WorldWideScience

Sample records for secured cryptographic key

  1. Cryptographic Key Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2014-02-21

    This report summarizes the outcome of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-OE0000543, requesting the design of a Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) for the secure management of cryptographic keys for the energy sector infrastructure. Prime contractor Sypris Electronics, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Valicore Technologies, and Purdue University's Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) and Smart Meter Integration Laboratory (SMIL), has designed, developed and evaluated the CKMS solution. We provide an overview of the project in Section 3, review the core contributions of all contractors in Section 4, and discuss bene ts to the DOE in Section 5. In Section 6 we describe the technical construction of the CKMS solution, and review its key contributions in Section 6.9. Section 7 describes the evaluation and demonstration of the CKMS solution in different environments. We summarize the key project objectives in Section 8, list publications resulting from the project in Section 9, and conclude with a discussion on commercialization in Section 10 and future work in Section 11.

  2. A Key Generation Model for Improving the Security of Cryptographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryptography is a mathematical technique that plays an important role in information security techniques for addressing authentication, interactive proofs, data origination, sender/receiver identity, non-repudiation, secure computation, data integrity and confidentiality, message integrity checking and digital signatures.

  3. An adaptive secret key-directed cryptographic scheme for secure transmission in wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, K.; Jan, Z.; Khan, Z

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are memory and bandwidth limited networks whose main goals are to maximize the network lifetime and minimize the energy consumption and transmission cost. To achieve these goals, different techniques of compression and clustering have been used. However, security is an open and major issue in WSNs for which different approaches are used, both in centralized and distributed WSNs' environments. This paper presents an adaptive cryptographic scheme for secure transmission of various sensitive parameters, sensed by wireless sensors to the fusion center for further processing in WSNs such as military networks. The proposed method encrypts the sensitive captured data of sensor nodes using various encryption procedures (bitxor operation, bits shuffling, and secret key based encryption) and then sends it to the fusion center. At the fusion center, the received encrypted data is decrypted for taking further necessary actions. The experimental results with complexity analysis, validate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method in terms of security in WSNs. (author)

  4. Cryptographic Combinatorial Securities Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Christopher; Parkes, David C.

    We present a useful new mechanism that facilitates the atomic exchange of many large baskets of securities in a combinatorial exchange. Cryptography prevents information about the securities in the baskets from being exploited, enhancing trust. Our exchange offers institutions who wish to trade large positions a new alternative to existing methods of block trading: they can reduce transaction costs by taking advantage of other institutions’ available liquidity, while third party liquidity providers guarantee execution—preserving their desired portfolio composition at all times. In our exchange, institutions submit encrypted orders which are crossed, leaving a “remainder”. The exchange proves facts about the portfolio risk of this remainder to third party liquidity providers without revealing the securities in the remainder, the knowledge of which could also be exploited. The third parties learn either (depending on the setting) the portfolio risk parameters of the remainder itself, or how their own portfolio risk would change if they were to incorporate the remainder into a portfolio they submit. In one setting, these third parties submit bids on the commission, and the winner supplies necessary liquidity for the entire exchange to clear. This guaranteed clearing, coupled with external price discovery from the primary markets for the securities, sidesteps difficult combinatorial optimization problems. This latter method of proving how taking on the remainder would change risk parameters of one’s own portfolio, without revealing the remainder’s contents or its own risk parameters, is a useful protocol of independent interest.

  5. Cryptographic Key Management and Critical Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) CyberSecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CSEDS) industry led program (DE-FOA-0000359) entitled "Innovation for Increasing CyberSecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (12CSEDS)," awarded a contract to Sypris Electronics LLC to develop a Cryptographic Key Management System for the smart grid (Scalable Key Management Solutions for Critical Infrastructure Protection). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Sypris Electronics, LLC as a result of that award entered into a CRADA (NFE-11-03562) between ORNL and Sypris Electronics, LLC. ORNL provided its Cyber Security Econometrics System (CSES) as a tool to be modified and used as a metric to address risks and vulnerabilities in the management of cryptographic keys within the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) domain of the electric sector. ORNL concentrated our analysis on the AMI domain of which the National Electric Sector Cyber security Organization Resource (NESCOR) Working Group 1 (WG1) has documented 29 failure scenarios. The computational infrastructure of this metric involves system stakeholders, security requirements, system components and security threats. To compute this metric, we estimated the stakes that each stakeholder associates with each security requirement, as well as stochastic matrices that represent the probability of a threat to cause a component failure and the probability of a component failure to cause a security requirement violation. We applied this model to estimate the security of the AMI, by leveraging the recently established National Institute of Standards and Technology Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7628 guidelines for smart grid security and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 63351, Part 9 to identify the life cycle for cryptographic key management, resulting in a vector that assigned to each stakeholder an estimate of their average loss in terms of dollars per day of system

  6. Quantum Security of Cryptographic Primitives

    OpenAIRE

    Gagliardoni, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    We call quantum security the area of IT security dealing with scenarios where one or more parties have access to quantum hardware. This encompasses both the fields of post-quantum cryptography (that is, traditional cryptography engineered to be resistant against quantum adversaries), and quantum cryptography (that is, security protocols designed to be natively run on a quantum infrastructure, such as quantum key distribution). Moreover, there exist also hybrid models, where traditional crypto...

  7. Cryptographic key generation using handwritten signature

    OpenAIRE

    Freire, Manuel R.; Fiérrez, Julián; Ortega-García, Javier

    2006-01-01

    M. Freire-Santos ; J. Fierrez-Aguilar ; J. Ortega-Garcia; "Cryptographic key generation using handwritten signature", Biometric Technology for Human Identification III, Proc. SPIE 6202 (April 17, 2006); doi:10.1117/12.665875. Copyright 2006 Society of Photo‑Optical Instrumentation Engineers. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of...

  8. Critical analysis of the Bennett-Riedel attack on secure cryptographic key distributions via the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-noise scheme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo B Kish

    Full Text Available Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1 argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to demonstrate this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR's scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. All our analyses are based on a technically unlimited Eve with infinitely accurate and fast measurements limited only by the laws of physics and statistics. For non-ideal situations and at active (invasive attacks, the uncertainly principle between measurement duration and statistical errors makes it impossible for Eve to extract the key regardless of the accuracy or speed of her measurements. To show that thermodynamics and noise are essential for the security, we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attack against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.

  9. Critical analysis of the Bennett-Riedel attack on secure cryptographic key distributions via the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-noise scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Laszlo B; Abbott, Derek; Granqvist, Claes G

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to demonstrate this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR's scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. All our analyses are based on a technically unlimited Eve with infinitely accurate and fast measurements limited only by the laws of physics and statistics. For non-ideal situations and at active (invasive) attacks, the uncertainly principle between measurement duration and statistical errors makes it impossible for Eve to extract the key regardless of the accuracy or speed of her measurements. To show that thermodynamics and noise are essential for the security, we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attack against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.

  10. Cryptographic Key Management in Delay Tolerant Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Anna Menesidou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since their appearance at the dawn of the second millennium, Delay or Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTNs have gradually evolved, spurring the development of a variety of methods and protocols for making them more secure and resilient. In this context, perhaps, the most challenging problem to deal with is that of cryptographic key management. To the best of our knowledge, the work at hand is the first to survey the relevant literature and classify the various so far proposed key management approaches in such a restricted and harsh environment. Towards this goal, we have grouped the surveyed key management methods into three major categories depending on whether the particular method copes with (a security initialization, (b key establishment, and (c key revocation. We have attempted to provide a concise but fairly complete evaluation of the proposed up-to-date methods in a generalized way with the aim of offering a central reference point for future research.

  11. Multi-biometrics based cryptographic key regeneration scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Kanade , Sanjay Ganesh; Petrovska-Delacrétaz , Dijana; Dorizzi , Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Biometrics lack revocability and privacy while cryptography cannot detect the user's identity. By obtaining cryptographic keys using biometrics, one can achieve the properties such as revocability, assurance about user's identity, and privacy. In this paper, we propose a multi-biometric based cryptographic key regeneration scheme. Since left and right irises of a person are uncorrelated, we treat them as two independent biometrics and combine in our system. We propose ...

  12. A Key Management Method for Cryptographically Enforced Access Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zych, Anna; Petkovic, Milan; Jonker, Willem; Fernández-Medina, Eduardo; Yagüe, Mariemma I.

    Cryptographic enforcement of access control mechanisms relies on encrypting protected data with the keys stored by authorized users. This approach poses the problem of the distribution of secret keys. In this paper, a key management scheme is presented where each user stores a single key and is

  13. Efficient key management for cryptographically enforced access control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zych, Anna; Petkovic, Milan; Jonker, Willem

    Cryptographic enforcement of access control mechanisms relies on encrypting protected data with the keys stored by authorized users. This approach poses the problem of the distribution of secret keys. In this paper, a key management scheme is presented where each user stores a single key and is

  14. Generating cryptographic keys by radioactive decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupen, Claus; Maurer, Ingo; Schmidt, Dieter; Smolik, Ludek

    2001-01-01

    We are presenting a new method for the generation of statistically genuine random bitstream with very high frequency which can be employed for cryptographic purposes. The method uses the feature of statistically unpredictable radioactive decays as the source of randomness. The measured quantity is the time distance between the responses of a small ionisation chamber due to the recording of ionising decay products. This time measurement is converted into states representing 0o r 1. The data generated in our experiment successfully passed FIPS PUB 140-1 and die hard statistical tests. For the simulation of systematic effects Monte Carlo techniques were used

  15. Data Security Using Cryptographic Approach | Okoro | Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for data security in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) can not be overemphasized. In this paper, the use of symmetric and asymmetric key cryptographies to clearly achieve the required protection by means of prime number system and modular multiplicative inverse has been highlighted and ...

  16. SIMPL Systems, or: Can We Design Cryptographic Hardware without Secret Key Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rührmair, Ulrich

    This paper discusses a new cryptographic primitive termed SIMPL system. Roughly speaking, a SIMPL system is a special type of Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) which possesses a binary description that allows its (slow) public simulation and prediction. Besides this public key like functionality, SIMPL systems have another advantage: No secret information is, or needs to be, contained in SIMPL systems in order to enable cryptographic protocols - neither in the form of a standard binary key, nor as secret information hidden in random, analog features, as it is the case for PUFs. The cryptographic security of SIMPLs instead rests on (i) a physical assumption on their unclonability, and (ii) a computational assumption regarding the complexity of simulating their output. This novel property makes SIMPL systems potentially immune against many known hardware and software attacks, including malware, side channel, invasive, or modeling attacks.

  17. On Cryptographic Information Security in Cloud Infrastructures: PKI and IBE Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Grigorevich Kogos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of cryptographic security methods in cloud infrastructure information security is analyzed. The cryptographic problems in cloudy infrastructures are chosen; the appropriate protocols are investigated; the appropriate mathematical problems are examined.

  18. CryptosFS: Fast Cryptographic Secure NFS

    OpenAIRE

    O'Shanahan, Declan

    2000-01-01

    The issue of security in file-systems is as relevant today as when the first file system was developed. Current file system implementations rely heavily on centralised security mechanisms such as access control lists. The problem of security in file systems was made more complicated by the introduction of remote access to files. Storing information on a remote server has the potential to introduce additional security weaknesses into the file system model. The client, the commun...

  19. On Protocol Security in the Cryptographic Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    you as possible. This is the general problem of secure multiparty computation. The usual way of formalizing the problem is to say that a number of parties who do not trust each other wish to compute some function of their local inputs, while keeping their inputs as secret as possible and guaranteeing...... the channels by which they communicate. A general solution to the secure multiparty computation problem is a compiler which given any feasible function describes an efficient protocol which allows the parties to compute the function securely on their local inputs over an open network. Over the past twenty...... years the secure multiparty computation problem has been the subject of a large body of research, both research into the models of multiparty computation and research aimed at realizing general secure multiparty computation. The main approach to realizing secure multiparty computation has been based...

  20. Security for Key Management Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kremer , Steve; Steel , Graham; Warinschi , Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    International audience; We propose a much-needed formal definition of security for cryptographic key management APIs. The advantages of our definition are that it is general, intuitive, and applicable to security proofs in both symbolic and computational models of cryptography. Our definition relies on an idealized API which allows only the most essential functions for generating, exporting and importing keys, and takes into account dynamic corruption of keys. Based on this we can define the ...

  1. An adaptive cryptographic accelerator for network storage security on dynamically reconfigurable platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li; Liu, Jing-Ning; Feng, Dan; Tong, Wei

    2008-12-01

    Existing security solutions in network storage environment perform poorly because cryptographic operations (encryption and decryption) implemented in software can dramatically reduce system performance. In this paper we propose a cryptographic hardware accelerator on dynamically reconfigurable platform for the security of high performance network storage system. We employ a dynamic reconfigurable platform based on a FPGA to implement a PowerPCbased embedded system, which executes cryptographic algorithms. To reduce the reconfiguration latency, we apply prefetch scheduling. Moreover, the processing elements could be dynamically configured to support different cryptographic algorithms according to the request received by the accelerator. In the experiment, we have implemented AES (Rijndael) and 3DES cryptographic algorithms in the reconfigurable accelerator. Our proposed reconfigurable cryptographic accelerator could dramatically increase the performance comparing with the traditional software-based network storage systems.

  2. Modelling Cryptographic Keys in Dynamic Epistemic Logic with DEMO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Ditmarsch (Hans); D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan); F.A.G. Sietsma (Floor); S.E. Simon (Sunil); not CWI et al; J.B. Perez; not CWI et al

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIt is far from obvious to find logical counterparts to cryptographic protocol primitives. In logic, a common assumption is that agents are perfectly rational and have no computational limitations. This creates a dilemma. If one merely abstracts from computational aspects, protocols

  3. Cryptographically Secure Multiparty Computation and Distributed Auctions Using Homomorphic Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anunay Kulshrestha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a robust framework that allows for cryptographically secure multiparty computations, such as distributed private value auctions. The security is guaranteed by two-sided authentication of all network connections, homomorphically encrypted bids, and the publication of zero-knowledge proofs of every computation. This also allows a non-participant verifier to verify the result of any such computation using only the information broadcasted on the network by each individual bidder. Building on previous work on such systems, we design and implement an extensible framework that puts the described ideas to practice. Apart from the actual implementation of the framework, our biggest contribution is the level of protection we are able to guarantee from attacks described in previous work. In order to provide guidance to users of the library, we analyze the use of zero knowledge proofs in ensuring the correct behavior of each node in a computation. We also describe the usage of the library to perform a private-value distributed auction, as well as the other challenges in implementing the protocol, such as auction registration and certificate distribution. Finally, we provide performance statistics on our implementation of the auction.

  4. A Symmetric Key Cryptographic Technique Through Swapping Bits in Binary Field Using p-Box Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Subhranil Som; Soumasree Banerjee

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a symmetric key cryptographic algorithm named as “A Symmetric Key Cryptographic Technique Through Swapping Bits in Binary Field Using p-box Matrix“ is proposed. Secret sharing is a technique by which any information can be break down into small pieces. The secret can be reconstructed only when a sufficient number of pieces of shares are combined together; individual shares are of no use on their own. Traditional secret sharing scheme possesses high computational ...

  5. Cryptographic protocol security analysis based on bounded constructing algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An efficient approach to analyzing cryptographic protocols is to develop automatic analysis tools based on formal methods. However, the approach has encountered the high computational complexity problem due to reasons that participants of protocols are arbitrary, their message structures are complex and their executions are concurrent. We propose an efficient automatic verifying algorithm for analyzing cryptographic protocols based on the Cryptographic Protocol Algebra (CPA) model proposed recently, in which algebraic techniques are used to simplify the description of cryptographic protocols and their executions. Redundant states generated in the analysis processes are much reduced by introducing a new algebraic technique called Universal Polynomial Equation and the algorithm can be used to verify the correctness of protocols in the infinite states space. We have implemented an efficient automatic analysis tool for cryptographic protocols, called ACT-SPA, based on this algorithm, and used the tool to check more than 20 cryptographic protocols. The analysis results show that this tool is more efficient, and an attack instance not offered previously is checked by using this tool.

  6. Energy efficient security in MANETs: a comparison of cryptographic and artificial immune systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazhar, N.

    2010-01-01

    MANET is characterized by a set of mobile nodes in an inherently insecure environment, having limited battery capacities. Provisioning of energy efficient security in MANETs is, therefore, an open problem for which a number of solutions have been proposed. In this paper, we present an overview and comparison of the MANET security at routing layer by using the cryptographic and Artificial Immune System (AIS) approaches. The BeeAdHoc protocol, which is a Bio-inspired MANET routing protocol based on the foraging principles of honey bee colony, is taken as case study. We carry out an analysis of the three security frameworks that we have proposed earlier for securing BeeAdHoc protocol; one based on asymmetric key encryption, i.e BeeSec, and the other two using the AIS approach, i.e BeeAIS based on self non-self discrimination from adaptive immune system and BeeAIS-DC based on Dendritic Cell (DC) behavior from innate immune system. We extensively evaluate the performance of the three protocols through network simulations in ns-2 and compare with BeeAdHoc, the base protocol, as well as with state-of-the-art MANET routing protocols DSR and AODV. Our results clearly indicate that AIS based systems provide security at much lower cost to energy as compared with the cryptographic systems. Moreover, the use of dendritic cells and danger signals instead of the classical self non-self discrimination allows to detect the non-self antigens with greater accuracy. Based on the results of this investigation, we also propose a composite AIS model for BeeAdHoc security by combining the concepts from both the adaptive and the innate immune systems by modelling the attributes and behavior of the B-cells and DCs. (author)

  7. A Cryptographic SoC for Robust Protection of Secret Keys in IPTV DRM Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghan; Yang, Hae-Yong; Yeom, Yongjin; Park, Jongsik

    The security level of an internet protocol television (IPTV) digital right management (DRM) system ultimately relies on protection of secret keys. Well known devices for the key protection include smartcards and battery backup SRAMs (BB-SRAMs); however, these devices could be vulnerable to various physical attacks. In this paper, we propose a secure and cost-effective design of a cryptographic system on chip (SoC) that integrates the BB-SRAM with a cell-based design technique. The proposed SoC provides robust safeguard against the physical attacks, and satisfies high-speed and low-price requirements of IPTV set-top boxes. Our implementation results show that the maximum encryption rate of the SoC is 633Mb/s. In order to verify the data retention capabilities, we made a prototype chip using 0.18µm standard cell technology. The experimental results show that the integrated BB-SRAM can reliably retain data with a 1.4µA leakage current.

  8. Secure method for biometric-based recognition with integrated cryptographic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shin-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Biometric systems refer to biometric technologies which can be used to achieve authentication. Unlike cryptography-based technologies, the ratio for certification in biometric systems needs not to achieve 100% accuracy. However, biometric data can only be directly compared through proximal access to the scanning device and cannot be combined with cryptographic techniques. Moreover, repeated use, improper storage, or transmission leaks may compromise security. Prior studies have attempted to combine cryptography and biometrics, but these methods require the synchronization of internal systems and are vulnerable to power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. This paper presents a new secure cryptographic authentication method using biometric features. The proposed system combines the advantages of biometric identification and cryptographic techniques. By adding a subsystem to existing biometric recognition systems, we can simultaneously achieve the security of cryptographic technology and the error tolerance of biometric recognition. This method can be used for biometric data encryption, signatures, and other types of cryptographic computation. The method offers a high degree of security with protection against power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. Moreover, it can be used to improve the confidentiality of biological data storage and biodata identification processes. Remote biometric authentication can also be safely applied.

  9. Secure Method for Biometric-Based Recognition with Integrated Cryptographic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yan Chiou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems refer to biometric technologies which can be used to achieve authentication. Unlike cryptography-based technologies, the ratio for certification in biometric systems needs not to achieve 100% accuracy. However, biometric data can only be directly compared through proximal access to the scanning device and cannot be combined with cryptographic techniques. Moreover, repeated use, improper storage, or transmission leaks may compromise security. Prior studies have attempted to combine cryptography and biometrics, but these methods require the synchronization of internal systems and are vulnerable to power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. This paper presents a new secure cryptographic authentication method using biometric features. The proposed system combines the advantages of biometric identification and cryptographic techniques. By adding a subsystem to existing biometric recognition systems, we can simultaneously achieve the security of cryptographic technology and the error tolerance of biometric recognition. This method can be used for biometric data encryption, signatures, and other types of cryptographic computation. The method offers a high degree of security with protection against power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. Moreover, it can be used to improve the confidentiality of biological data storage and biodata identification processes. Remote biometric authentication can also be safely applied.

  10. Centralized Cryptographic Key Management and Critical Risk Assessment - CRADA Final Report For CRADA Number NFE-11-03562

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, R. K. [ORNL; Peters, Scott [Sypris Electronics, LLC

    2014-05-28

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) Cyber Security for Energy Delivery Systems (CSEDS) industry led program (DE-FOA-0000359) entitled "Innovation for Increasing Cyber Security for Energy Delivery Systems (12CSEDS)," awarded a contract to Sypris Electronics LLC to develop a Cryptographic Key Management System for the smart grid (Scalable Key Management Solutions for Critical Infrastructure Protection). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Sypris Electronics, LLC as a result of that award entered into a CRADA (NFE-11-03562) between ORNL and Sypris Electronics, LLC. ORNL provided its Cyber Security Econometrics System (CSES) as a tool to be modified and used as a metric to address risks and vulnerabilities in the management of cryptographic keys within the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) domain of the electric sector. ORNL concentrated our analysis on the AMI domain of which the National Electric Sector Cyber security Organization Resource (NESCOR) Working Group 1 (WG1) has documented 29 failure scenarios. The computational infrastructure of this metric involves system stakeholders, security requirements, system components and security threats. To compute this metric, we estimated the stakes that each stakeholder associates with each security requirement, as well as stochastic matrices that represent the probability of a threat to cause a component failure and the probability of a component failure to cause a security requirement violation. We applied this model to estimate the security of the AMI, by leveraging the recently established National Institute of Standards and Technology Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7628 guidelines for smart grid security and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 63351, Part 9 to identify the life cycle for cryptographic key management, resulting in a vector that assigned to each stakeholder an estimate of their average loss in terms of dollars per day of system

  11. The generation of shared cryptographic keys through channel impulse response estimation at 60 GHz.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Derek P.; Forman, Michael A.; Dowdle, Donald Ryan

    2010-09-01

    Methods to generate private keys based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed as an alternative to standard key-management schemes. In this work, we discuss past work in the field and offer a generalized scheme for the generation of private keys using uncorrelated channels in multiple domains. Proposed cognitive enhancements measure channel characteristics, to dynamically change transmission and reception parameters as well as estimate private key randomness and expiration times. Finally, results are presented on the implementation of a system for the generation of private keys for cryptographic communications using channel impulse-response estimation at 60 GHz. The testbed is composed of commercial millimeter-wave VubIQ transceivers, laboratory equipment, and software implemented in MATLAB. Novel cognitive enhancements are demonstrated, using channel estimation to dynamically change system parameters and estimate cryptographic key strength. We show for a complex channel that secret key generation can be accomplished on the order of 100 kb/s.

  12. Cryptographic keys from noisy data, theory and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhan, I.R.

    2008-01-01

    Biometric security systems that verify a person's identity by scanning fingers, hands, eye or face are becoming more and more common. As a result biometrics is one of the fastest growing industries. Applications for biometrics range from homeland security physical access to various facilities and

  13. Security of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems: Standards, Threats Analysis and Cryptographic Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyes Ben Hamida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing number of vehicles on the roads worldwide, road traffic accidents are currently recognized as a major public safety problem. In this context, connected vehicles are considered as the key enabling technology to improve road safety and to foster the emergence of next generation cooperative intelligent transport systems (ITS. Through the use of wireless communication technologies, the deployment of ITS will enable vehicles to autonomously communicate with other nearby vehicles and roadside infrastructures and will open the door for a wide range of novel road safety and driver assistive applications. However, connecting wireless-enabled vehicles to external entities can make ITS applications vulnerable to various security threats, thus impacting the safety of drivers. This article reviews the current research challenges and opportunities related to the development of secure and safe ITS applications. It first explores the architecture and main characteristics of ITS systems and surveys the key enabling standards and projects. Then, various ITS security threats are analyzed and classified, along with their corresponding cryptographic countermeasures. Finally, a detailed ITS safety application case study is analyzed and evaluated in light of the European ETSI TC ITS standard. An experimental test-bed is presented, and several elliptic curve digital signature algorithms (ECDSA are benchmarked for signing and verifying ITS safety messages. To conclude, lessons learned, open research challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  14. Cryptographic Boolean functions and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cusick, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    Boolean functions are the building blocks of symmetric cryptographic systems. Symmetrical cryptographic algorithms are fundamental tools in the design of all types of digital security systems (i.e. communications, financial and e-commerce).Cryptographic Boolean Functions and Applications is a concise reference that shows how Boolean functions are used in cryptography. Currently, practitioners who need to apply Boolean functions in the design of cryptographic algorithms and protocols need to patch together needed information from a variety of resources (books, journal articles and other sources). This book compiles the key essential information in one easy to use, step-by-step reference. Beginning with the basics of the necessary theory the book goes on to examine more technical topics, some of which are at the frontier of current research.-Serves as a complete resource for the successful design or implementation of cryptographic algorithms or protocols using Boolean functions -Provides engineers and scient...

  15. Cloud security - An approach with modern cryptographic solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Kostadinovska, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    The term “cloud computing” has been in the spotlights of IT specialists due to its potential of transforming computer industry. Unfortunately, there are still some challenges to be resolved and the security aspects in the cloud based computing environment remain at the core of interest. The goal of our work is to identify the main security issues of cloud computing and to present approaches to secure clouds. Our research also focuses on data and storage security layers. As a result, we f...

  16. Securing ad hoc wireless sensor networks under Byzantine attacks by implementing non-cryptographic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabir Ahmad Sofi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ad Hoc wireless sensor network (WSN is a collection of nodes that do not need to rely on predefined infrastructure to keep the network connected. The level of security and performance are always somehow related to each other, therefore due to limited resources in WSN, cryptographic methods for securing the network against attacks is not feasible. Byzantine attacks disrupt the communication between nodes in the network without regard to its own resource consumption. This paper discusses the performance of cluster based WSN comparing LEACH with Advanced node based clusters under byzantine attacks. This paper also proposes an algorithm for detection and isolation of the compromised nodes to mitigate the attacks by non-cryptographic means. The throughput increases after using the algorithm for isolation of the malicious nodes, 33% in case of Gray Hole attack and 62% in case of Black Hole attack.

  17. Secure Method for Biometric-Based Recognition with Integrated Cryptographic Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Chiou, Shin-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Biometric systems refer to biometric technologies which can be used to achieve authentication. Unlike cryptography-based technologies, the ratio for certification in biometric systems needs not to achieve 100% accuracy. However, biometric data can only be directly compared through proximal access to the scanning device and cannot be combined with cryptographic techniques. Moreover, repeated use, improper storage, or transmission leaks may compromise security. Prior studies have attempted to c...

  18. Secure and Efficient Regression Analysis Using a Hybrid Cryptographic Framework: Development and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, Md Nazmus; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Aziz, Md Momin Al; Wang, Shuang; Mohammed, Noman

    2018-03-05

    Machine learning is an effective data-driven tool that is being widely used to extract valuable patterns and insights from data. Specifically, predictive machine learning models are very important in health care for clinical data analysis. The machine learning algorithms that generate predictive models often require pooling data from different sources to discover statistical patterns or correlations among different attributes of the input data. The primary challenge is to fulfill one major objective: preserving the privacy of individuals while discovering knowledge from data. Our objective was to develop a hybrid cryptographic framework for performing regression analysis over distributed data in a secure and efficient way. Existing secure computation schemes are not suitable for processing the large-scale data that are used in cutting-edge machine learning applications. We designed, developed, and evaluated a hybrid cryptographic framework, which can securely perform regression analysis, a fundamental machine learning algorithm using somewhat homomorphic encryption and a newly introduced secure hardware component of Intel Software Guard Extensions (Intel SGX) to ensure both privacy and efficiency at the same time. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method provides a better trade-off in terms of security and efficiency than solely secure hardware-based methods. Besides, there is no approximation error. Computed model parameters are exactly similar to plaintext results. To the best of our knowledge, this kind of secure computation model using a hybrid cryptographic framework, which leverages both somewhat homomorphic encryption and Intel SGX, is not proposed or evaluated to this date. Our proposed framework ensures data security and computational efficiency at the same time. ©Md Nazmus Sadat, Xiaoqian Jiang, Md Momin Al Aziz, Shuang Wang, Noman Mohammed. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 05.03.2018.

  19. Fundamental quantitative security in quantum key generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuen, Horace P.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the fundamental security significance of the quantitative criteria on the final generated key K in quantum key generation including the quantum criterion d, the attacker's mutual information on K, and the statistical distance between her distribution on K and the uniform distribution. For operational significance a criterion has to produce a guarantee on the attacker's probability of correctly estimating some portions of K from her measurement, in particular her maximum probability of identifying the whole K. We distinguish between the raw security of K when the attacker just gets at K before it is used in a cryptographic context and its composition security when the attacker may gain further information during its actual use to help get at K. We compare both of these securities of K to those obtainable from conventional key expansion with a symmetric key cipher. It is pointed out that a common belief in the superior security of a quantum generated K is based on an incorrect interpretation of d which cannot be true, and the security significance of d is uncertain. Generally, the quantum key distribution key K has no composition security guarantee and its raw security guarantee from concrete protocols is worse than that of conventional ciphers. Furthermore, for both raw and composition security there is an exponential catch-up problem that would make it difficult to quantitatively improve the security of K in a realistic protocol. Some possible ways to deal with the situation are suggested.

  20. Secure Key Management in the Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Jakobsen, Thomas Pelle; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2013-01-01

    information such as cryptographic keys. Applications like this include many cases where secure multiparty computation is outsourced to the cloud, and in particular a number of online auctions and benchmark computations with confidential inputs. We consider fully autonomous servers that switch between online......We consider applications involving a number of servers in the cloud that go through a sequence of online periods where the servers communicate, separated by offline periods where the servers are idle. During the offline periods, we assume that the servers need to securely store sensitive...... and offline periods without communicating with anyone from outside the cloud, and semi-autonomous servers that need a limited kind of assistance from outside the cloud when doing the transition. We study the levels of security one can – and cannot – obtain in this model, propose light-weight protocols...

  1. Design and Analysis of Optimization Algorithms to Minimize Cryptographic Processing in BGP Security Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Vinay K; Montgomery, Doug

    2017-07-01

    The Internet is subject to attacks due to vulnerabilities in its routing protocols. One proposed approach to attain greater security is to cryptographically protect network reachability announcements exchanged between Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routers. This study proposes and evaluates the performance and efficiency of various optimization algorithms for validation of digitally signed BGP updates. In particular, this investigation focuses on the BGPSEC (BGP with SECurity extensions) protocol, currently under consideration for standardization in the Internet Engineering Task Force. We analyze three basic BGPSEC update processing algorithms: Unoptimized, Cache Common Segments (CCS) optimization, and Best Path Only (BPO) optimization. We further propose and study cache management schemes to be used in conjunction with the CCS and BPO algorithms. The performance metrics used in the analyses are: (1) routing table convergence time after BGPSEC peering reset or router reboot events and (2) peak-second signature verification workload. Both analytical modeling and detailed trace-driven simulation were performed. Results show that the BPO algorithm is 330% to 628% faster than the unoptimized algorithm for routing table convergence in a typical Internet core-facing provider edge router.

  2. Cryptographic robustness of practical quantum cryptography: BB84 key distribution protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotkov, S. N.

    2008-01-01

    In real fiber-optic quantum cryptography systems, the avalanche photodiodes are not perfect, the source of quantum states is not a single-photon one, and the communication channel is lossy. For these reasons, key distribution is impossible under certain conditions for the system parameters. A simple analysis is performed to find relations between the parameters of real cryptography systems and the length of the quantum channel that guarantee secure quantum key distribution when the eavesdropper's capabilities are limited only by fundamental laws of quantum mechanics while the devices employed by the legitimate users are based on current technologies. Critical values are determined for the rate of secure real-time key generation that can be reached under the current technology level. Calculations show that the upper bound on channel length can be as high as 300 km for imperfect photodetectors (avalanche photodiodes) with present-day quantum efficiency (η ∼ 20%) and dark count probability (p dark ∼ 10 -7 )

  3. Automatic Inference of Cryptographic Key Length Based on Analysis of Proof Tightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    allows us to select a smaller security parameter). 5.5 Python Implementation We implement our software tool in the Python programming language...27 5.4 Second Pass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5.5 Python Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 5.6...software tool, implemented in Python and leveraging the SymPy symbolic solver library; and • We validate our tool using the Schnorr public-key

  4. A Certificate Authority (CA-based cryptographic solution for HIPAA privacy/security regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangram Ray

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA passed by the US Congress establishes a number of privacy/security regulations for e-healthcare systems. These regulations support patients’ medical privacy and secure exchange of PHI (protected health information among medical practitioners. Three existing HIPAA-based schemes have been studied but appear to be ineffective as patients’ PHI is stored in smartcards. Moreover, carrying a smartcard during a treatment session and accessing PHI from different locations results in restrictions. In addition, authentication of the smartcard presenter would not be possible if the PIN is compromised. In this context, we propose an MCS (medical center server should be located at each hospital and accessed via the Internet for secure handling of patients’ PHI. All entities of the proposed e-health system register online with the MCS, and each entity negotiates a contributory registration key, where public-key certificates issued and maintained by CAs are used for authentication. Prior to a treatment session, a doctor negotiates a secret session key with MCS and uploads/retrieves patients’ PHI securely. The proposed scheme has five phases, which have been implemented in a secure manner for supporting HIPAA privacy/security regulations. Finally, the security aspects, computation and communication costs of the scheme are analyzed and compared with existing methods that display satisfactory performance.

  5. Secure quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Secure communication is crucial in the Internet Age, and quantum mechanics stands poised to revolutionize cryptography as we know it today. In this Review, we introduce the motivation and the current state of the art of research in quantum cryptography. In particular, we discuss the present security model together with its assumptions, strengths and weaknesses. After briefly introducing recent experimental progress and challenges, we survey the latest developments in quantum hacking and countermeasures against it.

  6. CRYPTOGRAPHIC SECURE CLOUD STORAGE MODEL WITH ANONYMOUS AUTHENTICATION AND AUTOMATIC FILE RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmiya Murthy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a secure cloud storage model that addresses security and storage issues for cloud computing environments. Security is achieved by anonymous authentication which ensures that cloud users remain anonymous while getting duly authenticated. For achieving this goal, we propose a digital signature based authentication scheme with a decentralized architecture for distributed key management with multiple Key Distribution Centers. Homomorphic encryption scheme using Paillier public key cryptosystem is used for encrypting the data that is stored in the cloud. We incorporate a query driven approach for validating the access policies defined by an individual user for his/her data i.e. the access is granted to a requester only if his credentials matches with the hidden access policy. Further, since data is vulnerable to losses or damages due to the vagaries of the network, we propose an automatic retrieval mechanism where lost data is recovered by data replication and file replacement with string matching algorithm. We describe a prototype implementation of our proposed model.

  7. The Key to School Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotle, Dan

    1993-01-01

    In addition to legislative accessibility requirements, other security issues facing school administrators who select a security system include the following: access control; user friendliness; durability or serviceability; life safety precautions; possibility of vandalism, theft, and tampering; and key control. Offers steps to take in considering…

  8. Evaluating privacy-preserving record linkage using cryptographic long-term keys and multibit trees on large medical datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adrian P; Borgs, Christian; Randall, Sean M; Schnell, Rainer

    2017-06-08

    Integrating medical data using databases from different sources by record linkage is a powerful technique increasingly used in medical research. Under many jurisdictions, unique personal identifiers needed for linking the records are unavailable. Since sensitive attributes, such as names, have to be used instead, privacy regulations usually demand encrypting these identifiers. The corresponding set of techniques for privacy-preserving record linkage (PPRL) has received widespread attention. One recent method is based on Bloom filters. Due to superior resilience against cryptographic attacks, composite Bloom filters (cryptographic long-term keys, CLKs) are considered best practice for privacy in PPRL. Real-world performance of these techniques using large-scale data is unknown up to now. Using a large subset of Australian hospital admission data, we tested the performance of an innovative PPRL technique (CLKs using multibit trees) against a gold-standard derived from clear-text probabilistic record linkage. Linkage time and linkage quality (recall, precision and F-measure) were evaluated. Clear text probabilistic linkage resulted in marginally higher precision and recall than CLKs. PPRL required more computing time but 5 million records could still be de-duplicated within one day. However, the PPRL approach required fine tuning of parameters. We argue that increased privacy of PPRL comes with the price of small losses in precision and recall and a large increase in computational burden and setup time. These costs seem to be acceptable in most applied settings, but they have to be considered in the decision to apply PPRL. Further research on the optimal automatic choice of parameters is needed.

  9. On cryptographic security of end-to-end encrypted connections in WhatsApp and Telegram messengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Zapechnikov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the available possibilities for improving secure messaging with end-to-end connections under conditions of external violator actions and distrusted service provider. We made a comparative analysis of cryptographic security mechanisms for two widely used messengers: Telegram and WhatsApp. It was found that Telegram is based on MTProto protocol, while WhatsApp is based on the alternative Signal protocol. We examine the specific features of messengers implementation associated with random number generation on the most popular Android mobile platform. It was shown that Signal has better security properties. It is used in several other popular messengers such as TextSecure, RedPhone, GoogleAllo, FacebookMessenger, Signal along with WhatsApp. A number of possible attacks on both messengers were analyzed in details. In particular, we demonstrate that the metadata are poorly protected in both messengers. Metadata security may be one of the goals for further studies.

  10. Anticollusion Attack Noninteractive Security Hierarchical Key Agreement Scheme in WHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefei Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Health Monitoring Systems (WHMS have potential to change the way of health care and bring numbers of benefits to patients, physicians, hospitals, and society. However, there are crucial barriers not only to transmit the biometric information but also to protect the privacy and security of the patients’ information. The key agreement between two entities is an essential cryptography operation to clear the barriers. In particular, the noninteractive hierarchical key agreement scheme becomes an attractive direction in WHMS because each sensor node or gateway has limited resources and power. Recently, a noninteractive hierarchical key agreement scheme has been proposed by Kim for WHMS. However, we show that Kim’s cryptographic scheme is vulnerable to the collusion attack if the physicians can be corrupted. Obviously, it is a more practical security condition. Therefore, we proposed an improved key agreement scheme against the attack. Security proof, security analysis, and experimental results demonstrate that our proposed scheme gains enhanced security and more efficiency than Kim’s previous scheme while inheriting its qualities of one-round communication and security properties.

  11. Evaluation of 90nm 6T-SRAM as physical unclonable function for secure key generation in wireless sensor nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selimis, G.; Konijnenburg, M.; Ashouei, M.; Huisken, J.; de Groot, H.; van der Leest, V.; Schrijen, G.-J.; van Hulst, M.; Tuyls, P.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the unattended nature of WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) deployment, each sensor can be subject to physical capture, cloning and unauthorized device alteration. In this paper, we use the embedded SRAM, often available on a wireless sensor node, for secure data (cryptographic keys, IDs)

  12. Cryptographic Protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    cryptography was thus concerned with message confidentiality and integrity. Modern cryptography cover a much wider range of subjects including the area of secure multiparty computation, which will be the main topic of this dissertation. Our first contribution is a new protocol for secure comparison, presented...... implemented the comparison protocol in Java and benchmarks show that is it highly competitive and practical. The biggest contribution of this dissertation is a general framework for secure multiparty computation. Instead of making new ad hoc implementations for each protocol, we want a single and extensible...... in Chapter 2. Comparisons play a key role in many systems such as online auctions and benchmarks — it is not unreasonable to say that when parties come together for a multiparty computation, it is because they want to make decisions that depend on private information. Decisions depend on comparisons. We have...

  13. Analysis and improvement for the performance of Baptista's cryptographic scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jun; Liao Xiaofeng; Wong, K.W.; Zhou Tsing; Deng Yigui

    2006-01-01

    Based on Baptista's chaotic cryptosystem, we propose a secure and robust chaotic cryptographic scheme after investigating the problems found in this cryptosystem as well as its variants. In this proposed scheme, a subkey array generated from the key and the plaintext is adopted to enhance the security. Some methods are introduced to increase the efficiency. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations indicate that the proposed scheme is secure and efficient for practical use

  14. Design of cryptographically secure AES like S-Box using second-order reversible cellular automata for wireless body area network applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi Ahamed, Shaik

    2016-01-01

    In biomedical, data security is the most expensive resource for wireless body area network applications. Cryptographic algorithms are used in order to protect the information against unauthorised access. Advanced encryption standard (AES) cryptographic algorithm plays a vital role in telemedicine applications. The authors propose a novel approach for design of substitution bytes (S-Box) using second-order reversible one-dimensional cellular automata (RCA2) as a replacement to the classical look-up-table (LUT) based S-Box used in AES algorithm. The performance of proposed RCA2 based S-Box and conventional LUT based S-Box is evaluated in terms of security using the cryptographic properties such as the nonlinearity, correlation immunity bias, strict avalanche criteria and entropy. Moreover, it is also shown that RCA2 based S-Boxes are dynamic in nature, invertible and provide high level of security. Further, it is also found that the RCA2 based S-Box have comparatively better performance than that of conventional LUT based S-Box. PMID:27733924

  15. Design of cryptographically secure AES like S-Box using second-order reversible cellular automata for wireless body area network applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadari, Bhoopal Rao; Rafi Ahamed, Shaik

    2016-09-01

    In biomedical, data security is the most expensive resource for wireless body area network applications. Cryptographic algorithms are used in order to protect the information against unauthorised access. Advanced encryption standard (AES) cryptographic algorithm plays a vital role in telemedicine applications. The authors propose a novel approach for design of substitution bytes (S-Box) using second-order reversible one-dimensional cellular automata (RCA 2 ) as a replacement to the classical look-up-table (LUT) based S-Box used in AES algorithm. The performance of proposed RCA 2 based S-Box and conventional LUT based S-Box is evaluated in terms of security using the cryptographic properties such as the nonlinearity, correlation immunity bias, strict avalanche criteria and entropy. Moreover, it is also shown that RCA 2 based S-Boxes are dynamic in nature, invertible and provide high level of security. Further, it is also found that the RCA 2 based S-Box have comparatively better performance than that of conventional LUT based S-Box.

  16. An Analysis of the Computer Security Ramifications of Weakened Asymmetric Cryptographic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    OpenVPN (Yonan). TLS (and by extension SSL) obviously rely on encryption to provide the confidentiality, integrity and authentication services it...Secure Shell (SSH) Transport Layer Protocol.” IETF, Jan. 2006. <tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4253> Yonan, James, and Mattock. " OpenVPN ." SourceForge...11 May 2012. <http://sourceforge.net/projects/ openvpn /> 92 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 074-0188 The public reporting

  17. Security of subcarrier wave quantum key distribution against the collective beam-splitting attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, G P; Kozubov, A V; Gaidash, A A; Gleim, A V; Horoshko, D B

    2018-04-30

    We consider a subcarrier wave quantum key distribution (QKD) system, where quantum encoding is carried out at weak sidebands generated around a coherent optical beam as a result of electro-optical phase modulation. We study security of two protocols, B92 and BB84, against one of the most powerful attacks for this class of systems, the collective beam-splitting attack. Our analysis includes the case of high modulation index, where the sidebands are essentially multimode. We demonstrate numerically and experimentally that a subcarrier wave QKD system with realistic parameters is capable of distributing cryptographic keys over large distances in presence of collective attacks. We also show that BB84 protocol modification with discrimination of only one state in each basis performs not worse than the original BB84 protocol in this class of QKD systems, thus significantly simplifying the development of cryptographic networks using the considered QKD technique.

  18. Cryptographic analysis on the key space of optical phase encryption algorithm based on the design of discrete random phase mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju; Li, Zengyan

    2013-07-01

    The key space of phase encryption algorithm using discrete random phase mask is investigated by numerical simulation in this paper. Random phase mask with finite and discrete phase levels is considered as the core component in most practical optical encryption architectures. The key space analysis is based on the design criteria of discrete random phase mask. The role of random amplitude mask and random phase mask in optical encryption system is identified from the perspective of confusion and diffusion. The properties of discrete random phase mask in a practical double random phase encoding scheme working in both amplitude encoding (AE) and phase encoding (PE) modes are comparably analyzed. The key space of random phase encryption algorithm is evaluated considering both the encryption quality and the brute-force attack resistibility. A method for enlarging the key space of phase encryption algorithm is also proposed to enhance the security of optical phase encryption techniques.

  19. Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation: Department of Defense Public Key Infrastructure and Key Management Infrastructure Token Protection Profile (Medium Robustness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-22

    may be derived from detailed inspection of the IC itself or from illicit appropriation of design information. Counterfeit smart cards can be mass...Infrastructure (PKI) as the Internet to securely and privately exchange data and money through the use of a public and a private cryptographic key pair...interference devices (SQDIS), electrical testing, and electron beam testing. • Other attacks, such as UV or X-rays or high temperatures, could cause erasure

  20. Wireless Physical Layer Security: On the Performance Limit of Secret-Key Agreement

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2015-01-01

    Physical layer security (PLS) is a new paradigm aiming at securing communications between legitimate parties at the physical layer. Conventionally, achieving confidentiality in communication networks relies on cryptographic techniques such as public

  1. Building Secure Public Key Encryption Scheme from Hidden Field Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Ping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate public key cryptography is a set of cryptographic schemes built from the NP-hardness of solving quadratic equations over finite fields, amongst which the hidden field equations (HFE family of schemes remain the most famous. However, the original HFE scheme was insecure, and the follow-up modifications were shown to be still vulnerable to attacks. In this paper, we propose a new variant of the HFE scheme by considering the special equation x2=x defined over the finite field F3 when x=0,1. We observe that the equation can be used to further destroy the special structure of the underlying central map of the HFE scheme. It is shown that the proposed public key encryption scheme is secure against known attacks including the MinRank attack, the algebraic attacks, and the linearization equations attacks. The proposal gains some advantages over the original HFE scheme with respect to the encryption speed and public key size.

