WorldWideScience

Sample records for secure iris design

  1. IS (Iris Security)

    OpenAIRE

    Iovane, G.; Tortoriello, F. S.

    2003-01-01

    In the paper will be presented a safety system based on iridology. The results suggest a new scenario where the security problem in supervised and unsupervised areas can be treat with the present system and the iris image recognition.

  2. Cogeneration of Electricity and Potable Water Using The International Reactor Innovative And Secure (IRIS) Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, D.T.; Binder, J.L.; Kostin, V.I.; Panov, Y.K.; Polunichev, V.; Ricotti, M.E.; Conti, D.; Alonso, G.

    2004-01-01

    The worldwide demand for potable water has been steadily growing and is projected to accelerate, driven by a continued population growth and industrialization of emerging countries. This growth is reflected in a recent market survey by the World Resources Institute, which shows a doubling in the installed capacity of seawater desalination plants every ten years. The production of desalinated water is energy intensive, requiring approximately 3-6 kWh/m3 of produced desalted water. At current U.S. water use rates, a dedicated 1000 MW power plant for every one million people would be required to meet our water needs with desalted water. Nuclear energy plants are attractive for large scale desalination application. The thermal energy produced in a nuclear plant can provide both electricity and desalted water without the production of greenhouse gases. A particularly attractive option for nuclear desalination is to couple a desalination plant with an advanced, modular, passively safe reactor design. The use of small-to-medium sized nuclear power plants allows for countries with smaller electrical grid needs and infrastructure to add new electrical and water capacity in more appropriate increments and allows countries to consider siting plants at a broader number of distributed locations. To meet these needs, a modified version of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) nuclear power plant design has been developed for the cogeneration of electricity and desalted water. The modular, passively safe features of IRIS make it especially well adapted for this application. Furthermore, several design features of the IRIS reactor will ensure a safe and reliable source of energy and water even for countries with limited nuclear power experience and infrastructure. The IRIS-D design utilizes low-quality steam extracted from the low-pressure turbine to boil seawater in a multi-effect distillation desalination plant. The desalination plant is based on the horizontal

  3. IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) - design overview and deployment prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.; Petrovic, B.; Cavlina, N.; Grgic, D.

    2005-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is an advanced, integral, lightwater cooled, pressurized reactor of medium generating capacity (1000 MWt, or about 335 MWe). It has been under development since the turn of the century by an international team - led by Westinghouse - that includes 19 organizations from 10 countries. In year 2002 it has initiated the pre-application review with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), aiming at final design approval around 2010, and deployment in next decade (about 2015), consistent with the prediction of the growing energy supply gap in both developing and developed countries. This paper describes the reactor layout (i.e., its integral design, with the steam generators, pumps, pressurizer and control rod drive mechanisms all included inside the reactor vessel, together with the core, control rods, and neutron reflector/shield) and discusses the unique s afety-by-design T M IRIS philosophy. This approach, by eliminating accidents at the design stage, or decreasing their consequences and probabilities when outright elimination is not possible, provides a very powerful first level of defense in depth. The ''safety-bydesign'' TM allows a significant reduction and simplification of the passive safety systems, which not only improves its safety but simultaneously reduces the overall cost. Moreover, it supports licensing the power plant with reduced off-site emergency response requirements. The modular IRIS - with each module rated at ∼335 MWe - is an ideal size for smaller energy grids as it allows introducing sequentially single modules in regions only requiring a few hundred MWs at a time. IRIS naturally can be also deployed in multiple modules in areas requiring a larger amount of power increasing with time, thus fulfilling the needs of larger, developed countries as well. The performed top-down economic analysis indicates that the cost of generated electricity is competitive with other nuclear and non

  4. Iris reactor conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.; Conway, L.E.; Petrovic, B.; Paramonov, D.V.; Galvin, M.; Todreas, N.E.; Lombardi, C.V.; Maldari, F.; Ricotti, M.E.; Cinotti, L.

    2001-01-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a modular, integral, light water cooled, low-to-medium power (100-350 MWe) reactor which addresses the requirements defined by the US DOE for Generation IV reactors, i.e., proliferation resistance, enhanced safety, improved economics and fuel cycle sustainability. It relies on the proven technology of light water reactors and features innovative engineering, but it does not require new technology development. This paper discusses the current reference IRIS design, which features a 1000 MWt thermal core with proven 5%-enriched uranium oxide fuel and five-year long straight burn fuel cycle, integral reactor vessel housing helical tube steam generators and immersed spool pumps. Other major contributors to the high level of safety and economic attractiveness are the safety by design and optimized maintenance approaches, which allow elimination of some classes of accidents, lower capital cost, long operating cycle, and high capacity factors. (author)

  5. Nuclear desalination option for the international reactor innovative and secure (IRIS) design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, D. T.; Binder, J. L.; Conti, D.; Ricotti, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    The worldwide demand for potable water is on the rise. A recent market survey by the World Resources Institute shows a doubling in desalinated water production every ten years from both seawater and brackish water sources. The production of desalinated water is energy intensive, requiring approximately 3-6 kWh per cubic meter of produced desalted water. At current U.S. water use rates, 1 kW of energy capacity per capita (or 1000 MW for every one million people) would be required to meet water needs with desalted water. The choice of the desalination technology determines the form of energy required: electrical energy for reverse osmosis systems, relatively low quality thermal energy for distillation systems, and both electrical and thermal energy for hybrid systems such as pre-heat RO systems. Nuclear energy plants are attractive for large scale desalination application. Nuclear plants can provide both electrical and thermal energy in an integrated, co-generated fashion to produce a spectrum of energy products including electricity, desalted water, process heat, district heating, and potentially hydrogen generation. A particularly attractive option for nuclear desalination is to couple it with an advanced, modular, passively safe reactor design such as the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) plant. This allows for countries with smaller electrical grid needs and infrastructure to add new electrical and desalination capacity in smaller increments and at distributed sites. The safety by design nature of the IRIS reactor will ensure a safe and reliable source of energy even for countries with limited nuclear power experience and infrastructure. Two options for the application of the IRIS nuclear power plant to the cogeneration of electricity and desalted water are presented, including a coupling to a reverse osmosis plant and a multistage flash distillation plant. The results from an economic assessment of the two options are also presented.(author)

  6. Iris Cryptography for Security Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith, Srighakollapu; Balaji Ganesh Kumar, M.; Latha, S.; Samiappan, Dhanalakshmi; Muthu, P.

    2018-04-01

    In today's world, the security became the major issue to every human being. A major issue is hacking as hackers are everywhere, as the technology was developed still there are many issues where the technology fails to meet the security. Engineers, scientists were discovering the new products for security purpose as biometrics sensors like face recognition, pattern recognition, gesture recognition, voice authentication etcetera. But these devices fail to reach the expected results. In this work, we are going to present an approach to generate a unique secure key using the iris template. Here the iris templates are processed using the well-defined processing techniques. Using the encryption and decryption process they are stored, traversed and utilized. As of the work, we can conclude that the iris cryptography gives us the expected results for securing the data from eavesdroppers.

  7. IRIS Nuclear Power Plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M. D.; Cobian, J.

    2002-01-01

    IRIS(International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a novel light water reactor with a modular, integral primary system configuration. This concept, initially developed in response to the first NERI solicitation, is now being pursued by an international consortium of 20 participants from seven countries. IRIS is designed to satisfy the four key requirements for Generation IV systems: enhanced safety, improved economics, proliferation resistance and waste minimization. Its main features are: small-to-medium power (100-335 MWe/module); long life core 5 to 10 years) without shuffling or refueling; optimized maintenance with repair shutdown intervals of a least four years; simplified compact design with the primary vessel housing steam generators, pressurizer and pumps; safety by design where accidents are positively eliminated by design rather than engineering to cope with their consequences; loss of coolant accidents of any size and loss of low accidents are eliminated as major safety concerns; estimated power generation total cost is projected to be competitive with other power options. IRIS is one of four new reactor designs currently under NRC review. Projected schedule calls for design certification by 2008 and being ready for deployment by 2001 or later. This rather short schedule is made possible by the fact that IRIS is based on proven light water technology and new technology development is not required. (Author)

  8. International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, Mario D.

    2001-01-01

    The IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) reactor is described in the first part of the presentation. IRIS is a light water cooled reactor with an integral configuration, where steam generators, pumps and pressurizer are inside the reactor vessel. Partially funded by the DOE NERI program, IRIS is being developed by an international consortium of 16 organizations from seven countries. A key IRIS characteristic is its 'safety by design' approach which strives to eliminate, by design, as many accidents as possible rather than coping with their consequences. Initial returns are very positive; out of the eight Class IV accidents considered in the AP600 only one remains as a Class IV in IRIS, and at much reduced probability. Small-to-medium LOCAs have minimal consequences as the core remains safely under water for days, without the need for safety injection or water makeup. In spite of its novelty IRIS is firmly grounded on proven LWR technology and therefore a prototype is not needed to assure design certification. Rather, very extensive scaled tests will be performed to investigate the performance of in-vessel components such as steam generators and pumps, both individually and as interactive systems. Accident sequences will also be simulated and tested to prove IRIS safety by design claims. The first core fuel is less than 5% enriched and the fuel assembly is very similar to existing PWR assemblies, so there is no licensing challenge regarding the fuel. Because of the safety by design approach, yielding simplifications In design and accident management (e.g., IRIS does not have an emergency core cooling system), some accident scenarios are eliminated and others have lesser consequences. Thus, simplification and streamlining of the regulatory process might be possible. Risk informed regulation will be coupled with safety by design to show lower accident and damage probabilities. This could lead to a relaxation of siting regulatory requirements. It is

  9. Safety design features of the IRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is an advanced, integral, light water cooled reactor of medium generating capacity (335 MW(e)), that features an integral reactor vessel containing all the reactor primary system components, including steam generators, coolant pumps, pressurizer and heaters, and control rod drive mechanisms; in addition to the typical core, internals, control rods and neutron reflector. This integral configuration allows for the use of a small, high design pressure, spherical steel containment which results in a significant reduction in the size of the nuclear island. Other IRIS innovations include a simplified passive safety system concept and equipment features that derive from the 'safety-by-design' philosophy. This design approach allows for elimination of certain accident initiators at the design stage, or when outright elimination is not possible, decreases accident consequences and/or their probability of occurrence. Major design characteristics of the IRIS are given. As part of the IRIS pre-application licensing review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the IRIS design team has developed a test plan that will provide the necessary data for safety analysis computer model verification, as well as for verifying the manufacturing feasibility, operability, and durability of new component designs

  10. IRIS: Proceeding Towards the Preliminary Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.; Miller, K.; Lombardi, C.; Todreas, N.; Greenspan, E.; Ninokata, H.; Lopez, F.; Cinotti, L.; Collado, J.; Oriolo, F.; Alonso, G.; Morales, M.; Boroughs, R.; Barroso, A.; Ingersoll, D.; Cavlina, N.

    2002-01-01

    The IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) project has completed the conceptual design phase and is moving towards completion of the preliminary design, scheduled for the end of 2002. Several other papers presented in this conference provide details on major aspects of the IRIS design. The three most innovative features which uniquely characterize IRIS are, in descending order of impact: 1. Safety-by-design, which takes maximum advantage of the integral configuration to eliminate from consideration some accidents, greatly lessen the consequence of other accident scenarios and decrease their probability of occurring; 2. Optimized maintenance, where the interval between maintenance shutdowns is extended to 48 months; and 3. Long core life, of at least four years without shuffling or partial refueling. Regarding feature 1, design and analyses will be supplemented by an extensive testing campaign to verify and demonstrate the performance of the integral components, individually as well as interactive systems. Test planning is being initiated. Test results will be factored into PRA analyses under an overall risk informed regulation approach, which is planned to be used in the IRIS licensing. Pre-application activities with NRC are also scheduled to start in mid 2002. Regarding feature 2, effort is being focused on advanced online diagnostics for the integral components, first of all the steam generators, which are the most critical component; several techniques are being investigated. Finally, a four year long life core design is well underway and some of the IRIS team members are examining higher enrichment, eight to ten year life cores which could be considered for reloads. (authors)

  11. IRIS design overview and status update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.; Petrovic, B.; Conway, L.E.; Oriani, L.; Kling, C.L.; Miller, K.; Lombardi, C.V.; Ricotti, M.E.; Barroso, A.C.O.; Collado, J.M.; Cinotti, L.; Storai, S.; Berra, F.; Todreas, N.E.; Ninokata, H.; Cavlina, N.; Grgic, D.; Oriolo, F.; Moraes, M.M.; Frederico, C.; Henning, F.; Griffith, W.; Love, J.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Wood, R.; Alonso, G.; Kodochigov, N.; Polunichev, V.; Augutis, J.; Alzbutas, R.; Boroughs, R.D.; Naviglio, A.; Panella, B.

