpersonal violence. Frequently, law enforcement personnel (LEP) accompany patients to the ED or seek access to patients during their ED stay or subsequent hospitalization. The time-sensitive nature of both emergency care and criminal investigation motivates both health care personnel and LEP, and can lead to potential conflicts of interest regarding access to patients in the ED. We hope to examine the relationship among patients, providers, and LEP in the ED, and the potential impact these interactions have on patient care. This article presents a review of the relevant literature and policy consideration as well as provides guidance on the development of such policies for EDs. Hospitals, EDs, and trauma resuscitation rooms are highly regulated environments, but LEP largely fall outside the ethical and institutional guidelines of health care institutions. Many potential areas of conflict exist when LEP are present in the ED that can have detrimental effects on patient care, provider liability, and LEP efficacy. Patients' perceptions of collaboration between ED personnel and LEP can compromise emergency patient care. There is a need for hospital policies to govern interactions among patients, emergency health care providers, and LEP in the ED. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An Integrative Behavioral Model of Information Security Policy Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hoon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors found the behavioral factors that influence the organization members’ compliance with the information security policy in organizations on the basis of neutralization theory, Theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory. Depending on the theory of planned behavior, members’ attitudes towards compliance, as well as normative belief and self-efficacy, were believed to determine the intention to comply with the information security policy. Neutralization theory, a prominent theory in criminology, could be expected to provide the explanation for information system security policy violations. Based on the protection motivation theory, it was inferred that the expected efficacy could have an impact on intentions of compliance. By the above logical reasoning, the integrative behavioral model and eight hypotheses could be derived. Data were collected by conducting a survey; 194 out of 207 questionnaires were available. The test of the causal model was conducted by PLS. The reliability, validity, and model fit were found to be statistically significant. The results of the hypotheses tests showed that seven of the eight hypotheses were acceptable. The theoretical implications of this study are as follows: (1 the study is expected to play a role of the baseline for future research about organization members’ compliance with the information security policy, (2 the study attempted an interdisciplinary approach by combining psychology and information system security research, and (3 the study suggested concrete operational definitions of influencing factors for information security policy compliance through a comprehensive theoretical review. Also, the study has some practical implications. First, it can provide the guideline to support the successful execution of the strategic establishment for the implement of information system security policies in organizations. Second, it proves that the need of education and training

  4. An integrative behavioral model of information security policy compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Yang, Kyung Hoon; Park, Sunyoung

    2014-01-01

    The authors found the behavioral factors that influence the organization members' compliance with the information security policy in organizations on the basis of neutralization theory, Theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory. Depending on the theory of planned behavior, members' attitudes towards compliance, as well as normative belief and self-efficacy, were believed to determine the intention to comply with the information security policy. Neutralization theory, a prominent theory in criminology, could be expected to provide the explanation for information system security policy violations. Based on the protection motivation theory, it was inferred that the expected efficacy could have an impact on intentions of compliance. By the above logical reasoning, the integrative behavioral model and eight hypotheses could be derived. Data were collected by conducting a survey; 194 out of 207 questionnaires were available. The test of the causal model was conducted by PLS. The reliability, validity, and model fit were found to be statistically significant. The results of the hypotheses tests showed that seven of the eight hypotheses were acceptable. The theoretical implications of this study are as follows: (1) the study is expected to play a role of the baseline for future research about organization members' compliance with the information security policy, (2) the study attempted an interdisciplinary approach by combining psychology and information system security research, and (3) the study suggested concrete operational definitions of influencing factors for information security policy compliance through a comprehensive theoretical review. Also, the study has some practical implications. First, it can provide the guideline to support the successful execution of the strategic establishment for the implement of information system security policies in organizations. Second, it proves that the need of education and training programs suppressing

  5. Considerations When Including Students with Disabilities in Test Security Policies. NCEO Policy Directions. Number 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Sound test security policies and procedures are needed to ensure test security and confidentiality, and to help prevent cheating. In this era when cheating on tests draws regular media attention, there is a need for thoughtful consideration of the ways in which possible test security measures may affect accessibility for some students with…

  6. Position paper: A generic approach for security policies composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Alejandro Mario; Nielson, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    When modelling access control in distributed systems, the problem of security policies composition arises. Much work has been done on different ways of combining policies, and using different logics to do this. In this paper, we propose a more general approach based on a 4-valued logic, that abst...

  7. The Political Economy of Carbon Securities and Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polborn, Sarah

    The costs of the current suboptimal carbon abatement policy are likely in the range of 3 to 6 trillion 2005 US dollars. Using methods from the political economy of environmental policy, the paper develops a new carbon abatement policy instrument, carbon securities. A carbon security entitles its...... owner to a ?xed proportion of ex ante unknown total emissions. This creates an additional group of stakeholders on the side of the issue that has traditionally been underrepresented. The advantages over existing systems include an equilibrium carbon price closer to the social optimum, a more predictable...

  8. Family Economic Security Policies and Child and Family Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rachael A; Komro, Kelli A

    2017-03-01

    In this review, we examine the effects of family economic security policies (i.e., minimum wage, earned income tax credit, unemployment insurance, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) on child and family health outcomes, summarize policy generosity across states in the USA, and discuss directions and possibilities for future research. This manuscript is an update to a review article that was published in 2014. Millions of Americans are affected by family economic security policies each year, many of whom are the most vulnerable in society. There is increasing evidence that these policies impact health outcomes and behaviors of adults and children. Further, research indicates that, overall, policies which are more restrictive are associated with poorer health behaviors and outcomes; however, the strength of the evidence differs across each of the four policies. There is significant diversity in state-level policies, and it is plausible that these policy variations are contributing to health disparities across and within states. Despite increasing evidence of the relationship between economic policies and health, there continues to be limited attention to this issue. State policy variations offer a valuable opportunity for scientists to conduct natural experiments and contribute to evidence linking social policy effects to family and child well-being. The mounting evidence will help to guide future research and policy making for evolving toward a more nurturing society for family and child health and well-being.

  9. Development and Analysis of Security Policies in Security Enhanced Android

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    by Tresys Technology [32]. The suite contains tools for SE policy creation, management, and analysis. Apol provides a graphical interface for...runs under a predefined platform user: system, nfc , radio, etc. The third and fourth checks simply deal with different user strings, with fixed...system user id to the system domain and their application directories to system_data_file. Similarly, applications under the nfc and radio user id

  10. Energy security of supply under EU climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenenberg, H.; Wetzelaer, B.J.H.W.

    2006-12-01

    The implications of various climate policies for the security of supply in the EU-25 were investigated. The security of supply was quantified using the Supply/Demand (S/D) Index. This index aggregates quantitative information on a country's energy system into one single figure. It takes a value between 0 and 100, with higher values indicating a more secure energy system. The S/D Index was calculated for the year 2020 based on the information in a series of policy scenarios, including a baseline (S/D Index 50.7), an energy efficiency scenario (53.8), two renewable energy scenarios (52.6 and 53.3) and two scenarios with combined policies (55.9 and 55.6).The S/D Index proved a useful indicator for assessing the implications of climate policies for the security of supply. As climate policies become more stringent, CO2 index fall, and the S/D index increases. The magnitude of the changes in the two indices is not always similar however. Major falls in CO2 indices in the order of 20% for two scenarios with combined energy efficiency and renewable energy polices lead to less noteworthy improvements in the associated S/D indices. Nevertheless, this combination of policies leads to the greatest improvements in the security of supply

  11. Elements of ESA's policy on space and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopapa, Christina; Adriaensen, Maarten; Antoni, Ntorina; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2018-06-01

    In the past decade Europe has been facing rising security threats, ranging from climate change, migrations, nearby conflicts and crises, to terrorism. The demand to tackle these critical challenges is increasing in Member States. Space is already contributing, and could further contribute with already existing systems and future ones. The increasing need for security in Europe and for safety and security of Europe's space activities has led to a growing number of activities in ESA in various domains. It has also driven new and strengthened partnerships with security stakeholders in Europe. At the European level, ESA is collaborating closely with the main European institutions dealing with space security. In addition, as an organisation ESA has evolved to conduct security-related projects and programmes and to address the threats to its own activities, thereby securing the investments of the Member States. Over the past years the Agency has set up a comprehensive regulatory framework in order to be able to cope with security related requirements. Over the past years, ESA has increased its exchanges with its Member States. The paper presents main elements of the ESA's policy on space and security. It introduces the current European context for space and security, the European goals in this domain and the specific objectives to which the Agency intends to contribute. Space and security in the ESA context is set out under two components: a) security from space and b) security in space, including the security of ESA's own activities (corporate security and the security of ESA's space missions). Subsequently, ESA's activities are elaborated around these two pillars, composed of different activities conducted in the most appropriate frameworks and in coordination with the relevant stakeholders and shareholders.

  12. 41 CFR 301-70.600 - What governing policies and procedures must we establish related to threatened law enforcement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What governing policies and procedures must we establish related to threatened law enforcement/investigative employees? 301-70.600 Section 301-70.600 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY...

  13. Latvian Security and Defense Policy within the Twenty-First Century Security Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rublovskis Raimonds

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze fundamental factors which form and profoundly shape security and defense policy of the Republic of Latvia. One can argue that historical background, geographical location, common institutional history within the former Soviet Union, the Russia factor, the relative smallness of the territory of state and the population, the ethnic composition of the population, the low density of the population and rather limited financial and manpower resources available for the defense of the Republic of Latvia are the key factors of influence on the state security and defense policy. The core principles of the security and defense policy of Latvia are the membership in powerful global military alliance of NATO and bilateral strategic partnership with the United States. However, security and defense cooperation among the three Baltic States as well as enhanced cooperation within the Baltic-Nordic framework is seen as an important supplementary factor for the increased security of the Republic of Latvia. Latvia has developed a sustainable legal and institutional framework in order to contribute to state security and defense; however, security challenges and significant changes within the global security environment of the twenty-first century will further challenge the ability of the Republic of Latvia to sustain its current legal framework, and more importantly, current institutional structure of Latvian security and defense architecture. Significant internal and external challenges will impact the fundamental pillars of Latvian security and defense policy, such as American strategic shift to the Pacific, and lack of political will to increase defense budgets in European part of NATO. It has to be clear that very independence, security and defense of the Republic of Latvia depend on the ability of NATO to remain an effective organization with timely and efficient decision-making, and the ability of the United States to remain

  14. 78 FR 9431 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on...

  15. 78 FR 38077 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office [NARA-13-0030] National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and... following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

  16. 78 FR 64024 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office [NARA-2014-001] National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and... following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

  17. 77 FR 63893 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on...

  18. National Security Implications of Global Warming Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Although numerous historical examples demonstrate how actual climate change has contributed to the rise and fall of powers, global warming , in and of...become convinced that global warming is universally bad and humans are the primary cause, political leaders may develop ill-advised policies restricting

  19. Group Policy Fundamentals, Security, and the Managed Desktop

    CERN Document Server

    Moskowitz, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate Group Policy guide-now updated for Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2!. IT and network administrators can streamline their Windows Server management tasks by using Group Policy tools to automate or implement rules, processes, or new security across the enterprise. In this comprehensive guide, Microsoft Group Policy MVP Jeremy Moskowitz thoroughly explores Group Policy across all Windows platforms, including the latest on Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2. If you're a Windows network administrator managing scores of users and computers, you need this essential reference on your desk.: Covers

  20. Development of an Internet Security Policy for health care establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilioudis, C; Pangalos, G

    2000-01-01

    The Internet provides unprecedented opportunities for interaction and data sharing among health care providers, patients and researchers. However, the advantages provided by the Internet come with a significantly greater element of risk to the confidentiality and integrity of information. This paper defines the basic security requirements that must be addressed in order to use the Internet to safely transmit patient and/or other sensitive Health Care information. It describes a suitable Internet Security Policy for Health Care Establishments and provides the set of technical measures that are needed for its implementation. The proposed security policy and technical approaches have been based on an extensive study of the related recommendations from the security and standard groups both in EU amid USA and our related work and experience. The results have been utilized in the framework of the Intranet Health Clinic project, where the use of the Internet for the transmission of sensitive Health Care information is of vital importance.

  1. Household Food Security Policy Analysis A System Dynamics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isdore Paterson Guma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Household food security FS is complex and requires multiple stakeholder intervention. Systemic approach aids stakeholders to understand the mechanisms and feedback between complexities in food security providing effective decision making as global resource consumption continues to grow. The study investigated food security challenges and a system dynamics model was developed for evaluating policies and intervention strategies for better livelihood at household level. Dynamic synthesis methodology questionnaires and interview guide were used to unearth food security challenges faced by households. A causal loop diagram was drawn. The model demonstrates a balance between food stock seeds preserved seeds for sale and consumption from crop harvest throughout the food cycles. This research makes contribution to the literature by evaluating dynamic synthesis methodology and FS policy discussions from a feedback point of view.

  2. Security Policy for a Generic Space Exploration Communication Network Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sheehe, Charles J.; Vaden, Karl R.

    2016-01-01

    This document is one of three. It describes various security mechanisms and a security policy profile for a generic space-based communication architecture. Two other documents accompany this document- an Operations Concept (OpsCon) and a communication architecture document. The OpsCon should be read first followed by the security policy profile described by this document and then the architecture document. The overall goal is to design a generic space exploration communication network architecture that is affordable, deployable, maintainable, securable, evolvable, reliable, and adaptable. The architecture should also require limited reconfiguration throughout system development and deployment. System deployment includes subsystem development in a factory setting, system integration in a laboratory setting, launch preparation, launch, and deployment and operation in space.

  3. Private or Public Law Enforcement? The Case of Digital Piracy Policies with Non-monitored Illegal Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Éric Darmon; Thomas Le Texier

    2014-01-01

    In the case of digital piracy should rights be publicly or privately enforced? The emergence of large-scale anti-piracy laws and the existence of non-monitored illegal channels raise important issues for the design of digital anti-piracy policies. In this paper, we study the impact of these two enforcement settings (public vs. private) in the presence of an illegal non-monitored outside option for users. Taking account of market outcomes, we show that in both cases, the optimal strategies of ...

  4. The Evolution of the European Security Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica Negrut

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of development of the European Union’s security dimension has known a spectacular evolution in the past years, passing from political consultation to establishing objectives, then commonactions and positions; at a practical level, the Petersburg measures, carried on initially by the Western European Union as an armed branch of the European Union, have been replaced by actions of implication ofthe Union in managing some conflicts. The Lisbon Treaty confirms the commitments of the member states and mentions the fact that the European Union will dispose of the necessary measures for the defense of its objectives and to contribute to world peace and stability.

  5. 75 FR 65526 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office..., announcement is made for the following committee meeting, to discuss National Industrial Security Program...

  6. 75 FR 39582 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office..., announcement is made for a meeting of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee. The meeting will be held to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 851 - General Statement of Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... communicate the basis of the decision not to pursue enforcement action for a noncompliance. The Enforcement..., and post-maintenance testing; (3) Readily observable parameter trends; and (4) Contractor employee or... decision not to reduce civil penalty amounts. (d) Alternatively, if, following a self-disclosing event, DOE...

  8. Features of modern security policy UK political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Stalovierova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The security policy of the British coalition government of D. Cameron (2010-2015 is summarized; it’s been proved that political forces of Tory and Liberal Democrat should have compromised to carry out unanimous course in the scope of national security, and the problems of the security strategy on parliamentary elections in 2015 are analyzed, particularly the comparative analysis of the modern safety strategy of leading British parties is exercised. Under conditions of the appearance of new challenges and threats, transformation of international safety system, the questions of safety policy often become the object of attention of the British community and experts. The absence of cross-party consensus on most terms of safety strategy of the United Kingdom during the election campaign in 2015 makes the discussion about perspectives of the British safety policy still more urgent. During the election campaign there was no unity on any aspect of security subject between parties. First of all, Labourists, Liberal Democrats, Scottish National Party and Green Party made a statement about readiness to develop cooperation with the EU and the Conservatives and the UK Independence Party were on the side of the Eurosceptics. The opinions of the parties were also divided on military operations abroad, financing and force level. In terms of one-party government and presence of majority in the House of Commons, the Conservatives have opportunities to realize their own vision of British safety policy.

  9. Reviewing and reforming policy in health enterprise information security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostrom, Kristen; Collmann, Jeff R.

    2001-08-01

    Health information management policies usually address the use of paper records with little or no mention of electronic health records. Information Technology (IT) policies often ignore the health care business needs and operational use of the information stored in its systems. Representatives from the Telemedicine & Advanced Technology Research Center, TRICARE and Offices of the Surgeon General of each Military Service, collectively referred to as the Policies, Procedures and Practices Work Group (P3WG), examined military policies and regulations relating to computer-based information systems and medical records management. Using a system of templates and matrices created for the purpose, P3WG identified gaps and discrepancies in DoD and service compliance with the proposed Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Standard. P3WG represents an unprecedented attempt to coordinate policy review and revision across all military health services and the Office of Health Affairs. This method of policy reform can identify where changes need to be made to integrate health management policy and IT policy in to an organizational policy that will enable compliance with HIPAA standards. The process models how large enterprises may coordinate policy revision and reform across broad organizational and work domains.

  10. European Energy Policy and Its Effects on Gas Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Victorita Stefana Anda

    The goal of this study is to examine the effects of the energy policies of the European Union (EU) on its gas security in the period 2006 to 2016. While energy security is often given a broad meaning, this paper focuses on its external dimension: the EU?s relations with external gas suppliers. It is grounded on four pillars drawing from the compounded institutionalist and liberal theoretical frameworks: regulatory state, rational-choice, external governance, and regime effectiveness. The research question was investigated through a qualitative methodology with two main components: a legislative analysis and four case studies representing the main gas supply options--Russia, North African exporting countries, Norway, and liquefied natural gas (LNG). They highlighted that the EU framed the need for gas security mainly in the context of political risks associated with Russian gas supply, but it almost never took into account other equally important risks. Moreover, the research revealed two main issues. First, that the deeper and the more numerous EU?s energy policies were, the bigger was the magnitude of the effect. Specifically, competitiveness and infrastructure policies had the largest magnitude, while the sustainability and security of supply policies had the smallest effect. Second, EU energy policies only partially diminished the economic and political risks in relation to foreign gas suppliers. To conclude, to a certain extent the EU?s efforts made a positive contribution to the external dimension of the EU?s gas security, but the distinguishing trait remains that there is no consistency in terms of the magnitude of the effect and its nature.

  11. 77 FR 12623 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... discuss National [[Page 12624

  12. Enforcing Security Mechanisms in the IP-Based Internet of Things: An Algorithmic Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Veltri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT refers to the Internet-like structure of billions of interconnected constrained devices, denoted as “smart objects”. Smart objects have limited capabilities, in terms of computational power and memory, and might be battery-powered devices, thus raising the need to adopt particularly energy efficient technologies. Among the most notable challenges that building interconnected smart objects brings about, there are standardization and interoperability. The use of IP has been foreseen as the standard for interoperability for smart objects. As billions of smart objects are expected to come to life and IPv4 addresses have eventually reached depletion, IPv6 has been identified as a candidate for smart-object communication. The deployment of the IoT raises many security issues coming from (i the very nature of smart objects, e.g., the adoption of lightweight cryptographic algorithms, in terms of processing and memory requirements; and (ii the use of standard protocols, e.g., the need to minimize the amount of data exchanged between nodes. This paper provides a detailed overview of the security challenges related to the deployment of smart objects. Security protocols at network, transport, and application layers are discussed, together with lightweight cryptographic algorithms proposed to be used instead of conventional and demanding ones, in terms of computational resources. Security aspects, such as key distribution and security bootstrapping, and application scenarios, such as secure data aggregation and service authorization, are also discussed.

  13. Examining the Spatial Distribution of Law Enforcement Encounters among People Who Inject Drugs after Implementation of Mexico’s Drug Policy Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Gaines, Tommi L.; Beletsky, Leo; Arredondo, Jaime; Werb, Daniel; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Brouwer, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, Mexico decriminalized the possession of small amounts of illicit drugs for personal use in order to refocus law enforcement resources on drug dealers and traffickers. This study examines the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters reported by people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico to identify concentrated areas of policing activity after implementation of the new drug policy. Mapping the physical location of law enforcement encounters provided by PWID (n = 461) ...

  14. Information security policy: contributions from internal marketing for its effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ellwanger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Protecting sources of information has become a great challenge to the organizations, due to the advance of the information technologies, the integration between them and the constant stream of information that flows through the communication networks. The establishment of an Information Security Policy – PSI may resolve a part of the problems related to security, but it cannot totally solve them, since the human resources present in the internal environment of the organizations may spoil the effectiveness of the PSI. Given the importance of the human aspects in the context of the information security, the present work discusses the use of internal marketing as a management strategy in order to obtain or reestablish the commitment of the users to the principles defined in the PSI, and demonstrates, through an experimental research, the impact of using internal marketing techniques to the effectiveness of that policy. The results of this experiment make quantitatively evident how relevant the use of these techniques may be in order to have the procedures described in the PSI actually carried out by the users, and demonstrates a 402,4% increase in the support to the information security policy, considering the procedures indicated in the PSI that were totally executed.

  15. The Faroe Islands’ Security Policy in a Process of Devolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beinta í Jákobsstovu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1990s there has been a remarkable change in the institutional context of safety and security policies for the Faroes. The end of the Cold War led to a reduction in the strategic importance of, and military presence in, the islands. However, today Faroese sea and air space is increasingly exposed to heavy civilian traffic due to expected oil production as well as new sailing routes from the High North. The Faroese government is in a process, nearly completed, of taking over the full responsibility for societal security policy, a field it used to share with the Danish state authorities. In April 2002, the Faroese authorities took over the responsibility for SAR in Faroese sea territory and established a MRCC Center in Tórshavn. A new civic security law was passed by Løgtingið (the parliament in May 2012. This article discusses micro-states’ options in the international arena; provides a brief overview of the history of Faroese security policy; and discusses the present and future challenges involved in assuring protection and rescue services for the Faroese region of the North Atlantic.

  16. The French nuclear policy. A model for security policy in North-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, K.

    1998-01-01

    Between the end of the second world war and the collapse of the Berlin wall, the French diplomacy was based on the nuclear policy in a solid and coherent way. This nuclear policy was an 'incarnation' of the national security conception, allowing France to recover its political, military and economical rank on the international scene. The most important characteristic of the French nuclear policy concerns the commercialization of the nuclear energy which aims to ensuring the national security through the building up of a financial, technological and political 'reserve'. In front of the domination of the USA and USSR during the cold war era, NE Asia had a similar geostrategic configuration as Western Europe. It concerns in particular the massive application of nuclear energy for both military and industrial purposes. The bases of the security policy in this region refers to the real use of the nuclear weapon by the USA against Japan in 1945. The French nuclear policy may be considered as a model for the building of the security policy of NE Asia, in particular through the commercialization of the nuclear technology between the countries in concern. This nuclear approach would allow the countries of these region to change their present day national defense policy into an economical and military cooperation. (J.S.)

  17. International Security, Development, and Human Rights: Policy Conversion or Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-ling Lin Hasenkamp

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article uses an institutional network governance approach to explore the overlapping dimension of the policy fields between security, development, and human rights, reflected in the US and German provincial reconstruction teams (PRTs in Afghanistan. The past two decades have witnessed a gradually changing paradigm in academic and policy debates regarding the questions of the normative basis of world order and possibilities for tackling imminent threats to security and peace (i.e. intra-state armed conflicts, failed states, terrorism, poverty, and deepening inequality. The introduction of concepts such as “human security” and “the right to humanitarian intervention/responsibility to protect (R2P” as well as critical examinations of peace-, nation-, and state-building missions (PNSB have led to a relativist tendency of state sovereignty and a changing attitude regarding how to address the intersection of security, development, and human rights. Despite this shift, the policy commitments to integrating these policy considerations remain puzzling. How have they been redefined, conceptualized, and put into practice? I argue that an integrated conceptual approach has facilitated the redefinition of common policy goals, principles, and the mobilization of resources. At the same time, civil and military cooperation, as demonstrated in the multifunctional work of PRTs, has been Janus-headed—permanently caught in an ongoing tension between the war on terror and short-term stability operation on the one hand and long-term durable peace and development on the other. The misunderstanding of its interim character, the dynamics of Afghan environment, the blurring of policy lines, and the differences between national PRT models have made it difficult to systematically assess the efficiency and legitimacy of each policy frame and program.

  18. STUDY ON COMPANY SECURITY POLICIES FROM DIGITAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA-MARIA RĂDULESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet development has brought both new opportunities and risks for either retailers or consumers. For example, electronic commerce is much faster and less expensive, but this openness makes it difficult to secure. People are aware of the fact that online businesses collecting, process and distribute enormous amounts of personal data and therefore, are concerned about their unauthorized use or their use in other purposes than intended by third parties in order to gain unauthorized access to them. There are more examples of cyber criminal activities, such as: hacking, software piracy, passwords attack, service prohibition attacks, scamming, etc. Such fears led to the editing of protection policies meant to secure personal data and to develop some mechanisms to ensure the reliability and confidentiality of electronic information. Security measures include access control devices, installation of firewalls and intrusion detection devices, of some security procedures to identify and authenticate authorized users of network systems. Such mechanisms constitute the core of this study. We will also analyze security and confidentiality policy of personal data of Google Inc.

  19. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 820 - General Statement of Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contractors to identify and correct noncompliance conditions and processes in order to protect human health... be shared with all appropriate DOE contractors. b. Pursuant to this enforcement philosophy, DOE will...

  20. BASES OF PUBLIC POLICY FORMATION DIRECTED AT ENSURING BUDGET SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the priorities and public policies that can improve the safety level of the budget of Ukraine have been grounded. Attention on the problems of imbalance and deficiency trends accumulation of public debt has been focused. The detailed analysis of the budget deficit of the European community to further research the main problems of fiscal security has been carried out. The formation of the concept of budget policy should include long-term and medium-term priorities of the state priorities areas have been concluded. Budget policy on public debt must deal with interrelated issues of debt bondage and effective use of public credit, promote economic growth with respect safe level and structure of public debt have been emphasized by author. Debt policy as part of fiscal policy under certain conditions can be a powerful tool to intensify investment and innovation processes in society, promote economic and social development. The reorientation of fiscal policy to address current problems through debt and use it as the basis of investment and innovation development provides an effective public debt management is designed to reduce state budget expenditures on its servicing and repayment, optimizing the scope and structure of debt according to economic growth. The role of debt policy in modern terms increases is clearly subordinate to and consistent with long-term goals and priorities of fiscal policy. There is an urgent development and implementation of effective mechanisms for investing borrowed resources, increasing the efficiency of public investment, including the improvement of organizational, financial, legal and controls. Strategically budget security guarantees only competitive economy, which can be constructed only by recovery and accelerated development of promising sectors of the national economy in the presence of a balanced budget policy. Now there is a tendency to implement only measures to stabilize the political and socio

  1. Immigration Enforcement Actions - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  2. Reducing the Impact of Immigration Enforcement Policies to Ensure the Health of North Carolinians: Statewide Community-Level Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Lilli; Simán, Florence M; Downs, Mario; Sun, Christina J; de Hernandez, Brisa Urquieta; García, Manuel; Alonzo, Jorge; Lawlor, Emma; Rhodes, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that fear of immigration enforcement among Latinos in North Carolina results in limited access to and utilization of health services and negative health consequences. This project developed recommendations to mitigate the public health impact of immigration enforcement policies in North Carolina. Our community-based participatory research partnership conducted 6 Spanish-language report-backs (an approach to sharing, validating, and interpreting data) and 3 bilingual forums with community members and public health leaders throughout North Carolina. The goals of these events were to discuss the impact of immigration enforcement on Latino health and develop recommendations to increase health services access and utilization. Findings from the report-backs and forums were analyzed using grounded theory to identify and refine common recommendations. A total of 344 people participated in the report-backs and forums. Eight recommendations emerged: increase knowledge among Latinos about local health services; build capacity to promote policy changes; implement system-level changes among organizations providing health services; train lay health advisors to help community members navigate systems; share Latinos' experiences with policy makers; reduce transportation barriers; increase schools' support of Latino families; and increase collaboration among community members, organizations, health care providers, and academic researchers. Representatives from 16 of 100 North Carolina counties participated. These 16 counties represent geographically diverse regions, and many of these counties have large Latino populations. Immigration enforcement is a public health issue. Participants proposed developing new partnerships, identifying strategies, and implementing action steps for carrying out recommendations to reduce negative health outcomes among Latinos in North Carolina. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights

  3. Visa Security Policy: Roles of the Departments of State and Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    Cong., 2nd sess., April 20, 1950. 13 8 U.S.C. 1104 . 14 8 U.S.C. 1201. AILA InfoNet Doc. No. 11071267. (Posted 07/12/11) Visa Security Policy...Biometric 2-print fingerprint system (IDENT); and Advanced Passenger Information System ( APIS ). They also have access to selected legacy- INS automated

  4. Beyond the Poverty of National Security: Toward a Critical Human Security Perspective in Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the intersecting logics of human capital and national security underpinning the corporate school reform movement in the United States. Taking a 2012 policy report by the Council on Foreign Relations as an entry point, it suggests that these logics are incoherent not only on their own narrow instrumental terms, but also more…

  5. Information security policies for governmental organisations, the minimum criteria

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngobeni, SJ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available and retention of documents. 18) Incident response. The policy discusses issues concerning how an organisation responds quickly and effectively to a system or network security breach [13]. 19) Contingency planning. The policy needs to address contingency... _ 17. Document destruction and retention X _ X X 18. Incident response X X X X 19. Contingency planning X _ X X 20. Telecommuting and mobile computing _ _ X _ 21. Intrusion Detection Systems X X X X From Table 1 it can be detained that not all...