  2. Secure Hybrid Encryption from Weakened Key Encapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Hofheinz (Dennis); E. Kiltz (Eike); A. Menezes

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe put forward a new paradigm for building hybrid encryption schemes from constrained chosen-ciphertext secure (CCCA) key-encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) plus authenticated symmetric encryption. Constrained chosen-ciphertext security is a new security notion for KEMs that we propose. It

  3. Superposition Attacks on Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Funder, Jakob Løvstad; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2011-01-01

    of information. In this paper, we introduce a fundamentally new model of quantum attacks on classical cryptographic protocols, where the adversary is allowed to ask several classical queries in quantum superposition. This is a strictly stronger attack than the standard one, and we consider the security......Attacks on classical cryptographic protocols are usually modeled by allowing an adversary to ask queries from an oracle. Security is then defined by requiring that as long as the queries satisfy some constraint, there is some problem the adversary cannot solve, such as compute a certain piece...... of several primitives in this model. We show that a secret-sharing scheme that is secure with threshold $t$ in the standard model is secure against superposition attacks if and only if the threshold is lowered to $t/2$. We use this result to give zero-knowledge proofs for all of NP in the common reference...

  4. Efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search for EMRs in cloud storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lifeng; Yau, Wei-Chuen

    2015-02-01

    Searchable encryption is an important cryptographic primitive that enables privacy-preserving keyword search on encrypted electronic medical records (EMRs) in cloud storage. Efficiency of such searchable encryption in a medical cloud storage system is very crucial as it involves client platforms such as smartphones or tablets that only have constrained computing power and resources. In this paper, we propose an efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search (SCF-PEKS) scheme that is proven secure in the standard model. We show that our SCF-PEKS scheme is not only secure against chosen keyword and ciphertext attacks (IND-SCF-CKCA), but also secure against keyword guessing attacks (IND-KGA). Furthermore, our proposed scheme is more efficient than other recent SCF-PEKS schemes in the literature.

  5. Provably-Secure Authenticated Group Diffie-Hellman KeyExchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David

    2007-01-01

    Authenticated key exchange protocols allow two participantsA and B, communicating over a public network and each holding anauthentication means, to exchange a shared secret value. Methods designedto deal with this cryptographic problem ensure A (resp. B) that no otherparticipants aside from B (resp. A) can learn any information about theagreed value, and often also ensure A and B that their respective partnerhas actually computed this value. A natural extension to thiscryptographic method is to consider a pool of participants exchanging ashared secret value and to provide a formal treatment for it. Startingfrom the famous 2-party Diffie-Hellman (DH) key exchange protocol, andfrom its authenticated variants, security experts have extended it to themulti-party setting for over a decade and completed a formal analysis inthe framework of modern cryptography in the past few years. The presentpaper synthesizes this body of work on the provably-secure authenticatedgroup DH key exchange.

  6. Understanding security failures of two authentication and key agreement schemes for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dheerendra

    2015-03-01

    Smart card based authentication and key agreement schemes for telecare medicine information systems (TMIS) enable doctors, nurses, patients and health visitors to use smart cards for secure login to medical information systems. In recent years, several authentication and key agreement schemes have been proposed to present secure and efficient solution for TMIS. Most of the existing authentication schemes for TMIS have either higher computation overhead or are vulnerable to attacks. To reduce the computational overhead and enhance the security, Lee recently proposed an authentication and key agreement scheme using chaotic maps for TMIS. Xu et al. also proposed a password based authentication and key agreement scheme for TMIS using elliptic curve cryptography. Both the schemes provide better efficiency from the conventional public key cryptography based schemes. These schemes are important as they present an efficient solution for TMIS. We analyze the security of both Lee's scheme and Xu et al.'s schemes. Unfortunately, we identify that both the schemes are vulnerable to denial of service attack. To understand the security failures of these cryptographic schemes which are the key of patching existing schemes and designing future schemes, we demonstrate the security loopholes of Lee's scheme and Xu et al.'s scheme in this paper.

  7. Public key infrastructure for DOE security research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiken, R.; Foster, I.; Johnston, W.E. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This document summarizes the Department of Energy`s Second Joint Energy Research/Defence Programs Security Research Workshop. The workshop, built on the results of the first Joint Workshop which reviewed security requirements represented in a range of mission-critical ER and DP applications, discussed commonalties and differences in ER/DP requirements and approaches, and identified an integrated common set of security research priorities. One significant conclusion of the first workshop was that progress in a broad spectrum of DOE-relevant security problems and applications could best be addressed through public-key cryptography based systems, and therefore depended upon the existence of a robust, broadly deployed public-key infrastructure. Hence, public-key infrastructure ({open_quotes}PKI{close_quotes}) was adopted as a primary focus for the second workshop. The Second Joint Workshop covered a range of DOE security research and deployment efforts, as well as summaries of the state of the art in various areas relating to public-key technologies. Key findings were that a broad range of DOE applications can benefit from security architectures and technologies built on a robust, flexible, widely deployed public-key infrastructure; that there exists a collection of specific requirements for missing or undeveloped PKI functionality, together with a preliminary assessment of how these requirements can be met; that, while commercial developments can be expected to provide many relevant security technologies, there are important capabilities that commercial developments will not address, due to the unique scale, performance, diversity, distributed nature, and sensitivity of DOE applications; that DOE should encourage and support research activities intended to increase understanding of security technology requirements, and to develop critical components not forthcoming from other sources in a timely manner.

  8. Secure image retrieval with multiple keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Haihua; Zhang, Xinpeng; Wei, Qiuhan; Cheng, Hang

    2018-03-01

    This article proposes a secure image retrieval scheme under a multiuser scenario. In this scheme, the owner first encrypts and uploads images and their corresponding features to the cloud; then, the user submits the encrypted feature of the query image to the cloud; next, the cloud compares the encrypted features and returns encrypted images with similar content to the user. To find the nearest neighbor in the encrypted features, an encryption with multiple keys is proposed, in which the query feature of each user is encrypted by his/her own key. To improve the key security and space utilization, global optimization and Gaussian distribution are, respectively, employed to generate multiple keys. The experiments show that the proposed encryption can provide effective and secure image retrieval for each user and ensure confidentiality of the query feature of each user.

  9. Security bound of two-basis quantum-key-distribution protocols using qudits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.; Alber, Gernot

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the security bounds of quantum-cryptographic protocols using d-level systems. In particular, we focus on schemes that use two mutually unbiased bases, thus extending the Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum-key-distribution scheme to higher dimensions. Under the assumption of general coherent attacks, we derive an analytic expression for the ultimate upper security bound of such quantum-cryptography schemes. This bound is well below the predictions of optimal cloning machines. The possibility of extraction of a secret key beyond entanglement distillation is discussed. In the case of qutrits we argue that any eavesdropping strategy is equivalent to a symmetric one. For higher dimensions such an equivalence is generally no longer valid

  10. Triple symmetric key cryptosystem for data security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzail, C. Md; Norman, Jasmine; Mangayarkarasi, R.

    2017-11-01

    As the technology is getting spreads in the macro seconds of speed and in which the trend changing era from human to robotics the security issue is also getting increased. By means of using machine attacks it is very easy to break the cryptosystems in very less amount of time. Cryptosystem is a process which provides the security in all sorts of processes, communications and transactions to be done securely with the help of electronical mechanisms. Data is one such thing with the expanded implication and possible scraps over the collection of data to secure predominance and achievement, Information Security is the process where the information is protected from invalid and unverified accessibilities and data from mishandling. So the idea of Information Security has risen. Symmetric key which is also known as private key.Whereas the private key is mostly used to attain the confidentiality of data. It is a dynamic topic which can be implemented over different applications like android, wireless censor networks, etc. In this paper, a new mathematical manipulation algorithm along with Tea cryptosystem has been implemented and it can be used for the purpose of cryptography. The algorithm which we proposed is straightforward and more powerful and it will authenticate in harder way and also it will be very difficult to break by someone without knowing in depth about its internal mechanisms.

  11. Enhancing LoRaWAN Security through a Lightweight and Authenticated Key Management Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Iborra, Ramon; Sánchez-Gómez, Jesús; Pérez, Salvador; Fernández, Pedro J; Santa, José; Hernández-Ramos, José L; Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2018-06-05

    Luckily, new communication technologies and protocols are nowadays designed considering security issues. A clear example of this can be found in the Internet of Things (IoT) field, a quite recent area where communication technologies such as ZigBee or IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN) already include security features to guarantee authentication, confidentiality and integrity. More recent technologies are Low-Power Wide-Area Networks (LP-WAN), which also consider security, but present initial approaches that can be further improved. An example of this can be found in Long Range (LoRa) and its layer-two supporter LoRa Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN), which include a security scheme based on pre-shared cryptographic material lacking flexibility when a key update is necessary. Because of this, in this work, we evaluate the security vulnerabilities of LoRaWAN in the area of key management and propose different alternative schemes. Concretely, the application of an approach based on the recently specified Ephemeral Diffie⁻Hellman Over COSE (EDHOC) is found as a convenient solution, given its flexibility in the update of session keys, its low computational cost and the limited message exchanges needed. A comparative conceptual analysis considering the overhead of different security schemes for LoRaWAN is carried out in order to evaluate their benefits in the challenging area of LP-WAN.

  12. Enhancing LoRaWAN Security through a Lightweight and Authenticated Key Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Sanchez-Iborra

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Luckily, new communication technologies and protocols are nowadays designed considering security issues. A clear example of this can be found in the Internet of Things (IoT field, a quite recent area where communication technologies such as ZigBee or IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN already include security features to guarantee authentication, confidentiality and integrity. More recent technologies are Low-Power Wide-Area Networks (LP-WAN, which also consider security, but present initial approaches that can be further improved. An example of this can be found in Long Range (LoRa and its layer-two supporter LoRa Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN, which include a security scheme based on pre-shared cryptographic material lacking flexibility when a key update is necessary. Because of this, in this work, we evaluate the security vulnerabilities of LoRaWAN in the area of key management and propose different alternative schemes. Concretely, the application of an approach based on the recently specified Ephemeral Diffie–Hellman Over COSE (EDHOC is found as a convenient solution, given its flexibility in the update of session keys, its low computational cost and the limited message exchanges needed. A comparative conceptual analysis considering the overhead of different security schemes for LoRaWAN is carried out in order to evaluate their benefits in the challenging area of LP-WAN.

  13. Secure quantum key distribution using squeezed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottesman, Daniel; Preskill, John

    2001-01-01

    We prove the security of a quantum key distribution scheme based on transmission of squeezed quantum states of a harmonic oscillator. Our proof employs quantum error-correcting codes that encode a finite-dimensional quantum system in the infinite-dimensional Hilbert space of an oscillator, and protect against errors that shift the canonical variables p and q. If the noise in the quantum channel is weak, squeezing signal states by 2.51 dB (a squeeze factor e r =1.34) is sufficient in principle to ensure the security of a protocol that is suitably enhanced by classical error correction and privacy amplification. Secure key distribution can be achieved over distances comparable to the attenuation length of the quantum channel

  14. Security of practical quantum key distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Nitin

    2015-02-24

    This thesis deals with practical security aspects of quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. At the heart of the theoretical model of any QKD system lies a quantum-mechanical security proof that guarantees perfect secrecy of messages - based on certain assumptions. However, in practice, deviations between the theoretical model and the physical implementation could be exploited by an attacker to break the security of the system. These deviations may arise from technical limitations and operational imperfections in the physical implementation and/or unrealistic assumptions and insufficient constraints in the theoretical model. In this thesis, we experimentally investigate in depth several such deviations. We demonstrate the resultant vulnerabilities via proof-of-principle attacks on a commercial QKD system from ID Quantique. We also propose countermeasures against the investigated loopholes to secure both existing and future QKD implementations.

  15. Code-Based Cryptography: New Security Solutions Against a Quantum Adversary

    OpenAIRE

    Sendrier , Nicolas; Tillich , Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Cryptography is one of the key tools for providing security in our quickly evolving technological society. An adversary with the ability to use a quantum computer would defeat most of the cryptographic solutions that are deployed today to secure our communications. We do not know when quantum computing will become available, but nevertheless, the cryptographic research community must get ready for it now. Code-based cryptography is among the few cryptographic technique...

  16. Lightweight Cryptographic Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuen, Horace

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop new cryptographic techniques, and to modify the important existing ones, for applications to encryption and authentication in energy-constrained sensors...

  17. A novel, privacy-preserving cryptographic approach for sharing sequencing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassa, Christopher A; Miller, Rachel A; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2013-01-01

    Objective DNA samples are often processed and sequenced in facilities external to the point of collection. These samples are routinely labeled with patient identifiers or pseudonyms, allowing for potential linkage to identity and private clinical information if intercepted during transmission. We present a cryptographic scheme to securely transmit externally generated sequence data which does not require any patient identifiers, public key infrastructure, or the transmission of passwords. Materials and methods This novel encryption scheme cryptographically protects participant sequence data using a shared secret key that is derived from a unique subset of an individual’s genetic sequence. This scheme requires access to a subset of an individual’s genetic sequence to acquire full access to the transmitted sequence data, which helps to prevent sample mismatch. Results We validate that the proposed encryption scheme is robust to sequencing errors, population uniqueness, and sibling disambiguation, and provides sufficient cryptographic key space. Discussion Access to a set of an individual’s genotypes and a mutually agreed cryptographic seed is needed to unlock the full sequence, which provides additional sample authentication and authorization security. We present modest fixed and marginal costs to implement this transmission architecture. Conclusions It is possible for genomics researchers who sequence participant samples externally to protect the transmission of sequence data using unique features of an individual’s genetic sequence. PMID:23125421

  18. Cryptographic Trust Management Requirements Specification: Version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, Thomas W.

    2009-09-30

    The Cryptographic Trust Management (CTM) Project is being developed for Department of Energy, OE-10 by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). It is a component project of the NSTB Control Systems Security R&D Program.

  19. Enhanced Matrix Power Function for Cryptographic Primitive Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eligijus Sakalauskas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A new enhanced matrix power function (MPF is presented for the construction of cryptographic primitives. According to the definition in previously published papers, an MPF is an action of two matrices powering some base matrix on the left and right. The MPF inversion equations, corresponding to the MPF problem, are derived and have some structural similarity with classical multivariate quadratic (MQ problem equations. Unlike the MQ problem, the MPF problem seems to be more complicated, since its equations are not defined over the field, but are represented as left–right action of two matrices defined over the infinite near-semiring on the matrix defined over the certain infinite, additive, noncommuting semigroup. The main results are the following: (1 the proposition of infinite, nonsymmetric, and noncommuting algebraic structures for the construction of the enhanced MPF, satisfying associativity conditions, which are necessary for cryptographic applications; (2 the proof that MPF inversion is polynomially equivalent to the solution of a certain kind of generalized multivariate quadratic (MQ problem which can be reckoned as hard; (3 the estimation of the effectiveness of direct MPF value computation; and (4 the presentation of preliminary security analysis, the determination of the security parameter, and specification of its secure value. These results allow us to make a conjecture that enhanced MPF can be a candidate one-way function (OWF, since the effective (polynomial-time inversion algorithm for it is not yet known. An example of the application of the proposed MPF for the Key Agreement Protocol (KAP is presented. Since the direct MPF value is computed effectively, the proposed MPF is suitable for the realization of cryptographic protocols in devices with restricted computation resources.

  20. Anonymity-Preserving Public-Key Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlweiss, Markulf; Maurer, Ueli; Onete, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    security properties have been proposed. We investigate constructions as well as limitations for preserving receiver anonymity when using public-key encryption (PKE). We use the constructive cryptography approach by Maurer and Renner and interpret cryptographic schemes as constructions of a certain ideal...... literature (IND-CCA, key-privacy, weak robustness). We also show that a desirable stronger variant, preventing the adversary from selective ”trial-deliveries” of messages, is unfortunately unachievable by any PKE scheme, no matter how strong. The constructive approach makes the guarantees achieved...... by applying a cryptographic scheme explicit in the constructed (ideal) resource; this specifies the exact requirements for the applicability of a cryptographic scheme in a given context. It also allows to decide which of the existing security properties of such a cryptographic scheme are adequate...

  1. Cryptographic Protocols Based on Root Extracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koprowski, Maciej

    In this thesis we design new cryptographic protocols, whose security is based on the hardness of root extracting or more speci cally the RSA problem. First we study the problem of root extraction in nite Abelian groups, where the group order is unknown. This is a natural generalization of the...... complexity of root extraction, even if the algorithm can choose the "public exponent'' itself. In other words, both the standard and the strong RSA assumption are provably true w.r.t. generic algorithms. The results hold for arbitrary groups, so security w.r.t. generic attacks follows for any cryptographic...... groups. In all cases, security follows from a well de ned complexity assumption (the strong root assumption), without relying on random oracles. A smooth natural number has no big prime factors. The probability, that a random natural number not greater than x has all prime factors smaller than x1/u...

  2. A Secure and Robust User Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme for Hierarchical Multi-medical Server Environment in TMIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Goswami, Adrijit

    2015-09-01

    The telecare medicine information system (TMIS) helps the patients to gain the health monitoring facility at home and access medical services over the Internet of mobile networks. Recently, Amin and Biswas presented a smart card based user authentication and key agreement security protocol usable for TMIS system using the cryptographic one-way hash function and biohashing function, and claimed that their scheme is secure against all possible attacks. Though their scheme is efficient due to usage of one-way hash function, we show that their scheme has several security pitfalls and design flaws, such as (1) it fails to protect privileged-insider attack, (2) it fails to protect strong replay attack, (3) it fails to protect strong man-in-the-middle attack, (4) it has design flaw in user registration phase, (5) it has design flaw in login phase, (6) it has design flaw in password change phase, (7) it lacks of supporting biometric update phase, and (8) it has flaws in formal security analysis. In order to withstand these security pitfalls and design flaws, we aim to propose a secure and robust user authenticated key agreement scheme for the hierarchical multi-server environment suitable in TMIS using the cryptographic one-way hash function and fuzzy extractor. Through the rigorous security analysis including the formal security analysis using the widely-accepted Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic, the formal security analysis under the random oracle model and the informal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. Furthermore, we simulate our scheme using the most-widely accepted and used Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool. The simulation results show that our scheme is also secure. Our scheme is more efficient in computation and communication as compared to Amin-Biswas's scheme and other related schemes. In addition, our scheme supports extra functionality features as compared to

  3. Quantum cryptography to satellites for global secure key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarity, John G.; Gorman, Philip M.; Knight, Paul; Wallace, Kotska; Tapster, Paul R.

    2017-11-01

    We have designed and built a free space secure key exchange system using weak laser pulses with polarisation modulation by acousto-optic switching. We have used this system to exchange keys over a 1.2km ground range with absolute security. Building from this initial result we analyse the feasibility of exchanging keys to a low earth orbit satellite.

  4. Towards Comprehensive Food Security Measures: Comparing Key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food security is a multi-dimensional issue that has been difficult to measure comprehensively, given the one-dimensional focus of existing indicators. Three indicators dominate the food security measurement debate: Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) and Coping Strategies ...

  5. Security for multihop wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shafiullah

    2014-01-01

    Security for Multihop Wireless Networks provides broad coverage of the security issues facing multihop wireless networks. Presenting the work of a different group of expert contributors in each chapter, it explores security in mobile ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks, wireless mesh networks, and personal area networks.Detailing technologies and processes that can help you secure your wireless networks, the book covers cryptographic coprocessors, encryption, authentication, key management, attacks and countermeasures, secure routing, secure medium access control, intrusion detection, ep

  6. Protecting Cryptographic Memory against Tampering Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, Pratyay

    In this dissertation we investigate the question of protecting cryptographic devices from tampering attacks. Traditional theoretical analysis of cryptographic devices is based on black-box models which do not take into account the attacks on the implementations, known as physical attacks. In prac......In this dissertation we investigate the question of protecting cryptographic devices from tampering attacks. Traditional theoretical analysis of cryptographic devices is based on black-box models which do not take into account the attacks on the implementations, known as physical attacks....... In practice such attacks can be executed easily, e.g. by heating the device, as substantiated by numerous works in the past decade. Tampering attacks are a class of such physical attacks where the attacker can change the memory/computation, gains additional (non-black-box) knowledge by interacting...... with the faulty device and then tries to break the security. Prior works show that generically approaching such problem is notoriously difficult. So, in this dissertation we attempt to solve an easier question, known as memory-tampering, where the attacker is allowed tamper only with the memory of the device...

  7. Infrared: A Key Technology for Security Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Corsi, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Infrared science and technology has been, since the first applications, mainly dedicated to security and surveillance especially in military field, besides specialized techniques in thermal imaging for medical diagnostic and building structures and recently in energy savings and aerospace context. Till recently the security applications were mainly based on thermal imaging as surveillance and warning military systems. In all these applications the advent of room temperature, more reliable due...

  8. Biometric Methods for Secure Communications in Body Sensor Networks: Resource-Efficient Key Management and Signal-Level Data Scrambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Francis Minhthang; Hatzinakos, Dimitrios

    2007-12-01

    As electronic communications become more prevalent, mobile and universal, the threats of data compromises also accordingly loom larger. In the context of a body sensor network (BSN), which permits pervasive monitoring of potentially sensitive medical data, security and privacy concerns are particularly important. It is a challenge to implement traditional security infrastructures in these types of lightweight networks since they are by design limited in both computational and communication resources. A key enabling technology for secure communications in BSN's has emerged to be biometrics. In this work, we present two complementary approaches which exploit physiological signals to address security issues: (1) a resource-efficient key management system for generating and distributing cryptographic keys to constituent sensors in a BSN; (2) a novel data scrambling method, based on interpolation and random sampling, that is envisioned as a potential alternative to conventional symmetric encryption algorithms for certain types of data. The former targets the resource constraints in BSN's, while the latter addresses the fuzzy variability of biometric signals, which has largely precluded the direct application of conventional encryption. Using electrocardiogram (ECG) signals as biometrics, the resulting computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of these methods for delivering secure communications in BSN's.

  9. Biometric Methods for Secure Communications in Body Sensor Networks: Resource-Efficient Key Management and Signal-Level Data Scrambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Hatzinakos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As electronic communications become more prevalent, mobile and universal, the threats of data compromises also accordingly loom larger. In the context of a body sensor network (BSN, which permits pervasive monitoring of potentially sensitive medical data, security and privacy concerns are particularly important. It is a challenge to implement traditional security infrastructures in these types of lightweight networks since they are by design limited in both computational and communication resources. A key enabling technology for secure communications in BSN's has emerged to be biometrics. In this work, we present two complementary approaches which exploit physiological signals to address security issues: (1 a resource-efficient key management system for generating and distributing cryptographic keys to constituent sensors in a BSN; (2 a novel data scrambling method, based on interpolation and random sampling, that is envisioned as a potential alternative to conventional symmetric encryption algorithms for certain types of data. The former targets the resource constraints in BSN's, while the latter addresses the fuzzy variability of biometric signals, which has largely precluded the direct application of conventional encryption. Using electrocardiogram (ECG signals as biometrics, the resulting computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of these methods for delivering secure communications in BSN's.

  10. Formalizing the Relationship Between Commitment and Basic Cryptographic Primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sree Vivek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Signcryption is a cryptographic primitive which offers the functionality of both digital signature and encryption with lower combined computational cost. On the other hand, commitment scheme allows an entity to commit to a value, where the entity reveals the committed value later during a decommit phase. In this paper, we explore the connection between commitment schemes, public key encryption, digital signatures and signcryption. We establish formal relationship between commitment and the other primitives. Our main result is that we show signcryption can be used as a commitment scheme with appropriate security notions. We show that if the underlying signcryption scheme is IND-CCA2 secure, then the hiding property of the commitment scheme is satisfied. Similarly, we show that if the underlying signcryption scheme is unforgeable, then the relaxed biding property of the commitment scheme is satisfied. Moreover, we prove that if the underlying signcryption scheme is NM-CCA2, then the commitment scheme is non-malleable.

  11. Energy-efficient key distribution using electrocardiograph biometric set for secure communications in wireless body healthcare networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinyang; Lam, Kwok-Yan; Gu, Ming; Li, Mingze; Chung, Siu-Leung

    2011-10-01

    Wireless body sensor network (WBSN) has gained significant interests as an important infrastructure for real-time biomedical healthcare systems, while the security of the sensitive health information becomes one of the main challenges. Due to the constraints of limited power, traditional cryptographic key distribution schemes are not suitable for WBSN. This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient approach, BodyKey, which can distribute the keys using the electrocardiograph biometrics. BodyKey represents the biometric features as ordered set, and deals with the biometric variations using set reconciliation. In this way, only limited necessary information needs to be communicated for key agreement, and the total energy consumption for key distribution can thus be reduced. Experiments on the PhysioBank Database show that BodyKey can perform an energy consumption rate of 0.01 mJ/bit with an equal accuracy rate of 97.28%, allowing the system to be used as an energy-efficient key distribution scheme for secure communications in WBSN.

  12. Securing information using optically generated biometric keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Gaurav; Sinha, Aloka

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new technique to obtain biometric keys by using the fingerprint of a person for an optical image encryption system. The key generation scheme uses the fingerprint biometric information in terms of the amplitude mask (AM) and the phase mask (PM) of the reconstructed fingerprint image that is implemented using the digital holographic technique. Statistical tests have been conducted to check the randomness of the fingerprint PM key that enables its usage as an image encryption key. To explore the utility of the generated biometric keys, an optical image encryption system has been further demonstrated based on the phase retrieval algorithm and the double random phase encoding scheme in which keys for the encryption are used as the AM and the PM key. The advantage associated with the proposed scheme is that the biometric keys’ retrieval requires the simultaneous presence of the fingerprint hologram and the correct knowledge of the reconstruction parameters at the decryption stage, which not only verifies the authenticity of the person but also protects the valuable fingerprint biometric features of the keys. Numerical results are carried out to prove the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed encryption system.

  13. Secure key distribution by swapping quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Daegene

    2004-01-01

    We report two key distribution schemes achieved by swapping quantum entanglement. Using two Bell states, two bits of secret key can be shared between two distant parties that play symmetric and equal roles. We also address eavesdropping attacks against the schemes

  14. Cryptographic quantum hashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablayev, F. M.; Vasiliev, A. V.

    2014-02-01

    We present a version of quantum hash functions based on non-binary discrete functions. The proposed quantum procedure is ‘classical-quantum’, that is, it takes a classical bit string as an input and produces a quantum state. The resulting function has the property of a one-way function (pre-image resistance); in addition it has properties analogous to classical cryptographic hash second pre-image resistance and collision resistance. We also show that the proposed function can be naturally used in a quantum digital signature protocol.

  15. Cryptographic quantum hashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablayev, F M; Vasiliev, A V

    2014-01-01

    We present a version of quantum hash functions based on non-binary discrete functions. The proposed quantum procedure is ‘classical-quantum’, that is, it takes a classical bit string as an input and produces a quantum state. The resulting function has the property of a one-way function (pre-image resistance); in addition it has properties analogous to classical cryptographic hash second pre-image resistance and collision resistance. We also show that the proposed function can be naturally used in a quantum digital signature protocol. (letter)

  16. Physically Unclonable Cryptographic Primitives by Chemical Vapor Deposition of Layered MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Abdullah; Armstrong, Darren; Alharbi, Somayah; Shahrjerdi, Davood

    2017-12-26

    Physically unclonable cryptographic primitives are promising for securing the rapidly growing number of electronic devices. Here, we introduce physically unclonable primitives from layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) by leveraging the natural randomness of their island growth during chemical vapor deposition (CVD). We synthesize a MoS 2 monolayer film covered with speckles of multilayer islands, where the growth process is engineered for an optimal speckle density. Using the Clark-Evans test, we confirm that the distribution of islands on the film exhibits complete spatial randomness, hence indicating the growth of multilayer speckles is a spatial Poisson process. Such a property is highly desirable for constructing unpredictable cryptographic primitives. The security primitive is an array of 2048 pixels fabricated from this film. The complex structure of the pixels makes the physical duplication of the array impossible (i.e., physically unclonable). A unique optical response is generated by applying an optical stimulus to the structure. The basis for this unique response is the dependence of the photoemission on the number of MoS 2 layers, which by design is random throughout the film. Using a threshold value for the photoemission, we convert the optical response into binary cryptographic keys. We show that the proper selection of this threshold is crucial for maximizing combination randomness and that the optimal value of the threshold is linked directly to the growth process. This study reveals an opportunity for generating robust and versatile security primitives from layered transition metal dichalcogenides.

  17. Towards understanding the known-key security of block ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreeva, Elena; Bogdanov, Andrey; Mennink, Bart

    2014-01-01

    ciphers based on ideal components such as random permutations and random functions as well as propose new generic known-key attacks on generalized Feistel ciphers. We introduce the notion of known-key indifferentiability to capture the security of such block ciphers under a known key. To show its...... meaningfulness, we prove that the known-key attacks on block ciphers with ideal primitives to date violate security under known-key indifferentiability. On the other hand, to demonstrate its constructiveness, we prove the balanced Feistel cipher with random functions and the multiple Even-Mansour cipher...... with random permutations known-key indifferentiable for a sufficient number of rounds. We note that known-key indifferentiability is more quickly and tightly attained by multiple Even-Mansour which puts it forward as a construction provably secure against known-key attacks....

  18. A STUDY ON BIOMETRIC TEMPLATE SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Radha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of biometrics and cryptography is driven by the widespread stipulation on information security. Abundant efforts have been made in developing successful methods in these areas in order to accomplish an enhanced level of information security. There are two dominant issues in information security enhancement. One is to defend the user ownership and control the access to information by authenticating an individual’s identity. The other is to make sure the privacy and integrity of information and to secure communication. Cryptography is the science of writing in secret code. Secret-key cryptography and public-key cryptography are the two most important cryptographic architectures. The security of a cryptographic system is reliant on the secrecy of the cryptographic key. Biometric authentication or simply biometrics refers to establishing automatic personal recognition based on the physical and behavioral characteristics of an individual (e.g. face, voice, fingerprint, gait, hand geometry, iris, gene, etc.. Biometrics offers superior security and easier than traditional identity authentication systems (based on passwords and cryptographic keys.Since biometrics characteristics are naturally related with a particular individual, making them insusceptible to being stolen, forgotten, lost or attached. This paper presents a survey on various techniques proposed earlier in developing an authentication system for ensuring individual’s information security by combining biometric characteristics of that particular individual and the cryptographic techniques. In addition, it provides some fundamental idea for future research that may help in eliminating the problems associated with the present authentication systems.

  19. Analysis of a security protocol in ?CRL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Pang

    2002-01-01

    textabstractNeedham-Schroeder public-key protocol; With the growth and commercialization of the Internet, the security of communication between computers becomes a crucial point. A variety of security protocols based on cryptographic primitives are used to establish secure communication over

  20. A Review of RSA and Public-Key Cryptosystems | Rabah | Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... study and analyze the RSA cryptosystems – a public-key cryptographic algorithm - a system that uses two sets of keys; one for encryption and the other for decryption. Key Words: Public-key cryptography, DH, RSA, Internet Security and attacks, Digital Signature, Message digest, Authentication, Secure Socket Layer (SSL)

  1. A Robust SRAM-PUF Key Generation Scheme Based on Polar Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bin; Ignatenko, Tanya; Willems, Frans M. J.; Maes, Roel; van der Sluis, Erik; Selimis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Physical unclonable functions (PUFs) are relatively new security primitives used for device authentication and device-specific secret key generation. In this paper we focus on SRAM-PUFs. The SRAM-PUFs enjoy uniqueness and randomness properties stemming from the intrinsic randomness of SRAM memory cells, which is a result of manufacturing variations. This randomness can be translated into the cryptographic keys thus avoiding the need to store and manage the device cryptographic keys. Therefore...

  2. Low-power cryptographic coprocessor for autonomous wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszyna, Jakub; Winiecki, Wiesław

    2013-10-01

    The concept of autonomous wireless sensor networks involves energy harvesting, as well as effective management of system resources. Public-key cryptography (PKC) offers the advantage of elegant key agreement schemes with which a secret key can be securely established over unsecure channels. In addition to solving the key management problem, the other major application of PKC is digital signatures, with which non-repudiation of messages exchanges can be achieved. The motivation for studying low-power and area efficient modular arithmetic algorithms comes from enabling public-key security for low-power devices that can perform under constrained environment like autonomous wireless sensor networks. This paper presents a cryptographic coprocessor tailored to the autonomous wireless sensor networks constraints. Such hardware circuit is aimed to support the implementation of different public-key cryptosystems based on modular arithmetic in GF(p) and GF(2m). Key components of the coprocessor are described as GEZEL models and can be easily transformed to VHDL and implemented in hardware.

  3. Symmetric cryptographic protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees.   •        Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols •        Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks •        Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases

  4. Secure cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Samarati, Pierangela; Singhal, Anoop; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a range of cloud computing security challenges and promising solution paths. The first two chapters focus on practical considerations of cloud computing. In Chapter 1, Chandramouli, Iorga, and Chokani describe the evolution of cloud computing and the current state of practice, followed by the challenges of cryptographic key management in the cloud. In Chapter 2, Chen and Sion present a dollar cost model of cloud computing and explore the economic viability of cloud computing with and without security mechanisms involving cryptographic mechanisms. The next two chapters addres

  5. Evaluation of Information Leakage from Cryptographic Hardware via Common-Mode Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yu-Ichi; Homma, Naofumi; Mizuki, Takaaki; Sugawara, Takeshi; Kayano, Yoshiki; Aoki, Takafumi; Minegishi, Shigeki; Satoh, Akashi; Sone, Hideaki; Inoue, Hiroshi

    This paper presents a possibility of Electromagnetic (EM) analysis against cryptographic modules outside their security boundaries. The mechanism behind the information leakage is explained from the view point of Electromagnetic Compatibility: electric fluctuation released from cryptographic modules can conduct to peripheral circuits based on ground bounce, resulting in radiation. We demonstrate the consequence of the mechanism through experiments where the ISO/IEC standard block cipher AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is implemented on an FPGA board and EM radiations from power and communication cables are measured. Correlation Electromagnetic Analysis (CEMA) is conducted in order to evaluate the information leakage. The experimental results show that secret keys are revealed even though there are various disturbing factors such as voltage regulators and AC/DC converters between the target module and the measurement points. We also discuss information-suppression techniques as electrical-level countermeasures against such CEMAs.

  6. A secure key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Luan Da-Peng

    2013-01-01

    To guarantee the security of communication in the public channel, many key agreement protocols have been proposed. Recently, Gong et al. proposed a key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps with password sharing. In this paper, Gong et al.'s protocol is analyzed, and we find that this protocol exhibits key management issues and potential security problems. Furthermore, the paper presents a new key agreement protocol based on enhanced Chebyshev polynomials to overcome these problems. Through our analysis, our key agreement protocol not only provides mutual authentication and the ability to resist a variety of common attacks, but also solve the problems of key management and security issues existing in Gong et al.'s protocol

  7. The Cryptographic Implications of the LinkedIn Data Breach

    OpenAIRE

    Gune, Aditya

    2017-01-01

    Data security and personal privacy are difficult to maintain in the Internet age. In 2012, professional networking site LinkedIn suffered a breach, compromising the login of over 100 million accounts. The passwords were cracked and sold online, exposing the authentication credentials millions of users. This manuscript dissects the cryptographic failures implicated in the breach, and explores more secure methods of storing passwords.

  8. Unbelievable security : Matching AES using public key systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, A.K.; Boyd, C.

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) provides three levels of security: 128, 192, and 256 bits. Given a desired level of security for the AES, this paper discusses matching public key sizes for RSA and the ElGamal family of protocols. For the latter both traditional multiplicative groups of finite

  9. Detection of beamsplitting attack in a quantum cryptographic channel based on photon number statistics monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidash, A A; Egorov, V I; Gleim, A V

    2014-01-01

    Quantum cryptography in theory allows distributing secure keys between two users so that any performed eavesdropping attempt would be immediately discovered. However, in practice an eavesdropper can obtain key information from multi-photon states when attenuated laser radiation is used as a source. In order to overcome this possibility, it is generally suggested to implement special cryptographic protocols, like decoy states or SARG04. We present an alternative method based on monitoring photon number statistics after detection. This method can therefore be used with any existing protocol

  10. Wireless Physical Layer Security: On the Performance Limit of Secret-Key Agreement

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2015-05-01

    Physical layer security (PLS) is a new paradigm aiming at securing communications between legitimate parties at the physical layer. Conventionally, achieving confidentiality in communication networks relies on cryptographic techniques such as public-key cryptography, secret-key distribution and symmetric encryption. Such techniques are deemed secure based on the assumption of limited computational abilities of a wiretapper. Given the relentless progress in computational capacities and the dynamic topology and proliferation of modern wireless networks, the relevance of the previous techniques in securing communications is more and more questionable and less and less reliable. In contrast to this paradigm, PLS does not assume a specific computational power at any eavesdropper, its premise to guarantee provable security via employing channel coding techniques at the physical layer exploiting the inherent randomness in most communication systems. In this dissertation, we investigate a particular aspect of PLS, which is secret-key agreement, also known as secret-sharing. In this setup, two legitimate parties try to distill a secret-key via the observation of correlated signals through a noisy wireless channel, in the presence of an eavesdropper who must be kept ignorant of the secret-key. Additionally, a noiseless public channel is made available to the legitimate parties to exchange public messages that are also accessible to the eavesdropper. Recall that key agreement is an important aspect toward realizing secure communications in the sense that the key can be used in a one-time pad scheme to send the confidential message. In the first part, our focus is on secret-sharing over Rayleigh fading quasi-static channels. We study the fundamental relationship relating the probability of error and a given target secret-key rate in the high power regime. This is characterized through the diversity multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) concept, that we define for our model and then

  11. Key Exchange Trust Evaluation in Peer-to-Peer Sensor Networks With Unconditionally Secure Key Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Elias; Kish, Laszlo B.

    2016-03-01

    As the utilization of sensor networks continue to increase, the importance of security becomes more profound. Many industries depend on sensor networks for critical tasks, and a malicious entity can potentially cause catastrophic damage. We propose a new key exchange trust evaluation for peer-to-peer sensor networks, where part of the network has unconditionally secure key exchange. For a given sensor, the higher the portion of channels with unconditionally secure key exchange the higher the trust value. We give a brief introduction to unconditionally secured key exchange concepts and mention current trust measures in sensor networks. We demonstrate the new key exchange trust measure on a hypothetical sensor network using both wired and wireless communication channels.

  12. Key Management for Secure Multicast over IPv6 Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqi Mohammad Umar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicasting is an efficient method for transmission and routing of packets to multiple destinations using fewer network resources. Along with widespread deployment of wireless networks, secure multicast over wireless networks is an important and challenging goal. In this paper, we extend the scope of a recent new key distribution scheme to a security framework that offers a novel solution for secure multicast over IPv6 wireless networks. Our key management framework includes two scenarios for securely distributing the group key and rekey messages for joining and leaving a mobile host in secure multicast group. In addition, we perform the security analysis and provide performance comparisons between our approach and two recently published scenarios. The benefits of our proposed techniques are that they minimize the number of transmissions required to rekey the multicast group and impose minimal storage requirements on the multicast group. In addition, our proposed schemes are also very desirable from the viewpoint of transmission bandwidth savings since an efficient rekeying mechanism is provided for membership changes and they significantly reduce the required bandwidth due to key updating in mobile networks. Moreover, they achieve the security and scalability requirements in wireless networks.

  13. Randomness determines practical security of BB84 quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Qian, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2015-11-01

    Unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol has been proved by exploiting the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics, but the practical quantum key distribution system maybe hacked by considering the imperfect state preparation and measurement respectively. Until now, different attacking schemes have been proposed by utilizing imperfect devices, but the general security analysis model against all of the practical attacking schemes has not been proposed. Here, we demonstrate that the general practical attacking schemes can be divided into the Trojan horse attack, strong randomness attack and weak randomness attack respectively. We prove security of BB84 protocol under randomness attacking models, and these results can be applied to guarantee the security of the practical quantum key distribution system.

  14. Rationality in the Cryptographic Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubacek, Pavel

    This thesis presents results in the field of rational cryptography. In the first part we study the use of cryptographic protocols to avoid mediation and binding commitment when implementing game theoretic equilibrium concepts. First, we concentrate on the limits of cryptographic cheap talk...... to implement correlated equilibria of two-player strategic games in a sequentially rational way. We show that there exist two-player games for which no cryptographic protocol can implement the mediator in a sequentially rational way; that is, without introducing empty threats. In the context of computational...... with appealing economic applications. Our implementation puts forward a notion of cryptographically blinded games that exploits the power of encryption to selectively restrict the information available to players about sampled action profiles, such that these desirable equilibria can be stably achieved...

  15. Cryptographic robustness of a quantum cryptography system using phase-time coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotkov, S. N.

    2008-01-01

    A cryptographic analysis is presented of a new quantum key distribution protocol using phase-time coding. An upper bound is obtained for the error rate that guarantees secure key distribution. It is shown that the maximum tolerable error rate for this protocol depends on the counting rate in the control time slot. When no counts are detected in the control time slot, the protocol guarantees secure key distribution if the bit error rate in the sifted key does not exceed 50%. This protocol partially discriminates between errors due to system defects (e.g., imbalance of a fiber-optic interferometer) and eavesdropping. In the absence of eavesdropping, the counts detected in the control time slot are not caused by interferometer imbalance, which reduces the requirements for interferometer stability.

  16. Simple security proof of quantum key distribution based on complementarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koashi, M

    2009-01-01

    We present an approach to the unconditional security of quantum key distribution protocols based on a complementarity argument. The approach is applicable to, but not limited to, every case that has been treated via the argument by Shor and Preskill based on entanglement distillation, with a benefit of decoupling of the error correction from the privacy amplification. It can also treat cases with uncharacterized apparatuses. We derive a secure key rate for the Bennett-Brassard-1984 protocol with an arbitrary source characterized only by a single parameter representing the basis dependence.

  17. Public key cryptography from weaker assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zottarel, Angela

    This dissertation is focused on the construction of public key cryptographic primitives and on the relative security analysis in a meaningful theoretic model. This work takes two orthogonal directions. In the first part, we study cryptographic constructions preserving their security properties also...... in the case the adversary is granted access to partial information about the secret state of the primitive. To do so, we work in an extension of the standard black-box model, a new framework where possible leakage from the secret state is taken into account. In particular, we give the first construction...

  18. Information Security Governanceas as Key Performance Indicator for Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Krjukovs, D; Strauss, R

    2009-01-01

    Due to their nature financial institutions and their performance are in constant focus of attention from different stakeholder groups. These groups according to their functions and interests are implementing different sets of key performance indicators for financial institution performance assessment. In the proposed paper authors present a hypothesis of information security governance being a financial institution key performance indicator. Authors provide high level overview of ...

  19. Unconditional security of quantum key distribution and the uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koashi, Masato

    2006-01-01

    An approach to the unconditional security of quantum key distribution protocols is presented, which is based on the uncertainty principle. The approach applies to every case that has been treated via the argument by Shor and Preskill, but it is not necessary to find quantum error correcting codes. It can also treat the cases with uncharacterized apparatuses. The proof can be applied to cases where the secret key rate is larger than the distillable entanglement

  20. Distributed public key schemes secure against continual leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akavia, Adi; Goldwasser, Shafi; Hazay, Carmit

    2012-01-01

    -secure against continual memory leakage. Our DPKE scheme also implies a secure storage system on leaky devices, where a value s can be secretely stored on devices that continually leak information about their internal state to an external attacker. The devices go through a periodic refresh protocol......In this work we study distributed public key schemes secure against continual memory leakage. The secret key will be shared among two computing devices communicating over a public channel, and the decryption operation will be computed by a simple 2-party protocol between the devices. Similarly...... against continual memory leakage, under the Bilinear Decisional Diffie-Hellman and $2$-linear assumptions. Our schemes have the following properties: 1. Our DPKE and DIBE schemes tolerate leakage at all times, including during refresh. During refresh the tolerated leakage is a (1/2-o (1),1)-fraction...

  1. Secured Session-key Distribution using control Vector Encryption / Decryption Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Jabiullah, M.; Abdullah Al-Shamim; Khaleqdad Khan, ANM; Lutfar Rahman, M.

    2006-01-01

    Frequent key changes are very much desirable for the secret communications and are thus in high demand. A session-key distribution technique has been designed and implemented using the programming language C on which the communication between the end-users is encrypted is used for the duration of a logical connection. Each session-key is obtained from the key distribution center (KDC) over the same networking facilities used for end-user communication. The control vector is cryptographically coupled with the session-key at the time of key generation in the KDC. For this, the generated hash function, master key and the session-key are used for producing the encrypted session-key, which has to be transferred. All the operations have been performed using the C programming language. This process can be widely applicable to all sorts of electronic transactions online or offline; commercially and academically.(authors)

  2. Parallel Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Rahul; Miller, Carl A.; Shi, Yaoyun

    2017-01-01

    A prominent application of quantum cryptography is the distribution of cryptographic keys with unconditional security. Recently, such security was extended by Vazirani and Vidick (Physical Review Letters, 113, 140501, 2014) to the device-independent (DI) scenario, where the users do not need to trust the integrity of the underlying quantum devices. The protocols analyzed by them and by subsequent authors all require a sequential execution of N multiplayer games, where N is the security parame...

  3. Physically unclonable cryptographic primitives using self-assembled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaoying; Comeras, Jose Miguel M. Lobez; Park, Hongsik; Tang, Jianshi; Afzali, Ali; Tulevski, George S.; Hannon, James B.; Liehr, Michael; Han, Shu-Jen

    2016-06-01

    Information security underpins many aspects of modern society. However, silicon chips are vulnerable to hazards such as counterfeiting, tampering and information leakage through side-channel attacks (for example, by measuring power consumption, timing or electromagnetic radiation). Single-walled carbon nanotubes are a potential replacement for silicon as the channel material of transistors due to their superb electrical properties and intrinsic ultrathin body, but problems such as limited semiconducting purity and non-ideal assembly still need to be addressed before they can deliver high-performance electronics. Here, we show that by using these inherent imperfections, an unclonable electronic random structure can be constructed at low cost from carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes are self-assembled into patterned HfO2 trenches using ion-exchange chemistry, and the width of the trench is optimized to maximize the randomness of the nanotube placement. With this approach, two-dimensional (2D) random bit arrays are created that can offer ternary-bit architecture by determining the connection yield and switching type of the nanotube devices. As a result, our cryptographic keys provide a significantly higher level of security than conventional binary-bit architecture with the same key size.