    2005-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is an advanced, integral, light-water cooled reactor of medium generating capacity (1000 MWt, or ∼335 MWe), geared at near term deployment (2012- 2015). It has been under development since the turn of the century by an international consortium--led by Westinghouse--that includes 21 organizations from 10 countries, and it is currently in the pre-application licensing process with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper describes its integral design (i.e., steam generators, pumps, pressurizer and control rod drive mechanisms are all included inside the reactor vessel, together with the core, control rods, and neutron reflector/shield) and discusses the unique ('safety-by-design') TM IRIS philosophy. This approach, by eliminating accidents at the design stage, or decreasing their consequences and probabilities when outright elimination is not possible, provides a very powerful first level of defense in depth. The ('safety by- design') TM allows a significant reduction and simplification of the passive safety systems, which not only improves safety but simultaneously reduces the overall cost. Moreover, it supports licensing the power plant without the need for off-site emergency response planning--an objective which is part of the pre-application with NRC and is also pursued within an international research project coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This would allow IRIS to be treated as any other industrial facility, located closer to population centers, and enable its effective dual-purpose use for electricity production and co-generation (district heating, desalination, industrial steam). The modular IRIS--with each module rated at ∼335 MWe--is an ideal size for developing countries as it allows to easily introducing single modules in regions only requiring a few hundred MWs, or a moderate amount of power on limited electric grids. IRIS can be also deployed in

  12. IRIS International Reactor Innovative and Secure Final Technical Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 This NERI project, originally started as the Secure Transportable Autonomous Light Water Reactor (STAR-LW) and currently known as the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) project, had the objective of investigating a novel type of water-cooled reactor to satisfy the Generation IV goals: fuel cycle sustainability, enhanced reliability and safety, and improved economics. The research objectives over the three-year (1999-2002) program were as follows: First year: Assess various design alternatives and establish main characteristics of a point design; Second year: Perform feasibility and engineering assessment of the selected design solutions; Third year: Complete reactor design and performance evaluation, including cost assessment These objectives were fully attained and actually they served to launch IRIS as a full fledged project for eventual commercial deployment. The program did not terminate in 2002 at the end of the NERI program, and has just entered in its fifth year. This has been made possible by the IRIS project participants which have grown from the original four member, two-countries team to the current twenty members, nine countries consortium. All the consortium members work under their own funding and it is estimated that the value of their in-kind contributions over the life of the project has been of the order of $30M. Currently, approximately 100 people worldwide are involved in the project. A very important constituency of the IRIS project is the academia: 7 universities from four countries are members of the consortium and five more US universities are associated via parallel NERI programs. To date, 97 students have worked or are working on IRIS; 59 IRIS-related graduate theses have been prepared or are in preparation, and 41 of these students have already graduated with M.S. (33) or Ph.D. (8) degrees. This ''final'' report (final only as far as the NERI program is concerned) summarizes the work performed in the first four

  13. Embedded Design Research of Iris Information Acquisition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyan Xu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In view of the limitation of traditional identification, it is easy to lose and copy keys, cards or ID cards, and it is easy to forget the password, so we designed an embedded application system based on the iris identification technology, which can realize the functions of gathering, inputting, and registering the iris information and identification. The hardware circuit was designed by using advanced RISC machines (ARM embedded microprocessor as the core. The iris sensor was used to gather the iris information, and the development of software was accomplished with the embedded OS Windows CE. The system can be used on the company entrance guard system, customs security of airport and criminal identification.

  14. IRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malfaro, W.; Zygmont, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses development of ISOLATION RESET INFORMATION SYSTEM (IRIS), an expert system to aid nuclear plant operators during plant transients known as automatic containment isolations. IRIS is implemented using the Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell, taking advantage of the dBase III Plus interface. The design of IRIS is discussed as well as the system's current state of development. The use of expert systems for training operators is discussed. The importance of gaining regulatory acceptance of expert systems is presented. This issue will ultimately determine the extent of expert system use in nuclear applications

  15. Innovative features and fuel design approach in the iris reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, B.; Carelli, M.; Greenspan, E.; Matsumoto, H.; Padovani, E.; Ganda, F.

    2002-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is being developed by an international consortium of industry, laboratory, university and utility establishments, led by Westinghouse. The IRIS design addresses key requirements associated with advanced reactors, including improved safety, enhanced proliferation resistance, competitive electricity production cost, and improved waste management. IRIS is a modular, small/medium size (335 MWe) PWR with an integral vessel configuration. The objective has been to base its design on proven LWR technology, so that no new technology development is needed and near-term deployment is possible, yet at the same time to introduce innovative features making it attractive when compared to present PWRs. These opposing requirements resulted in an evolutionary approach to fuel and core design, balancing new features against the need to avoid extensive testing and demonstration programmes. (author)

  16. The design and safety features of the IRIS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, Mario D.; Conway, L.E.; Oriani, L.; Petrovic, B.; Lombardi, C.V.; Ricotti, M.E.; Barroso, A.C.O.; Collado, J.M.; Cinotti, L.; Todreas, N.E.; Grgic, D.; Moraes, M.M.; Boroughs, R.D.; Ninokata, H.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Oriolo, F.

    2004-01-01

    Salient features of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) are presented here. IRIS, an integral, modular, medium size (335 MWe) PWR, has been under development since the turn of the century by an international consortium led by Westinghouse and including over 20 organizations from nine countries. Described here are the features of the integral design which includes steam generators, pumps and pressurizer inside the vessel, together with the core, control rods, and neutron reflector/shield. A brief summary is provided of the IRIS approach to extended maintenance over a 48-month schedule. The unique IRIS safety-by-design approach is discussed, which, by eliminating accidents, at the design stage, or decreasing their consequences/probabilities when outright elimination is not possible, provides a very powerful first level of defense in depth. The safety-by-design allows a significant reduction and simplification of the passive safety systems, which are presented here, together with an assessment of the IRIS response to transients and postulated accidents

  17. IRIS project update: status of the design and licensing activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, B.; Carelli, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the current status of the IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) project, focusing on the design and licensing activities. An update relative to the previous presentation at the 4th HND Conference is provided, highlighting some of the main accomplishments over the past two years. After successfully completing the conceptual design phase, IRIS is now finalizing the preliminary design as well. The pre-application licensing review with the U.S. NRC has been initiated in October of 2002. The safety-by-design approach and PRA-guided design open the possibility to aim for licensing not requiring off-site emergency response planning. Multiple single-unit and twin-unit site layouts have been developed within the ESP (Early Site Permit) program currently pursued by three U.S. power utilities. Desalination and district heating options have recently been added to the base design. Staggered construction schedules of multiple units may be applied to optimize cash-flow and minimize the required investment, making IRIS a financially attractive option, even for economies with limited investment capabilities. Because of its modularity, compatibility with smaller/medium grids, and enabling gradual build of new generating capacity matching the needs, IRIS has a large potential in the worldwide market.(author)

  18. Preliminary core design of IRIS-50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, Bojan; Franceschini, Fausto

    2009-01-01

    IRIS-50 is a small, 50 MWe, advanced PWR with integral primary system. It evolved employing the same design principles as the well known medium size (335 MWe) IRIS. These principles include the 'safety-by-design' philosophy, simple and robust design, and deployment flexibility. The 50 MWe design addresses the needs of specific applications (e.g., power generation in small regional grids, water desalination and biodiesel production at remote locations, autonomous power source for special applications, etc.). Such applications may favor or even require longer refueling cycles, or may have some other specific requirements. Impact of these requirements on the core design and refueling strategy is discussed in the paper. Trade-off between the cycle length and other relevant parameters is addressed. A preliminary core design is presented, together with the core main reactor physics performance parameters. (author)

  19. Parallel-Bit Stream for Securing Iris Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Elsayed Mostafa; Maher Mansour; Heba Saad

    2012-01-01

    Biometrics-based authentication schemes have usability advantages over traditional password-based authentication schemes. However, biometrics raises several privacy concerns, it has disadvantages comparing to traditional password in which it is not secured and non revocable. In this paper, we propose a fast method for securing revocable iris template using parallel-bit stream watermarking to overcome these problems. Experimental results prove that the proposed method has low computation time ...

  20. Risk-informed design of IRIS using a level-1 probabilistic risk assessment from its conceptual design phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Yuko; Ninokata, Hisashi; Finnicum, David J.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) has been generated to address two key areas as a part of the effort for the pre-application licensing of the IRIS design. First, the IRIS PRA is supporting the evaluation of IRIS design by providing design insights as well as a solid risk basis for the pre-licensing evaluation of the IRIS design. Second, the current PRA task is beginning the preparation of the more complete PRA analyses and documentation that will be required for Design Certification. The initial IRIS PRA is an at-power, Level-1 PRA for internal events that focuses on the evaluation of the IRIS design features to support the risk-informed design of IRIS by application of the PRA insights and the risk information to the design. To accomplish the evaluation, a reasonably complete Level-1 PRA model has been developed. The use of PRA in the early stages of the design has allowed a selection of design and performance features and an optimization of the design of several systems to reduce the potential for events that could lead to core damage via both enhanced prevention and mitigation of challenges. As a result, the total core damage frequency for internal events for the IRIS design has been calculated as 1.2x10 -8 per year

  1. Security enhanced BioEncoding for protecting iris codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouda, Osama; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya

    2011-06-01

    Improving the security of biometric template protection techniques is a key prerequisite for the widespread deployment of biometric technologies. BioEncoding is a recently proposed template protection scheme, based on the concept of cancelable biometrics, for protecting biometric templates represented as binary strings such as iris codes. The main advantage of BioEncoding over other template protection schemes is that it does not require user-specific keys and/or tokens during verification. Besides, it satisfies all the requirements of the cancelable biometrics construct without deteriorating the matching accuracy. However, although it has been shown that BioEncoding is secure enough against simple brute-force search attacks, the security of BioEncoded templates against more smart attacks, such as record multiplicity attacks, has not been sufficiently investigated. In this paper, a rigorous security analysis of BioEncoding is presented. Firstly, resistance of BioEncoded templates against brute-force attacks is revisited thoroughly. Secondly, we show that although the cancelable transformation employed in BioEncoding might be non-invertible for a single protected template, the original iris code could be inverted by correlating several templates used in different applications but created from the same iris. Accordingly, we propose an important modification to the BioEncoding transformation process in order to hinder attackers from exploiting this type of attacks. The effectiveness of adopting the suggested modification is validated and its impact on the matching accuracy is investigated empirically using CASIA-IrisV3-Interval dataset. Experimental results confirm the efficacy of the proposed approach and show that it preserves the matching accuracy of the unprotected iris recognition system.

  2. Thermal hydraulic tradeoffs in the design of IRIS primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriani, L.; Lombardi, C.; Ricotti, M.E.; Paramonov, D.; Carelli, M.; Conway, L.

    2001-01-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is currently being developed by an international consortium, led by Westinghouse and including universities. In order to achieve high level of safety, reduce complexity and capital cost, and enhance proliferation resistance, an integral primary circuit configuration has been selected. The integral configuration (the core, steam generators, coolant pumps, pressurizer and control rods are all contained within the reactor vessel) has no loop piping and thereby eliminates the possibility of large loss of coolant accidents. If the reactor vessel and components are designed for a very high level of natural circulation, which is promoted by an integral design, the consequence of loss of flow accidents can be significantly reduced or even completely eliminated. Core and integral primary circuit design optimization has been performed using the OSCAR computer code, a specialized tool for the analyses of the IRIS primary system developed at POLIMI. Results of trade-off studies of various in-vessel configurations explored to achieve tight packaging and high serviceability and/or replacement of components such as steam generators and pumps are reported. Effects of changes in secondary side parameters and steam generator design on system efficiency were explored together with the optimization of the vessel and steam generator dimensions and costs. The aim of the trade-off analyses was to limit the design space, and select a reference configuration for the IRIS reactor. (author)

  3. Maintenance Cycle Extension in the IRIS Advanced Light Water Reactor Plant Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvin, Mark R.; Todreas, Neil E.; Conway, Larry E.