  6. Security Policies from a Spatial Perspective: the Case of Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirio del Carmen Gutiérrez Rivera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Public insecurity became a central issue for many Hondurans in the late 1990s, as crime, delinquency and homicide increased significantly in the isthmus. Honduras had the second highest homicide rate (35.1 per 100,000 in the region after El Salvador (50.2. per 100,000 . This social violence triggered insecurity and fear, which was further accompanied by the overall perception that the state was unable of relieving or protecting the population. This article looks at the failed attempts of the Honduran state to stop social violence and to control youth gang expansion by focusing on the security policies Cero Tolerancia (Zero Tolerance, Mano Dura (Iron Fist and the Ley Antimaras (Anti-Gang Law. It understands security policies as territorial strategies that attempt to reduce social violence and impose control.

  7. A View of Food Security through A Policy Coherent Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    2014-01-01

    Member States “Food and nutrition security exists when all people at all times have physical, social and economic access to food, which is safe and consumed in sufficient quantity and quality to meet their dietary needs and food preferences, and is supported by an environment of adequate sanitation...... by increasing availability, affordability and consumption of biodiverse, safe, nutritious foods aligned with dietary recommendations and environmental sustainability.  Given that the number of chronically undernourished (stunted) could double over next 15 years, the Post-2015 Agenda and its Poverty Reduction......The term “food and nutrition security” reflects the multisector collaboration needed between those working with food security and nutrition security. The term expresses an integrated development goal to help guide implementation of policy and cost-effective programmatic action: As agreed by FAO...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 218 - Statement of Agency Enforcement Policy on Tampering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... available under the railroad safety laws and made individuals liable for willful violations of those laws... brings FRA's enforcement of the rail safety laws into a new era and because the changes being introduced... simple negligence standard of conduct, i.e., a standard of reasonable care under the circumstances. FRA's...

  9. Library and Archival Security: Policies and Procedures To Protect Holdings from Theft and Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkaus-Randall, Gregor

    1998-01-01

    Firm policies and procedures that address the environment, patron/staff behavior, general attitude, and care and handling of materials need to be at the core of the library/archival security program. Discussion includes evaluating a repository's security needs, collections security, security in non-public areas, security in the reading room,…

  10. Enforcing access control in virtual organizations using hierarchical attribute-based encryption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asim, M.; Ignatenko, T.; Petkovic, M.; Trivellato, D.; Zannone, N.

    2012-01-01

    Virtual organizations are dynamic, interorganizational collaborations that involve systems and services belonging to different security domains. Several solutions have been proposed to guarantee the enforcement of the access control policies protecting the information exchanged in a distributed

  11. Enforcing access control in virtual organizations using hierarchical attribute-based encryption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asim, M.; Ignatenko, T.; Petkovic, M.; Trivellato, D.; Zannone, N.

    2012-01-01

    Virtual organizations are dynamic, inter-organizational collaborations that involve systems and services belonging to different security domains. Several solutions have been proposed to guarantee the enforcement of the access control policies protecting the information exchanged in a distributed

  12. China's Quest for Energy; Impact upon Foreign and Security Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesow, Ingolf

    2004-11-01

    Contrary to Chinese intentions, the proportion of China's imports coming from potentially unstable countries is steadily increasing. As a response, China tries to diversify its sources of import and to own the oil when loaded in an export harbour. In spite of very high costs and political problems, China tries to import oil and gas from owned fields in Central Asia through pipelines. In the case of China, the competition is evident on the highest international level. Especially with Japan, this tends to make already previously sensitive relations deteriorate. China has territorial disputes with several neighbouring countries that are becoming more complicated by the fact that there is oil and gas on the bottom of the sea in the disputed area. Relations with Russia have been complicated. Since the 1990s they are on their way of being steadily improved, but they become strained, when Japan is given priority access to oil fields in Siberia. The sensitive relations with the U.S. tend to be impaired by China's ways of getting access to more secure supply of oil and gas. Chinese efforts to get a more attractive foreign policy profile is on the other hand alleviating but does not eliminate the potential of the energy issue to complicate. China's foreign and security policy relations. The European Union seems to be on its way to introduce energy questions as a field of common policy. This is a reason for Sweden to study the development. It is a matter of special interest that China has proposed an 'Energy Dialogue between Asia and Europe' about the resources and the Eurasian continent. The Chinese example illustrates the need for a Swedish energy security policy and plans for energy crisis preparedness

  13. Designing an effective microbial forensics program for law enforcement and national security purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Randall S

    2014-06-01

    Forensic capabilities that provide lead information, and investigative, intelligence, prosecution and policy decision support can be invaluable for responding to and resolving bioterrorism events. Attributing biological attacks through scientific and other resources and processes is an important goal, for which science can be instrumental. Some even believe that having effective microbial forensics capabilities along with others can even deter adversaries from using biological weapons. For those nations that do not have such or wish to integrate or upgrade capabilities, thoughtful analysis and consideration of certain design principles will increase the likelihood that success will be attained.

  14. Three Modes of Thinking and Policy Orientation of Cultural Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuejin; Wang Xuege

    2016-01-01

    Three types of relations are entangled nowadays in dealing with issues conceming national cultural security on both the theoretical and practical levels:(1) the relation between one's own culture and that of other ethnic groups;(2) the relation between advanced and underdeveloped parts of culture;(3) the relation between one's ethnic culture and so-called foreign advanced culture as related to the previous two.Accordingly,three modes of thinking are likely adopted in handling issues concerning national cultural security:to antagonize one's own culture with that of other ethnic groups,that is,taking the "me or you" attitude;to dualize cultures as the "advanced" and the "underdeveloped",that is,believing things to be good if not bad,or vice versa;and to assert that the ethnic are the advanced,that is,taking the "only-megood" stance.It is a very demanding job to maintain national culture and to pursue cultural development at the same time.Only when cultures are grouped into those without distinction between the advanced and the underdeveloped and those with such distinction can the relation between the ethnic and the advanced be properly handled.With the former,it is essential to maintain the ethnicity of one's own culture before the cultural security is safeguarded.With the latter,however,the pursuit of advanced cultures and the advocacy of the advanced part of a particular culture is a key to ensuring and safeguarding the national cultural security.Hence,it is important to enhance the public awareness of cultural security,and more essentially for the government to offer scientifically appropriate orientation towards cultural security and to frame related policies.

  15. Modelling operations and security of cloud systems using Z-notation and Chinese Wall security policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Srijita; Sengupta, Anirban; Mazumdar, Chandan

    2016-11-01

    Enterprises are increasingly using cloud computing for hosting their applications. Availability of fast Internet and cheap bandwidth are causing greater number of people to use cloud-based services. This has the advantage of lower cost and minimum maintenance. However, ensuring security of user data and proper management of cloud infrastructure remain major areas of concern. Existing techniques are either too complex, or fail to properly represent the actual cloud scenario. This article presents a formal cloud model using the constructs of Z-notation. Principles of the Chinese Wall security policy have been applied to design secure cloud-specific operations. The proposed methodology will enable users to safely host their services, as well as process sensitive data, on cloud.

  16. Cyber Security Policy. A methodology for Determining a National Cyber-Security Alert Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Constantin TOFAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, assuring the security of the national cyber-space has become a big issue that can only be tackled through collaborative approaches. Threats cannot be confined to a single computer system just as much as computer systems are rendered useless without being con-nected to a supporting network. The authors of this article propose an innovative architecture of a system designated to help governments collect and analyze data about cyber-security in-cidents, from different organizations, dispersed nationwide, and acting within various economic sectors. The collected data will make us able to determine a national cyber-security alert score that could help policy makers in establishing the best strategies for protecting the national cyber-space.

  17. Cyber security awareness toolkit for national security: An approach to South Africa’s cybersecurity policy implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phahlamohlaka, LJ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose an approach that South Africa could follow in implementing its proposed Cyber security policy. The paper proposes a Cyber Security Awareness Toolkit that is underpinned by key National Security imperatives as well...

  18. A Study of the Effect of Information Security Policies on Information Security Breaches in Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Stanie Adolphus

    2013-01-01

    Many articles within the literature point to the information security policy as one of the most important elements of an effective information security program. Even though this belief is continually referred to in many information security scholarly articles, very few research studies have been performed to corroborate this sentiment. Doherty and…

  19. The Encryption Export Policy Controversy: Searching for Balance in the Information Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Marcus S

    2000-01-01

    .... The federal government s encryption export policy highlights a complex information age issue involving seemingly insurmountable conflicts between national security, law enforcement, privacy, and business interests...

  20. THE FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Menon

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In only a decade the European Union has moved from being a new kid on the block in terms of foreign and security policies to being a high profile and surprisingly effective international actor. Certainly, it has failed to match the ambitions of some of its most enthusiastic proponents. Certainly, too, European publics know next to nothing about what the Union does in the international realm. It is because of this that, despite their potential and their effectiveness to date, EU policies in this sphere were widely derided as failures following the moment when the attacks of 11 September 2001 shook the western world to its core. The Convention on the Future of Europe and subsequent intergovernmental conference look set to make significant institutional changes to the Union’s foreign and security policy systems. In undertaking these reforms, Convention members, and national governments are doubtless motivated by the laudable objective of enabling the Union to do more on the international stage. One can only hope that these motives notwithstanding, they do not simply propose reforms for their own sake and, in the process, undermine a system that, to the surprise of many, has continued to function respectably in an ever more complex and ever more dangerous world.

  1. Network Security: Policies and Guidelines for Effective Network Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Gana KOLO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Network security and management in Information and Communication Technology (ICT is the ability to maintain the integrity of a system or network, its data and its immediate environment. The various innovations and uses to which networks are being put are growing by the day and hence are becoming complex and invariably more difficult to manage by the day. Computers are found in every business such as banking, insurance, hospital, education, manufacturing, etc. The widespread use of these systems implies crime and insecurity on a global scale. In addition, the tremendous benefits brought about by Internet have also widened the scope of crime and insecurity at an alarming rate. Also, ICT has fast become a primary differentiator for institution/organization leaders as it offers effective and convenient means of interaction with each other across the globe. This upsurge in the population of organizations depending on ICT for business transaction has brought with it a growing number of security threats and attacks on poorly managed and secured networks primarily to steal personal data, particularly financial information and password.This paper therefore proposes some policies and guidelines that should be followed by network administrators in organizations to help them ensure effective network management and security of ICT facilities and data.

  2. Dynamic reconfiguration of security policies in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mónica; Gámez, Nadia; Fuentes, Lidia; Amor, Mercedes; Horcas, José Miguel; Ayala, Inmaculada

    2015-03-04

    Providing security and privacy to wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) is very challenging, due to the heterogeneity of sensor nodes and their limited capabilities in terms of energy, processing power and memory. The applications for these systems run in a myriad of sensors with different low-level programming abstractions, limited capabilities and different routing protocols. This means that applications for WSNs need mechanisms for self-adaptation and for self-protection based on the dynamic adaptation of the algorithms used to provide security. Dynamic software product lines (DSPLs) allow managing both variability and dynamic software adaptation, so they can be considered a key technology in successfully developing self-protected WSN applications. In this paper, we propose a self-protection solution for WSNs based on the combination of the INTER-TRUST security framework (a solution for the dynamic negotiation and deployment of security policies) and the FamiWare middleware (a DSPL approach to automatically configure and reconfigure instances of a middleware for WSNs).We evaluate our approach using a case study from the intelligent transportation system domain.

  3. Dynamic Reconfiguration of Security Policies in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Pinto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Providing security and privacy to wireless sensor nodes (WSNs is very challenging, due to the heterogeneity of sensor nodes and their limited capabilities in terms of energy, processing power and memory. The applications for these systems run in a myriad of sensors with different low-level programming abstractions, limited capabilities and different routing protocols. This means that applications for WSNs need mechanisms for self-adaptation and for self-protection based on the dynamic adaptation of the algorithms used to provide security. Dynamic software product lines (DSPLs allow managing both variability and dynamic software adaptation, so they can be considered a key technology in successfully developing self-protected WSN applications. In this paper, we propose a self-protection solution for WSNs based on the combination of the INTER-TRUST security framework (a solution for the dynamic negotiation and deployment of security policies and the FamiWare middleware (a DSPL approach to automatically configure and reconfigure instances of a middleware for WSNs.We evaluate our approach using a case study from the intelligent transportation system domain.

  4. Securing the AliEn File Catalogue - Enforcing authorization with accountable file operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, Steffen; Banerjee, Subho Sankar; Betev, Latchezar; Carminati, Federico; Vladimirovna Datskova, Olga; Furano, Fabrizio; Grigoras, Alina; Grigoras, Costin; Mendez Lorenzo, Patricia; Peters, Andreas Joachim; Saiz, Pablo; Bagnasco, Stefano; Zhu Jianlin

    2011-01-01

    The AliEn Grid Services, as operated by the ALICE Collaboration in its global physics analysis grid framework, is based on a central File Catalogue together with a distributed set of storage systems and the possibility to register links to external data resources. This paper describes several identified vulnerabilities in the AliEn File Catalogue access protocol regarding fraud and unauthorized file alteration and presents a more secure and revised design: a new mechanism, called LFN Booking Table, is introduced in order to keep track of access authorization in the transient state of files entering or leaving the File Catalogue. Due to a simplification of the original Access Envelope mechanism for xrootd-protocol-based storage systems, fundamental computational improvements of the mechanism were achieved as well as an up to 50% reduction of the credential's size. By extending the access protocol with signed status messages from the underlying storage system, the File Catalogue receives trusted information about a file's size and checksum and the protocol is no longer dependent on client trust. Altogether, the revised design complies with atomic and consistent transactions and allows for accountable, authentic, and traceable file operations. This paper describes these changes as part and beyond the development of AliEn version 2.19.

  5. Debating food security policy in two different ideational settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    in Australia and Norway is compared. In Australia, agricultural normalism (agricultural markets and production are considered to be similar to those of other economic sectors) has been dominant since the mid-1980s, while Norwegian agricultural policy making has been dominated by agricultural exceptionalism...... (agriculture is considered a unique economic sector with special market and production conditions). It is demonstrated in the article how these two opposing institutionalised ideational foundations have influenced the nature of the food security debate in the two countries. In Australia, the debate emphasises...... the positive role of the market and trade in providing global food security. In Norway, the debate highlights the need to regulate market forces and restrict trade in order to allow countries to develop their own agricultural sectors....

  6. U.S. energy security: problems and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toman, M.A

    2002-12-15

    The reemergence of concern about energy security in the wake of the September 2001 terror attacks amplified a theme that was already present in U.S. energy policy debates. Energy security was a central theme in the Bush administration energy policy report released by Vice President Cheney in the spring of 2001. World oil prices rose from about 10 dollar a barrel in 1998 to more than 30 dollar a barrel in late 2000. Prices trended down through most of 2001 to below 20 dollar a barrel, although the combined effect of improving economic conditions, OPEC supply cuts, and Middle East conflict (both actual and potential) have recently brought prices back into the dollar 25 per barrel neighborhood. In 2000 the United States imported almost 60 percent of the petroleum it consumed; imports from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) made up about a quarter of total U.S. consumption. In previous energy security debates in the U.S., most of the attention has been on international oil markets and geopolitics. This time, even before September 11, the energy security debate had a much larger domestic component. The 2001 ''electricity market meltdown'' in California raised large concerns there and nationwide about the causes and consequences of electricity shortages and price volatility. The concerns run so deep that they are likely to have a significant effect on the ongoing debate about restructuring of the power sector though the nature of that effect remains to be determined. Similarly, periods of sharply rising motor fuels prices over the past few years increases well beyond what would be implied just by crude oil price volatility have led to concerns about the effects on households and commerce. All of these concerns are only amplified by worries about attacks on critical energy infrastructure. (author)

  7. U.S. energy security: problems and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toman, M.A.

    2002-12-01

    The reemergence of concern about energy security in the wake of the September 2001 terror attacks amplified a theme that was already present in U.S. energy policy debates. Energy security was a central theme in the Bush administration energy policy report released by Vice President Cheney in the spring of 2001. World oil prices rose from about 10 dollar a barrel in 1998 to more than 30 dollar a barrel in late 2000. Prices trended down through most of 2001 to below 20 dollar a barrel, although the combined effect of improving economic conditions, OPEC supply cuts, and Middle East conflict (both actual and potential) have recently brought prices back into the dollar 25 per barrel neighborhood. In 2000 the United States imported almost 60 percent of the petroleum it consumed; imports from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) made up about a quarter of total U.S. consumption. In previous energy security debates in the U.S., most of the attention has been on international oil markets and geopolitics. This time, even before September 11, the energy security debate had a much larger domestic component. The 2001 ''electricity market meltdown'' in California raised large concerns there and nationwide about the causes and consequences of electricity shortages and price volatility. The concerns run so deep that they are likely to have a significant effect on the ongoing debate about restructuring of the power sector though the nature of that effect remains to be determined. Similarly, periods of sharply rising motor fuels prices over the past few years increases well beyond what would be implied just by crude oil price volatility have led to concerns about the effects on households and commerce. All of these concerns are only amplified by worries about attacks on critical energy infrastructure. (author)

  8. Responding to Catastrophe via Law Enforcement Deployment Teams: A Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    emergency medicine, canine -handling, firefighting, law enforcement, hazardous material handling, communications and logistics.128 The team’s purpose...were unavailable due to vacation, injury or other reasons. Maintenance of records, training and availability of canines were also problems.153 The...federalism is maintained under this approach, debate has raged as to its continued effectiveness. Kettl points out that while Arlington and New York

  9. Energy policy seesaw between security and protecting the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    1994-01-01

    It is just the price of oil that causes the energy policies of importing countries to vacillate. Changing perceptions of energy supply factors has had as much to do with transfiguring government action modes since 1973 as has the idea of the legitimacy of that action. The present paper thus draws a parallel between the goal of energy security twenty years ago and that of global environmental protection today, which explains the critical reversion to a view of minimum government action in the energy field - a view that marked the eighties. (author). 20 refs

  10. Science and Security Policy: The Case of Advanced Pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, E. D.

    2007-01-01

    The revolution in biotechnology presents unprecedented opportunities and dangers for the health and well being of mankind. Today, one can plausibly imagine the eradication of many historic diseases. One can also envisage the creation of new diseases that would endanger a substantial proportion of the entire human species. As powerful applications for biotechnology research are identified, appropriate arrangements for managing their extraordinary consequences will inevitably become necessary. This presentation will explore recent efforts to balance science and security policy in the area of advanced biotechnology research. Key developments on the dual-use issue will be discussed, together with a variety of governance options aimed at mitigating the risk from such research. (author)

  11. 40 CFR 761.135 - Effect of compliance with this policy and enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... forth in this policy have been met, civil or criminal action for penalties where EPA believes the spill... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of compliance with this policy..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Spill Cleanup Policy § 761.135 Effect of compliance with...

  12. The Distributional Impact of Social Security Policy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Kenneth A; Reznik, Gayle L; Tamborini, Christopher R; Iams, Howard M

    2017-01-01

    Using microsimulation, we estimate the effects of three policy proposals that would alter Social Security's eligibility rules or benefit structure to reflect changes in women's labor force activity, marital patterns, and differential mortality among the aged. First, we estimate a set of options related to the duration of marriage required to receive divorced spouse and survivor benefits. Second, we estimate the effects of an earnings sharing proposal with survivor benefits, in which benefits are based entirely on earned benefits with spouses sharing their earnings during years of marriage. Third, we estimate the effects of adjusting benefits to reflect the increasing differential life expectancy by lifetime earnings. The results advance our understanding of the distributional effects of these alternative policy options on projected benefits and retirement income, including poverty and supplemental poverty status, of divorced and widowed women aged 60 or older in 2030.

  13. Perceived Risks and Normative Beliefs as Explanatory Models for College Student Alcohol Involvement: An Assessment of a Campus with Conventional Alcohol Control Policies and Enforcement Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Todd F.; Thombs, Dennis L.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a multivariate assessment of college student drinking motivations at a campus with conventional alcohol control policies and enforcement practices, including the establishment and dissemination of alcohol policies and the use of warnings to arouse fear of sanctions. Two explanatory models were compared:…

  14. 287(g): Cross-Delegating State and Local Law Enforcement Officers with Federal Immigration Authority - Homeland Security Remedy or Rue?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lines, Jonathan L

    2008-01-01

    As a result of the federal government's shortcomings in thwarting illegal immigration, state and local law enforcement agencies are now largely shouldering the problem of criminal activity associated...

  15. The role of space in the security and defence policy of Turkey. A change in outlook: Security in space versus security from space

    OpenAIRE

    Ercan, C.; Kale, I.

    2017-01-01

    Space and security domains are strongly related with each other. Nowadays, space is an indispensable part of security and defence policy, and it is increasingly becoming a critical infrastructure for strategic Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems. However, space is vulnerable itself to the new space threats. This study reviews the current and near future space role in Turkey's security and defence policy and aims to address...

  16. Off to the Courts? Or the Agency? Public Attitudes on Bureaucratic and Legal Approaches to Policy Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Mulroy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A key curiosity in the operation of the American regulatory state lies with its hybrid structure, defined by centralized, bureaucratic approaches but also more decentralized actions such as lawsuits brought by private citizens in the courts. While current research on these two pathways focuses at the elite level—exploring how and why political actors and institutions opt for legal or administrative strategies for implementing different public policies—there is little research that examines public attitudes toward how policy is enforced in the U.S. Given that the public is a key partner in this process, this paper integrates public attitudes into the discussion, tapping into conceptions of “big government,” privatization, and the tort reform movement. Using original data from a series of vignette-based experiments included in the 2014 Cooperative Congressional Election Survey, we examine public preferences about how policy is regulated—by private citizens in the courts or by government officials in agencies—across a broad number of policy areas. We offer one of the first studies that adjudicates the boundaries of public attitudes on litigation and bureaucratic regulation in the U.S., offering implications for how elites might approach the design of policy implementation for different issue areas.

  17. Impact of Population Aging on Military and Security Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Šimková

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing is among the most important problems of developed European countries and the most frequently discussed social issues. The Czech Republic also faces population ageing and we cannot expect a different trend in the future. Life expectancy has increased due to better health care while current lifestyle often leads to lower natality, resulting in a negative rate of natural increase and a decreasing proportion of young people in population in the future. This problem affects all spheres of life and social and economic development. Population ageing may pose a threat to the security of the population in different ways. The functioning of the security system may be threatened due to decreasing workforce. Population ageing may undercut resources for military budgets. Young recruits represent an important part of military forces and the latter are competing in the labour market with more attractive occupations. Especially ensuring the stability of the personnel needed for securing crisis situations would be a significant problem of near future. This paper presents a demographic perspective on staffing and correct operation of military forces in the context of population ageing. It describes the current situation of human resources in the military policy of the Czech Republic and determines the negative impact of population ageing on recruitment potential. It deals with the sustainability of human resources for security forces.

  18. Windows XP Operating System Security Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goktepe, Meftun

    2002-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research is to determine if Windows XP, when used as a workstation operating system in domain- based networks, provides adequate security policy enforcement for organizations...

  19. Modified enforcement policy relating to 10 CFR 50.49, ''Environmental qualification of electrical equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants'' (Generic Letter 88-07)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miraglia, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    Generic Letters, Bulletins, and Information Notices have been issued to provide guidance regarding the application and enforcement of 10 CFR 50.49, ''Environmental Qualification of Electric Equipment Important to Safety for Nuclear Power Plants.'' Generic Letter 85-15, issued August 6, 1985, and Generic Letter 86-15, issued September 22, 1986, provided information related to the deadlines for compliance with 10 CFR 50.49 and possible civil penalties applicable to licensees who were not in compliance with the rule as of the November 30, 1985 deadline. Upon review, the Commission found that the EQ Enforcement Policy promulgated in Generic Letter 86-15, could result in imposition of civil penalties that did not properly reflect the safety significance of EQ violations with respect to civil penalties imposed in the past. In the interest of continuing a tough but fair enforcement policy, the Commission determined that the EQ Enforcement Policy should be revised. The purpose of this letter is to provide a modification to the NRC's enforcement policy, as approved by the Commission, for environmental qualification (EQ) violations. This letter replaces the guidance provided in Generic Letters 85-15 and 86-15

  20. Constitutionality of enforcement of claims by private enforcement agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodiroga Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this paper is legal status of private enforcement agents in Serbia. The 2011 Serbian Law on Enforcement and Security has introduced private enforcement agents as legal professionals in charge mainly for carrying out of the enforcement. Special enforcement procedure for collection of utilities and similar claims has become exclusive competence of private enforcement agents. Since enforcement procedure has always been regarded as a set of coercive measures against enforcement debtor, it became questionable whether this coercion could be exercised by private enforcement agents. It has been argued by legal scholars that enforcement of civil judgments and other enforcement deeds belongs only to the state authority. The author tackles this issue from the standpoint of decisions of constitutional courts and jurisprudence of European Court of Human Rights.

  1. ENERGY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PRESENT CHALLENGES TO THE EUROPEAN COMMON SECURITY AND DEFENCE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ANDRUSEAC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Common Security and Defence Policy is a part of the European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP and establishes the policy framework for the institutional structures and military instruments which have to deal with the security challenges in Europe’s geopolitical neighborhood. The article aims to identify and analyze the role of energy as one of the present challenges to the European Common Security and Defence Policy in the context of the recent events in the world economy.

  2. 'Excuse me, sir. Please don't smoke here'. A qualitative study of social enforcement of smoke-free policies in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Merritt, Alice Payne; Rimbatmaja, Risang; Cohen, Joanna E

    2015-10-01

    District policies were recently put into place in Indonesia prohibiting smoking in public spaces. This study sought to (1) assess participants' general knowledge of secondhand smoke (SHS) dangers; (2) assess participants' awareness of and specific knowledge of smoke-free (SF) policies; and (3) assess the extent to which such policies are socially enforced and gather examples of successful social enforcement. Qualitative in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted in Bogor and Palembang cities with both community members and key informants such as government officials, non-government agency staff, religious leaders and health workers. Participants in both Palembang and Bogor find SF policy important. Although there was awareness of SHS dangers and SF policies, accurate knowledge of the dangers and an in-depth understanding of the policies varied. There was a high level of support for the SF policies in both cities among both smokers and non-smokers. Many participants did have experience asking a smoker not to smoke in an area where it was restricted, even if their comfort in doing so varied. There was, however, a higher level of comfort in telling smokers to stop or to move away from pregnant women and children. Hesitation to socially enforce the policies was especially present when asking men of status and/or community leaders to stop smoking, but overall participants felt they could comfortably ask someone to obey the law. Palembang and Bogor may be evolving towards creating social norms in support of prohibiting smoking in public spaces. If provided with more support from government and law officials, such as government officials themselves promoting the policies and demonstrating compliance, and renewed efforts to promote and enforce policies in general were made, Indonesians in these cities may feel more confident protecting non-smokers from SHS. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and

  3. ‘Excuse me, sir. Please don’t smoke here’. A qualitative study of social enforcement of smoke-free policies in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Merritt, Alice Payne; Rimbatmaja, Risang; Cohen, Joanna E

    2015-01-01

    Objective District policies were recently put into place in Indonesia prohibiting smoking in public spaces. This study sought to (1) assess participants’ general knowledge of secondhand smoke (SHS) dangers; (2) assess participants’ awareness of and specific knowledge of smoke-free (SF) policies; and (3) assess the extent to which such policies are socially enforced and gather examples of successful social enforcement. Methods Qualitative in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted in Bogor and Palembang cities with both community members and key informants such as government officials, non-government agency staff, religious leaders and health workers. Results Participants in both Palembang and Bogor find SF policy important. Although there was awareness of SHS dangers and SF policies, accurate knowledge of the dangers and an in-depth understanding of the policies varied. There was a high level of support for the SF policies in both cities among both smokers and non-smokers. Many participants did have experience asking a smoker not to smoke in an area where it was restricted, even if their comfort in doing so varied. There was, however, a higher level of comfort in telling smokers to stop or to move away from pregnant women and children. Hesitation to socially enforce the policies was especially present when asking men of status and/or community leaders to stop smoking, but overall participants felt they could comfortably ask someone to obey the law. Conclusion Palembang and Bogor may be evolving towards creating social norms in support of prohibiting smoking in public spaces. If provided with more support from government and law officials, such as government officials themselves promoting the policies and demonstrating compliance, and renewed efforts to promote and enforce policies in general were made, Indonesians in these cities may feel more confident protecting non-smokers from SHS. PMID:25244917

  4. Police Enforcement Policy and Programmes on European Roads (PEPPER). Deliverable 4a: Good practice in data, data collection and data use for monitoring and evaluating Traffic Law Enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. Bernhoft, I.M. Erke, A. Ewert, U. Kallberg, V.-P. & Skladana, P.