  4. Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nitin; Wittmann, Christoffer; Lydersen, Lars; Wiechers, Carlos; Elser, Dominique; Marquardt, Christoph; Makarov, Vadim; Leuchs, Gerd

    2011-09-09

    Characterizing the physical channel and calibrating the cryptosystem hardware are prerequisites for establishing a quantum channel for quantum key distribution (QKD). Moreover, an inappropriately implemented calibration routine can open a fatal security loophole. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a method to induce a large temporal detector efficiency mismatch in a commercial QKD system by deceiving a channel length calibration routine. We then devise an optimal and realistic strategy using faked states to break the security of the cryptosystem. A fix for this loophole is also suggested.

  5. The ultimate security bounds of quantum key distribution protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolopoulos, G.M.; Alber, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols exploit quantum correlations in order to establish a secure key between two legitimate users. Recent work on QKD has revealed a remarkable link between quantum and secret correlations. In this talk we report on recent results concerning the ultimate upper security bounds of various QKD schemes (i.e., the maximal disturbance up to which the two legitimate users share quantum correlations) under the assumption of general coherent attacks. In particular, we derive an analytic expression for the ultimate upper security bound of QKD schemes that use two mutually unbiased bases. As long as the two legitimate users focus on the sifted key and treat each pair of data independently during the post processing, our results are valid for arbitrary dimensions of the information carriers. The bound we have derived is well below the predictions of optimal cloning machines. The possibility of extraction of a secret key beyond entanglement distillation is also discussed. In the case of qutrits we argue that any eavesdropping strategy is equivalent to a symmetric one. For higher dimensions, however, such equivalence is generally no longer valid. (author)

  6. Security by quantum key distribution and IPSEC (SEQKEIP): feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sfaxi, M.A.; Ghernaouti-Helie, S.; Ribordy, G; Gay, O.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Classical cryptography algorithms are based on mathematical functions. The robustness of a given cryptosystem is based essentially on the secrecy of its (private) key and the difficulty with which the inverse of its one-way function(s) can be calculated. Unfortunately, there is no mathematical proof that will establish whether it is not possible to find the inverse of a given one-way function. On the contrary, quantum cryptography is a method for sharing secret keys, whose security can be formally demonstrated. It is based on the laws of physics. The possible applications of quantum cryptography are mainly linked to telecommunication services that require very high level of security. Quantum cryptography could be integrated in various existing concepts and protocols. One of the possible use of quantum cryptography is within IPSEC. The aim of this paper is to analyse the feasibility of using quantum cryptography in IPSEC and to present the estimated performances of this solution. (author)

  7. Device-independent quantum key distribution secure against collective attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pironio, Stefano; Gisin, Nicolas; AcIn, Antonio; Brunner, Nicolas; Massar, Serge; Scarani, Valerio

    2009-01-01

    Device-independent quantum key distribution (DIQKD) represents a relaxation of the security assumptions made in usual quantum key distribution (QKD). As in usual QKD, the security of DIQKD follows from the laws of quantum physics, but contrary to usual QKD, it does not rely on any assumptions about the internal working of the quantum devices used in the protocol. In this paper, we present in detail the security proof for a DIQKD protocol introduced in AcIn et al (2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 230501). This proof exploits the full structure of quantum theory (as opposed to other proofs that exploit only the no-signaling principle), but only holds against collective attacks, where the eavesdropper is assumed to act on the quantum systems of the honest parties independently and identically in each round of the protocol (although she can act coherently on her systems at any time). The security of any DIQKD protocol necessarily relies on the violation of a Bell inequality. We discuss the issue of loopholes in Bell experiments in this context.

  8. Efficient quantum secure communication with a publicly known key

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunyan; Li Xihan; Deng Fuguo; Zhou Hongyu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a simple way for an eavesdropper to eavesdrop freely the secret message in the experimental realization of quantum communication protocol proposed by Beige et al (2002 Acta Phys. Pol. A 101 357). Moreover, it introduces an efficient quantum secure communication protocol based on a publicly known key with decoy photons and two biased bases by modifying the original protocol. The total efficiency of this new protocol is double that of the original one. With a low noise quantum channel, this protocol can be used for transmitting a secret message. At present, this protocol is good for generating a private key efficiently. (general)

  9. Cryptographic Primitives with Quasigroup Transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Mileva, Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Cryptology is the science of secret communication, which consists of two complementary disciplines: cryptography and cryptanalysis. Cryptography is dealing with design and development of new primitives, algorithms and schemas for data enciphering and deciphering. For many centuries cryptographic technics have been applied in protection of secrecy and authentication in diplomatic, political and military correspondences and communications. Cryptanalysis is dealing with different attacks on c...

  10. Shared Electronic Health Record Systems: Key Legal and Security Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Ellen K; Skipenes, Eva; Hausken, Marie F; Skeie, Svein; Østbye, Truls; Iversen, Marjolein M

    2017-11-01

    Use of shared electronic health records opens a whole range of new possibilities for flexible and fruitful cooperation among health personnel in different health institutions, to the benefit of the patients. There are, however, unsolved legal and security challenges. The overall aim of this article is to highlight legal and security challenges that should be considered before using shared electronic cooperation platforms and health record systems to avoid legal and security "surprises" subsequent to the implementation. Practical lessons learned from the use of a web-based ulcer record system involving patients, community nurses, GPs, and hospital nurses and doctors in specialist health care are used to illustrate challenges we faced. Discussion of possible legal and security challenges is critical for successful implementation of shared electronic collaboration systems. Key challenges include (1) allocation of responsibility, (2) documentation routines, (3) and integrated or federated access control. We discuss and suggest how challenges of legal and security aspects can be handled. This discussion may be useful for both current and future users, as well as policy makers.

  11. Quantum key distribution and cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleaume, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Originally proposed by classical cryptographers, the ideas behind Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) have attracted considerable interest among the quantum optics community, which has significantly helped bring these ideas to reality. Experimental realizations have quickly evolved from early lab demonstrations to QKD systems that are now deployed in real conditions and targeting commercial applications. Although QKD can be theoretically proven to rely on 'unconditional security proofs' and should thus be able to provide security levels unachievable through computationally-based cryptographic techniques, the debate on the cryptographic applications of QKD remains somehow controversial. It seems that a consensus on that matter cannot be reached without a careful analysis of assumptions and definitions related to security models used in classical or in quantum cryptography. In this talk, we will try to present a comprehensive synthesis on this topic. We have initiated this work as a contribution to the European IP SECOQC project, confronting views and knowledge among experimental and theoretical quantum physicists, as well as classical cryptographers. (author)

  12. Resilience Analysis of Key Update Strategies for Resource-Constrained Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Severe resource limitations in certain types of networks lead to various open issues in security. Since such networks usually operate in unattended or hostile environments, revoking the cryptographic keys and establishing (also distributing) new keys – which we refer to as key update – is a criti...

  13. Securing quantum key distribution systems using fewer states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nurul T.; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Cahall, Clinton; Kim, Jungsang; Gauthier, Daniel J.

    2018-04-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two remote users to establish a secret key in the presence of an eavesdropper. The users share quantum states prepared in two mutually unbiased bases: one to generate the key while the other monitors the presence of the eavesdropper. Here, we show that a general d -dimension QKD system can be secured by transmitting only a subset of the monitoring states. In particular, we find that there is no loss in the secure key rate when dropping one of the monitoring states. Furthermore, it is possible to use only a single monitoring state if the quantum bit error rates are low enough. We apply our formalism to an experimental d =4 time-phase QKD system, where only one monitoring state is transmitted, and obtain a secret key rate of 17.4 ±2.8 Mbits/s at a 4 dB channel loss and with a quantum bit error rate of 0.045 ±0.001 and 0.037 ±0.001 in time and phase bases, respectively, which is 58.4% of the secret key rate that can be achieved with the full setup. This ratio can be increased, potentially up to 100%, if the error rates in time and phase basis are reduced. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to substantially simplify the design of high-dimensional QKD systems, including those that use the spatial or temporal degrees of freedom of the photon, and still outperform qubit-based (d =2 ) protocols.

  14. Security of quantum key distributions with entangled qudits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durt, Thomas; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Chen, Jing-Ling; Kwek, L. C.

    2004-03-01

    We consider a generalization of Ekert's entanglement-based quantum cryptographic protocol where qubits are replaced by N - or d -dimensional systems (qudits). In order to study its robustness against optimal incoherent attacks, we derive the information gained by a potential eavesdropper during a cloning-based individual attack. In doing so, we generalize Cerf’s formalism for cloning machines and establish the form of the most general cloning machine that respects all the symmetries of the problem. We obtain an upper bound on the error rate that guarantees the confidentiality of qudit generalizations of the Ekert’s protocol for qubits.

  15. Quantum key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  16. Cryptographic Hash Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2010-01-01

    functions, also called message authentication codes (MACs) serve data integrity and data origin authentication in the secret key setting. The building blocks of hash functions can be designed using block ciphers, modular arithmetic or from scratch. The design principles of the popular Merkle...

  17. Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    , one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited...

  18. Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    , one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited......In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases...

  19. Key on demand (KoD) for software-defined optical networks secured by quantum key distribution (QKD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Zhao, Yongli; Colman-Meixner, Carlos; Yu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Jie

    2017-10-30

    Software-defined optical networking (SDON) will become the next generation optical network architecture. However, the optical layer and control layer of SDON are vulnerable to cyberattacks. While, data encryption is an effective method to minimize the negative effects of cyberattacks, secure key interchange is its major challenge which can be addressed by the quantum key distribution (QKD) technique. Hence, in this paper we discuss the integration of QKD with WDM optical networks to secure the SDON architecture by introducing a novel key on demand (KoD) scheme which is enabled by a novel routing, wavelength and key assignment (RWKA) algorithm. The QKD over SDON with KoD model follows two steps to provide security: i) quantum key pools (QKPs) construction for securing the control channels (CChs) and data channels (DChs); ii) the KoD scheme uses RWKA algorithm to allocate and update secret keys for different security requirements. To test our model, we define a security probability index which measures the security gain in CChs and DChs. Simulation results indicate that the security performance of CChs and DChs can be enhanced by provisioning sufficient secret keys in QKPs and performing key-updating considering potential cyberattacks. Also, KoD is beneficial to achieve a positive balance between security requirements and key resource usage.

  20. An Expressive, Lightweight and Secure Construction of Key Policy Attribute-Based Cloud Data Sharing Access Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guofen; Hong, Hanshu; Xia, Yunhao; Sun, Zhixin

    2017-10-01

    Attribute-based encryption (ABE) is an interesting cryptographic technique for flexible cloud data sharing access control. However, some open challenges hinder its practical application. In previous schemes, all attributes are considered as in the same status while they are not in most of practical scenarios. Meanwhile, the size of access policy increases dramatically with the raise of its expressiveness complexity. In addition, current research hardly notices that mobile front-end devices, such as smartphones, are poor in computational performance while too much bilinear pairing computation is needed for ABE. In this paper, we propose a key-policy weighted attribute-based encryption without bilinear pairing computation (KP-WABE-WB) for secure cloud data sharing access control. A simple weighted mechanism is presented to describe different importance of each attribute. We introduce a novel construction of ABE without executing any bilinear pairing computation. Compared to previous schemes, our scheme has a better performance in expressiveness of access policy and computational efficiency.

  1. Securing wireless communications at the physical layer

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ruoheng

    2009-01-01

    Throughout this book there is an underlying theme that the rich multipath environment that is typical of wireless scenarios supports the establishment of new security services at the physical layer, including new mechanisms that establish cryptographic keys, that support communication with assured confidentiality, and that can authenticate transmitters in mobile environments. The book takes a holistic approach to covering topics related to physical layer security solutions, with contributions ranging from the theoretical underpinnings behind secure communications to practical systems validatio

  2. NESSIE: A European Approach to Evaluate Cryptographic Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Preneel, Bart

    2002-01-01

    The NESSIE project (New European Schemes for Signature, Integrity and Encryption) intends to put forward a portfolio containing the next generation of cryptographic primitives. These primitives will offer a higher security level than existing primitives, and/or will offer a higher confidence level, built up by an open evaluation process. Moreover, they should be better suited for the constraints of future hardware and software environments. In order to reach this goal, the project has launche...

  3. Summary Report on Unconditionally Secure Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Salvail, Louis; Cachin, Christian

    This document describes the state of the art snd some of the main open problems in the area of unconditionally secure cryptographic protocols. The most essential part of a cryptographic protocol is not its being secure. Imagine a cryptographic protocol which is secure, but where we do not know...... that it is secure. Such a protocol would do little in providing security. When all comes to all, cryptographic security is done for the sake of people, and the essential part of security is for people what it has always been, namely to feel secure. To feel secure employing a given cryptographic protocol we need...... to know that is is secure. I.e. we need a proof that it is secure. Today the proof of security of essentially all practically employed cryptographic protocols relies on computational assumptions. To prove that currently employed ways to communicate securely over the Internet are secure we e.g. need...

  4. Symbolic Analysis of Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten

    We present our work on using abstract models for formally analysing cryptographic protocols: First, we present an ecient method for verifying trace-based authenticity properties of protocols using nonces, symmetric encryption, and asymmetric encryption. The method is based on a type system...... of Gordon et al., which we modify to support fully-automated type inference. Tests conducted via an implementation of our algorithm found it to be very ecient. Second, we show how privacy may be captured in a symbolic model using an equivalencebased property and give a formal denition. We formalise...

  5. Identifying the Key Weaknesses in Network Security at Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Florence

    2000-01-01

    A new study identifies and ranks the 10 security gaps responsible for most outsider attacks on college computer networks. The list is intended to help campus system administrators establish priorities as they work to increase security. One network security expert urges that institutions utilize multiple security layers. (DB)

  6. PACE: Proactively Secure Accumulo with Cryptographic Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-27

    will be replaced with the values from the decrypted destination field. PACE encrypts data using AES and supports the following modes: CTR, CFB, CBC, OFB...2) Searchable Encryption : PACE also support searching for encrypted data. This is done using AES in SIV mode [11] to provide deterministic encryption ...row ”Alphabet”), then the search term is encrypted deterministically, and that term is searched on the server. Because AES does not preserve the

  7. Multi-operation cryptographic engine: VLSI design and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selimis, George; Koufopavlou, Odysseas

    2005-01-01

    The environment of smart card lacks of system resources but the commercial and economic transactions via smart cards demand the use of certificated and secure cryptographic methods. In this paper a cryptographic approach in hardware for smart cards is proposed. The proposed system supports two basic operations of cryptography, authentication and encryption. The basic component of system is the one round of DES algorithm which supports the DES, Triple DES and the ANSI X9.17 standards. The proposed system is efficient in terms of area resources and techniques for low power consumption have applied. Due to the fact that the system is for smart card applications the overall throughput outperforms the typical smart card throughput standards

  8. On another two cryptographic identities in universal Osborn loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Jaiyéolá

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, by establishing an identity for universal Osborn loops, two other identities (of degrees 4 and 6 are deduced from it and they are recognized and recommended for cryptography in a similar spirit in which the cross inverse property (of degree 2 has been used by Keedwell following the fact that it was observed that universal Osborn loops that do not have the 3-power associative property or weaker forms of; inverse property, power associativity and diassociativity to mention a few, will have cycles (even long ones. These identities are found to be cryptographic in nature for universal Osborn loops and thereby called cryptographic identities. They were also found applicable to security patterns, arrangements and networks which the CIP may not be applicable to.

  9. A brief history of cryptology and cryptographic algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Dooley, John F

    2013-01-01

    The science of cryptology is made up of two halves. Cryptography is the study of how to create secure systems for communications. Cryptanalysis is the study of how to break those systems. The conflict between these two halves of cryptology is the story of secret writing. For over 2,000 years, the desire to communicate securely and secretly has resulted in the creation of numerous and increasingly complicated systems to protect one's messages. Yet for every system there is a cryptanalyst creating a new technique to break that system. With the advent of computers the cryptographer seems to final

  10. Comparative study of key exchange and authentication methods in application, transport and network level security mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathirad, Iraj; Devlin, John; Jiang, Frank

    2012-09-01

    The key-exchange and authentication are two crucial elements of any network security mechanism. IPsec, SSL/TLS, PGP and S/MIME are well-known security approaches in providing security service to network, transport and application layers; these protocols use different methods (based on their requirements) to establish keying materials and authenticates key-negotiation and participated parties. This paper studies and compares the authenticated key negotiation methods in mentioned protocols.

  11. Small Private Key PKS on an Embedded Microprocessor

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate quadratic (MQ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to MQ cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key MQ scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor...

  12. Architectural Building A Public Key Infrastructure Integrated Information Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Ivanovich Korolev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article keeps under consideration the mattersto apply the cryptographic system having a public key to provide information security and to implya digital signature. It performs the analysis of trust models at the formation of certificates and their use. The article describes the relationships between the trust model and the architecture public key infrastructure. It contains conclusions in respect of the options for building the public key infrastructure for integrated informationspace.

  13. On the Security of a Simple Three-Party Key Exchange Protocol without Server’s Public Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Nam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Authenticated key exchange protocols are of fundamental importance in securing communications and are now extensively deployed for use in various real-world network applications. In this work, we reveal major previously unpublished security vulnerabilities in the password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol according to Lee and Hwang (2010: (1 the Lee-Hwang protocol is susceptible to a man-in-the-middle attack and thus fails to achieve implicit key authentication; (2 the protocol cannot protect clients’ passwords against an offline dictionary attack; and (3 the indistinguishability-based security of the protocol can be easily broken even in the presence of a passive adversary. We also propose an improved password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol that addresses the security vulnerabilities identified in the Lee-Hwang protocol.

  14. Charting a Security Landscape in the Clouds: Data Protection and Collaboration in Cloud Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    strength of specific cryptographic primitives used such as Advanced Encryption Standard ( AES ); protection of keys and key materials beyond the protocol...Advanced Encryption Standard ( AES ) with a 256-bit key instead of a 128-bit key for example, is not a particularly insightful observation. Rather, this... AES Advanced Encryption Standard TLS/SSL Transport Layer Security/Security Socket Layer 35 REFERENCES [1] International Data Corporation

  15. Security in Wireless Sensor Networks Employing MACGSP6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitipaichit, Yuttasart

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have unique characteristics which constrain them; including small energy stores, limited computation, and short range communication capability. Most traditional security algorithms use cryptographic primitives such as Public-key cryptography and are not optimized for energy usage. Employing these algorithms for the…

  16. Security for the digital information age of medicine: Issues, applications, and implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Michael A.; Pasieka, Michael S.; Lord, William P.; Mankovich, Nicholas J.

    1997-01-01

    Privacy and integrity of medical records is expected by patients. This privacy and integrity is often mandated by regulations. Traditionally, the security of medical records has been based on physical lock and key. As the storage of patient record information shifts from paper to digital, we find new security concerns. Digital cryptographic methods provide solutions to many of these new concerns. In this paper we discuss the new security concerns, new legislation mandating secure medical reco...

  17. Report: Improvements Needed in Key EPA Information System Security Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #10-P-0146, June 15, 2010. Williams Adley found that EPA program offices lacked evidence that they planned and executed tests of information system security controls as required by federal requirements.

  18. Introduction to Hardware Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yier Jin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hardware security has become a hot topic recently with more and more researchers from related research domains joining this area. However, the understanding of hardware security is often mixed with cybersecurity and cryptography, especially cryptographic hardware. For the same reason, the research scope of hardware security has never been clearly defined. To help researchers who have recently joined in this area better understand the challenges and tasks within the hardware security domain and to help both academia and industry investigate countermeasures and solutions to solve hardware security problems, we will introduce the key concepts of hardware security as well as its relations to related research topics in this survey paper. Emerging hardware security topics will also be clearly depicted through which the future trend will be elaborated, making this survey paper a good reference for the continuing research efforts in this area.

  19. Formal Analysis of Key Integrity in PKCS#11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Andrea; Focardi, Riccardo

    PKCS#11 is a standard API to cryptographic devices such as smarcards, hardware security modules and usb crypto-tokens. Though widely adopted, this API has been shown to be prone to attacks in which a malicious user gains access to the sensitive keys stored in the devices. In 2008, Delaune, Kremer and Steel proposed a model to formally reason on this kind of attacks. We extend this model to also describe flaws that are based on integrity violations of the stored keys. In particular, we consider scenarios in which a malicious overwriting of keys might fool honest users into using attacker's own keys, while performing sensitive operations. We further enrich the model with a trusted key mechanism ensuring that only controlled, non-tampered keys are used in cryptographic operations, and we show how this modified API prevents the above mentioned key-replacement attacks.

  20. On the security of Y-00 under fast correlation and other attacks on the key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Horace P.; Nair, Ranjith

    2007-04-01

    The security of the Y-00 direct encryption protocol under correlation attack is addressed. A Y-00 configuration that is more secure than AES under known-plaintext attack is presented. It is shown that under any ciphertext-only attack, full information-theoretic security on the Y-00 seed key is obtained for any encryption box ENC with proper deliberate signal randomization.

  1. On the security of Y-00 under fast correlation and other attacks on the key

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuen, Horace P.; Nair, Ranjith

    2007-01-01

    The security of the Y-00 direct encryption protocol under correlation attack is addressed. A Y-00 configuration that is more secure than AES under known-plaintext attack is presented. It is shown that under any ciphertext-only attack, full information-theoretic security on the Y-00 seed key is obtained for any encryption box ENC with proper deliberate signal randomization

  2. Unconditionally secure key distillation from multi-photons in a single-photon polarization based quantum key distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Tamaki, K

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation, we show some counter-examples to a naive belief that the security of QKD is based on no-cloning theorem. One example is shown by explicitly proving that one can indeed generate an unconditionally secure key from Alice's two-photon emission part in "SARG04 protocol" proposed by V. Scarani et al, in Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057901 (2004). This protocol differs from BB84 only in the classical communication. It is, thus, interesting to see how only the classical communication of QKD protocol might qualitatively change its security. We also show that one can generate an unconditionally secure key from the single to the four-photon part in a generalized SARG04 that uses six states. Finally, we also compare the bit error rate threshold of these protocols with the one in BB84 and the original six-state protocol assuming a depolarizing channel.

  3. A Novel Method for Generating Encryption Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dascalescu Ana Cristina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the informational society, which has led to an impressive growth of the information volume circulating in the computer networks, has accelerated the evolution and especially the use of modern cryptography instruments. Today, the commercial products use standard cryptographic libraries that implement certified and tested cryptographic algorithms. Instead, the fragility ofencryption algorithms is given by compositional operations like key handling or key generation. In this sense, the article proposes an innovative method to generate pseudorandom numbers which can be used for the construction of secure stream encryption keys. The proposed method is based on the mathematical complements based on the algebra of the finite fields and uses a particularized structure of the linear feedback shift registers.

  4. Security of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against individual attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waks, Edo; Takesue, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2006-01-01

    We derive a proof of security for the differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution protocol under the assumption that Eve is restricted to individual attacks. The security proof is derived by bounding the average collision probability, which leads directly to a bound on Eve's mutual information on the final key. The security proof applies to realistic sources based on pulsed coherent light. We then compare individual attacks to sequential attacks and show that individual attacks are more powerful

  5. Interferometric key readable security holograms with secrete-codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology,. Hisar 125 001, India. *E-mail: aka1945@rediffmail.com. MS received 21 ... A new method is described to create secrete-codes in the security holograms for enhancing ... ing, or falsification of the valuable products and documents.

  6. Interferometric key readable security holograms with secrete-codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new method is described to create secrete-codes in the security holograms for enhancing their anti-counterfeiting characteristics. ... Scientific Instruments Organisation, Sector 30, Chandigarh 160 030, India; Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar 125 001, India ...

  7. Managing climatic risks for enhanced food security: Key information capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balaghi, R.; Badjeck, M.C.; Bakari, D.; Pauw, de E.D.; Wit, de A.J.W.; Defourny, P.; Donato, S.; Gommes, R.; Jlibene, M.; Ravelo, A.C.; Sivakumar, M.V.K.; Telahigue, N.; Tychon, B.

    2010-01-01

    Food security is expected to face increasing challenges from climatic risks that are more and more exacerbated by climate change, especially in the developing world. This document lists some of the main capabilities that have been recently developed, especially in the area of operational

  8. Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Hughes, Richard John; Peterson, Charles Glen

    2013-07-09

    Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD are extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.

  9. Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Richard John; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Peterson, Charles Glen

    2017-06-14

    Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD are extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.

  10. Security Issues of the Digital Certificates within Public Key Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the basic byte level interpretation of an X.509 v3 digital certificate according to ASN.1 DER/BER encoding. The reasons for byte level analysis are various and important. For instance, a research paper has mentioned how a PKI security may be violated by MD5 collision over information from the certificates. In order to develop further studies on the topic a serious knowledge about certificate structure is necessary.

  11. Why nurses can be key partners in securing philanthropic investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Fund-raisers can truly benefit from collaborating with nurses when they are seeking philanthropic support for their health care systems. Fund-raising is about developing new relationships with potential prospects and strengthening those with current donors. Nurses frequently have some of the best relationships with patients, and they often lead efforts to improve the quality of care in their hospitals. Their professional experience and their ability to connect with people are invaluable skills that can help secure philanthropic investments.

  12. Experimental aspects of deterministic secure quantum key distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walenta, Nino; Korn, Dietmar; Puhlmann, Dirk; Felbinger, Timo; Hoffmann, Holger; Ostermeyer, Martin [Universitaet Potsdam (Germany). Institut fuer Physik; Bostroem, Kim [Universitaet Muenster (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Most common protocols for quantum key distribution (QKD) use non-deterministic algorithms to establish a shared key. But deterministic implementations can allow for higher net key transfer rates and eavesdropping detection rates. The Ping-Pong coding scheme by Bostroem and Felbinger[1] employs deterministic information encoding in entangled states with its characteristic quantum channel from Bob to Alice and back to Bob. Based on a table-top implementation of this protocol with polarization-entangled photons fundamental advantages as well as practical issues like transmission losses, photon storage and requirements for progress towards longer transmission distances are discussed and compared to non-deterministic protocols. Modifications of common protocols towards a deterministic quantum key distribution are addressed.

  13. CWI cryptanalyst discovers new cryptographic attack variant in Flame spy malware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.J. Stevens (Marc); R.J.F. Cramer (Ronald)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractCryptanalyst Marc Stevens from the Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI) in Amsterdam, known for breaking the https security in 2008 using a cryptanalytic attack on MD5, analyzed the recent Flame virus this week. He discovered that for this spy malware an as yet unknown cryptographic

  14. Secret-Key-Aided Scheme for Securing Untrusted DF Relaying Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shafie, Ahmed El

    2017-06-12

    This paper proposes a new scheme to secure the transmissions in an untrusted decode-and-forward (DF) relaying network. A legitimate source node, Alice, sends her data to a legitimate destination node, Bob, with the aid of an untrusted DF relay node, Charlie. To secure the transmissions from Charlie during relaying time slots, each data codeword is secured using a secret-key codeword that has been previously shared between Alice and Bob during the perfectly secured time slots (i.e., when the channel secrecy rate is positive). The secret-key bits exchanged between Alice and Bob are stored in a finite-length buffer and are used to secure data transmission whenever needed. We model the secret-key buffer as a queueing system and analyze its Markov chain. Our numerical results show the gains of our proposed scheme relative to benchmarks. Moreover, the proposed scheme achieves an upper bound on the secure throughput.

  15. Secret-Key-Aided Scheme for Securing Untrusted DF Relaying Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shafie, Ahmed El; Salem, Ahmed Sultan; Mabrouk, Asma; Tourki, Kamel; Al-Dhahir, Naofal

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new scheme to secure the transmissions in an untrusted decode-and-forward (DF) relaying network. A legitimate source node, Alice, sends her data to a legitimate destination node, Bob, with the aid of an untrusted DF relay node, Charlie. To secure the transmissions from Charlie during relaying time slots, each data codeword is secured using a secret-key codeword that has been previously shared between Alice and Bob during the perfectly secured time slots (i.e., when the channel secrecy rate is positive). The secret-key bits exchanged between Alice and Bob are stored in a finite-length buffer and are used to secure data transmission whenever needed. We model the secret-key buffer as a queueing system and analyze its Markov chain. Our numerical results show the gains of our proposed scheme relative to benchmarks. Moreover, the proposed scheme achieves an upper bound on the secure throughput.

  16. Secure Clustering and Symmetric Key Establishment in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azarderskhsh Reza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Information security in infrastructureless wireless sensor networks (WSNs is one of the most important research challenges. In these networks, sensor nodes are typically sprinkled liberally in the field in order to monitor, gather, disseminate, and provide the sensed data to the command node. Various studies have focused on key establishment schemes in homogeneous WSNs. However, recent research has shown that achieving survivability in WSNs requires a hierarchy and heterogeneous infrastructure. In this paper, to address security issues in the heterogeneous WSNs, we propose a secure clustering scheme along with a deterministic pairwise key management scheme based on public key cryptography. The proposed security mechanism guarantees that any two sensor nodes located in the same cluster and routing path can directly establish a pairwise key without disclosing any information to other nodes. Through security performance evaluation, it is shown that the proposed scheme guarantees node-to-node authentication, high resiliency against node capture, and minimum memory space requirement.

  17. An Encryption Key for Secure Authentication: The Dynamic Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubayr Khalid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern day technology, the Information Society is at risk. Passwords are a multi-user computer systems usual first line of defence against intrusion. A password may be textual with any combination of alphanumeric characters or biometric or 3-D. But no authentication protocol is fully secured against todays hackers as all of them are Static in type. Dynamic authentication protocol is still a theoretical concept. In this paper, we are focusing on a concept of authentication technique which is actually dynamic in genre, i.e. the password here will change in t time (where t is as small as possible. This technique comprises of both hardware and software part. In this paper, we have covered the idea of generating an efficient algorithm that can work as the final in the Dynamic Password Authentication system. We have used standard deviation within statistics to generalize the possible password which is further secured by Feistel Block Cipher and Advanced Encryption Standard technique (AES, leading and following the said mathematics respectively. In order to allow the system to create variable password in the least time interval possible, we must make sure our process is not much complex.

  18. Strategies for Overcoming Key Barriers to Development of a National Security Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-06-30

    This report documents the strategies for overcoming identified key barriers to development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. Many barriers currently exist that prevent the development of an adequate number of properly trained national security personnel. The identified strategies to address the barriers will focus on both short-term and long-term efforts, as well as strategies to capture legacy knowledge of retiring national security workforce personnel.

  19. Cryptographic Aspects of Quantum Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetana Spedalieri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides achieving secure communication between two spatially-separated parties,another important issue in modern cryptography is related to secure communication intime, i.e., the possibility to confidentially store information on a memory for later retrieval.Here we explore this possibility in the setting of quantum reading, which exploits quantumentanglement to efficiently read data from a memory whereas classical strategies (e.g., basedon coherent states or their mixtures cannot retrieve any information. From this point ofview, the technique of quantum reading can provide a new form of technological security fordata storage.

  20. Secure networking quantum key distribution schemes with Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ying; Shi, Ronghua [School of Information Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zeng, Guihua [Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)], E-mail: sdguoying@gmail.com, E-mail: rhshi@mail.edu.com, E-mail: ghzeng@sjtu.edu.cn

    2010-04-15

    A novel approach to quantum cryptography to be called NQKD, networking quantum key distribution, has been developed for secure quantum communication schemes on the basis of the complementary relations of entanglement Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) triplet states. One scheme distributes the private key among legal participants in a probabilistic manner, while another transmits the deterministic message with some certainty. Some decoy photons are employed for preventing a potential eavesdropper from attacking quantum channels. The present schemes are efficient as there exists an elegant method for key distributions. The security of the proposed schemes is exactly guaranteed by the entanglement of the GHZ quantum system, which is illustrated in security analysis.

  1. Secure networking quantum key distribution schemes with Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Ying; Shi, Ronghua; Zeng, Guihua

    2010-01-01

    A novel approach to quantum cryptography to be called NQKD, networking quantum key distribution, has been developed for secure quantum communication schemes on the basis of the complementary relations of entanglement Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) triplet states. One scheme distributes the private key among legal participants in a probabilistic manner, while another transmits the deterministic message with some certainty. Some decoy photons are employed for preventing a potential eavesdropper from attacking quantum channels. The present schemes are efficient as there exists an elegant method for key distributions. The security of the proposed schemes is exactly guaranteed by the entanglement of the GHZ quantum system, which is illustrated in security analysis.

  2. Leakage Resilient Secure Two-Party Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Hazay, Carmit; Patra, Arpita

    2012-01-01

    we initiate the study of {\\em secure two-party computation in the presence of leakage}, where on top of corrupting one of the parties the adversary obtains leakage from the content of the secret memory of the honest party. Our study involves the following contributions: \\BE \\item {\\em Security...... and returns its result. Almost independently of secure computation, the area of {\\em leakage resilient cryptography} has recently been evolving intensively, studying the question of designing cryptographic primitives that remain secure even when some information about the secret key is leaked. In this paper...

  3. A Secure Information Framework with APRQ Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupa, Ch.

    2017-08-01

    Internet of the things is the most trending topics in the digital world. Security issues are rampant. In the corporate or institutional setting, security risks are apparent from the outset. Market leaders are unable to use the cryptographic techniques due to their complexities. Hence many bits of private information, including ID, are readily available for third parties to see and to utilize. There is a need to decrease the complexity and increase the robustness of the cryptographic approaches. In view of this, a new cryptographic technique as good encryption pact with adjacency, random prime number and quantum code properties has been proposed. Here, encryption can be done by using quantum photons with gray code. This approach uses the concepts of physics and mathematics with no external key exchange to improve the security of the data. It also reduces the key attacks by generation of a key at the party side instead of sharing. This method makes the security more robust than with the existing approach. Important properties of gray code and quantum are adjacency property and different photons to a single bit (0 or 1). These can reduce the avalanche effect. Cryptanalysis of the proposed method shows that it is resistant to various attacks and stronger than the existing approaches.

  4. Improved security proofs and constructions for public-key cryptography

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Jiaxin (M. Sc.)

    2016-01-01

    Diese Arbeit verbessert die Sicherheitsanalyse und Konstruktierbarkeit von Public-Key-Kryptographie: Der erste Teil der Arbeit schlägt einen vereinfachten Sicherheitsbeweis für digitale Signaturverfahren von kanonischen Identifikationsschemata über die klassischen Fiat-Shamir-Transformation im Random Oracle Modell vor. Der zweite Teil der Arbeit schlägt eine neue Variante der Message Authentication Codes (MACs) vor, die sogenannten affinen MACs. Außerdem wird eine generische Transform...

  5. Information security system based on virtual-optics imaging methodology and public key infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Zhang, Peng; Cai, Lilong

    In this paper, we present a virtual-optical based information security system model with the aid of public-key-infrastructure (PKI) techniques. The proposed model employs a hybrid architecture in which our previously published encryption algorithm based on virtual-optics imaging methodology (VOIM) can be used to encipher and decipher data while an asymmetric algorithm, for example RSA, is applied for enciphering and deciphering the session key(s). For an asymmetric system, given an encryption key, it is computationally infeasible to determine the decryption key and vice versa. The whole information security model is run under the framework of PKI, which is on basis of public-key cryptography and digital signatures. This PKI-based VOIM security approach has additional features like confidentiality, authentication, and integrity for the purpose of data encryption under the environment of network.

  6. Blockchain-based Public Key Infrastructure for Inter-Domain Secure Routing

    OpenAIRE

    de la Rocha Gómez-Arevalillo , Alfonso; Papadimitratos , Panos

    2017-01-01

    International audience; A gamut of secure inter-domain routing protocols has been proposed in the literature. They use traditional PGP-like and centralized Public Key Infrastructures for trust management. In this paper, we propose our alternative approach for managing security associations, Secure Blockchain Trust Management (SBTM), a trust management system that instantiates a blockchain-based PKI for the operation of securerouting protocols. A main motivation for SBTM is to facilitate gradu...

  7. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Interoperability: A Security Services Approach to Support Transfer of Trust

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hansen, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    Public key infrastructure (PKI) technology is at a primitive stage characterized by deployment of PKIs that are engineered to support the provision of security services within individual enterprises, and are not able to support...

  8. Secure Programming Cookbook for C and C++ Recipes for Cryptography, Authentication, Input Validation & More

    CERN Document Server

    Viega, John

    2009-01-01

    Secure Programming Cookbook for C and C++ is an important new resource for developers serious about writing secure code for Unix® (including Linux®) and Windows® environments. This essential code companion covers a wide range of topics, including safe initialization, access control, input validation, symmetric and public key cryptography, cryptographic hashes and MACs, authentication and key exchange, PKI, random numbers, and anti-tampering.

  9. A General Construction of IND-CCA2 Secure Public Key Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiltz, Eike; Malone-Lee, John

    2003-01-01

    We propose a general construction for public key encryption schemes that are IND-CCA2 secure in the random oracle model. We show that the scheme proposed in [1, 2] fits our general framework and moreover that our method of analysis leads to a more efficient security reduction....

  10. A Novel Re-keying Function Protocol (NRFP For Wireless Sensor Network Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif Alsharabi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel re-keying function protocol (NRFP for wireless sensor network security. A re-keying process management system for sensor networks is designed to support in-network processing. The design of the protocol is motivated by decentralization key management for wireless sensor networks (WSNs, covering key deployment, key refreshment, and key establishment. NRFP supports the establishment of novel administrative functions for sensor nodes that derive/re-derive a session key for each communication session. The protocol proposes direct connection, in-direct connection and hybrid connection. NRFP also includes an efficient protocol for local broadcast authentication based on the use of one-way key chains. A salient feature of the authentication protocol is that it supports source authentication without precluding in-network processing. Security and performance analysis shows that it is very efficient in computation, communication and storage and, that NRFP is also effective in defending against many sophisticated attacks.

  11. A Novel Re-keying Function Protocol (NRFP) For Wireless Sensor Network Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Maan Younis; Hua, Gui Wei; Alsharabi, Naif

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a novel re-keying function protocol (NRFP) for wireless sensor network security. A re-keying process management system for sensor networks is designed to support in-network processing. The design of the protocol is motivated by decentralization key management for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), covering key deployment, key refreshment, and key establishment. NRFP supports the establishment of novel administrative functions for sensor nodes that derive/re-derive a session key for each communication session. The protocol proposes direct connection, in-direct connection and hybrid connection. NRFP also includes an efficient protocol for local broadcast authentication based on the use of one-way key chains. A salient feature of the authentication protocol is that it supports source authentication without precluding innetwork processing. Security and performance analysis shows that it is very efficient in computation, communication and storage and, that NRFP is also effective in defending against many sophisticated attacks. PMID:27873963

  12. A Novel Re-keying Function Protocol (NRFP) For Wireless Sensor Network Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Maan Younis; Hua, Gui Wei; Alsharabi, Naif

    2008-12-04

    This paper describes a novel re-keying function protocol (NRFP) for wireless sensor network security. A re-keying process management system for sensor networks is designed to support in-network processing. The design of the protocol is motivated by decentralization key management for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), covering key deployment, key refreshment, and key establishment. NRFP supports the establishment of novel administrative functions for sensor nodes that derive/re-derive a session key for each communication session. The protocol proposes direct connection, in-direct connection and hybrid connection. NRFP also includes an efficient protocol for local broadcast authentication based on the use of one-way key chains. A salient feature of the authentication protocol is that it supports source authentication without precluding in-network processing. Security and performance analysis shows that it is very efficient in computation, communication and storage and, that NRFP is also effective in defending against many sophisticated attacks.

  13. Symmetric Link Key Management for Secure Neighbor Discovery in a Decentralized Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    KEY MANAGEMENT FOR SECURE NEIGHBOR DISCOVERY IN A DECENTRALIZED WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK by Kelvin T. Chew September 2017 Thesis Advisor...and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT...DATE September 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SYMMETRIC LINK KEY MANAGEMENT FOR SECURE NEIGHBOR

  14. Security of a single-state semi-quantum key distribution protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Qiu, Daowen; Mateus, Paulo

    2018-06-01

    Semi-quantum key distribution protocols are allowed to set up a secure secret key between two users. Compared with their full quantum counterparts, one of the two users is restricted to perform some "classical" or "semi-quantum" operations, which potentially makes them easily realizable by using less quantum resource. However, the semi-quantum key distribution protocols mainly rely on a two-way quantum channel. The eavesdropper has two opportunities to intercept the quantum states transmitted in the quantum communication stage. It may allow the eavesdropper to get more information and make the security analysis more complicated. In the past ten years, many semi-quantum key distribution protocols have been proposed and proved to be robust. However, there are few works concerning their unconditional security. It is doubted that how secure the semi-quantum ones are and how much noise they can tolerate to establish a secure secret key. In this paper, we prove the unconditional security of a single-state semi-quantum key distribution protocol proposed by Zou et al. (Phys Rev A 79:052312, 2009). We present a complete proof from information theory aspect by deriving a lower bound of the protocol's key rate in the asymptotic scenario. Using this bound, we figure out an error threshold value such that for all error rates that are less than this threshold value, the secure secret key can be established between the legitimate users definitely. Otherwise, the users should abort the protocol. We make an illustration of the protocol under the circumstance that the reverse quantum channel is a depolarizing one with parameter q. Additionally, we compare the error threshold value with some full quantum protocols and several existing semi-quantum ones whose unconditional security proofs have been provided recently.

  15. Mechanical Verification of Cryptographic Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaochun; Ma, Xiaoqi; Huang, Scott C.-H.; Cheng, Maggie

    Information security is playing an increasingly important role in modern society, driven especially by the uptake of the Internet for information transfer. Large amount of information is transmitted everyday through the Internet, which is often the target of malicious attacks. In certain areas, this issue is vital. For example, military departments of governments often transmit a great amount of top-secret data, which, if divulged, could become a huge threat to the public and to national security. Even in our daily life, it is also necessary to protect information. Consider e-commerce systems as an example. No one is willing to purchase anything over the Internet before being assured that all their personal and financial information will always be kept secure and will never be leaked to any unauthorised person or organisation.

  16. Cryptographic framework for document-objects resulting from multiparty collaborative transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, A

    2000-01-01

    Multiparty transactional frameworks--i.e. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) or Health Level (HL) 7--often result in composite documents which can be accurately modelled using hyperlinked document-objects. The structural complexity arising from multiauthor involvement and transaction-specific sequencing would be poorly handled by conventional digital signature schemes based on a single evaluation of a one-way hash function and asymmetric cryptography. In this paper we outline the generation of structure-specific authentication hash-trees for the the authentication of transactional document-objects, followed by asymmetric signature generation on the hash-tree value. Server-side multi-client signature verification would probably constitute the single most compute-intensive task, hence the motivation for our usage of the Rabin signature protocol which results in significantly reduced verification workloads compared to the more commonly applied Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) protocol. Data privacy is handled via symmetric encryption of message traffic using session-specific keys obtained through key-negotiation mechanisms based on discrete-logarithm cryptography. Individual client-to-server channels can be secured using a double key-pair variation of Diffie-Hellman (DH) key negotiation, usage of which also enables bidirectional node authentication. The reciprocal server-to-client multicast channel is secured through Burmester-Desmedt (BD) key-negotiation which enjoys significant advantages over the usual multiparty extensions to the DH protocol. The implementation of hash-tree signatures and bi/multidirectional key negotiation results in a comprehensive cryptographic framework for multiparty document-objects satisfying both authentication and data privacy requirements.

  17. A Verifiable Language for Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde

    We develop a formal language for specifying cryptographic protocols in a structured and clear manner, which allows verification of many interesting properties; in particular confidentiality and integrity. The study sheds new light on the problem of creating intuitive and human readable languages...

  18. On Boolean functions with generalized cryptographic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeken, A.; Nikov, V.S.; Nikova, S.I.; Preneel, B.; Canteaut, A.; Viswanathan, K.

    2004-01-01

    By considering a new metric, we generalize cryptographic properties of Boolean functions such as resiliency and propagation characteristics. These new definitions result in a better understanding of the properties of Boolean functions and provide a better insight in the space defined by this metric.

  19. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...

  20. Key-Insulated Undetachable Digital Signature Scheme and Solution for Secure Mobile Agents in Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the security of both the customers’ hosts and the eShops’ servers, we introduce the idea of a key-insulated undetachable digital signature, enabling mobile agents to generate undetachable digital signatures on remote hosts with the key-insulated property of the original signer’s signing key. From the theoretical perspective, we provide the formal definition and security notion of a key-insulated undetachable digital signature. From the practical perspective, we propose a concrete scheme to secure mobile agents in electronic commerce. The scheme is mainly focused on protecting the signing key from leakage and preventing the misuse of the signature algorithm on malicious servers. Agents do not carry the signing key when they generate digital signatures on behalf of the original signer, so the key is protected on remote servers. Furthermore, if a hacker gains the signing key of the original signer, the hacker is still unable to forge a signature for any time period other than the key being accessed. In addition, the encrypted function is combined with the original signer’s requirement to prevent the misuse of signing algorithm. The scheme is constructed on gap Diffie–Hellman groups with provable security, and the performance testing indicates that the scheme is efficient.

  1. Security bound of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with noisy coherent states and channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yong; Yang Jian; Guo Hong

    2009-01-01

    Security of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol based on noisy coherent states and channel is analysed. Assuming that the noise of coherent states is induced by Fred, a neutral party relative to others, we prove that the prepare-and-measurement scheme (P and M) and entanglement-based scheme (E-B) are equivalent. Then, we show that this protocol is secure against Gaussian collective attacks even if the channel is lossy and noisy, and, further, a lower bound to the secure key rate is derived.

  2. Continuous-variable quantum authentication of physical unclonable keys: Security against an emulation attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.

    2018-01-01

    We consider a recently proposed entity authentication protocol in which a physical unclonable key is interrogated by random coherent states of light, and the quadratures of the scattered light are analyzed by means of a coarse-grained homodyne detection. We derive a sufficient condition for the protocol to be secure against an emulation attack in which an adversary knows the challenge-response properties of the key and moreover, he can access the challenges during the verification. The security analysis relies on Holevo's bound and Fano's inequality, and suggests that the protocol is secure against the emulation attack for a broad range of physical parameters that are within reach of today's technology.

  3. Security bound of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with noisy coherent states and channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Yong; Yang Jian; Guo Hong, E-mail: hongguo@pku.edu.c [CREAM Group, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks (Peking University) and Institute of Quantum Electronics, School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-12-14

    Security of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol based on noisy coherent states and channel is analysed. Assuming that the noise of coherent states is induced by Fred, a neutral party relative to others, we prove that the prepare-and-measurement scheme (P and M) and entanglement-based scheme (E-B) are equivalent. Then, we show that this protocol is secure against Gaussian collective attacks even if the channel is lossy and noisy, and, further, a lower bound to the secure key rate is derived.