    2003-01-01

    New nuclear power generation in the United States will be realized only if the economic performance can be made competitive with other methods of electrical power generation. The economic performance of a nuclear power plant can be significantly improved by increasing the time spent on-line generating electricity relative to the time spent off-line conducting maintenance and refueling. Maintenance includes planned actions (surveillances) and unplanned actions (corrective maintenance) to respond to component degradation or failure. A methodology is described that can be used to resolve, in the design phase, maintenance-related operating cycle length barriers. A primary goal was to demonstrate the applicability and utility of the methodology in the context of the International Reactor, Innovative and Secure (IRIS) design. IRIS is an advanced light water nuclear power plant that is being designed to maximize this on-line generating time by increasing the operating cycle length. This is consequently a maintenance strategy paper using the IRIS plant as the example.Potential IRIS operating cycle length maintenance-related barriers, determined by modification of an earlier operating pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant cycle length analysis to account for differences between the design of IRIS and this operating PWR, are presented. The proposed methodology to resolve these maintenance-related barriers by the design process is described. The results of applying the methodology to two potential IRIS cycle length barriers, relief valve testing and emergency heat removal system testing, are presented

  4. Secure and Robust Iris Recognition Using Random Projections and Sparse Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Jaishanker K; Patel, Vishal M; Chellappa, Rama; Ratha, Nalini K

    2011-09-01

    Noncontact biometrics such as face and iris have additional benefits over contact-based biometrics such as fingerprint and hand geometry. However, three important challenges need to be addressed in a noncontact biometrics-based authentication system: ability to handle unconstrained acquisition, robust and accurate matching, and privacy enhancement without compromising security. In this paper, we propose a unified framework based on random projections and sparse representations, that can simultaneously address all three issues mentioned above in relation to iris biometrics. Our proposed quality measure can handle segmentation errors and a wide variety of possible artifacts during iris acquisition. We demonstrate how the proposed approach can be easily extended to handle alignment variations and recognition from iris videos, resulting in a robust and accurate system. The proposed approach includes enhancements to privacy and security by providing ways to create cancelable iris templates. Results on public data sets show significant benefits of the proposed approach.

  5. Modeling IrisCode and its variants as convex polyhedral cones and its security implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Adams Wai-Kin

    2013-03-01

    IrisCode, developed by Daugman, in 1993, is the most influential iris recognition algorithm. A thorough understanding of IrisCode is essential, because over 100 million persons have been enrolled by this algorithm and many biometric personal identification and template protection methods have been developed based on IrisCode. This paper indicates that a template produced by IrisCode or its variants is a convex polyhedral cone in a hyperspace. Its central ray, being a rough representation of the original biometric signal, can be computed by a simple algorithm, which can often be implemented in one Matlab command line. The central ray is an expected ray and also an optimal ray of an objective function on a group of distributions. This algorithm is derived from geometric properties of a convex polyhedral cone but does not rely on any prior knowledge (e.g., iris images). The experimental results show that biometric templates, including iris and palmprint templates, produced by different recognition methods can be matched through the central rays in their convex polyhedral cones and that templates protected by a method extended from IrisCode can be broken into. These experimental results indicate that, without a thorough security analysis, convex polyhedral cone templates cannot be assumed secure. Additionally, the simplicity of the algorithm implies that even junior hackers without knowledge of advanced image processing and biometric databases can still break into protected templates and reveal relationships among templates produced by different recognition methods.

  6. Point spread function engineering for iris recognition system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Amit; Neifeld, Mark A

    2010-04-01

    Undersampling in the detector array degrades the performance of iris-recognition imaging systems. We find that an undersampling of 8 x 8 reduces the iris-recognition performance by nearly a factor of 4 (on CASIA iris database), as measured by the false rejection ratio (FRR) metric. We employ optical point spread function (PSF) engineering via a Zernike phase mask in conjunction with multiple subpixel shifted image measurements (frames) to mitigate the effect of undersampling. A task-specific optimization framework is used to engineer the optical PSF and optimize the postprocessing parameters to minimize the FRR. The optimized Zernike phase enhanced lens (ZPEL) imager design with one frame yields an improvement of nearly 33% relative to a thin observation module by bounded optics (TOMBO) imager with one frame. With four frames the optimized ZPEL imager achieves a FRR equal to that of the conventional imager without undersampling. Further, the ZPEL imager design using 16 frames yields a FRR that is actually 15% lower than that obtained with the conventional imager without undersampling.

  7. IRIS Licensing Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, Charles L.; Carelli, Mario D.

    2006-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) nuclear power plant is well into the pre-application review process with the US NRC and has accomplished its first near term goal of obtaining US NRC feedback on the long term testing program. To date, the IRIS team has submitted to the US NRC a number of documents patterned after the Evaluation Model Development and Assessment Process (EMDAP) outlined in Regulatory Guide 1,203. They have covered a detailed description of IRIS, initial safety analysis results, PIRT development for limiting transients, scaling analysis and a description of the test program. The IRIS Safety-by-Desing TM intrinsically eliminates and/or significantly reduces the consequences of traditional LWR accidents. In addition, the fewer passive safety systems are similar in principle to those of the US NRC approved AP1000 design. For these reasons, the IRIS testing program only needs to include those features unique to the IRIS design. NRC feedback was that the planned test program appeared to be complete and could generate sufficient information to support a Design Certification (DC) submittal. The US NRC has also stated that a DC application must include complete information regarding the test program. On this basis the IRIS team has initiated an aggressive program to conduct IRIS testing to support a DC submittal by the end of 2008. Subsequent US NRC review should be expeditious because of the AP1000 precedent, allowing IRIS to obtain its Final Design Approval (FDA) in 2012; thereby, maintaining its goal of deployment in the 2015-2017 time frame. The next steps in the pre-application review process will be to provide the US NRC with a road map of the anticipated IRIS licensing process, a review of current licensing requirements showing that IRIS meets or exceeds all current criteria and information to support the long term goal of redefining the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ)

  8. Treatment of non-resectable malignant iris tumours with custom designed plaque radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, C.L.; Shields, J.A.; Potter, P. De; Singh, A.D.; Hernandez, C.; Brady, L.W.

    1995-01-01

    Background- Plaque radiotherapy is the most common method of managing posterior uveal melanoma but its use for iris melanoma and iris metastases has not yet been evaluated. Methods -Fourteen patients with non-resectable iris melanoma and four with iris metastasis were treated with plaque radiotherapy. The tumour response to treatment and the local side effects of the radioactive plaque were evaluated. Results -In the iris melanoma group over a mean follow up of 26 (range 6-75) months, the tumour regressed in 13 of the 14 patients (93%) and recurred as diffuse seeding in one patient (7%). Despite large doses of radiation given transcorneally, the cornea developed epitheliopathy, abraxion, and oedema in only one case each. The major radiation side effects were localised iris vasculopathy without glaucoma in two cases, posterior synechiae in five cases, and cataract in six cases. In the iris metastasis group, tumour regression was observed in all four patients (100%) and radiation side effects were not evident over the relatively short mean follow up period of 8 (range 4-9) months. All of the 14 patients with irradiated iris melanoma have remained systemically healthy without metastasis while three of the four patients with irradiated iris metastases have died of metastases from the primary neoplasm. Conclusion - Custom designed plaque radiotherapy appears to be an effective alternative method of controlling non-resectable diffuse iris melanoma and solitary iris metastasis and has relatively few side effects. (author)

  9. Use of PRA techniques to optimize the design of the IRIS nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhlheim, M.D.; Cletcher, J.W. II

    2003-01-01

    True design optimization of a plants inherent safety and performance characteristics results when a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is integrated with the plant-level design process. This is the approach being used throughout the design of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) nuclear power plant to maximize safety. A risk-based design optimization tool employing a 'one-button' architecture is being developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to evaluate design changes; new modeling approaches, methods, or theories modeling uncertainties and completeness; physical assumptions; and data changes on component, cabinet, train, and system bases. Unlike current PRAs, the one-button architecture allows components, modules, and data to be interchanged at will with the probabilistic effect immediately apparent. Because all of the current and previous design, and data sets are available via the one-button architecture, the safety ramifications of design options are evaluated, feedback on design alternatives is immediate, and true optimization and understanding can be achieved. Thus, for the first time, PRA analysts and designers can easily determine the probabilistic implications of different design configurations and operating conditions in various combinations for the entire range of initiating events. The power of the one-button architecture becomes evident by the number of design alternatives that can be evaluated C11 component choices yielded 160 design alternatives. Surprisingly, the lessons learned can be counter-intuitive and significant. For example, one of the alternative designs for IRIS evaluated via this architecture revealed that because of common-cause failure probabilities, using the most reliable components actually decreased systems' reliability. (author)

  10. Design for Security Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    plane sees such message, it takes action to re-direct data Design for Security - S. LEEF, July, 201425 Router image source: Cisco web site Carrier of...Confidential Material T3S Status • Engaging/ recruiting additional members & partners  In discussion with other semiconductor companies; network & other

  11. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: multi-tiered wavefront measurements and novel mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jennifer; Andersen, David; Chapin, Edward; Reshetov, Vlad; Wierzbicki, Ramunas; Herriot, Glen; Chalmer, Dean; Isbrucker, Victor; Larkin, James E.; Moore, Anna M.; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2016-08-01

    The InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) will be the first light adaptive optics instrument on the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). IRIS is being built by a collaboration between Caltech, the University of California, NAOJ and NRC Herzberg. In this paper we present novel aspects of the Support Structure, Rotator and On-Instrument Wavefront Sensor systems being developed at NRC Herzberg. IRIS is suspended from the bottom port of the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS), and provides its own image de-rotation to compensate for sidereal rotation of the focal plane. This arrangement is a challenge because NFIRAOS is designed to host two other science instruments, which imposes strict mass requirements on IRIS. As the mechanical design of all elements has progressed, we have been tasked with keeping the instrument mass under seven tonnes. This requirement has resulted in a mass reduction of 30 percent for the support structure and rotator compared to the most recent IRIS designs. To accomplish this goal, while still being able to withstand earthquakes, we developed a new design with composite materials. As IRIS is a client instrument of NFIRAOS, it benefits from NFIRAOS's superior AO correction. IRIS plays an important role in providing this correction by sensing low-order aberrations with three On-Instrument Wavefront Sensors (OIWFS). The OIWFS consists of three independently positioned natural guide star wavefront sensor probe arms that patrol a 2-arcminute field of view. We expect tip-tilt measurements from faint stars within the IRIS imager focal plane will further stabilize the delivered image quality. We describe how the use of On-Detector Guide Windows (ODGWs) in the IRIS imaging detector can be incorporated into the AO correction. In this paper, we present our strategies for acquiring and tracking sources with this complex AO system, and for mitigating and measuring the various potential sources of image blur and misalignment due to properties of

  12. Iris reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramonov, D.V.; Carelli, M.D.; Miller, K.; Lombardi, C.V.; Ricotti, M.E.; Todreas, N.E.; Greenspan, E.; Yamamoto, K.; Nagano, A.; Ninokata, H.; Robertson, J.; Oriolo, F.

    2001-01-01

    The development progress of the IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) nuclear power system is presented. IRIS is currently being developed by an international consortium of industry, laboratory, university and utility establishments, led by Westinghouse. It is aimed at achieving the four major objectives of the Generation IV nuclear systems, i.e., proliferation resistance, enhanced safety, economic competitiveness and reduced waste. The project first year activities, which are summarized here, were focused on core neutronics, in-vessel configuration, steam generator and containment design, safety approach and economic performance. Details of these studies are provided in parallel papers in these proceedings. (author)

  13. IRIS-50. A 50 MWe advanced PWR design for smaller, regional grids and specialized applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, Bojan; Carelli, Mario; Conway, Larry; Hundal, Rolv; Barbaso, Enrico; Gamba, Federica; Centofante, Mario

    2009-01-01

    IRIS is an advanced, medium-power (1000 MWt or ∼335 MWe) advanced PWR design of integral configuration, that has gained wide recognition due to its innovative 'safety-by-design' safety approach. In spite of its smaller size compared to large monolithic nuclear power plants, it is economically competitive due to its simplicity and advantages of modular deployment. However, the optimum power level for a class of specific applications (e.g., power generation in small regional isolated grids; water desalination and biodiesel production at remote locations; autonomous power source for special applications, etc.) may be even lower, of the order of tens rather than hundreds of MWe. The simple and robust IRIS 335 MWe design provides a solid basis for establishing a 20-100 MWe design, utilizing the same safety and economics principles, so that it will retain economic attractiveness compared to other alternatives of the same power level. A conceptual 50 MWe design, IRIS-50, was initially developed and then assessed in a 2001 report to the US Congress on small and medium reactors, as a design mature enough to have deployment potential within a decade. In the meantime, while the main efforts have focused on the 335 MWe design completion and licensing, parallel efforts have progressed toward the preliminary design of IRIS-50. This paper summarizes the main IRIS-50 features and presents an update on its design status. (author)

  14. Security By Design

    OpenAIRE

    Tanner, M. James

    2009-01-01

    Securing a computer from unwanted intrusion requires astute planning and effort to effectively minimize the security invasions computers are plagued with today. While all of the efforts to secure a computer are needed, it seems that the underlying issue of what is being secured has been overlooked. The operating system is at the core of the security issue. Many applications and devices have been put into place to add layers of protection to an already weak operating system. Security did not u...