    2008-01-01

    This report is the Deliverable of task 4.3a of the PEPPER project. It describes the good practice requirements regarding data, data collection and data use for monitoring and evaluating Traffic Law Enforcement (TLE). The aim is that, eventually, individual police forces/countries put the identified

  5. AppGuard - real-time policy enforcement for third-party applications

    OpenAIRE

    Backes, Michael; Gerling, Sebastian; Hammer, Christian; Maffei, Matteo; von Styp-Rekowsky, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Android has become the most popular operating system for mobile devices, which makes it a prominent target for malicious software. The security concept of Android is based on app isolation and access control for critical system resources. However, users can only review and accept permission requests at install time, or else they cannot install an app at all. Android neither supports permission revocation after the installation of an app, nor dynamic permission assignment. Additionally, the cu...

  6. The law enforcement approach to combating terrorism : an analysis of US policy

    OpenAIRE

    Nagel, William C.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis examines the US policy for combating terrorism from 1988 to 2000 using five case studies; the bombing of Pan Am flight 103, the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the bombing of the US barracks in Saudi Arabia in 1996, the bombings of two US embassies in Africa in 1998 and the bombing of the USS Cole in 2000. The thesis begins by outlining the minimum requirements for a counter-terrorism policy. They are; that a po...

  7. Network Controlled Mobility Management with Policy Enforcement towards IMT-A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klockar, Annika; Mihovska, Albena D.; Luo, Jijun

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework of mobility management and call-handling based on policy en-hancement towards the IMT-A system. The function al-location and several selected mechanisms for the frame-work are described with analysis.......This paper introduces a framework of mobility management and call-handling based on policy en-hancement towards the IMT-A system. The function al-location and several selected mechanisms for the frame-work are described with analysis....

  8. Deny-by-Default Distributed Security Policy Enforcement in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicherry, Mansoor; Keromytis, Angelos D.; Stavrou, Angelos

    Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are increasingly employed in tactical military and civil rapid-deployment networks, including emergency rescue operations and ad hoc disaster-relief networks. However, this flexibility of MANETs comes at a price, when compared to wired and base station-based wireless networks: MANETs are susceptible to both insider and outsider attacks. This is mainly because of the lack of a well-defined defense perimeter preventing the effective use of wired defenses including firewalls and intrusion detection systems.

  9. A security-awareness virtual machine management scheme based on Chinese wall policy in cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Si; Gui, Xiaolin; Lin, Jiancai; Tian, Feng; Zhao, Jianqiang; Dai, Min

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing gets increasing attention for its capacity to leverage developers from infrastructure management tasks. However, recent works reveal that side channel attacks can lead to privacy leakage in the cloud. Enhancing isolation between users is an effective solution to eliminate the attack. In this paper, to eliminate side channel attacks, we investigate the isolation enhancement scheme from the aspect of virtual machine (VM) management. The security-awareness VMs management scheme (SVMS), a VMs isolation enhancement scheme to defend against side channel attacks, is proposed. First, we use the aggressive conflict of interest relation (ACIR) and aggressive in ally with relation (AIAR) to describe user constraint relations. Second, based on the Chinese wall policy, we put forward four isolation rules. Third, the VMs placement and migration algorithms are designed to enforce VMs isolation between the conflict users. Finally, based on the normal distribution, we conduct a series of experiments to evaluate SVMS. The experimental results show that SVMS is efficient in guaranteeing isolation between VMs owned by conflict users, while the resource utilization rate decreases but not by much.

  10. Computer Network Security- The Challenges of Securing a Computer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Vincent, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This article is intended to give the reader an overall perspective on what it takes to design, implement, enforce and secure a computer network in the federal and corporate world to insure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information. While we will be giving you an overview of network design and security, this article will concentrate on the technology and human factors of securing a network and the challenges faced by those doing so. It will cover the large number of policies and the limits of technology and physical efforts to enforce such policies.

  11. Escape and evade control policies for ensuring the physical security of nonholonomic, ground-based, unattended mobile sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenas, David; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles

    2011-06-01

    In order to realize the wide-scale deployment of high-endurance, unattended mobile sensing technologies, it is vital to ensure the self-preservation of the sensing assets. Deployed mobile sensor nodes face a variety of physical security threats including theft, vandalism and physical damage. Unattended mobile sensor nodes must be able to respond to these threats with control policies that facilitate escape and evasion to a low-risk state. In this work the Precision Immobilization Technique (PIT) problem has been considered. The PIT maneuver is a technique that a pursuing, car-like vehicle can use to force a fleeing vehicle to abruptly turn ninety degrees to the direction of travel. The abrupt change in direction generally causes the fleeing driver to lose control and stop. The PIT maneuver was originally developed by law enforcement to end vehicular pursuits in a manner that minimizes damage to the persons and property involved. It is easy to imagine that unattended autonomous convoys could be targets of this type of action by adversarial agents. This effort focused on developing control policies unattended mobile sensor nodes could employ to escape, evade and recover from PIT-maneuver-like attacks. The development of these control policies involved both simulation as well as small-scale experimental testing. The goal of this work is to be a step toward ensuring the physical security of unattended sensor node assets.

  12. INTERPRETATION PUBLIC POLICY IN RECOGNITION AND ENFORCEMENT OF FOREIGN ARBITRAL AWARD IN INDONESIA TURN ASIDE THE LEGAL CERTAINTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurnaningsih Amriani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Does not violate “public policy (public order/openbaare orde” is the one of the main reasons for the recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral award in Indonesia. It follow the rules of Article V of the New York Convention 1958 in which Indonesia ratified through Presidential Decree No. 34 of 1981. This article aims to provide a form of judge interpretation of the meaning of public order before and after the enactment of Law No. 30 of 1999 on Arbitration and Alternative Dispute Resolution, so there is no legal certainty. Therefore the meaning of "public policy" does not limit the scope described in the decree and the Arbitration Act, therefore the interpretation obtained by the decision of the Supreme Court who refused and received recognition of foreign arbitral award in Indonesia. Through the interpretation of this article, the parties involved in the arbitration agreement can predict whether their arbitration award may be given the recognition and implementation in Indonesia.

  13. India's grain security policy in the era of high food prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Bandara, Jayatilleke

    2017-01-01

    policies, which are superior in terms of their welfare effects and fiscal costs and might also be politically feasible. These findings have important implications on the ongoing debates on India's food security policy, particularly in relation to the discussion on its National Food Security Act....

  14. 77 FR 34411 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory... CFR 101-6, announcement is made for the following committee meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: This meeting will be held on Wednesday, July 11, 2012 from 10:00 a...

  15. Expanding Protection Motivation Theory: The Role of Individual Experience in Information Security Policy Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchler, Leigh Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to make contributions to the area of behavioral information security in the field of Information Systems and to assist in the improved development of Information Security Policy instructional programs to increase the policy compliance of individuals. The role of an individual's experience in the context of…

  16. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  17. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  18. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  19. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  20. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  1. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  2. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  3. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  4. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  5. Measuring Efficacy of Information Security Policies : A Case Study of UAE based company

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Muhammad Sohail

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays information security policies are operative in many organizations. Currently few organizations take the pain of verifying the efficacy of these policies. Different standards and procedures exist about methods of measuring efficacy of information security policies. Choosing and implementing them depends mainly on the key performance indicators (KPIs) and key risk indicators (KRIs) of any particular organization. This thesis is a case study of an organization in United Arab Emirates (U...

  6. BULGARIA’S MULTI-VECTOR FOREIGN POLICY APPROACH TO SECURITY CHALLENGES IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    tenuous than ever with the new controversial Trump administration and the EU nascent foreign policy efforts already failed in handling the challenges...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY BULGARIA’S MULTI-VECTOR FOREIGN POLICY APPROACH TO SECURITY CHALLENGES IN EASTERN EUROPE by Dimitar Y...the abatement of US interest in Europe, will require wise foreign policy maneuvers to address the changes in the transformed security environment. As

  7. Europol’s Cybercrime Centre (EC3), its Agreements with Third Parties and the Growing Role of Law Enforcement on the European Security Scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendius, Trine Thygesen

    2015-01-01

    The European Cyber Crime Centre, EC3, established under the umbrella of Europol, started operations on January 1 2013. It is to act as the focal point in the fight against cybercrime in the European Union. Using a “shared, cross-community approach” the EC3 is concluding partnerships with member...... states, European agencies, international partners and the private sector. This article describes the coming about of EC3 and its efforts to address cybercrime. Furthermore, the article is an attempt to assess the growing role of the European law enforcement community on the European security scene...

  8. Police Enforcement Policy and Programmes on European Roads (PEPPER). Workpackage WP4 `Good Practices in Traffic Enforcement', Working paper 24: Good practice in data and data collection for monitoring and evaluating traffic law enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van Bernhoft, I.M. Erke, A. Ewert, U. Kallberg, V.-P. & Skladana, P.

    2007-01-01

    This working paper describes the good practice requirements regarding data and data collection for monitoring and evaluating Traffic Law Enforcement (TLE). The aim is at, eventually, individual police forces/countries put the identified ’good practice’ data into a European TLE monitoring database

  9. 75 FR 404 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement-009...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Officer, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Washington, DC 20536. For privacy issues please contact...; individuals who employ others in their individual capacity whether related to a business activity or not; and... moral, educational, or professional qualifications of an individual who is licensed or who is seeking to...

  10. Should Cops Be Spies? Evaluating the Collection and Sharing of National Security Intelligence by State, Local and Tribal Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    criminal activity, while state, local and tribal law enforcement provide the local-area expertise. A side benefit of this symbiotic relationship is all...intelligence was focused primarily on geopolitical rivalries” (pp. 41–42). Now that al-Qa’ida, through its surrogates and franchisees —as well as through its

  11. People, Process, and Policy: Case Studies in National Security Advising, the National Security Council, and Presidential Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    confirmation of Lake’s concerns with the administration’s public relations failures, David Gergen, the president’s communications advisor, increased... Public Affairs: 389-395. 75 these positions, he did not openly object too them during the campaign. Additionally, as this case study shows, he...PEOPLE, PROCESS, AND POLICY: CASE STUDIES IN NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISING, THE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL, AND PRESIDENTIAL DECISION MAKING

  12. Secure Communication and Information Exchange using Authenticated Ciphertext Policy Attribute-Based Encryption in Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsul Huda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available MANETs are considered as suitable for commercial applications such as law enforcement, conference meeting, and sharing information in a student classroom and critical services such as military operations, disaster relief, and rescue operations. Meanwhile, in military operation especially in the battlefield in freely medium which naturally needs high mobility and flexibility. Thus, applying MANETs make these networks vulnerable to various types of attacks such aspacket eavesdropping, data disseminating, message replay, message modification, and especially privacy issue. In this paper, we propose a secure communication and information exchange in MANET with considering secure adhoc routing and secure information exchange. Regarding privacy issue or anonymity, we use a reliable asymmetric encryption which protecting user privacy by utilizing insensitive user attributes as user identity, CP-ABE (Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption cryptographic scheme. We also design protocols to implement the proposed scheme for various battlefied scenarios in real evironment using embedded devices. Our experimental results showed that the additional of HMAC (Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code and AES (Advanced Encryption standard schemes using processor 1.2GHz only take processing time about 4.452 ms,  we can confirm that our approach by using CP-ABE with added HMAC and AES schemes make low overhead.

  13. Evaluation of Bulgarian needs for security of radioactive sources and training of law enforcement personnel through border exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    The creation and implementation of an adequate legal framework is important for eastern European countries in the field of combating organized crime, especially the illicit trafficking of radioactive materials, in these countries' efforts towards joining the European Union by adopting many legislative, economic and political frameworks for the combating of terrorism. The Republic of Bulgaria, as a PECO country in the phase of pre-adhesion to the European Union, is preparing its legislation and law enforcement institutions to meet the new challenges and tasks of the process of joining the European Union. One of the best ways to combat illicit trafficking is collaboration between neighbouring countries through connections between similar law enforcement bodies. The Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy in Bulgaria and the Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre in Turkey participated in a joint border exercise at the Kapi Kule checkpoint which provided a unique opportunity for law enforcement institutions and scientific experts to respond jointly in a simulated border incident with real nuclear materials. (author)

  14. Enforcement handbook: Enforcement of DOE nuclear safety requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This Handbook provides detailed guidance and procedures to implement the General Statement of DOE Enforcement Policy (Enforcement Policy or Policy). A copy of this Enforcement Policy is included for ready reference in Appendix D. The guidance provided in this Handbook is qualified, however, by the admonishment to exercise discretion in determining the proper disposition of each potential enforcement action. As discussed in subsequent chapters, the Enforcement and Investigation Staff will apply a number of factors in assessing each potential enforcement situation. Enforcement sanctions are imposed in accordance with the Enforcement Policy for the purpose of promoting public and worker health and safety in the performance of activities at DOE facilities by DOE contractors (and their subcontractors and suppliers) who are indemnified under the Price-Anderson Amendments Act. These indemnified contractors, and their suppliers and subcontractors, will be referred to in this Handbook collectively as DOE contractors. It should be remembered that the purpose of the Department`s enforcement policy is to improve nuclear safety for the workers and the public, and this goal should be the prime consideration in exercising enforcement discretion.

  15. Enforcement handbook: Enforcement of DOE nuclear safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This Handbook provides detailed guidance and procedures to implement the General Statement of DOE Enforcement Policy (Enforcement Policy or Policy). A copy of this Enforcement Policy is included for ready reference in Appendix D. The guidance provided in this Handbook is qualified, however, by the admonishment to exercise discretion in determining the proper disposition of each potential enforcement action. As discussed in subsequent chapters, the Enforcement and Investigation Staff will apply a number of factors in assessing each potential enforcement situation. Enforcement sanctions are imposed in accordance with the Enforcement Policy for the purpose of promoting public and worker health and safety in the performance of activities at DOE facilities by DOE contractors (and their subcontractors and suppliers) who are indemnified under the Price-Anderson Amendments Act. These indemnified contractors, and their suppliers and subcontractors, will be referred to in this Handbook collectively as DOE contractors. It should be remembered that the purpose of the Department's enforcement policy is to improve nuclear safety for the workers and the public, and this goal should be the prime consideration in exercising enforcement discretion

  16. Composing Alternatives to a National Security Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wible, Scott

    2009-01-01

    President Bush's National Security Language Initiative focuses narrowly on gearing language education to security and military needs. English educators should work with their counterparts in foreign language departments to promote a broader view, one that encourages study of the multiple language groups that currently exist within the United…

  17. An encryption scheme for a secure policy updating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibraimi, L.; Asim, M.; Petkovic, M.; Obaidat, M.S.; Tsihrintzis, G.A.; Filipe, J.

    2012-01-01

    Ciphertext policy attribute based encryption is an encryption technique where the data is encrypted according to an access policy over attributes. Users who have a secret key associated with a set of attributes which satisfy the access policy can decrypt the encrypted data. However, one of the

  18. Evaluating Factors of Security Policy on Information Security Effectiveness in Developing Nations: A Case of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okolo, Nkiru Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Information systems of today face more potential security infringement than ever before. The regular susceptibility of data to breaches is a function of systems users' disinclination to follow appropriate security measures. A well-secured system maintains integrity, confidentiality, and availability, while providing appropriate and consistent…

  19. (Inefficiency of EU Common Foreign and Security Policy: Ukraine, Brexit, Trump and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipec Ondřej

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to explore and analyze key determinants of EU Common Foreign and Security Policy efficiency. For this purpose a 3C analytical approach is used, exploring EU foreign and security policy consistency, capacities and the dimension of cooperation. Article analyzes both horizontal and vertical, consistency of EU Foreign and Security policy especially with connection to Ukraine crises and diverging interests of EU member states. EU capacities are explored with main focus on military spending and challenges related to limited spending. EU military decline is put in contrast with new emerging regional powers. In the area of cooperation article is dedicated mainly to ineffective partnership with Turkey, cold attitude of Trump administration towards Europe and the implications of Brexit for EU foreign and security policy.

  20. INTERNAL MARKET GOVERNMENT SECURITIES IN PROMOTING THE EFFICIENCY OF DEBT POLICY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kuryshchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the effectiveness of debt policy of Ukraine, to its shortcomings and implications for the economy. The evaluation of the domestic government securities market and its impact on the efficiency of debt management.

  1. How Robust Refugee Protection Policies Can Strengthen Human and National Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Kerwin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes the case that refugee protection and national security should be viewed as complementary, not conflicting state goals. It argues that refugee protection can further the security of refugees, affected states, and the international community. Refugees and international migrants can also advance national security by contributing to a state’s economic vitality, military strength, diplomatic standing, and civic values. The paper identifies several strategies that would, if implemented, promote both security and refugee protection. It also outlines additional steps that the US Congress should take to enhance US refugee protection policies and security. Finally, it argues for the efficacy of political engagement in support of pro-protection, pro-security policies, and against the assumption that political populism will invariably impede support for refugee protection.

  2. Party politics and Greek security policy from 1974 to 1984: change and continuity

    OpenAIRE

    Haines, John L.

    1984-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis explores the effects of political change on Greek security policy during the period 1974 to 1984. This period encompasses significant change in Greece's foreign relations including those with the United States. The central question is: Are the elements of Greek security policy based on long-term basic interests which find consistent expression, or are they a function of domestic political factors, more ideologicall...

  3. Role and participation of women in the establishment and implementation of international security policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marigonë Vrajolli

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the different roles that women have in creating security policies. Further, this paper explains the role of women in initiatives, peacekeeping and peace-building. The paper also explains the international mechanisms that promote the involvement of women in peace and security processes.

  4. Critical water requirements for food, methodology and policy consequences for food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Nonhebel, S.

    2004-01-01

    Food security and increasing water scarcity have a dominant place on the food policy agenda. Food security requires sufficient water of adequate quality because water is a prerequisite for plant growth. Nowadays, agriculture accounts for 70% of the worldwide human fresh water use. The expected

  5. Analysing the Efficacy of Security Policies in Cyber-Physical Socio-Technical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzini, Gabriele; Mauw, Sjouke; Ouchani, Samir; Barthe, Gilles; Markatos, Evangelos; Samarati, Pierangela

    2016-01-01

    A crucial question for an ICT organization wishing to improve its security is whether a security policy together with physical access controls protects from socio-technical threats. We study this question formally. We model the information flow defined by what the organization’s employees do (copy,

  6. 287(g): Cross-Delegating State and Local Law Enforcement Officers with Federal Immigration Authority - Homeland Security Remedy or Rue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    illegal foreign nationals have killed over 43,000 Americans on U.S. soil since 9/11.28 The website “immigrationshumancost.org” is dedicated to the...enforcement officers face as they work in areas with a high ratio of Latino residents. How they must walk on proverbial eggshells to avoid even the...trailblazer in instituting programs to foster exactly what the 9/11 commission advocated to decrease opportunities for foreign strikes on U.S. soil . As

  7. Reducing the Threat of Terrorism through Knowledge Sharing in a Virtual Environment Between Law Enforcement and the Private Security Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Jerry P

    2008-01-01

    Each day approximately 6,800 members of the private security workforce are deployed across Kansas City to provide protection services at venues, many of which have been identified as being critical...

  8. Reducing the Threat of Terrorism through Knowledge Sharing in a Virtual Environment Between Law Enforcement and the Private Security Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Jerry P

    2008-01-01

    ... between private security and the KCPD. To empower this resource as a terrorism prevention force multiplier the development of a web based virtual knowledge sharing initiative was explored in this study as a solution to provide "one stop...

  9. The impact of the European insolvency regulation on lenders, lending decisions, the structuring of transactions and enforcement of security

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, R

    2011-01-01

    This Thesis seeks to shed light on the issue of how far secured creditor rights are protected in EU cross-border insolvencies by focusing on the perspective and position of English lenders. The main thread throughout is the legal concerns faced by lenders when lending to a company incorporated in England and Wales which operates across the European Union and has assets and creditors spread across various Member States. The initial stages of the structuring of a cross-border security arrangeme...

  10. Research review of nongovernmental organizations' security policies for humanitarian programs in war, conflict, and postconflict environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Elizabeth; Burns, Lauren; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-06-01

    To identify the most and least commonly cited security management messages that nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are communicating to their field staff, to determine the types of documentation that NGOs most often use to communicate key security messages, and to distinguish the points of commonality and divergence across organizations in the content of key security messages. The authors undertook a systematic review of available security policies, manuals, and training materials from 20 international humanitarian NGOs using the InterAction Minimum Operating Security Standards as the basis for a review framework. The most commonly cited standards include analytical security issues such as threat and risk assessment processes and guidance on acceptance, protection, and deterrence approaches. Among the least commonly cited standards were considering security threats to national staff during staffing decision processes, incorporating security awareness into job descriptions, and ensuring that national staff security issues are addressed in trainings. NGO staff receive security-related messages through multiple document types, but only 12 of the 20 organizations have a distinct security policy document. Points of convergence across organizations in the content of commonly cited standards were found in many areas, but differences in security risk and threat assessment guidance may undermine communication between aid workers about changes in local security environments. Although the humanitarian community has experienced significant progress in the development of practical staff security guidance during the past 10 years, gaps remain that can hinder efforts to garner needed resources, clarify security responsibilities, and ensure that the distinct needs of national staff are recognized and addressed.

  11. Collaborative Policy Making: Vertical Integration in The Homeland Security Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    national security and the interagency process ( Marcella , 2010). All these documents reviewed focused mainly on national security and overseas...administration, they were considered “the heart and soul of the process” ( Marcella , 2010). While subtle differences exist across administrations, the IPC...and build consensus across the government for action ( Marcella , 2010). During the second term of the Bush administration and during the first years

  12. The Value of a European Security and Defense Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-08

    relations has lately dominated US foreign policy. Subsequently some normative and meta- ethical conceptual conclusions will be drawn upon to show how US...relations has lately dominated US foreign policy by analyzing recent 3 policy decisions. After this analysis, some normative meta ethical conclusions...old patterns or as Kagan writes: “Europeans have stepped out of the Hobbesian world of anarchy into the Kantian world of perpetual peace.”13 The fact

  13. Interest Groups and Strategic Constructivism: Business Actors and Border Security Policies in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, T.E.

    Evidence suggests that business lobbying shapes European Union (EU) border security policies, but there has been no detailed empirical and theoretical work detailing how interest groups exert influence in this domain. Building on strategic constructivist accounts of policy-making, the article argues

  14. Guideline of Cyber Security Policy for Digital I and C Systems in Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Zeen; Kim, Jang Seong; Kim, Kwang Jo [Information and Communications University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young Doo; Kim, Dai Il; Jeong, Choong Heui [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Recently computers and communication systems have been developed very fast and applied to various areas in many applications. This development has raised new vulnerabilities that may endanger the critical systems for nuclear safety and physical protection at the facilities. In order to protect the critical infrastructures from these new cyber attacks, we clearly need deep considerations on the risks and threats through the cyberspace. Based on these needs, many organizations which related to nuclear power plants suggested various cyber security protection methods based on regulation or technical safeguard. Even if security countermeasures against various cyber attacks are important, it is required to establish the best practices of cyber security policy by the vendor and licensee. Based on the policy they can evaluate their activities against various cyber attacks throughout the whole life cycle. In this paper, we discuss how to establish the cyber security policy for digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants.

  15. Guideline of Cyber Security Policy for Digital I and C Systems in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Zeen; Kim, Jang Seong; Kim, Kwang Jo; Kang, Young Doo; Kim, Dai Il; Jeong, Choong Heui

    2007-01-01

    Recently computers and communication systems have been developed very fast and applied to various areas in many applications. This development has raised new vulnerabilities that may endanger the critical systems for nuclear safety and physical protection at the facilities. In order to protect the critical infrastructures from these new cyber attacks, we clearly need deep considerations on the risks and threats through the cyberspace. Based on these needs, many organizations which related to nuclear power plants suggested various cyber security protection methods based on regulation or technical safeguard. Even if security countermeasures against various cyber attacks are important, it is required to establish the best practices of cyber security policy by the vendor and licensee. Based on the policy they can evaluate their activities against various cyber attacks throughout the whole life cycle. In this paper, we discuss how to establish the cyber security policy for digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants

  16. A Biological Security Motivation System for Potential Threats: Are There Implications for Policy-Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Z Woody

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that there is a specially adapted, hard-wired brain circuit, the security motivation system, which evolved to manage potential threats, such as the possibility of contamination or predation. The existence of this system may have important implications for policy-making related to security. The system is sensitive to partial, uncertain cues of potential danger, detection of which activates a persistent, potent motivational state of wariness or anxiety. This state motivates behaviours to probe the potential danger, such as checking, and to correct for it, such as washing. Engagement in these behaviours serves as the terminating feedback for the activation of the system. Because security motivation theory makes predictions about what kinds of stimuli activate security motivation and what conditions terminate it, the theory may have applications both in understanding how policy-makers can best influence others, such as the public, and also in understanding the behavior of policy-makers themselves.

  17. [Review of food policy approaches: from food security to food sovereignty (2000-2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Giraldo, Luis Alirio; Franco-Giraldo, Álvaro

    2015-07-01

    Food policies have attracted special interest due to the global food crisis in 2008 and promotion of the Millennium Development Goals, leading to approaches by different fields. This thematic review aims to describe the main theoretical and methodological approaches to food security and food sovereignty policies. A search was performed in databases of scientific journals from 2000 to 2013. 320 complete articles were selected from a total of 2,699. After reading the articles to apply the inclusion criteria, 55 items were maintained for analysis. In conclusion, with the predominance of food security as a guiding policy, food sovereignty has emerged as a critical response to be included in designing and researching food policies. Food policies are essential for achieving public health goals. Public health should thus take a leading role in linking and orienting such policies.

  18. Kuwait: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-29

    Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Qatar, Bahrain, and Oman). In March 2011, Kuwait joined a GCC military intervention to...before the start of [2013]”—a statement that furthered Iraq’s argument that the U.N. Security Council should remove any remaining “Chapter 7” (of the...with alternative mechanisms, as discussed below. On December 15, 2010, the U.N. Security Council passed three resolutions—1956, 1957, and 1958—that

  19. Germany and energy security in the 2000s. Rise and fall of a policy issue?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffield, John S.