  4. Semi-device-independent security of one-way quantum key distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlowski, Marcin; Brunner, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    By testing nonlocality, the security of entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) can be enhanced to being 'device-independent'. Here we ask whether such a strong form of security could also be established for one-way (prepare and measure) QKD. While fully device-independent security is impossible, we show that security can be guaranteed against individual attacks in a semi-device-independent scenario. In the latter, the devices used by the trusted parties are non-characterized, but t...

  5. [Principles and methodology for ecological rehabilitation and security pattern design in key project construction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Ding; Lu, Yi-He; Tian, Hui-Ying; Shi, Qian

    2007-03-01

    Global ecological security becomes increasingly important with the intensive human activities. The function of ecological security is influenced by human activities, and in return, the efficiency of human activities will also be affected by the patterns of regional ecological security. Since the 1990s, China has initiated the construction of key projects "Yangtze Three Gorges Dam", "Qinghai-Tibet Railway", "West-to-East Gas Pipeline", "West-to-East Electricity Transmission" and "South-to-North Water Transfer" , etc. The interaction between these projects and regional ecological security has particularly attracted the attention of Chinese government. It is not only important for the regional environmental protection, but also of significance for the smoothly implementation of various projects aimed to develop an ecological rehabilitation system and to design a regional ecological security pattern. This paper made a systematic analysis on the types and characteristics of key project construction and their effects on the environment, and on the basis of this, brought forward the basic principles and methodology for ecological rehabilitation and security pattern design in this construction. It was considered that the following issues should be addressed in the implementation of a key project: 1) analysis and evaluation of current regional ecological environment, 2) evaluation of anthropogenic disturbances and their ecological risk, 3) regional ecological rehabilitation and security pattern design, 4) scenario analysis of environmental benefits of regional ecological security pattern, 5) re-optimization of regional ecological system framework, and 6) establishment of regional ecosystem management plan.

  6. Efficient KDM-CCA Secure Public-Key Encryption via Auxiliary-Input Authenticated Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available KDM[F]-CCA security of public-key encryption (PKE ensures the privacy of key-dependent messages f(sk which are closely related to the secret key sk, where f∈F, even if the adversary is allowed to make decryption queries. In this paper, we study the design of KDM-CCA secure PKE. To this end, we develop a new primitive named Auxiliary-Input Authenticated Encryption (AIAE. For AIAE, we introduce two related-key attack (RKA security notions, including IND-RKA and weak-INT-RKA. We present a generic construction of AIAE from tag-based hash proof system (HPS and one-time secure authenticated encryption (AE and give an instantiation of AIAE under the Decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH assumption. Using AIAE as an essential building block, we give two constructions of efficient KDM-CCA secure PKE based on the DDH and the Decisional Composite Residuosity (DCR assumptions. Specifically, (i our first PKE construction is the first one achieving KDM[Faff]-CCA security for the set of affine functions and compactness of ciphertexts simultaneously. (ii Our second PKE construction is the first one achieving KDM[Fpolyd]-CCA security for the set of polynomial functions and almost compactness of ciphertexts simultaneously. Our PKE constructions are very efficient; in particular, they are pairing-free and NIZK-free.

  7. Security for Network Attached Storage Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gobioff, Howard

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a novel cryptographic capability system addressing the security and performance needs of network attached storage systems in which file management functions occur at a different...

  8. Physical Layer Secret-Key Generation Scheme for Transportation Security Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2017-06-28

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are widely used in different disciplines, including transportation systems, agriculture field environment monitoring, healthcare systems, and industrial monitoring. The security challenge of the wireless communication link between sensor nodes is critical in WSNs. In this paper, we propose a new physical layer secret-key generation scheme for transportation security sensor network. The scheme is based on the cooperation of all the sensor nodes, thus avoiding the key distribution process, which increases the security of the system. Different passive and active attack models are analyzed in this paper. We also prove that when the cooperative node number is large enough, even when the eavesdropper is equipped with multiple antennas, the secret-key is still secure. Numerical results are performed to show the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  9. Efficient and Security Enhanced Anonymous Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewook; Moon, Jongho; Lee, Donghoon; Won, Dongho

    2017-03-21

    At present, users can utilize an authenticated key agreement protocol in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to securely obtain desired information, and numerous studies have investigated authentication techniques to construct efficient, robust WSNs. Chang et al. recently presented an authenticated key agreement mechanism for WSNs and claimed that their authentication mechanism can both prevent various types of attacks, as well as preserve security properties. However, we have discovered that Chang et al's method possesses some security weaknesses. First, their mechanism cannot guarantee protection against a password guessing attack, user impersonation attack or session key compromise. Second, the mechanism results in a high load on the gateway node because the gateway node should always maintain the verifier tables. Third, there is no session key verification process in the authentication phase. To this end, we describe how the previously-stated weaknesses occur and propose a security-enhanced version for WSNs. We present a detailed analysis of the security and performance of our authenticated key agreement mechanism, which not only enhances security compared to that of related schemes, but also takes efficiency into consideration.

  10. A Secure Three-Factor User Authentication and Key Agreement Protocol for TMIS With User Anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ruhul; Biswas, G P

    2015-08-01

    Telecare medical information system (TMIS) makes an efficient and convenient connection between patient(s)/user(s) and doctor(s) over the insecure internet. Therefore, data security, privacy and user authentication are enormously important for accessing important medical data over insecure communication. Recently, many user authentication protocols for TMIS have been proposed in the literature and it has been observed that most of the protocols cannot achieve complete security requirements. In this paper, we have scrutinized two (Mishra et al., Xu et al.) remote user authentication protocols using smart card and explained that both the protocols are suffering against several security weaknesses. We have then presented three-factor user authentication and key agreement protocol usable for TMIS, which fix the security pitfalls of the above mentioned schemes. The informal cryptanalysis makes certain that the proposed protocol provides well security protection on the relevant security attacks. Furthermore, the simulator AVISPA tool confirms that the protocol is secure against active and passive attacks including replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. The security functionalities and performance comparison analysis confirm that our protocol not only provide strong protection on security attacks, but it also achieves better complexities along with efficient login and password change phase as well as session key verification property.

  11. A Survey of Public Key Infrastructure-Based Security for Mobile Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ramadan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile communication security techniques are employed to guard the communication between the network entities. Mobile communication cellular systems have become one of the most important communication systems in recent times and are used by millions of people around the world. Since the 1990s, considerable efforts have been taken to improve both the communication and security features of the mobile communications systems. However, these improvements divide the mobile communications field into different generations according to the communication and security techniques such as A3, A5 and A8 algorithms for 2G-GSM cellular system, 3G-authentication and key agreement (AKA, evolved packet system-authentication and key agreement (EPS-AKA, and long term evolution-authentication and key agreement (LTE-AKA algorithms for 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP systems. Furthermore, these generations have many vulnerabilities, and huge security work is involved to solve such problems. Some of them are in the field of the public key cryptography (PKC which requires a high computational cost and more network flexibility to be achieved. As such, the public key infrastructure (PKI is more compatible with the modern generations due to the superior communications features. This paper surveys the latest proposed works on the security of GSM, CDMA, and LTE cellular systems using PKI. Firstly, we present the security issues for each generation of mobile communication systems, then we study and analyze the latest proposed schemes and give some comparisons. Finally, we introduce some new directions for the future scope. This paper classifies the mobile communication security schemes according to the techniques used for each cellular system and covers some of the PKI-based security techniques such as authentication, key agreement, and privacy preserving.

  12. One-time pad, complexity of verification of keys, and practical security of quantum cryptography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molotkov, S. N., E-mail: sergei.molotkov@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    A direct relation between the complexity of the complete verification of keys, which is one of the main criteria of security in classical systems, and a trace distance used in quantum cryptography is demonstrated. Bounds for the minimum and maximum numbers of verification steps required to determine the actual key are obtained.

  13. One-time pad, complexity of verification of keys, and practical security of quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotkov, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    A direct relation between the complexity of the complete verification of keys, which is one of the main criteria of security in classical systems, and a trace distance used in quantum cryptography is demonstrated. Bounds for the minimum and maximum numbers of verification steps required to determine the actual key are obtained.

  14. Cryptanalysis of Compact-LWE and Related Lightweight Public Key Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianyan Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the emerging Internet of Things (IoT, lightweight public key cryptography plays an essential role in security and privacy protection. With the approach of quantum computing era, it is important to design and evaluate lightweight quantum-resistant cryptographic algorithms applicable to IoT. LWE-based cryptography is a widely used and well-studied family of postquantum cryptographic constructions whose hardness is based on worst-case lattice problems. To make LWE friendly to resource-constrained IoT devices, a variant of LWE, named Compact-LWE, was proposed and used to design lightweight cryptographic schemes. In this paper, we study the so-called Compact-LWE problem and clarify that under certain parameter settings it can be solved in polynomial time. As a consequence, our result leads to a practical attack against an instantiated scheme based on Compact-LWE proposed by Liu et al. in 2017.

  15. Virtual-optical information security system based on public key infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Zhang, Peng; Cai, Lilong; Niu, Hanben

    2005-01-01

    A virtual-optical based encryption model with the aid of public key infrastructure (PKI) is presented in this paper. The proposed model employs a hybrid architecture in which our previously published encryption method based on virtual-optics scheme (VOS) can be used to encipher and decipher data while an asymmetric algorithm, for example RSA, is applied for enciphering and deciphering the session key(s). The whole information security model is run under the framework of international standard ITU-T X.509 PKI, which is on basis of public-key cryptography and digital signatures. This PKI-based VOS security approach has additional features like confidentiality, authentication, and integrity for the purpose of data encryption under the environment of network. Numerical experiments prove the effectiveness of the method. The security of proposed model is briefly analyzed by examining some possible attacks from the viewpoint of a cryptanalysis.

  16. Security of public key encryption technique based on multiple chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kai; Pei Wenjiang; Zou Liuhua; Cheung Yiuming; He Zhenya

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a new public key encryption technique based on multiple chaotic systems has been proposed [B. Ranjan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005) 098702]. This scheme employs m-chaotic systems and a set of linear functions for key exchange over an insecure channel. Security of the proposed algorithm grows as (NP) m , where N, P are the size of the key and the computational complexity of the linear functions respectively. In this Letter, the fundamental weakness of the cryptosystem is pointed out and a successful attack is described. Given the public keys and the initial vector, one can calculate the secret key based on Parseval's theorem. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the attacker can access to the secret key without difficulty. The lack of security discourages the use of such algorithm for practical applications

  17. Key Management in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Mansour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are a challenging field of research when it comes to security issues. Using low cost sensor nodes with limited resources makes it difficult for cryptographic algorithms to function without impacting energy consumption and latency. In this paper, we focus on key management issues in multi-hop wireless sensor networks. These networks are easy to attack due to the open nature of the wireless medium. Intruders could try to penetrate the network, capture nodes or take control over particular nodes. In this context, it is important to revoke and renew keys that might be learned by malicious nodes. We propose several secure protocols for key revocation and key renewal based on symmetric encryption and elliptic curve cryptography. All protocols are secure, but have different security levels. Each proposed protocol is formally proven and analyzed using Scyther, an automatic verification tool for cryptographic protocols. For efficiency comparison sake, we implemented all protocols on real testbeds using TelosB motes and discussed their performances.

  18. A Secure Key Establishment Protocol for ZigBee Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    ZigBee is a wireless sensor network standard that defines network and application layers on top of IEEE 802.15.4’s physical and medium access control layers. In the latest version of ZigBee, enhancements are prescribed for the security sublayer but we show in this paper that problems persist....... In particular we show that the End-to-End Application Key Establishment Protocol is flawed and we propose a secure protocol instead. We do so by using formal verification techniques based on static program analysis and process algebras. We present a way of using formal methods in wireless network security......, and propose a secure key establishment protocol for ZigBee networks....

  19. Using Compilers to Enhance Cryptographic Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangerter, E.; Barbosa, M.; Bernstein, D.; Damgård, I.; Page, D.; Pagter, J. I.; Sadeghi, A.-R.; Sovio, S.

    Developing high-quality software is hard in the general case, and it is significantly more challenging in the case of cryptographic software. A high degree of new skill and understanding must be learnt and applied without error to avoid vulnerability and inefficiency. This is often beyond the financial, manpower or intellectual resources avail-able. In this paper we present the motivation for the European funded CACE (Computer Aided Cryptography Engineering) project The main objective of CACE is to provide engineers (with limited or no expertise in cryptography) with a toolbox that allows them to generate robust and efficient implementations of cryptographic primitives. We also present some preliminary results already obtained in the early stages of this project, and discuss the relevance of the project as perceived by stakeholders in the mobile device arena.

  20. Elliptic net and its cryptographic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Norliana; Said, Mohamad Rushdan Md

    2017-11-01

    Elliptic net is a generalization of elliptic divisibility sequence and in cryptography field, most cryptographic pairings that are based on elliptic curve such as Tate pairing can be improved by applying elliptic nets algorithm. The elliptic net is constructed by using n dimensional array of values in rational number satisfying nonlinear recurrence relations that arise from elliptic divisibility sequences. The two main properties hold in the recurrence relations are for all positive integers m>n, hm +nhm -n=hm +1hm -1hn2-hn +1hn -1hm2 and hn divides hm whenever n divides m. In this research, we discuss elliptic divisibility sequence associated with elliptic nets based on cryptographic perspective and its possible research direction.

  1. On the security of a novel key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Tao; Wong, K.-W.; Liao Xiaofeng

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Xiao et al. proposed a novel key agreement protocol based on Chebyshev chaotic map. In this paper, the security of the protocol is analyzed, and two attack methods can be found in different scenarios. The essential principle of Xiao et al.'s scheme is summarized. It is also pointed out with proof that any attempt along this line to improve the security of Chebyshev map is redundant.

  2. Semi-device-independent security of one-way quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, Marcin; Brunner, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    By testing nonlocality, the security of entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) can be enhanced to being ''device-independent.'' Here we ask whether such a strong form of security could also be established for one-way (prepare and measure) QKD. While fully device-independent security is impossible, we show that security can be guaranteed against individual attacks in a semi-device-independent scenario. In the latter, the devices used by the trusted parties are noncharacterized, but the dimensionality of the quantum systems used in the protocol is assumed to be bounded. Our security proof relies on the analogies between one-way QKD, dimension witnesses, and random-access codes.

  3. Asynchronous Group Key Distribution on top of the CC2420 Security Mechanisms for Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Tranberg

    2009-01-01

    scheme with no time synchronization requirements. The scheme decreases the number of key updates by providing them on an as needed basis according to the amount of network traffic. We evaluate the CC2420 radio security mechanism and show how to use it as a basis to implement secure group communication......A sensor network is a network consisting of small, inexpensive, low-powered sensor nodes that communicate to complete a common task. Sensor nodes are characterized by having limited communication and computation capabilities, energy, and storage. They often are deployed in hostile environments...... creating a demand for encryption and authentication of the messages sent between them. Due to severe resource constraints on the sensor nodes, efficient key distribution schemes and secure communication protocols with low overhead are desired. In this paper we present an asynchronous group key distribution...

  4. Semi-quantum communication: protocols for key agreement, controlled secure direct communication and dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Chitra; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban

    2017-12-01

    Semi-quantum protocols that allow some of the users to remain classical are proposed for a large class of problems associated with secure communication and secure multiparty computation. Specifically, first-time semi-quantum protocols are proposed for key agreement, controlled deterministic secure communication and dialogue, and it is shown that the semi-quantum protocols for controlled deterministic secure communication and dialogue can be reduced to semi-quantum protocols for e-commerce and private comparison (socialist millionaire problem), respectively. Complementing with the earlier proposed semi-quantum schemes for key distribution, secret sharing and deterministic secure communication, set of schemes proposed here and subsequent discussions have established that almost every secure communication and computation tasks that can be performed using fully quantum protocols can also be performed in semi-quantum manner. Some of the proposed schemes are completely orthogonal-state-based, and thus, fundamentally different from the existing semi-quantum schemes that are conjugate coding-based. Security, efficiency and applicability of the proposed schemes have been discussed with appropriate importance.

  5. Password-only authenticated three-party key exchange with provable security in the standard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Kim, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun-Kyu; Kim, Jinsoo; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    Protocols for password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE) in the three-party setting allow two clients registered with the same authentication server to derive a common secret key from their individual password shared with the server. Existing three-party PAKE protocols were proven secure under the assumption of the existence of random oracles or in a model that does not consider insider attacks. Therefore, these protocols may turn out to be insecure when the random oracle is instantiated with a particular hash function or an insider attack is mounted against the partner client. The contribution of this paper is to present the first three-party PAKE protocol whose security is proven without any idealized assumptions in a model that captures insider attacks. The proof model we use is a variant of the indistinguishability-based model of Bellare, Pointcheval, and Rogaway (2000), which is one of the most widely accepted models for security analysis of password-based key exchange protocols. We demonstrated that our protocol achieves not only the typical indistinguishability-based security of session keys but also the password security against undetectable online dictionary attacks.

  6. Password-Only Authenticated Three-Party Key Exchange with Provable Security in the Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Nam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocols for password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE in the three-party setting allow two clients registered with the same authentication server to derive a common secret key from their individual password shared with the server. Existing three-party PAKE protocols were proven secure under the assumption of the existence of random oracles or in a model that does not consider insider attacks. Therefore, these protocols may turn out to be insecure when the random oracle is instantiated with a particular hash function or an insider attack is mounted against the partner client. The contribution of this paper is to present the first three-party PAKE protocol whose security is proven without any idealized assumptions in a model that captures insider attacks. The proof model we use is a variant of the indistinguishability-based model of Bellare, Pointcheval, and Rogaway (2000, which is one of the most widely accepted models for security analysis of password-based key exchange protocols. We demonstrated that our protocol achieves not only the typical indistinguishability-based security of session keys but also the password security against undetectable online dictionary attacks.

  7. Information theoretically secure, enhanced Johnson noise based key distribution over the smart grid with switched filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Elias; Kish, Laszlo B; Balog, Robert S; Enjeti, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional radial networks (chain-like power line) which are typical of the electricity distribution network between the utility and the customer. The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When properly generalized, such a system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary geometrical dimensions.

  8. Cryptographically supported NFC tags in medication for better inpatient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcanhan, Mehmet Hilal; Dalkılıç, Gökhan; Utku, Semih

    2014-08-01

    Reliable sources report that errors in drug administration are increasing the number of harmed or killed inpatients, during healthcare. This development is in contradiction to patient safety norms. A correctly designed hospital-wide ubiquitous system, using advanced inpatient identification and matching techniques, should provide correct medicine and dosage at the right time. Researchers are still making grouping proof protocol proposals based on the EPC Global Class 1 Generation 2 ver. 1.2 standard tags, for drug administration. Analyses show that such protocols make medication unsecure and hence fail to guarantee inpatient safety. Thus, the original goal of patient safety still remains. In this paper, a very recent proposal (EKATE) upgraded by a cryptographic function is shown to fall short of expectations. Then, an alternative proposal IMS-NFC which uses a more suitable and newer technology; namely Near Field Communication (NFC), is described. The proposed protocol has the additional support of stronger security primitives and it is compliant to ISO communication and security standards. Unlike previous works, the proposal is a complete ubiquitous system that guarantees full patient safety; and it is based on off-the-shelf, new technology products available in every corner of the world. To prove the claims the performance, cost, security and scope of IMS-NFC are compared with previous proposals. Evaluation shows that the proposed system has stronger security, increased patient safety and equal efficiency, at little extra cost.

  9. Study on the security of discrete-variable quantum key distribution over non-Markovian channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Peng; Zhu Jun; He Guangqiang; Zeng Guihua

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic of the secret key rate of the discrete-variable quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol over the non-Markovian quantum channel is investigated. In particular, we calculate the secret key rate for the six-state protocol over non-Markovian depolarizing channels with coloured noise and Markovian depolarizing channels with Gaussian white noise, respectively. We find that the secure secret key rate for the non-Markovian depolarizing channel will be larger than the Markovian one under the same conditions even when their upper bounds of tolerable quantum bit error rate are equal. This indicates that this coloured noise in the non-Markovian depolarizing channel can enhance the security of communication. Moreover, we show that the secret key rate fluctuates near the secure point when the coupling strength of the system with the environment is high. The results demonstrate that the non-Markovian effects of the transmission channel can have a positive impact on the security of discrete-variable QKD. (paper)

  10. Security of a practical semi-device-independent quantum key distribution protocol against collective attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yang; Bao Wan-Su; Li Hong-Wei; Zhou Chun; Li Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Similar to device-independent quantum key distribution (DI-QKD), semi-device-independent quantum key distribution (SDI-QKD) provides secure key distribution without any assumptions about the internal workings of the QKD devices. The only assumption is that the dimension of the Hilbert space is bounded. But SDI-QKD can be implemented in a one-way prepare-and-measure configuration without entanglement compared with DI-QKD. We propose a practical SDI-QKD protocol with four preparation states and three measurement bases by considering the maximal violation of dimension witnesses and specific processes of a QKD protocol. Moreover, we prove the security of the SDI-QKD protocol against collective attacks based on the min-entropy and dimension witnesses. We also show a comparison of the secret key rate between the SDI-QKD protocol and the standard QKD. (general)

  11. Multi-party quantum key agreement protocol secure against collusion attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Sun, Zhiwei; Sun, Xiaoqiang

    2017-07-01

    The fairness of a secure multi-party quantum key agreement (MQKA) protocol requires that all involved parties are entirely peer entities and can equally influence the outcome of the protocol to establish a shared key wherein no one can decide the shared key alone. However, it is found that parts of the existing MQKA protocols are sensitive to collusion attacks, i.e., some of the dishonest participants can collaborate to predetermine the final key without being detected. In this paper, a multi-party QKA protocol resisting collusion attacks is proposed. Different from previous QKA protocol resisting N-1 coconspirators or resisting 1 coconspirators, we investigate the general circle-type MQKA protocol which can be secure against t dishonest participants' cooperation. Here, t < N. We hope the results of the presented paper will be helpful for further research on fair MQKA protocols.

  12. Symmetric Stream Cipher using Triple Transposition Key Method and Base64 Algorithm for Security Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdiyanto, Heri; Rahim, Robbi; Wulan, Nur

    2017-12-01

    Symmetric type cryptography algorithm is known many weaknesses in encryption process compared with asymmetric type algorithm, symmetric stream cipher are algorithm that works on XOR process between plaintext and key, to improve the security of symmetric stream cipher algorithm done improvisation by using Triple Transposition Key which developed from Transposition Cipher and also use Base64 algorithm for encryption ending process, and from experiment the ciphertext that produced good enough and very random.

  13. Key Management Strategies for Safeguards Authentication and Encryption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coram, M.; Hymel, R.; McDaniel, M.; Brotz, J.

    2015-01-01

    Management of cryptographic keys for the authentication and encryption of safeguards data can be the critical weak link in the practical implementation of information security. Within the safeguards community, there is the need to validate that data has not been modified at any point since generation and that it was generated by the monitoring node and not an imposter. In addition, there is the need for that data to be transmitted securely between the monitoring node and the monitoring party such that it cannot be intercepted and read while in transit. Encryption and digital signatures support the required confidentiality and authenticity but challenges exist in managing the cryptographic keys they require. Technologies developed at Sandia National Laboratories have evolved in their use of an associated key management strategy. The first generation system utilized a shared secret key for digital signatures. While fast and efficient, it required that a list of keys be maintained and protected. If control of the key was lost, fraudulent data could be made to look authentic. The second generation changed to support public key / private key cryptography. The key pair is generated by the system, the public key shared, and the private key held internally. This approach eliminated the need to maintain the list of keys. It also allows the public key to be provided to anyone needing to authenticate the data without allowing them to spoof data. A third generation system, currently under development, improves upon the public key / private key approach to address a potential man-in-the-middle attack related to the sharing of the public key. In a planned fourth generation system, secure key exchange protocols will distribute session keys for encryption, eliminating another fixed set of keys utilized by the technology and allowing for periodic renegotiation of keys for enhanced security. (author)

  14. An Efficient and Secure Arbitrary N-Party Quantum Key Agreement Protocol Using Bell States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Jie; Xu, Yong; Yang, Ching-Nung; Gao, Pei-Pei; Yu, Wen-Bin

    2018-01-01

    Two quantum key agreement protocols using Bell states and Bell measurement were recently proposed by Shukla et al. (Quantum Inf. Process. 13(11), 2391-2405, 2014). However, Zhu et al. pointed out that there are some security flaws and proposed an improved version (Quantum Inf. Process. 14(11), 4245-4254, 2015). In this study, we will show Zhu et al.'s improvement still exists some security problems, and its efficiency is not high enough. For solving these problems, we utilize four Pauli operations { I, Z, X, Y} to encode two bits instead of the original two operations { I, X} to encode one bit, and then propose an efficient and secure arbitrary N-party quantum key agreement protocol. In the protocol, the channel checking with decoy single photons is introduced to avoid the eavesdropper's flip attack, and a post-measurement mechanism is used to prevent against the collusion attack. The security analysis shows the present protocol can guarantee the correctness, security, privacy and fairness of quantum key agreement.

  15. Password-only authenticated three-party key exchange proven secure against insider dictionary attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    While a number of protocols for password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE) in the 3-party setting have been proposed, it still remains a challenging task to prove the security of a 3-party PAKE protocol against insider dictionary attacks. To the best of our knowledge, there is no 3-party PAKE protocol that carries a formal proof, or even definition, of security against insider dictionary attacks. In this paper, we present the first 3-party PAKE protocol proven secure against both online and offline dictionary attacks as well as insider and outsider dictionary attacks. Our construct can be viewed as a protocol compiler that transforms any 2-party PAKE protocol into a 3-party PAKE protocol with 2 additional rounds of communication. We also present a simple and intuitive approach of formally modelling dictionary attacks in the password-only 3-party setting, which significantly reduces the complexity of proving the security of 3-party PAKE protocols against dictionary attacks. In addition, we investigate the security of the well-known 3-party PAKE protocol, called GPAKE, due to Abdalla et al. (2005, 2006), and demonstrate that the security of GPAKE against online dictionary attacks depends heavily on the composition of its two building blocks, namely a 2-party PAKE protocol and a 3-party key distribution protocol.

  16. Securing Metering Infrastructure of Smart Grid: A Machine Learning and Localization Based Key Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Parvez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In smart cities, advanced metering infrastructure (AMI of the smart grid facilitates automated metering, control and monitoring of power distribution by employing a wireless network. Due to this wireless nature of communication, there exist potential threats to the data privacy in AMI. Decoding the energy consumption reading, injecting false data/command signals and jamming the networks are some hazardous measures against this technology. Since a smart meter possesses limited memory and computational capability, AMI demands a light, but robust security scheme. In this paper, we propose a localization-based key management system for meter data encryption. Data are encrypted by the key associated with the coordinate of the meter and a random key index. The encryption keys are managed and distributed by a trusted third party (TTP. Localization of the meter is proposed by a method based on received signal strength (RSS using the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE. The received packets are decrypted at the control center with the key mapped with the key index and the meter’s coordinates. Additionally, we propose the k-nearest neighbors (kNN algorithm for node/meter authentication, capitalizing further on data transmission security. Finally, we evaluate the security strength of a data packet numerically for our method.

  17. Quantum-Secure Symmetric-Key Cryptography Based on Hidden Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alagic, Gorjan; Russell, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Recent results of Kaplan et al., building on work by Kuwakado and Morii, have shown that a wide variety of classically-secure symmetric-key cryptosystems can be completely broken by quantum chosen-plaintext attacks (qCPA). In such an attack, the quantum adversary has the ability to query the cryp...

  18. Security and efficiency data sharing scheme for cloud storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ke; Li, Qingbo; Deng, Zhongliang

    2016-01-01

    With the adoption and diffusion of data sharing paradigm in cloud storage, there have been increasing demands and concerns for shared data security. Ciphertext Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (CP-ABE) is becoming a promising cryptographic solution to the security problem of shared data in cloud storage. However due to key escrow, backward security and inefficiency problems, existing CP-ABE schemes cannot be directly applied to cloud storage system. In this paper, an effective and secure access control scheme for shared data is proposed to solve those problems. The proposed scheme refines the security of existing CP-ABE based schemes. Specifically, key escrow and conclusion problem are addressed by dividing key generation center into several distributed semi-trusted parts. Moreover, secrecy revocation algorithm is proposed to address not only back secrecy but efficient problem in existing CP-ABE based scheme. Furthermore, security and performance analyses indicate that the proposed scheme is both secure and efficient for cloud storage.

  19. Securing Wireless Communications of the Internet of Things from the Physical Layer, An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junqing; Duong, Trung; Woods, Roger; Marshall, Alan

    2017-08-01

    The security of the Internet of Things (IoT) is receiving considerable interest as the low power constraints and complexity features of many IoT devices are limiting the use of conventional cryptographic techniques. This article provides an overview of recent research efforts on alternative approaches for securing IoT wireless communications at the physical layer, specifically the key topics of key generation and physical layer encryption. These schemes can be implemented and are lightweight, and thus offer practical solutions for providing effective IoT wireless security. Future research to make IoT-based physical layer security more robust and pervasive is also covered.

  20. Security proof of continuous-variable quantum key distribution using three coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brádler, Kamil; Weedbrook, Christian

    2018-02-01

    We introduce a ternary quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol and asymptotic security proof based on three coherent states and homodyne detection. Previous work had considered the binary case of two coherent states and here we nontrivially extend this to three. Our motivation is to leverage the practical benefits of both discrete and continuous (Gaussian) encoding schemes creating a best-of-both-worlds approach; namely, the postprocessing of discrete encodings and the hardware benefits of continuous ones. We present a thorough and detailed security proof in the limit of infinite signal states which allows us to lower bound the secret key rate. We calculate this is in the context of collective eavesdropping attacks and reverse reconciliation postprocessing. Finally, we compare the ternary coherent state protocol to other well-known QKD schemes (and fundamental repeaterless limits) in terms of secret key rates and loss.

  1. Secure Trust Based Key Management Routing Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugminder Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Security is always a major concern in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Several trust based routing protocols are designed that play an important role in enhancing the performance of a wireless network. However they still have some disadvantages like limited energy resources, susceptibility to physical capture, and little protection against various attacks due to insecure wireless communication channels. This paper presents a secure trust based key management (STKF routing framework that establishes a secure trustworthy route depending upon the present and past node to node interactions. This route is then updated by isolating the malicious or compromised nodes from the route, if any, and a dedicated link is created between every pair of nodes in the selected route with the help of “q” composite random key predistribution scheme (RKPS to ensure data delivery from source to destination. The performance of trust aware secure routing framework (TSRF is compared with the proposed routing scheme. The results indicate that STKF provides an effective mechanism for finding out a secure route with better trustworthiness than TSRF which avoids the data dropping, thereby increasing the data delivery ratio. Also the distance required to reach the destination in the proposed protocol is less hence effectively utilizing the resources.

  2. Meta-Key: A Secure Data-Sharing Protocol under Blockchain-Based Decentralised Storage Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Yue

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a secure data-sharing protocol under blockchain-based decentralised storage architecture is proposed, which fulfils users who need to share their encrypted data on-cloud. It implements a remote data-sharing mechanism that enables data owners to share their encrypted data to other users without revealing the original key. Nor do they have to download on-cloud data with re-encryption and re-uploading. Data security as well as efficiency are ensured by symmetric encryption, whose k...

  3. Design and analysis of cryptographic algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölbl, Stefan

    . From securing our passwords and personal data to protecting mobile communication from eavesdroppers and our electronic bank transactions from manipulation. These applications would be impossible without cryptography. The main topic of this thesis is the design and security analysis of the most......In today’s world computers are ubiquitous. They can be found in virtually any industry and most households own at least one personal computer or have a mobile phone. Apart from these fairly large and complex devices, we also see computers on a much smaller scale appear in everyday objects...... to this development. However, most of this communication happens over inherently insecure channels requiring methods to protect our communication. A further issue is the vast amount of data generated, which raises serious privacy concerns. Cryptography provides the key components for protecting our communication...

  4. An Enhanced Secure Identity-Based Certificateless Public Key Authentication Scheme for Vehicular Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congcong; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Haiping; Li, Dongfeng

    2018-01-01

    Vehicular sensor networks have been widely applied in intelligent traffic systems in recent years. Because of the specificity of vehicular sensor networks, they require an enhanced, secure and efficient authentication scheme. Existing authentication protocols are vulnerable to some problems, such as a high computational overhead with certificate distribution and revocation, strong reliance on tamper-proof devices, limited scalability when building many secure channels, and an inability to detect hardware tampering attacks. In this paper, an improved authentication scheme using certificateless public key cryptography is proposed to address these problems. A security analysis of our scheme shows that our protocol provides an enhanced secure anonymous authentication, which is resilient against major security threats. Furthermore, the proposed scheme reduces the incidence of node compromise and replication attacks. The scheme also provides a malicious-node detection and warning mechanism, which can quickly identify compromised static nodes and immediately alert the administrative department. With performance evaluations, the scheme can obtain better trade-offs between security and efficiency than the well-known available schemes. PMID:29324719

  5. Simple proof of the unconditional security of the Bennett 1992 quantum key distribution protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Quan; Tang Chaojing

    2002-01-01

    It is generally accepted that quantum key distribution (QKD) could supply legitimate users with unconditional security during their communication. Quite a lot of satisfactory efforts have been achieved on experimentations with quantum cryptography. However, when the eavesdropper has extra-powerful computational ability, has access to a quantum computer, for example, and can carry into execution any eavesdropping measurement that is allowed by the laws of physics, the security against such attacks has not been widely studied and rigorously proved for most QKD protocols. Quite recently, Shor and Preskill proved concisely the unconditional security of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol. Their method is highly valued for its clarity of concept and concision of form. In order to take advantage of the Shor-Preskill technique in their proof of the unconditional security of the BB84 QKD protocol, we introduced in this paper a transformation that can translate the Bennett 1992 (B92) protocol into the BB84 protocol. By proving that the transformation leaks no more information to the eavesdropper, we proved the unconditional security of the B92 protocol. We also settled the problem proposed by Lo about how to prove the unconditional security of the B92 protocol with the Shor-Preskill method

  6. An Enhanced Secure Identity-Based Certificateless Public Key Authentication Scheme for Vehicular Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congcong; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Haiping; Li, Dongfeng

    2018-01-11

    Vehicular sensor networks have been widely applied in intelligent traffic systems in recent years. Because of the specificity of vehicular sensor networks, they require an enhanced, secure and efficient authentication scheme. Existing authentication protocols are vulnerable to some problems, such as a high computational overhead with certificate distribution and revocation, strong reliance on tamper-proof devices, limited scalability when building many secure channels, and an inability to detect hardware tampering attacks. In this paper, an improved authentication scheme using certificateless public key cryptography is proposed to address these problems. A security analysis of our scheme shows that our protocol provides an enhanced secure anonymous authentication, which is resilient against major security threats. Furthermore, the proposed scheme reduces the incidence of node compromise and replication attacks. The scheme also provides a malicious-node detection and warning mechanism, which can quickly identify compromised static nodes and immediately alert the administrative department. With performance evaluations, the scheme can obtain better trade-offs between security and efficiency than the well-known available schemes.

  7. Device independent quantum key distribution secure against coherent attacks with memoryless measurement devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKague, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Device independent quantum key distribution (QKD) aims to provide a higher degree of security than traditional QKD schemes by reducing the number of assumptions that need to be made about the physical devices used. The previous proof of security by Pironio et al (2009 New J. Phys. 11 045021) applies only to collective attacks where the state is identical and independent and the measurement devices operate identically for each trial in the protocol. We extend this result to a more general class of attacks where the state is arbitrary and the measurement devices have no memory. We accomplish this by a reduction of arbitrary adversary strategies to qubit strategies and a proof of security for qubit strategies based on the previous proof by Pironio et al and techniques adapted from Renner.

  8. Security Analysis of Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution in Collective-Rotation Noisy Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Zhang, Yu; Wen, Shuang; Li, Lei-lei; Li, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Noise is a problem that communication channels cannot avoid. It is, thus, beneficial to analyze the security of MDI-QKD in noisy environment. An analysis model for collective-rotation noise is introduced, and the information theory methods are used to analyze the security of the protocol. The maximum amount of information that Eve can eavesdrop is 50%, and the eavesdropping can always be detected if the noise level ɛ ≤ 0.68. Therefore, MDI-QKD protocol is secure as quantum key distribution protocol. The maximum probability that the relay outputs successful results is 16% when existing eavesdropping. Moreover, the probability that the relay outputs successful results when existing eavesdropping is higher than the situation without eavesdropping. The paper validates that MDI-QKD protocol has better robustness.

  9. Practical security analysis of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with jitter in clock synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Cailang; Guo, Ying; Liao, Qin; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Duan; Zhang, Ling; Zeng, Guihua

    2018-03-01

    How to narrow the gap of security between theory and practice has been a notoriously urgent problem in quantum cryptography. Here, we analyze and provide experimental evidence of the clock jitter effect on the practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system. The clock jitter is a random noise which exists permanently in the clock synchronization in the practical CV-QKD system, it may compromise the system security because of its impact on data sampling and parameters estimation. In particular, the practical security of CV-QKD with different clock jitter against collective attack is analyzed theoretically based on different repetition frequencies, the numerical simulations indicate that the clock jitter has more impact on a high-speed scenario. Furthermore, a simplified experiment is designed to investigate the influence of the clock jitter.

  10. Fast and secure key distribution using mesoscopic coherent states of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Geraldo A.

    2003-01-01

    This work shows how two parties A and B can securely share unlimited sequences of random bits at optical speeds. A and B possess true-random physical sources and exchange random bits by using a random sequence received to cipher the following one to be sent. A starting shared secret key is used and the method can be described as a one-time-pad unlimited extender. It is demonstrated that the minimum probability of error in signal determination by the eavesdropper can be set arbitrarily close to the pure guessing level. Being based on the M-ry encryption protocol this method also allows for optical amplification without security degradation, offering practical advantages over the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol for key distribution

  11. Protecting Cryptographic Keys and Functions from Malware Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    2009. 92 [17] D. Chaum and E. Van Heyst. Group signatures. In D. W. Davies, editor, Advances in Cryptology — Eurocrypt ’91, pages 257–265, Berlin...and David A. Patterson. Computer Architecture - A Quantitative Ap- proach. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, pub-MORGAN-KAUFMANN:adr, third edition, 2002...to provide data secrecy for user appli- cations on a per-page basis. In David Gregg, Vikram S. Adve, and Brian N. Bershad, editors, Proceedings of the

  12. Identifying Regional Key Eco-Space to Maintain Ecological Security Using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecological security and environmental sustainability are the foundations of sustainable development. With the acceleration of urbanization, increasing human activities have promoted greater impacts on the eco-spaces that maintain ecological security. Regional key eco-space has become the primary need to maintain environmental sustainability and can offer society with continued ecosystem services. In this paper, considering the security of water resources, biodiversity conservation, disaster avoidance and protection and natural recreation, an integrated index of eco-space importance was established and a method for identifying key eco-space was created using GIS, with Lanzhou City, China as a case study. The results show that the area of core eco-space in the Lanzhou City is approximately 50,908.7 hm2, accounting for 40% of the region’s total area. These areas mainly consist of geological hazard protection zones and the core zones of regional river systems, wetlands, nature reserves, forest parks and scenic spots. The results of this study provide some guidance for the management of ecological security, ecological restoration and environmental sustainability.

  13. Improving the security of a parallel keyed hash function based on chaotic maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Di, E-mail: xiaodi_cqu@hotmail.co [College of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Liao Xiaofeng [College of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wang Yong [College of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)] [College of Economy and Management, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China)

    2009-11-23

    In this Letter, we analyze the cause of vulnerability of the original parallel keyed hash function based on chaotic maps in detail, and then propose the corresponding enhancement measures. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the modified hash function is more secure than the original one. At the same time, it can keep the parallel merit and satisfy the other performance requirements of hash function.

  14. Improving the security of a parallel keyed hash function based on chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Di; Liao Xiaofeng; Wang Yong

    2009-01-01

    In this Letter, we analyze the cause of vulnerability of the original parallel keyed hash function based on chaotic maps in detail, and then propose the corresponding enhancement measures. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the modified hash function is more secure than the original one. At the same time, it can keep the parallel merit and satisfy the other performance requirements of hash function.

  15. A Dual Key-Based Activation Scheme for Secure LoRaWAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehyu Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of the Internet of Things (IoT era, we are experiencing rapid technological progress. Billions of devices are connected to each other, and our homes, cities, hospitals, and schools are getting smarter and smarter. However, to realize the IoT, several challenging issues such as connecting resource-constrained devices to the Internet must be resolved. Recently introduced Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN technologies have been devised to resolve this issue. Among many LPWAN candidates, the Long Range (LoRa is one of the most promising technologies. The Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN is a communication protocol for LoRa that provides basic security mechanisms. However, some security loopholes exist in LoRaWAN’s key update and session key generation. In this paper, we propose a dual key-based activation scheme for LoRaWAN. It resolves the problem of key updates not being fully supported. In addition, our scheme facilitates each layer in generating its own session key directly, which ensures the independence of all layers. Real-world experimental results compared with the original scheme show that the proposed scheme is totally feasible in terms of delay and battery consumption.

  16. Security of Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution via a Gaussian de Finetti Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2017-05-01

    Establishing the security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution against general attacks in a realistic finite-size regime is an outstanding open problem in the field of theoretical quantum cryptography if we restrict our attention to protocols that rely on the exchange of coherent states. Indeed, techniques based on the uncertainty principle are not known to work for such protocols, and the usual tools based on de Finetti reductions only provide security for unrealistically large block lengths. We address this problem here by considering a new type of Gaussian de Finetti reduction, that exploits the invariance of some continuous-variable protocols under the action of the unitary group U (n ) (instead of the symmetric group Sn as in usual de Finetti theorems), and by introducing generalized S U (2 ,2 ) coherent states. Crucially, combined with an energy test, this allows us to truncate the Hilbert space globally instead as at the single-mode level as in previous approaches that failed to provide security in realistic conditions. Our reduction shows that it is sufficient to prove the security of these protocols against Gaussian collective attacks in order to obtain security against general attacks, thereby confirming rigorously the widely held belief that Gaussian attacks are indeed optimal against such protocols.

  17. On the Security of a Two-Factor Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme for Telecare Medicine Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Hamed; Teymoori, Vahid; Nikooghadam, Morteza; Abbassi, Hassan

    2015-08-01

    Telecare medicine information systems (TMISs) aim to deliver appropriate healthcare services in an efficient and secure manner to patients. A secure mechanism for authentication and key agreement is required to provide proper security in these systems. Recently, Bin Muhaya demonstrated some security weaknesses of Zhu's authentication and key agreement scheme and proposed a security enhanced authentication and key agreement scheme for TMISs. However, we show that Bin Muhaya's scheme is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attacks and does not provide perfect forward secrecy. Furthermore, in order to overcome the mentioned weaknesses, we propose a new two-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme using the elliptic curve cryptosystem. Security and performance analyses demonstrate that the proposed scheme not only overcomes the weaknesses of Bin Muhaya's scheme, but also is about 2.73 times faster than Bin Muhaya's scheme.

  18. Security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards and biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Younsung; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen's scheme.

  19. Security Enhanced Anonymous Multiserver Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme Using Smart Cards and Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younsung Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user’s biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen’s scheme.

  20. A Domain-Specific Programming Language for Secure Multiparty Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janus Dam; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2007-01-01

    We present a domain-specific programming language for Secure Multiparty Computation (SMC). Information is a resource of vital importance and considerable economic value to individuals, public administration, and private companies. This means that the confidentiality of information is crucial...... on secret values and results are only revealed according to specific protocols. We identify the key linguistic concepts of SMC and bridge the gap between high-level security requirements and low-level cryptographic operations constituting an SMC platform, thus improving the efficiency and security of SMC...

  1. On distributed key distribution centers and unconditionally secure proactive verifiable secret sharing schemes based on general access structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikov, V.S.; Nikova, S.I.; Preneel, B.; Vandewalle, J.; Menezes, A.; Sarkar, P.

    2002-01-01

    A Key Distribution Center of a network is a server enabling private communications within groups of users. A Distributed Key Distribution Center is a set of servers that jointly realizes a Key Distribution Center. In this paper we build a robust Distributed Key Distribution Center Scheme secure

  2. IMPLEMENTATION OF NEURAL - CRYPTOGRAPHIC SYSTEM USING FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARAM M. Z. OTHMAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern cryptography techniques are virtually unbreakable. As the Internet and other forms of electronic communication become more prevalent, electronic security is becoming increasingly important. Cryptography is used to protect e-mail messages, credit card information, and corporate data. The design of the cryptography system is a conventional cryptography that uses one key for encryption and decryption process. The chosen cryptography algorithm is stream cipher algorithm that encrypt one bit at a time. The central problem in the stream-cipher cryptography is the difficulty of generating a long unpredictable sequence of binary signals from short and random key. Pseudo random number generators (PRNG have been widely used to construct this key sequence. The pseudo random number generator was designed using the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN. The Artificial Neural Networks (ANN providing the required nonlinearity properties that increases the randomness statistical properties of the pseudo random generator. The learning algorithm of this neural network is backpropagation learning algorithm. The learning process was done by software program in Matlab (software implementation to get the efficient weights. Then, the learned neural network was implemented using field programmable gate array (FPGA.

  3. Detector-device-independent quantum key distribution: Security analysis and fast implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaron, Alberto; Korzh, Boris; Boso, Gianluca; Martin, Anthony; Zbinden, Hugo; Houlmann, Raphael; Lim, Charles Ci Wen

    2016-01-01

    One of the most pressing issues in quantum key distribution (QKD) is the problem of detector side-channel attacks. To overcome this problem, researchers proposed an elegant “time-reversal” QKD protocol called measurement-device-independent QKD (MDI-QKD), which is based on time-reversed entanglement swapping. However, MDI-QKD is more challenging to implement than standard point-to-point QKD. Recently, an intermediary QKD protocol called detector-device-independent QKD (DDI-QKD) has been proposed to overcome the drawbacks of MDI-QKD, with the hope that it would eventually lead to a more efficient detector side-channel-free QKD system. Here, we analyze the security of DDI-QKD and elucidate its security assumptions. We find that DDI-QKD is not equivalent to MDI-QKD, but its security can be demonstrated with reasonable assumptions. On the more practical side, we consider the feasibility of DDI-QKD and present a fast experimental demonstration (clocked at 625 MHz), capable of secret key exchange up to more than 90 km.