  15. EPICS: Channel Access security design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraimer, M.; Hill, J.

    1994-05-01

    This document presents the design for implementing the requirements specified in: EPICS -- Channel Access Security -- functional requirements, Ned. D. Arnold, 03/09/92. Use of the access security system is described along with a summary of the functional requirements. The programmer's interface is given. Security protocol is described and finally aids for reading the access security code are provided

  16. IRIS Simplified LERF Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maioli, A.; Finnicum, D.J.; Kumagai, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Westinghouse is currently conducting the pre-application licensing of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS). One of the key aspects of the IRIS design is its safety-by-designTM philosophy and within this framework the PRA is being used as an integral part of the design process. The most ambitious risk-related goal for IRIS is to reduce the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) to within the exclusion area by demonstrating that the off-site doses are consistent with the US Protective Action Guidelines (PAGs) for initiation of emergency response so that the required protective actions would be limited to the exclusion area. As a first step, a model has been developed to provide a first order approximation of the Large Early Release Frequency (LERF) as a surrogate predictor of the off-site doses. A key-aspect of the LERF model development is the characterization of the possible paths of release. Four main categories have been historically pointed out: (1) Core Damage (CD ) sequences with containment bypass, (2) CD sequences with containment isolation failure, (3) CD sequences with containment failure at low pressure and (4) CD sequences with containment failure at high pressure. They have been reevaluated to account for the IRIS design features

  17. Experiencing Security in Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg; Bødker, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Security is experienced differently in different contexts. This paper argues that in everyday situations, users base their security decisions on a mix of prior experiences. When approaching security and interaction design from an experience approach, tools that help bring out such relevant...... experiences for design are needed. This paper reports on how Prompted exploration workshops and Acting out security were developed to target such experiences when iteratively designing a mobile digital signature solution in a participatory design process. We discuss how these tools helped the design process...... and illustrate how the tangibility of such tools matters. We further demonstrate how the approach grants access to non-trivial insights into people's security experience. We point out how the specific context is essential for exploring the space between experience and expectations, and we illustrate how people...

  18. Fuel with advanced burnable absorbers design for the IRIS reactor core: Combined Erbia and IFBA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franceschini, Fausto [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Science and Technology Department, Pittsburgh, PA 15235 (United States)], E-mail: FranceF@westinghouse.com; Petrovic, Bojan [Georgia Institute of Technology, Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, G.W. Woodruff School, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    IRIS is an advanced medium-size (1000 MW) PWR with integral primary system targeting deployment already around 2015-2017. Consistent with its aggressive development and deployment schedule, the 'first IRIS' core design assumes current, licensed fuel technology, i.e., UO{sub 2} fuel with less than 5% {sup 235}U enrichment. The core consists of 89 fuel assemblies employing the 17x17 Westinghouse Robust Fuel Assembly (RFA) design and Standard Fuel dimensions. The adopted design enables to meet all the objectives of the first IRIS core, including over 3-year cycle length with low soluble boron concentration, within the envelope of licensed, readily available fuel technology. Alternative fuel designs are investigated for the subsequent waves of IRIS reactors in pursuit of further improving the fuel utilization and/or extending the cycle length. In particular, an increase in the lattice pitch from the current 0.496 in. for the Standard Fuel to 0.523 in. is among the objectives of this study. The larger fuel pitch and increased moderator-to-fuel volume ratio that it entails fosters better neutron thermalization in an altogether under-moderated lattice thereby offering the potential for considerable increase of fuel utilization and cycle length, up to 5% in the two-batch fuel management scheme considered for IRIS. However, the improved moderation also favors higher values of the Moderator Temperature Coefficient, MTC, which must be properly counteracted to avoid undesired repercussions on the plant safety parameters or controllability during transient operations. This paper investigates counterbalancing the increase in the MTC caused by the enhanced moderation lattice by adopting a suitable choice of fuel burnable absorber (BA). In particular, a fuel design combining erbia, which benefits MTC due to its resonant behavior but leads to residual reactivity penalty, and IFBA, which maximizes cycle length, is pursued. In the proposed approach, IFBA provides the bulk

  19. Design-Efficiency in Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    In this document, we present our applied results on balancing security and performance using a running example, which is based on sensor networks. These results are forming a basis for a new approach to balance security and performance, and therefore provide design-­efficiency of key updates. We...

  20. AP1000 Design for Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, L.B.; Cummins, W.E.; Winters, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are protected from potential security threats through a combination of robust structures around the primary system and other vital equipment, security systems and equipment, and defensive strategy. The overall objective for nuclear power plant security is to protect public health and safety by ensuring that attacks or sabotage do not challenge the ability to safely shutdown the plant or protect from radiological releases. In addition, plants have systems, features and operational strategies to cope with external conditions, such as loss of offsite power, which could be created as part of an attack. Westinghouse considered potential security threats during design of the AP1000 PWR. The differences in plant configuration, safety system design, and safe shutdown equipment between existing plants and AP1000 affect potential vulnerabilities. This paper provides an evaluation of AP1000 with respect to vulnerabilities to security threats. The AP1000 design differs from the design of operating PWRs in the US in the configuration and the functional requirements for safety systems. These differences are intentional departures from conventional PWR designs which simplify plant design and enhance overall safety. The differences between the AP1000 PWR and conventional PWRs can impact vulnerabilities to security threats. The NRC addressed security concerns as part of their reviews for AP1000 Design Certification, and did not identify any security issues of concern. However, much of the detailed security design information for the AP1000 was deferred to the combined Construction and Operating License (COL) phase as many of the security issues are site-specific. Therefore, NRC review of security issues related to the AP1000 is not necessarily complete. Further, since the AP1000 plant design differs from existing PWRs, it is not obvious that the analyses and assessments prepared for existing plants also apply to the AP1000. We conclude that, overall, the AP1000

  1. Threat modeling designing for security

    CERN Document Server

    Shostack, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Adam Shostack is responsible for security development lifecycle threat modeling at Microsoft and is one of a handful of threat modeling experts in the world. Now, he is sharing his considerable expertise into this unique book. With pages of specific actionable advice, he details how to build better security into the design of systems, software, or services from the outset. You'll explore various threat modeling approaches, find out how to test your designs against threats, and learn effective ways to address threats that have been validated at Microsoft and other top companies. Systems secur

  2. IRIS pre-application licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, Mario D.; Kling, Charles L.; Ritterbusch, Stanley E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the approach to pre-application licensing by the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), and advanced, integral reactor design with a thermal power of 1000 MW. The rationale for the pre-application licensing is discussed. Since IRIS technology is based on proven LWR experience, the project will rely on AP600/AP1000 precedent and will focus during the pre-application on long lead and novel items. A discussion of the evolution of the project to significantly reduce licensing issues is provided, followed by a summary of the IRIS safety-by-design which provides a formidable first step in the Defense in Depth approach. The effects of the safety-by-design, as well as of passive systems, on the IRIS safety will be investigated in a proposed testing program that will be reviewed by NRC during the pre-application. Documentation to be provided to NRC is discussed. Early design analyses indicate that the benefits of the IRIS safety-by-design approach are so significant that the basic premise of current emergency planning regulations (i.e., likelihood of core damage) will be reduced to the extent that special emergency response planning beyond the exclusion area boundary may not be needed. How this very significant outcome can be effected through a highly risk-informed licensing is discussed. (author)

  3. Iris Recognition Using Wavelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliq Masood

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems are getting more attention in the present era. Iris recognition is one of the most secure and authentic among the other biometrics and this field demands more authentic, reliable and fast algorithms to implement these biometric systems in real time. In this paper, an efficient localization technique is presented to identify pupil and iris boundaries using histogram of the iris image. Two small portions of iris have been used for polar transformation to reduce computational time and to increase the efficiency of the system. Wavelet transform is used for feature vector generation. Rotation of iris is compensated without shifts in the iris code. System is tested on Multimedia University Iris Database and results show that proposed system has encouraging performance.

  4. Sizes of secondary plant components for modularized IRIS balance of plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, Martin; Townsend, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    Herein we report on a conceptual design for a balance of plant (BOP) layout to coordinate with IRIS-like plants. The report consists of results of calculations that sizes of various BOP components. These calculations include the thermodynamic analyses and general sizing of the components in order to determine plant capability and plant layout for studies on modularity and transportability. Mathematical modeling of the BOP system involves a modified ORCENT2 code as well as standard heat transfer methods. Using typical values for PWR type plants, a general BOP design, and IRIS steam generator values, an ORCENT2 heat balance is carried out for the secondary side of the plant. Using the ORCENT2 output, standard heat transfer methods are then used to calculate system performance and component sizes. (author)

  5. Extending the imaging volume for biometric iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Johnson, Gregory E; Silveira, Paulo E X; Wach, Hans B

    2005-02-10

    The use of the human iris as a biometric has recently attracted significant interest in the area of security applications. The need to capture an iris without active user cooperation places demands on the optical system. Unlike a traditional optical design, in which a large imaging volume is traded off for diminished imaging resolution and capacity for collecting light, Wavefront Coded imaging is a computational imaging technology capable of expanding the imaging volume while maintaining an accurate and robust iris identification capability. We apply Wavefront Coded imaging to extend the imaging volume of the iris recognition application.

  6. The role of small and medium reactors in the energy security of a country, IRIS example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavlina, N.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear options for electricity generations are assessed in this paper. Probabilistic (stochastic) method is used for economic comparison of nuclear power plants, wind plants and natural gas fired plants. Optimal nuclear power plant size is also discussed. IRIS is presented as a representative of small and medium reactors

  7. Numerical design of an rf-coupling Iris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanaki, H.

    1991-07-01

    For an rf coupler of an rf system in high-quality transmission an analytical method may be applied to treat the design problem, if a coupling hole between cavities or waveguides is small enough. However, in most cases of accelerator engineering the dimensions of the coupling slots are not so small compared with the size of a cavity and a waveguide. Numerical design of rf coupling slots for a few cases is tried basically according to Henke's method using an equivalent circuit to treat the matching of microwave components, but taking account of beam loading expressed by the coupling coefficient β. The MAFIA code has been applied for the design. (R.P.) 5 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Iris and periocular biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Rathgeb, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview of scientific fundamentals and principles of iris and periocular biometric recognition. It covers: an introduction to iris and periocular recognition; a selective overview of issues and challenges; soft biometric classification; security aspects; privacy protection and forensics; and future trends.

  9. Security-by-design handbook.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, Mark Kamerer; Jaeger, Calvin Dell; Scharmer, Carol; Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Tanuma, Koji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, Japan; Ochiai, Kazuya [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, Japan; Iida, Toru [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, Japan

    2013-01-01

    This document is a draft SecuritybyDesign (SeBD) handbook produced to support the Work Plan of the Nuclear Security Summit to share best practices for nuclear security in new facility design. The Work Plan calls on States to %E2%80%9Cencourage nuclear operators and architect/engineering firms to take into account and incorporate, where appropriate, effective measures of physical protection and security culture into the planning, construction, and operation of civilian nuclear facilities and provide technical assistance, upon request, to other States in doing so.%E2%80%9D The materials for this document were generated primarily as part of a bilateral project to produce a SeBD handbook as a collaboration between the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) Nuclear Nonproliferation Science and Technology Center and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), which represented the US Department Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) under a Project Action Sheet PASPP04. Input was also derived based on tours of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) Rokkasho Mixed Oxide Fuel fabrication facilities and associated project lessonslearned. For the purposes of the handbook, SeBD will be described as the systemlevel incorporation of the physical protection system (PPS) into a new nuclear power plant or nuclear facility resulting in a PPS design that minimizes the risk of malicious acts leading to nuclear material theft; nuclear material sabotage; and facility sabotage as much as possible through features inherent in (or intrinsic to) the design of the facility. A fourelement strategy is presented to achieve a robust, durable, and responsive security system.

  10. Software Design Level Security Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    S. Rehman; K. Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Several thousand software design vulnerabilities have been reported through established databases. But they need to be structured and classified to be optimally usable in the pursuit of minimal and effective mitigation mechanism. In order we developed a criterion set for a communicative description of the same to serve the purpose as a taxonomic description of security vulnerabilities, arising in the design phase of Software development lifecycle. This description is a part of an effort to id...

  11. Security patterns in practice designing secure architectures using software patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Buglioni, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Learn to combine security theory and code to produce secure systems Security is clearly a crucial issue to consider during the design and implementation of any distributed software architecture. Security patterns are increasingly being used by developers who take security into serious consideration from the creation of their work. Written by the authority on security patterns, this unique book examines the structure and purpose of security patterns, illustrating their use with the help of detailed implementation advice, numerous code samples, and descriptions in UML. Provides

  12. Simplified safety and containment systems for the iris reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, L.E.; Lombardi, C.; Ricotti, M.; Oriani, L.