    2009-01-01

    After some two decades of inattention, the issue of energy security once again moved to the top of the policy agenda in Germany in the mid-2000s. After briefly achieving renewed prominence, however, it was eclipsed in German energy policy, at least temporarily, by heightened concerns about climate change. This paper explains the re-emergence of concerns about energy insecurity in recent years as well as the reasons for their subsequent overshadowing. It describes and explains the steps that have been taken during this period to promote German energy security and analyzes their adequacy. The paper identifies a number of reasons to be skeptical about how much the agreed policies will improve Germany's energy security, but it concludes that there are nevertheless good reasons to expect the issue to regain the attention of policy-makers in the future. (author)

  20. Germany and energy security in the 2000s. Rise and fall of a policy issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, John S. [Department of Political Science, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    After some two decades of inattention, the issue of energy security once again moved to the top of the policy agenda in Germany in the mid-2000s. After briefly achieving renewed prominence, however, it was eclipsed in German energy policy, at least temporarily, by heightened concerns about climate change. This paper explains the re-emergence of concerns about energy insecurity in recent years as well as the reasons for their subsequent overshadowing. It describes and explains the steps that have been taken during this period to promote German energy security and analyzes their adequacy. The paper identifies a number of reasons to be skeptical about how much the agreed policies will improve Germany's energy security, but it concludes that there are nevertheless good reasons to expect the issue to regain the attention of policy-makers in the future. (author)

  1. Germany and energy security in the 2000s: Rise and fall of a policy issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, John S., E-mail: duffield@gsu.ed [Department of Political Science, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    After some two decades of inattention, the issue of energy security once again moved to the top of the policy agenda in Germany in the mid-2000s. After briefly achieving renewed prominence, however, it was eclipsed in German energy policy, at least temporarily, by heightened concerns about climate change. This paper explains the re-emergence of concerns about energy insecurity in recent years as well as the reasons for their subsequent overshadowing. It describes and explains the steps that have been taken during this period to promote German energy security and analyzes their adequacy. The paper identifies a number of reasons to be skeptical about how much the agreed policies will improve Germany's energy security, but it concludes that there are nevertheless good reasons to expect the issue to regain the attention of policy-makers in the future.

  2. 75 FR 5614 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL-025 Law Enforcement Authority in Support...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ...'s or entity's name; Digital photograph; Date of birth, place of birth, and age; Social security number; Duty/work address and telephone number; Alias; Race and ethnicity; Citizenship; Fingerprints; Sex... servers, magnetic disc, tape, digital media, and CD-ROM. RETRIEVABILITY: Records may be retrieved by...

  3. Information System Security: Army Web Site Administration, Policies, and Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... The Policy requires heads of DoD Components to establish a process to identify appropriate information for posting to Web sites and to review all information placed on publicly accessible Web sites...

  4. Trust Evolution Policies for Security in Collaborative Ad Hoc Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gray, Elizabeth; Jensen, Christian D.; Connell, Paul O

    2006-01-01

    The vision of pervasive computing has introduced the notion of a vast, networked infrastructure of heterogeneous entities interact through collaborative applications, e.g., playing a multi-player online game on the way to work. This will require interactions between users who may be marginally...... admission policies in a manner similar to what would be expected from human trust assessment. This indicates that trust evolution policies can replace explicit human intervention in application scenarios that are similar to the evaluated prototype....

  5. Linking research and food security policies in MENA | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 حزيران (يونيو) 2013 ... Hammou Laamrani works for IDRC as a specialist in agriculture, water, and knowledge management. He believes that ... Food security challenges are also related to the low adoption of technologies to optimize food availability and storage, reduce post-harvest losses, and improve food safety. Unless food ...

  6. Support for Multi-Level Security Policies in DRM Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, A.S.; Popescu, B.C.; Crispo, B.; Hempelmann, C.F.; Raskin, V.

    2004-01-01

    Digital rights management systems allow copyrighted content to be commercialized in digital format without the risk of revenue loss due to piracy. Making such systems secure is no easy task, given that content needs to be protected while accessed through electronic devices in the hands of

  7. Identifying the Enemy: Social Categorization and National Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Kristene

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to understand the interplay between informal articulations of social categories and formal instantiations of those categories in official language. Specifically, it explores the process of social categorization as it is used to identify threats to national security. The research employed a qualitative, document-based,…

  8. Framework for an African policy towards creating cyber security awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, IZ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyber security is a GLOBAL issue. The rest of the world needs Africa to be aware and ready. Furthermore, Africa can only be aware and ready if it is internally organised and collaborates effectively with the rest of the world. The African continent...

  9. An integrated assessment of climate change, air pollution, and energy security policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollen, Johannes; Hers, Sebastiaan; Van der Zwaan, Bob

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an integrated assessment of climate change, air pollution, and energy security policy. Basis of our analysis is the MERGE model, designed to study the interaction between the global economy, energy use, and the impacts of climate change. For our purposes we expanded MERGE with expressions that quantify damages incurred to regional economies as a result of air pollution and lack of energy security. One of the main findings of our cost-benefit analysis is that energy security policy alone does not decrease the use of oil: global oil consumption is only delayed by several decades and oil reserves are still practically depleted before the end of the 21st century. If, on the other hand, energy security policy is integrated with optimal climate change and air pollution policy, the world's oil reserves will not be depleted, at least not before our modeling horizon well into the 22nd century: total cumulative demand for oil decreases by about 24%. More generally, we demonstrate that there are multiple other benefits of combining climate change, air pollution, and energy security policies and exploiting the possible synergies between them. These benefits can be large: for Europe the achievable CO 2 emission abatement and oil consumption reduction levels are significantly deeper for integrated policy than when a strategy is adopted in which one of the three policies is omitted. Integrated optimal energy policy can reduce the number of premature deaths from air pollution by about 14,000 annually in Europe and over 3 million per year globally, by lowering the chronic exposure to ambient particulate matter. Only the optimal strategy combining the three types of energy policy can constrain the global average atmospheric temperature increase to a limit of 3 C with respect to the pre-industrial level. (author)

  10. Brazilian Policy and the Creation of a Regional Security Complex in the South Atlantic: Pax Brasiliana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rodrigues Bessa Mattos

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past five years, the South Atlantic region has become a central element of Brazilian security policy, with Brazil actively supporting the notion of a trans-oceanic security consciousness involving African littoral states. It has invested in diplomatic initiatives such as the Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic (ZPCSA, or ZOPACAS, and extensive military co-operation with West African states such as São Tomé e Príncipe, Namibia and Cape Verde. Its internal security and defence policy documents have repeatedly been updated to reflect this dimension, and now provide the foundation for advancing these initiatives. This policy thrust is directed at securing Brazil’s offshore oil assets, and limiting the influence of what it has termed ‘extra-regional powers’ such as the P-5. This article highlights these initiatives and reviews the prospects for this policy by examining the plausibility of the South Atlantic region as a regional security complex in the sense coined by Buzan and Wæver. The analysis is based on the role of geographical and linguistic proximity in international relations, and the impact of multilateral bodies on building support for a regional approach to security governance.

  11. Information security in academic libraries: the role of the librarian in planning and introducing institutional policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Soares Lima

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a short discussion about the role of the librarian as a mediator at planning, developing and implementing an Information Security Policy in Academic Libraries, by working together with professionals in the field of Information Technology. It also discusses the main virtual threats and some risks that are prone to infect computers in libraries. Based on the current legislation and on some normative documents about information security, it is confirmed the importance of the librarian take part in the main decision-making related to information security, such as planning a consistent Information Security Policy which be able to see the specific needs of Academic Libraries as institutions prone to cyberattacks. The main topics and guidelines to carry out an Information Security Policy are presented based on the results that were obtained through an action research, by visiting libraries to fill in application forms and to compose reports whose content was analyzed. Finally, the study concludes that Information Security Policy must be validated by managers of sectors or departments which the Academic Library is hierarchically subordinate to.

  12. Greek National Security Concerns and the European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy: Consensus or Divergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    to my tutor.” Alexander the Great, referring to his tutor, Aristotle (356–323 BC) xvi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION...an actual policy since the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. Despite his political rhetoric and posturing while in opposition, Papandreou’s tenure...responsibility for global security.”139 Limited in breadth within the Petersberg tasks framework, the ESS focuses its rhetoric on the internal, rather

  13. Cyber Security Policy. A methodology for Determining a National Cyber-Security Alert Level

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Constantin TOFAN; Maria Lavinia ANDREI; Lavinia Mihaela DINCÄ‚

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, assuring the security of the national cyber-space has become a big issue that can only be tackled through collaborative approaches. Threats cannot be confined to a single computer system just as much as computer systems are rendered useless without being con-nected to a supporting network. The authors of this article propose an innovative architecture of a system designated to help governments collect and analyze data about cyber-security in-cidents, from different organizations, di...

  14. Challenges of EU Security on the Example of Cybeterrorism Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Oleksiewicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to traditional threats to information as spying or leaking state secrets and business secrets appeared the new threats, among which the most dangerous is cyberterrorism. Taking into account the problems of cyber-terrorism, includes, in particular, the analysis of legislation aimed at ensuring the security of information systems of individual countries particular, this subject should be also recognized as requiring at the present time the insightful analysis. Therefore, this publication is an attempt of characteristics the determinants of this phenomenon and analysis of the latest legal solutions in the fight against cyber terrorism within the European Union. Moreover, it was made the attempt to find an answer to the question whether the current legal solutions of the European Union in the area of security are an effective tool in the fight against cyberterrorism.

  15. Towards a policy for human security: psychosocial contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullio, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by the correspondence between Einstein and Freud in 1936, this paper focuses on the multidimensional aspect of security, exploring its implications within the psychosocial approach. Reflections are therefore centred on the psychological aspects of conflict, on bio-psychic responses to violent solicitation and on ways in which individual emotions are managed and controlled by the State. Some social and economic mechanisms comprising the present global social scenario are explored: the intermesh between economic/industrial organisations and Security Institutions, and the consumerist economic model and its individual/collective consequences, ultimately environmental destruction. As suggested by Einstein, the creation of a supranational organisation would be an essential step towards an effective and economically sustainable international system. This can be achieved through a process that implies the evolution of cultural parameters and the transformation of national institutions. In this sense, the author suggests a decisive role for civil society organisations such as the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW).

  16. Poverty, Security and Social Assistance: Challenges of Brazilian Social Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ornellas Mauriel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents partial results of a study about anti-poverty programs in Brazil. The main contribution of the text is that it relates certain characteristics of the anti poverty programs to theoretical categories that have influenced the debate about social policy in the contemporary context. Special attention is given to the relation of these programs with national social assistance policy. The article begins from the hypothesis that the logic that had inspired the construction of social policies was reconsidered, based on a transformation in the theoretical understanding of the social issue and of ways to confront it. This change appears in the texts in the priority given to poverty as a category of analysis, which is understood as an absence of capacities. This theoretically and methodologically configures an individualistic perspective on social issues, the principal theoretical source for which is the thinking of Amartya Sen.

  17. Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-14

    by the Ministry of Interior. Bahrain’s opposition asserts that the United States is downplaying regime abuses in order to protect the security... woman , who was unopposed in her district, was elected out of 18 female candidates. The king subsequently named a new Shura Council with 20 Shiites, 19...previous COR). The same woman who had won in 2006 was elected. Municipal elections were conducted concurrently. The king reappointed 30 of the 40 serving

  18. Chemical Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    gaseous chlorine disinfection to chloramine disinfection —a change identified by some advocacy groups as being an inherently safer substitution—as being...chemicals, such as chlorine, for purposes such as disinfection .29 Advocates for their inclusion in security regulations cite the presence of such...Science and Technology (S& T ) Directorate is engaged in a Chemical Infrastructure Risk Assessment Project that, among other goals, will assess the

  19. Oman: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    workshop in Muscat to discuss freedom of speech .3 However, evidence that the pace of change has been perceived as slow was demonstrated in 2011 in...change their government, limits on freedom of speech , and societal mores that discriminate against women. The report adds that security force...Research Service 7 Freedom of Expression/Media The State Dept. human rights report for 2011 states that the law provides for limited freedom of speech and

  20. Ukraine's Foreign Policy: from Military Doctrine to Defense Security One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Иванович Кузьмук

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of reforming and developing Ukraine’s Armed Forces on the basis of the analysis of the key provisions of the Strategic defense bulletin adopted in 2012. The author proposes the ways of solving this problem and substantiates the transition in the defense planning from the military doctrine to the doctrine of Ukraine’s security and defense.

  1. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the European Union’s Common Security and Defense Policy: Intersecting Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Lieutenant General, Canadian Forces, Canadian Military Repre- sentative to NATO Elizabeth Race, Deputy Defence Policy Advisor, Canadian Joint...Ruehle, Head, Energy Security Section, Emerging Security Challenges Division, NATO ( Brus - sels) Patrick Nash, Lieutenant General, Irish Army, for- mer

  2. National Security and the Industrial Policy Debate: Modernizing Defense Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    47. 49. Michael Schroeder and Walecia Konrad, " Nucor : Rolling Right Into Steel’s Big Time," Business Week 19 Nov. 1990: 76. 50. Clyde V. Prestowitz...Defense." The I Industrial Policy Debate. Ed. Chalmers Johnson. San Francisco: ICS Press, 1984. i 74I Schroeder, Michael and Walecia Konrad. " Nucor

  3. Iran: Politics, Gulf Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    U.S. Policy Congressional Research Service Contents Political History ...Research Service 1 Political History Iran is a country of nearly 80 million people, located in the heart of the Persian Gulf region. The United...Iran government figure was 27), including a 19-year-old woman , Neda Soltani, who subsequently became an emblem of the uprising. The opposition

  4. Distribution of Responsibility for Social Security and Labour Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Kongshøj

    It is shown that legislation of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is set by the national government. Legislation with respect to employment protection, however, is largely left to the social partners, i.e. the dismissal of salaried workers is regulated by a special piece...

  5. US oil policy and energy security; Politique petroliere americaine et securite energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    2002-05-15

    Although the energy dependence reached its historical maximum and will continue to increase for the next 20 years, the USA keep their oil policy. For the economist this policy is reasonable because of the poor room for the US imports reduction costs. To explain these conclusions the author discusses on the following topics: the links between the oil dependence and the energy security, the oil policy after Reagan, the oil policy evolution - or no evolution - facing the increasing dependency and the Cheney report. (A.L.B.)

  6. Energy policy of the EU and the role of Turkey in Energy Supply Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHTER AYKIN Sibel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available All the nations define strategies and develop policies on national and international levels to eliminate risks against energy security. The aim of this paper is to define the energy policy of the European Union and identify the potential of Turkey in securing energy supply to the European Union. To achieve this end, after explaining the policy frame of the European Union and that of Turkey in energy related matters, the existing and planned energy routes expanding from the Russian Federation, Caspian Sea and the Middle East to the European Continent are mapped, and the role assigned to Turkey as an energy hub is exemplified with reference to its accession process. It is concluded that Turkey’s membership is to enrich the European Union and contribute to its energy supply security.

  7. American Foreign Policy Think Tanks and their Views on Baltic Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Jonathan A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent events have created a sense of urgency within the U.S. foreign policy establishment to update its strategy towards Russia. The Baltic states are seen to be particularly vulnerable and because of its NATO commitments and its history of underwriting security in the region, the U.S. is under pressure to develop an appropriate response. Policy and research institutes-or think tanks-are an important part of the U.S. foreign policy establishment, and given the influence they often have on American foreign policy, it is sensible for any student of Baltic security to evaluate the think tanks’ current perspectives on the viability and desirability of U.S. security commitments in the region. To that end, this article evaluates the outputs of twelve prominent U.S. foreign policy think tanks according to the views they expressed across four general groupings of issues: positions on U.S. grand strategy, perceptions of Moscow’s intentions and capabilities, assessments of NATO’s heath and its value to U.S. security, and the level of commitment to, and assessment of, the security vulnerabilities of the Baltic states. The findings dispel a common misperception that U.S. foreign policy think tanks are generally shifting towards a realist perspective on the Baltic states; they generally do not support U.S. retrenchment, most consider Russia as having revanchist motives, and as a whole support bolstering the defences of NATO’s easternmost flank. However, it would also be an exaggeration to conclude that the U.S. think tank community overall were staunch defenders of the Baltic states, as for many there is a prevailing inattentiveness to Baltic security issues.

  8. Air Force IT System Security Compliance with Law and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    monetary burden on 3 system owners as there is “…a significant cost benefit to building in IA during the development phase” 4 of a system. Current...16 Option 4 : Cloud Computing to Eliminate Policy and Methodology Requirements ....17 Option 4 : Application...Assurance ( IA ) (data integrity) to support mission assurance. To ensure IA and to support the mission, changes need to be made to Air Force IT

  9. Policy in Conflict: The Struggle Between Environmental Policy and Homeland Security Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    environmental and energy 34 policy (Murkowski, 2010). However, a good set of literature on the broader, macro level question central to this investigation...terms of increasing efficiency of the automotive fleet (demand side), certain environmental policies have the unintended consequence of restricting the...Middle East  Broader aspects of the struggle between environmental policy and energy policy  A broad analysis of ways to diminish animus toward the

  10. Energy security and climate change concerns: Triggers for energy policy change in the United States?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Guri, E-mail: guri.bang@cicero.uio.n [CICERO - Center for International Climate and Environmental Research Oslo, P.O. Box 1129, 0318 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-04-15

    Why is it so difficult to change the energy policy status quo away from dependence on fossil fuels when the need to become less dependent on imported oil seems to be generally accepted by US politicians? In recent energy debates in the House and Senate, references to climate change and energy security were frequently used as a rationale for the need for energy policy change. But policymakers were not in agreement about what policy programs would be the best alternative or what goals the programs were to achieve in terms of addressing energy security or climate change, or both at the same time. The paper explores whether putting energy security and climate change on the decision making agenda simultaneously helped craft a political compromise in the 110th Congress-the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and points out how the political institutions of the US structured interaction and affected policy outcome, and ultimately the chance of changing the energy policy status quo.

  11. Energy security and climate change concerns. Triggers for energy policy change in the United States?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Guri [CICERO - Center for International Climate and Environmental Research Oslo, P.O. Box 1129, 0318 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-04-15

    Why is it so difficult to change the energy policy status quo away from dependence on fossil fuels when the need to become less dependent on imported oil seems to be generally accepted by US politicians? In recent energy debates in the House and Senate, references to climate change and energy security were frequently used as a rationale for the need for energy policy change. But policymakers were not in agreement about what policy programs would be the best alternative or what goals the programs were to achieve in terms of addressing energy security or climate change, or both at the same time. The paper explores whether putting energy security and climate change on the decision making agenda simultaneously helped craft a political compromise in the 110th Congress - the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and points out how the political institutions of the US structured interaction and affected policy outcome, and ultimately the chance of changing the energy policy status quo. (author)

  12. Energy security and climate change concerns: Triggers for energy policy change in the United States?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Guri

    2010-01-01

    Why is it so difficult to change the energy policy status quo away from dependence on fossil fuels when the need to become less dependent on imported oil seems to be generally accepted by US politicians? In recent energy debates in the House and Senate, references to climate change and energy security were frequently used as a rationale for the need for energy policy change. But policymakers were not in agreement about what policy programs would be the best alternative or what goals the programs were to achieve in terms of addressing energy security or climate change, or both at the same time. The paper explores whether putting energy security and climate change on the decision making agenda simultaneously helped craft a political compromise in the 110th Congress-the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and points out how the political institutions of the US structured interaction and affected policy outcome, and ultimately the chance of changing the energy policy status quo.

  13. A Methodology and Toolkit for Deploying Reliable Security Policies in Critical Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faouzi Jaïdi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Substantial advances in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT bring out novel concepts, solutions, trends, and challenges to integrate intelligent and autonomous systems in critical infrastructures. A new generation of ICT environments (such as smart cities, Internet of Things, edge-fog-social-cloud computing, and big data analytics is emerging; it has different applications to critical domains (such as transportation, communication, finance, commerce, and healthcare and different interconnections via multiple layers of public and private networks, forming a grid of critical cyberphysical infrastructures. Protecting sensitive and private data and services in critical infrastructures is, at the same time, a main objective and a great challenge for deploying secure systems. It essentially requires setting up trusted security policies. Unfortunately, security solutions should remain compliant and regularly updated to follow and track the evolution of security threats. To address this issue, we propose an advanced methodology for deploying and monitoring the compliance of trusted access control policies. Our proposal extends the traditional life cycle of access control policies with pertinent activities. It integrates formal and semiformal techniques allowing the specification, the verification, the implementation, the reverse-engineering, the validation, the risk assessment, and the optimization of access control policies. To automate and facilitate the practice of our methodology, we introduce our system SVIRVRO that allows managing the extended life cycle of access control policies. We refer to an illustrative example to highlight the relevance of our contributions.

  14. An Approach to Enforcing Clark-Wilson Model in Role-based Access Control Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANGBin; SHIWenchang; SUNYufang; SUNBo

    2004-01-01

    Using one security model to enforce another is a prospective solution to multi-policy support. In this paper, an approach to the enforcing Clark-Wilson data integrity model in the Role-based access control (RBAC) model is proposed. An enforcement construction with great feasibility is presented. In this construction, a direct way to enforce the Clark-Wilson model is provided, the corresponding relations among users, transformation procedures, and constrained data items are strengthened; the concepts of task and subtask are introduced to enhance the support to least-privilege. The proposed approach widens the applicability of RBAC. The theoretical foundation for adopting Clark-Wilson model in a RBAC system with small cost is offered to meet the requirements of multi-policy support and policy flexibility.

  15. The effects of a social media policy on pharmacy students' facebook security settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer; Feild, Carinda; James, Kristina

    2011-11-10

    To examine how students entering a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program used Facebook privacy settings before and after the college's social media policy was presented to them. The Facebook profiles of all entering first-year pharmacy students across 4 campuses of a college of pharmacy were evaluated. Ten dichotomous variables of interest were viewed and recorded for each student's Facebook account at 3 time points: before the start of the semester, after presentation of the college's social media policy, and at the end of the semester. Data on whether a profile could be found and what portions of the profile were viewable also were collected. After introduction of the policy, a significant number of students increased their security settings (made information not visible to the public) related to Facebook walls, information pages, and links. Making pharmacy students aware of a college's social media policy had a positive impact on their behaviors regarding online security and privacy.

  16. Modifications to the HIPAA Privacy, Security, Enforcement, and Breach Notification rules under the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act and the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act; other modifications to the HIPAA rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS or ``the Department'') is issuing this final rule to: Modify the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy, Security, and Enforcement Rules to implement statutory amendments under the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (``the HITECH Act'' or ``the Act'') to strengthen the privacy and security protection for individuals' health information; modify the rule for Breach Notification for Unsecured Protected Health Information (Breach Notification Rule) under the HITECH Act to address public comment received on the interim final rule; modify the HIPAA Privacy Rule to strengthen the privacy protections for genetic information by implementing section 105 of Title I of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA); and make certain other modifications to the HIPAA Privacy, Security, Breach Notification, and Enforcement Rules (the HIPAA Rules) to improve their workability and effectiveness and to increase flexibility for and decrease burden on the regulated entities.

  17. Effect of Policy Interventions on Food Security in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne van der Veen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the design of a conservation-based agricultural development strategy and food security strategy, the Tigray government has implemented different pro-poor development programs over the past years to address the problems of food security. This study attempts to investigate the effectiveness of government policy interventions at different scales addressed to improve food security. Food security both at the regional and district level was investigated by deriving food balance sheets for the period 2000-2008. An empirical analysis based on a logit model was also employed to analyze household level food security status. The results of the logit model reveal that government policy interventions such as water harvesting schemes, employment generation schemes, and promotion of technology adoption significantly contribute to a higher likelihood of household food security status. The findings of the food balance sheet also indicate that the region has made some impressive development gains in improving regional food self-sufficiency, indicating the importance of government interventions in improving food security both at the household and regional level.

  18. Protest Movements and the Security Policy of the Federal Republic of Germany Since 1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    to rearmament. The state of mind that framed a majority of the members, however, remained one of 33 semi- abstentionism where German labor remained on...I 0D A132 201 PROTEST MOVEMENTS AND THE SECURI Y POLICY 0 THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY SINCE 1950( U) NAVAL\\ POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONEREY CA A N...1 THESIS PROTEST MOVEMENTS AND THE SECURITY POLICY OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY SINCE 1950 by Arthur Neil Black 0. December 1983 C-) LIJ Thesis

  19. OECD Policy Recommendations on Security for Biological Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radisch, J.

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical innovations derived from research on pathogenic micro-organisms promise astounding health and economic benefits. Some such biological resources employed in the RandD for diagnostic kits, vaccines and therapeutics, however, possess capacity for dual-use; they may be misused to develop biological weapons. Research facilities entrusted with possession of such dual-use materials have a responsibility to comply with biosecurity measures that are designed to prevent loss or theft and thereby reduce the probability of a bioterrorist attack. The OECD has provided a forum for its Member countries to engage in a dialogue of international co-operation with a view to produce policies that achieve a research environment fortified by biosecurity measures and capable of producing health innovations. In 2007, the OECD developed a risk assessment framework and risk management principles for Biological Resource Centres. Ongoing policy work at the OECD will look to design biosecurity guidelines appropriate to a broader range of facilities in possession of dual-use materials, such as university and industrial laboratories.(author)

  20. Common Foreign and Security Policy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydar Efe

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available CFSP has been one of the most difficult areas in the cooperation cooperate in EU’s integration process. Because member states which have different national interests, historical traditions and different political relations with other parts of the world, have seen it as a sign of their sovereignty. But, in spite of many controversies, the demands for a CFSP are widely shared in the EU. The main argument of this study is to emphasize the fact that in the realization of the aims of EU for being effective in the solutions of international problems and for being the main actor on the global policy the only way is to form effective and coherent DDGP

  1. Challenges and opportunities for more integrated regional food security policy in the Caribbean Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Lowitt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean Community (CARICOM has recognized regional integration as an important development strategy for addressing the unique vulnerabilities of its member small island developing states (SIDS. Food security in the Caribbean is a fundamental social and ecological challenge in which the dynamics of regional integration are increasingly playing out. CARICOM members have subsequently identified a number of shared food security problems and have endorsed regional goals and approaches to address them; however, progress towards solutions has been slow. Recognizing that evidence-based studies on the potential factors limiting sustained progress are lacking, we undertook a comparative policy analysis to understand better the various approaches and framings of food security at national and regional levels with a view to assessing coherence. We identify considerable divergence in how regional and local policy institutions frame and approach food security problems in CARICOM and then identify ways through which the policy integration objectives for enhanced regional food security might be progressed, with a particular focus on social learning.

  2. Sustainable land use and food security in developing countries: DLV's approach to policy support.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van H.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Ruben, R.

    1998-01-01

    During the past decades, major changes have taken place with regard to the available policy instruments for food security and rural development. These changes are reviewed against the background of the structural adjustment programmes carried out in the agricultural sector. The linkages between

  3. American Policy in the Persian Gulf Region: Peace, Security, and the Spread of Democracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fox, Darin J

    2008-01-01

    To achieve lasting security in the Arabian Gulf region, U.S. policy, though currently focused on Iraq, must engage Saudi Arabia and Iran with all of its instruments of national power to encourage the spread of democracy within the region...

  4. Policies and measures for economic efficiency, energy security and environment protection in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkaiah, M.; Kaushik, S.C.; Dewangan, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    India needs to sustain 8-10% economic growth to meet energy needs of people below poverty line. India would, at least, need to grow its primary energy supply (3-4 times) of present consumption to deliver a sustained growth of 8% by 2031. This paper discusses India's policies and measures for economic efficiency, environment protection and energy security (3-E). (author)

  5. News framing and public support for a common foreign and security policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Kandyla, A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A common EU foreign and security policy (CFSP) can be framed by elites and media as a risk or as an opportunity. This article examines the effects of framing in terms of ‘risk’ and ‘opportunity’ on public support. Moreover, we examine first whether the effect of framing CFSP as a ‘risk for

  6. Visa Security Policy: Roles of the Departments of State and Homeland Sec

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    report pursuant to S. Res.137., committee print, 81st Cong., 2nd sess., April 20, 1950. 11 8 U.S.C. 1104 . 12 8 U.S.C. 1201. Visa Security Policy...Biometric 2-print fingerprint system (IDENT); and Advanced Passenger Information System ( APIS ). They also have access to selected legacy- INS

  7. Education Policy and National Security in Brazil in the Post-1964 Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Rene Trentin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse and show in detail the influence of the National Security and Development Doctrine, the main ideological prop of the 1964 civilian-military coup, on the education policy implemented by the regime. Special attention is given to the MEC-USAID agreements, the setting up of the Meira Matos Commission and the…

  8. Policy risk in action: pension reforms and social security wealth in Hungary, Czech Republic, and Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor; Kopecsni, J.

    -, 9/2008 (2008), s. 1-34 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/05/0711 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : pension reforms * social security * policy risk Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://ies.fsv.cuni.cz/default/file/download/id/8361

  9. Policy revision in health enterprise information security: P3WG final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostrom, Kristen; Collmann, Jeff R.