  4. Reliability of Calderbank-Shor-Steane codes and security of quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Mitsuru

    2004-01-01

    After Mayers (1996 Advances in Cryptography: Proc. Crypto'96 pp 343-57; 2001 J. Assoc. Comput. Mach. 48 351-406) gave a proof of the security of the Bennett-Brassard (1984 Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (Bangalore, India) pp 175-9) (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol, Shor and Preskill (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 441-4) made a remarkable observation that a Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) code had been implicitly used in the BB84 protocol, and suggested its security could be proved by bounding the fidelity, say F n , of the incorporated CSS code of length n in the form 1-F n ≤ exp[-nE + o(n)] for some positive number E. This work presents such a number E = E(R) as a function of the rate of codes R, and a threshold R 0 such that E(R) > 0 whenever R 0 , which is larger than the achievable rate based on the Gilbert-Varshamov bound that is essentially given by Shor and Preskill. The codes in the present work are robust against fluctuations of channel parameters, which fact is needed to establish the security rigorously and was not proved for rates above the Gilbert-Varshamov rate before in the literature. As a byproduct, the security of a modified BB84 protocol against any joint (coherent) attacks is proved quantitatively

  5. A Secure Simplification of the PKMv2 Protocol in IEEE 802.16e-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde

    2007-01-01

    Static analysis is successfully used for automatically validating security properties of classical cryptographic protocols. In this paper, we shall employ the same technique to a modern security protocol for wireless networks, namely the latest version of the Privacy and Key Management protocol...... for IEEE 802.16e, PKMv2. This protocol seems to have an exaggerated mixture of security features. Thus, we iteratively investigate which components are necessary for upholding the security properties and which can be omitted safely. This approach is based on the LySa process calculus and employs...

  6. A secure smart-card based authentication and key agreement scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tian-Fu; Liu, Chuan-Ming

    2013-06-01

    A smart-card based authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems enables patients, doctors, nurses, health visitors and the medicine information systems to establish a secure communication platform through public networks. Zhu recently presented an improved authentication scheme in order to solve the weakness of the authentication scheme of Wei et al., where the off-line password guessing attacks cannot be resisted. This investigation indicates that the improved scheme of Zhu has some faults such that the authentication scheme cannot execute correctly and is vulnerable to the attack of parallel sessions. Additionally, an enhanced authentication scheme based on the scheme of Zhu is proposed. The enhanced scheme not only avoids the weakness in the original scheme, but also provides users' anonymity and authenticated key agreements for secure data communications.

  7. Security Concepts for Satellite Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobehn, C.; Penné, B.; Rathje, R.; Weigl, A.; Gorecki, Ch.; Michalik, H.

    2008-08-01

    The high costs to develop, launch and maintain a satellite network makes protecting the assets imperative. Attacks may be passive such as eavesdropping on the payload data. More serious threat are active attacks that try to gain control of the satellite, which may lead to the total lost of the satellite asset. To counter these threats, new satellite and ground systems are using cryptographic technologies to provide a range of services: confidentiality, entity & message authentication, and data integrity. Additionally, key management cryptographic services are required to support these services. This paper describes the key points of current satellite control and operations, that are authentication of the access to the satellite TMTC link and encryption of security relevant TM/TC data. For payload data management the key points are multi-user ground station access and high data rates both requiring frequent updates and uploads of keys with the corresponding key management methods. For secure satellite management authentication & key negotiation algorithms as HMAC-RIPEMD160, EC- DSA and EC-DH are used. Encryption of data uses algorithms as IDEA, AES, Triple-DES, or other. A channel coding and encryption unit for payload data provides download data rates up to Nx250 Mbps. The presented concepts are based on our experience and heritage of the security systems for all German MOD satellite projects (SATCOMBw2, SAR-Lupe multi- satellite system and German-French SAR-Lupe-Helios- II systems inter-operability) as well as for further international (KOMPSAT-II Payload data link system) and ESA activities (TMTC security and GMES).

  8. Security analysis of the decoy method with the Bennett–Brassard 1984 protocol for finite key lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masahito; Nakayama, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a formula for the sacrifice bit-length for privacy amplification with the Bennett–Brassard 1984 protocol for finite key lengths, when we employ the decoy method. Using the formula, we can guarantee the security parameter for a realizable quantum key distribution system. The key generation rates with finite key lengths are numerically evaluated. The proposed method improves the existing key generation rate even in the asymptotic setting. (paper)

  9. Cryptographic applications of analytic number theory complexity lower bounds and pseudorandomness

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The book introduces new ways of using analytic number theory in cryptography and related areas, such as complexity theory and pseudorandom number generation. Key topics and features: - various lower bounds on the complexity of some number theoretic and cryptographic problems, associated with classical schemes such as RSA, Diffie-Hellman, DSA as well as with relatively new schemes like XTR and NTRU - a series of very recent results about certain important characteristics (period, distribution, linear complexity) of several commonly used pseudorandom number generators, such as the RSA generator, Blum-Blum-Shub generator, Naor-Reingold generator, inversive generator, and others - one of the principal tools is bounds of exponential sums, which are combined with other number theoretic methods such as lattice reduction and sieving - a number of open problems of different level of difficulty and proposals for further research - an extensive and up-to-date bibliography Cryptographers and number theorists will find th...

  10. Designing key-dependent chaotic S-box with larger key space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Ruming; Yuan Jian; Wang Jian; Shan Xiuming; Wang Xiqin

    2009-01-01

    The construction of cryptographically strong substitution boxes (S-boxes) is an important concern in designing secure cryptosystems. The key-dependent S-boxes designed using chaotic maps have received increasing attention in recent years. However, the key space of such S-boxes does not seem to be sufficiently large due to the limited parameter range of discretized chaotic maps. In this paper, we propose a new key-dependent S-box based on the iteration of continuous chaotic maps. We explore the continuous-valued state space of chaotic systems, and devise the discrete mapping between the input and the output of the S-box. A key-dependent S-box is constructed with the logistic map in this paper. We show that its key space could be much larger than the current key-dependent chaotic S-boxes.

  11. A fingerprint key binding algorithm based on vector quantization and error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Wang, Qian; Lv, Ke; He, Ning

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, researches on seamless combination cryptosystem with biometric technologies, e.g. fingerprint recognition, are conducted by many researchers. In this paper, we propose a binding algorithm of fingerprint template and cryptographic key to protect and access the key by fingerprint verification. In order to avoid the intrinsic fuzziness of variant fingerprints, vector quantization and error correction technique are introduced to transform fingerprint template and then bind with key, after a process of fingerprint registration and extracting global ridge pattern of fingerprint. The key itself is secure because only hash value is stored and it is released only when fingerprint verification succeeds. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our ideas.

  12. Optical code division multiple access secure communications systems with rapid reconfigurable polarization shift key user code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kaiqiang; Wu, Chongqing; Sheng, Xinzhi; Shang, Chao; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    An optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) secure communications system scheme with rapid reconfigurable polarization shift key (Pol-SK) bipolar user code is proposed and demonstrated. Compared to fix code OCDMA, by constantly changing the user code, the performance of anti-eavesdropping is greatly improved. The Pol-SK OCDMA experiment with a 10 Gchip/s user code and a 1.25 Gb/s user data of payload has been realized, which means this scheme has better tolerance and could be easily realized.

  13. Backup key generation model for one-time password security protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyanthi, N.; Kundu, Sourav

    2017-11-01

    The use of one-time password (OTP) has ushered new life into the existing authentication protocols used by the software industry. It introduced a second layer of security to the traditional username-password authentication, thus coining the term, two-factor authentication. One of the drawbacks of this protocol is the unreliability of the hardware token at the time of authentication. This paper proposes a simple backup key model that can be associated with the real world applications’user database, which would allow a user to circumvent the second authentication stage, in the event of unavailability of the hardware token.

  14. Choice of optical system is critical for the security of double random phase encryption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniraj, Inbarasan; Guo, Changliang; Malallah, Ra'ed; Cassidy, Derek; Zhao, Liang; Ryle, James P.; Healy, John J.; Sheridan, John T.

    2017-06-01

    The linear canonical transform (LCT) is used in modeling a coherent light-field propagation through first-order optical systems. Recently, a generic optical system, known as the quadratic phase encoding system (QPES), for encrypting a two-dimensional image has been reported. In such systems, two random phase keys and the individual LCT parameters (α,β,γ) serve as secret keys of the cryptosystem. It is important that such encryption systems also satisfy some dynamic security properties. We, therefore, examine such systems using two cryptographic evaluation methods, the avalanche effect and bit independence criterion, which indicate the degree of security of the cryptographic algorithms using QPES. We compared our simulation results with the conventional Fourier and the Fresnel transform-based double random phase encryption (DRPE) systems. The results show that the LCT-based DRPE has an excellent avalanche and bit independence characteristics compared to the conventional Fourier and Fresnel-based encryption systems.

  15. Training on Transport Security of Nuclear/Radioactive Materials for Key Audiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Ronald; Liu, Yung; Shuler, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    development of the relevant teaching materials for the course have largely been completed, tailoring the course for targeted audiences becomes a relatively easy task, requiring less effort and providing more flexibility for both the lecturers and future participants. One-day or two-day courses with focus specifically on the U.S. transport security requirements can be delivered, at locations away from Argonne, by one or two principal lecturers to targeted audiences such as regulators, shippers, carriers, state and local law enforcement personnel, and emergency responders. This paper will highlight the lessons learned in hosting previous one-week courses and discuss the development of options for detailed and/or customized courses/workshops for targeted key audiences.

  16. All-optical cryptography of M-QAM formats by using two-dimensional spectrally sliced keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbade, Marcelo L F; Cvijetic, Milorad; Messani, Carlos A; Alves, Cleiton J; Tenenbaum, Stefan

    2015-05-10

    There has been an increased interest in enhancing the security of optical communications systems and networks. All-optical cryptography methods have been considered as an alternative to electronic data encryption. In this paper we propose and verify the use of a novel all-optical scheme based on cryptographic keys applied on the spectral signal for encryption of the M-QAM modulated data with bit rates of up to 200 gigabits per second.

  17. Common-signal-induced synchronization in photonic integrated circuits and its application to secure key distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takuma; Kakesu, Izumi; Mitsui, Yusuke; Rontani, Damien; Uchida, Atsushi; Sunada, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Inubushi, Masanobu

    2017-10-16

    We experimentally achieve common-signal-induced synchronization in two photonic integrated circuits with short external cavities driven by a constant-amplitude random-phase light. The degree of synchronization can be controlled by changing the optical feedback phase of the two photonic integrated circuits. The change in the optical feedback phase leads to a significant redistribution of the spectral energy of optical and RF spectra, which is a unique characteristic of PICs with the short external cavity. The matching of the RF and optical spectra is necessary to achieve synchronization between the two PICs, and stable synchronization can be obtained over an hour in the presence of optical feedback. We succeed in generating information-theoretic secure keys and achieving the final key generation rate of 184 kb/s using the PICs.

  18. Shor-Preskill-type security proof for quantum key distribution without public announcement of bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won-Young; Wang Xiangbin; Matsumoto, Keiji; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Hai-Woong

    2003-01-01

    We give a Shor-Preskill-type security proof to quantum key distribution without public announcement of bases [W.Y. Hwang et al., Phys. Lett. A 244, 489 (1998)]. First, we modify the Lo-Chau protocol once more so that it finally reduces to the quantum key distribution without public announcement of bases. Then we show how we can estimate the error rate in the code bits based on that in the checked bits in the proposed protocol, which is the central point of the proof. We discuss the problem of imperfect sources and that of large deviation in the error rate distributions. We discuss when the bases sequence must be discarded

  19. Dynamic Group Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange under standard assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David

    2002-01-01

    Authenticated Diffie-Hellman key exchange allows two principals communicating over a public network, and each holding public-private keys, to agree on a shared secret value. In this paper we study the natural extension of this cryptographic problem to a group of principals. We begin from existing formal security models and refine them to incorporate major missing details (e.g., strong-corruption and concurrent sessions). Within this model we define the execution of a protocol for authenticated dynamic group Diffie-Hellman and show that it is provably secure under the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption. Our security result holds in the standard model and thus provides better security guarantees than previously published results in the random oracle model

  20. Notes on recent approaches concerning the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise-based secure key exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Horvath, Tamas

    2009-08-01

    We critically analyze the results and claims in [P.-L. Liu, Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 901]. We show that the strong security leak appeared in the simulations is only an artifact and not caused by “multiple reflections”. Since no wave modes exist at cable length of 5% of the shortest wavelength of the signal, no wave is present to reflect it. In the high wave impedance limit, the conditions used in the simulations are heavily unphysical (requiring cable diameters up to 28000 times greater than the measured size of the known universe) and the results are modeling artifacts due to the unphysical values. At the low cable impedance limit, the observed artifacts are due to violating the recommended (and tested) conditions by neglecting the cable capacitance restrictions and using about 100 times longer cable than recommended without cable capacitance compensation arrangement. We implement and analyze the general circuitry of Liu's circulator [P.-L. Liu, Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 901] and confirm that they are conceptually secure against passive attacks. We introduce an asymmetric, more robust version without feedback loop. Then we crack all these systems by an active attack: a circulator-based man-in-the middle attack. Finally, we analyze the proposed method to increase security by dropping only high-risk bits. We point out the differences between different types of high-risk bits and show the shortage of this strategy for some simple key exchange protocols.

  1. Security analysis of an untrusted source for quantum key distribution: passive approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yi; Qi Bing; Lo, H-K; Qian Li

    2010-01-01

    We present a passive approach to the security analysis of quantum key distribution (QKD) with an untrusted source. A complete proof of its unconditional security is also presented. This scheme has significant advantages in real-life implementations as it does not require fast optical switching or a quantum random number generator. The essential idea is to use a beam splitter to split each input pulse. We show that we can characterize the source using a cross-estimate technique without active routing of each pulse. We have derived analytical expressions for the passive estimation scheme. Moreover, using simulations, we have considered four real-life imperfections: additional loss introduced by the 'plug and play' structure, inefficiency of the intensity monitor noise of the intensity monitor, and statistical fluctuation introduced by finite data size. Our simulation results show that the passive estimate of an untrusted source remains useful in practice, despite these four imperfections. Also, we have performed preliminary experiments, confirming the utility of our proposal in real-life applications. Our proposal makes it possible to implement the 'plug and play' QKD with the security guaranteed, while keeping the implementation practical.

  2. Notes on recent approaches concerning the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise-based secure key exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Horvath, Tamas

    2009-01-01

    We critically analyze the results and claims in [P.-L. Liu, Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 901]. We show that the strong security leak appeared in the simulations is only an artifact and not caused by 'multiple reflections'. Since no wave modes exist at cable length of 5% of the shortest wavelength of the signal, no wave is present to reflect it. In the high wave impedance limit, the conditions used in the simulations are heavily unphysical (requiring cable diameters up to 28000 times greater than the measured size of the known universe) and the results are modeling artifacts due to the unphysical values. At the low cable impedance limit, the observed artifacts are due to violating the recommended (and tested) conditions by neglecting the cable capacitance restrictions and using about 100 times longer cable than recommended without cable capacitance compensation arrangement. We implement and analyze the general circuitry of Liu's circulator [P.-L. Liu, Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 901] and confirm that they are conceptually secure against passive attacks. We introduce an asymmetric, more robust version without feedback loop. Then we crack all these systems by an active attack: a circulator-based man-in-the middle attack. Finally, we analyze the proposed method to increase security by dropping only high-risk bits. We point out the differences between different types of high-risk bits and show the shortage of this strategy for some simple key exchange protocols.

  3. Notes on recent approaches concerning the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise-based secure key exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, Laszlo B., E-mail: Laszlo.Kish@ece.tamu.ed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3128 (United States); Horvath, Tamas, E-mail: tamas.horvath@iais.fraunhofer.d [Department of Computer Science, University of Bonn (Germany); Fraunhofer IAIS, Schloss Birlinghoven, D-53754 Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    2009-08-03

    We critically analyze the results and claims in [P.-L. Liu, Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 901]. We show that the strong security leak appeared in the simulations is only an artifact and not caused by 'multiple reflections'. Since no wave modes exist at cable length of 5% of the shortest wavelength of the signal, no wave is present to reflect it. In the high wave impedance limit, the conditions used in the simulations are heavily unphysical (requiring cable diameters up to 28000 times greater than the measured size of the known universe) and the results are modeling artifacts due to the unphysical values. At the low cable impedance limit, the observed artifacts are due to violating the recommended (and tested) conditions by neglecting the cable capacitance restrictions and using about 100 times longer cable than recommended without cable capacitance compensation arrangement. We implement and analyze the general circuitry of Liu's circulator [P.-L. Liu, Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 901] and confirm that they are conceptually secure against passive attacks. We introduce an asymmetric, more robust version without feedback loop. Then we crack all these systems by an active attack: a circulator-based man-in-the middle attack. Finally, we analyze the proposed method to increase security by dropping only high-risk bits. We point out the differences between different types of high-risk bits and show the shortage of this strategy for some simple key exchange protocols.

  4. Information-theoretic security proof for quantum-key-distribution protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, Renato; Gisin, Nicolas; Kraus, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    We present a technique for proving the security of quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols. It is based on direct information-theoretic arguments and thus also applies if no equivalent entanglement purification scheme can be found. Using this technique, we investigate a general class of QKD protocols with one-way classical post-processing. We show that, in order to analyze the full security of these protocols, it suffices to consider collective attacks. Indeed, we give new lower and upper bounds on the secret-key rate which only involve entropies of two-qubit density operators and which are thus easy to compute. As an illustration of our results, we analyze the Bennett-Brassard 1984, the six-state, and the Bennett 1992 protocols with one-way error correction and privacy amplification. Surprisingly, the performance of these protocols is increased if one of the parties adds noise to the measurement data before the error correction. In particular, this additional noise makes the protocols more robust against noise in the quantum channel

  5. Information-theoretic security proof for quantum-key-distribution protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Renato; Gisin, Nicolas; Kraus, Barbara

    2005-07-01

    We present a technique for proving the security of quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols. It is based on direct information-theoretic arguments and thus also applies if no equivalent entanglement purification scheme can be found. Using this technique, we investigate a general class of QKD protocols with one-way classical post-processing. We show that, in order to analyze the full security of these protocols, it suffices to consider collective attacks. Indeed, we give new lower and upper bounds on the secret-key rate which only involve entropies of two-qubit density operators and which are thus easy to compute. As an illustration of our results, we analyze the Bennett-Brassard 1984, the six-state, and the Bennett 1992 protocols with one-way error correction and privacy amplification. Surprisingly, the performance of these protocols is increased if one of the parties adds noise to the measurement data before the error correction. In particular, this additional noise makes the protocols more robust against noise in the quantum channel.

  6. Security analysis on some experimental quantum key distribution systems with imperfect optical and electrical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lin-Mei; Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Chun-Yan

    2014-10-01

    In general, quantum key distribution (QKD) has been proved unconditionally secure for perfect devices due to quantum uncertainty principle, quantum noncloning theorem and quantum nondividing principle which means that a quantum cannot be divided further. However, the practical optical and electrical devices used in the system are imperfect, which can be exploited by the eavesdropper to partially or totally spy the secret key between the legitimate parties. In this article, we first briefly review the recent work on quantum hacking on some experimental QKD systems with respect to imperfect devices carried out internationally, then we will present our recent hacking works in details, including passive faraday mirror attack, partially random phase attack, wavelength-selected photon-number-splitting attack, frequency shift attack, and single-photon-detector attack. Those quantum attack reminds people to improve the security existed in practical QKD systems due to imperfect devices by simply adding countermeasure or adopting a totally different protocol such as measurement-device independent protocol to avoid quantum hacking on the imperfection of measurement devices [Lo, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2012, 108: 130503].

  7. Mobility Based Key Management Technique for Multicast Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Madhusudhanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In MANET multicasting, forward and backward secrecy result in increased packet drop rate owing to mobility. Frequent rekeying causes large message overhead which increases energy consumption and end-to-end delay. Particularly, the prevailing group key management techniques cause frequent mobility and disconnections. So there is a need to design a multicast key management technique to overcome these problems. In this paper, we propose the mobility based key management technique for multicast security in MANET. Initially, the nodes are categorized according to their stability index which is estimated based on the link availability and mobility. A multicast tree is constructed such that for every weak node, there is a strong parent node. A session key-based encryption technique is utilized to transmit a multicast data. The rekeying process is performed periodically by the initiator node. The rekeying interval is fixed depending on the node category so that this technique greatly minimizes the rekeying overhead. By simulation results, we show that our proposed approach reduces the packet drop rate and improves the data confidentiality.

  8. Securing Body Sensor Networks with Biometric Methods: A New Key Negotiation Method and a Key Sampling Method for Linear Interpolation Encryption

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Huawei; Chen, Chi; Hu, Jiankun; Qin, Jing

    2015-01-01

    We present two approaches that exploit biometric data to address security problems in the body sensor networks: a new key negotiation scheme based on the fuzzy extractor technology and an improved linear interpolation encryption method. The first approach designs two attack games to give the formal definition of fuzzy negotiation that forms a new key negotiation scheme based on fuzzy extractor technology. According to the definition, we further define a concrete structure of fuzzy negotiation...

  9. Quantum cryptography using coherent states: Randomized encryption and key generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corndorf, Eric

    With the advent of the global optical-telecommunications infrastructure, an increasing number of individuals, companies, and agencies communicate information with one another over public networks or physically-insecure private networks. While the majority of the traffic flowing through these networks requires little or no assurance of secrecy, the same cannot be said for certain communications between banks, between government agencies, within the military, and between corporations. In these arenas, the need to specify some level of secrecy in communications is a high priority. While the current approaches to securing sensitive information (namely the public-key-cryptography infrastructure and deterministic private-key ciphers like AES and 3DES) seem to be cryptographically strong based on empirical evidence, there exist no mathematical proofs of secrecy for any widely deployed cryptosystem. As an example, the ubiquitous public-key cryptosystems infer all of their secrecy from the assumption that factoring of the product of two large primes is necessarily time consuming---something which has not, and perhaps cannot, be proven. Since the 1980s, the possibility of using quantum-mechanical features of light as a physical mechanism for satisfying particular cryptographic objectives has been explored. This research has been fueled by the hopes that cryptosystems based on quantum systems may provide provable levels of secrecy which are at least as valid as quantum mechanics itself. Unfortunately, the most widely considered quantum-cryptographic protocols (BB84 and the Ekert protocol) have serious implementation problems. Specifically, they require quantum-mechanical states which are not readily available, and they rely on unproven relations between intrusion-level detection and the information available to an attacker. As a result, the secrecy level provided by these experimental implementations is entirely unspecified. In an effort to provably satisfy the cryptographic

  10. Security of Color Image Data Designed by Public-Key Cryptosystem Associated with 2D-DWT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D. C.; Sharma, R. K.; Kumar, Manish; Kumar, Kuldeep

    2014-08-01

    In present times the security of image data is a major issue. So, we have proposed a novel technique for security of color image data by public-key cryptosystem or asymmetric cryptosystem. In this technique, we have developed security of color image data using RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) cryptosystem with two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (2D-DWT). Earlier proposed schemes for security of color images designed on the basis of keys, but this approach provides security of color images with the help of keys and correct arrangement of RSA parameters. If the attacker knows about exact keys, but has no information of exact arrangement of RSA parameters, then the original information cannot be recovered from the encrypted data. Computer simulation based on standard example is critically examining the behavior of the proposed technique. Security analysis and a detailed comparison between earlier developed schemes for security of color images and proposed technique are also mentioned for the robustness of the cryptosystem.

  11. Fluctuations of Internal Transmittance in Security of Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution with an Untrusted Source*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yang; Bao Wan-Su; Chen Rui-Ke; Zhou Chun; Jiang Mu-Sheng; Li Hong-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is immune to detector side channel attacks, which is a crucial security loophole problem in traditional QKD. In order to relax a key assumption that the sources are trusted in MDI-QKD, an MDI-QKD protocol with an untrusted source has been proposed. For the security of MDI-QKD with an untrusted source, imperfections in the practical experiment should also be taken into account. In this paper, we analyze the effects of fluctuations of internal transmittance on the security of a decoy-state MDI-QKD protocol with an untrusted source. Our numerical results show that both the secret key rate and the maximum secure transmission distance decrease when taken fluctuations of internal transmittance into consideration. Especially, they are more sensitive when Charlie’s mean photon number per pulse is smaller. Our results emphasize that the stability of correlative optical devices is important for practical implementations . (paper)

  12. Key handling in wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y; Newe, T

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid growth of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), many advanced application areas have received significant attention. However, security will be an important factor for their full adoption. Wireless sensor nodes pose unique challenges and as such traditional security protocols, used in traditional networks cannot be applied directly. Some new protocols have been published recently with the goal of providing both privacy of data and authentication of sensor nodes for WSNs. Such protocols can employ private-key and/or public key cryptographic algorithms. Public key algorithms hold the promise of simplifying the network infrastructure required to provide security services such as: privacy, authentication and non-repudiation, while symmetric algorithms require less processing power on the lower power wireless node. In this paper a selection of key establishment/agreement protocols are reviewed and they are broadly divided into two categories: group key agreement protocols and pair-wise key establishment protocols. A summary of the capabilities and security related services provided by each protocol is provided

  13. Key handling in wireless sensor networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y; Newe, T [Optical Fibre Sensors Research Centre, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland)

    2007-07-15

    With the rapid growth of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), many advanced application areas have received significant attention. However, security will be an important factor for their full adoption. Wireless sensor nodes pose unique challenges and as such traditional security protocols, used in traditional networks cannot be applied directly. Some new protocols have been published recently with the goal of providing both privacy of data and authentication of sensor nodes for WSNs. Such protocols can employ private-key and/or public key cryptographic algorithms. Public key algorithms hold the promise of simplifying the network infrastructure required to provide security services such as: privacy, authentication and non-repudiation, while symmetric algorithms require less processing power on the lower power wireless node. In this paper a selection of key establishment/agreement protocols are reviewed and they are broadly divided into two categories: group key agreement protocols and pair-wise key establishment protocols. A summary of the capabilities and security related services provided by each protocol is provided.

  14. Security and privacy for implantable medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Carrara, Sandro

    2014-01-01

     This book presents a systematic approach to analyzing the challenging engineering problems posed by the need for security and privacy in implantable medical devices (IMD).  It describes in detail new issues termed as lightweight security, due to the associated constraints on metrics such as available power, energy, computing ability, area, execution time, and memory requirements. Coverage includes vulnerabilities and defense across multiple levels, with basic abstractions of cryptographic services and primitives such as public key cryptography, block ciphers and digital signatures. Experts from engineering introduce to some IMD systems that have  recently been proposed and developed. Experts from Computer Security and Cryptography present new research, which shows vulnerabilities in existing IMDs and proposes solutions. Experts from Privacy Technology and Policy will discuss the societal, legal and ethical challenges surrounding IMD security as well as technological solutions that build on the latest in C...

  15. Detector decoy quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroder, Tobias; Luetkenhaus, Norbert; Curty, Marcos

    2009-01-01

    Photon number resolving detectors can enhance the performance of many practical quantum cryptographic setups. In this paper, we employ a simple method to estimate the statistics provided by such a photon number resolving detector using only a threshold detector together with a variable attenuator. This idea is similar in spirit to that of the decoy state technique, and is especially suited to those scenarios where only a few parameters of the photon number statistics of the incoming signals have to be estimated. As an illustration of the potential applicability of the method in quantum communication protocols, we use it to prove security of an entanglement-based quantum key distribution scheme with an untrusted source without the need for a squash model and by solely using this extra idea. In this sense, this detector decoy method can be seen as a different conceptual approach to adapt a single-photon security proof to its physical, full optical implementation. We show that in this scenario, the legitimate users can now even discard the double click events from the raw key data without compromising the security of the scheme, and we present simulations on the performance of the BB84 and the 6-state quantum key distribution protocols.

  16. Ultra-fast secure communication with complex systems in classical channels (Conference Presentation)

    KAUST Repository

    Mazzone, Valerio

    2017-04-28

    Developing secure communications is a research area of growing interest. During the past years, several cryptographic schemes have been developed, with Quantum cryptography being a promising scheme due to the use of quantum effects, which make very difficult for an eavesdropper to intercept the communication. However, practical quantum key distribution methods have encountered several limitations; current experimental realizations, in fact, fail to scale up on long distances, as well as in providing unconditional security and speed comparable to classical optical communications channels. Here we propose a new, low cost and ultra-fast cryptographic system based on a fully classical optical channel. Our cryptographic scheme exploits the complex synchronization of two different random systems (one on the side of the sender and another on the side of the receiver) to realize a “physical” one paid system. The random medium is created by an optical chip fabricated through electron beam lithography on a Silicon On Insulator (SOI) substrate. We present experiments with ps lasers and commercial fibers, showing the ultrafast distribution of a random key between two users (Alice and Bob), with absolute no possibility for a passive/active eavesdropper to intercept the communication. Remarkably, this system enables the same security of quantum cryptography, but with the use of a classical communication channel. Our system exploits a unique synchronization that exists between two different random systems, and at such is extremely versatile and can enable safe communications among different users in standards telecommunications channels.

  17. A Review of RSA Cryptosystems and Cryptographic Protocols ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of cryptography in information security over insecure open network in both the convectional, symmetric encryption and the public-key cryptography has witnessed tremendous developments over the years. No doubt, the public-key cryptography is an established technology in terms of modern approach in ...

  18. An Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme Based on Cyclic Automorphism Subgroups of Random Orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Group-based cryptography is viewed as a modern cryptographic candidate solution to blocking quantum computer attacks, and key exchange protocols on the Internet are one of the primitives to ensure the security of communication. In 2016 Habeeb et al proposed a “textbook” key exchange protocol based on the semidirect product of two groups, which is insecure for use in real-world applications. In this paper, after discarding the unnecessary disguising notion of semidirect product in the protocol, we establish a simplified yet enhanced authenticated key agreement scheme based on cyclic automorphism subgroups of random orders by making hybrid use of certificates and symmetric-key encryption as challenge-and-responses in the public-key setting. Its passive security is formally analyzed, which is relative to the cryptographic hardness assumption of a computational number-theoretic problem. Cryptanalysis of this scheme shows that it is secure against the intruder-in-the-middle attack even in the worst case of compromising the signatures, and provides explicit key confirmation to both parties.

  19. A secure effective dynamic group password-based authenticated key agreement scheme for the integrated EPR information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanga Odelu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of the Internet, a lot of electronic patient records (EPRs have been developed for e-medicine systems. The security and privacy issues of EPRs are important for the patients in order to understand how the hospitals control the use of their personal information, such as name, address, e-mail, medical records, etc. of a particular patient. Recently, Lee et al. proposed a simple group password-based authenticated key agreement protocol for the integrated EPR information system (SGPAKE. However, in this paper, we show that Lee et al.’s protocol is vulnerable to the off-line weak password guessing attack and as a result, their scheme does not provide users’ privacy. To withstand this security weakness found in Lee et al.’s scheme, we aim to propose an effective dynamic group password-based authenticated key exchange scheme for the integrated EPR information system, which retains the original merits of Lee et al.’s scheme. Through the informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme provides users’ privacy, perfect forward security and known-key security, and also protects online and offline password guessing attacks. Furthermore, our scheme efficiently supports the dynamic group password-based authenticated key agreement for the integrated EPR information system. In addition, we simulate our scheme for the formal security verification using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications tool and show that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks.

  20. Business opportunities for aquaculture in Kenya; With special reference to food security : Key findings & Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothuis, A.J.; Duijn, van A.P.; Rijsingen, J.C.M.; Pijl, van der W.; Rurangwa, E.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to assess the potential role of aquaculture in improving food security in Kenya. It addresses current bottlenecks that prevent aquaculture from achieving its food security objectives and identifies possible interventions. This study furthermore explores business opportunities for

  1. Privacy and Security Research Group workshop on network and distributed system security: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: NREN Security Issues: Policies and Technologies; Layer Wars: Protect the Internet with Network Layer Security; Electronic Commission Management; Workflow 2000 - Electronic Document Authorization in Practice; Security Issues of a UNIX PEM Implementation; Implementing Privacy Enhanced Mail on VMS; Distributed Public Key Certificate Management; Protecting the Integrity of Privacy-enhanced Electronic Mail; Practical Authorization in Large Heterogeneous Distributed Systems; Security Issues in the Truffles File System; Issues surrounding the use of Cryptographic Algorithms and Smart Card Applications; Smart Card Augmentation of Kerberos; and An Overview of the Advanced Smart Card Access Control System. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Mathematical Background of Public Key Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Gerhard; Lange, Tanja

    2005-01-01

    The two main systems used for public key cryptography are RSA and protocols based on the discrete logarithm problem in some cyclic group. We focus on the latter problem and state cryptographic protocols and mathematical background material.......The two main systems used for public key cryptography are RSA and protocols based on the discrete logarithm problem in some cyclic group. We focus on the latter problem and state cryptographic protocols and mathematical background material....

  3. Computer Security: Your iPhone as a key-logger

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2014-01-01

    In the past, we have repeatedly elaborated on the computer security risk of using smartphones. Today, something new for the paranoid: did you know your smart phone can be used to spy on your PC’s keyboard?!    In fact, the tiny accelerometer, gyroscope and orientation sensors that your smartphone uses to determine its tilt and movements can also determine the letters you type on your computer. Thus, it acts as a hardware “key-logger”! It only requires your smartphone to be put close to your computer keyboard and to run a corresponding, malicious app. The rest is done by the highly precise sensors which can record keyboard vibrations and subsequently the letters you type. In a dedicated study, students of the Georgia Tech College of Computing were able to decipher complete sentences with up to 80 percent accuracy using an iPhone*. In a nice twist, the same feature can also be used to “to infer the occurrence of tap events on the touchscreen as w...

  4. Key Based Mutual Authentication (KBMA Mechanism for Secured Access in MobiCloud Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A. Cecil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC fuels innovation in Mobile Computing and opens new pathways between mobile devices and infrastructures. There are several issues in MCC environment as it integrates various technologies. Among all issues, security lies on the top where many users are not willing to adopt the cloud services. This paper focuses on the authentication. The objective of this paper is to provide a mechanism for authenticating all the entities involved in accessing the cloud services. A mechanism called Key Based Mutual Authentication (KBMA is proposed which is divided into two processes namely registration and authentication. Registration is a one-time process where the users are registered for accessing the cloud services by giving the desired unique information. Authentication process is carried out mutually to verify the identities of Device and Cloud Service Provider (CSP. Scyther tool is used for analysing the vulnerability in terms of attacks. The result claims show that the proposed mechanism is resilient against various attacks.

  5. Exploring the Key Challenges: Adaptability, Sustainability, Interoperability and Security to M-payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Mantri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Any payment which uses mobile device as payment method is called M-payment whether it is proximity or remote and online or point of sale. Since it has been identified that mobile phone is everywhere and ever-present essential consumer device, and could be used for payment offline or online, Mobile payment has been hyped significantly. However early market adoption is facing some challenges and in need of the unanimous effort of all key players (manufacturers, mobile operators, merchants and customers of value chain in order to accept mobile payment method and achieve standard and sustainable business model. Achieving one business model is important for user convenience and reachability, resulting in increased market opportunities. The main focus of this research proposal is that why cohesive technologies are needed and how it could be achieved? Some M-payment ventures are successfully working in Japan, US and Asian countries such as NTTDoCoMo and PayPal M-payments. The main reason of M-payment adoption among consumers in those countries is that their security issues are dealt carefully and solved to acceptable level. This paper is presented in the form of research proposal and overview looking into various challenging issues which are preventing the higher success in UK.

  6. An Energy-Efficient Secure Routing and Key Management Scheme for Mobile Sinks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Deployment Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Xuan Hung

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available For many sensor network applications such as military or homeland security, it is essential for users (sinks to access the sensor network while they are moving. Sink mobility brings new challenges to secure routing in large-scale sensor networks. Previous studies on sink mobility have mainly focused on efficiency and effectiveness of data dissemination without security consideration. Also, studies and experiences have shown that considering security during design time is the best way to provide security for sensor network routing. This paper presents an energy-efficient secure routing and key management for mobile sinks in sensor networks, called SCODEplus. It is a significant extension of our previous study in five aspects: (1 Key management scheme and routing protocol are considered during design time to increase security and efficiency; (2 The network topology is organized in a hexagonal plane which supports more efficiency than previous square-grid topology; (3 The key management scheme can eliminate the impacts of node compromise attacks on links between non-compromised nodes; (4 Sensor node deployment is based on Gaussian distribution which is more realistic than uniform distribution; (5 No GPS or like is required to provide sensor node location information. Our security analysis demonstrates that the proposed scheme can defend against common attacks in sensor networks including node compromise attacks, replay attacks, selective forwarding attacks, sinkhole and wormhole, Sybil attacks, HELLO flood attacks. Both mathematical and simulation-based performance evaluation show that the SCODEplus significantly reduces the communication overhead, energy consumption, packet delivery latency while it always delivers more than 97 percent of packets successfully.

  7. Quantum cryptography with a predetermined key, using continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M. D.

    2000-12-01

    Correlations of the type discussed by EPR in their original 1935 paradox for continuous variables exist for the quadrature phase amplitudes of two spatially separated fields. These correlations were first experimentally reported in 1992. We propose to use such EPR beams in quantum cryptography, to transmit with high efficiency messages in such a way that the receiver and sender may later determine whether eavesdropping has occurred. The merit of the new proposal is in the possibility of transmitting a reasonably secure yet predetermined key. This would allow relay of a cryptographic key over long distances in the presence of lossy channels.

  8. A Composed Protocol of Quantum Identity Authentication Plus Quantum Key Distribution Based on Squeezed States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Sheng; Wang Jian; Tang Chaojing; Zhang Quan

    2011-01-01

    It is established that a single quantum cryptography protocol usually cooperates with other cryptographic systems, such as an authentication system, in the real world. However, few protocols have been proposed on how to combine two or more quantum protocols. To fill this gap, we propose a composed quantum protocol, containing both quantum identity authentication and quantum key distribution, using squeezed states. Hence, not only the identity can be verified, but also a new private key can be generated by our new protocol. We also analyze the security under an optimal attack, and the efficiency, which is defined by the threshold of the tolerant error rate, using Gaussian error function. (general)

  9. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Tobias; Haendchen, Vitus; Duhme, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State......-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our...... with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components....

  10. 75 FR 52798 - State-07, Cryptographic Clearance Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... Information Programs and Services, A/GIS/ IPS, Department of State, SA-2, 515 22nd Street, NW., Washington, DC... Department of State and Agency for International Development who have applied for cryptographic clearances as... that apply to all of its Privacy Act systems of records. These notices appear in the form of a...

  11. Security analysis and improvements of two-factor mutual authentication with key agreement in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiye; Lee, Donghoon; Jeon, Woongryul; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2014-04-09

    User authentication and key management are two important security issues in WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks). In WSNs, for some applications, the user needs to obtain real-time data directly from sensors and several user authentication schemes have been recently proposed for this case. We found that a two-factor mutual authentication scheme with key agreement in WSNs is vulnerable to gateway node bypassing attacks and user impersonation attacks using secret data stored in sensor nodes or an attacker's own smart card. In this paper, we propose an improved scheme to overcome these security weaknesses by storing secret data in unique ciphertext form in each node. In addition, our proposed scheme should provide not only security, but also efficiency since sensors in a WSN operate with resource constraints such as limited power, computation, and storage space. Therefore, we also analyze the performance of the proposed scheme by comparing its computation and communication costs with those of other schemes.

  12. Security of supply in liberated electricity markets - key issues and experiences in OECD countries (work in progress)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stridbaek, Ulrik

    2005-06-01

    Security of supply of electricity could in principle refer to any parts of the value chain from fuel input to delivery of electricity to the final costumer with the expected quality. Concerns about security of supply are usually focused on three aspects: Timely and adequate supply of the input fuel for electricity generation is a prerequisite - security of energy supply. There has to be timely and adequate infrastructure in place to transform the input fuel into electricity and transport it to the final costumer - adequacy of generation and transmission capacity. Finally, it is an operational challenge to make the electricity system work and deliver at the expected quality - secure operation of the electricity system. Security of supply becomes relevant in a policy context from concerns about market failures in any parts of the value chain or, indeed, from the perspective that policy will set the framework for markets to serve as an instrument to secure the supply. This paper discusses some of the experiences with security of supply concerns and market failures in these three basic segments of the value chain; fuel input, adequate generation and transmission capacity and secure operation of the system, with an emphasis on the role of the market to serve as an efficient instrument. In the aftermath of the large black outs of electricity systems in North America, Italy and Sweden/Denmark IEA initiated a project on 'Transmission Reliability and Power System Security in Competitive Electricity Markets'. The results of this work will be published towards the end of 2005. After a decade with liberalised electricity markets in some pioneer regions, IEA now also finds it timely to analyse some of the lessons in a forthcoming publication. Recent and ongoing IEA-work thereby covers all the main aspects of security of supply. This paper summarises the key findings and messages, with a focus on the work in progress on lessons from liberalisation

  13. Shor-Preskill-type security proof for concatenated Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum-key-distribution protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won-Young; Matsumoto, Keiji; Imai, Hiroshi; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Hai-Woong

    2003-01-01

    We discuss a long code problem in the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum-key-distribution protocol and describe how it can be overcome by concatenation of the protocol. Observing that concatenated modified Lo-Chau protocol finally reduces to the concatenated BB84 protocol, we give the unconditional security of the concatenated BB84 protocol

  14. Secure anonymity-preserving password-based user authentication and session key agreement scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrala, Anil Kumar; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Wazid, Mohammad; Kumari, Saru

    2016-10-01

    Information and communication and technology (ICT) has changed the entire paradigm of society. ICT facilitates people to use medical services over the Internet, thereby reducing the travel cost, hospitalization cost and time to a greater extent. Recent advancements in Telecare Medicine Information System (TMIS) facilitate users/patients to access medical services over the Internet by gaining health monitoring facilities at home. Amin and Biswas recently proposed a RSA-based user authentication and session key agreement protocol usable for TMIS, which is an improvement over Giri et al.'s RSA-based user authentication scheme for TMIS. In this paper, we show that though Amin-Biswas's scheme considerably improves the security drawbacks of Giri et al.'s scheme, their scheme has security weaknesses as it suffers from attacks such as privileged insider attack, user impersonation attack, replay attack and also offline password guessing attack. A new RSA-based user authentication scheme for TMIS is proposed, which overcomes the security pitfalls of Amin-Biswas's scheme and also preserves user anonymity property. The careful formal security analysis using the two widely accepted Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic and the random oracle models is done. Moreover, the informal security analysis of the scheme is also done. These security analyses show the robustness of our new scheme against the various known attacks as well as attacks found in Amin-Biswas's scheme. The simulation of the proposed scheme using the widely accepted Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool is also done. We present a new user authentication and session key agreement scheme for TMIS, which fixes the mentioned security pitfalls found in Amin-Biswas's scheme, and we also show that the proposed scheme provides better security than other existing schemes through the rigorous security analysis and verification tool. Furthermore, we present the formal security

  15. Research on the Maritime Communication Cryptographic Chip’s Compiler Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the process of ocean development, the technology for maritime communication system is a hot research field, of which information security is vital for the normal operation of the whole system, and that is also one of the difficulties in the research of maritime communication system. In this paper, a kind of maritime communication cryptographic SOC(system on chip is introduced, and its compiler framework is put forward through analysis of working mode and problems faced by compiler front end. Then, a loop unrolling factor calculating algorithm based on queue theory, named UFBOQ (unrolling factor based on queue, is proposed to make parallel optimization in the compiler frontend with consideration of the instruction memory capacity limit. Finally, the scalar replacement method is used to optimize unrolled code to solve the memory access latency on the parallel computing efficiency, for continuous data storage characteristics of cryptographic algorithm. The UFBOQ algorithm and scalar replacement prove effective and appropriate, of which the effect achieves the linear speedup.

  16. Key management schemes using routing information frames in secure wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaev, V. A.; Finogeev, A. G.; Finogeev, A. A.; Parygin, D. S.

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the problems and objectives of key management for data encryption in wireless sensor networks (WSN) of SCADA systems. The structure of the key information in the ZigBee network and methods of keys obtaining are discussed. The use of a hybrid key management schemes is most suitable for WSN. The session symmetric key is used to encrypt the sensor data, asymmetric keys are used to encrypt the session key transmitted from the routing information. Three algorithms of hybrid key management using routing information frames determined by routing methods and the WSN topology are presented.

  17. Integrated Safety and Security Risk Assessment Methods: A Survey of Key Characteristics and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, Sabarathinam; Hadziosmanovic, D.; Pieters, Wolter; Texeira, Andre; van Gelder, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Over the last years, we have seen several security incidents that compromised system safety, of which some caused physical harm to people. Meanwhile, various risk assessment methods have been developed that integrate safety and security, and these could help to address the corresponding threats by

  18. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-10-30

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components.

  19. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F.; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-10-01

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components.

  20. A Comparative Evaluation of Algorithms in the Implementation of an Ultra-Secure Router-to-Router Key Exchange System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishaal J. Parmar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative evaluation of possible encryption algorithms for use in a self-contained, ultra-secure router-to-router communication system, first proposed by El Rifai and Verma. The original proposal utilizes a discrete logarithm-based encryption solution, which will be compared in this paper to RSA, AES, and ECC encryption algorithms. RSA certificates are widely used within the industry but require a trusted key generation and distribution architecture. AES and ECC provide advantages in key length, processing requirements, and storage space, also maintaining an arbitrarily high level of security. This paper modifies each of the four algorithms for use within the self-contained router-to-router environment system and then compares them in terms of features offered, storage space and data transmission needed, encryption/decryption efficiency, and key generation requirements.

  1. Mobile code security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Srikumar

    2001-11-01

    A highly secure mobile agent system is very important for a mobile computing environment. The security issues in mobile agent system comprise protecting mobile hosts from malicious agents, protecting agents from other malicious agents, protecting hosts from other malicious hosts and protecting agents from malicious hosts. Using traditional security mechanisms the first three security problems can be solved. Apart from using trusted hardware, very few approaches exist to protect mobile code from malicious hosts. Some of the approaches to solve this problem are the use of trusted computing, computing with encrypted function, steganography, cryptographic traces, Seal Calculas, etc. This paper focuses on the simulation of some of these existing techniques in the designed mobile language. Some new approaches to solve malicious network problem and agent tampering problem are developed using public key encryption system and steganographic concepts. The approaches are based on encrypting and hiding the partial solutions of the mobile agents. The partial results are stored and the address of the storage is destroyed as the agent moves from one host to another host. This allows only the originator to make use of the partial results. Through these approaches some of the existing problems are solved.