    2001-01-01

    The IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a 100 - 300 MW modular type pressurized water reactor supported by the U.S. DOE NERI Program. IRIS features a long-life core to provide proliferation resistance and to reduce the volume of spent fuel, as well as reduce maintenance requirements. IRIS utilizes an integral reactor vessel that contains all major primary system components. This integral reactor vessel makes it possible to reduce containment size; making the IRIS more cost competitive. IRIS is being designed to enhance reactor safety, and therefore a key aspect of the IRIS program is the development of the safety and containment systems. These systems are being designed to maximize containment integrity, prevent core uncover following postulated accidents, minimize the probability and consequences of severe accidents, and provide a significant simplification over current safety system designs. The design of the IRIS containment and safety systems has been identified and preliminary analyses have been completed. The IRIS safety concept employs some unique features that minimize the consequences of postulated design basis events. This paper will provide a description of the containment design and safety systems, and will summarize the analysis results. (author)

  13. IRIS Final Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. D. Carelli

    2003-11-03

    OAK-B135 This NERI project, originally started as the Secure Transportable Autonomous Light Water Reactor (STAR-LW) and currently known as the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) project, had the objective of investigating a novel type of water-cooled reactor to satisfy the Generation IV goals: fuel cycle sustainability, enhanced reliability and safety, and improved economics. The research objectives over the three-year (1999-2002) program were as follows: First year: Assess various design alternatives and establish main characteristics of a point design; Second year: Perform feasibility and engineering assessment of the selected design solutions; Third year: Complete reactor design and performance evaluation, including cost assessment These objectives were fully attained and actually they served to launch IRIS as a full fledged project for eventual commercial deployment. The program did not terminate in 2002 at the end of the NERI program, and has just entered in its fifth year. This has been made possible by the IRIS project participants which have grown from the original four member, two-countries team to the current twenty members, nine countries consortium. All the consortium members work under their own funding and it is estimated that the value of their in-kind contributions over the life of the project has been of the order of $30M. Currently, approximately 100 people worldwide are involved in the project. A very important constituency of the IRIS project is the academia: 7 universities from four countries are members of the consortium and five more US universities are associated via parallel NERI programs. To date, 97 students have worked or are working on IRIS; 59 IRIS-related graduate theses have been prepared or are in preparation, and 41 of these students have already graduated with M.S. (33) or Ph.D. (8) degrees. This ''final'' report (final only as far as the NERI program is concerned) summarizes the work performed

  14. LOCA analysis of the IRIS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajs, T.; Grgic, D.; Cavlina, N.

    2003-01-01

    The IRIS reactor (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is an integral, light water cooled, medium power reactor. IRIS has been selected as an International Near Term Deployable (INTD) reactor, within the Generation IV International Forum activities. The IRIS concept addresses the key-requirements defined by the US DOE for next generation reactors, i.e. enhanced reliability and safety, and improved economics. It features innovative, advanced engineering, but it is firmly based on the proven technology of pressurized water reactors (PWR). An innovative safety approach has been developed to mitigate the IRIS response to small-to-medium Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This strategy is based on the interaction of IRIS compact containment with the reactor vessel to limit initial blowdown, and on depressurization through the use of a passive Emergency Heat Removal System (EHRS). A small Automatic Depressurization System (ADS) provides supplementary depressurization capability. A pressure suppression system is provided to limit the pressure peak following the initial blowdown to well below the containment design limit. The ultimate result is that during a small-to-medium LOCA, the core remains covered for an extended period of time, without credit for emergency water injection or external core makeup. The IRIS LOCA response is based on 'maintaining water inventory' rather than on the principle of safety injection. This novel safety approach poses significant issues for computational and analysis methods since the IRIS vessel and containment are strongly coupled, and the system response is based on the interaction between the two. The small break LOCA was calculated using RELAP5/mod3.3 and GOTHIC codes. Break of the largest line connected to the IRIS Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) was analyzed. The results of the calculations confirmed good performance of the IRIS system during LOCA. (author)

  15. Transient analysis of the IRIS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajs, T.; Oriani, L.; Ricotti, M.E.; Barroso, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    An international consortium of industry, laboratory, university and utility establishments, led by Westinghouse, is developing a modular, integral, light water cooled, small to medium power reactor, the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS). IRIS features innovative, advanced engineering, but it is firmly based on the proven technology of pressurized water reactors (PWR). Given the large number of organizations involved in the IRIS design, the RELAP5/MOD 3.3 code has been selected as the main system code. A nodalization of the reference IRIS design has been developed with a basic set of protective functions and controls. Engineered Safety Features of the concept are being also implemented, and in particular the Emergency Heat Removal System that is used for safety grade decay heat removal and in the small break LOCA response of IRIS (Large break LOCAs are eliminated in IRIS by the adoption of the Integral layout) This paper discusses developed model and transient behavior of the system for representative transient sequences.(author)

  16. Core design calculations of IRIS reactor using modified CORD-2 code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pevec, D.; Grgic, D.; Jecmenica, R.; Petrovic, B.

    2002-01-01

    Core design calculations, with thermal-hydraulic feedback, for the first cycle of the IRIS reactor were performed using the modified CORD-2 code package. WIMSD-5B code is applied for cell and cluster calculations with two different 69-group data libraries (ENDF/BVI rev. 5 and JEF-2.2), while the nodal code GNOMER is used for diffusion calculations. The objective of the calculation was to address basic core design problems for innovative reactors with long fuel cycle. The results were compared to our results obtained with CORD-2 before the modification and to preliminary results obtained with CASMO code for a similar problem without thermal-hydraulic feedback.(author)

  17. IRIS: A global approach to nuclear power renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Improved international reactor IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is discussed. IRIS is defined as a modular reactor with integral arrangement and water coolant. Design of reactor core and fuel elements is considered. Use of radial neutron reflectors from stainless steel is favorable to decrease of cost and increase of reactor operation. Reactor maintenance, constructional safety and arrangement of plant are characterized. Economical analysis and marketing are performed [ru

  18. Green Secure Processors: Towards Power-Efficient Secure Processor Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Siddhartha; Solihin, Yan

    With the increasing wealth of digital information stored on computer systems today, security issues have become increasingly important. In addition to attacks targeting the software stack of a system, hardware attacks have become equally likely. Researchers have proposed Secure Processor Architectures which utilize hardware mechanisms for memory encryption and integrity verification to protect the confidentiality and integrity of data and computation, even from sophisticated hardware attacks. While there have been many works addressing performance and other system level issues in secure processor design, power issues have largely been ignored. In this paper, we first analyze the sources of power (energy) increase in different secure processor architectures. We then present a power analysis of various secure processor architectures in terms of their increase in power consumption over a base system with no protection and then provide recommendations for designs that offer the best balance between performance and power without compromising security. We extend our study to the embedded domain as well. We also outline the design of a novel hybrid cryptographic engine that can be used to minimize the power consumption for a secure processor. We believe that if secure processors are to be adopted in future systems (general purpose or embedded), it is critically important that power issues are considered in addition to performance and other system level issues. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to examine the power implications of providing hardware mechanisms for security.

  19. The Economics of IRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.; Paramonov, D.

    2002-01-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a small to medium advanced light water cooled modular reactor being developed by an international consortium led by Westinghouse/BNFL. This reactor design is specifically aimed at utilities looking to install new (or replacement) nuclear capacity to match market demands, or at developing countries for their distributed power needs. To determine the optimal configuration for IRIS, analysis was undertaken to establish Generation Costs ($/MWh) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR %) to the Utility at alternative power ratings. This was then combined with global market projections for electricity demand out to 2030, segmented into key geographical regions. Finally this information is brought together to form insights, conclusions and recommendations regarding the optimal design. The resultant analysis reveals a single module sized at 335 MWe, with a construction period of 3 years and a 60-year plant life. Individual modules can be installed in a staggered fashion (3 equivalent to 1005 MWe) or built in pairs (2 sets of twin units' equivalent to 1340 MWe). Uncertainty in Market Clearing Price for electricity, Annual Operating Costs and Construction Costs primarily influence lifetime Net Present Values (NPV) and hence IRR % for Utilities. Generation Costs in addition are also influenced by Fuel Costs, Plant Output, Plant Availability and Plant Capacity Factor. Therefore for a site based on 3 single modules, located in North America, Generations Costs of 28.5 $/MWh are required to achieve an IRR of 20%, a level which enables IRIS to compete with all other forms of electricity production. Plant size is critical to commercial success. Sustained (lifetime) high factors for Plant Output, Availability and Capacity Factor are required to achieve a competitive advantage. Modularity offers Utilities the option to match their investments with market conditions, adding additional capacity as and when the circumstances are right

  20. DEMAID - A DESIGN MANAGER'S AID FOR INTELLIGENT DECOMPOSITION (SGI IRIS VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multi-disciplinary. Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. DeMAID (A Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) is a knowledge-based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for the design problem. DeMAID displays the modules in an N x N matrix format (called a design structure matrix) where a module is any process that requires input and generates an output. (Modules which generate an output but do not require an input, such as an initialization process, are also acceptable.) Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save a considerable amount of money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined. The decomposition of a complex design system into subsystems requires the judgement of the design manager. DeMAID reorders and groups the modules based on the links (interactions) among the modules, helping the design manager make decomposition decisions early in the design cycle. The modules are grouped into circuits (the subsystems) and displayed in an N x N matrix format. Feedback links, which indicate an iterative process, are minimized and only occur within a subsystem. Since there are no feedback links among the circuits, the circuits can be displayed in a multilevel format. Thus, a large amount of information is reduced to one or two displays which are stored for later retrieval and modification. The design manager and leaders of the design teams then have a visual display of the design problem and the intricate interactions among the different modules. The design manager could save a substantial

  1. Advanced topics in security computer system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachniak, D.E.; Lamb, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    The capability, performance, and speed of contemporary computer processors, plus the associated performance capability of the operating systems accommodating the processors, have enormously expanded the scope of possibilities for designers of nuclear power plant security computer systems. This paper addresses the choices that could be made by a designer of security computer systems working with contemporary computers and describes the improvement in functionality of contemporary security computer systems based on an optimally chosen design. Primary initial considerations concern the selection of (a) the computer hardware and (b) the operating system. Considerations for hardware selection concern processor and memory word length, memory capacity, and numerous processor features

  2. IRIS PRA preliminary results and future direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnicum, D.J.; Kling, C.L.; Carelli, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Westinghouse is currently conducting the pre-application licensing of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) on behalf of the IRIS Consortium. One of the key aspects of the IRIS design is the concept of safety-by-design. The PRA (Probabilistic Risk Analysis) is being used as an integral part of the design process. As part of this effort, a PRA of the initial design was generated to address 2 key areas. First, the IRIS PRA supported the evaluation of IRIS design issues by providing a solid risk basis for design and analyses required for the pre-licensing evaluation of the IRIS design. The PRA provides the tool for quantifying the benefit of the safety-by-design approach. Second, the current PRA task is beginning the preparation of the more complete PRA analyses and documentation eventually required for Design Certification. One of the key risk-related goals for IRIS is to reduce the EPZ (Emergency Protection Zone) to within the exclusion area by demonstrating that the off-site doses are consistent with the US Protective Action Guidelines (PAGs) for initiation of emergency response so that the required protective actions would be limited to the exclusion area. The results of the preliminary PRA indicated a core damage frequency of 1.2 E-08 for internal initiators. This is a very good result but much work is needed to meet the ambitious goal of no emergency response. The next phase of the PRA analyses will involve a two-fold expansion of the PRA. First, as the design and analyses approach a greater level of detail, the assumptions used for the initial PRA will be reviewed and the models will be revised as needed to reflect the improved knowledge of the system design and performance. Furthermore, as the full plant design advances, the PRA will be expanded to incorporate risk associated with external challenges such as seismic and fire, and to address low power and shutdowns modes of operation. As with the initial work, the PRA will serve as a tool to

  3. A new method for generating an invariant iris private key based on the fuzzy vault system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Joo; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sung Joo; Bae, Kwanghyuk; Kim, Jaihie

    2008-10-01

    Cryptographic systems have been widely used in many information security applications. One main challenge that these systems have faced has been how to protect private keys from attackers. Recently, biometric cryptosystems have been introduced as a reliable way of concealing private keys by using biometric data. A fuzzy vault refers to a biometric cryptosystem that can be used to effectively protect private keys and to release them only when legitimate users enter their biometric data. In biometric systems, a critical problem is storing biometric templates in a database. However, fuzzy vault systems do not need to directly store these templates since they are combined with private keys by using cryptography. Previous fuzzy vault systems were designed by using fingerprint, face, and so on. However, there has been no attempt to implement a fuzzy vault system that used an iris. In biometric applications, it is widely known that an iris can discriminate between persons better than other biometric modalities. In this paper, we propose a reliable fuzzy vault system based on local iris features. We extracted multiple iris features from multiple local regions in a given iris image, and the exact values of the unordered set were then produced using the clustering method. To align the iris templates with the new input iris data, a shift-matching technique was applied. Experimental results showed that 128-bit private keys were securely and robustly generated by using any given iris data without requiring prealignment.