    2003-05-01

    Health information management policies usually address the use of paper records with little or no mention of electronic health records. Information Technology (IT) policies often ignore the health care business needs and operational use of the information stored in its systems. Representatives from the Telemedicine & Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC), TRICARE and Offices of the Surgeon General of each Military Service, collectively referred to as the Policies, Procedures and Practices Work Group (P3WG) examined military policies and regulations relating to computer-based information systems and medical records management. Using an interdisciplinary and interservice QA approach they compared existing military policies with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Rule to identify gaps and discrepancies. The final report, including a plain English explanation of the individual standards and relevance to the Department of Defense (DoD), a comparative analysis and recommendations, will feed in to the security management process and HIPAA implementation efforts at multiple levels within the DoD. In light of High Reliability Theory, this process models how large enterprises may coordinate policy revision and reform across broad organizational and work domains, building consensus on key policy reforms among military stakeholders across different disciplines, levels of command hierarchy and services.

  10. Efficient Attribute-Based Secure Data Sharing with Hidden Policies and Traceability in Mobile Health Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhee Hahn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile health (also written as mHealth provisions the practice of public health supported by mobile devices. mHealth systems let patients and healthcare providers collect and share sensitive information, such as electronic and personal health records (EHRs at any time, allowing more rapid convergence to optimal treatment. Key to achieving this is securely sharing data by providing enhanced access control and reliability. Typically, such sharing follows policies that depend on patient and physician preferences defined by a set of attributes. In mHealth systems, not only the data but also the policies for sharing it may be sensitive since they directly contain sensitive information which can reveal the underlying data protected by the policy. Also, since the policies usually incur linearly increasing communication costs, mHealth is inapplicable to resource-constrained environments. Lastly, access privileges may be publicly known to users, so a malicious user could illegally share his access privileges without the risk of being traced. In this paper, we propose an efficient attribute-based secure data sharing scheme in mHealth. The proposed scheme guarantees a hidden policy, constant-sized ciphertexts, and traces, with security analyses. The computation cost to the user is reduced by delegating approximately 50% of the decryption operations to the more powerful storage systems.

  11. Addressing 2030 EU policy framework for energy and climate: Cost, risk and energy security issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llano-Paz, Fernando de; Martínez Fernandez, Paulino; Soares, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The different energy sources, their costs and impacts on the environment determine the electricity production process. Energy planning must solve the existence of uncertainty through the diversification of power generation technologies portfolio. The European Union energy and environmental policy has been mainly based on promoting the security of supply, efficiency, energy savings and the promotion of Renewable Energy Sources. The recent European Commission communication “Towards an European Energy Union: A secure, sustainable, competitive and affordable energy for every European” establishes the path for the European future. This study deals with the analysis of the latest EU “Energy Union” goals through the application of Markowitz portfolio theory considering technological real assets. The EU targets are assessed under a double perspective: economic and environmental. The model concludes that implementing a high share of Renewable Energy target in the design of European Policies is not relevant: the maximization of Renewable Energy share could be achieved considering a sole Low Emissions of carbon dioxide policy. Additionally it is confirmed the need of Nuclear energy in 2030: a zero nuclear energy share in 2030 European Mix is not possible, unless the technological limits participation for Renewable Energy Sources were increased. - Highlights: • Implementing a high RES share target in European Policies could not be relevant. • Maximizing RES share could be achieved considering a sole Low Emissions policy. • The EU 2030 Nuclear energy 50% shutting down could be feasible. • Minimizing risk portfolio presents high diversification and energy security levels.

  12. Comparative analysis of military security policy of Norway and Denmark in the Arctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor S. Doroshenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest of Western countries in the Arctic region is growing with each new statement about the sharp climate change and the melting of the Arctic Ocean’s glaciers. In addition to the threats related to the environmental situation in the Arctic zone, the desire to participate in shelf research and development, the potential of using the sea routes of the region by both the Arctic and non-Arctic states creates threats to the security of the Nordic countries.The coastal states, which in case of the escalation of tensions will be in the midst of a regional conflict in the Arctic, are Norway and Denmark. Therefore, the analysis of a level of Norwegian and Danish military security against a backdrop of increasing confrontation between Russia and West and changing climate situation in the region is urgent ., Nevertheless, to ensure a necessary level of defence capability as well as security of borders and zones of exceptional economic interests in the conditions of low temperatures is not so easy. This article examines the Norwegian and Danish approaches to the new military security challenges in the Arctic region. The paper contains examination of the doctrinal basis of military security along with the main documents that form the security concepts of the two countries in the Arctic region, and the reports of the defense ministries and scientific institutions surveys of military activities in the Arctic.Three directions of coastal countries’ policy making in the issues of military security were chosen for comparison. Firstly, the relationships with the USA, the leader of the North Atlantic alliance, which allow us to determine the significance of Norway and Denmark in building NATO security in the north. Secondly, the relationships with the EU and separately with the Nordic countries are considered. This case shows the level of involvement of the European community in the issue of ensuring the Arctic security . Thirdly, the relationships with

  13. Youth transitioning out of foster care: an evaluation of a Supplemental Security Income policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laura; Rukh-Kamaa, Aneer

    2013-01-01

    Youths with disabilities face numerous challenges when they transition to adulthood. Those who are aging out of foster care face the additional challenge of losing their foster care benefits, although some will be eligible for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments after foster care ceases. However, the time needed to process SSI applications exposes those youths to a potential gap in the receipt of benefits as they move between foster care and SSI. We evaluate the effects of a 2010 Social Security Administration policy change that allows such youths to apply for SSI payments 60 days earlier than the previous policy allowed. The change provides additional time for processing claims before the applicant ages out of the foster care system. We examine administrative records on SSI applications from before and after the policy change to determine if the change has decreased the gap between benefits for the target population.

  14. The Paradox of German Foreign and Security Policy: With Respect to National Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-21

    analysis from an historical perspective and first published post- materialist theory. It builds on Maslow ‟s hierarchy of needs and seeks to explain how...and maintaining the data needed , and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any...policy. Being strategically prepared when market forces fail to balance contradictory interests becomes a necessity for many countries. Based on Germany

  15. The united states and the world oil security. US oil policy and production of a global collective good

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to define and discusses the part of the Unites States in the world oil system operating and more particularly the US oil security policy in the world policy. It refutes some established ideas as the necessity of the US military supremacy to provide the oil security, the necessity of ''agreements'' with oil exporting countries facing the US energy consumption increase or the limitation of the resources access to other countries. At the opposite the United States seem to invest in the production of a global public good in matter of energy security. In order to illustrate this opinion the author defines the problem of the US oil security in a world context. He analyzes then the US policies to show the impacts in the world oil security and studies the specific part of the military factor in the security policy. (A.L.B.)

  16. 75 FR 28673 - Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... closed to the public. The meeting will focus on an examination of corporate security policies and... is privileged and confidential, and will discuss law enforcement investigative techniques and... relating to private sector security policies and protective programs and the protection of U.S. business...

  17. 75 FR 6250 - Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... closed to the public. The meeting will focus on an examination of corporate security policies and... is privileged and confidential, and will discuss law enforcement investigative techniques and... relating to private sector security policies and protective programs and the protection of U.S. business...

  18. Integrating security issues in nuclear engineering curriculum in Indonesia. Classical vs policy approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putero, Susetyo Hario; Rosita, Widya; Sihana, Fnu; Ferdiansjah; Santosa, Haryono Budi; Muharini, Anung

    2015-01-01

    Recently, risk management for nuclear facilities becomes more complex due to security issue addressed by IAEA. The harmonization between safety, safeguards and security is still questionable. It also challenges to nuclear engineering curriculum in the world how to appropriately lecture the new issue. This paper would like to describe how to integrate this issue in developing nuclear engineering curriculum in Indonesia. Indonesia has still no nuclear power plant, but there are 3 research reactors laid in Indonesia. As addition, there are several hospitals and industries utilizing radioisotopes in their activities. The knowledge about nuclear security of their staffs is also not enough for handling radioactive material furthermore the security officers. Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM) is the only university in Indonesia offering nuclear engineering program, as consequently the university should actively play the role in overcoming this issue not only in Indonesia, but also in Southeast Asia. In the other hand, students has to have proper knowledge in order to complete in the global nuclear industry. After visited several universities in USA and participated in INSEN meeting, we found that most of universities in the world anticipate this issue by giving the student courses related to policy (non-technical) study based on IAEA NSS 12. In the other hand, the rest just make nuclear security as a case study on their class. Furthermore, almost all of programs are graduate level. UGM decided to enhance several present related undergraduate courses with security topics as first step to develop the awareness of student to nuclear security. The next (curriculum 2016) is to integrate security topics into the entire of curriculum including designing a nuclear security elective course for undergraduate level. The first trial has successfully improved the student knowledge and awareness on nuclear security. (author)

  19. Energy security in ASEAN: A quantitative approach for sustainable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tongsopit, Sopitsuda; Kittner, Noah; Chang, Youngho; Aksornkij, Apinya; Wangjiraniran, Weerin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate energy security of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) under the 4-A’s framework. The ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) agreement launched in 2015 renewed a regional focus on energy security and sustainability. We employ an analytic framework to quantitatively assess progress in different categories including availability, acceptability, affordability, and applicability. Key metrics include the documentation of CO_2 emissions, energy access measures, and energy supply reserves from 2005–2010. We identify relevant energy indicators using high quality historical data from the IEA and World Bank. We find that ASEAN made little progress toward establishing energy security in the previous five-year planning period (2005–2010) as it regressed in most categories except applicability. Therefore, we suggest that increased development of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies would move ASEAN in a positive direction toward achieving energy security and sustainable energy policy goals. - Highlights: • We investigate energy security in ASEAN across four dimensions. • Energy security in ASEAN has mostly regressed from 2005–2010. • Future cooperative agreements will help ASEAN improve energy security.

  20. Model-based security engineering for the internet of things

    OpenAIRE

    NEISSE RICARDO; STERI GARY; NAI FOVINO Igor; BALDINI Gianmarco; VAN HOESEL Lodewijk

    2015-01-01

    We propose in this chapter a Model-based Security Toolkit (SecKit) and methodology to address the control and protection of user data in the deployment of the Internet of Things (IoT). This toolkit takes a more general approach for security engineering including risk analysis, establishment of aspect-specific trust relationships, and enforceable security policies. We describe the integrated metamodels used in the toolkit and the accompanying security engineering methodology for IoT systems...

  1. Cyber security best practices for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, I.

    2012-01-01

    When deploying software based systems, such as, digital instrumentation and controls for the nuclear industry, it is vital to include cyber security assessment as part of architecture and development process. When integrating and delivering software-intensive systems for the nuclear industry, engineering teams should make use of a secure, requirements driven, software development life cycle, ensuring security compliance and optimum return on investment. Reliability protections, data loss prevention, and privacy enforcement provide a strong case for installing strict cyber security policies. (authors)

  2. Cyber security best practices for the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badr, I. [Rational IBM Software Group, IBM Corporation, Evanston, IL 60201 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    When deploying software based systems, such as, digital instrumentation and controls for the nuclear industry, it is vital to include cyber security assessment as part of architecture and development process. When integrating and delivering software-intensive systems for the nuclear industry, engineering teams should make use of a secure, requirements driven, software development life cycle, ensuring security compliance and optimum return on investment. Reliability protections, data loss prevention, and privacy enforcement provide a strong case for installing strict cyber security policies. (authors)

  3. 17 CFR 39.6 - Enforceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enforceability. 39.6 Section 39.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS § 39.6 Enforceability. An agreement, contract or transaction submitted to a derivatives clearing...

  4. 77 FR 12865 - Enforcement Actions Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ...] Enforcement Actions Summary AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is providing notice that it has issued an annual summary of all enforcement actions taken by TSA under the authority granted in the...

  5. 78 FR 11216 - Enforcement Actions Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ...] Enforcement Actions Summary AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is providing notice that it has issued an annual summary of all enforcement actions taken by TSA under the authority granted in the...

  6. 76 FR 9357 - Enforcement Actions Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ...] Enforcement Actions Summary AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is providing notice that it has issued an annual summary of all enforcement actions taken by TSA under the authority granted in the...

  7. Role of Global Food Security in the Common Agrarian Policy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor N. Shcherbak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author devoted his research to the role of the global food security in the priorities of the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union (CAP. The research sheds light on the parameters of the Common Agricultural Policy and the basic steps on the path of its reform. The research demonstrates that the priorities of the EC are mainly concentrated on achieving food security for the member-states of the EC, its population and the interests of the agricultural sector. The modern challenges to the Global Food Security (global food crises of 2007-2009, acute food shortages and hunger in crises regions of Africa and chronic malnutrition are placed high on the agenda of the CAP. In this situation, the EU is trying in the interests of stabilization of the world agricultural market to solve simultaneously the tasks of providing assistance for development and mitigation of the threats to the Global Food security. The deepening rift between the strategy of the CAP oriented towards promotion of agricultural export and real contribution of the EC to the Global Food Security and assistance for development is becoming more and more the most «vulnerable» place of the CAP.

  8. The Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute at Texas A&M University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Gariazzo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute (NSSPI is a multidisciplinary organization at Texas A&M University and was the first U.S. academic institution focused on technical graduate education, research, and service related to the safeguarding of nuclear materials and the reduction of nuclear threats. NSSPI employs science, engineering, and policy expertise to: (1 conduct research and development to help detect, prevent, and reverse nuclear and radiological proliferation and guard against nuclear terrorism; (2 educate the next generation of nuclear security and nuclear nonproliferation leaders; (3 analyze the interrelationships between policy and technology in the field of nuclear security; and (4 serve as a public resource for knowledge and skills to reduce nuclear threats. Since 2006, over 31 Doctoral and 73 Master degrees were awarded through NSSPI-sponsored research. Forty-one of those degrees are Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering with a specialization in Nuclear Nonproliferation and 16 were Doctorate of Philosophy degrees with a specific focus on nuclear nonproliferation. Over 200 students from both technical and policy backgrounds have taken classes provided by NSSPI at Texas A&M. The model for creating safeguards and security experts, which has in large part been replicated worldwide, was established at Texas A&M by NSSPI faculty and staff. In addition to conventional classroom lectures, NSSPI faculty have provided practical experiences; advised students on valuable research projects that have contributed substantially to the overall nuclear nonproliferation, safeguards and security arenas; and engaged several similar academic and research institutes around the world in activities and research for the benefit of Texas A&M students. NSSPI has had an enormous impact on the nuclear nonproliferation workforce (across the international community in the past 8 years, and this paper is an attempt to summarize the activities

  9. Global energy issues and Swedish security policy; Globala energifraagor och svensk saekerhetspolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    An important part of the Swedish Energy Agency's world surveillance is to identify trends that may affect Sweden's security of energy supply. Sweden can not be considered in isolation with its own energy supply, but is affected much by what happens if the global energy flows are disturbed by conflicts or weather-related events. Several different policy areas influence the energy markets, in addition to the energy and environmental policy. Geopolitical events of the last few years have more and more focused on power over energy resources. To get a comprehensive picture of the global energy situation, the Agency has engaged the Royal Military Sciences to produce a report that describes the 'Global Energy Issues and Swedish Security Policy'. The report's starting point is to describe how global events affect European and Swedish energy supply and security policy. Descriptions and analysis in the report are the authors own conclusions and need not always be the Agency's official views. The political environment that the report deals with is constantly changing, why some facts and circumstances may have changed since the report was completed. During the final preparation of the report, the scene changed in Moscow. On May 8, Vladimir Putin once again was appointed a position as Russia's president. The former president Medvedev, at the same time, takes over as Prime Minister.

  10. Global energy issues and Swedish security policy; Globala energifraagor och svensk saekerhetspolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    An important part of the Swedish Energy Agency's world surveillance is to identify trends that may affect Sweden's security of energy supply. Sweden can not be considered in isolation with its own energy supply, but is affected much by what happens if the global energy flows are disturbed by conflicts or weather-related events. Several different policy areas influence the energy markets, in addition to the energy and environmental policy. Geopolitical events of the last few years have more and more focused on power over energy resources. To get a comprehensive picture of the global energy situation, the Agency has engaged the Royal Military Sciences to produce a report that describes the 'Global Energy Issues and Swedish Security Policy'. The report's starting point is to describe how global events affect European and Swedish energy supply and security policy. Descriptions and analysis in the report are the authors own conclusions and need not always be the Agency's official views. The political environment that the report deals with is constantly changing, why some facts and circumstances may have changed since the report was completed. During the final preparation of the report, the scene changed in Moscow. On May 8, Vladimir Putin once again was appointed a position as Russia's president. The former president Medvedev, at the same time, takes over as Prime Minister.

  11. 76 FR 26334 - Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... meeting will be closed to the public. The meeting will focus on an examination of corporate security... information that is privileged and confidential, and will discuss law enforcement investigative techniques and... relating to private sector security policies and protective programs and the protection of U.S. business...

  12. Adoption of an information systems security policy in small and medium sized enterprises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Maria Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Information Systems Security (ISS is a relevant fact for current organizations. This paper focuses on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs. This article aims to constitute an empirical study on the applicability of the Action Research (AR method in information systems, more specifically by assessing the adoption of an ISS policy in six SMEs, and identifying the critical success factors in adopting an ISS policy. The research question we intend to answer is to what extent this research method is adequate to reach the proposed goal. The results of the study suggest that AR is a promising means for the evaluation of ISS policies adoption. It can both act as a research method that improves the understanding about the reasons why the policy has been abandoned, and as a change method, assisting practitioners to overcome barriers and suggesting measures to be implemented.

  13. Why Border Enforcement Backfired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S; Durand, Jorge; Pren, Karen A

    2016-03-01

    In this article we undertake a systematic analysis of why border enforcement backfired as a strategy of immigration control in the United States. We argue theoretically that border enforcement emerged as a policy response to a moral panic about the perceived threat of Latino immigration to the United States propounded by self-interested bureaucrats, politicians, and pundits who sought to mobilize political and material resources for their own benefit. The end result was a self-perpetuating cycle of rising enforcement and increased apprehensions that resulted in the militarization of the border in a way that was disconnected from the actual size of the undocumented flow. Using an instrumental variable approach, we show how border militarization affected the behavior of unauthorized migrants and border outcomes to transform undocumented Mexican migration from a circular flow of male workers going to three states into an eleven-million person population of settled families living in 50 states.

  14. Policy and Policy Formulation Considerations for Incorporation of Secure Mobile Devices in USMC Ground Combat Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Defense Information Systems Network Flag Panel, and its GIG waiver request within 14 days or be subject to censorship and punitive action (Office...can disproportionately affect the outcome of an engagement. Balancing the requirements of GIG security while also incorporating technologies which...classified the paradigm of the industrial age as the division of labor and economies of scale in his 1776 The Wealth of Nations, and it was on these

  15. 75 FR 69573 - Export Enforcement Coordination Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Export Enforcement Coordination Center By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and... enforcement of United States export control laws and enhanced intelligence exchange in support of such enforcement efforts, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Policy. Export controls are critical to...

  16. Food security and nutrition in the Russian Federation – a health policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Lunze

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the Russian Federation (Russia, an elevated burden of premature mortality attributable to non-communicable diseases (NCDs has been observed since the country's economic transition. NCDs are largely related to preventable risk factors such as unhealthy diets. Objective: This health policy study's aim was to analyze past and current food production and nutritional trends in Russia and their policy implications for Russia's NCD burden. Design: We examined food security and nutrition in Russia using an analytical framework of food availability, access to food, and consumption. Results: Agricultural production declined during the period of economic transition, and nutritional habits changed from high-fat animal products to starches. However, per-capita energy consumption remained stable due to increased private expenditures on food and use of private land. Paradoxically, the prevalence of obesity still increased because of an excess consumption of unsaturated fat, sugar, and salt on one side, and insufficient intake of fruit and vegetables on the other. Conclusions: Policy and economic reforms in Russia were not accompanied by a food security crisis or macronutrient deprivation of the population. Yet, unhealthy diets in contemporary Russia contribute to the burden of NCDs and related avoidable mortality. Food and nutrition policies in Russia need to specifically address nutritional shortcomings and food-insecure vulnerable populations. Appropriate, evidence-informed food and nutrition policies might help address Russia's burden of NCDs on a population level.

  17. Stable and Enforceable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2011-01-01

    Since the great financial crash, the need for new fiscal rules to prevent unsustainable fiscal policies is universally recognised. In practice such rules, including those in the Stability and Growth Pact, have proved to be impossible to enforce. Thus, to avoid unsustainable fiscal policies...... reappearing, and to prevent monetary policy from being undermined by undisciplined governments, there is a need for a framework capable of imposing fiscal discipline. This paper considers an intertemporal assignment, where fiscal policy focuses on long-term objectives and monetary policy on short...... which the debt targeting regime should operate. Making these factors explicit would both improve the credibility of planned fiscal policies and reduce risk premia on borrowing costs. We finally show how Europe’s competitiveness pact, and debt restructuring operations, can be used to maximise...

  18. Designing, Capturing and Validating History-Sensitive Security Policies for Distributed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Alejandro Mario; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    has the capability of combining both history-sensitive and future-sensitive policies, providing even more flexibility and power. Moreover, we propose a global Logic for reasoning about the systems designed with this language. We show how the Logic can be used to validate the combination of security...... this approach with history-based components, as is traditional in reference-monitor-based approaches to mandatory access control. Our developments are performed in an Aspect-oriented coordination language, aiming to describe the Bell-LaPadula policy as elegantly as possible. Furthermore, the resulting language...

  19. Food security for infants and young children: an opportunity for breastfeeding policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Libby

    2015-01-01

    Increased global demand for imported breast milk substitutes (infant formula, follow-on formula and toddler milks) in Asia, particularly China, and food safety recalls have led to shortages of these products in high income countries. At the same time, commodification and trade of expressed breast milk have fuelled debate about its regulation, cost and distribution. In many economies suboptimal rates of breastfeeding continue to be perpetuated, at least partially, because of a failure to recognise the time, labour and opportunity costs of breast milk production. To date, these issues have not figured prominently in discussions of food security. Policy responses have been piecemeal and reveal conflicts between promotion and protection of breastfeeding and a deregulated trade environment that facilitates the marketing and consumption of breast milk substitutes. The elements of food security are the availability, accessibility, utilization and stability of supply of nutritionally appropriate and acceptable quantities of food. These concepts have been applied to food sources for infants and young children: breastfeeding, shared breast milk and breast milk substitutes, in accordance with World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) guidelines on infant feeding. A preliminary analysis indicates that a food security framework may be used to respond appropriately to the human rights, ethical, economic and environmental sustainability issues that affect the supply and affordability of different infant foods. Food security for infants and young children is not possible without high rates of breastfeeding. Existing international and national instruments to protect, promote and support breastfeeding have not been implemented on a wide scale globally. These instruments need review to take into account the emerging trade environment that includes use of the internet, breast milk markets and globalised supply chains for breast milk substitutes. New

  20. Successes and Shortfalls of European Union Common Security and Defence Policy Missions in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup Christensen, Gitte; Kammel, Arnold; Nervanto, Elisa

    This brief synthesises the IECEU project’s most essential findings on the effectiveness of European Union (EU) missions in four Africa countries: Libya, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and the Central African Republic (CAR). It describes the main elements and impact...... and context. However, the EU missions presented in this brief share the main characteristic that they have all been deployed under the union’s Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)2 with the explicit intent of improving the overall security situation and addressing conflicts in Africa. This brief...... will start by providing a short overview of each case, describing the conflict(s), security situation, mission objectives and obstacles. In this way, it compares the overall effectiveness of EU operational conflict prevention across the four African countries and discusses what lessons can be learned from...

  1. A Policy and Program for Invigorating Science and Technology for National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    security S&T, and facilitate commercialisation of research outcomes for national benefit. The policy will be delivered through a coherent and...our economy and higher living and education standards1,2. Questions for discussion: Q2.1 Are there other imperatives or drivers that justify the...organisations can drive the uptake of new technology and knowledge. Second, private sector organisations are essential to the commercialisation of

  2. Analysis of Department of Defense social media policy and its impact on operational security

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardi, Eric V.; Murphy, Mark; Kim, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The emergence and rapid adoption of social media by society has forced the Department of Defense (DOD) to adapt, and ultimately develop and incorporate, social media policy into its cybersecurity strategy. While social media has influenced DOD strategy, it has also had a direct impact on the organization’s operational security (OPSEC). DOD personnel using social media represent a potential OPSEC risk through the various ways and means ...

  3. Leadership From the Centre: A New Foreign and Security Policy for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources...the form of new partnerships, for a commitment that in a globalised world no longer has any geographical limits: No nation—whatever its size— to...German security and defense policy debates. D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY This thesis will source mainly scholarly works and news articles with

  4. Policy risk in action: pension reforms and social security wealth in Hungary, Czech Republic, and Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor; Kopecsni, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, 7-8 (2008), s. 329-358 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : pension reforms * social security * policy risk Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.275, year: 2008 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1137_dusek-kopecsni_-_329-358-opravené.pdf

  5. Britain, France and Germany: Priorities for the European Union’s Security and Defense Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    David M. Triesman, “A Strong, Competitive Europe is Vital” ( Mansion House, London, 9 January 2007), Denis MacShane, “Enlarging the EU: Peace and...Europe” ( Humboldt University, Berlin, 16 May 2006), http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/newsroom/latest-news/?view=Speech&id=1893537 (accessed 18 April 2009... Humboldt University, Berlin, 16 May 2006. Howorth, Jolyon. Security and Defence Policy in the European Union. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007

  6. 49 CFR 1542.221 - Records of law enforcement response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records of law enforcement response. 1542.221 Section 1542.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.221 Records of law enforcement...

  7. Nuclear regulatory policy concept on safety, security, safeguards and emergency preparedness (3S+EP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyas, Zurias

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory Policy is formulated in regulations that stipulate the assurance of workers and public safety and environmental protection. Legislation and regulations on nuclear energy should consider nuclear safety, security and safeguards, as well as nuclear emergency preparedness (3S+EP) and liability for nuclear damage. Specific requirements stipulated in international conventions and agreements should also be taken into account. Regulatory Policy is formulated in regulations that stipulate the assurance of workers and public safety and environmental protection. Legislation and regulations on nuclear energy should consider nuclear safety, security and safeguards, as well as nuclear emergency preparedness (3S+EP) and liability for nuclear damage. Specific requirements stipulated in international conventions and agreements should also be taken into account. By undertaking proper regulatory oversight on Safety, Security and Emergency Preparedness (3S+EP) as an integrated and comprehensive system, safe and secure use of nuclear energy can be assured. Licence requirements and conditions should fulfil regulatory requirements pertaining to 3S+EP for nuclear installation as an integrated system. An effective emergency capacity that can be immediately mobilized is important. The capacity in protecting the personnel before, during and after the disaster should also be planned. Thus, proper emergency preparedness should be supported by adequate resources. The interface between safety, security, safeguards and emergency preparedness has to be set forth in nuclear regulations, such as regulatory requirements; 3S+EP; components, systems and structures of nuclear installations and human resources. Licensing regulations should stipulate, among others, DIQ, installations security system, safety analysis report, emergency preparedness requirements and necessary human resources that meet the 3S+EP requirements.

  8. Energy security in western Mediterranean: new factors, new policies. A Spanish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane-Estrada, Aurelia

    2008-01-01

    After having noticed that there are two typical approaches and models to address energy security, policies acting on the supply side and policies based on a market-and-institutions approach (like stated by the European Union), the author outlines the effects of this second approach for countries of the western Mediterranean Sea, and then analyses the evolutions of energetic relationships between Algeria (where the energy sector is the most open, which is the best equipped in terms of gas infrastructures, and which attracts foreign investors) and European countries of the region (France, Italy, Spain and Portugal). Thus, she analyses present exchanges in the region, the dependency of these European countries on Mediterranean producers, and the relationships between involved companies of the region. She discusses the issue of energy security policy for the region from the perspective of the governments of producing countries and of consuming countries, and of companies. She discusses whether the project of Union for the Mediterranean complies with these objectives of energy security

  9. Handbook - TRACE-ing human trafficking : Handbook for policy makers, law enforcement agencies and civil society organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, Conny; Pijnenburg, Annick

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is one of the largest criminal enterprises in the world. It is a multi-billiondollar crime of global scale. This is because human trafficking as a criminal enterprise continues to evolve as a high profit-low risk business for perpetrators and challenges policy makers, law

  10. 75 FR 65550 - Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... meeting will focus on an examination of corporate security policies and procedures and will involve... confidential, and will discuss law enforcement investigative techniques and procedures. The agenda will include... policies and protective programs and the protection of U.S. business information overseas. For more...