  2. Key distillation in quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, Boris Aron

    1998-11-01

    Quantum cryptography is a technique which permits two parties to communicate over an open channel and establish a shared sequence of bits known only to themselves. This task, provably impossible in classical cryptography, is accomplished by encoding the data on quantum particles and harnessing their unique properties. It is believed that no eavesdropping attack consistent with the laws of quantum theory can compromise the secret data unknowingly to the legitimate users of the channel. Any attempt by a hostile actor to monitor the data carrying particles while in transit reveals itself through transmission errors it must inevitably introduce. Unfortunately, in practice a communication is not free of errors even when no eavesdropping is present. Key distillation is a technique that permits the parties to overcome this difficulty and establish a secret key despite channel defects, under the assumption that every particle is handled independently from other particles by the enemy. In the present work, key distillation is described and its various aspects are studied. A relationship is derived between the average error rate resulting from an eavesdropping attack and the amount of information obtained by the attacker. Formal definition is developed of the security of the final key. The net throughput of secret bits in a quantum cryptosystem employing key distillation is assessed. An overview of quantum cryptographic protocols and related information theoretical results is also given.

  3. Security Mechanism Based on Hospital Authentication Server for Secure Application of Implantable Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    After two recent security attacks against implantable medical devices (IMDs) have been reported, the privacy and security risks of IMDs have been widely recognized in the medical device market and research community, since the malfunctioning of IMDs might endanger the patient's life. During the last few years, a lot of researches have been carried out to address the security-related issues of IMDs, including privacy, safety, and accessibility issues. A physician accesses IMD through an external device called a programmer, for diagnosis and treatment. Hence, cryptographic key management between IMD and programmer is important to enforce a strict access control. In this paper, a new security architecture for the security of IMDs is proposed, based on a 3-Tier security model, where the programmer interacts with a Hospital Authentication Server, to get permissions to access IMDs. The proposed security architecture greatly simplifies the key management between IMDs and programmers. Also proposed is a security mechanism to guarantee the authenticity of the patient data collected from IMD and the nonrepudiation of the physician's treatment based on it. The proposed architecture and mechanism are analyzed and compared with several previous works, in terms of security and performance. PMID:25276797

  4. Security Mechanism Based on Hospital Authentication Server for Secure Application of Implantable Medical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Seop Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After two recent security attacks against implantable medical devices (IMDs have been reported, the privacy and security risks of IMDs have been widely recognized in the medical device market and research community, since the malfunctioning of IMDs might endanger the patient’s life. During the last few years, a lot of researches have been carried out to address the security-related issues of IMDs, including privacy, safety, and accessibility issues. A physician accesses IMD through an external device called a programmer, for diagnosis and treatment. Hence, cryptographic key management between IMD and programmer is important to enforce a strict access control. In this paper, a new security architecture for the security of IMDs is proposed, based on a 3-Tier security model, where the programmer interacts with a Hospital Authentication Server, to get permissions to access IMDs. The proposed security architecture greatly simplifies the key management between IMDs and programmers. Also proposed is a security mechanism to guarantee the authenticity of the patient data collected from IMD and the nonrepudiation of the physician’s treatment based on it. The proposed architecture and mechanism are analyzed and compared with several previous works, in terms of security and performance.

  5. Security mechanism based on Hospital Authentication Server for secure application of implantable medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Seop

    2014-01-01

    After two recent security attacks against implantable medical devices (IMDs) have been reported, the privacy and security risks of IMDs have been widely recognized in the medical device market and research community, since the malfunctioning of IMDs might endanger the patient's life. During the last few years, a lot of researches have been carried out to address the security-related issues of IMDs, including privacy, safety, and accessibility issues. A physician accesses IMD through an external device called a programmer, for diagnosis and treatment. Hence, cryptographic key management between IMD and programmer is important to enforce a strict access control. In this paper, a new security architecture for the security of IMDs is proposed, based on a 3-Tier security model, where the programmer interacts with a Hospital Authentication Server, to get permissions to access IMDs. The proposed security architecture greatly simplifies the key management between IMDs and programmers. Also proposed is a security mechanism to guarantee the authenticity of the patient data collected from IMD and the nonrepudiation of the physician's treatment based on it. The proposed architecture and mechanism are analyzed and compared with several previous works, in terms of security and performance.

  6. Threshold quantum cryptograph based on Grover's algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jianzhong; Qin Sujuan; Wen Qiaoyan; Zhu Fuchen

    2007-01-01

    We propose a threshold quantum protocol based on Grover's operator and permutation operator on one two-qubit signal. The protocol is secure because the dishonest parties can only extract 2 bits from 3 bits information of operation on one two-qubit signal while they have to introduce error probability 3/8. The protocol includes a detection scheme to resist Trojan horse attack. With probability 1/2, the detection scheme can detect a multi-qubit signal that is used to replace a single-qubit signal, while it makes every legitimate qubit invariant

  7. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Interoperability: A Security Services Approach to Support Transfer of Trust

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hansen, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    .... This thesis defines interoperability as the capacity to support trust through retention of security services across PKI domains at a defined level of assurance and examines the elements of PKI...

  8. Attack strategies on quantum cryptographic protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, S.; Suda, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) and quantum authentication (QA) have been a topic of extensive research in the last 20 years. In course of that many attacks on QKD and QA protocols have been studied. Among these, Zhang, Lee and Guo presented an attack on a QKD protocol using entanglement swapping. Based on that strategy we take a look at other protocols to inspect how much information an adversary may get if he shares entanglement with either one or both parties. We will present some protocols where an adversary can even get full information about the key using entanglement. (author)

  9. Security as the Key Factor in Contemporary Tourism: Specificities Identified Through the Analysis of Responders’ Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Penić, Josipa; Kurečić, Petar

    2017-01-01

    The paper represents a product of mentor- graduate student cooperation, developed at the graduate study of Business Economics, major Tourism. Following the latest threatening events and having in mind those yet to come, we can conclude that no country can benefit from the tourism industry if at the same time does not develop its security system as an integral part of the standard tourist offer. Analyzing the trends in contemporary tourism, the safety and security issues became the decisive fa...

  10. When to Reset Your Keys: Optimal Timing of Security Updates via Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Zizhan; Shroff, Ness B.; Mohapatra, Prasant

    2016-01-01

    Cybersecurity is increasingly threatened by advanced and persistent attacks. As these attacks are often designed to disable a system (or a critical resource, e.g., a user account) repeatedly, it is crucial for the defender to keep updating its security measures to strike a balance between the risk of being compromised and the cost of security updates. Moreover, these decisions often need to be made with limited and delayed feedback due to the stealthy nature of advanced attacks. In addition t...

  11. Integrated Safety and Security Risk Assessment Methods: A Survey of Key Characteristics and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chockalingam, Sabarathinam; Hadziosmanovic, Dina; Pieters, Wolter; Teixeira, Andre; van Gelder, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Over the last years, we have seen several security incidents that compromised system safety, of which some caused physical harm to people. Meanwhile, various risk assessment methods have been developed that integrate safety and security, and these could help to address the corresponding threats by implementing suitable risk treatment plans. However, an overarching overview of these methods, systematizing the characteristics of such methods, is missing. In this paper, we conduct a systematic l...

  12. An Advanced Temporal Credential-Based Security Scheme with Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ta Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs can be quickly and randomly deployed in any harsh and unattended environment and only authorized users are allowed to access reliable sensor nodes in WSNs with the aid of gateways (GWNs. Secure authentication models among the users, the sensor nodes and GWN are important research issues for ensuring communication security and data privacy in WSNs. In 2013, Xue et al. proposed a temporal-credential-based mutual authentication and key agreement scheme for WSNs. However, in this paper, we point out that Xue et al.’s scheme cannot resist stolen-verifier, insider, off-line password guessing, smart card lost problem and many logged-in users’ attacks and these security weaknesses make the scheme inapplicable to practical WSN applications. To tackle these problems, we suggest a simple countermeasure to prevent proposed attacks while the other merits of Xue et al.’s authentication scheme are left unchanged.

  13. An advanced temporal credential-based security scheme with mutual authentication and key agreement for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ta; Weng, Chi-Yao; Lee, Cheng-Chi

    2013-07-24

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be quickly and randomly deployed in any harsh and unattended environment and only authorized users are allowed to access reliable sensor nodes in WSNs with the aid of gateways (GWNs). Secure authentication models among the users, the sensor nodes and GWN are important research issues for ensuring communication security and data privacy in WSNs. In 2013, Xue et al. proposed a temporal-credential-based mutual authentication and key agreement scheme for WSNs. However, in this paper, we point out that Xue et al.'s scheme cannot resist stolen-verifier, insider, off-line password guessing, smart card lost problem and many logged-in users' attacks and these security weaknesses make the scheme inapplicable to practical WSN applications. To tackle these problems, we suggest a simple countermeasure to prevent proposed attacks while the other merits of Xue et al.'s authentication scheme are left unchanged.

  14. Computer-aided proofs for multiparty computation with active security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagh, Helene; Karbyshev, Aleksandr; Oechsner, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    Secure multi-party computation (MPC) is a general cryptographic technique that allows distrusting parties to compute a function of their individual inputs, while only revealing the output of the function. It has found applications in areas such as auctioning, email filtering, and secure...... teleconference. Given its importance, it is crucial that the protocols are specified and implemented correctly. In the programming language community it has become good practice to use computer proof assistants to verify correctness proofs. In the field of cryptography, EasyCrypt is the state of the art proof...... public-key encryption, signatures, garbled circuits and differential privacy. Here we show for the first time that it can also be used to prove security of MPC against a malicious adversary. We formalize additive and replicated secret sharing schemes and apply them to Maurer's MPC protocol for secure...

  15. Practical and Secure Recovery of Disk Encryption Key Using Smart Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omote, Kazumasa; Kato, Kazuhiko

    In key-recovery methods using smart cards, a user can recover the disk encryption key in cooperation with the system administrator, even if the user has lost the smart card including the disk encryption key. However, the disk encryption key is known to the system administrator in advance in most key-recovery methods. Hence user's disk data may be read by the system administrator. Furthermore, if the disk encryption key is not known to the system administrator in advance, it is difficult to achieve a key authentication. In this paper, we propose a scheme which enables to recover the disk encryption key when the user's smart card is lost. In our scheme, the disk encryption key is not preserved anywhere and then the system administrator cannot know the key before key-recovery phase. Only someone who has a user's smart card and knows the user's password can decrypt that user's disk data. Furthermore, we measured the processing time required for user authentication in an experimental environment using a virtual machine monitor. As a result, we found that this processing time is short enough to be practical.

  16. An Improved and Secure Anonymous Biometric-Based User Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme for the Integrated EPR Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewook; Kang, Dongwoo; Lee, Donghoon; Won, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, many hospitals and medical institutes employ an authentication protocol within electronic patient records (EPR) services in order to provide protected electronic transactions in e-medicine systems. In order to establish efficient and robust health care services, numerous studies have been carried out on authentication protocols. Recently, Li et al. proposed a user authenticated key agreement scheme according to EPR information systems, arguing that their scheme is able to resist various types of attacks and preserve diverse security properties. However, this scheme possesses critical vulnerabilities. First, the scheme cannot prevent off-line password guessing attacks and server spoofing attack, and cannot preserve user identity. Second, there is no password verification process with the failure to identify the correct password at the beginning of the login phase. Third, the mechanism of password change is incompetent, in that it induces inefficient communication in communicating with the server to change a user password. Therefore, we suggest an upgraded version of the user authenticated key agreement scheme that provides enhanced security. Our security and performance analysis shows that compared to other related schemes, our scheme not only improves the security level, but also ensures efficiency.

  17. An Improved and Secure Anonymous Biometric-Based User Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme for the Integrated EPR Information System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Jung

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many hospitals and medical institutes employ an authentication protocol within electronic patient records (EPR services in order to provide protected electronic transactions in e-medicine systems. In order to establish efficient and robust health care services, numerous studies have been carried out on authentication protocols. Recently, Li et al. proposed a user authenticated key agreement scheme according to EPR information systems, arguing that their scheme is able to resist various types of attacks and preserve diverse security properties. However, this scheme possesses critical vulnerabilities. First, the scheme cannot prevent off-line password guessing attacks and server spoofing attack, and cannot preserve user identity. Second, there is no password verification process with the failure to identify the correct password at the beginning of the login phase. Third, the mechanism of password change is incompetent, in that it induces inefficient communication in communicating with the server to change a user password. Therefore, we suggest an upgraded version of the user authenticated key agreement scheme that provides enhanced security. Our security and performance analysis shows that compared to other related schemes, our scheme not only improves the security level, but also ensures efficiency.

  18. Design of a Secure Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Preserving User Privacy Usable in Telecare Medicine Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Hamed; Rasoolzadegan, Abbas

    2016-11-01

    Authentication and key agreement schemes play a very important role in enhancing the level of security of telecare medicine information systems (TMISs). Recently, Amin and Biswas demonstrated that the authentication scheme proposed by Giri et al. is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attacks and privileged insider attacks and also does not provide user anonymity. They also proposed an improved authentication scheme, claiming that it resists various security attacks. However, this paper demonstrates that Amin and Biswas's scheme is defenseless against off-line password guessing attacks and replay attacks and also does not provide perfect forward secrecy. This paper also shows that Giri et al.'s scheme not only suffers from the weaknesses pointed out by Amin and Biswas, but it also is vulnerable to replay attacks and does not provide perfect forward secrecy. Moreover, this paper proposes a novel authentication and key agreement scheme to overcome the mentioned weaknesses. Security and performance analyses show that the proposed scheme not only overcomes the mentioned security weaknesses, but also is more efficient than the previous schemes.

  19. An Improved and Secure Anonymous Biometric-Based User Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme for the Integrated EPR Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongwoo; Lee, Donghoon; Won, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, many hospitals and medical institutes employ an authentication protocol within electronic patient records (EPR) services in order to provide protected electronic transactions in e-medicine systems. In order to establish efficient and robust health care services, numerous studies have been carried out on authentication protocols. Recently, Li et al. proposed a user authenticated key agreement scheme according to EPR information systems, arguing that their scheme is able to resist various types of attacks and preserve diverse security properties. However, this scheme possesses critical vulnerabilities. First, the scheme cannot prevent off-line password guessing attacks and server spoofing attack, and cannot preserve user identity. Second, there is no password verification process with the failure to identify the correct password at the beginning of the login phase. Third, the mechanism of password change is incompetent, in that it induces inefficient communication in communicating with the server to change a user password. Therefore, we suggest an upgraded version of the user authenticated key agreement scheme that provides enhanced security. Our security and performance analysis shows that compared to other related schemes, our scheme not only improves the security level, but also ensures efficiency. PMID:28046075

  20. Practical cryptographic strategies in the post-quantum era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanov, I. S.; Yunusov, R. R.; Kurochkin, Y. V.; Fedorov, A. K.

    2018-02-01

    Quantum key distribution technologies promise information-theoretic security and are currently being deployed in com-mercial applications. We review new frontiers in information security technologies in communications and distributed storage applications with the use of classical, quantum, hybrid classical-quantum, and post-quantum cryptography. We analyze the cur-rent state-of-the-art, critical characteristics, development trends, and limitations of these techniques for application in enterprise information protection systems. An approach concerning the selection of practical encryption technologies for enterprises with branched communication networks is discussed.

  1. Security for Virtual Private Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Nicoleta Iacob

    2015-01-01

    Network security must be a permanent concern for every company, given the fact that threats are evolving today more rapidly than in the past. This paper contains a general classification of cryptographic algorithms used in today networks and presents an implementation of virtual private networks using one of the most secure methods - digital certificates authentication.

  2. Quantum-to-the-Home: Achieving Gbits/s Secure Key Rates via Commercial Off-the-Shelf Telecommunication Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameez Asif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is current significant interest in Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH networks, that is, end-to-end optical connectivity. Currently, it may be limited due to the presence of last-mile copper wire connections. However, in near future, it is envisaged that FTTH connections will exist, and a key offering would be the possibility of optical encryption that can best be implemented using Quantum Key Distribution (QKD. However, it is very important that the QKD infrastructure is compatible with the already existing networks for a smooth transition and integration with the classical data traffic. In this paper, we report the feasibility of using off-the-shelf telecommunication components to enable high performance Continuous Variable-Quantum Key Distribution (CV-QKD systems that can yield secure key rates in the range of 100 Mbits/s under practical operating conditions. Multilevel phase modulated signals (m-PSK are evaluated in terms of secure key rates and transmission distances. The traditional receiver is discussed, aided by the phase noise cancellation based digital signal processing module for detecting the complex quantum signals. Furthermore, we have discussed the compatibility of multiplexers and demultiplexers for wavelength division multiplexed Quantum-to-the-Home (QTTH network and the impact of splitting ratio is analyzed. The results are thoroughly compared with the commercially available high-cost encryption modules.

  3. A Secure Dynamic Identity and Chaotic Maps Based User Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme for e-Healthcare Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ta; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Weng, Chi-Yao; Chen, Song-Jhih

    2016-11-01

    Secure user authentication schemes in many e-Healthcare applications try to prevent unauthorized users from intruding the e-Healthcare systems and a remote user and a medical server can establish session keys for securing the subsequent communications. However, many schemes does not mask the users' identity information while constructing a login session between two or more parties, even though personal privacy of users is a significant topic for e-Healthcare systems. In order to preserve personal privacy of users, dynamic identity based authentication schemes are hiding user's real identity during the process of network communications and only the medical server knows login user's identity. In addition, most of the existing dynamic identity based authentication schemes ignore the inputs verification during login condition and this flaw may subject to inefficiency in the case of incorrect inputs in the login phase. Regarding the use of secure authentication mechanisms for e-Healthcare systems, this paper presents a new dynamic identity and chaotic maps based authentication scheme and a secure data protection approach is employed in every session to prevent illegal intrusions. The proposed scheme can not only quickly detect incorrect inputs during the phases of login and password change but also can invalidate the future use of a lost/stolen smart card. Compared the functionality and efficiency with other authentication schemes recently, the proposed scheme satisfies desirable security attributes and maintains acceptable efficiency in terms of the computational overheads for e-Healthcare systems.

  4. Security Standards and Best Practice Considerations for Quantum Key Distribution (QKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Establishment France Direction Centrale de la Sécurité des Systèmes d’Information Germany Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik Japan...Information Technology Promotion Agency Netherlands National Communications Security Agency Spain Ministerio de Administraciones Públicas and Centro

  5. Diversification of oil import sources and energy security. A key strategy or an elusive objective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivoda, Vlado

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the diversification of sources of imported oil and energy security of oil-importing countries. It examines the importance of diversification policy for oil importers, explains why oil importers implement oil diversification policy, and contextualizes the oil import diversification strategy in the overall energy security policy of oil importers. The paper analyzes the factors and the contexts that affect the level of importance assigned to oil import diversification policy in oil-importing countries, and the limitations that may affect the successful implication of oil import diversification policy. The examples are drawn from the world's top three oil importers, the United States, Japan, and China. The policymakers in these and other oil-importing countries place much importance on energy security. The diversification of oil import sources is used as one of the strategies to enhance energy security in oil-importing countries. This paper is important for policymakers in oil-importing countries as it provides them with a qualitative conceptual framework with which to evaluate the need to diversify their countries' sources of imported oil, and with which to identify the likely limitations to the successful implementation of oil import diversification policy. (author)

  6. A Secure Key Establishment Protocol for ZigBee Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    ZigBee is a wireless sensor network standard that defines network and application layers on top of IEEE 802.15.4's physical and medium access control layers. In the latest version of ZigBee, enhancements are prescribed for the security sublayer but we show in this paper that problems persist...

  7. THE CYBERSECURITY OF AUTOMATED CONTROL SYSTEMS AS A KEY COMPONENT OF NATIONAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galin R. Ivanov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the current problems raised by the necessity to provide and ensure national cybersecurity. Moreover, it suggests measures for adequate counteraction to present-day cyber threats to automated control systems employed in the sector of national security.

  8. BIX Certificates: Cryptographic Tokens for Anonymous Transactions Based on Certificates Public Ledger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Muftic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the widespread use of Internet, Web, and mobile technologies, a new category of applications and transactions that requires anonymity is gaining increased interest and importance. Examples of such new applications are innovative payment systems, digital notaries, electronic voting, documents sharing, electronic auctions, medical applications, and many others. In addition to anonymity, these applications and transactions also require standard security services: identification, authentication, and authorization of users and protection of their transactions. Providing those services in combination with anonymity is an especially challenging issue, because all security services require explicit user identification and authentication. To solve this issue and enable applications with security and also anonymity we introduce a new type of cryptographically encapsulated objects called BIX certificates. “BIX” is an abbreviation for “Blockchain Information Exchange.” Their purpose is equivalent to X.509 certificates: to support security services for users and transactions, but also enhanced with anonymity. This paper describes the structure and attributes of BIX certificate objects and all related protocols for their creation, distribution, and use. The BIX Certification Infrastructure (BCI as a distributed public ledger is also briefly described.

  9. Quantum key distribution with an entangled light emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzurnak, B.; Stevenson, R. M.; Nilsson, J.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Shields, A. J. [Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-28

    Measurements performed on entangled photon pairs shared between two parties can allow unique quantum cryptographic keys to be formed, creating secure links between users. An advantage of using such entangled photon links is that they can be adapted to propagate entanglement to end users of quantum networks with only untrusted nodes. However, demonstrations of quantum key distribution with entangled photons have so far relied on sources optically excited with lasers. Here, we realize a quantum cryptography system based on an electrically driven entangled-light-emitting diode. Measurement bases are passively chosen and we show formation of an error-free quantum key. Our measurements also simultaneously reveal Bell's parameter for the detected light, which exceeds the threshold for quantum entanglement.

  10. Two-Round Password-Only Authenticated Key Exchange in the Three-Party Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Nam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the first provably-secure three-party password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE protocol that can run in only two communication rounds. Our protocol is generic in the sense that it can be constructed from any two-party PAKE protocol. The protocol is proven secure in a variant of the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000 without any idealized assumptions on the cryptographic primitives used. We also investigate the security of the two-round, three-party PAKE protocol of Wang, Hu and Li (2010 and demonstrate that this protocol cannot achieve implicit key authentication in the presence of an active adversary.

  11. An implementation of super-encryption using RC4A and MDTM cipher algorithms for securing PDF Files on android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiman, M. A.; Rachmawati, D.; Parlindungan, M. R.

    2018-03-01

    MDTM is a classical symmetric cryptographic algorithm. As with other classical algorithms, the MDTM Cipher algorithm is easy to implement but it is less secure compared to modern symmetric algorithms. In order to make it more secure, a stream cipher RC4A is added and thus the cryptosystem becomes super encryption. In this process, plaintexts derived from PDFs are firstly encrypted with the MDTM Cipher algorithm and are encrypted once more with the RC4A algorithm. The test results show that the value of complexity is Θ(n2) and the running time is linearly directly proportional to the length of plaintext characters and the keys entered.

  12. An optimized encoding method for secure key distribution by swapping quantum entanglement and its extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Gan

    2015-01-01

    Song [Song D 2004 Phys. Rev. A 69 034301] first proposed two key distribution schemes with the symmetry feature. We find that, in the schemes, the private channels which Alice and Bob publicly announce the initial Bell state or the measurement result through are not needed in discovering keys, and Song’s encoding methods do not arrive at the optimization. Here, an optimized encoding method is given so that the efficiencies of Song’s schemes are improved by 7/3 times. Interestingly, this optimized encoding method can be extended to the key distribution scheme composed of generalized Bell states. (paper)

  13. Taking aim at medical identity theft. Document security key element to comply with government regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Colette

    2010-01-01

    Sensitive paper documents, such as patient records, customer data, and legal information, must be securely stored and destroyed when no longer needed. This is not only a good business practice that reduces costs and protects reputations, but also a legal and regulatory imperative. According to some experts, medical identity theft is the fastest-growing form of identity theft in North America. The Federal Trade Commission's Red Flags Rule, due to take effect June 1, 2010, requires banks; credit card companies; and, in some situations, retailers, hospitals, insurance companies, health clinics, and other organizations to store confidential personal information that can expose consumers to significant identity theft risks. This also includes healthcare providers and other organizations that are considered creditors according to their billing/payment procedures. This article highlights the steps healthcare providers must take to ensure data security.

  14. Security analysis of orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing-based continuous-variable quantum key distribution with imperfect modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Mao, Yu; Huang, Duan; Li, Jiawei; Zhang, Ling; Guo, Ying

    2018-05-01

    We introduce a reliable scheme for continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) by using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). As a spectrally efficient multiplexing technique, OFDM allows a large number of closely spaced orthogonal subcarrier signals used to carry data on several parallel data streams or channels. We place emphasis on modulator impairments which would inevitably arise in the OFDM system and analyze how these impairments affect the OFDM-based CV-QKD system. Moreover, we also evaluate the security in the asymptotic limit and the Pirandola-Laurenza-Ottaviani-Banchi upper bound. Results indicate that although the emergence of imperfect modulation would bring about a slight decrease in the secret key bit rate of each subcarrier, the multiplexing technique combined with CV-QKD results in a desirable improvement on the total secret key bit rate which can raise the numerical value about an order of magnitude.

  15. The Key Conceptions of Social Security: the International Practice and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dluhopolska Tetiana I.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The world-wide globalization processes and the political-military conflicts have exacerbated the problem of social security of the people of various world countries, which is usually seen from the perspective of both the State and the individual citizen. The article is aimed at analyzing the existing conceptions of social security from different perspectives – political, economic efficiency, and narrative. An analysis of political theories of social security (majority rational voting; pressure groups has determined that they are based on the redistribution processes, and winning of the individual economic agents is achieved in the political struggle for various «social prizes». An analysis of theories of efficiency (optimal redistribution; optimal retirement insurance; prodigal father; misguided Keynesian; longevity insurance; government economizes on administration costs; return on human capital investment has determined that they rely on market «fiasco» and can help in understanding which from the social protection programs minimize market failures. An analysis of the descriptive (narrative theories (chain letters; lump of labor; monopoly capitalism; nearly rational policy has determined that they are difficult subject to the mathematical interpretation and partially repeat ideas of the previous concepts.

  16. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers’ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all. PMID:24135190

  17. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Gustafson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers′ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country′s reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  18. Rising food costs & global food security: key issues & relevance for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers' incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  19. Securing ARP and DHCP for mitigating link layer attacks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Osama S Younes

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... 1 Faculty of Computers and Information Technology, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia ... there are several ways to provide security for communications at the ... Cryptographic techniques are more effective in mitigating.

  20. Enforcing Security Mechanisms in the IP-Based Internet of Things: An Algorithmic Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Veltri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT refers to the Internet-like structure of billions of interconnected constrained devices, denoted as “smart objects”. Smart objects have limited capabilities, in terms of computational power and memory, and might be battery-powered devices, thus raising the need to adopt particularly energy efficient technologies. Among the most notable challenges that building interconnected smart objects brings about, there are standardization and interoperability. The use of IP has been foreseen as the standard for interoperability for smart objects. As billions of smart objects are expected to come to life and IPv4 addresses have eventually reached depletion, IPv6 has been identified as a candidate for smart-object communication. The deployment of the IoT raises many security issues coming from (i the very nature of smart objects, e.g., the adoption of lightweight cryptographic algorithms, in terms of processing and memory requirements; and (ii the use of standard protocols, e.g., the need to minimize the amount of data exchanged between nodes. This paper provides a detailed overview of the security challenges related to the deployment of smart objects. Security protocols at network, transport, and application layers are discussed, together with lightweight cryptographic algorithms proposed to be used instead of conventional and demanding ones, in terms of computational resources. Security aspects, such as key distribution and security bootstrapping, and application scenarios, such as secure data aggregation and service authorization, are also discussed.

  1. An improved chaos-based secure communication technique using a novel encryption function with an embedded cipher key

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaher, Ashraf A. [Physics Department, Science College, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait)], E-mail: ashraf.zaher@ku.edu.kw

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, a secure communication technique, using a chaotic system with a single adjustable parameter and a single observable time series, is proposed. The chosen chaotic system, which is a variant of the famous Rikitake model, has a special structure for which the adjustable parameter appears in the dynamic equation of the observable time series. This particular structure is used to build a synchronization-based state observer that is decoupled from the adaptive parameter identifier. A local Lyapunov function is used to design the parameter identifier, with an adjustable convergence rate that guarantees the stability of the overall system. A two-channel transmission method is used to exemplify the suggested technique where the secret message is encoded using a nonlinear function of both the chaotic states and the adjustable parameter of the chaotic system that acts as a secret key. Simulations show that, at the receiver, the signal can be efficiently retrieved only if the secret key is known, even when both the receiver and the transmitter are in perfect synchronization. The proposed technique is demonstrated to have improved security and privacy against intruders, when compared to other techniques reported in the literature, while being simple to implement using both analog and digital hardware. In addition, the chosen chaotic system is shown to be flexible in accommodating the transmission of signals with variable bandwidths, which promotes the superiority and versatility of the suggested secure communication technique.

  2. Security Analysis and Improvements of Two-Factor Mutual Authentication with Key Agreement in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiye Kim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available User authentication and key management are two important security issues in WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks. In WSNs, for some applications, the user needs to obtain real-time data directly from sensors and several user authentication schemes have been recently proposed for this case. We found that a two-factor mutual authentication scheme with key agreement in WSNs is vulnerable to gateway node bypassing attacks and user impersonation attacks using secret data stored in sensor nodes or an attacker’s own smart card. In this paper, we propose an improved scheme to overcome these security weaknesses by storing secret data in unique ciphertext form in each node. In addition, our proposed scheme should provide not only security, but also efficiency since sensors in a WSN operate with resource constraints such as limited power, computation, and storage space. Therefore, we also analyze the performance of the proposed scheme by comparing its computation and communication costs with those of other schemes.

  3. An improved chaos-based secure communication technique using a novel encryption function with an embedded cipher key

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaher, Ashraf A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a secure communication technique, using a chaotic system with a single adjustable parameter and a single observable time series, is proposed. The chosen chaotic system, which is a variant of the famous Rikitake model, has a special structure for which the adjustable parameter appears in the dynamic equation of the observable time series. This particular structure is used to build a synchronization-based state observer that is decoupled from the adaptive parameter identifier. A local Lyapunov function is used to design the parameter identifier, with an adjustable convergence rate that guarantees the stability of the overall system. A two-channel transmission method is used to exemplify the suggested technique where the secret message is encoded using a nonlinear function of both the chaotic states and the adjustable parameter of the chaotic system that acts as a secret key. Simulations show that, at the receiver, the signal can be efficiently retrieved only if the secret key is known, even when both the receiver and the transmitter are in perfect synchronization. The proposed technique is demonstrated to have improved security and privacy against intruders, when compared to other techniques reported in the literature, while being simple to implement using both analog and digital hardware. In addition, the chosen chaotic system is shown to be flexible in accommodating the transmission of signals with variable bandwidths, which promotes the superiority and versatility of the suggested secure communication technique.

  4. Secure and Efficient Key Coordination Algorithm for Line Topology Network Maintenance for Use in Maritime Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Elgenaidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a significant increase in the proliferation and implementation of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs in different disciplines, including the monitoring of maritime environments, healthcare systems, and industrial sectors. It has now become critical to address the security issues of data communication while considering sensor node constraints. There are many proposed schemes, including the scheme being proposed in this paper, to ensure that there is a high level of security in WSNs. This paper presents a symmetric security scheme for a maritime coastal environment monitoring WSN. The scheme provides security for travelling packets via individually encrypted links between authenticated neighbors, thus avoiding a reiteration of a global rekeying process. Furthermore, this scheme proposes a dynamic update key based on a trusted node configuration, called a leader node, which works as a trusted third party. The technique has been implemented in real time on a Waspmote test bed sensor platform and the results from both field testing and indoor bench testing environments are discussed in this paper.

  5. Secure and Efficient Key Coordination Algorithm for Line Topology Network Maintenance for Use in Maritime Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgenaidi, Walid; Newe, Thomas; O'Connell, Eoin; Toal, Daniel; Dooly, Gerard

    2016-12-21

    There has been a significant increase in the proliferation and implementation of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in different disciplines, including the monitoring of maritime environments, healthcare systems, and industrial sectors. It has now become critical to address the security issues of data communication while considering sensor node constraints. There are many proposed schemes, including the scheme being proposed in this paper, to ensure that there is a high level of security in WSNs. This paper presents a symmetric security scheme for a maritime coastal environment monitoring WSN. The scheme provides security for travelling packets via individually encrypted links between authenticated neighbors, thus avoiding a reiteration of a global rekeying process. Furthermore, this scheme proposes a dynamic update key based on a trusted node configuration, called a leader node, which works as a trusted third party. The technique has been implemented in real time on a Waspmote test bed sensor platform and the results from both field testing and indoor bench testing environments are discussed in this paper.

  6. Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution: towards a de Finetti theorem for rotation symmetry in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leverrier, A; Karpov, E; Cerf, N J; Grangier, P

    2009-01-01

    Proving the unconditional security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is a highly challenging task as one needs to determine the most efficient attack compatible with experimental data. This task is even more demanding for continuous-variable QKD as the Hilbert space where the protocol is described is infinite dimensional. A possible strategy to address this problem is to make an extensive use of the symmetries of the protocol. In this paper, we investigate a rotation symmetry in phase space that is particularly relevant to continuous-variable QKD, and explore the way towards a new quantum de Finetti theorem that would exploit this symmetry and provide a powerful tool to assess the security of continuous-variable protocols. As a first step, a single-party asymptotic version of this quantum de Finetti theorem in phase space is derived.

  7. New Secure E-mail System Based on Bio-Chaos Key Generation and Modified AES Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoomod, Haider K.; Radi, A. M.

    2018-05-01

    The E-mail messages exchanged between sender’s Mailbox and recipient’s Mailbox over the open systems and insecure Networks. These messages may be vulnerable to eavesdropping and itself poses a real threat to the privacy and data integrity from unauthorized persons. The E-mail Security includes the following properties (Confidentiality, Authentication, Message integrity). We need a safe encryption algorithm to encrypt Email messages such as the algorithm Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) or Data Encryption Standard DES, as well as biometric recognition and chaotic system. The proposed E-mail system security uses modified AES algorithm and uses secret key-bio-chaos that consist of biometric (Fingerprint) and chaotic system (Lu and Lorenz). This modification makes the proposed system more sensitive and random. The execution time for both encryption and decryption of the proposed system is much less from original AES, in addition to being compatible with all Mail Servers.

  8. Best-Practice Criteria for Practical Security of Self-Differencing Avalanche Photodiode Detectors in Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler-Sidki, A.; Dynes, J. F.; Lucamarini, M.; Roberts, G. L.; Sharpe, A. W.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.

    2018-04-01

    Fast-gated avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are the most commonly used single photon detectors for high-bit-rate quantum key distribution (QKD). Their robustness against external attacks is crucial to the overall security of a QKD system, or even an entire QKD network. We investigate the behavior of a gigahertz-gated, self-differencing (In,Ga)As APD under strong illumination, a tactic Eve often uses to bring detectors under her control. Our experiment and modeling reveal that the negative feedback by the photocurrent safeguards the detector from being blinded through reducing its avalanche probability and/or strengthening the capacitive response. Based on this finding, we propose a set of best-practice criteria for designing and operating fast-gated APD detectors to ensure their practical security in QKD.

  9. A Family of Key Agreement Mechanisms for Mission Critical Communications for Secure Mobile Ad Hoc and Wireless Mesh Internetworking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tryfonas Theo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Future wireless networks like mobile ad hoc networks and wireless mesh networks are expected to play important role in demanding communications such as mission critical communications. MANETs are ideal for emergency cases where the communication infrastructure has been completely destroyed and there is a need for quick set up of communications among the rescue/emergency workers. In such emergency scenarios wireless mesh networks may be employed in a later phase for providing advanced communications and services acting as a backbone network in the affected area. Internetworking of both types of future networks will provide a broad range of mission critical applications. While offering many advantages, such as flexibility, easy of deployment and low cost, MANETs and mesh networks face important security and resilience threats, especially for such demanding applications. We introduce a family of key agreement methods based on weak to strong authentication associated with several multiparty contributory key establishment methods. We examine the attributes of each key establishment method and how each method can be better applied in different scenarios. The proposed protocols support seamlessly both types of networks and consider system and application requirements such as efficient and secure internetworking, dynamicity of network topologies and support of thin clients.

  10. Temporal steering and security of quantum key distribution with mutually unbiased bases against individual attacks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, K.; Miranowicz, A.; Nori, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 6 (2016), 1-7, č. článku 062345. ISSN 2469-9926 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum key distribution * Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering * temporal quantum correlations Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2016

  11. Review and Analysis of Cryptographic Schemes Implementing Threshold Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Victorovna Beresneva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the study of threshold signature schemes. The systematization of the threshold signature schemes was done, cryptographic constructions based on interpolation Lagrange polynomial, ellipt ic curves and bilinear pairings were investigated. Different methods of generation and verification of threshold signatures were explored, e.g. used in a mobile agents, Internet banking and e-currency. The significance of the work is determined by the reduction of the level of counterfeit electronic documents, signed by certain group of users.

  12. Cryptographic pseudo-random sequence from the spatial chaotic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fuyan; Liu Shutang

    2009-01-01

    A scheme for pseudo-random binary sequence generation based on the spatial chaotic map is proposed. In order to face the challenge of using the proposed PRBS in cryptography, the proposed PRBS is subjected to statistical tests which are the well-known FIPS-140-1 in the area of cryptography, and correlation properties of the proposed sequences are investigated. The proposed PRBS successfully passes all these tests. Results of statistical testing of the sequences are found encouraging. The results of statistical tests suggest strong candidature for cryptographic applications.

  13. Peak Phosphorus: Clarifying the Key Issues of a Vigorous Debate about Long-Term Phosphorus Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart White

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the latest information and perspectives on global phosphorus scarcity. Phosphorus is essential for food production and modern agriculture currently sources phosphorus fertilizers from finite phosphate rock. The 2008 food and phosphate fertilizer price spikes triggered increased concerns regarding the depletion timeline of phosphate rock reserves. While estimates range from 30 to 300 years and are shrouded by lack of publicly available data and substantial uncertainty, there is a general consensus that the quality and accessibility of remaining reserves are decreasing and costs will increase. This paper clarifies common sources of misunderstandings about phosphorus scarcity and identifies areas of consensus. It then asks, despite some persistent uncertainty, what would it take to achieve global phosphorus security? What would a ‘hard-landing’ response look like and how could preferred ‘soft-landing’ responses be achieved?

  14. Evaluation of Key Dependent S-Box Based Data Security Algorithm using Hamming Distance and Balanced Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balajee Maram K.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Data security is a major issue because of rapid evolution of data communication over unsecured internetwork. Here the proposed system is concerned with the problem of randomly generated S-box. The generation of S-box depends on Pseudo-Random-Number-Generators and shared-secret-key. The process of Pseudo-Random-Number-Generator depends on large prime numbers. All Pseudo-Random-Numbers are scrambled according to shared-secret-key. After scrambling, the S-box is generated. In this research, large prime numbers are the inputs to the Pseudo-Random-Number-Generator. The proposed S-box will reduce the complexity of S-box generation. Based on S-box parameters, it experimentally investigates the quality and robustness of the proposed algorithm which was tested. It yields better results with the S-box parameters like Hamming Distance, Balanced Output and Avalanche Effect and can be embedded to popular cryptography algorithms

  15. Kochen-Specker theorem as a precondition for secure quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Koji

    2005-01-01

    We show that (1) the violation of the Ekert 1991 inequality is a sufficient condition for certification of the Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem, and (2) the violation of the Bennett-Brassard-Mermin 1992 (BBM92) inequality is, also, a sufficient condition for certification of the KS theorem. Therefore the success in each quantum key distribution protocol reveals the nonclassical feature of quantum theory, in the sense that the KS realism is violated. Further, it turned out that the Ekert inequality and the BBM inequality are depictured by distillable entanglement witness inequalities. Here, we connect the success in these two key distribution processes into the no-hidden-variables theorem and into witness on distillable entanglement. We also discuss the explicit difference between the KS realism and Bell's local realism in the Hilbert space formalism of quantum theory

  16. Desynchronization Chaos Shift Keying Method Based on the Error Second Derivative and Its Security Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čelikovský, Sergej; Lynnyk, Volodymyr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 9 (2012), 1250231-1-1250231-11 ISSN 0218-1274 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/12/1794 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Nonlinear system * desynchronization * chaos shift keying * generalized Lorenz system Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.921, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/TR/celikovsky-0381701.pdf

  17. Exploring the Key Challenges: Adaptability, Sustainability, Interoperability and Security to M-payment

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Mantri; Junkang Feng

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Any payment which uses mobile device as payment method is called M-payment whether it is proximity or remote and online or point of sale. Since it has been identified that mobile phone is everywhere and ever-present essential consumer device, and could be used for payment offline or online, Mobile payment has been hyped significantly. However early market adoption is facing some challenges and in need of the unanimous effort of all key players (manufacturers, mobile operators, merch...

  18. Security and skills: the two key issues in health worker migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posy Bidwell

    2014-07-01

    concerns over security, crime, and racial tensions are resolved. However, good working conditions in the private sector in South Africa provide an occupational incentive to return if security did improve. Potential migrants should be made more aware of the risks of losing skills while working abroad that might prejudice return. In addition, re-skilling initiatives should be encouraged.

  19. Security and skills: the two key issues in health worker migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Posy; Laxmikanth, Pallavi; Blacklock, Claire; Hayward, Gail; Willcox, Merlin; Peersman, Wim; Moosa, Shabir; Mant, David

    2014-01-01

    Migration of health workers from Africa continues to undermine the universal provision of quality health care. South Africa is an epicentre for migration--it exports more health workers to high-income countries than any other African country and imports health workers from its lower-income neighbours to fill the gap. Although an inter-governmental agreement in 2003 reduced the very high numbers migrating from South Africa to the United Kingdom, migration continues to other high-income English-speaking countries and few workers seem to return although the financial incentive to work abroad has lessened. A deeper understanding of reasons for migration from South Africa and post-migration experiences is therefore needed to underpin policy which is developed in order to improve retention within source countries and encourage return. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 South African doctors and nurses who had migrated to the United Kingdom. Interviews explored factors influencing the decision to migrate and post-migration experiences. Salary, career progression, and poor working conditions were not major push factors for migration. Many health workers reported that they had previously overcome these issues within the South African healthcare system by migrating to the private sector. Overwhelmingly, the major push factors were insecurity, high levels of crime, and racial tension. Although the wish to work and train in what was perceived to be a first-class care system was a pull factor to migrate to the United Kingdom, many were disappointed by the experience. Instead of obtaining new skills, many (particularly nurses) felt they had become 'de-skilled'. Many also felt that working conditions and opportunities for them in the UK National Health Service (NHS) compared unfavourably with the private sector in South Africa. Migration from South Africa seems unlikely to diminish until the major concerns over security, crime, and racial tensions are resolved

  20. Efficient and Provable Secure Pairing-Free Security-Mediated Identity-Based Identification Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Jian Chin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Security-mediated cryptography was first introduced by Boneh et al. in 2001. The main motivation behind security-mediated cryptography was the capability to allow instant revocation of a user’s secret key by necessitating the cooperation of a security mediator in any given transaction. Subsequently in 2003, Boneh et al. showed how to convert a RSA-based security-mediated encryption scheme from a traditional public key setting to an identity-based one, where certificates would no longer be required. Following these two pioneering papers, other cryptographic primitives that utilize a security-mediated approach began to surface. However, the security-mediated identity-based identification scheme (SM-IBI was not introduced until Chin et al. in 2013 with a scheme built on bilinear pairings. In this paper, we improve on the efficiency results for SM-IBI schemes by proposing two schemes that are pairing-free and are based on well-studied complexity assumptions: the RSA and discrete logarithm assumptions.

  1. Efficient and provable secure pairing-free security-mediated identity-based identification schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Ji-Jian; Tan, Syh-Yuan; Heng, Swee-Huay; Phan, Raphael C-W

    2014-01-01

    Security-mediated cryptography was first introduced by Boneh et al. in 2001. The main motivation behind security-mediated cryptography was the capability to allow instant revocation of a user's secret key by necessitating the cooperation of a security mediator in any given transaction. Subsequently in 2003, Boneh et al. showed how to convert a RSA-based security-mediated encryption scheme from a traditional public key setting to an identity-based one, where certificates would no longer be required. Following these two pioneering papers, other cryptographic primitives that utilize a security-mediated approach began to surface. However, the security-mediated identity-based identification scheme (SM-IBI) was not introduced until Chin et al. in 2013 with a scheme built on bilinear pairings. In this paper, we improve on the efficiency results for SM-IBI schemes by proposing two schemes that are pairing-free and are based on well-studied complexity assumptions: the RSA and discrete logarithm assumptions.

  2. Designing an ASIP for cryptographic pairings over Barreto-Naehrig curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammler, D.; Zhang, D.; Schwabe, P.; Scharwaechter, H.; Langenberg, M.; Auras, D.; Ascheid, G.; Mathar, R.; Clavier, C.; Gaj, K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a design-space exploration of an application-specific instruction-set processor (ASIP) for the computation of various cryptographic pairings over Barreto-Naehrig curves (BN curves). Cryptographic pairings are based on elliptic curves over finite fields—in the case of BN curves a

  3. Food Supply Security and Import Substitution as the Key Strategic Objectives of the Modern Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Ivanovich Altukhov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A crucially new social- and economic situation has shaped up by now in the rural areas and agricultural sphere; in its many instances such situation does not fit in the national agricultural policy in effect called upon to be a long-term instrument for economic adjustment of the agro-food market and state support of the agricultural sphere, most significantly, its foundation — the farming sector. Ensuring of food supply security by import substitution in the age of the national farm product markets globalization is possible in the macro-economic conditions promoting the development of the agricultural sector. The main reason that retards this sector development is inequitable cross-sector exchange at sacrifice of the agricultural industry. The article sets forward and approbates the author’s method of simple assessment procedure of how the price cross-sector relations and state financial support (in the form of subsidies of the agricultural enterprises influence their profitability generation. Further to the assessment, the following conclusions have been made: — in view of the tangible contribution of the agricultural sector to the country economy, this sector is self-reliant for its own development, i.e. the state is reasonably in a position to increase expenses for eliminating negative consequences of inequitable crosssector exchange; — the amount of expenses for state financial support is supposed to enable the agricultural commodity producers to generate profitability to the level that can stimulate the farm workers’ labour efficiency and build up a system of affordable credit facilities for the objects of techno-engineering modernization necessary to produce competitive products. — the issue of improving the competitiveness of agricultural production should be addressed in the first place at the federal level. Among the essential factors to increase the competitiveness of specific types of domestic food products and

  4. sPECTRA: a Precise framEwork for analyzing CrypTographic vulneRabilities in Android apps

    OpenAIRE

    Gajrani, J.; Tripathi, M.; Laxmi, V.; Gaur, M. S.; Conti, M.; Rajarajan, M.