  4. Design Methodologies for Secure Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Biedermann, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Embedded systems have been almost invisibly pervading our daily lives for several decades. They facilitate smooth operations in avionics, automotive electronics, or telecommunication. New problems arise by the increasing employment, interconnection, and communication of embedded systems in heterogeneous environments: How secure are these embedded systems against attacks or breakdowns? Therefore, how can embedded systems be designed to be more secure? And how can embedded systems autonomically react to threats? Facing these questions, Sorin A. Huss is significantly involved in the exploration o

  5. Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating Secure Web Browsers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Christopher L.

    2009-01-01

    Web browsers are plagued with vulnerabilities, providing hackers with easy access to computer systems using browser-based attacks. Efforts that retrofit existing browsers have had limited success since modern browsers are not designed to withstand attack. To enable more secure web browsing, we design and implement new web browsers from the ground…

  6. Increasing the information acquisition volume in iris recognition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwick, D Shane

    2008-09-10

    A significant hurdle for the widespread adoption of iris recognition in security applications is that the typically small imaging volume for eye placement results in systems that are not user friendly. Separable cubic phase plates at the lens pupil have been shown to ameliorate this disadvantage by increasing the depth of field. However, these phase masks have limitations on how efficiently they can capture the information-bearing spatial frequencies in iris images. The performance gains in information acquisition that can be achieved by more general, nonseparable phase masks is demonstrated. A detailed design method is presented, and simulations using representative designs allow for performance comparisons.

  7. The Design of a Single-Bit CMOS Image Sensor for Iris Recognition Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keunyeol Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single-bit CMOS image sensor (CIS that uses a data processing technique with an edge detection block for simple iris segmentation. In order to recognize the iris image, the image sensor conventionally captures high-resolution image data in digital code, extracts the iris data, and then compares it with a reference image through a recognition algorithm. However, in this case, the frame rate decreases by the time required for digital signal conversion of multi-bit digital data through the analog-to-digital converter (ADC in the CIS. In order to reduce the overall processing time as well as the power consumption, we propose a data processing technique with an exclusive OR (XOR logic gate to obtain single-bit and edge detection image data instead of multi-bit image data through the ADC. In addition, we propose a logarithmic counter to efficiently measure single-bit image data that can be applied to the iris recognition algorithm. The effective area of the proposed single-bit image sensor (174 × 144 pixel is 2.84 mm2 with a 0.18 μm 1-poly 4-metal CMOS image sensor process. The power consumption of the proposed single-bit CIS is 2.8 mW with a 3.3 V of supply voltage and 520 frame/s of the maximum frame rates. The error rate of the ADC is 0.24 least significant bit (LSB on an 8-bit ADC basis at a 50 MHz sampling frequency.

  8. The Design of a Single-Bit CMOS Image Sensor for Iris Recognition Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keunyeol; Song, Minkyu; Kim, Soo Youn

    2018-02-24

    This paper presents a single-bit CMOS image sensor (CIS) that uses a data processing technique with an edge detection block for simple iris segmentation. In order to recognize the iris image, the image sensor conventionally captures high-resolution image data in digital code, extracts the iris data, and then compares it with a reference image through a recognition algorithm. However, in this case, the frame rate decreases by the time required for digital signal conversion of multi-bit digital data through the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in the CIS. In order to reduce the overall processing time as well as the power consumption, we propose a data processing technique with an exclusive OR (XOR) logic gate to obtain single-bit and edge detection image data instead of multi-bit image data through the ADC. In addition, we propose a logarithmic counter to efficiently measure single-bit image data that can be applied to the iris recognition algorithm. The effective area of the proposed single-bit image sensor (174 × 144 pixel) is 2.84 mm² with a 0.18 μm 1-poly 4-metal CMOS image sensor process. The power consumption of the proposed single-bit CIS is 2.8 mW with a 3.3 V of supply voltage and 520 frame/s of the maximum frame rates. The error rate of the ADC is 0.24 least significant bit (LSB) on an 8-bit ADC basis at a 50 MHz sampling frequency.

  9. Secure Block Ciphers - Cryptanalysis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiessen, Tyge

    be applied to the AES can be transferred to this block cipher, albeit with a higher attack complexity. The second publication introduces a new block cipher family which is targeted for new applications in fully homomorphic encryption and multi-party computation. We demonstrate the soundness of the design...... is encrypted using so-called symmetric ciphers. The security of our digital infrastructure thus rests at its very base on their security. The central topic of this thesis is the security of block ciphers – the most prominent form of symmetric ciphers. This thesis is separated in two parts. The first part...... is an introduction to block ciphers and their cryptanalysis, the second part contains publications written and published during the PhD studies. The first publication evaluates the security of a modification of the AES in which the choice of S-box is unknown to the attacker. We find that some of the attacks that can...

  10. Conceptual design of an integrated information system for safety related analysis of nuclear power plants (IRIS Phase 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, K.; Zehnder, P.; Galperin, A.

    1994-01-01

    This report deals with a conceptual design of an integrated information management system, called PSI-IRIS, as needed to assist the analysts for reactor safety related investigations on Swiss nuclear power plants within the project STARS. Performing complicated engineering analyses of an NPP requires storage and manipulation of a large amount of information, both data and knowledge. This information is characterized by its multi-disciplinary nature, complexity, and diversity. The problems caused by inefficient and lengthy manual operations involving the data flow management within the framework of the safety related analysis of an NPP, can be solved by applying computer aided engineering (CAE) principles. These principles are the basis for the design of the integrated information management system PSI-IRIS presented in this report. The basic idea is to create a computerized environment, which includes both database and functional capabilities. The database of the PSI-IRIS consists of two parts, an NPP generic database (GDB) and a collection of analysis results (CASE L IB). The GDB includes all technical plant data and information needed to generate input decks for all computer codes utilized within the STARS project. The CASE L IB storage contains the accumulated knowledge, input decks, and result files of the NPP transient analyses. Considerations and analysis of the data types and the required data manipulation capabilities as well as operational requirements resulted in the choice of an object-oriented database management system (OODBMS) as a development platform for solving the software engineering problems. Several advantages of OODBMS's over conventional relational database management systems were found of crucial importance, especially providing the necessary flexibility for different data types and the potential for extensibility. (author) 15 figs., tabs., 20 refs

  11. SURVEY OF BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS USING IRIS RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    S.PON SANGEETHA; DR.M.KARNAN

    2014-01-01

    The security plays an important role in any type of organization in today’s life. Iris recognition is one of the leading automatic biometric systems in the area of security which is used to identify the individual person. Biometric systems include fingerprints, facial features, voice recognition, hand geometry, handwriting, the eye retina and the most secured one presented in this paper, the iris recognition. Biometric systems has become very famous in security systems because it is not possi...

  12. IRIS. Progress in licensing and toward deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, B.; Carelli, M.D.; Kling, C.L.; Cavlina, N.; Grgic, D.

    2006-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is an advanced, integral, light water cooled, pressurized reactor of smaller generating capacity (1000 MWt, or 335 MWe). It is being developed through a strong international partnership by a team lead by Westinghouse and including organizations from 10 countries. The main objective of the project is to offer a simple nuclear power plant with outstanding safety, attractive economics and enhanced proliferation resistance characteristics ready for deployment within the next decade. IRIS embodies the requirements set forth by the recently announced US DOE Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program for worldwide deployment of a smaller-scale reactors and provides a viable bridge to Generation IV reactors. IRIS is designed to address the needs of both developed and emerging markets. Its smaller power level provides deployment flexibility in larger developed markets, and makes it in particular well suited for markets with limited grids or where the annual energy demand growth is moderate. Due to its short construction time and the staggered build option, IRIS significantly reduces the required financing, improves cash flow, and provides a viable solution for economies with limited resources. While based on proven and worldwide accepted LWR technology, IRIS introduces a number of innovative solutions to simplify its design and improve safety and operational characteristics, including the integral primary system and its components, as well as the safety-by-design approach. These features will be tested and demonstrated in a testing program that has been initiated. As its centerpiece, the program will include the integral test facility. Results of this program will support licensing with the US NRC. A multinational licensing is considered to facilitate worldwide deployment. (author)

  13. Secure Supply Chains : Design Restrictions & Organizational Boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludema, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    An important issue in the design of secure supply chains is the understanding of the relation between supply chains and the organizational responsibility of specific parts of these supply chains. Organizational boundaries change over time by means of vertical and/or horizontal (des)-integration and

  14. Convertible security design and contract innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, C.M.; Verwijmeren, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies convertible security design for a sample of 814 issuers over the years 2000 through 2007. Using a nested logit model, we examine how firms choose fixed income claims and the method of payment. We find that fixed income claims are chosen to reduce corporate income taxes, minimize

  15. Designing Secure Systems on Reconfigurable Hardware

    OpenAIRE

    Huffmire, Ted; Brotherton, Brett; Callegari, Nick; Valamehr, Jonathan; White, Jeff; Kastner, Ryan; Sherwood, Ted

    2008-01-01

    The extremely high cost of custom ASIC fabrication makes FPGAs an attractive alternative for deployment of custom hardware. Embedded systems based on reconfigurable hardware integrate many functions onto a single device. Since embedded designers often have no choice but to use soft IP cores obtained from third parties, the cores operate at different trust levels, resulting in mixed trust designs. The goal of this project is to evaluate recently proposed security primitives for reconfigurab...

  16. Iris small break loca phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, T.K.; Moody, F.J.; Wilson, G.E.; Brown, W.L.; Frepoli, C.; Hartz, J.; Woods, B.G.; Oriani, L.

    2007-01-01

    The international reactor innovative and secure (IRIS) is a modular pressurized water reactor with an integral configuration (all primary system components - reactor core, internals, pumps, steam generators, pressurizer, and control rod drive mechanisms - are inside the reactor vessel). The IRIS plant conceptual design was completed in 2001 and the preliminary design is currently underway. The pre-application licensing process with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) started in October 2002. The first line of defense in IRIS is to eliminate event initiators that could potentially lead to core damage. If it is not possible to eliminate certain accidents altogether, then the design inherently reduces their consequences and/or decreases their probability of occurring. One of the most obvious advantages of the IRIS Safety-by-Design TM approach is the elimination of large break loss-of-coolant accidents (LBLOCAs), since no large primary penetrations of the reactor vessel or large loop piping exist. While the IRIS Safety-by-Design TM approach is a logical step in the effort to produce advanced reactors, the desired advances in safety must still be demonstrated in the licensing arena. With the elimination of LBLOCA, an important next consideration is to show the IRIS design fulfills the promise of increased safety also for small break LOCAs (SBLOCAs). Accordingly, the SBLOCA phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) project was established. The primary objective of the IRIS SBLOCA PIRT project was to identify the relative importance of phenomena in the IRIS response to SBLOCAs. This relative importance, coupled with the current relative state of knowledge for the phenomena, provides a framework for the planning of the continued experimental and analytical efforts. To satisfy the SBLOCA PIRT project objectives, Westinghouse organized an expert panel whose members were carefully selected to insure that the PIRT results reflect internationally

  17. Computer modeling of homogenization of boric acid in IRIS pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rives Sanz, Ronny; Montesinos Otero, Maria Elena; Gonzalez Mantecon, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Integral layout of nuclear reactor IRIS makes possible the elimination of the spray system; which is usually used to mitigate in-surge transient and help to boron homogenization. The study of transients with deficiencies in the boron homogenization in this technology is very important, because they can cause disturbances in the reactor power and insert a strong reactivity in the core. The aim of the present research is to model the IRIS pressurizer using the CFX code searching for designs alternatives that guaranteed its intrinsic security, focused on the phenomena before mentioned. A symmetric tri dimensional model equivalent to 1/8 of the total geometry was adopted to reduce mesh size and minimize processing time. The relationships are programmed and incorporated into the code. This paper discusses the model developed and the behavior of the system for representative transients sequences. The results of the analyzed IRIS transients could be applied to the design of the pressurizer internal structures and components. (Author)