  11. Chinese and Russian Policies on Climate Change: Implications for U.S. National Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    crop productivity in China by 2030 as a result of climate change, and a decline of up to 37 percent in rice, maize , and wheat yields after 2050...against global warming. Comparing and contrasting China’s and Russia’s climate change policies and programs may also help to identify gaps in...adequate measures to adapt agriculture to climate change, the annual economic loss from a decrease in climate-determined crop yield in Russia is

  12. Security breaches: tips for assessing and limiting your risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, Leeanne R

    2011-01-01

    As part of their compliance planning, medical practices should undergo a risk assessment to determine any vulnerability within the practice relative to security breaches. Practices should also implement safeguards to limit their risks. Such safeguards include facility access controls, information and electronic media management, use of business associate agreements, and education and enforcement. Implementation of specific policies and procedures to address security incidents is another critical step that medical practices should take as part of their security incident prevention plan. Medical practices should not only develop policies and procedures to prevent, detect, contain, and correct security violations, but should make sure that such policies and procedures are actually implemented in their everyday operations.

  13. The Effects of a Social Media Policy on Pharmacy Students’ Facebook Security Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feild, Carinda; James, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To examine how students entering a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program used Facebook privacy settings before and after the college's social media policy was presented to them. Methods. The Facebook profiles of all entering first-year pharmacy students across 4 campuses of a college of pharmacy were evaluated. Ten dichotomous variables of interest were viewed and recorded for each student's Facebook account at 3 time points: before the start of the semester, after presentation of the college's social media policy, and at the end of the semester. Data on whether a profile could be found and what portions of the profile were viewable also were collected. Results. After introduction of the policy, a significant number of students increased their security settings (made information not visible to the public) related to Facebook walls, information pages, and links. Conclusions. Making pharmacy students aware of a college's social media policy had a positive impact on their behaviors regarding online security and privacy. PMID:22171105

  14. Massively parallel sequencing and the emergence of forensic genomics: Defining the policy and legal issues for law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Nathan; McNevin, Dennis; Kelty, Sally F; Walsh, Simon J; Robertson, James

    2018-03-01

    Use of DNA in forensic science will be significantly influenced by new technology in coming years. Massively parallel sequencing and forensic genomics will hasten the broadening of forensic DNA analysis beyond short tandem repeats for identity towards a wider array of genetic markers, in applications as diverse as predictive phenotyping, ancestry assignment, and full mitochondrial genome analysis. With these new applications come a range of legal and policy implications, as forensic science touches on areas as diverse as 'big data', privacy and protected health information. Although these applications have the potential to make a more immediate and decisive forensic intelligence contribution to criminal investigations, they raise policy issues that will require detailed consideration if this potential is to be realised. The purpose of this paper is to identify the scope of the issues that will confront forensic and user communities. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. All rights reserved.

  15. Alternative policy impacts on US GHG emissions and energy security: A hybrid modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarica, Kemal; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the possible impacts of energy and climate policies, namely corporate average fleet efficiency (CAFE) standard, renewable fuel standard (RFS) and clean energy standard (CES), and an economy wide equivalent carbon tax on GHG emissions in the US to the year 2045. Bottom–up and top–down modeling approaches find widespread use in energy economic modeling and policy analysis, in which they differ mainly with respect to the emphasis placed on technology of the energy system and/or the comprehensiveness of endogenous market adjustments. For this study, we use a hybrid energy modeling approach, MARKAL–Macro, that combines the characteristics of two divergent approaches, in order to investigate and quantify the cost of climate policies for the US and an equivalent carbon tax. The approach incorporates Macro-economic feedbacks through a single sector neoclassical growth model while maintaining sectoral and technological detail of the bottom–up optimization framework with endogenous aggregated energy demand. Our analysis is done for two important objectives of the US energy policy: GHG reduction and increased energy security. Our results suggest that the emission tax achieves results quite similar to the CES policy but very different results in the transportation sector. The CAFE standard and RFS are more expensive than a carbon tax for emission reductions. However, the CAFE standard and RFS are much more efficient at achieving crude oil import reductions. The GDP losses are 2.0% and 1.2% relative to the base case for the policy case and carbon tax. That difference may be perceived as being small given the increased energy security gained from the CAFE and RFS policy measures and the uncertainty inherent in this type of analysis. - Highlights: • Evaluates US impacts of three energy/climate policies and a carbon tax (CT) • Analysis done with bottom–up MARKAL model coupled with a macro model • Electricity clean energy standard very close to

  16. Energy security, public policy, and the role of the DOE Office of Energy Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Curlee, T.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Bohi, D.R. (Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This paper addresses the concept of energy security, the costs and benefits of energy security, and policies which could potentially alter these costs and benefits. These issues are considered from the perspective of the DOE's Office of Energy Emergencies, with the goal of determining if alternative or additional roles should be open to this Office. The approach taken is limited to the economic costs and benefits of energy security, reflecting our view that the bulk of important energy security issues can at least be approached from this perspective. An energy emergency results from a sudden change in the quantity, market price, and/or social value of energy, in combination with a domestic and/or world wide energy system that cannot rapidly adjust to that change. We do not believe that mitigating the impacts of such events is always necessary, nor that it is uniquely a governmental responsibility. In fact, the first recourse in emergency preparedness should always be to the private sector. Government should deal with three different aspects of emergency energy activities. First, it should condition the decision making environment by seeing that adequate information about energy conditions is available and that its own policy position is clear. Next, it should evaluate the preparedness measures undertaken by the private sector. Finally, if it finds private sector preparation to be inadequate, government has a variety of direct and indirect means with which to intervene. One direct measure currently used is the buildup and drawdown of the strategic petroleum reserve (SPR). Others include contingency plans to override market allocations during wartime, as might be developed under the graduated mobilization response (GMR). Indirect means include a variety of tax and transfer schemes that alter existing private sector incentives to prepare. Well conceived monetary and fiscal policies complete the tools. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Energy security, public policy, and the role of the DOE Office of Energy Emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Curlee, T.R.; Bohi, D.R.

    1991-11-01

    This paper addresses the concept of energy security, the costs and benefits of energy security, and policies which could potentially alter these costs and benefits. These issues are considered from the perspective of the DOE's Office of Energy Emergencies, with the goal of determining if alternative or additional roles should be open to this Office. The approach taken is limited to the economic costs and benefits of energy security, reflecting our view that the bulk of important energy security issues can at least be approached from this perspective. An energy emergency results from a sudden change in the quantity, market price, and/or social value of energy, in combination with a domestic and/or world wide energy system that cannot rapidly adjust to that change. We do not believe that mitigating the impacts of such events is always necessary, nor that it is uniquely a governmental responsibility. In fact, the first recourse in emergency preparedness should always be to the private sector. Government should deal with three different aspects of emergency energy activities. First, it should condition the decision making environment by seeing that adequate information about energy conditions is available and that its own policy position is clear. Next, it should evaluate the preparedness measures undertaken by the private sector. Finally, if it finds private sector preparation to be inadequate, government has a variety of direct and indirect means with which to intervene. One direct measure currently used is the buildup and drawdown of the strategic petroleum reserve (SPR). Others include contingency plans to override market allocations during wartime, as might be developed under the graduated mobilization response (GMR). Indirect means include a variety of tax and transfer schemes that alter existing private sector incentives to prepare. Well conceived monetary and fiscal policies complete the tools. 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. An Analysis of China's Fertilizer Policies: Impacts on the Industry, Food Security, and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuxuan; Zhang, Weifeng; Ma, Lin; Huang, Gaoqiang; Oenema, Oene; Zhang, Fusuo; Dou, Zhengxia

    2013-07-01

    China has made remarkable strides in recent decades to grow enough food to feed 20% of the world's population with only 9% of the world's arable land. Meanwhile, the nation is experiencing exacerbated air and water pollution problems. Agricultural growth and the pollution aggravation are closely linked with policies affecting fertilizer production and use. Essentially nonexistent in 1950, China's fertilizer industry is now a robust conglomerate producing fertilizers in amounts that not only meet domestic demand but also contribute to international trade. The industry's growth stemmed from a series of policy progressions, featuring (i) a total control system with state ownership and central planning (1949-1984), (ii) a dual system of central planning and market adjustment (1985-1997), (iii) a market-driven system with government-mandated price caps (1998-2009), and (iv) a complete market-oriented system (since 2009). In conjunction with the policy changes were massive subsidy programs totaling more than $18 billion in 2010. The support policies and subsidies helped grow the industry and safeguard an adequate supply of fertilizers at affordable costs to farmers, but the artificially low-priced fertilizers also contributed to a nationwide trend of fertilizer overuse, leading to nutrient pollution. China needs innovative policies and programs to address food security and sustainability challenges. In this study, we review and analyze policies and programs related to China's fertilizer production and use in a 60-yr span (1950-2010) and discuss its impact on the development of the industry, food security, and pressing environmental issues. Finally, our study analyzes long-term trends in fertilizer use in China and offers some key viewpoints to stimulate debates among all stakeholders. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Review: Miller, Michelle Ann (2009, Rebellion and Reform in Indonesia – Jakarta’s Security and Autonomy Policies in Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Missbach

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph: Miller, Michelle Ann, Rebellion and Reform in Indonesia – Jakarta’s Security and Autonomy Policies in Aceh, London/ New York: Routledge, 2009, ISBN 13: 978-0-415-45467-4, 240 pages.

  20. Security, independence, and sustainability: Imprecise language and the manipulation of energy policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlefield, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the impact of imprecise terminology on the energy policymaking process in US, focusing on the manipulation of discourse by different political–economic interests seeking to sway popular opinion. Using the 2012 US Presidential Elections as a backdrop, the analysis highlights the cooption of the concepts “security,” “independence,” and “sustainability” in energy debates by different and often opposing interest groups. The article’s first section traces the malleability of energy terminology to the vagueness of the term “energy” itself and notes how qualifying words like security, independence, and sustainability have been selectively exploited to introduce further ambiguity to an already fungible concept. The second section notes that while energy is a critical and complex factor of macroeconomic production, its main public visibility comes via a few partially representative numbers, like gasoline prices. This mismatch of broad social importance and piecemeal public understanding enables organized interests to leverage vague terminology in support of particular policy ideas. The third section examines three policymaking tools (1) taxation, (2) regulation, and (3) technology promotion and compares these administrative instruments. Ultimately, the article concludes that loosely defined terminology inhibits energy policy discussion and stifles meaningful public debate over and action on energy issues. - Highlights: ► This article examines the impact of imprecise terminology on US energy policymaking. ► Energy security, energy independence, and sustainability are vaguely defined terms. ► Coordinated interests manipulate debate and exploit public ignorance. ► Taxes, regulation, and innovation incentives are used to apply policy prescriptions. ► Vague terminology stifles meaningful public debate over energy policy.

  1. A View of DANIDAs Policy Note on Food Security through A Policy Coherent Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    2014-01-01

    -usikkerhed hæmmer udvikling’ understreges det, at hvis ‘underernæring’ og ‘sult’ forveksles, findes disse synergier ikke og sparsomme resourcer spildes. I Danida`s ’Policy Note on Food Security’ nævnes det, at ‘852 million are living in hunger’, altså sult. Det er imidlertid snarere kronisk underernæring end sult...... Greener World for All (NEC)’. Faktisk peger man på, at landbrugets og fødevaresektorens primære rolle er at brødføde befolkningen ved at øge tilgængeligheden og forbruget af sikre, miljørigtige madvarer, der er i overensstemmelse med ernæringsmæssige anbefalinger og til overkommelige priser. Derfor...

  2. ASEAN’S Strategic Approach Towards Security Relations with the U.S. and China: Hedging through a Common Foreign and Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Foreign and Security Policy EAS East Asia Summit EU European Union NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization SCS South China Sea U.S. United States...operational vacuum. While ASEAN has rejected “hard” security institutions like the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to resolve inter-state... Bali Concord II) calls for the establishment of an ASEAN Community by the 74Sheldon W. Simon, “The ASEAN Regional Forum: Beyond the Talk Shop?,” NBR

  3. The Policy Trade-off Between Energy Security and Climate Change in the GCC States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbek, Shaikha Ali

    Developing policies for energy security and climate change simultaneously can be very challenging as there is a trade-off. This research project strives to analyze the policies regarding the same that should be developed in the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) States which are; Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Oman. Energy security is important in these countries because it is the prominent sector of their economies. Yet, the environment is being negatively impacted because of the energy production. There has been lot of international pressure on the GCC to divert its production and move towards clean energy production. It needs more research and development, as well as better economic diversification to maintain and improve the economic growth. Along with the literature review that has been used to study the cases and impacts of the GCC states, six in-depth interviews were conducted with professors, scholars and specialists in the environment and natural science fields to discuss about the GCC's situation. It has been alluded that the GCC states cannot be held solely responsible about the climate change because they are not the only energy producing nations in the world. Based on OPEC, there are 14 countries including the United States and China that also have prominent energy sectors. They should also be held accountable for the causes of environmental and climate change. This research provides recommendations for the GCC states to follow and apply in order to move forward with clean energy production, economic diversification and develop better policies.

  4. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions

  5. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  6. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  7. Analysis of Russian Federation Foreign Policy in the Field of International Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Zinovieva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICT play an essential role in the improvement of the quality of life, economic and socio-political of individual countries and humanity in general. However, ICT development is fraught with new challenges and threats to international and national security. Interstate rivalry in the information sphere generates conflicts, an extreme form of which is an information war. Since 1998, the Russian initiative supports the international cooperation on information security at the global and regional level as well as within the framework of the bilateral relations. The article analyzes the characteristics of the global information society, which has a decisive influence on the international security in the information age, as well as international cooperation in this field. The analysis of Russian foreign policy initiatives in the field of international information security is also presented. Today more than 130 countries develop cyber capabilities, both defensive and offensive, that pose serious threats to the international stability. It's difficult to trace the source of information attacks and its consequences can be devastating and cause retaliation, including the use of conventional weapons. In this situation Russian approach, advocating for the development of the rules of conduct of States and demilitarization of information space in order to ensure its safety, seems urgent and relevant with the international situation.

  8. Indirect effect of management support on users' compliance behaviour towards information security policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humaidi, Norshima; Balakrishnan, Vimala

    2018-01-01

    Health information systems are innovative products designed to improve the delivery of effective healthcare, but they are also vulnerable to breaches of information security, including unauthorised access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification or destruction, and duplication of passwords. Greater openness and multi-connectedness between heterogeneous stakeholders within health networks increase the security risk. The focus of this research was on the indirect effects of management support (MS) on user compliance behaviour (UCB) towards information security policies (ISPs) among health professionals in selected Malaysian public hospitals. The aim was to identify significant factors and provide a clearer understanding of the nature of compliance behaviour in the health sector environment. Using a survey design and stratified random sampling method, self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 454 healthcare professionals in three hospitals. Drawing on theories of planned behaviour, perceived behavioural control (self-efficacy (SE) and MS components) and the trust factor, an information system security policies compliance model was developed to test three related constructs (MS, SE and perceived trust (PT)) and their relationship to UCB towards ISPs. Results showed a 52.8% variation in UCB through significant factors. Partial least squares structural equation modelling demonstrated that all factors were significant and that MS had an indirect effect on UCB through both PT and SE among respondents to this study. The research model based on the theory of planned behaviour in combination with other human and organisational factors has made a useful contribution towards explaining compliance behaviour in relation to organisational ISPs, with trust being the most significant factor. In adopting a multidimensional approach to management-user interactions via multidisciplinary concepts and theories to evaluate the association between the integrated management

  9. Teaching introductory computer security at a Department of Defense university

    OpenAIRE

    Irvine, Cynthia E.

    1997-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School Center for Information Systems Security (INFOSEC) Studies and Research (NPS CISR) has developed an instructional program in computer security. Its objective is to insure that students not only understand practical aspects of computer security associated with current technology, but also learn the fundamental principles that can be applied to the development of systems for which high confidence in policy enforcement can be achieved. Introduction to Computer Sec...

  10. The foreign policy and security options of Romania in the vision of Klaus Johannis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Ioan Opriș

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available If a decade ago, Romania became a NATO member and it was enrolled in the accession process to the European Union, in 2014, the problem is radically different: Romania has a new status within NATO, it is part of the EU, it is in process of accession to the Schengen area and it has developed its strategic partnership with the United States of America. In this context, the aim of this paper is to bring into attention the vision of the new president of Romania, Klaus Iohannis, regarding the romanian foreign policy and security.

  11. Secure energy supply in 2025: Indonesia's need for an energy policy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujiyanto, Sugeng; Tiess, Günter

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia as an emerging country with one of the fastest growing economies requires sufficient supply with energy for national development. Domestic energy production cannot satisfy the domestic demand, and the deficiency necessitates growing imports. The present energy mix consists of 96% from non-renewable sources, i.e. fossil fuels, less than 4% from renewables. Government Regulation 5/2006 aims at increasing the proportion of renewable sources to 17%. Two scenarios for the energy situation in 2025 have been elaborated and are discussed. An overall energy policy strategy and regulatory framework covering non-renewable and renewable resources are crucial for securing energy demand. - Highlights: • Indonesia aims at 17% renewable energy in energy mix 2025. • Population growth exceeds increase of energy production. • Investment incentives for new technologies, exploration and efficient production are necessary. • Clear and comprehensive energy policy strategy and regulatory framework are crucial

  12. Energy demand and supply, energy policies, and energy security in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hoseok; Shin, Eui-soon; Chung, Woo-jin

    2011-01-01

    The Republic of Korea (ROK) has enjoyed rapid economic growth and development over the last 30 years. Rapid increases in energy use-especially petroleum, natural gas, and electricity, and especially in the industrial and transport sectors-have fueled the ROK's economic growth, but with limited fossil fuel resources of its own, the result has been that the ROK is almost entirely dependent on energy imports. The article that follows summarizes the recent trends in the ROK energy sector, including trends in energy demand and supply, and trends in economic, demographic, and other activities that underlie trends in energy use. The ROK has been experiencing drastic changes in its energy system, mainly induced by industrial, supply security, and environmental concerns, and energy policies in the ROK have evolved over the years to address such challenges through measures such as privatization of energy-sector activities, emphases on enhancing energy security through development of energy efficiency, nuclear power, and renewable energy, and a related focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The assembly of a model for evaluating energy futures in the ROK (ROK2010 LEAP) is described, and results of several policy-based scenarios focused on different levels of nuclear energy utilization are described, and their impacts on of energy supply and demand in the ROK through the year 2030 are explored, along with their implications for national energy security and long-term policy plans. Nuclear power continues to hold a crucial position in the ROK's energy policy, but aggressive expansion of nuclear power alone, even if possible given post-Fukushima global concerns, will not be sufficient to attain the ROK's 'green economy' and greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals. - Research highlights: →Rapid industrialization caused ROK energy use to increase over 10-fold during 1970-2000, with dramatic structural changes. → Growth in energy use after 2000 slowed to under 5%/yr, and

  13. Marcel de Haas, Russia’s Foreign Security Policy in the 21st Century – Putin, Medvedev and Beyond.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Facon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Specialists of Russian military and defense policy are familiar with Marcel De Haas’s prolific and in-depth publications on sometimes fairly technical issues. This book, with its broader outlook aimed at providing an overall understanding of Russian security policy in the 2000s, is the product of Dr. De Haas’s years as a Senior Research Fellow at the Clingendael Institute (The Hague. In many ways, it constitutes a follow-on to the author’s previous book– Russian Security Policy and Air Power...

  14. 49 CFR 1542.215 - Law enforcement support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement support. 1542.215 Section 1542.215..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.215 Law... program under § 1542.103(a) or (b) must provide: (1) Law enforcement personnel in the number and manner...

  15. 17 CFR 8.05 - Enforcement staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enforcement staff. 8.05... staff. (a) Each exchange shall establish an adequate enforcement staff which shall be authorized by the... staff shall consist of employees of the exchange and/or persons hired on a contract basis. It may not...

  16. Hybrid static-runtime information flow and declassification enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pontes Soares Rocha, B.; Conti, M.; Etalle, S.; Crispo, B.

    2013-01-01

    There are different paradigms for enforcing information flow and declassification policies. These approaches can be divided into static analyzers and runtime enforcers. Each class has its own strengths and weaknesses, each being able to enforce a different set of policies. In this paper we introduce

  17. Hybrid static-runtime information flow and declassification enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, Bruno P.S.; Conti, Mauro; Etalle, Sandro; Crispo, Bruno

    There are different paradigms for enforcing information flow and declassification policies. These approaches can be divided into static analyzers and runtime enforcers. Each class has its own strengths and weaknesses, each being able to enforce a different set of policies. In this paper, we

  18. Proposed Embedded Security Framework for Internet of Things (IoT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babar, Sachin D.; Stango, Antonietta; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2011-01-01

    IoT is going to be an established part of life by extending the communication and networking anytime, anywhere. Security requirements for IoT will certainly underline the importance of properly formulated, implemented, and enforced security policies throughout their life-cycle. This paper gives...

  19. Policy Preferences about Managed Aquifer Recharge for Securing Sustainable Water Supply to Chennai City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Brunner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to bring out the policy changes with respect to managed aquifer recharge (focusing on infiltration ponds, which in the view of relevant stakeholders may ease the problem of groundwater depletion in the context of Chennai City; Tamil Nadu; India. Groundwater is needed for the drinking water security of Chennai and overexploitation has resulted in depletion and seawater intrusion. Current policies at the municipal; state and national level all support recharge of groundwater and rainwater harvesting to counter groundwater depletion. However, despite such favorable policies, the legal framework and the administrative praxis do not support systematic approaches towards managed aquifer recharge in the periphery of Chennai. The present study confirms this, considering the mandates of governmental key-actors and a survey of the preferences and motives of stakeholder representatives. There are about 25 stakeholder groups with interests in groundwater issues, but they lack a common vision. For example, conflicting interest of stakeholders may hinder implementation of certain types of managed aquifer recharge methods. To overcome this problem, most stakeholders support the idea to establish an authority in the state for licensing groundwater extraction and overseeing managed aquifer recharge.

  20. Food security, wheat production and policy in South Africa: Reflections on food sustainability and challenges for a market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois de Wet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional concept of security has broadened over the past decades. Food security in South Africa is an imperative for human and non-human survival. In the contemporary political economy, there is a real nexus between globalisation, exploitation, the state, scarcity of resources, the market, peoples’ need to feel secure, notions of state responsibility and food production. Political economy and human security in theoretical debates and face-to-face politics are intrinsically linked. The notion of a ‘secure community’ changed. Food security and the right to quality living became a social imperative. Understanding current agricultural economics requires the ability to link security and access to food for all. In this case study, wheat production in South Africa is addressed against the interface of the global and the local including South Africa’s transition to a democratic and constitutional state with a Bill of Rights. The current security approach represents a more comprehensive understanding of what security is meant to be and include, amongst others, housing security, medical security, service delivery and food security, as set out in the Millennium Development Goals and the subsequent Sustainable Development Goals. The issue of food security is addressed here with particular reference to wheat production, related current government policies and the market economy. The authors chose to limit their socio-economic focus to a specific sector of the agricultural market, namely wheat, rather than discuss food security in South Africa in general. Wheat was chosen as a unit of analysis because as a crop, wheat used in bread is one of the staples for the majority of South Africans and given the current negative economic developments, wheat as a staple is likely to remain integral, if not increasing its status of dependability

  1. Decoding the canada's foreing and security policy: tracking the strategic and ethicliberal approaches of a middle power's behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Federmán

    2010-01-01

    The article attempts to explain the main paradox faced by Canada at formulating its foreign policy on international security. Explained in economic and political terms, this paradox consists in the contradiction between the Canadian ability to achieve its strategic goals, serving to its own national interest and its dependence on the United States. The first section outlines three representative examples to evaluate this paradox: the Canada’s position in North American security regime, the US...

  2. A Quantitative Study on Japanese Internet User's Awareness to Information Security: Necessity and Importance of Education and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Toshihiko Takemura; Atsushi Umino

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine whether or not there Institute for Information and Communications Policy shows are differences of Japanese Internet users awareness to information security based on individual attributes by using analysis of variance based on non-parametric method. As a result, generally speaking, it is found that Japanese Internet users' awareness to information security is different by individual attributes. Especially, the authors verify that the users who received the in...

  3. Improving energy decisions towards better scientific policy advice for a safe and secure future energy system

    CERN Document Server

    Droste-Franke, Bert; Kaiser, M; Schreurs, Miranda; Weber, Christoph; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Managing a successful transition of the current energy supply system to less carbon emitting options, ensuring a safe and secure supply during the whole process and in the long term, is one of the largest challenges of our time. Various approaches and first implementations show that it is not only technological issue, but also a matter of societal acceptance and acceptability, considering basic ethic values of the society. The main foci of the book are, thus, to develop an understanding about the specific challenges of the scientific policy advice in the area, to explore typical current approaches for the analysis of future energy systems and to develop criteria for the quality assessment and guidelines for the improvement of such studies. The book provides assistance to the interpretation of existing studies and guidelines for setting up and carrying out new analyses as well as for communicating and applying the results. Thereby, it aims to support the involved actors such as the respective scientific expert...

  4. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  5. Common security and defence policy of the European Union and NATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriša Hatidža

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the structural analysis of cooperation collectivity NATO and the EU, who are the guarantors of foreign security policy in the region and in the world. In this regard, it outlines the hypothetical discourse in the EU's relations with NATO, the United States, that have marked the start of the independence of each individual battle in terms of security. Standalone approach, reflecting the credibility of each individual collectivity, ultimately lead to a reduction of investment potential. It starts by considering a presentation of possible options on the reflection of the relations between the EU and NATO that the 'fine-tuning' proclaims the need for integration and pragmatic and rational manner, accepted by the political and economic realities in achieving interests. In this paper, the intention of the data on CSDP and critical analysis of relations between the EU and NATO and the presentation of the most significant agreements between the two collectives, help bridge the gap in the division of political interest and commitment of its leading members.

  6. The impact of security and intelligence policy in the era of cyber crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Bahri Gashi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Creation of National Cyber Defense Strategy, is the only security and the best protection against cyber-crimes. This is the starting point, from where adequate policies and necessary legal measures begin, aiming the creation of a solid ground and responsible users by implementing comprehensive measures and legal restrictions. The methodology used to achieve the recognition of users with applicable legislation and regulations on the use of the Internet, as well as legal obligations; implementation of procedures to use communication systems; signing and approval by users of their responsibilities; knowledge and information on the risks and threats stemming from the use of communication networks; certification of trained and specialized staff; classification and processing of information in a particular system; identifying unauthorized users who use classified information networks in  public systems and private sector; creating barriers in distance entry networks and information systems, etc. Various Security and Intelligence institutions covering and operating in these areas are responsible for the creation and promotion of National Cyber Defense Strategy, analyzing the risk to implement protective measures for preventing attacks on Cybercrime (Cyber Crimes.

  7. Potential impacts of biofuel development on food security in Botswana: A contribution to energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kgathi, Donald L.; Mfundisi, K.B.; Mmopelwa, G.; Mosepele, K.

    2012-01-01

    Biofuel development continues to be a critical development strategy in Africa because it promises to be an important part of the emerging bio-economy. However, there is a growing concern that the pattern of biofuel development is not always consistent with the principles of sustainable development. This paper assesses the potential of the impacts of biofuel development on food security in Botswana. Drawing on informal and semi-structured interviews, the paper concludes that there is potential for the development of biofuels in Botswana without adverse effects on food security due mainly to availability of idle land which accounted for 72% of agricultural land in the eastern part of the country in 2008. It is suggested that farmers could be incentivized to produce energy crops and more food from such land. Although it is hypothesized that the implementation of biofuel development programmes in other countries had an impact on local commodity prices during the period 2005–2008 in Botswana, it is argued that local biofuel production may not necessarily lead to a substantial increase in commodity food prices because land availability is not a major issue. The paper makes policy recommendations for sustainable biofuel development in Botswana. - Highlights: ► Biofuel development in Botswana can be pursued without harming food security. ► There is plenty idle land which could be used for biofuel and food production. ► Biofuel production will not lead to significant increases in food prices. ► There is need to define land for biofuels to avoid future scarcity of land for food production.