    2017-01-01

    The majority of Android applications (apps) deals with user's personal data. Users trust these apps and allow them to access all sensitive data. Cryptography, when employed in an appropriate way, can be used to prevent misuse of data. Unfortunately, cryptographic libraries also include vulnerable cryptographic services. Since Android app developers may not be cryptographic experts, this makes apps become the target of various attacks due to cryptographic vulnerabilities. In this work, we pres...

  5. Efficient RSA Key Generation and Threshold Paillier in the Two-Party Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazay, Carmit; Mikkelsen, Gert Læssøe; Rabin, Tal

    2011-01-01

    with security against malicious behavior. Our second contribution is complete Paillier [Pai99] threshold encryption scheme in the two-party setting with security against malicious behavior. Furthermore, we describe how to extend our protocols to the multiparty setting with dishonest majority. Our RSA key...... generation is comprised of the following: (i) a distributed protocol for generation of an RSA composite, and (ii) a biprimality test for verifying the validity of the generated composite. Our Paillier threshold encryption scheme uses the RSA composite as public key and is comprised of: (i) a distributed......The problem of generating an RSA composite in a distributed manner without leaking its factorization is particularly challenging and useful in many cryptographic protocols. Our first contribution is the first non-generic fully simulatable protocol for distributively generating an RSA composite...

  6. Coherent eavesdropping attacks in tomographic quantum cryptography: Nonequivalence of quantum and classical key distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Lim, J.Y.; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Kwek, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. We show that - for protocols that use quantum channels of any dimension and completely characterize them by state tomography - the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation of a specific kind is substantially lower than the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation if the eavesdropper can perform powerful coherent attacks. In marked contrast, earlier investigations had shown that the thresholds are identical for incoherent attacks on the same classical distillation scheme. It remains an open question whether other schemes for classical advantage distillation have higher thresholds for coherent eavesdropping attacks

  7. Secure multiparty computation goes live

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogetoft, P.; Christensen, D.L.; Damgard, Ivan; Geisler, M.; Jakobsen, T.; Kroigaard, M.; Nielsen, J.D.; Nielsen, J.B.; Nielsen, K.; Pagter, J.; Schwartzbach, M.; Toft, T.; Dingledine, R.; Golle, Ph.

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we report on the first large-scale and practical application of secure multiparty computation, which took place in January 2008. We also report on the novel cryptographic protocols that were used. This work was supported by the Danish Strategic Research Council and the European

  8. Secure multiparty computation goes live

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Christensen, Dan Lund; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we report on the first large-scale and practical application of secure multiparty computation, which took place in January 2008. We also report on the novel cryptographic protocols that were used. This work was supported by the Danish Strategic Research Council and the European...

  9. Computational security of quantum encryption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alagic, G.; Broadbent, A.; Fefferman, B.; Gagliardoni, T.; Schaffner, C.; St. Jules, M.; Nascimento, A.C.A.; Barreto, P.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum-mechanical devices have the potential to transform cryptography. Most research in this area has focused either on the information-theoretic advantages of quantum protocols or on the security of classical cryptographic schemes against quantum attacks. In this work, we initiate the study of

  10. Enhancing Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) Level-0 Physical Process Security Using Field Device Distinct Native Attribute Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Juan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liefer, Nathan C. [Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH (United States); Busho, Colin R. [Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH (United States); Temple, Michael A. [Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH (United States)

    2017-12-04

    Here, the need for improved Critical Infrastructure and Key Resource (CIKR) security is unquestioned and there has been minimal emphasis on Level-0 (PHY Process) improvements. Wired Signal Distinct Native Attribute (WS-DNA) Fingerprinting is investigated here as a non-intrusive PHY-based security augmentation to support an envisioned layered security strategy. Results are based on experimental response collections from Highway Addressable Remote Transducer (HART) Differential Pressure Transmitter (DPT) devices from three manufacturers (Yokogawa, Honeywell, Endress+Hauer) installed in an automated process control system. Device discrimination is assessed using Time Domain (TD) and Slope-Based FSK (SB-FSK) fingerprints input to Multiple Discriminant Analysis, Maximum Likelihood (MDA/ML) and Random Forest (RndF) classifiers. For 12 different classes (two devices per manufacturer at two distinct set points), both classifiers performed reliably and achieved an arbitrary performance benchmark of average cross-class percent correct of %C > 90%. The least challenging cross-manufacturer results included near-perfect %C ≈ 100%, while the more challenging like-model (serial number) discrimination results included 90%< %C < 100%, with TD Fingerprinting marginally outperforming SB-FSK Fingerprinting; SB-FSK benefits from having less stringent response alignment and registration requirements. The RndF classifier was most beneficial and enabled reliable selection of dimensionally reduced fingerprint subsets that minimize data storage and computational requirements. The RndF selected feature sets contained 15% of the full-dimensional feature sets and only suffered a worst case %CΔ = 3% to 4% performance degradation.

  11. Fundamental problems in provable security and cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Alexander W

    2006-12-15

    This paper examines methods for formally proving the security of cryptographic schemes. We show that, despite many years of active research and dozens of significant results, there are fundamental problems which have yet to be solved. We also present a new approach to one of the more controversial aspects of provable security, the random oracle model.

  12. Mobility Helps Peer-to-Peer Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre; Buttyan, Levente

    2006-01-01

    We propose a straightforward technique to provide peer-to-peer security in mobile networks. We show that far from being a hurdle, mobility can be exploited to set up security associations among users. We leverage on the temporary vicinity of users, during which appropriate cryptographic protocols...

  13. Security of quantum key distribution with a laser reference coherent state, resistant to loss in the communication channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotkov, S N; Potapova, T A

    2015-01-01

    The problem of quantum key distribution security in channels with large losses is still open. Quasi-single-photon sources of quantum states with losses in the quantum communication channel open up the possibility of attacking with unambiguous state discrimination (USD) measurements, resulting in a loss of privacy. In this letter, the problem is solved by counting the classic reference pulses. Conservation of the number of counts of intense coherent pulses makes it impossible to conduct USD measurements. Moreover, the losses in the communication channel are considered to be unknown in advance and are subject to change throughout the series parcels. Unlike other protocols, differential phase shift (Inoue et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 037902, Inoue et al 2003 Phys. Rev. A 68 022317, Takesue et al 2007 Nat. Photon. 1 343, Wen et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 170503) and coherent one way (Stucki et al 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 87 194108, Branciard et al 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 87 194108, Branciard et al 2008 New J. Phys. 10 013031, Stucki et al 2008 Opt. Express 17 13326), the simplicity of the protocol makes it possible to carry out a complete analysis of its security. (letter)

  14. Quick Response Code Secure: A Cryptographically Secure Anti-Phishing Tool for QR Code Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Mavroeidis, Vasileios; Nicho, Mathew

    2017-01-01

    The two-dimensional quick response (QR) codes can be misleading due to the difficulty in differentiating a genuine QR code from a malicious one. Since the vulnerability is practically part of their design, scanning a malicious QR code can direct the user to cloned malicious sites resulting in revealing sensitive information. In order to evaluate the vulnerabilities and propose subsequent countermeasures, we demonstrate this type of attack through a simulated experiment, where a malicious QR c...

  15. Quantum Data Locking for Secure Communication against an Eavesdropper with Time-Limited Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmo Lupo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantum cryptography allows for unconditionally secure communication against an eavesdropper endowed with unlimited computational power and perfect technologies, who is only constrained by the laws of physics. We review recent results showing that, under the assumption that the eavesdropper can store quantum information only for a limited time, it is possible to enhance the performance of quantum key distribution in both a quantitative and qualitative fashion. We consider quantum data locking as a cryptographic primitive and discuss secure communication and key distribution protocols. For the case of a lossy optical channel, this yields the theoretical possibility of generating secret key at a constant rate of 1 bit per mode at arbitrarily long communication distances.

  16. Analysis and Implementation of Cryptographic Hash Functions in Programmable Logic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tautvydas Brukštus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this day’s world, more and more focused on data pro-tection. For data protection using cryptographic science. It is also important for the safe storage of passwords for this uses a cryp-tographic hash function. In this article has been selected the SHA-256 cryptographic hash function to implement and explore, based on fact that it is now a popular and safe. SHA-256 cryp-tographic function did not find any theoretical gaps or conflict situations. Also SHA-256 cryptographic hash function used cryptographic currencies. Currently cryptographic currency is popular and their value is high. For the measurements have been chosen programmable logic integrated circuits as they less effi-ciency then ASIC. We chose Altera Corporation produced prog-rammable logic integrated circuits. Counting speed will be inves-tigated by three programmable logic integrated circuit. We will use programmable logic integrated circuits belong to the same family, but different generations. Each programmable logic integ-rated circuit made using different dimension technology. Choo-sing these programmable logic integrated circuits: EP3C16, EP4CE115 and 5CSEMA5F31. To compare calculations perfor-mances parameters are provided in the tables and graphs. Re-search show the calculation speed and stability of different prog-rammable logic circuits.

  17. Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorentino, M.; Santori, C.; Spillane, S. M.; Beausoleil, R. G.; Munro, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    Random-bit generators (RBGs) are key components of a variety of information processing applications ranging from simulations to cryptography. In particular, cryptographic systems require 'strong' RBGs that produce high-entropy bit sequences, but traditional software pseudo-RBGs have very low entropy content and therefore are relatively weak for cryptography. Hardware RBGs yield entropy from chaotic or quantum physical systems and therefore are expected to exhibit high entropy, but in current implementations their exact entropy content is unknown. Here we report a quantum random-bit generator (QRBG) that harvests entropy by measuring single-photon and entangled two-photon polarization states. We introduce and implement a quantum tomographic method to measure a lower bound on the 'min-entropy' of the system, and we employ this value to distill a truly random-bit sequence. This approach is secure: even if an attacker takes control of the source of optical states, a secure random sequence can be distilled

  18. Security for decentralized health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleumer, G

    1994-02-01

    Health care information systems must reflect at least two basic characteristics of the health care community: the increasing mobility of patients and the personal liability of everyone giving medical treatment. Open distributed information systems bear the potential to reflect these requirements. But the market for open information systems and operating systems hardly provides secure products today. This 'missing link' is approached by the prototype SECURE Talk that provides secure transmission and archiving of files on top of an existing operating system. Its services may be utilized by existing medical applications. SECURE Talk demonstrates secure communication utilizing only standard hardware. Its message is that cryptography (and in particular asymmetric cryptography) is practical for many medical applications even if implemented in software. All mechanisms are software implemented in order to be executable on standard-hardware. One can investigate more or less decentralized forms of public key management and the performance of many different cryptographic mechanisms. That of, e.g. hybrid encryption and decryption (RSA+DES-PCBC) is about 300 kbit/s. That of signing and verifying is approximately the same using RSA with a DES hash function. The internal speed, without disk accesses etc., is about 1.1 Mbit/s. (Apple Quadra 950 (MC 68040, 33 MHz, RAM: 20 MB, 80 ns. Length of RSA modulus is 512 bit).

  19. Ultra-fast secure communication with complex systems in classical channels (Conference Presentation)

    KAUST Repository

    Mazzone, Valerio; Di Falco, Andrea; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Developing secure communications is a research area of growing interest. During the past years, several cryptographic schemes have been developed, with Quantum cryptography being a promising scheme due to the use of quantum effects, which make very

  20. Applying Formal Methods to an Information Security Device: An Experience Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirby, Jr, James; Archer, Myla; Heitmeyer, Constance

    1999-01-01

    .... This paper describes a case study in which the SCR method was used to specify and analyze a different class of system, a cryptographic system called CD, which must satisfy a large set of security properties...

  1. Enhanced diffie-hellman algorithm for reliable key exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan; Kumar, Chaithanya; Vincent, P. M. Durai Raj

    2017-11-01

    The Diffie -Hellman is one of the first public-key procedure and is a certain way of exchanging the cryptographic keys securely. This concept was introduced by Ralph Markel and it is named after Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman. Sender and Receiver make a common secret key in Diffie-Hellman algorithm and then they start communicating with each other over the public channel which is known to everyone. A number of internet services are secured by Diffie -Hellman. In Public key cryptosystem, the sender has to trust while receiving the public key of the receiver and vice-versa and this is the challenge of public key cryptosystem. Man-in-the-Middle attack is very much possible on the existing Diffie-Hellman algorithm. In man-in-the-middle attack, the attacker exists in the public channel, the attacker receives the public key of both sender and receiver and sends public keys to sender and receiver which is generated by his own. This is how man-in-the-middle attack is possible on Diffie-Hellman algorithm. Denial of service attack is another attack which is found common on Diffie-Hellman. In this attack, the attacker tries to stop the communication happening between sender and receiver and attacker can do this by deleting messages or by confusing the parties with miscommunication. Some more attacks like Insider attack, Outsider attack, etc are possible on Diffie-Hellman. To reduce the possibility of attacks on Diffie-Hellman algorithm, we have enhanced the Diffie-Hellman algorithm to a next level. In this paper, we are extending the Diffie -Hellman algorithm by using the concept of the Diffie -Hellman algorithm to get a stronger secret key and that secret key is further exchanged between the sender and the receiver so that for each message, a new secret shared key would be generated. The second secret key will be generated by taking primitive root of the first secret key.

  2. Optimal attacks on qubit-based Quantum Key Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leermakers, Daan; Škorić, Boris

    2018-03-01

    Quantum Key Recycling (QKR) is a quantum cryptographic primitive that allows one to reuse keys in an unconditionally secure way. By removing the need to repeatedly generate new keys, it improves communication efficiency. Škorić and de Vries recently proposed a QKR scheme based on 8-state encoding (four bases). It does not require quantum computers for encryption/decryption but only single-qubit operations. We provide a missing ingredient in the security analysis of this scheme in the case of noisy channels: accurate upper bounds on the required amount of privacy amplification. We determine optimal attacks against the message and against the key, for 8-state encoding as well as 4-state and 6-state conjugate coding. We provide results in terms of min-entropy loss as well as accessible (Shannon) information. We show that the Shannon entropy analysis for 8-state encoding reduces to the analysis of quantum key distribution, whereas 4-state and 6-state suffer from additional leaks that make them less effective. From the optimal attacks we compute the required amount of privacy amplification and hence the achievable communication rate (useful information per qubit) of qubit-based QKR. Overall, 8-state encoding yields the highest communication rates.

  3. Security and gain improvement of a practical quantum key distribution using a gated single-photon source and probabilistic photon-number resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Hideki; Wang, Haibo; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2005-01-01

    We propose a high security quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme utilizing one mode of spontaneous parametric downconversion gated by a photon number resolving detector. This photon number measurement is possible by using single-photon detectors operating at room temperature and optical fibers. By post selection, the multiphoton probability in this scheme can be reduced to lower than that of a scheme using an attenuated coherent light resulting in improvement of security. Furthermore, if distillation protocol (error correction and privacy amplification) is performed, the gain will be increased. Hence a QKD system with higher security and bit rate than the laser-based QKD system can be attained using present available technologies

  4. On the security of semi-device-independent QKD protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Anubhav; Ray, Maharshi; Veynar, Ryszard; Pawłowski, Marcin

    2018-06-01

    While fully device-independent security in (BB84-like) prepare-and-measure quantum key distribution (QKD) is impossible, it can be guaranteed against individual attacks in a semi-device-independent (SDI) scenario, wherein no assumptions are made on the characteristics of the hardware used except for an upper bound on the dimension of the communicated system. Studying security under such minimal assumptions is especially relevant in the context of the recent quantum hacking attacks wherein the eavesdroppers can not only construct the devices used by the communicating parties but are also able to remotely alter their behavior. In this work, we study the security of a SDIQKD protocol based on the prepare-and-measure quantum implementation of a well-known cryptographic primitive, the random access code (RAC). We consider imperfect detectors and establish the critical values of the security parameters (the observed success probability of the RAC and the detection efficiency) required for guaranteeing security against eavesdroppers with and without quantum memory. Furthermore, we suggest a minimal characterization of the preparation device in order to lower the requirements for establishing a secure key.

  5. Secure Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Network-Fujisaki Okamoto(FO) Authentication Scheme against Sybil Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal Raja, K; Maraline Beno, M

    2017-07-01

    In the wireless sensor network(WSN) security is a major issue. There are several network security schemes proposed in research. In the network, malicious nodes obstruct the performance of the network. The network can be vulnerable by Sybil attack. When a node illicitly assertions multiple identities or claims fake IDs, the WSN grieves from an attack named Sybil attack. This attack threatens wireless sensor network in data aggregation, synchronizing system, routing, fair resource allocation and misbehavior detection. Henceforth, the research is carried out to prevent the Sybil attack and increase the performance of the network. This paper presents the novel security mechanism and Fujisaki Okamoto algorithm and also application of the work. The Fujisaki-Okamoto (FO) algorithm is ID based cryptographic scheme and gives strong authentication against Sybil attack. By using Network simulator2 (NS2) the scheme is simulated. In this proposed scheme broadcasting key, time taken for different key sizes, energy consumption, Packet delivery ratio, Throughput were analyzed.

  6. Experimental quantum key distribution with simulated ground-to-satellite photon losses and processing limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Gigov, Nikolay; Higgins, Brendon L.; Yan, Zhizhong; Meyer-Scott, Evan; Khandani, Amir K.; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Jennewein, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) has the potential to improve communications security by offering cryptographic keys whose security relies on the fundamental properties of quantum physics. The use of a trusted quantum receiver on an orbiting satellite is the most practical near-term solution to the challenge of achieving long-distance (global-scale) QKD, currently limited to a few hundred kilometers on the ground. This scenario presents unique challenges, such as high photon losses and restricted classical data transmission and processing power due to the limitations of a typical satellite platform. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of such a system by implementing a QKD protocol, with optical transmission and full post-processing, in the high-loss regime using minimized computing hardware at the receiver. Employing weak coherent pulses with decoy states, we demonstrate the production of secure key bits at up to 56.5 dB of photon loss. We further illustrate the feasibility of a satellite uplink by generating a secure key while experimentally emulating the varying losses predicted for realistic low-Earth-orbit satellite passes at 600 km altitude. With a 76 MHz source and including finite-size analysis, we extract 3374 bits of a secure key from the best pass. We also illustrate the potential benefit of combining multiple passes together: while one suboptimal "upper-quartile" pass produces no finite-sized key with our source, the combination of three such passes allows us to extract 165 bits of a secure key. Alternatively, we find that by increasing the signal rate to 300 MHz it would be possible to extract 21 570 bits of a secure finite-sized key in just a single upper-quartile pass.

  7. Double random phase spread spectrum spread space technique for secure parallel optical multiplexing with individual encryption key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennelly, B. M.; Javidi, B.; Sheridan, J. T.

    2005-09-01

    A number of methods have been recently proposed in the literature for the encryption of 2-D information using linear optical systems. In particular the double random phase encoding system has received widespread attention. This system uses two Random Phase Keys (RPK) positioned in the input spatial domain and the spatial frequency domain and if these random phases are described by statistically independent white noises then the encrypted image can be shown to be a white noise. Decryption only requires knowledge of the RPK in the frequency domain. The RPK may be implemented using a Spatial Light Modulators (SLM). In this paper we propose and investigate the use of SLMs for secure optical multiplexing. We show that in this case it is possible to encrypt multiple images in parallel and multiplex them for transmission or storage. The signal energy is effectively spread in the spatial frequency domain. As expected the number of images that can be multiplexed together and recovered without loss is proportional to the ratio of the input image and the SLM resolution. Many more images may be multiplexed with some loss in recovery. Furthermore each individual encryption is more robust than traditional double random phase encoding since decryption requires knowledge of both RPK and a lowpass filter in order to despread the spectrum and decrypt the image. Numerical simulations are presented and discussed.

  8. Automated detection and classification of cryptographic algorithms in binary programs through machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Hosfelt, Diane Duros

    2015-01-01

    Threats from the internet, particularly malicious software (i.e., malware) often use cryptographic algorithms to disguise their actions and even to take control of a victim's system (as in the case of ransomware). Malware and other threats proliferate too quickly for the time-consuming traditional methods of binary analysis to be effective. By automating detection and classification of cryptographic algorithms, we can speed program analysis and more efficiently combat malware. This thesis wil...

  9. Optimized ECC Implementation for Secure Communication between Heterogeneous IoT Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Leandro; Pawlowski, Marcin Piotr; Jara, Antonio

    2015-08-28

    The Internet of Things is integrating information systems, places, users and billions of constrained devices into one global network. This network requires secure and private means of communications. The building blocks of the Internet of Things are devices manufactured by various producers and are designed to fulfil different needs. There would be no common hardware platform that could be applied in every scenario. In such a heterogeneous environment, there is a strong need for the optimization of interoperable security. We present optimized elliptic curve Cryptography algorithms that address the security issues in the heterogeneous IoT networks. We have combined cryptographic algorithms for the NXP/Jennic 5148- and MSP430-based IoT devices and used them to created novel key negotiation protocol.

  10. A light weight secure image encryption scheme based on chaos & DNA computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar Mondal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a new light weight secure cryptographic scheme for secure image communication. In this scheme the plain image is permuted first using a sequence of pseudo random number (PRN and encrypted by DeoxyriboNucleic Acid (DNA computation. Two PRN sequences are generated by a Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG based on cross coupled chaotic logistic map using two sets of keys. The first PRN sequence is used for permuting the plain image whereas the second PRN sequence is used for generating random DNA sequence. The number of rounds of permutation and encryption may be variable to increase security. The scheme is proposed for gray label images but the scheme may be extended for color images and text data. Simulation results exhibit that the proposed scheme can defy any kind of attack.

  11. Optimized ECC Implementation for Secure Communication between Heterogeneous IoT Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Marin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things is integrating information systems, places, users and billions of constrained devices into one global network. This network requires secure and private means of communications. The building blocks of the Internet of Things are devices manufactured by various producers and are designed to fulfil different needs. There would be no common hardware platform that could be applied in every scenario. In such a heterogeneous environment, there is a strong need for the optimization of interoperable security. We present optimized elliptic curve Cryptography algorithms that address the security issues in the heterogeneous IoT networks. We have combined cryptographic algorithms for the NXP/Jennic 5148- and MSP430-based IoT devices and used them to created novel key negotiation protocol.

  12. Multimedia and security: Workshop at ACM Multimedia '98, Bristol, U.K., September 12 - 13, 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Dittmann, J.; Wohlmacher, P.; Horster, P.; Steinmetz, R.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we describe the most important security requirements, which must be fulfilled by today's IT-systems, and the security measures used to satisfy these requirements. These security measures are based on modern cryptographic mechanisms as well as on security infrastructures. Regarding data security and communication security in particular in the field of multimedia, the requirements on security increase. If and in which way the discussed security mechanisms can be applied to multime...

  13. Small private key MQPKS on an embedded microprocessor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

    2014-03-19

    Multivariate quadratic (MQ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to MQ cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key MQ scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key MQ scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing MQ on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key MQ scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012.

  14. Small Private Key MQPKS on an Embedded Microprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwajeong Seo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate quadratic (MQ cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to MQ cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011, a small public key MQ scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key MQ scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing MQ on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key MQ scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012.

  15. Small Private Key PKS on an Embedded Microprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate quadratic ( ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012. PMID:24651722

  16. Special Issue on Entropy-Based Applied Cryptography and Enhanced Security for Ubiquitous Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James (Jong Hyuk Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Entropy is a basic and important concept in information theory. It is also often used as a measure of the unpredictability of a cryptographic key in cryptography research areas. Ubiquitous computing (Ubi-comp has emerged rapidly as an exciting new paradigm. In this special issue, we mainly selected and discussed papers related with ore theories based on the graph theory to solve computational problems on cryptography and security, practical technologies; applications and services for Ubi-comp including secure encryption techniques, identity and authentication; credential cloning attacks and countermeasures; switching generator with resistance against the algebraic and side channel attacks; entropy-based network anomaly detection; applied cryptography using chaos function, information hiding and watermark, secret sharing, message authentication, detection and modeling of cyber attacks with Petri Nets, and quantum flows for secret key distribution, etc.

  17. Key exchange using biometric identity based encryption for sharing encrypted data in cloud environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waleed K.; Al-Assam, Hisham

    2017-05-01

    The main problem associated with using symmetric/ asymmetric keys is how to securely store and exchange the keys between the parties over open networks particularly in the open environment such as cloud computing. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) have been providing a practical solution for session key exchange for loads of web services. The key limitation of PKI solution is not only the need for a trusted third partly (e.g. certificate authority) but also the absent link between data owner and the encryption keys. The latter is arguably more important where accessing data needs to be linked with identify of the owner. Currently available key exchange protocols depend on using trusted couriers or secure channels, which can be subject to man-in-the-middle attack and various other attacks. This paper proposes a new protocol for Key Exchange using Biometric Identity Based Encryption (KE-BIBE) that enables parties to securely exchange cryptographic keys even an adversary is monitoring the communication channel between the parties. The proposed protocol combines biometrics with IBE in order to provide a secure way to access symmetric keys based on the identity of the users in unsecure environment. In the KE-BIOBE protocol, the message is first encrypted by the data owner using a traditional symmetric key before migrating it to a cloud storage. The symmetric key is then encrypted using public biometrics of the users selected by data owner to decrypt the message based on Fuzzy Identity-Based Encryption. Only the selected users will be able to decrypt the message by providing a fresh sample of their biometric data. The paper argues that the proposed solution eliminates the needs for a key distribution centre in traditional cryptography. It will also give data owner the power of finegrained sharing of encrypted data by control who can access their data.

  18. Quantum cryptography beyond quantum key distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadbent, A.; Schaffner, C.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum cryptography is the art and science of exploiting quantum mechanical effects in order to perform cryptographic tasks. While the most well-known example of this discipline is quantum key distribution (QKD), there exist many other applications such as quantum money, randomness generation,

  19. Number Theory and Public-Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefton, Phyllis

    1991-01-01

    Described are activities in the study of techniques used to conceal the meanings of messages and data. Some background information and two BASIC programs that illustrate the algorithms used in a new cryptographic system called "public-key cryptography" are included. (CW)

  20. SCPR: Secure Crowdsourcing-Based Parking Reservation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsheng Wan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The crowdsourcing-based parking reservation system is a new computing paradigm, where private owners can rent their parking spots out. Security is the main concern for parking reservation systems. However, current schemes cannot provide user privacy protection for drivers and have no key agreement functions, resulting in a lot of security problems. Moreover, current schemes are typically based on the time-consuming bilinear pairing and not suitable for real-time applications. To solve these security and efficiency problems, we present a novel security protocol with user privacy called SCPR. Similar to protocols of this field, SCPR can authenticate drivers involved in the parking reservation system. However, different from other well-known approaches, SCPR uses pseudonyms instead of real identities for providing user privacy protection for drivers and designs a novel pseudonym-based key agreement protocol. Finally, to reduce the time cost, SCPR designs several novel cryptographic algorithms based on the algebraic signature technique. By doing so, SCPR can satisfy a number of security requirements and enjoy high efficiency. Experimental results show SCPR is feasible for real world applications.

  1. Cooperative Secret Sharing Using QR Codes and Symmetric Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Wai Chow

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Secret sharing is an information security technique where a dealer divides a secret into a collection of shares and distributes these to members of a group. The secret will only be revealed when a predefined number of group members cooperate to recover the secret. The purpose of this study is to investigate a method of distributing shares by embedding them into cover Quick Response (QR codes in a secure manner using cryptographic keys. The advantage of this approach is that the shares can be disseminated over public channels, as anyone who scans the QR codes will only obtain public information. Only authorized individuals who are in possession of the required keys will be able to recover the shares. This also means that when group members cooperate to recover a secret, the group can determine the presence of an illegitimate participant if the person does not produce a valid share. This study proposes a protocol for accomplishing this and discusses the underlying security of the protocol.

  2. Architecture for the Secret-Key BC3 Cryptography Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Sasongko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cryptography is a very important aspect in data security. The focus of research in this field is shifting from merely security aspect to consider as well the implementation aspect. This paper aims to introduce BC3 algorithm with focus on its hardware implementation. It proposes architecture for the hardware implementation for this algorithm. BC3 algorithm is a secret-key cryptography algorithm developed with two considerations: robustness and implementation efficiency. This algorithm has been implemented on software and has good performance compared to AES algorithm. BC3 is improvement of BC2 and AE cryptographic algorithm and it is expected to have the same level of robustness and to gain competitive advantages in the implementation aspect. The development of the architecture gives much attention on (1 resource sharing and (2 having single clock for each round. It exploits regularity of the algorithm. This architecture is then implemented on an FPGA. This implementation is three times smaller area than AES, but about five times faster. Furthermore, this BC3 hardware implementation has better performance compared to BC3 software both in key expansion stage and randomizing stage. For the future, the security of this implementation must be reviewed especially against side channel attack.

  3. IP Security für Linux

    OpenAIRE

    Parthey, Mirko

    2001-01-01

    Die Nutzung des Internet für sicherheitskritische Anwendungen erfordert kryptographische Schutzmechanismen. IP Security (IPsec) definiert dafür geeignete Protokolle. Diese Arbeit gibt einen Überblick über IPsec. Eine IPsec-Implementierung für Linux (FreeS/WAN) wird auf Erweiterbarkeit und Praxistauglichkeit untersucht. Using the Internet in security-critical areas requires cryptographic protection, for which IP Security (IPsec) defines suitable protocols. This paper gives an overview of IP...

  4. A no-key-exchange secure image sharing scheme based on Shamir's three-pass cryptography protocol and the multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jun

    2012-01-30

    In this paper, we propose a novel secure image sharing scheme based on Shamir's three-pass protocol and the multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform (MPFRFT), which can safely exchange information with no advance distribution of either secret keys or public keys between users. The image is encrypted directly by the MPFRFT spectrum without the use of phase keys, and information can be shared by transmitting the encrypted image (or message) three times between users. Numerical simulation results are given to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Mobile Device Based Dynamic Key Management Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Ling Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless sensor network (WSN applications have tended to transmit data hop by hop, from sensor nodes through cluster nodes to the base station. As a result, users must collect data from the base station. This study considers two different applications: hop by hop transmission of data from cluster nodes to the base station and the direct access to cluster nodes data by mobile users via mobile devices. Due to the hardware limitations of WSNs, some low-cost operations such as symmetric cryptographic algorithms and hash functions are used to implement a dynamic key management. The session key can be updated to prevent threats of attack from each communication. With these methods, the data gathered in wireless sensor networks can be more securely communicated. Moreover, the proposed scheme is analyzed and compared with related schemes. In addition, an NS2 simulation is developed in which the experimental results show that the designed communication protocol is workable.

  6. A Polynomial Subset-Based Efficient Multi-Party Key Management System for Lightweight Device Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Zahid; Ning, Huansheng; Ghafoor, AtaUllah

    2017-03-24

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices to measure sensitive data that are highly vulnerable to security attacks due to their constrained resources. In a similar manner, the internet-based lightweight devices used in the Internet of Things (IoT) are facing severe security and privacy issues because of the direct accessibility of devices due to their connection to the internet. Complex and resource-intensive security schemes are infeasible and reduce the network lifetime. In this regard, we have explored the polynomial distribution-based key establishment schemes and identified an issue that the resultant polynomial value is either storage intensive or infeasible when large values are multiplied. It becomes more costly when these polynomials are regenerated dynamically after each node join or leave operation and whenever key is refreshed. To reduce the computation, we have proposed an Efficient Key Management (EKM) scheme for multiparty communication-based scenarios. The proposed session key management protocol is established by applying a symmetric polynomial for group members, and the group head acts as a responsible node. The polynomial generation method uses security credentials and secure hash function. Symmetric cryptographic parameters are efficient in computation, communication, and the storage required. The security justification of the proposed scheme has been completed by using Rubin logic, which guarantees that the protocol attains mutual validation and session key agreement property strongly among the participating entities. Simulation scenarios are performed using NS 2.35 to validate the results for storage, communication, latency, energy, and polynomial calculation costs during authentication, session key generation, node migration, secure joining, and leaving phases. EKM is efficient regarding storage, computation, and communication overhead and can protect WSN-based IoT infrastructure.

  7. Revealing of photon-number splitting attack on quantum key distribution system by photon-number resolving devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidash, A A; Egorov, V I; Gleim, A V

    2016-01-01

    Quantum cryptography allows distributing secure keys between two users so that any performed eavesdropping attempt would be immediately discovered. However, in practice an eavesdropper can obtain key information from multi-photon states when attenuated laser radiation is used as a source of quantum states. In order to prevent actions of an eavesdropper, it is generally suggested to implement special cryptographic protocols, like decoy states or SARG04. In this paper, we describe an alternative method based on monitoring photon number statistics after detection. We provide a useful rule of thumb to estimate approximate order of difference of expected distribution and distribution in case of attack. Formula for calculating a minimum value of total pulses or time-gaps to resolve attack is shown. Also formulas for actual fraction of raw key known to Eve were derived. This method can therefore be used with any system and even combining with mentioned special protocols. (paper)

  8. An improved and effective secure password-based authentication and key agreement scheme using smart cards for the telecare medicine information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Bruhadeshwar, Bezawada

    2013-10-01

    Recently Lee and Liu proposed an efficient password based authentication and key agreement scheme using smart card for the telecare medicine information system [J. Med. Syst. (2013) 37:9933]. In this paper, we show that though their scheme is efficient, their scheme still has two security weaknesses such as (1) it has design flaws in authentication phase and (2) it has design flaws in password change phase. In order to withstand these flaws found in Lee-Liu's scheme, we propose an improvement of their scheme. Our improved scheme keeps also the original merits of Lee-Liu's scheme. We show that our scheme is efficient as compared to Lee-Liu's scheme. Further, through the security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. In addition, we simulate our scheme for the formal security verification using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks.

  9. Security Attributes Based Digital Rights Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, C.N.; van Buuren, R.; van Buuren, R.F.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Kleinhuis, Geert; Boavida, F.; Monteiro, E.; Orvalho, J.

    2002-01-01

    Most real-life systems delegate responsibilities to different authorities. We apply this model to a digital rights management system, to achieve flexible security. In our model a hierarchy of authorities issues certificates that are linked by cryptographic means. This linkage establishes a chain of

  10. Security Attributes Based Digital Rights Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, C.N.; van Buuren, R.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Kleinhuis, Geert

    ost real-life systems delegate responsibilities to di�erent authorities. We apply this model to a dig- ital rights management system, to achieve exible security. In our model a hierarchy of authorities issues certi�cates that are linked by cryptographic means. This linkage establishes a chain of

  11. RETRACTED: The Application of Symmetric Key Cryptographic Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Lingling; Ji, Zhigang; Wang, Zhihui

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of the Publisher. The authors have plagiarized a paper that had already appeared in "Queen's 25th Biennial Symposium on Communications", page 168-172, print ISBN 978-1-4244-5709-0, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/BSC.2010.5472979. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  12. Retraction notice to: "The Application of Symmetric Key Cryptographic Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Lingling; Ji, Zhigang; Wang, Zhihui

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of the Publisher. The authors have plagiarized a paper that had already appeared in "Queen's 25th Biennial Symposium on Communications", page 168-172, print ISBN 978-1-4244-5709-0. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  13. Practical secure decision tree learning in a teletreatment application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoogh, Sebastiaan; Schoenmakers, Berry; Chen, Ping; op den Akker, Harm

    In this paper we develop a range of practical cryptographic protocols for secure decision tree learning, a primary problem in privacy preserving data mining. We focus on particular variants of the well-known ID3 algorithm allowing a high level of security and performance at the same time. Our

  14. Practical secure decision tree learning in a teletreatment application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogh, de S.J.A.; Schoenmakers, B.; Chen, Ping; Op den Akker, H.; Christin, N.; Safavi-Naini, R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we develop a range of practical cryptographic protocols for secure decision tree learning, a primary problem in privacy preserving data mining. We focus on particular variants of the well-known ID3 algorithm allowing a high level of security and performance at the same time. Our

  15. Combination of Rivest-Shamir-Adleman Algorithm and End of File Method for Data Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Dian; Amalia, Amalia; Elviwani

    2018-03-01

    Data security is one of the crucial issues in the delivery of information. One of the ways which used to secure the data is by encoding it into something else that is not comprehensible by human beings by using some crypto graphical techniques. The Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) cryptographic algorithm has been proven robust to secure messages. Since this algorithm uses two different keys (i.e., public key and private key) at the time of encryption and decryption, it is classified as asymmetric cryptography algorithm. Steganography is a method that is used to secure a message by inserting the bits of the message into a larger media such as an image. One of the known steganography methods is End of File (EoF). In this research, the cipher text resulted from the RSA algorithm is compiled into an array form and appended to the end of the image. The result of the EoF is the image which has a line with black gradations under it. This line contains the secret message. This combination of cryptography and steganography in securing the message is expected to increase the security of the message, since the message encryption technique (RSA) is mixed with the data hiding technique (EoF).

  16. Security Technologies for Open Networking Environments (STONE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muftic, Sead

    2005-03-31

    -domain scenarios is supported by a set of security engines that represent the core of the Federated Identities Management Server, which is also an extension of the Domain Security Server. The Federated Identity Management server allows users to federate their identities or terminate the federation between the service provider and the identity provider. At the service provider web site, the users are offered a list of identity providers to which they can choose to federate their identities. After users federate their identity, they can perform Single Sign-On protocol in an environment of federated domains. The group security system consists of a number of security technologies under a unified architecture, which supports creation of secure groups and execution of secure group transactions and applications in an open networking environment. The system is based on extensions of the GSAKMP standard for group key distribution and management. The Top layer is the Security Infrastructure with the Security Management and Administration System components and protocols that provide security functions common to all secure network applications The Middle layer is the Secure Group Protocols and Applications layer, consisting of the Policy and Group Key Distribution Server and Web-based (thin) Client. The Bottom layer is the supporting Middleware Security Platform, the cryptographic platform already described above. The group security system is designed to perform the functions necessary to create secure groups and enable secure group applications. Specifically, the system can manage group roles, create and disseminate a group security policy, perform authentication and authorization of users using PKI certificates and Web services security, generate group keys, and recover from compromises. In accordance with the GSAKMP standard, the group security system must perform all the required group life-cycle functions: group definition, group establishment, group maintenance, and group removal. The

  17. Practical Computer Security through Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, David; Twetev, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The core protocols upon which the Internet was built are insecure. Weak authentication and the lack of low level encryption services introduce vulnerabilities that propagate upwards in the network stack. Using statistics based on CERT/CC Internet security incident reports, the relative likelihood of attacks via these vulnerabilities is analyzed. The primary conclusion is that the standard UNIX BSD-based authentication system is by far the most commonly exploited weakness. Encryption of Sensitive password data and the adoption of cryptographically-based authentication protocols can greatly reduce these vulnerabilities. Basic cryptographic terminology and techniques are presented, with attention focused on the ways in which technology such as encryption and digital signatures can be used to protect against the most commonly exploited vulnerabilities. A survey of contemporary security software demonstrates that tools based on cryptographic techniques, such as Kerberos, ssh, and PGP, are readily available and effectively close many of the most serious security holes. Nine practical recommendations for improving security are described.

  18. National Computer Security Conference (13th) Held in Washington, DC on 1-4 October, 1990. Procedings. Volume 1: Information Systems Security: Standards - The Key to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-04

    Parker II, The MITRE Corporation 307 Trusted MINIX : A Worked Example Albert Donaldson, ESCOM Corporation John Taylor Jr., General Electric M&DSO...Corporation 306 Trusted MINIX : A Worked Example Albert L. Donaldson John W. Taylor, Jr. David M. Chizmadia ESCOM Corporation General Electric M&DSO...G. Meade, MD 20755 ABSTRACT The Trusted MINIX system is being developed to provide a worked example of C2 security mechanisms and assurances based

  19. On the Cryptographic Features of a VoIP Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Alvanos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Security issues of typical Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP applications are studied in this paper; in particular, the open source Linphone application is being used as a case study. An experimental analysis indicates that protecting signalling data with the TLS protocol, which unfortunately is not always the default option, is needed to alleviate several security concerns. Moreover, towards improving security, it is shown that a VoIP application may operate over a virtual private network without significantly degrading the overall performance. The conclusions of this study provide useful insights to the usage of any VoIP application.

  20. A Security Solution for IEEE 802.11's Ad-hoc Mode:Password-Authentication and Group Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel, Bresson; Olivier, Chevassut; David, Pointcheval

    2005-10-01

    The IEEE 802 standards ease the deployment of networkinginfrastructures and enable employers to accesscorporate networks whiletraveling. These standards provide two modes of communication calledinfrastructure and ad-hoc modes. A security solution for the IEEE802.11's infrastructure mode took several years to reach maturity andfirmware are still been upgraded, yet a solution for the ad-hoc modeneeds to be specified. The present paper is a first attempt in thisdirection. It leverages the latest developments in the area ofpassword-based authentication and (group) Diffie-Hellman key exchange todevelop a provably-secure key-exchange protocol for IEEE 802.11's ad-hocmode. The protocol allows users to securely join and leave the wirelessgroup at time, accommodates either a single-shared password orpairwise-shared passwords among the group members, or at least with acentral server; achieves security against dictionary attacks in theideal-hash model (i.e. random-oracles). This is, to the best of ourknowledge, the first such protocol to appear in the cryptographicliterature.

  1. Presentation of various types of electronic business available on the Internet, Advantages, Disadvantages, Key Requirements and Security, Implementation Model of an Electronic Business

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea A.S. Ionescu; Raul Serban

    2012-01-01

    This paper speaks about the advantages, disadvantages, key requirements necessary of an electronic business, the infrastructure of the Internet, the existing main networks on the Internet, standards used to develop electronic business and the security of an e-business environment. As we know in an organization the information is an asset that has value and should be protected and diversified. We also propose an implementation model of an electronic business that interconnects two concepts: ER...

  2. Secure and privacy-preserving data communication in Internet of Things

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Liehuang; Xu, Chang

    2017-01-01

    This book mainly concentrates on protecting data security and privacy when participants communicate with each other in the Internet of Things (IoT). Technically, this book categorizes and introduces a collection of secure and privacy-preserving data communication schemes/protocols in three traditional scenarios of IoT: wireless sensor networks, smart grid and vehicular ad-hoc networks recently. This book presents three advantages which will appeal to readers. Firstly, it broadens reader’s horizon in IoT by touching on three interesting and complementary topics: data aggregation, privacy protection, and key agreement and management. Secondly, various cryptographic schemes/protocols used to protect data confidentiality and integrity is presented. Finally, this book will illustrate how to design practical systems to implement the algorithms in the context of IoT communication. In summary, readers can simply learn and directly apply the new technologies to communicate data in IoT after reading this book.

  3. 76 FR 11433 - Federal Transition To Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA)-256

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION [FAR-N-2011-01; Docket No. 2011-0083; Sequence 1] Federal Transition To Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA... acquisition community to transition to Secure Hash Algorithm SHA-256. SHA-256 is a cryptographic hash function... persons attending. Please cite ``Federal Transition to Secure Hash Algorithm SHA-256'' in all...

  4. Key distribution in PKC through Quantas

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Goel

    2010-01-01

    Cryptography literally means "The art & science of secret writing & sending a message between two parties in such a way that its contents cannot be understood by someone other than the intended recipient". and Quantum word is related with "Light". Thus, Quantum Cryptography is a way of descripting any information in the form of quantum particles. There are no classical cryptographic systems which are perfectly secure. In contrast to Classical cryptography which depends upon Mathematics, Quant...

  5. Response to Scheuer-Yariv: 'A classical key-distribution system based on Johnson (like) noise-how secure?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kish, L.B.

    2006-01-01

    We point out that the claims in the comment-paper of Scheuer and Yariv are either irrelevant or incorrect. The idealized Kirchoff-loop-Johnson-like-noise (KLJN) scheme is totally secure therefore it is more secure than idealized quantum communication schemes which can never be totally secure because of the inherent noise processes in those communication schemes and the statistical nature of eavesdropper detection based on error statistics. On the other hand, with sufficient resources, a practical/non-ideal realization of the KLJN cipher can arbitrarily approach the idealized limit and outperform even the idealized quantum communicator schemes because the non-ideality-effects are determined and controlled by the design. The cable resistance issue analyzed by Scheuer and Yariv is a good example for that because the eavesdropper has insufficient time window to build a sufficient statistics and the actual information leak can be designed. We show that Scheuer's and Yariv's numerical result of 1% voltage drop supports higher security than that of quantum communicators. Moreover, choosing thicker or shorter wires can arbitrarily reduce this voltage drop further; the same conclusion holds even according to the equations of Scheuer and Yariv

  6. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel

    2009-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  7. Differential Fault Analysis on CLEFIA with 128, 192, and 256-Bit Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Junko; Fukunaga, Toshinori

    This paper describes a differential fault analysis (DFA) attack against CLEFIA. The proposed attack can be applied to CLEFIA with all supported keys: 128, 192, and 256-bit keys. DFA is a type of side-channel attack. This attack enables the recovery of secret keys by injecting faults into a secure device during its computation of the cryptographic algorithm and comparing the correct ciphertext with the faulty one. CLEFIA is a 128-bit blockcipher with 128, 192, and 256-bit keys developed by the Sony Corporation in 2007. CLEFIA employs a generalized Feistel structure with four data lines. We developed a new attack method that uses this characteristic structure of the CLEFIA algorithm. On the basis of the proposed attack, only 2 pairs of correct and faulty ciphertexts are needed to retrieve the 128-bit key, and 10.78 pairs on average are needed to retrieve the 192 and 256-bit keys. The proposed attack is more efficient than any previously reported. In order to verify the proposed attack and estimate the calculation time to recover the secret key, we conducted an attack simulation using a PC. The simulation results show that we can obtain each secret key within three minutes on average. This result shows that we can obtain the entire key within a feasible computational time.