  18. The design, physical properties and clinical utility of an iris collimator for robotic radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echner, G G; Kilby, W; Rhein, B; Lang, C; Schlegel, W [Department of Medical Physics, DKFZ, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Lee, M; Earnst, E; Sayeh, S; Dooley, J R; Lessard, E; Maurer, C R Jr [Accuray Incorporated, 1310 Chesapeake Terrace, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 (United States); Schlaefer, A; Blanck, O [Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, University of Luebeck, Gebaeude 64, Ratzeburger Allee 160, D-23538 Luebeck (Germany)], E-mail: wkilby@accuray.com

    2009-09-21

    Robotic radiosurgery using more than one circular collimator can improve treatment plan quality and reduce total monitor units (MU). The rationale for an iris collimator that allows the field size to be varied during treatment delivery is to enable the benefits of multiple-field-size treatments to be realized with no increase in treatment time due to collimator exchange or multiple traversals of the robotic manipulator by allowing each beam to be delivered with any desired field size during a single traversal. This paper describes the Iris(TM) variable aperture collimator (Accuray Incorporated, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), which incorporates 12 tungsten-copper alloy segments in two banks of six. The banks are rotated by 30 deg. with respect to each other, which limits the radiation leakage between the collimator segments and produces a 12-sided polygonal treatment beam. The beam is approximately circular, with a root-mean-square (rms) deviation in the 50% dose radius of <0.8% (corresponding to <0.25 mm at the 60 mm field size) and an rms variation in the 20-80% penumbra width of about 0.1 mm at the 5 mm field size increasing to about 0.5 mm at 60 mm. The maximum measured collimator leakage dose rate was 0.07%. A commissioning method is described by which the average dose profile can be obtained from four profile measurements at each depth based on the periodicity of the isodose line variations with azimuthal angle. The penumbra of averaged profiles increased with field size and was typically 0.2-0.6 mm larger than that of an equivalent fixed circular collimator. The aperture reproducibility is {<=}0.1 mm at the lower bank, diverging to {<=}0.2 mm at a nominal treatment distance of 800 mm from the beam focus. Output factors (OFs) and tissue-phantom-ratio data are identical to those used for fixed collimators, except the OFs for the two smallest field sizes (5 and 7.5 mm) are considerably lower for the Iris Collimator. If average collimator profiles are used, the assumption

  19. The design, physical properties and clinical utility of an iris collimator for robotic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echner, G G; Kilby, W; Rhein, B; Lang, C; Schlegel, W; Lee, M; Earnst, E; Sayeh, S; Dooley, J R; Lessard, E; Maurer, C R Jr; Schlaefer, A; Blanck, O

    2009-01-01

    Robotic radiosurgery using more than one circular collimator can improve treatment plan quality and reduce total monitor units (MU). The rationale for an iris collimator that allows the field size to be varied during treatment delivery is to enable the benefits of multiple-field-size treatments to be realized with no increase in treatment time due to collimator exchange or multiple traversals of the robotic manipulator by allowing each beam to be delivered with any desired field size during a single traversal. This paper describes the Iris(TM) variable aperture collimator (Accuray Incorporated, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), which incorporates 12 tungsten-copper alloy segments in two banks of six. The banks are rotated by 30 deg. with respect to each other, which limits the radiation leakage between the collimator segments and produces a 12-sided polygonal treatment beam. The beam is approximately circular, with a root-mean-square (rms) deviation in the 50% dose radius of <0.8% (corresponding to <0.25 mm at the 60 mm field size) and an rms variation in the 20-80% penumbra width of about 0.1 mm at the 5 mm field size increasing to about 0.5 mm at 60 mm. The maximum measured collimator leakage dose rate was 0.07%. A commissioning method is described by which the average dose profile can be obtained from four profile measurements at each depth based on the periodicity of the isodose line variations with azimuthal angle. The penumbra of averaged profiles increased with field size and was typically 0.2-0.6 mm larger than that of an equivalent fixed circular collimator. The aperture reproducibility is ≤0.1 mm at the lower bank, diverging to ≤0.2 mm at a nominal treatment distance of 800 mm from the beam focus. Output factors (OFs) and tissue-phantom-ratio data are identical to those used for fixed collimators, except the OFs for the two smallest field sizes (5 and 7.5 mm) are considerably lower for the Iris Collimator. If average collimator profiles are used, the assumption of

  20. Computational model for transient studies of IRIS pressurizer behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rives Sanz, R.; Montesino Otero, M.E.; Gonzalez Mantecon, J.; Rojas Mazaira, L.

    2014-01-01

    International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) excels other Small Modular Reactor (SMR) designs due to its innovative characteristics regarding safety. IRIS integral pressurizer makes the design of larger pressurizer system than the conventional PWR, without any additional cost. The IRIS pressurizer volume of steam can provide enough margins to avoid spray requirement to mitigate in-surge transient. The aim of the present research is to model the IRIS pressurizer's dynamic using the commercial finite volume Computational Fluid Dynamic code CFX 14. A symmetric tridimensional model equivalent to 1/8 of the total geometry was adopted to reduce mesh size and minimize processing time. The model considers the coexistence of three phases: liquid, steam, and vapor bubbles in liquid volume. Additionally, it takes into account the heat losses between the pressurizer and primary circuit. The relationships for interfacial mass, energy, and momentum transport are programmed and incorporated into CFX by using expressions in CFX Command Language (CCL) format. Moreover, several additional variables are defined for improving the convergence and allow monitoring of boron dilution sequences and condensation-evaporation rate in different control volumes. For transient states a non - equilibrium stratification in the pressurizer is considered. This paper discusses the model developed and the behavior of the system for representative transients sequences such as the in/out-surge transients and boron dilution sequences. The results of analyzed transients of IRIS can be applied to the design of pressurizer internal structures and components. (author)

  1. Fuel management approach in IRIS Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, B.; Franceschini, F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of fuel management approach employed in IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure). It introduces the initial, rather ambitious, fuel management goals and discusses their evolution that reflected the fast pace of progress of the overall project. The updated objectives rely on using currently licensed fuel technology, thus enabling near-term deployment of IRIS, while still providing improved fuel utilization. The paper focuses on the reference core design and fuel management strategy that is considered in pre-application licensing, which enables extended cycle of three to four years. The extended cycle reduces maintenance outage time and increases capacity factor, thus reducing the cost of electricity. Approaches to achieving this goal are discussed, including use of different reloading strategies. Additional fuel management options, which are not part of the licensing process, but are pursued as long-term research for possible future implementation, are presented as well. (Author)

  2. Designing a Secure Point-of-Sale System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin; Pedersen, Allan; Hedegaard, Anders

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes some experiences with using the ''Common Criteria for Information Security Evaluation'' as the basis for a design methodology when designing secure systems. As an example, the design process for a Point-of-Sale (POS) system is described.......This paper describes some experiences with using the ''Common Criteria for Information Security Evaluation'' as the basis for a design methodology when designing secure systems. As an example, the design process for a Point-of-Sale (POS) system is described....

  3. A plant control system development approach for IRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Brittain, C.R.; March-Leuba, J.A.; Conway, L.E.; Oriani, L.

    2003-01-01

    The plant control system concept for the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) will make use of integrated control, diagnostic, and decision modules to provide a highly automated intelligent control capability. The plant control system development approach established for IRIS involves determination and verification of control strategies based on whole-plant simulation; identification of measurement, control, and diagnostic needs; development of an architectural framework in which to integrate an intelligent plant control system; and design of the necessary control and diagnostic elements for implementation and validation. This paper describes key elements of the plant control system development approach established for IRIS and presents some of the strategies and methods investigated to support the desired control capabilities. (author)

  4. Computational cameras for moving iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Scott; Venkatesha, Sharath

    2015-05-01

    Iris-based biometric identification is increasingly used for facility access and other security applications. Like all methods that exploit visual information, however, iris systems are limited by the quality of captured images. Optical defocus due to a small depth of field (DOF) is one such challenge, as is the acquisition of sharply-focused iris images from subjects in motion. This manuscript describes the application of computational motion-deblurring cameras to the problem of moving iris capture, from the underlying theory to system considerations and performance data.

  5. IRIS: A global approach to nuclear power renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Improved international reactor IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is discussed. IRIS is defined as a modular reactor with integral arrangement and water coolant. Industrial companies, research, scientific groups and electric power producers of different countries (USA, Great Britain, Italy, Spain, Brazil, Russia, Mexico, Japan, Croatia) take part in the realization of IRIS. Basic parameters of the reactor, construction characteristics, arrangement are presented [ru

  6. Design and implementation of an algorithm for creating templates for the purpose of iris biometric authentication through the analysis of textures implemented on a FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacometto, F J; Vilardy, J M; Torres, C O; Mattos, L

    2011-01-01

    Currently addressing problems related to security in access control, as a consequence, have been developed applications that work under unique characteristics in individuals, such as biometric features. In the world becomes important working with biometric images such as the liveliness of the iris which are for both the pattern of retinal images as your blood vessels. This paper presents an implementation of an algorithm for creating templates for biometric authentication with ocular features for FPGA, in which the object of study is that the texture pattern of iris is unique to each individual. The authentication will be based in processes such as edge extraction methods, segmentation principle of John Daugman and Libor Masek's, and standardization to obtain necessary templates for the search of matches in a database and then get the expected results of authentication.

  7. Design and implementation of an algorithm for creating templates for the purpose of iris biometric authentication through the analysis of textures implemented on a FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacometto, F J; Vilardy, J M; Torres, C O; Mattos, L, E-mail: franciscogiacometto@unicesar.edu.co [Laboratorio de Optica e Informatica, Universidad Popular del Cesar, Sede balneario Hurtado, Valledupar, Cesar (Colombia)

    2011-01-01

    Currently addressing problems related to security in access control, as a consequence, have been developed applications that work under unique characteristics in individuals, such as biometric features. In the world becomes important working with biometric images such as the liveliness of the iris which are for both the pattern of retinal images as your blood vessels. This paper presents an implementation of an algorithm for creating templates for biometric authentication with ocular features for FPGA, in which the object of study is that the texture pattern of iris is unique to each individual. The authentication will be based in processes such as edge extraction methods, segmentation principle of John Daugman and Libor Masek's, and standardization to obtain necessary templates for the search of matches in a database and then get the expected results of authentication.

  8. Iris melanocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanović, Anica Bobić; Krnjaja, Bojana Dacić; Jaksić, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Iris melanocytoma (IM) is a rare benign tumor, but unavoidable in differential diagnosis of pigmented iris lesions. According to the best knowledge of the authors it is for the first time in Serbia that a well-documented case of IM is presented and that the problem of this tumor is discussed. In the left eye of a 47-year-old white female at the iris in a six o'clock position, a highly pigmented, dome shaped lesion with a crater-like cavity in the center and with feathery margins was noticed. There were no signs of infiltration of surrounding tissue or intrinsic vessels and the lens was clear. Visual acuity and intraocular pressure were normal. An ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) revealed a well-defined lesion with high internal reflectivity, with a base diameter of 1.25 mm and a thickness of 0.80 mm in the periphery, and 0.53 mm in the central part.The diagnosis of IM of the left eye was established and regular checkups were performed for ten years. No changes in clinical or UBM presentation were established. Awareness of clinical presentation of IM is most important for correct diagnosis. Ultrasound biomicroscopy is a useful diagnostic procedure in the following up of IM.

  9. Engineering a Light-Attenuating Artificial Iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareef, Farah J; Sun, Shan; Kotecha, Mrignayani; Kassem, Iris; Azar, Dimitri; Cho, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Discomfort from light exposure leads to photophobia, glare, and poor vision in patients with congenital or trauma-induced iris damage. Commercial artificial iris lenses are static in nature to provide aesthetics without restoring the natural iris's dynamic response to light. A new photo-responsive artificial iris was therefore developed using a photochromic material with self-adaptive light transmission properties and encased in a transparent biocompatible polymer matrix. The implantable artificial iris was designed and engineered using Photopia, a class of photo-responsive materials (termed naphthopyrans) embedded in polyethylene. Photopia was reshaped into annular disks that were spin-coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form our artificial iris lens of controlled thickness. Activated by UV and blue light in approximately 5 seconds with complete reversal in less than 1 minute, the artificial iris demonstrates graded attenuation of up to 40% of visible and 60% of UV light. There optical characteristics are suitable to reversibly regulate the incident light intensity. In vitro cell culture experiments showed up to 60% cell death within 10 days of exposure to Photopia, but no significant cell death observed when cultured with the artificial iris with protective encapsulation. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy confirmed these results as there was no apparent leakage of potentially toxic photochromic material from the ophthalmic device. Our artificial iris lens mimics the functionality of the natural iris by attenuating light intensity entering the eye with its rapid reversible change in opacity and thus potentially providing an improved treatment option for patients with iris damage.