  8. [Food and nutrition security policy in Brazil: an analysis of resource allocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Marta Battaglia; Yuba, Tânia Yuka; Cyrillo, Denise Cavallini

    2013-02-01

    To describe the progression and distribution of federal funds for programs and activities that fall within the scope of the guidelines of the Brazilian National Policy on Food and Nutrition Security (PNSAN) in the period from 2004 to 2010. This descriptive study used data from the Transparency Website maintained by the Brazilian Public Sector Internal Control Office. Search results were exported to Excel spreadsheets. To determine the resources allocated to food security initiatives, a database was set up containing all actions developed by the federal government between 2004 and 2010. This database was reviewed and the actions that were not related to PNSAN were discarded. The annual amounts obtained were corrected by the Consumer Price Index and updated for the year 2010. Since actions are part of specific programs, the sum of the resources allocated for all the actions of a program amounted to the resources invested in the program as a whole. The programs were then prioritized according to the amount of resources received in 2010. Of the 5 014 actions receiving federal funds in the study period, 814 were related to PNSAN (229 programs). There was growth in resources allocated for PNSAN programs, reaching US$ 15 billion in 2010 (an 82% increase over the previous year). The largest amount was invested in Bolsa Família, a cash transfer program. Ten programs received 90% of the funds, of which five were linked to food production processes. The amount of resources invested in the PNSAN and in actions and programs that promote food and nutrition security is increasing in Brazil.

  9. 46 CFR 4.03-55 - Law enforcement officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law enforcement officer. 4.03-55 Section 4.03-55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-55 Law enforcement officer. Law enforcement officer means a Coast Guard commissioned, warrant or petty officer...

  10. Distributed security in closed distributed systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Alejandro Mario

    properties. This is also restricted to distributed systems in which the set of locations is known a priori. All this follows techniques borrowed from both the model checking and the static analysis communities. In the end, we reach a step towards solving the problem of enforcing security in distributed...... systems. We achieve the goal of showing how this can be done, though we restrict ourselves to closed systems and with a limited set of enforceable security policies. In this setting, our approach proves to be efficient. Finally, we achieve all this by bringing together several fields of Computer Science......The goal of the present thesis is to discuss, argue and conclude about ways to provide security to the information travelling around computer systems consisting of several known locations. When developing software systems, security of the information managed by these plays an important role...

  11. 76 FR 4369 - Special Law Enforcement Commissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ...This notice announces the online publication of the Interim Special Law Enforcement Commission Policy, Rules and Procedures, the Interim Special Law Enforcement Commission Protocols and the Interim Domestic Violence Waiver that will be used by the Office of Justice Services following passage of the Tribal Law and Order Act of 2010. The documents are published on the Indian Affairs Web site.

  12. Immigration Enforcement Within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-06

    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Policy Issues...Remained in the United States, (Washington: Center for Immigration Studies, May 2002). Immigration Enforcement Within the United States Introduction ...interior enforcement lack a border component. For example, fugitive taskforces, investigations of alien slavery and sweatshops , and employer sanctions do

  13. The appropriate and effective use of security technologies in U.S. schools : a guide for schools and law enforcement agencies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Mary Wilson

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide school administrators with the ability to determine their security system requirements, so they can make informed decisions when working with vendors and others to improve their security posture. This is accomplished by (1) explaining a systems-based approach to defining the objectives and needs of the system, and (2), providing information on the ability of common components (sensors, cameras, metal detectors, etc) to achieve those objectives, in an effectively integrated system.

  14. Analysis of rice policy based on presidential instruction on household food security: simultaneous equation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, S. A.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this research is to analyze the impacts of rice policy on the household food security. The research used cross section data, were collected from 74 respondent as determined by purposive sampling in Sei Rejo villages, the Sub District of Sei Rampah, Serdang Bedagai District in the Province of North Sumatera. Rice policy model specification uses the simultaneous equations consisting of 6 structural equations and 6 identity equations which was estimated using Two Stages Least Squares (2SLS) method. The results show that the effectiveness of government purchase price of dried harvest paddy gave a positive impact on paddy planted area and lead to an increase paddy production and an increase of the rice production gave a positive impact on household rice availability and household rice surplus, and the increase of household rice surplus gave the quantity of Raskin decrease, whereas the increase of fertilizers gave a negative impact on paddy planted area and lead to decrease paddy production and to decrease in rice production was followed by an decrease in household rice availability and household rice surplus, and the decrease of household rice surplus gave the quantity of Raskin increase.

  15. 78 FR 64260 - Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... corporate security policies and procedures and will involve extensive discussion of trade secrets and proprietary commercial information that is privileged and confidential, and will discuss law enforcement... protection of U.S. business information overseas. For more information, contact Marsha Thurman, Overseas...

  16. A Policy-Based Framework for Preserving Confidentiality in BYOD Environments: A Review of Information Security Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalee Vorakulpipat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, many organizations allow their employees to bring their own smartphones or tablets to work and to access the corporate network, which is known as a bring your own device (BYOD. However, many such companies overlook potential security risks concerning privacy and confidentiality. This paper provides a review of existing literature concerning the preservation of privacy and confidentiality, with a focus on recent trends in the use of BYOD. This review spans a large spectrum of information security research, ranging from management (risk and policy to technical aspects of privacy and confidentiality in BYOD. Furthermore, this study proposes a policy-based framework for preserving data confidentiality in BYOD. This framework considers a number of aspects of information security and corresponding techniques, such as policy, location privacy, centralized control, cryptography, and operating system level security, which have been omitted in previous studies. The main contribution is to investigate recent trends concerning the preservation of confidentiality in BYOD from the perspective of information security and to analyze the critical and comprehensive factors needed to strengthen data privacy in BYOD. Finally, this paper provides a foundation for developing the concept of preserving confidentiality in BYOD and describes the key technical and organizational challenges faced by BYOD-friendly organizations.

  17. Fundamentals of IP and SoC security design, verification, and debug

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Sandip; Sur-Kolay, Susmita

    2017-01-01

    This book is about security in embedded systems and it provides an authoritative reference to all aspects of security in system-on-chip (SoC) designs. The authors discuss issues ranging from security requirements in SoC designs, definition of architectures and design choices to enforce and validate security policies, and trade-offs and conflicts involving security, functionality, and debug requirements. Coverage also includes case studies from the “trenches” of current industrial practice in design, implementation, and validation of security-critical embedded systems. Provides an authoritative reference and summary of the current state-of-the-art in security for embedded systems, hardware IPs and SoC designs; Takes a "cross-cutting" view of security that interacts with different design and validation components such as architecture, implementation, verification, and debug, each enforcing unique trade-offs; Includes high-level overview, detailed analysis on implementation, and relevant case studies on desi...

  18. The Ripple Effect of Virginia Tech: Assessing the Nationwide Impact on Campus Safety and Security Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Chris; Johnson, Gina

    2008-01-01

    This report is the result of a nationwide survey conducted in March 2008 of student life officers and campus safety directors to assess the impact of the April 2007 shootings at Virginia Tech on campus safety and security policy and practice. Discussion areas include: (1) Student Privacy vs. Need-to-Know; (2) Prevention, Mitigation and Recovery;…

  19. Towards Food Security and Livelihoods of Low-income Women in central Uganda: Policy Implications based on action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nambuanyi, Lekunze Ransom; Midtvåge, Runa; Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2015-01-01

    Uganda is burdened with rising poverty, malnutrition and food insecurity. While most Ugandans depend on agriculture for their livelihoods, it is important to recognize that access to and control over resources by women and climate factors are central to the question of food security in Uganda....... However, a review of the literature demonstrates that policy options have poorly understood these interlinkages or tended to undermine them, especially the extent that these policies and programs put the necessary attention on the role of women farmers in food security. This paper presents part of a work...... in progress of a research project that seeks to investigate the interrelated effects of agricultural practices, access to and control over resources, as well as climate change on women’s food security in the urban and peri-urban areas of central Uganda. The paper not only considers how to turn...

  20. 17 CFR 37.9 - Enforceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enforceability. 37.9 Section 37.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES TRANSACTION... pursuant to the rules of, a registered derivatives transaction execution facility shall not be void...

  1. Policy Needs for Social Security in the Process of Citizenization of the Peri-urban Farmers:A Case Study of Hefei City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Jiang-lin; CHEN Rui; NI Wen-cong

    2012-01-01

    We conduct a survey of transformational towns and villages in High-tech Development District, Yaohai District and Shushan District, Hefei City. Using data, we analyze the "sideline effect" and inherent contradiction of transformational cities, research the policy needs for social security and its trend in the citizenization process of the peri-urban farmers. On this basis, we construct the social security policy system that can adapt to the accelerated process of urbanization. Finally, we put forth the following recommendations for the social security policy in the citizenization process of the peri-urban farmers: distinguishing different groups’ policy needs for social security; attaching importance to people’s dynamic policy needs for social security in urbanization; focusing on the adaptability of social security policy transformation in urbanization; attaching importance to the social psychosocial environment of social security policy transformation in urbanization; achieving the trinity of non-farm conversion, urbanization and citizenization in the process of urbanization; strengthening the government’s dominant position in the building of social security policy system.

  2. A survey of energy policy priorities in the United States: Energy supply security, economics, and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, Dawn K.; Hines, Valerie A.; Jordan, Matthew W.; Stoltz, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    Security, environment, and economic concerns are commonly identified as three major objectives of energy policy. State and federal governments have set aggressive targets for carbon emissions reductions and for alternative fuel use and increased vehicle efficiency to reduce petroleum consumption. Moreover, jobs creation and GDP growth are often cited as key drivers for energy policies. Previous studies on energy policy decision-making have examined the process for developing and evaluating options using multi-criteria decision analysis tools. In addition, energy opinion polls have either elicited preferences between two goals or whether the public supports a specific policy action. In this article, we report results from a survey of 884 members of professional membership organizations on how the U.S. should prioritize energy policy across the goals of energy supply security, environment and climate, and economics and job creation. The majority favor policymaking that is balanced across all three. Security and economic concerns increase with age for male respondents, whereas environment is the highest priority for females regardless of age. Unlike previous surveys that target the general public and focus on a particular objective or technology, these results provide an example of eliciting a portfolio allocation across multiple energy policy goals from targeted constituents. - Highlights: • We surveyed 884 members of professional membership organizations on how the U.S. should prioritize energy policy. • The paper addresses direct elicitation of energy policy goal portfolio allocation for a large set of energy stakeholders. • The majority of respondents favor policymaking balanced across multiple goals. • We observed differences in priorities based on age and gender. • Respondents expressed a tension in allocating across goals that are interrelated

  3. Towards a National Gang Strategy: A Meta-Policy Analysis of Leadership, Learning, and Organizational Change within the Law Enforcement Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Maurice V.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the process of change within law enforcement, focusing on the leadership, learning, and organizational change required to reduce crime, violence, and social disruption caused by criminal street gangs. The study tests the viability, results, and implications of a new policing model, the trans-jurisdictional task force, through…

  4. National Information Systems Security Conference (19th) held in Baltimore, Maryland on October 22-25, 1996. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-25

    realism and internal consistency of the security policies the TCB enforces; (3) make an initial assessment of the adequacy of the TOE’s policy...the exclusive right to reproduce his work, as well as to translate, arrange, transform, dramatize, cinematize , or otherwise adapt his work. In

  5. Public healthcare interests require strict competition enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loozen, Edith M H

    2015-07-01

    Several countries have introduced competition in their health systems in order to maintain the supply of high quality health care in a cost-effective manner. The introduction of competition triggers competition enforcement. Since healthcare is characterized by specific market failures, many favor healthcare-specific competition enforcement in order not only to account for the competition interest, but also for the healthcare interests. The question is whether healthcare systems based on competition can succeed when competition enforcement deviates from standard practice. This paper analyzes whether healthcare-specific competition enforcement is theoretically sound and practically effective. This is exemplified by the Dutch system that is based on regulated competition and thus crucially depends on getting competition enforcement right. Governments are responsible for correcting market failures. Markets are responsible for maximizing the public healthcare interests. By securing sufficient competitive pressure, competition enforcement makes sure they do. When interpreted according to welfare-economics, competition law takes into account both costs and benefits specific market behavior may have for healthcare. Competition agencies and judiciary are not legitimized to deviate from standard evidentiary requirements. Dutch case law shows that healthcare-specific enforcement favors the healthcare undertakings concerned, but to the detriment of public health care. Healthcare-specific competition enforcement is conceptually flawed and counterproductive. In order for healthcare systems based on competition to succeed, competition enforcement should be strict. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Food Supply Security and Import Substitution as the Key Strategic Objectives of the Modern Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Ivanovich Altukhov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A crucially new social- and economic situation has shaped up by now in the rural areas and agricultural sphere; in its many instances such situation does not fit in the national agricultural policy in effect called upon to be a long-term instrument for economic adjustment of the agro-food market and state support of the agricultural sphere, most significantly, its foundation — the farming sector. Ensuring of food supply security by import substitution in the age of the national farm product markets globalization is possible in the macro-economic conditions promoting the development of the agricultural sector. The main reason that retards this sector development is inequitable cross-sector exchange at sacrifice of the agricultural industry. The article sets forward and approbates the author’s method of simple assessment procedure of how the price cross-sector relations and state financial support (in the form of subsidies of the agricultural enterprises influence their profitability generation. Further to the assessment, the following conclusions have been made: — in view of the tangible contribution of the agricultural sector to the country economy, this sector is self-reliant for its own development, i.e. the state is reasonably in a position to increase expenses for eliminating negative consequences of inequitable crosssector exchange; — the amount of expenses for state financial support is supposed to enable the agricultural commodity producers to generate profitability to the level that can stimulate the farm workers’ labour efficiency and build up a system of affordable credit facilities for the objects of techno-engineering modernization necessary to produce competitive products. — the issue of improving the competitiveness of agricultural production should be addressed in the first place at the federal level. Among the essential factors to increase the competitiveness of specific types of domestic food products and

  7. Among cosmopolitan values and strategic interests: liberal and realist discourses of canada’s international security policy during post- cold war

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez M., Federmán

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to explain the liberal and realist discourses that underpinned the Canadian International Security Policy (CISP) during the post-Cold War. In particular, it offers evidence to show that Canadian governments inevitably debate between cosmopolitan values and strategic interests in formulating their respective policies of international security. After considering how liberal and realist orientations of this policy have been studied in the literature on CISP, it expl...

  8. 49 CFR 1542.219 - Supplementing law enforcement personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplementing law enforcement personnel. 1542.219 Section 1542.219 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.219 Supplementing law...

  9. Query Monitoring and Analysis for Database Privacy - A Security Automata Model Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Ligatti, Jay; Tu, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Privacy and usage restriction issues are important when valuable data are exchanged or acquired by different organizations. Standard access control mechanisms either restrict or completely grant access to valuable data. On the other hand, data obfuscation limits the overall usability and may result in loss of total value. There are no standard policy enforcement mechanisms for data acquired through mutual and copyright agreements. In practice, many different types of policies can be enforced in protecting data privacy. Hence there is the need for an unified framework that encapsulates multiple suites of policies to protect the data. We present our vision of an architecture named security automata model (SAM) to enforce privacy-preserving policies and usage restrictions. SAM analyzes the input queries and their outputs to enforce various policies, liberating data owners from the burden of monitoring data access. SAM allows administrators to specify various policies and enforces them to monitor queries and control the data access. Our goal is to address the problems of data usage control and protection through privacy policies that can be defined, enforced, and integrated with the existing access control mechanisms using SAM. In this paper, we lay out the theoretical foundation of SAM, which is based on an automata named Mandatory Result Automata. We also discuss the major challenges of implementing SAM in a real-world database environment as well as ideas to meet such challenges.

  10. U.S. Army War College Guide to National Security Issues. Volume 2. National Security Policy and Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    establishment of a plethora of federal agencies empowered to make policy in their realms in order to lift the country out of the Depression . Justice Robert H... depressing regularity. The fact of moral failure, rather than proving the falsity of morality, points instead to the source of our disappointment in such... Centennial Campaign: The Sioux War of 1876, Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1976, p. 23. 24. Gray, p. 89. 25. Utley, p. 253. 26. Ibid., p

  11. Testimony before the US-China Economic Security Review Commission: China's Agriculture Policy and US Access to China's Market

    OpenAIRE

    Dermot J. Hayes

    2013-01-01

    Testimony before the US-China Economic and Security Review Commission on April 25, 2013, by Dermot Hayes, professor of Economics and Finance, Iowa State University. Testimony covers impacts on food demand from China's rising incomes and urbanization; the viability of China's attempt to remain self-sufficient in meat and key staple crop production under inherent supply constraints, and the possible technological- and policy-based measures they may pursue in regard of such constraints; and, the...

  12. Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s Two Administrations: Successes and Failures of Domestic and Security Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    parties as well. It seemed also difficult to make coalitions among the opposition parties, with their diverse political identities , to win a district...explanations for Abe’s political success in his second administration. Abe’s pragmatism in statecraft mainly originated from his own political experiences...and was crucial for accumulating his political capital and realizing security policy. At the domestic level, political influence from former

  13. U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission: Emerging Factor in Western Pacific Strategic Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Those studying and analyzing Western Pacific strategic trends and develop- ments have access to multiple unclassified analyses of security trends in this region covering these waters and adjacent countries. These information resources are produced by military and government agencies from multiple countries, multinational public policy research institutions, popular and scholarly journals, and Internet resources featuring text, data, webcasts, and imagery. One of these resources is the U.S.–Ch...

  14. Drug Enforcement Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de informacin confidencial --> DEA NEWS The Drug Enforcement Administration and Discovery Education name grand winner of Operation ... JUN 15 (Washington) The United States Drug Enforcement Administration, DEA Educational Foundation and Discovery Education awarded Porter ...

  15. Changes in the SF-8 scores among healthy non-smoking school teachers after the enforcement of a smoke-free school policy: a comparison by passive smoke status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Kosuke; Itani, Yuri; Kawamura, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Yuko

    2010-04-28

    The effects of the enforcement of a smoke-free workplace policy on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among a healthy population are poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of the enforcement of a smoke-free school policy on HRQOL among healthy non-smoking schoolteachers with respect to their exposure to passive smoke. Two self-reported questionnaire surveys were conducted, the first before and the second after the enforcement of a total smoke-free public school policy in Nara City. A total of 1534 teachers were invited from 62 schools, and their HRQOL was assessed using six domains extracted from the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-8 questionnaire (SF-8): general health perception (GH), role functioning-physical (RP), vitality (VT), social functioning (SF), mental health (MH), and role functioning-emotional (RE). The participants were divided into two groups according to their exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at baseline: participants not exposed to ETS at school (non-smokers), and participants exposed to ETS at school (passive smokers). Changes in each SF-8 score were evaluated using paired t-tests for each group, and their inter-group differences were evaluated using multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for sex, age, school type, managerial position, and attitude towards a smoke-free policy. After ineligible subjects were excluded, 689 teachers were included in the analyses. The number of non-smokers and passive smokers was 447 and 242, respectively. Significant changes in SF-8 scores were observed for MH (0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-1.5) and RE (0.7; 95% CI, 0.0-1.3) in non-smokers, and GH (2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1), VT (1.8; 95% CI, 0.9-2.7), SF (2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-3.8), MH (2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9), and RE (2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8) in passive smokers. In the multiple linear regression analyses, the net changes in the category scores of GH (1.8; 95% CI, 0.7-2.9), VT (1.4, 95% CI, 0.3-2.5), SF (2

  16. Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974: rules and regulations for administration and enforcement; claims procedure. Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration, Labor. Final regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-21

    This document contains a final regulation revising the minimum requirements for benefit claims procedures of employee benefit plans covered by Title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA or the Act). The regulation establishes new standards for the processing of claims under group health plans and plans providing disability benefits and further clarifies existing standards for all other employee benefit plans. The new standards are intended to ensure more timely benefit determinations, to improve access to information on which a benefit determination is made, and to assure that participants and beneficiaries will be afforded a full and fair review of denied claims. When effective, the regulation will affect participants and beneficiaries of employee benefit plans, employers who sponsor employee benefit plans, plan fiduciaries, and others who assist in the provision of plan benefits, such as third-party benefits administrators and health service providers or health maintenance organizations that provide benefits to participants and beneficiaries of employee benefit plans.

  17. ASPECTS OF POLICIES AND STRATEGIES FOR CYBER SECURITY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilina ARMENCHEVA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Freedom and prosperity of mankind greatly depend on an innovative, safe and reliable Internet that, of course, will keep evolving. Cyber space must be protected from incidents, misuse and abuse. Handling the increasing number of threats to cyber security is a challenge that national security and the trend in the international environment face. This makes taking fast and adequate measures at national, European and international level a must. Changing national security strategies and adopting new cyber security strategies are a part of these measures.

  18. The Securitization of Migration: An Analysis of United States Border Security and Migration Policy Toward Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    constituted officer of the law , or to prevent the commission of a felony.109 On 27 February 1925, the U.S. Congress passed Public Law 502 (PL502), which...INS Immigration and Naturalization Service IRCA Immigration Reform and Control Act MOU Memorandum of Understanding NAFTA North American Free...major border communities, law enforcement officials conduct patrols behind massive fences while floodlights illuminate the border at night in an

  19. Regulatory Enforcement and Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    1999-01-01

    This study of municipal enforcement of agro-environmental regulations in Denmark provides an empirical understanding of how enforcement affects compliance. A key contribution is sorting out the relative influence of inspectors' different styles of enforcement and choices made by enforcement...... agencies. The latter are shown to be more important in bringing about compliance than are inspectors' enforcement styles. Municipal agencies are shown to increase compliance through the use of third parties, more frequent inspection, and setting priorities for inspection of major items. The findings about...

  20. Speed enforcement in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    and the police. This model makes predictions both about how drivers will adapt to changes in the amount of enforcement (the more enforcement, the less violations) as well as how the police will adapt to changes in the rate of violations (the less violations, the less enforcement). The paper attempts to test...... in the amount of enforcement. The predictions of the game-theoretic model were supported, although the results were not statistically significant in the model of how the police adapt enforcement to changes in the rate of violations....

  1. REDD policy impacts on the agri-food sector and food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabeau, A.A.; Meijl, van J.C.M.; Overmars, K.P.; Stehfest, Elke

    2015-01-01

    The REDD policy which preserves, enables substantial emission reductions. Since agricultural production and area expansion is a primary driver of tropical deforestation, REDD policies might limit the expansion possibilities of agricultural land use and therefore influence competitiveness,

  2. Asylum migration and the construction of the European Common Foreign and Security Policy: evidence from the Greek case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lucía Forero Castañeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the recent evolution of asylum migration has affected the construction of the European Common Foreign and Security Policy (EU-CFSP, taking the Greek case during the 2001-2012 period as a starting point. With this in mind, the normative progress of the EU-CFSP facing the reception of asylum seekers in Greece is analyzed, under the scope of what Barry Buzan and Ole Waever would call Securitization Process. Both legal and political frameworks on asylum migration in Greece and in the European Union are approached, in the context of the evolution of the EU-CFSP in three main areas: Neighborhood Policy, Development and Cooperation Policy, and Human Rights Protection. The conclusión points toward the partial influence of asylum migration in the configuration of the UE-CFSP during the studied period.

  3. The Effects of National Policy on Refugee Welfare and Related Security Issues: A Comparative Case Study of Lebanon, Egypt and Syria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cleary, Jessica E

    2008-01-01

    .... However, it is the effects of state policy that actually shape the living conditions and the opportunities available for refugees, and in turn influence the security repercussions they can set in motion...

  4. Clausewitz and the Theory of Military Strategy in Europe - Reflections Upon a Paradigm of Military Strategy Within the European Common Security and Defense Policy (ESDP)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartmann, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    ... as a core element of the Common Security and Defense Policy of the EU, Based on the interpretation of Clausewitz's theory of war and strategy in Britain, France, and Germany, main commonalities...

  5. Assessment of the NRC Enforcement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.; Coblentz, L.

    1995-04-01

    On May 12, 1994, the Executive Director for Operations (EDO) established a Review Team composed of senior NRC managers to re-examine the NRC enforcement program. A copy of the Review Team's charter is enclosed as Appendix A. This report presents the Team's assessment. The purpose of this review effort are: (1) to perform an assessment of the NRC's enforcement program to determine whether the defined purposes of the enforcement program are appropriate; (2) to determine whether the NRC's enforcement practices and procedures for issuing enforcement actions are consistent with those purposes; and (3) to provide recommendations on any changes the Review Team believes advisable. In accordance with its charter, the Review Team considered the following principal issues in conducting its assessment of the enforcement program: the balance between providing deterrence and incentives (both positive and negative) for the identification and correction of violations; the appropriateness of NRC sanctions; whether the commission should seek statutory authority to increase the amount of civil penalties; whether the NRC should use different enforcement policies and practices for different licensees (e.g., materials licensees in contrast to power reactors or large fuel facilities); and whether the commission should establish open enforcement conferences as the normal practice

  6. Model-Driven Configuration of SELinux Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agreiter, Berthold; Breu, Ruth

    The need for access control in computer systems is inherent. However, the complexity to configure such systems is constantly increasing which affects the overall security of a system negatively. We think that it is important to define security requirements on a non-technical level while taking the application domain into respect in order to have a clear and separated view on security configuration (i.e. unblurred by technical details). On the other hand, security functionality has to be tightly integrated with the system and its development process in order to provide comprehensive means of enforcement. In this paper, we propose a systematic approach based on model-driven security configuration to leverage existing operating system security mechanisms (SELinux) for realising access control. We use UML models and develop a UML profile to satisfy these needs. Our goal is to exploit a comprehensive protection mechanism while rendering its security policy manageable by a domain specialist.

  7. Land use change emissions from oil palm expansion in Pará, Brazil depend on proper policy enforcement on deforested lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Sahoko; Yeh, Sonia

    2013-12-01

    Brazil aims to increase palm oil production to meet the growing national and global demand for edible oil and biodiesel while preserving environmentally and culturally significant areas. As land use change (LUC) is the result of complex interactions between socio-economic and biophysical drivers operating at multiple temporal and spatial scales, the type and location of LUC depend on drivers such as neighboring land use, conversion elasticity, access to infrastructure, distance to markets, and land suitability. The purpose of this study is to develop scenarios to measure the impact of land conversion under three different enforcement scenarios (none, some, and strict enforcement). We found that converting 22.5 million hectares of land can produce approximately 29 billion gallons (110 billion liters) of biodiesel a year. Of that, 22-71% of the area can come from forest land, conservation units, wetland and indigenous areas, emitting 14-84 gCO2e MJ-1. This direct land use emission alone can be higher than the carbon intensity of diesel that it intends to displace for lowering greenhouse gas emissions. This letter focuses narrowly on GHG emissions and does not address socio-economic-ecological prospects for these degraded lands for palm oil or for other purposes. Future studies should carefully evaluate these tradeoffs.

  8. Land use change emissions from oil palm expansion in Pará, Brazil depend on proper policy enforcement on deforested lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yui, Sahoko; Yeh, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Brazil aims to increase palm oil production to meet the growing national and global demand for edible oil and biodiesel while preserving environmentally and culturally significant areas. As land use change (LUC) is the result of complex interactions between socio-economic and biophysical drivers operating at multiple temporal and spatial scales, the type and location of LUC depend on drivers such as neighboring land use, conversion elasticity, access to infrastructure, distance to markets, and land suitability. The purpose of this study is to develop scenarios to measure the impact of land conversion under three different enforcement scenarios (none, some, and strict enforcement). We found that converting 22.5 million hectares of land can produce approximately 29 billion gallons (110 billion liters) of biodiesel a year. Of that, 22–71% of the area can come from forest land, conservation units, wetland and indigenous areas, emitting 14–84 gCO 2 e MJ −1 . This direct land use emission alone can be higher than the carbon intensity of diesel that it intends to displace for lowering greenhouse gas emissions. This letter focuses narrowly on GHG emissions and does not address socio-economic–ecological prospects for these degraded lands for palm oil or for other purposes. Future studies should carefully evaluate these tradeoffs. (letter)

  9. The mass balance of production and consumption: Supporting policy-makers for aquatic food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, A. S.; Ferreira, J. G.; Vale, C.; Johansen, J.