  8. Media rights and media security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugher, Mark

    2005-03-01

    Digital Rights Management (DRM) systems typically do not treat rights management as a security problem. DRM uses cryptographic techniques but not security relationships. Instead, DRM systems use "tamper-resistant mechanisms" to discourage unauthorized access to rights-managed content. Although proven ineffective in practice, tamper-resistant mechanisms penalize legitimate customers with added complexity and costs that arise from tamper-resisting data or program code. This paper explores how a security relationship between provider and consumer might be more effective for managing rights to content works on two-way networks.

  9. Chaos-based hash function (CBHF) for cryptographic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Mohamed; Faragallah, Osama S.; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.

    2009-01-01

    As the core of cryptography, hash is the basic technique for information security. Many of the hash functions generate the message digest through a randomizing process of the original message. Subsequently, a chaos system also generates a random behavior, but at the same time a chaos system is completely deterministic. In this paper, an algorithm for one-way hash function construction based on chaos theory is introduced. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the algorithm can satisfy all performance requirements of hash function in an efficient and flexible manner and secure against birthday attacks or meet-in-the-middle attacks, which is good choice for data integrity or authentication.

  10. Chaos-based hash function (CBHF) for cryptographic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Mohamed [Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Koom 32511 (Egypt)], E-mail: mamin04@yahoo.com; Faragallah, Osama S. [Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Menoufia University, Menouf 32952 (Egypt)], E-mail: osam_sal@yahoo.com; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A. [Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Koom 32511 (Egypt)], E-mail: ahmed_rahiem@yahoo.com

    2009-10-30

    As the core of cryptography, hash is the basic technique for information security. Many of the hash functions generate the message digest through a randomizing process of the original message. Subsequently, a chaos system also generates a random behavior, but at the same time a chaos system is completely deterministic. In this paper, an algorithm for one-way hash function construction based on chaos theory is introduced. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the algorithm can satisfy all performance requirements of hash function in an efficient and flexible manner and secure against birthday attacks or meet-in-the-middle attacks, which is good choice for data integrity or authentication.

  11. Application of homomorphism to secure image sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Naveed; Puech, William; Hayat, Khizar; Brouzet, Robert

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach for sharing images between l players by exploiting the additive and multiplicative homomorphic properties of two well-known public key cryptosystems, i.e. RSA and Paillier. Contrary to the traditional schemes, the proposed approach employs secret sharing in a way that limits the influence of the dealer over the protocol and allows each player to participate with the help of his key-image. With the proposed approach, during the encryption step, each player encrypts his own key-image using the dealer's public key. The dealer encrypts the secret-to-be-shared image with the same public key and then, the l encrypted key-images plus the encrypted to-be shared image are multiplied homomorphically to get another encrypted image. After this step, the dealer can safely get a scrambled image which corresponds to the addition or multiplication of the l + 1 original images ( l key-images plus the secret image) because of the additive homomorphic property of the Paillier algorithm or multiplicative homomorphic property of the RSA algorithm. When the l players want to extract the secret image, they do not need to use keys and the dealer has no role. Indeed, with our approach, to extract the secret image, the l players need only to subtract their own key-image with no specific order from the scrambled image. Thus, the proposed approach provides an opportunity to use operators like multiplication on encrypted images for the development of a secure privacy preserving protocol in the image domain. We show that it is still possible to extract a visible version of the secret image with only l-1 key-images (when one key-image is missing) or when the l key-images used for the extraction are different from the l original key-images due to a lossy compression for example. Experimental results and security analysis verify and prove that the proposed approach is secure from cryptographic viewpoint.

  12. A secure chaotic maps and smart cards based password authentication and key agreement scheme with user anonymity for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ta; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Weng, Chi-Yao

    2014-09-01

    Telecare medicine information system (TMIS) is widely used for providing a convenient and efficient communicating platform between patients at home and physicians at medical centers or home health care (HHC) organizations. To ensure patient privacy, in 2013, Hao et al. proposed a chaotic map based authentication scheme with user anonymity for TMIS. Later, Lee showed that Hao et al.'s scheme is in no provision for providing fairness in session key establishment and gave an efficient user authentication and key agreement scheme using smart cards, in which only few hashing and Chebyshev chaotic map operations are required. In addition, Jiang et al. discussed that Hao et al.'s scheme can not resist stolen smart card attack and they further presented an improved scheme which attempts to repair the security pitfalls found in Hao et al.'s scheme. In this paper, we found that both Lee's and Jiang et al.'s authentication schemes have a serious security problem in that a registered user's secret parameters may be intentionally exposed to many non-registered users and this problem causing the service misuse attack. Therefore, we propose a slight modification on Lee's scheme to prevent the shortcomings. Compared with previous schemes, our improved scheme not only inherits the advantages of Lee's and Jiang et al.'s authentication schemes for TMIS but also remedies the serious security weakness of not being able to withstand service misuse attack.

  13. An enhanced chaotic key-based RC5 block cipher adapted to image encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faragallah, Osama S.

    2012-07-01

    RC5 is a block cipher that has several salient features such as adaptability to process different word lengths with a variable block size, a variable number of rounds and a variable-length secret key. However, RC5 can be broken with various attacks such as correlation attack, timing attack, known plaintext correlation attack and differential attacks, revealing weak security. We aimed to enhance the RC5 block cipher to be more secure and efficient for real-time applications while preserving its advantages. For this purpose, this article introduces a new approach based on strengthening both the confusion and diffusion operations by combining chaos and cryptographic primitive operations to produce round keys with better pseudo-random sequences. Comparative security analysis and performance evaluation of the enhanced RC5 block cipher (ERC5) with RC5, RC6 and chaotic block cipher algorithm (CBCA) are addressed. Several test images are used for inspecting the validity of the encryption and decryption algorithms. The experimental results show the superiority of the suggested enhanced RC5 (ERC5) block cipher to image encryption algorithms such as RC5, RC6 and CBCA from the security analysis and performance evaluation points of view.

  14. Analysis of cryptographic mechanisms used in ransomware CryptXXX v3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Glet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to analysis how malicious software is using cryptographic mechanisms. Reverse engineering were applied in order to discover mechanisms used in ransomware CryptXXX v3. At the end were given some useful advices how to improve CryptXXX.[b]Keyword:[/b] ransomware, software engineering, reverse engineering, RC4, RSA, malicious software

  15. A new method for generating an invariant iris private key based on the fuzzy vault system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Joo; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sung Joo; Bae, Kwanghyuk; Kim, Jaihie

    2008-10-01

    Cryptographic systems have been widely used in many information security applications. One main challenge that these systems have faced has been how to protect private keys from attackers. Recently, biometric cryptosystems have been introduced as a reliable way of concealing private keys by using biometric data. A fuzzy vault refers to a biometric cryptosystem that can be used to effectively protect private keys and to release them only when legitimate users enter their biometric data. In biometric systems, a critical problem is storing biometric templates in a database. However, fuzzy vault systems do not need to directly store these templates since they are combined with private keys by using cryptography. Previous fuzzy vault systems were designed by using fingerprint, face, and so on. However, there has been no attempt to implement a fuzzy vault system that used an iris. In biometric applications, it is widely known that an iris can discriminate between persons better than other biometric modalities. In this paper, we propose a reliable fuzzy vault system based on local iris features. We extracted multiple iris features from multiple local regions in a given iris image, and the exact values of the unordered set were then produced using the clustering method. To align the iris templates with the new input iris data, a shift-matching technique was applied. Experimental results showed that 128-bit private keys were securely and robustly generated by using any given iris data without requiring prealignment.

  16. Towards a Game Theoretic View of Secure Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asharov, Gilad; Canetti, Ran; Hazay, Carmit

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate how Game Theoretic concepts and formalism can be used to capture cryptographic notions of security. In the restricted but indicative case of two-party protocols in the face of malicious fail-stop faults, we first show how the traditional notions of secrecy and correctness of protoc......We demonstrate how Game Theoretic concepts and formalism can be used to capture cryptographic notions of security. In the restricted but indicative case of two-party protocols in the face of malicious fail-stop faults, we first show how the traditional notions of secrecy and correctness...... of protocols can be captured as properties of Nash equilibria in games for rational players. Next, we concentrate on fairness. Here we demonstrate a Game Theoretic notion and two different cryptographic notions that turn out to all be equivalent. In addition, we provide a simulation based notion that implies...

  17. Analysis of an Attenuator Artifact in an Experimental Attack by Gunn-Allison-Abbott Against the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) Secure Key Exchange System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Gingl, Zoltan; Mingesz, Robert; Vadai, Gergely; Smulko, Janusz; Granqvist, Claes-Göran

    2015-12-01

    A recent paper by Gunn-Allison-Abbott (GAA) [L. J. Gunn et al., Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 6461] argued that the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system could experience a severe information leak. Here we refute their results and demonstrate that GAA's arguments ensue from a serious design flaw in their system. Specifically, an attenuator broke the single Kirchhoff-loop into two coupled loops, which is an incorrect operation since the single loop is essential for the security in the KLJN system, and hence GAA's asserted information leak is trivial. Another consequence is that a fully defended KLJN system would not be able to function due to its built-in current-comparison defense against active (invasive) attacks. In this paper we crack GAA's scheme via an elementary current-comparison attack which yields negligible error probability for Eve even without averaging over the correlation time of the noise.

  18. An Efficient Key-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption Scheme with Constant Ciphertext Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changji Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an acceleration of adoption of cloud computing among enterprises. However, moving the infrastructure and sensitive data from trusted domain of the data owner to public cloud will pose severe security and privacy risks. Attribute-based encryption (ABE is a new cryptographic primitive which provides a promising tool for addressing the problem of secure and fine-grained data sharing and decentralized access control. Key-policy attribute-based encryption (KP-ABE is an important type of ABE, which enables senders to encrypt messages under a set of attributes and private keys are associated with access structures that specify which ciphertexts the key holder will be allowed to decrypt. In most existing KP-ABE scheme, the ciphertext size grows linearly with the number of attributes embedded in ciphertext. In this paper, we propose a new KP-ABE construction with constant ciphertext size. In our construction, the access policy can be expressed as any monotone access structure. Meanwhile, the ciphertext size is independent of the number of ciphertext attributes, and the number of bilinear pairing evaluations is reduced to a constant. We prove that our scheme is semantically secure in the selective-set model based on the general Diffie-Hellman exponent assumption.

  19. A Hybrid Verifiable and Delegated Cryptographic Model in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Ibrahim Naser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Access control is very important in cloud data sharing. Especially in the domains like healthcare, it is essential to have access control mechanisms in place for confidentiality and secure data access. Attribute based encryption has been around for many years to secure data and provide controlled access. In this paper, we proposed a framework that supports circuit and attributes based encryption mechanism that involves multiple parties. They are data owner, data user, cloud server and attribute authority. An important feature of the proposed system is the verifiable delegation of the decryption process to cloud server. Data owner encrypts data and delegates decryption process to cloud. Cloud server performs partial decryption and then the final decrypted data are shared for users as per the privileges. Data owner  thus reduces computational complexity by delegating decryption process cloud server. We built a prototype application using the Microsoft.NET platform for proof of the concept. The empirical results revealed that there is controlled access with multiple user roles and access control rights for secure and confidential data access in cloud computing.

  20. Network Security via Biometric Recognition of Patterns of Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Harry C.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular biology provides the ability to implement forms of information and network security completely outside the bounds of legacy security protocols and algorithms. This paper addresses an approach which instantiates the power of gene expression for security. Molecular biology provides a rich source of gene expression and regulation mechanisms, which can be adopted to use in the information and electronic communication domains. Conventional security protocols are becoming increasingly vulnerable due to more intensive, highly capable attacks on the underlying mathematics of cryptography. Security protocols are being undermined by social engineering and substandard implementations by IT organizations. Molecular biology can provide countermeasures to these weak points with the current security approaches. Future advances in instruments for analyzing assays will also enable this protocol to advance from one of cryptographic algorithms to an integrated system of cryptographic algorithms and real-time expression and assay of gene expression products.

  1. Network Security via Biometric Recognition of Patterns of Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Harry C.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular biology provides the ability to implement forms of information and network security completely outside the bounds of legacy security protocols and algorithms. This paper addresses an approach which instantiates the power of gene expression for security. Molecular biology provides a rich source of gene expression and regulation mechanisms, which can be adopted to use in the information and electronic communication domains. Conventional security protocols are becoming increasingly vulnerable due to more intensive, highly capable attacks on the underlying mathematics of cryptography. Security protocols are being undermined by social engineering and substandard implementations by IT (Information Technology) organizations. Molecular biology can provide countermeasures to these weak points with the current security approaches. Future advances in instruments for analyzing assays will also enable this protocol to advance from one of cryptographic algorithms to an integrated system of cryptographic algorithms and real-time assays of gene expression products.

  2. A Cryptographic Moving-Knife Cake-Cutting Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Manabe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a cake-cutting protocol using cryptography when the cake is a heterogeneous good that is represented by an interval on a real line. Although the Dubins-Spanier moving-knife protocol with one knife achieves simple fairness, all players must execute the protocol synchronously. Thus, the protocol cannot be executed on asynchronous networks such as the Internet. We show that the moving-knife protocol can be executed asynchronously by a discrete protocol using a secure auction protocol. The number of cuts is n-1 where n is the number of players, which is the minimum.

  3. Securing Real-Time Sessions in an IMS-Based Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, Paolo; Fresa, Antonio; Longo, Maurizio; Postiglione, Fabio; Robustelli, Anton Luca; Toro, Francesco

    The emerging all-IP mobile network infrastructures based on 3rd Generation IP Multimedia Subsystem philosophy are characterised by radio access technology independence and ubiquitous connectivity for mobile users. Currently, great focus is being devoted to security issues since most of the security threats presently affecting the public Internet domain, and the upcoming ones as well, are going to be suffered by mobile users in the years to come. While a great deal of research activity, together with standardisation efforts and experimentations, is carried out on mechanisms for signalling protection, very few integrated frameworks for real-time multimedia data protection have been proposed in a context of IP Multimedia Subsystem, and even fewer experimental results based on testbeds are available. In this paper, after a general overview of the security issues arising in an advanced IP Multimedia Subsystem scenario, a comprehensive infrastructure for real-time multimedia data protection, based on the adoption of the Secure Real-Time Protocol, is proposed; then, the development of a testbed incorporating such functionalities, including mechanisms for key management and cryptographic context transfer, and allowing the setup of Secure Real-Time Protocol sessions is presented; finally, experimental results are provided together with quantitative assessments and comparisons of system performances for audio sessions with and without the adoption of the Secure Real-Time Protocol framework.

  4. Security analysis of Microsoft RMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Dmitruk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Microsoft Rights Management Services (RMS is a system designed to ensure the protection and proper use of electronic documents. RMS allows to apply different access policies for documents, thus allowing to control their use in time. The system allows not only defining access policies at document creation, but also after its distribution. Microsoft RMS uses a number of advanced cryptographic mechanisms and primitives to ensure overall service security. In this paper, we have analyzed the security of RMS, indicating a number of possible gaps. The methods of solving those problems, especially those related to data integrity, have been proposed. Keywords: DRM, cryptography, cryptanalysis, RMS, Microsoft

  5. Blockchain – The Gateway to Trust-Free Cryptographic Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Roman; Stenum Czepluch, Jacob; Lollike, Nikolaj

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the Bitcoin-underlying blockchain technology gained prominence as a solution that offers the realization of distributed trust-free systems, where economic transactions are guaranteed by the underlying blockchain. We are still at an early stage and thus require a deeper understanding...... of how the blockchain potentials can be realized, and what are the opportunities and challenges in so doing. Following a design science approach, we developed a proof of concept prototype that has the potential to replace a trust-based coffee shop payment solution that is based on an analogue, pre......-paid punch card solution. The demonstrator provides a starting point to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the blockchain technology when replacing a trust-based by a trust-free transaction system. We conclude that the secure and trust-free blockchain-based transaction has the potential to change many...

  6. Analysing Password Protocol Security Against Off-line Dictionary Attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.; Doumen, J.M.; Etalle, Sandro; Busi, Nadia; Gorrieri, Roberto; Martinelli, Fabio

    We study the security of password protocols against off-line dictionary attacks. In addition to the standard adversary abilities, we also consider further cryptographic advantages given to the adversary when considering the password protocol being instantiated with particular encryption schemes. We

  7. Type-Based Automated Verification of Authenticity in Asymmetric Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Kobayashi, Naoki; Sun, Yunde

    2011-01-01

    Gordon and Jeffrey developed a type system for verification of asymmetric and symmetric cryptographic protocols. We propose a modified version of Gordon and Jeffrey's type system and develop a type inference algorithm for it, so that protocols can be verified automatically as they are, without any...... type annotations or explicit type casts. We have implemented a protocol verifier SpiCa based on the algorithm, and confirmed its effectiveness....

  8. Forgery quality and its implications for behavioral biometric security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Lucas; Lopresti, Daniel; Monrose, Fabian

    2007-10-01

    Biometric security is a topic of rapidly growing importance in the areas of user authentication and cryptographic key generation. In this paper, we describe our steps toward developing evaluation methodologies for behavioral biometrics that take into account threat models that have been largely ignored. We argue that the pervasive assumption that forgers are minimally motivated (or, even worse, naive) is too optimistic and even dangerous. Taking handwriting as a case in point, we show through a series of experiments that some users are significantly better forgers than others, that such forgers can be trained in a relatively straightforward fashion to pose an even greater threat, that certain users are easy targets for forgers, and that most humans are a relatively poor judge of handwriting authenticity, and hence, their unaided instincts cannot be trusted. Additionally, to overcome current labor-intensive hurdles in performing more accurate assessments of system security, we present a generative attack model based on concatenative synthesis that can provide a rapid indication of the security afforded by the system. We show that our generative attacks match or exceed the effectiveness of forgeries rendered by the skilled humans we have encountered.

  9. Architecture for the Secret-Key BC3 Cryptography Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Sasongko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cryptography is a very important aspect in data security. The focus of research in this field is shifting from merely security aspect to consider as well the  implementation  aspect.  This  paper  aims  to  introduce  BC3  algorithm  with focus  on  its  hardware  implementation.  It  proposes  an  architecture  for  the hardware  implementation  for  this  algorithm.  BC3  algorithm  is  a  secret-key cryptography  algorithm  developed  with  two  considerations:  robustness  and implementation  efficiency.  This  algorithm  has  been  implemented  on  software and has good performance compared to AES algorithm. BC3 is improvement of BC2 and AE cryptographic algorithm and it is expected to have the same level of robustness and to gain competitive advantages in the implementation aspect. The development of the architecture gives much attention on (1 resource sharing and (2  having  single  clock  for  each  round.  It  exploits  regularity  of  the  algorithm. This architecture is then implemented on an FPGA. This implementation is three times smaller area than AES, but about five times faster. Furthermore, this BC3 hardware  implementation  has  better  performance  compared  to  BC3  software both in key expansion stage and randomizing stage. For the future, the security of this implementation must be reviewed especially against side channel attack.

  10. Secure and Lightweight Cloud-Assisted Video Reporting Protocol over 5G-Enabled Vehicular Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkenyereye, Lewis; Kwon, Joonho; Choi, Yoon-Ho

    2017-09-23

    In the vehicular networks, the real-time video reporting service is used to send the recorded videos in the vehicle to the cloud. However, when facilitating the real-time video reporting service in the vehicular networks, the usage of the fourth generation (4G) long term evolution (LTE) was proved to suffer from latency while the IEEE 802.11p standard does not offer sufficient scalability for a such congested environment. To overcome those drawbacks, the fifth-generation (5G)-enabled vehicular network is considered as a promising technology for empowering the real-time video reporting service. In this paper, we note that security and privacy related issues should also be carefully addressed to boost the early adoption of 5G-enabled vehicular networks. There exist a few research works for secure video reporting service in 5G-enabled vehicular networks. However, their usage is limited because of public key certificates and expensive pairing operations. Thus, we propose a secure and lightweight protocol for cloud-assisted video reporting service in 5G-enabled vehicular networks. Compared to the conventional public key certificates, the proposed protocol achieves entities' authorization through anonymous credential. Also, by using lightweight security primitives instead of expensive bilinear pairing operations, the proposed protocol minimizes the computational overhead. From the evaluation results, we show that the proposed protocol takes the smaller computation and communication time for the cryptographic primitives than that of the well-known Eiza-Ni-Shi protocol.

  11. Designing and implementing of improved cryptographic algorithm using modular arithmetic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kamarzarrin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining the privacy and security of people information are two most important principles of electronic health plan. One of the methods of creating privacy and securing of information is using Public key cryptography system. In this paper, we compare two algorithms, Common And Fast Exponentiation algorithms, for enhancing the efficiency of public key cryptography. We express that a designed system by Fast Exponentiation Algorithm has high speed and performance but low power consumption and space occupied compared with Common Exponentiation algorithm. Although designed systems by Common Exponentiation algorithm have slower speed and lower performance, designing by this algorithm has less complexity, and easier designing compared with Fast Exponentiation algorithm. In this paper, we will try to examine and compare two different methods of exponentiation, also observe performance Impact of these two approaches in the form of hardware with VHDL language on FPGA.

  12. Secure and privacy enhanced gait authentication on smart phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thang; Choi, Deokjai

    2014-01-01

    Smart environments established by the development of mobile technology have brought vast benefits to human being. However, authentication mechanisms on portable smart devices, particularly conventional biometric based approaches, still remain security and privacy concerns. These traditional systems are mostly based on pattern recognition and machine learning algorithms, wherein original biometric templates or extracted features are stored under unconcealed form for performing matching with a new biometric sample in the authentication phase. In this paper, we propose a novel gait based authentication using biometric cryptosystem to enhance the system security and user privacy on the smart phone. Extracted gait features are merely used to biometrically encrypt a cryptographic key which is acted as the authentication factor. Gait signals are acquired by using an inertial sensor named accelerometer in the mobile device and error correcting codes are adopted to deal with the natural variation of gait measurements. We evaluate our proposed system on a dataset consisting of gait samples of 34 volunteers. We achieved the lowest false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) of 3.92% and 11.76%, respectively, in terms of key length of 50 bits.

  13. Secure and Privacy Enhanced Gait Authentication on Smart Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thang Hoang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart environments established by the development of mobile technology have brought vast benefits to human being. However, authentication mechanisms on portable smart devices, particularly conventional biometric based approaches, still remain security and privacy concerns. These traditional systems are mostly based on pattern recognition and machine learning algorithms, wherein original biometric templates or extracted features are stored under unconcealed form for performing matching with a new biometric sample in the authentication phase. In this paper, we propose a novel gait based authentication using biometric cryptosystem to enhance the system security and user privacy on the smart phone. Extracted gait features are merely used to biometrically encrypt a cryptographic key which is acted as the authentication factor. Gait signals are acquired by using an inertial sensor named accelerometer in the mobile device and error correcting codes are adopted to deal with the natural variation of gait measurements. We evaluate our proposed system on a dataset consisting of gait samples of 34 volunteers. We achieved the lowest false acceptance rate (FAR and false rejection rate (FRR of 3.92% and 11.76%, respectively, in terms of key length of 50 bits.

  14. Secure PVM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.H.; Venugopal, N.

    1996-09-01

    This research investigates techniques for providing privacy, authentication, and data integrity to PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). PVM is extended to provide secure message passing with no changes to the user`s PVM application, or, optionally, security can be provided on a message-by message basis. Diffe-Hellman is used for key distribution of a single session key for n-party communication. Keyed MD5 is used for message authentication, and the user may select from various secret-key encryption algorithms for message privacy. The modifications to PVM are described, and the performance of secure PVM is evaluated.

  15. Adaptive versus Non-Adaptive Security of Multi-Party Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canetti, Ran; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Dziembowski, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Security analysis of multi-party cryptographic protocols distinguishes between two types of adversarial settings: In the non-adaptive setting the set of corrupted parties is chosen in advance, before the interaction begins. In the adaptive setting the adversary chooses who to corrupt during...... the course of the computation. We study the relations between adaptive security (i.e., security in the adaptive setting) and nonadaptive security, according to two definitions and in several models of computation....

  16. Device-independent two-party cryptography secure against sequential attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewski, Jędrzej; Wehner, Stephanie

    2016-05-01

    The goal of two-party cryptography is to enable two parties, Alice and Bob, to solve common tasks without the need for mutual trust. Examples of such tasks are private access to a database, and secure identification. Quantum communication enables security for all of these problems in the noisy-storage model by sending more signals than the adversary can store in a certain time frame. Here, we initiate the study of device-independent (DI) protocols for two-party cryptography in the noisy-storage model. Specifically, we present a relatively easy to implement protocol for a cryptographic building block known as weak string erasure and prove its security even if the devices used in the protocol are prepared by the dishonest party. DI two-party cryptography is made challenging by the fact that Alice and Bob do not trust each other, which requires new techniques to establish security. We fully analyse the case of memoryless devices (for which sequential attacks are optimal) and the case of sequential attacks for arbitrary devices. The key ingredient of the proof, which might be of independent interest, is an explicit (and tight) relation between the violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality observed by Alice and Bob and uncertainty generated by Alice against Bob who is forced to measure his system before finding out Alice’s setting (guessing with postmeasurement information). In particular, we show that security is possible for arbitrarily small violation.

  17. Device-independent two-party cryptography secure against sequential attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniewski, Jędrzej; Wehner, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The goal of two-party cryptography is to enable two parties, Alice and Bob, to solve common tasks without the need for mutual trust. Examples of such tasks are private access to a database, and secure identification. Quantum communication enables security for all of these problems in the noisy-storage model by sending more signals than the adversary can store in a certain time frame. Here, we initiate the study of device-independent (DI) protocols for two-party cryptography in the noisy-storage model. Specifically, we present a relatively easy to implement protocol for a cryptographic building block known as weak string erasure and prove its security even if the devices used in the protocol are prepared by the dishonest party. DI two-party cryptography is made challenging by the fact that Alice and Bob do not trust each other, which requires new techniques to establish security. We fully analyse the case of memoryless devices (for which sequential attacks are optimal) and the case of sequential attacks for arbitrary devices. The key ingredient of the proof, which might be of independent interest, is an explicit (and tight) relation between the violation of the Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt inequality observed by Alice and Bob and uncertainty generated by Alice against Bob who is forced to measure his system before finding out Alice’s setting (guessing with postmeasurement information). In particular, we show that security is possible for arbitrarily small violation. (paper)

  18. SecurePhone: a mobile phone with biometric authentication and e-signature support for dealing secure transactions on the fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, R.; Chollet, G.; Crispino, M. V.; Jassim, S.; Koreman, J.; Olivar-Dimas, M.; Garcia-Salicetti, S.; Soria-Rodriguez, P.

    2006-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the SecurePhone project, with an account of the first results obtained. SecurePhone's primary aim is to realise a mobile phone prototype - the 'SecurePhone' - in which biometrical authentication enables users to deal secure, dependable transactions over a mobile network. The SecurePhone is based on a commercial PDA-phone, supplemented with specific software modules and a customised SIM card. It integrates in a single environment a number of advanced features: access to cryptographic keys through strong multimodal biometric authentication; appending and verification of digital signatures; real-time exchange and interactive modification of (esigned) documents and voice recordings. SecurePhone's 'biometric recogniser' is based on original research. A fused combination of three different biometric methods - speaker, face and handwritten signature verification - is exploited, with no need for dedicated hardware components. The adoption of non-intrusive, psychologically neutral biometric techniques is expected to mitigate rejection problems that often inhibit the social use of biometrics, and speed up the spread of e-signature technology. Successful biometric authentication grants access to SecurePhone's built-in esignature services through a user-friendly interface. Special emphasis is accorded to the definition of a trustworthy security chain model covering all aspects of system operation. The SecurePhone is expected to boost m-commerce and open new scenarios for m-business and m-work, by changing the way people interact and by improving trust and confidence in information technologies, often considered intimidating and difficult to use. Exploitation plans will also explore other application domains (physical and logical access control, securised mobile communications).

  19. An Efficient Biometric-Based Algorithm Using Heart Rate Variability for Securing Body Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirbhulal, Sandeep; Zhang, Heye; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Li, Chunyue; Wang, Yumei; Li, Guanglin; Wu, Wanqing; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-06-26

    Body Sensor Network (BSN) is a network of several associated sensor nodes on, inside or around the human body to monitor vital signals, such as, Electroencephalogram (EEG), Photoplethysmography (PPG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), etc. Each sensor node in BSN delivers major information; therefore, it is very significant to provide data confidentiality and security. All existing approaches to secure BSN are based on complex cryptographic key generation procedures, which not only demands high resource utilization and computation time, but also consumes large amount of energy, power and memory during data transmission. However, it is indispensable to put forward energy efficient and computationally less complex authentication technique for BSN. In this paper, a novel biometric-based algorithm is proposed, which utilizes Heart Rate Variability (HRV) for simple key generation process to secure BSN. Our proposed algorithm is compared with three data authentication techniques, namely Physiological Signal based Key Agreement (PSKA), Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA). Simulation is performed in Matlab and results suggest that proposed algorithm is quite efficient in terms of transmission time utilization, average remaining energy and total power consumption.

  20. An Efficient Biometric-Based Algorithm Using Heart Rate Variability for Securing Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Pirbhulal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Body Sensor Network (BSN is a network of several associated sensor nodes on, inside or around the human body to monitor vital signals, such as, Electroencephalogram (EEG, Photoplethysmography (PPG, Electrocardiogram (ECG, etc. Each sensor node in BSN delivers major information; therefore, it is very significant to provide data confidentiality and security. All existing approaches to secure BSN are based on complex cryptographic key generation procedures, which not only demands high resource utilization and computation time, but also consumes large amount of energy, power and memory during data transmission. However, it is indispensable to put forward energy efficient and computationally less complex authentication technique for BSN. In this paper, a novel biometric-based algorithm is proposed, which utilizes Heart Rate Variability (HRV for simple key generation process to secure BSN. Our proposed algorithm is compared with three data authentication techniques, namely Physiological Signal based Key Agreement (PSKA, Data Encryption Standard (DES and Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA. Simulation is performed in Matlab and results suggest that proposed algorithm is quite efficient in terms of transmission time utilization, average remaining energy and total power consumption.

  1. An Efficient Biometric-Based Algorithm Using Heart Rate Variability for Securing Body Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirbhulal, Sandeep; Zhang, Heye; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Li, Chunyue; Wang, Yumei; Li, Guanglin; Wu, Wanqing; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Body Sensor Network (BSN) is a network of several associated sensor nodes on, inside or around the human body to monitor vital signals, such as, Electroencephalogram (EEG), Photoplethysmography (PPG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), etc. Each sensor node in BSN delivers major information; therefore, it is very significant to provide data confidentiality and security. All existing approaches to secure BSN are based on complex cryptographic key generation procedures, which not only demands high resource utilization and computation time, but also consumes large amount of energy, power and memory during data transmission. However, it is indispensable to put forward energy efficient and computationally less complex authentication technique for BSN. In this paper, a novel biometric-based algorithm is proposed, which utilizes Heart Rate Variability (HRV) for simple key generation process to secure BSN. Our proposed algorithm is compared with three data authentication techniques, namely Physiological Signal based Key Agreement (PSKA), Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA). Simulation is performed in Matlab and results suggest that proposed algorithm is quite efficient in terms of transmission time utilization, average remaining energy and total power consumption. PMID:26131666

  2. Secure key storage with PUFs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyls, P.T.; Schrijen, G.J.; Willems, F.M.J.; Ignatenko, T.; Skoric, B.; Tuyls, P.T.; Skoric, B.; Kevenaar, T.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, people carry around devices (cell phones, PDAs, bank passes, etc.) that have a high value. That value is often contained in the data stored in it or lies in the services the device can grant access to (by using secret identification information stored in it). These devices often operate in

  3. Secure Key Storage with PUFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoric, Boris; Schrijen, Geert-Jan; Tuyls, Pim; Ignatenko, Tanya; Willems, Frans

    Nowadays, people carry around devices (cell phones, PDAs, bank passes, etc.) that have a high value. That value is often contained in the data stored in it or lies in the services the device can grant access to (by using secret identification information stored in it). These devices often operate in hostile environments and their protection level is not adequate to deal with that situation. Bank passes and credit cards contain a magnetic stripe where identification information is stored. In the case of bank passes, a PIN is additionally required to withdraw money from an ATM (Automated Teller Machine). At various occasions, it has been shown that by placing a small coil in the reader, the magnetic information stored in the stripe can easily be copied and used to produce a cloned card. Together with eavesdropping the PIN (by listening to the keypad or recording it with a camera), an attacker can easily impersonate the legitimate owner of the bank pass by using the cloned card in combination with the eavesdropped PIN.

  4. Development of a New Cryptographic Construct Using Palmprint-Based Fuzzy Vault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amioy Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of cryptology and biometrics has emerged as promising component of information security. Despite the current popularity of palmprint biometric, there has not been any attempt to investigate its usage for the fuzzy vault. This paper therefore investigates the possible usage of palmprint in fuzzy vault to develop a user friendly and reliable crypto system. We suggest the use of both symmetric and asymmetric approach for the encryption. The ciphertext of any document is generated by symmetric cryptosystem; the symmetric key is then encrypted by asymmetric approach. Further, Reed and Solomon codes are used on the generated asymmetric key to provide some error tolerance while decryption. The experimental results from the proposed approach on the palmprint images suggest its possible usage in an automated palmprint-based key generation system.

  5. SHAMROCK: A Synthesizable High Assurance Cryptography and Key Management Coprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    cryptographic functions such as Advanced Encryption Standard ( AES ) [5] to produce keywraps to orchestrate key exchanges between groups of devices. These...Storage (MPMS). This is done for two reasons: first, the mission package is encrypted using AES keywrap mode with the CEK [7], which is a special version...Zone 1) denoting ephemeral secrets such as dynamic keys. AES encryption is employed as a one-way function leading from the ephemeral Zone 1 to the

  6. Biometry, the safe key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fraile-Hurtado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biometry is the next step in authentication, why do not we take this stepforward in our communication security systems? Keys are the main disadvantage in the cryptography, what if we were our own key?

  7. Key Management Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a secure environment to research and develop advanced electronic key management and networked key distribution technologies for the Navy and DoD....

  8. Correlation Immunity, Avalanche Features, and Other Cryptographic Properties of Generalized Boolean Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    satisfying the strict avalanche criterion,” Discrete Math ., vol. 185, pp. 29–39, 1998. [2] R.C. Bose, “On some connections between the design of... Discrete Appl. Math ., vol. 149, pp. 73–86, 2005. [11] T.W. Cusick and P. Stănică, Cryptographic Boolean Functions and Applications, 2nd ed., San Diego...Stănică, “Bisecting binomial coefficients,” Discrete Appl. Math ., vol. 227, pp. 70–83, 2017. [28] T. Martinsen, W. Meidl, and P. Stănică, “Generalized

  9. The FPGA realization of the general cellular automata based cryptographic hash functions: Performance and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Klyucharev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author considers hardware implementation of the GRACE-H family general cellular automata based cryptographic hash functions. VHDL is used as a language and Altera FPGA as a platform for hardware implementation. Performance and effectiveness of the FPGA implementations of GRACE-H hash functions were compared with Keccak (SHA-3, SHA-256, BLAKE, Groestl, JH, Skein hash functions. According to the performed tests, performance of the hardware implementation of GRACE-H family hash functions significantly (up to 12 times exceeded performance of the hardware implementation of previously known hash functions, and effectiveness of that hardware implementation was also better (up to 4 times.

  10. MiMC: Efficient encryption and cryptographic hashing with minimal multiplicative complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, Martin; Grassi, Lorenzo; Rechberger, Christian

    2016-01-01

    and cryptographic hash functions is to reconsider and simplify the round function of the Knudsen-Nyberg cipher from 1995. The mapping F(x) := x3 is used as the main component there and is also the main component of our family of proposals called “MiMC”. We study various attack vectors for this construction and give...... a new attack vector that outperforms others in relevant settings. Due to its very low number of multiplications, the design lends itself well to a large class of applications, especially when the depth does not matter but the total number of multiplications in the circuit dominates all aspects...

  11. MEANING OF THE BITCOIN CRYPTOGRAPHIC CURRENCY AS A MEDIUM OF EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Dopierała

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents one of the new elements of virtual reality, which is the Bitcoin cryptocurrency. This thesis focuses on the condition and perspectives on development of the trading function of this instrument. The authors discuss the legal aspects of functioning of the Bitcoin, conduct a SWOT analysis of this cryptocurrency as a medium of exchange, and examin the scale of use of Bitcoin in transaction purposes. As of March 1, 2014 the trading system gradually develops and the strengths of this cryptographic currency outweigh its weaknesses, but the future of Bitcoin as a medium of exchange is difficult to determine.

  12. Energy-Efficient Implementation of ECDH Key Exchange for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Christian; Mader, Roland; Koschuch, Manuel; Großschädl, Johann; Szekely, Alexander; Tillich, Stefan

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are playing a vital role in an ever-growing number of applications ranging from environmental surveillance over medical monitoring to home automation. Since WSNs are often deployed in unattended or even hostile environments, they can be subject to various malicious attacks, including the manipulation and capture of nodes. The establishment of a shared secret key between two or more individual nodes is one of the most important security services needed to guarantee the proper functioning of a sensor network. Despite some recent advances in this field, the efficient implementation of cryptographic key establishment for WSNs remains a challenge due to the resource constraints of small sensor nodes such as the MICAz mote. In this paper we present a lightweight implementation of the elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) key exchange for ZigBee-compliant sensor nodes equipped with an ATmega128 processor running the TinyOS operating system. Our implementation uses a 192-bit prime field specified by the NIST as underlying algebraic structure and requires only 5.20 ·106 clock cycles to compute a scalar multiplication if the base point is fixed and known a priori. A scalar multiplication using a random base point takes about 12.33 ·106 cycles. Our results show that a full ECDH key exchange between two MICAz motes consumes an energy of 57.33 mJ (including radio communication), which is significantly better than most previously reported ECDH implementations on comparable platforms.

  13. Fault-tolerant quantum cryptographic protocols with collective detection over the collective amplitude damping channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wei; Su, Qi; Li, Yan-Bing; Sun, Ying

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol, which can be immune to collective amplitude damping noise, is proposed with collective detection strategy. Then a multi-party quantum secret sharing (MQSS) protocol and a quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol are introduced as two applications of the proposed QKD protocol. Except for one participant who is responsible for preparing and measuring quantum states, the rest of the users in each of these protocols only need to perform certain unitary operations due to the utilization of collective detection. Therefore, in addition to the advantage of being secure against collective amplitude damping noise, the proposed protocols still have the advantages of higher qubit efficiency and lower cost for implementation. Moreover, the security of these protocols is guaranteed by theorems on quantum operation discrimination. (papers)

  14. A covert authentication and security solution for GMOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Siguna; Jafari, Farhad; Roth, Don

    2016-09-21

    Proliferation and expansion of security risks necessitates new measures to ensure authenticity and validation of GMOs. Watermarking and other cryptographic methods are available which conceal and recover the original signature, but in the process reveal the authentication information. In many scenarios watermarking and standard cryptographic methods are necessary but not sufficient and new, more advanced, cryptographic protocols are necessary. Herein, we present a new crypto protocol, that is applicable in broader settings, and embeds the authentication string indistinguishably from a random element in the signature space and the string is verified or denied without disclosing the actual signature. Results show that in a nucleotide string of 1000, the algorithm gives a correlation of 0.98 or higher between the distribution of the codon and that of E. coli, making the signature virtually invisible. This algorithm may be used to securely authenticate and validate GMOs without disclosing the actual signature. While this protocol uses watermarking, its novelty is in use of more complex cryptographic techniques based on zero knowledge proofs to encode information.

  15. On the security of consumer wearable devices in the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Hasan; Tahir, Ruhma; McDonald-Maier, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    Miniaturization of computer hardware and the demand for network capable devices has resulted in the emergence of a new class of technology called wearable computing. Wearable devices have many purposes like lifestyle support, health monitoring, fitness monitoring, entertainment, industrial uses, and gaming. Wearable devices are hurriedly being marketed in an attempt to capture an emerging market. Owing to this, some devices do not adequately address the need for security. To enable virtualization and connectivity wearable devices sense and transmit data, therefore it is essential that the device, its data and the user are protected. In this paper the use of novel Integrated Circuit Metric (ICMetric) technology for the provision of security in wearable devices has been suggested. ICMetric technology uses the features of a device to generate an identification which is then used for the provision of cryptographic services. This paper explores how a device ICMetric can be generated by using the accelerometer and gyroscope sensor. Since wearable devices often operate in a group setting the work also focuses on generating a group identification which is then used to deliver services like authentication, confidentiality, secure admission and symmetric key generation. Experiment and simulation results prove that the scheme offers high levels of security without compromising on resource demands.

  16. Implantable electronics: emerging design issues and an ultra light-weight security solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Seetharam; Wang, Xinmu; Bhunia, Swarup

    2010-01-01

    Implantable systems that monitor biological signals require increasingly complex digital signal processing (DSP) electronics for real-time in-situ analysis and compression of the recorded signals. While it is well-known that such signal processing hardware needs to be implemented under tight area and power constraints, new design requirements emerge with their increasing complexity. Use of nanoscale technology shows tremendous benefits in implementing these advanced circuits due to dramatic improvement in integration density and power dissipation per operation. However, it also brings in new challenges such as reliability and large idle power (due to higher leakage current). Besides, programmability of the device as well as security of the recorded information are rapidly becoming major design considerations of such systems. In this paper, we analyze the emerging issues associated with the design of the DSP unit in an implantable system. Next, we propose a novel ultra light-weight solution to address the information security issue. Unlike the conventional information security approaches like data encryption, which come at large area and power overhead and hence are not amenable for resource-constrained implantable systems, we propose a multilevel key-based scrambling algorithm, which exploits the nature of the biological signal to effectively obfuscate it. Analysis of the proposed algorithm in the context of neural signal processing and its hardware implementation shows that we can achieve high level of security with ∼ 13X lower power and ∼ 5X lower area overhead than conventional cryptographic solutions.

  17. Symmetric Encryption Relying on Chaotic Henon System for Secure Hardware-Friendly Wireless Communication of Implantable Medical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Belkhouja

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare remote devices are recognized as a promising technology for treating health related issues. Among them are the wireless Implantable Medical Devices (IMDs: These electronic devices are manufactured to treat, monitor, support or replace defected vital organs while being implanted in the human body. Thus, they play a critical role in healing and even saving lives. Current IMDs research trends concentrate on their medical reliability. However, deploying wireless technology in such applications without considering security measures may offer adversaries an easy way to compromise them. With the aim to secure these devices, we explore a new scheme that creates symmetric encryption keys to encrypt the wireless communication portion. We will rely on chaotic systems to obtain a synchronized Pseudo-Random key. The latter will be generated separately in the system in such a way that avoids a wireless key exchange, thus protecting patients from the key theft. Once the key is defined, a simple encryption system that we propose in this paper will be used. We analyze the performance of this system from a cryptographic point of view to ensure that it offers a better safety and protection for patients.

  18. Security Theorems via Model Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Guttman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A model-theoretic approach can establish security theorems for cryptographic protocols. Formulas expressing authentication and non-disclosure properties of protocols have a special form. They are quantified implications for all xs . (phi implies for some ys . psi. Models (interpretations for these formulas are *skeletons*, partially ordered structures consisting of a number of local protocol behaviors. *Realized* skeletons contain enough local sessions to explain all the behavior, when combined with some possible adversary behaviors. We show two results. (1 If phi is the antecedent of a security goal, then there is a skeleton A_phi such that, for every skeleton B, phi is satisfied in B iff there is a homomorphism from A_phi to B. (2 A protocol enforces for all xs . (phi implies for some ys . psi iff every realized homomorphic image of A_phi satisfies psi. Hence, to verify a security goal, one can use the Cryptographic Protocol Shapes Analyzer CPSA (TACAS, 2007 to identify minimal realized skeletons, or "shapes," that are homomorphic images of A_phi. If psi holds in each of these shapes, then the goal holds.

  19. Extending the IEEE 802.15.4 Security Suite with a Compact Implementation of the NIST P-192/B-163 Elliptic Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Touhafi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Typically, commercial sensor nodes are equipped with MCUsclocked at a low-frequency (i.e., within the 4–12 MHz range. Consequently, executing cryptographic algorithms in those MCUs generally requires a huge amount of time. In this respect, the required energy consumption can be higher than using a separate accelerator based on a Field-programmable Gate Array (FPGA that is switched on when needed. In this manuscript, we present the design of a cryptographic accelerator suitable for an FPGA-based sensor node and compliant with the IEEE802.15.4 standard. All the embedded resources of the target platform (Xilinx Artix-7 have been maximized in order to provide a cost-effective solution. Moreover, we have added key negotiation capabilities to the IEEE 802.15.4 security suite based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC. Our results suggest that tailored accelerators based on FPGA can behave better in terms of energy than contemporary software solutions for motes, such as the TinyECC and NanoECC libraries. In this regard, a point multiplication (PM can be performed between 8.58- and 15.4-times faster, 3.40- to 23.59-times faster (Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman, ECDH and between 5.45- and 34.26-times faster (Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme, ECIES. Moreover, the energy consumption was also improved with a factor of 8.96 (PM.

  20. Extending the IEEE 802.15.4 security suite with a compact implementation of the NIST P-192/B-163 elliptic curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Piedra, Antonio; Braeken, An; Touhafi, Abdellah

    2013-07-29

    Typically, commercial sensor nodes are equipped with MCUsclocked at a low-frequency (i.e., within the 4-12 MHz range). Consequently, executing cryptographic algorithms in those MCUs generally requires a huge amount of time. In this respect, the required energy consumption can be higher than using a separate accelerator based on a Field-programmable Gate Array (FPGA) that is switched on when needed. In this manuscript, we present the design of a cryptographic accelerator suitable for an FPGA-based sensor node and compliant with the IEEE802.15.4 standard. All the embedded resources of the target platform (Xilinx Artix-7) have been maximized in order to provide a cost-effective solution. Moreover, we have added key negotiation capabilities to the IEEE 802.15.4 security suite based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). Our results suggest that tailored accelerators based on FPGA can behave better in terms of energy than contemporary software solutions for motes, such as the TinyECC and NanoECC libraries. In this regard, a point multiplication (PM) can be performed between 8.58- and 15.4-times faster, 3.40- to 23.59-times faster (Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman, ECDH) and between 5.45- and 34.26-times faster (Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme, ECIES). Moreover, the energy consumption was also improved with a factor of 8.96 (PM).