    2017-03-01

    the world, well above both Malaysia and South Korea (each with 58 kg ind-1 y-1). The corrected data show that Portugal had the highest consumption rate in the world until the mid-1970's, when it was overtaken by Iceland for reasons discussed herein. The lack of detailed per-species consumption data, as well as the grouping of species by commodities, hinders a more detailed seafood consumption analysis, required by policy makers and stakeholders to effectively develop management measures to reduce illegal fishing or bycatch, and to correctly formulate strategic options for development of aquaculture and fisheries, necessary for ensuring food security over the next decades.

  10. Compliance. Regulatory policy P-211

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This regulatory policy describes the basic principles and directives for establishing and conducting the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) Compliance Program. The program is aimed at securing compliance by regulated persons with regulatory requirements made under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act ('the Act'). The policy applies to persons who are regulated by the CNSC through the Act, regulations and licences, as well as by decisions and orders made under the Act. The policy applies to officers and employees of the CNSC, and its authorized representatives or agents, who are involved in developing and carrying out compliance activities. Compliance, in the context of this policy, means conformity by regulated persons with the legally binding requirements of the Act, and the CNSC regulations, licences, decisions, and orders made under the Act. Compliance activities are CNSC measures of promotion, verification and enforcement aimed at securing compliance by regulated person with the applicable legally binding requirements. (author)

  11. News media representations of a common EU foreign and security policy: a cross-national content analysis of CFSP coverage in national quality newspapers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandyla, A.-A.; de Vreese, C.

    2011-01-01

    This study is a cross-national comparative content analysis of the broadsheet press coverage of EU Common Foreign and Security issues (n=1453) focusing on the presence of indicators of a European Public Sphere. Specifically, we investigated the visibility of Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)

  12. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: United States energy security, oil politics, and petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubouef, Bruce Andre

    The history of U.S. petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century, including the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program, provides a case study of the economic and political aspects of national security, and shows the ways in which the American political economy influences national security. One key problem plagued federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals throughout the twentieth century. In a political economy which traditionally placed strong emphasis upon the sanctity of private property and free markets, could the government develop an emergency petroleum reserve policy despite opposition from the private sector? Previous literature on the SPR and oil-stockpiling programs has largely disregarded the historical perspective, focusing instead upon econometric models, suggesting future oil-stockpiling policy options. This study will also make conclusions about the future of governmental oil-stockpiling policies, particularly with regard to the SPR program, but it will do so informed by a systematic history of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse in the twentieth century. Through a study of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse, one can see how the American political economy of oil and energy changed over the twentieth century. As petroleum became crucial to the military and then economic security of the United States, the federal government sought to develop emergency petroleum reserves first for the military, then for the civilian economy. But while the American petroleum industry could deliver the energy "goods" to American energy consumers at a reasonable price, the companies reigned supreme in the political equation. While that was true, federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals conflicted with and were overwhelmed by the historic American tradition of individual economic and private property rights. The depletion of American petroleum reserves changed that political equation, and the ensuing energy crises of the 1970s not only

  13. Nutrition and food security policy in the Islamic Republic of Iran: situation analysis and roadmap towards 2021.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damari, Behzad; Abdollahi, Zahra; Hajifaraji, Majid; Rezazadeh, Arezoo

    2018-05-03

    All government policies and programmes for food and nutrition security should include providing healthy food, as well as providing economic and social availability for all people. This study aimed to analyse the current situation of Iranian food and nutrition security and establish a road map towards 2021. The applied methods were situation analysis and a mixed qualitative-quantitative method. The conceptual method used for developing this national document encompassed three areas: sustainable food supply, food safety and nutrition. The outcomes of the Iranian food and nutrition security system in the past three decades include development of management infrastructure and improvement in food and nutrition security status. However, analysis of current programmes showed that there were some overlapping, intertwining and parallel works in the responsibilities of related organizations in the field of supervision of food safety (from production to supply). The national document produced as the outcome of this paper was communicated by the Iranian Ministry of Health in 2012 and has been running for 2 years. Selected ministries are responsible for implementation of 20 national programmes by the end of the 5th Economic, Social and Cultural Development Programme (2016-2011). The consensus of stakeholders by the end of the 6th Development Programme (2021) is to put all of the provinces in a safe or very safe situation in terms of food and nutrition security. The most important challenge in establishing national documents is to make them operational. This aim was achieved by an intersectoral nutrition and food security working group, which produced a general memorandum of understanding with the main organizations, the media, universities and private sector. Copyright © World Health Organization (WHO) 2018. Some rights reserved. This work is available under the CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/igo).

  14. AspectKE*:Security Aspects with Program Analysis for Distributed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    AspectKE* is the first distributed AOP language based on a tuple space system. It is designed to enforce security policies to applications containing untrusted processes. One of the key features is the high-level predicates that extract results of static program analysis. These predicates provide...

  15. Weak and Failing States: Evolving Security Threats and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wyler, Liana S

    2008-01-01

    .... national security goal since the end of the Cold War. Numerous U.S. government documents point to several threats emanating from states that are variously described as weak, fragile, vulnerable, failing, precarious, failed, in crisis, or collapsed...

  16. Cybersecurity via Intermediaries : Analyzing Security Measurements to Understand Intermediary Incentives and Inform Public Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asghari, H.

    2016-01-01

    Research in the field of information security economics has clarified how attacker and defender incentives affect cybersecurity. It has also highlighted the role of intermediaries in strengthening cybersecurity. Intermediaries are organizations and firms that provide the Internet’s infrastructure

  17. Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    .... officials say they are not sure the effort is "winning." These assessments emphasize a growing sense of insecurity in areas around Kabul previously considered secure, and increased numbers of civilian and military deaths...

  18. Striking First: Preemptive and Preventive Attack in U.S. National Security Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mueller, Karl P; Castillo, Jasen J; Morgan, Forrest E; Pegahi, Negeen; Rosen, Brian

    2006-01-01

    .... U.S. leaders recast the national security strategy to place greater emphasis on the threats posed by violent nonstate actors and by states from which they might acquire nuclear, biological, or chemical...

  19. Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    .... Both the official U.S. as well as outside assessments increasingly point to Pakistan's failure to prevent Taliban and other militant infiltration into Afghanistan as a cause of the security deterioration...

  20. What is the place of the energy supply security and energy independence in the energy policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    Since the petroleum crisis and the electric power cuts of the 1999 storm, the energy security interest is growing. The author recall the structural risks of the energy systems and the vulnerability of the occidental economies to the supply disruptions. They propose then a long term cooperation between producer and consumer countries, a development of operational tools to face the crisis and a supply security inside the europe. (A.L.B.)

  1. Enforcement and judicial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The 1990 Amendments to the enforcement provisions of the Clean Air Act generally give the Administrator and the courts broader powers to enforce the substantive provisions of the Act. The changes include wider applicability of civil sanctions, increased criminal penalties, broader emergency powers, broader inspection powers, and increased citizen involvement in enforcement and administrative decisionmaking. Another significant change is the addition of an administrative penalty scheme that would allow EPA to use streamlined procedures to assess administrative penalties of up to $200,000 (or more, in some cases). Furthermore, the Amendments extend the prohibition against entering into government contracts with violators to other facilities owned or operated by the convicted person. This chapter summarizes the statutory enforcement provisions of the Clean Air Act. It covers the new civil and criminal enforcement provisions, the new administrative penalty scheme, and the new provisions allowing broader public involvement in enforcement proceedings

  2. 8 CFR 270.2 - Enforcement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PENALTIES FOR DOCUMENT FRAUD § 270.2 Enforcement procedures. (a) Procedures for the filing of complaints. Any person or entity... charges for document fraud committed by refugees at the time of entry. The Service shall not issue a...

  3. 12 CFR 403.11 - Enforcement and investigation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement and investigation procedures. 403.11 Section 403.11 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.11 Enforcement and investigation...

  4. Environmental Enforcement Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Current statewide map of the geographic territories of Environmental Enforcement Officers. Part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's...

  5. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  6. EPA Administrative Enforcement Dockets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Administrative Enforcement Dockets database contains the electronic dockets for administrative penalty cases filed by EPA Regions and Headquarters. Visitors...

  7. 77 FR 76076 - Information Security Oversight Office; State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ..., Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... made for the committee meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory..., Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities. DATES: The meeting will be held on January 30, 2013, 10:00 a...

  8. Political and Institutional Drivers of Social Security Policy in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Ulriksen, Marianne; Plagerson, Sophie

    studies with varying policy outcomes: 1) the social cash transfer system, which is well established; and 2) the National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme, a recent policy, which has suffered several delays. Building on the power resource and historical institutionalism approaches, we explore how different...

  9. Managing and Securing Critical Infrastructure - A Semantic Policy and Trust Driven Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    enviromental factors, then it is very likely that the corresponding device has been compromised and controlled by an adversary. In this case, the report... Enviromental Factors in Faulty Case (b) Result of Policy Execution in Faulty Case Figure 7: Policy Execution in Faulty Case (a) Enviromental Factors

  10. Cyber Security: Assessing Our Vulnerabilities and Developing an Effective Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spafford, Eugene H.

    The number and sophistication of cyberattacks continues to increase, but no national policy is in place to confront them. Critical systems need to be built on secure foundations, rather than the cheapest general-purpose platform. A program that combines education in cyber security, increasing resources for law enforcement, development of reliable systems for critical applications, and expanding research support in multiple areas of security and reliability is essential to combat risks that are far beyond the nuisances of spam email and viruses, and involve widespread espionage, theft, and attacks on essential services.

  11. Energy policy for Europe. Ensuring secure and low-carbon energy in the EU's internal market. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egenhofer, C.; Hammes, J.J.; Pedersen, K.

    2006-12-01

    In early March 2006, the European Commission re-launched the discussion on an Energy Policy for Europe with the 2006 publication of its Green Paper 'Secure, Competitive and Sustainable Energy for Europe'. This manifests the EU's will to broaden its reflection on its future energy systems, taking into account increasing market liberalisation and globalisation, environmental pressures, technological challenges and the growing import dependency from politically unstable regions. Other major contributions to this debate include the climate change communication 'Winning the battle against climate change' (published in 2005), the Green Paper on Energy Efficiency (2005), the Energy Efficiency Action Plan (2006), the ongoing works of the High Level Group on Competitiveness, Energy and the Environment (2006) and the enquiry into the energy sector by DG Competition of the European Commission in 2006. The Spring European Council in March 2006 welcomed the Energy Policy Green Paper and committed itself adopting a prioritised Action Plan at its spring session in 2007, to be prepared by the European Commission and the Energy Council. Early next year, the European Commission will table both the EU Strategic Energy Review, accompanied by a number of sectoral policies and a Green Paper on future climate change policy for the period post-2012 when the Kyoto Protocol expires. Both the EU Strategic Energy Review and the post-2012 Green Paper will outline the European Union (EU) 'energy and climate change vision' and propose a roadmap towards achieving EU energy and climate change objectives, namely, how to ensure the competitiveness of European industries while at the same time combating climate change and ensuring security of energy supply. To contribute to this debate, the CEPS multi-stakeholder Task Force on 'energy policy for Europe' has presented this Interim Report, which attempts to develop the key elements for an EU energy policy framework. Although this report will focus

  12. New directions for African security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastrup, Toni; Dijkstra, Hylke

    2017-01-01

    African security, particularly conflict-related political violence, is a key concern in international relations. This forum seeks to advance existing research agendas by addressing four key themes: domestic politics and peacekeeping; security sector reform programs; peace enforcement; and the

  13. Exploring Resource Security Policy and Green Science and Technology in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    consumption patterns, diets and resource use of its population that will only increase 1...Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand and Malaysia - have started to put, if not ramped up existing, green policies in place. 9 In India, the government’s

  14. Nuclear Weapons in U.S. National Security Policy: Past, Present, and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woolf, Amy F

    2008-01-01

    .... During the Cold War, the United States often modified, or tailored, its nuclear targeting doctrine, its nuclear weapons employment policy, and its nuclear force structure to enhance or maintain...

  15. Financial Reporting Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Carsten

    the auditors’ auditing efforts, which are made in conjunction with the impact of the enforcement of auditors and limitations on the auditors’ liability. However, research indicates that strict enforcement is a prerequisite for ensuring compliance with accounting regulations (Hail and Leuz 2006, Daske et al...

  16. Party Politics and Greek Security Policy from 1974 to 1984: Change and Continuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    it was stated that: The challenge for American policy aakers who want to ensure the tuture of the alliance is to adopt policies which respond to...parliament building. Most of the personal - ities represented the perpetuation of the Greek military regime which had controlled Greece since the 1967 Greek...brought a degree of prosperity to Greece. 12 His resignation in 1963 as a result of disagreement with the King marked him as a person of independent

  17. A Security plan for LMOs - concentrated on environmental policy of Biosafety Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Ha [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Biotechnology industry in Korea is raised by the national support. Also, Korea imports 70% of entire agricultural products. Considering the present situation in Korea, signing a Biosafety Protocol is necessary to prevent harm by LMOs and to protect associated biotechnological industry. Therefore, the problems on signing Biosafety Protocol were analyzed and the environmental policy to be pursued was proposed. This study result will be a cornerstone to prepare a definite environmental policy by government. 54 refs., 7 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Food Safety as a contributor to Food Security: global policy concerns & challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

    2015-12-01

    Microphysical particles such as glass and metal can be hazardous and cause serious injury to consumers. Pathogenic bacteria, viruses and toxins produced by microorganisms are all possible contaminants of food and impact food safety. Like food security, food safety is also effected by poverty and climate change. Hence Foo

  19. Swiss Strategic Communication in the Defense Sector and Its Implications for Swiss Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    rejected because of its projected higher costs compared to buying the fighter jets.392 Through a public -private partnership, the needed Gripens would...necessary military strategies, overall efficiency and coherence can be augmented to the benefit of national security, the public finances, and the...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. SWISS STRATEGIC

  20. European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP) After Ten Years - Current Situation and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Reconnaissance and Observation ( MUSIS ), enhancement of the use of the EU Satellite-Center (EUSC), enhancement of Unmanned Armed Vehicles (UAV), Maritime Mine...stipulated by the capability declaration of 2008, are within the responsibility of the agency. Specific capabilities initiatives, such as the MUSIS ...Product ISAF = International Security Assistance Force KFOR = NATO Kosovo Force MUSIS = Multinational Space-Based Imaging System for Surveillance

  1. Economics and National Security: Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    College, K-12, and Early Childhood Education ............................................................. 25 Science, Technology, Engineering, and...to democratize because democracies were more likely than dictatorships to have shared values and to keep the peace; and • Western culture was...ahead of the United States in all three categories.57 College, K-12, and Early Childhood Education58 The 2010 National Security Strategy proposes that

  2. Relevance of Clean Coal Technology for India’s Energy Security: A Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit; Tiwari, Vineet; Vishwanathan, Saritha

    2017-07-01

    Climate change mitigation regimes are expected to impose constraints on the future use of fossil fuels in order to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In 2015, 41% of total final energy consumption and 64% of power generation in India came from coal. Although almost a sixth of the total coal based thermal power generation is now super critical pulverized coal technology, the average CO2 emissions from the Indian power sector are 0.82 kg-CO2/kWh, mainly driven by coal. India has large domestic coal reserves which give it adequate energy security. There is a need to find options that allow the continued use of coal while considering the need for GHG mitigation. This paper explores options of linking GHG emission mitigation and energy security from 2000 to 2050 using the AIM/Enduse model under Business-as-Usual scenario. Our simulation analysis suggests that advanced clean coal technologies options could provide promising solutions for reducing CO2 emissions by improving energy efficiencies. This paper concludes that integrating climate change security and energy security for India is possible with a large scale deployment of advanced coal combustion technologies in Indian energy systems along with other measures.

  3. Career Obsolescence and Social Security: Emerging Education Policy Issues in Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandow, Stuart A.

    This document is the second in a series of studies designed to examine the legal aspects of various potential educational problems in our society. This particular study deals with the case of a highly trained aerospace technician who sues the social security trust for loan benefits, arguing that he is economically disabled and has been retired by…

  4. Food Safety as a contributor to Food Security: global policy concerns & challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme for World Health Day campaign for this year 2015 is “Food safety: from farm to plate, make food safe”. The day focuses on demonstrating the importance of food safety along the whole length of the food chain in a globalized world, from production and transport, to preparation and consumption (1. Everyone needs food and needs it every day either plant sources or animal sources or both. The food we eat must be nutritious and safe but we often ignore or overlook the issue of food safety. Many cases of food borne diseases either acute poisoning or chronic exposure are largely under reported. In this globalized world, though the food chain extends over thousands of miles from different continents, an error or contamination in one country can affect the health of consumers on the other part of the world. To ensure full impact, these actions must build on principles of government stewardship, engagement of civil society, (2.According to UN, access to a safe and secure food supply is a basic human right. Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts which have an impact on the health outcomes and quality of human lives. As per Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO, Food security is a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life, (3. Based on the definition of Food security, four food security dimensions can be identified: food availability, economic and physical access to food, food utilization and stability over time. Apart from that food security is also affected by Poverty and Climate change.Food safety is an umbrella term that encompasses many aspects like food items handling, preparation and storage of food to prevent illness and injury. The other important issues are chemical, microphysical and microbiological aspects of food safety, (4. Control of

  5. PACE: Proactively Secure Accumulo with Cryptographic Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-27

    will be replaced with the values from the decrypted destination field. PACE encrypts data using AES and supports the following modes: CTR, CFB, CBC, OFB...2) Searchable Encryption : PACE also support searching for encrypted data. This is done using AES in SIV mode [11] to provide deterministic encryption ...row ”Alphabet”), then the search term is encrypted deterministically, and that term is searched on the server. Because AES does not preserve the

  6. Consumer Food Security and Labeling Intervention on Food Products through Public Policies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacinia Crina Petrescu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The correct understanding of consumers’ food labeling knowledge and perceptions is a prerequisite to develop and implement coherent and appropriate food safety policies. One objective of the paper was to discover how often consumers access and use specific food label information. Another objective was to explore stakeholders’ preferences for several public policy options relevant for food safety. In this respect, a survey on a sample of 312 Romanian consumers and the evaluation of several public policy options by four stakeholder groups (food producers and sellers, doctors, fitness trainers, and consumers were carried out. The results revealed that the most frequently read types of information on the label were “expiration date” and “price”, closely followed by “quantity” and “brand”. Among tested public policies, those related to the traffic light labels and to the social interest messages with health claims were rewarded with high scores by investigated stakeholders. Although nutrition has a decisive impact on health state, nutrition information was not frequently read by people, thus justifying the implementation of a public policy meant to enhance consumers’ interest in and reading frequency of nutrition information on food label.

  7. Regional disaster risk management strategies for food security: Probing Southern African Development Community channels for influencing national policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Happy M. Tirivangasi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters and food insecurity are directly interconnected. Climate change related hazards such as floods, hurricanes, tsunamis, droughts and other risks can weaken food security and severely impact agricultural activities. Consequently, this has an impact on market access, trade, food supply, reduced income, increased food prices, decreased farm income and employment. Natural disasters create poverty, which in turn increases the prevalence of food insecurity and malnutrition. It is clear that disasters put food security at risk. The poorest people in the community are affected by food insecurity and disasters; hence, there is a need to be prepared as well as be in a position to manage disasters. Without serious efforts to address them, the risks of disasters will become an increasingly serious obstacle to sustainable development and the achievement of sustainable development goals, particularly goal number 2 ‘end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture’. In recent years, countries in southern Africa have experienced an increase in the frequency, magnitude and impact of climate change–related hazards such as droughts, veld fire, depleting water resources and flood events. This research aims to reveal Southern African Development Community disaster risk management strategies for food security to see how they an influence and shape policy at the national level in southern Africa. Sustainable Livelihood approach was adopted as the main theoretical framework for the study. The qualitative Analysis is based largely on data from databases such as national reports, regional reports and empirical findings on the disaster management–sustainable development nexus.

  8. Sustainable Food Security in the Mountains of Pakistan: Towards a Policy Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Golam; Hussain, Abid

    2015-01-01

    The nature and causes of food and livelihood security in mountain areas are quite different to those in the plains. Rapid socioeconomic and environmental changes added to the topographical constraints have exacerbated the problem of food insecurity in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region. In Pakistan, food insecurity is significantly higher in the mountain areas than in the plains as a result of a range of biophysical and socioeconomic factors. The potential of mountain niche products such as fruit, nuts, and livestock has remained underutilized. Moreover, the opportunities offered by globalization, market integration, remittances, and non-farm income have not been fully tapped. This paper analyzes the opportunities and challenges of food security in Pakistan's mountain areas, and outlines a framework for addressing the specific issues in terms of four different types of area differentiated by agro-ecological potential and access to markets, information, and institutional services.

  9. FOOD SECURITY PROVIDING OF THE SVERDLOVSKAYA OBLAST POPULATION AS THE AGRARIAN POLICY BASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Fedorov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Food safety may be interpreted as production systems attribute providing during different technological processes the security and the quality of food products. The key role in this is played by control systems over these processes. Any control system is based on the information data concerning efficiency and state of the system. This information is necessary for operative quality management and the frequency of hypothetic deviations may serve as a universal numeric indicator of the technological processes breakages. The basic elements of food security provision in the region are seen as the following: orientation on our own resources; agro industrial complex restructuring wits a due account of disproportions in its spheres; innovation changes in the production processes in view of competitiveness increase; nutrition improvement and health of the population.

  10. DTIC Review: Biometric Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ...: Biometrics, the study of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits, is a critical tool used in law enforcement, computer security and homeland defense...

  11. Sports Venue Security: Public Policy Options for Sear 4-5 Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    team which commands the highest attendance is the world-renowned New York Yankees franchise . The Yankees games average 10,300 people per pre-season...spectator-patron buy -in to partner with the government and private sector for funding SEAR 4–5 venue security. As shown in Chapter III, the sports...now. Further, the sports ticket buying public has also accepted the purely for profit convenience fees already attached to sporting event ticket

  12. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    Security Council Resolution 1193 (August 28, 1998) and 1214 (December 8, 1998) urged the Taliban to end discrimination against women . Women’s rights ...powers to compensate. Gives men and women equal rights under the law, allows for political parties as long as they are not “un-Islamic;” allows for...implement the NAPWA and all of its past commitments and laws to strengthen the rights of women and provide services to them. The major institutional

  13. Mitigating Insider Threats in the Domestic Aviation System: Policy Options for the Transportation Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Birmingham Airport to come up with a set of short-, mid-, and long-term initiatives for its employees. The first step was to pull the top layer of...programs are defensive and akin to a goalie patrolling the net. They know what they are defending against and the area (goal) they are protecting...Unfortunately, even the best goalies from time to time have the ball kicked past them. At their core, security programs can be split into two main

  14. Analysis of Department of Defense Social Media Policy and Its Impact on Operational Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    MWR Morale, Welfare , and Recreation NIPRNET Non-secure Internet Protocol Router Network NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NSA...cyber risks at both the national and international levels (DOD, 2011). This is because many domestic technology firms outsource software production...provided by morale, welfare , and recreation (MWR), military exchanges, and lodging programs for use by authorized patrons. C) Applies to contractors

  15. The Impact of the Soviet Military Presence in the Arctic Region on Norwegian Security Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Admiral Roy Breivik , "Assuring the Security of Reinforcements to Norway", NATO’s Sixteen Nations, Special nr 2, (1982): 67. Former Director General of...34Norway Country Portrait", (1984): 53. 17 Holst, (1982): 27. 18 German, (1982): 61. 19 Bjol, (1983): 25. 20 Breivik , (1982): 68. 21 Interview, Major Kurt...1, (January 1981): 5-7. 137 Vinogradov, N., as translated by Suggs, Robert C., "Let’s Go to Hammerfest", Red Star, (February 1985). Wall, Patrick

  16. A Formal Model of Trust Chain based on Multi-level Security Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Kong Xiangying

    2013-01-01

    Trust chain is the core technology of trusted computing. A formal model of trust chain based on finite state automata theory is proposed. We use communicating sequential processes to describe the system state transition in trust chain and by combining with multi-level security strategy give the definition of trust system and trust decision theorem of trust chain transfer which is proved meantime. Finally, a prototype system is given to show the efficiency of the model.

  17. Dividend Policy: A Survey of Malaysian Public Listed Companies and Security Analysts

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, David Voon Chee

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation revisits the dividend puzzle and attempts to answer the fundamental question of “why do companies pay dividends?” by using a simple regression model incorporating the major theories on dividend relevance. In addition, this research investigates if the opinions of companies (both dividend and non-dividend paying) and security analysts differ with respect to the various explanations for paying dividends. Finally, this research also explores the views and opinions of corporate ...

  18. Social Security reform: evaluating current proposals. Latest results of the EBRI-SSASIM2 policy simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, C; VanDerhei, J; Salisbury, D L

    1999-06-01

    The present Social Security program has been shown to be financially unsustainable in the future without modification to the current program. The purpose of this Issue Brief, EBRI's fourth in a series on Social Security reform, is threefold: to illustrate new features of the EBRI-SSASIM2 policy simulation model not available in earlier EBRI publications, to expand quantitative analysis to specific proposals, and to evaluate the uncertainty involved in proposals that rely on equity investment. This analysis compares the Gregg/Breaux-Kolbe/Stenholm (GB-KS) and Moynihan/Kerrey proposals with three generic or "traditional" reforms: increasing taxes, reducing benefits, and/or increasing the retirement age. Both proposals would create individual accounts by "carving out" funds from current Social Security payroll taxes. This analysis also examines other proposed changes that would "add on" to existing Social Security funds through the use of general revenue transfers and/or investment in the equities market. President Clinton has proposed a general revenue transfer and the collective investment of some of the OASDI trust fund assets in equities. Reps. Archer and Shaw have proposed a general revenue tax credit to establish individual accounts that would be invested partially in the equities markets. When comparing Social Security reform proposals that would specifically alter benefit levels, the Moynihan/Kerrey bill compares quite favorably with the other proposals in both benefit levels and payback ratios, when individuals elect to use the individual account option. In contrast, the GB-KS bills do not compare quite as favorably for their benefit levels, but do compare favorably in terms of payback ratios. An important comparison in these bills is the administrative costs of managing the individual accounts, since benefits can be lowered by up to 23 percent when going from the assumed low to high administrative costs. Moreover, allowing individuals to decide whether to

  19. Sustainable Livestock Production in The Perspective of National Food Security Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeppy D Soedjana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the role that livestock play in various dimensions of food security. Food security is defined as a state of affairs where all people at all times have access to safe and nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life. Availability, accessibility, and affordability of individuals to consume food according to their respective socio-economic conditions are important dimensions. It describes the place of livestock products in human nutrition, the contribution of livestock to the national food supply and the way that livestock can affect food access, as a direct source of food and a source of income. Access to food is the most basic human right, especially for Indonesia with more than 240 million people with annual growth of 1.3%. To secure food availability, a sustainable food production growth more than 2% per year, including animal protein sources, is needed. It is necessary to strengthen food supply by maximizing available resources; improve food distribution system to guarantee a stable food supply and public access; encourage diversified food consumption; and prevent as well as resolve food scarcity. Furthermore, within the national objectives for self-sufficiency in rice, corn, soybean, and white sugar, the current annual percapita consumption of livestock products has reached 6.96 kg (meat, 7.3 kg (eggs and 16.5 kg (milk, which indicates good progress to stimulate sustainable domestic livestock production.

  20. Strategic Culture and Energy Security Policy of South Korea: The Case of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehyun

    2012-01-01

    The U. S. - ROK Civil Nuclear Cooperation Agreement highlights the dilemma of contemporary international non-proliferation regime. Non-Proliferation Treaty has represented an awkward balance between the ideal of nuclear energy and the reality of nuclear weapons. It is neither complete nor effective. It is not complete because it does not cover all the issues with respect to nuclear energy, which have become increasingly complex. Nuclear security, for example, is not an issue that it addresses, and it is precisely why President Obama called for the unprecedented Nuclear Security Summit. It is not effective. It has failed in preventing proliferation of nuclear weapons states, India, Israel, Pakistan and North Korea, who remain outside of the regime. An international regime is defined as 'a set of principles, norms, rules, and decision-procedures around which actors' expectations converge. The extents to which actors' expectations converge and forceful measures in the name of international community against any violation are justified will measure its effectiveness. NPT regime is sub-par on that. The world is in dire need of a comprehensive and integrated regime for nuclear energy regime, where proliferation, security, and safety concern are effectively addressed. South Korea, if it truly wants to become a key player in the field, has to be one of its architects. The ability to meet the challenge of revising Civil Nuclear Cooperation Agreement will show if it is a qualified architect