  10. Integrated security systems design a complete reference for building enterprise-wide digital security systems

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Thomas L

    2014-01-01

    Integrated Security Systems Design, 2nd Edition, is recognized as the industry-leading book on the subject of security systems design. It explains how to design a fully integrated security system that ties together numerous subsystems into one complete, highly coordinated, and highly functional system. With a flexible and scalable enterprise-level system, security decision makers can make better informed decisions when incidents occur and improve their operational efficiencies in ways never before possible. The revised edition covers why designing an integrated security system is essential a

  11. 12 CFR 568.2 - Designation of security officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of security officer. 568.2 Section 568.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITY PROCEDURES § 568.2 Designation of security officer. Within 30 days after the effective date of insurance of...

  12. Genetic Background of Iris Melanomas and Iris Melanocytic Tumors of Uncertain Malignant Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Poppelen, Natasha M; Vaarwater, Jolanda; Mudhar, Hardeep S; Sisley, Karen; Rennie, Ian G; Rundle, Paul; Brands, Tom; van den Bosch, Quincy C C; Mensink, Hanneke W; de Klein, Annelies; Kiliç, Emine; Verdijk, Robert M

    2018-01-19

    BAP1 expression as seen in choroidal melanoma. Consequently, iris melanoma is a distinct molecular subgroup of UM. Histologic borderline malignant iris nevi can harbor BAP1 mutations and may be designated iris melanocytic tumors of uncertain malignant potential. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Secure wireless embedded systems via component-based design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, T.; Torbensen, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the method secure-by-design as a way of constructing wireless embedded systems using component-based modeling frameworks. This facilitates design of secure applications through verified, reusable software. Following this method we propose a security framework with a secure c......, with full support for confidentiality, authentication, and integrity using keypairs. The approach has been demonstrated in a multi-platform home automation prototype that can remotely unlock a door using a PDA over the Internet....

  14. IRIS Responsiveness to Generation IV Road-map Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.; Paramonov, D.V.; Petrovic, B.

    2002-01-01

    The DOE Generation IV road-map process is in its second and final year. Almost one hundred concepts submitted from all over the world have been reviewed against the Generation IV goals of resources sustainability; safety and reliability; and, economics. Advanced LWRs are taken as the reference point. IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure), a 100-335 MWe integral light water reactor being developed by a vast international consortium led by Westinghouse, is one on the concepts being considered in the road-map and is perhaps the most visible representative of the concept set known as Integral Primary System Reactors (IPSR). This paper presents how IRIS satisfies the prescribed goals. The first goal of resource sustainability includes criteria like utilization of fuel resources, amount and toxicity of waste produced, environmental impact, proliferation and sabotage resistance. As a thermal reactor IRIS does not have the same fuel utilization as fast reactors. However, it has a significant flexibility in fuel cycles as it is designed to utilize either UO 2 or MOX with straight burn cycles of 4 to 10 years, depending on the fissile content. High discharge burnup and Pu recycling result in good fuel utilization and lower waste; IRIS has also attractive proliferation resistance characteristics, due to the reduced accessibility of the fuel. The safety and reliability goal include reliability, workers' exposure, robust safety features, models with well characterized uncertainty, source term and mechanisms of energy release, robust mitigation of accidents. IRIS is significantly better than advanced LWRs because of its safety by design which eliminates a variety of accidents such as LOCAs, its containment vessel coupled design which maintains the core safely covered during the accident sequences, its design simplification features such as no (or reduced) soluble boron, internal shielding and four-year refueling/maintenance interval which significantly reduce

  15. Preliminary ATWS analysis for the IRIS PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddalena Barra; Marco S Ghisu; David J Finnicum; Luca Oriani

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The pressurized light water cooled, medium power (1000 MWt) IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) has been under development for four years by an international consortium of over 21 organizations from ten countries. The plant conceptual design was completed in 2001 and the preliminary design is nearing completion. The pre-application licensing process with NRC started in October, 2002. IRIS has been primarily focused on establishing a design with innovative safety characteristics. The first line of defense in IRIS is to eliminate event initiators that could potentially lead to core damage. In IRIS, this concept is implemented through the 'safety by design' approach, which allows to minimize the number and complexity of the safety systems and required operator actions. The end result is a design with significantly reduced complexity and improved operability, and extensive plant simplifications to enhance construction. To support the optimization of the plant design and confirm the effectiveness of the safety by design approach in mitigating or eliminating events and thus providing a significant reduction in the probability of severe accidents, the PRA is being used as an integral part of the design process. A preliminary but extensive Level 1 PRA model has been developed to support the pre-application licensing of the IRIS design. As a result of the Preliminary IRIS PRA, an optimization of the design from a reliability point of view was completed, and an extremely low (about 1.2 E -8 ) core damage frequency (CDF) was assessed to confirm the impact of the safety by design approach. This first assessment is a result of a PRA model including internal initiating events. During this assessment, several assumptions were necessary to complete the CDF evaluation. In particular Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) were not included in this initial assessment, because their contribution to core damage frequency was assumed

  16. Locating An IRIS From Image Using Canny And Hough Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorvi Bhatt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition a relatively new biometric technology has great advantages such as variability stability and security thus it is the most promising for high security environments. The proposed system here is a simple system design and implemented to find the iris from the image using Hough Transform Algorithm. Canny Edge detector has been used to get edge image to use it as an input to the Hough Transform. To get the general idea of Hough Transform the Hough Transform for circle is also implemented. RGB value of 3-D accumulator array of peaks of inner circle and outer circle has been performed. And at the end some suggestions are made to improve the system and performance gets discussed.

  17. Secure system design and trustable computing

    CERN Document Server

    Potkonjak, Miodrag

    2016-01-01

    This book provides the foundations for understanding hardware security and trust, which have become major concerns for national security over the past decade.  Coverage includes issues related to security and trust in a variety of electronic devices and systems related to the security of hardware, firmware and software, spanning system applications, online transactions, and networking services.  This serves as an invaluable reference to the state-of-the-art research that is of critical significance to the security of, and trust in, modern society’s microelectronic-supported infrastructures.

  18. IRIS economics. A sensitivity review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Keith

    2003-01-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a small to medium advanced light water cooled modular reactor being developed by an international consortium led by Westinghouse/BNFL. This reactor design is specifically aimed at utilities looking to install new (or replacement) nuclear capacity to match market demands, or at developing countries for their distributed power needs. To determine the optimal configuration for IRIS, analysis was undertaken to establish Generation Costs ($/MWh) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR %) to the Utility at alternative power ratings. This was then combined with global market projections for electricity demand out to 2030, segmented into key geographical regions. Finally this information is brought together to form insights, conclusions and recommendations regarding the optimal design. The resultant analysis reveals an optimum power rating for a single module of 335 MWe, with a construction period of 3 years or less and a minimum plant life of 60 years. Individual modules can be installed in a staggered fashion (3 equivalent to 1005 MWe) or built in pairs (2 sets of twin units' equivalent to 1340 MWe). Uncertainty in Market Clearing Price for electricity, Annual Operating Costs and Construction Costs primarily influence lifetime Net Present Values (NPV) and hence IRR % for Utilities. Generation Costs in addition are also influenced by Fuel Costs, Plant Output, Plant Availability and Plant Capacity Factor. Therefore for a site based on 3 single modules, located in North America, Generations Costs of 28.5 $/MWh are required to achieve an IRR of 20%, a level which enables IRIS to compete with all other forms of electricity production. Plant size is critical to commercial success. Sustained (lifetime) high factors for Plant Output, Availability and Capacity Factor are required to achieve a competitive advantage. Modularity offers Utilities the option to match their investments with market conditions, adding additional capacity as

  19. Iris analysis for biometric recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bodade, Rajesh M

    2014-01-01

    The book presents three most significant areas in Biometrics and Pattern Recognition. A step-by-step approach for design and implementation of Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT) plus Rotated Complex Wavelet Filters (RCWF) is discussed in detail. In addition to the above, the book provides detailed analysis of iris images and two methods of iris segmentation. It also discusses simplified study of some subspace-based methods and distance measures for iris recognition backed by empirical studies and statistical success verifications.

  20. 18 CFR 3a.51 - Designation of security officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Top Secret Control Officer and Security Officer for classified material for the Federal Power Commission. The Director, OAO, will designate alternate Top Secret Control Officers and alternated Security... the duties for which the Top Secret Control Officer and Security Officer is responsible. As used...

  1. A Design Methodology for Computer Security Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Ramilli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The field of "computer security" is often considered something in between Art and Science. This is partly due to the lack of widely agreed and standardized methodologies to evaluate the degree of the security of a system. This dissertation intends to contribute to this area by investigating the most common security testing strategies applied nowadays and by proposing an enhanced methodology that may be effectively applied to different threat scenarios with the same degree of effectiveness. ...

  2. The IRIS consortium: international cooperation in advanced reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.; Petrovic, B.; Miller, K.; Lombardi, C.; Ricotti, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Besides its many outstanding technical innovations in the design and safety, the most innovative feature of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), is perhaps the international cooperation which carries on its development. IRIS is designed by an international consortium which currently numbers 21 organizations from ten countries across four continents. It includes reactor, fuel and fuel cycle vendors, component manufacturers, laboratories, academia, architect engineers and power producers. The defining organizational characteristics of IRIS is that while Westinghouse has overall lead and responsibility, this lead is of the type of 'primus inter pares' (first among equals) rather than the traditional owner versus suppliers/contractors relationship. All members of the IRIS consortium contribute and expect to have a return, should IRIS be successfully deployed, commensurate to their investment. The nature of such return will be tailored to the type of each organization, because it will of course be of a different nature for say a component manufacturer, university, or architect engineer. One fundamental tenet of the consortium is that all members, regardless of their amount of contribution, have equal access to all information developed within the project. Technical work is thus being coordinated by integrated subgroups and the whole team meets twice a year to perform an overall review of the work, discuss policy and strategy and plan future activities. Personnel from consortium members have performed internships, mostly at Westinghouse locations in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Windsor, Connecticut, but also at other members, as it has been the case for several graduate students. In fact, more than one hundred students at the various universities have been working on IRIS, most of them conducting graduate theses at the master or doctoral level. The IRIS experience has proved very helpful to the students in successfully landing their employment choice

  3. AHMCT Intelligent Roadway Information System (IRIS) technical support and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    This report documents the research project AHMCT IRIS Technical Support and Testing, : performed under contract 65A0275, Task ID 1777. It presents an overview of the Intelligent : Roadway Information System (IRIS), and its design and function. ...

  4. Implementation Support of Security Design Patterns Using Test Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Yoshizawa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Security patterns are intended to support software developers as the patterns encapsulate security expert knowledge. However, these patterns may be inappropriately applied because most developers are not security experts, leading to threats and vulnerabilities. Here we propose a support method for security design patterns in the implementation phase of software development. Our method creates a test template from a security design pattern, consisting of an “aspect test template” to observe the internal processing and a “test case template”. Providing design information creates a test from the test template with a tool. Because our test template is reusable, it can easily perform a test to validate a security design pattern. In an experiment involving four students majoring in information sciences, we confirm that our method can realize an effective test, verify pattern applications, and support pattern implementation.

  5. CC-based Design of Secure Application Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes some experiences with using the Common Criteria for Information Security Evaluation as the basis for a design methodology for secure application systems. The examples considered include a Point-of-Sale (POS) system, a wind turbine park monitoring and control system and a secu...... an effective and secure design, starting with the formulation of a Protection Profile and ending with a concrete design, within the project timeframe.......This paper describes some experiences with using the Common Criteria for Information Security Evaluation as the basis for a design methodology for secure application systems. The examples considered include a Point-of-Sale (POS) system, a wind turbine park monitoring and control system and a secure...

  6. Computational model for transient studies of IRIS pressurizer behavior; Modelo computacional para el estudio de transitorios en el compensador de presion IRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rives Sanz, R.; Montesino Otero, M.E.; Gonzalez Mantecon, J.; Rojas Mazaira, L., E-mail: mmontesi@instec.cu [Higher Institute of Technology and Applied Science, La Habana (Cuba). Department of Nuclear Engineering; Lira, C.A. Brayner de Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) excels other Small Modular Reactor (SMR) designs due to its innovative characteristics regarding safety. IRIS integral pressurizer makes the design of larger pressurizer system than the conventional PWR, without any additional cost. The IRIS pressurizer volume of steam can provide enough margins to avoid spray requirement to mitigate in-surge transient. The aim of the present research is to model the IRIS pressurizer's dynamic using the commercial finite volume Computational Fluid Dynamic code CFX 14. A symmetric tridimensional model equivalent to 1/8 of the total geometry was adopted to reduce mesh size and minimize processing time. The model considers the coexistence of three phases: liquid, steam, and vapor bubbles in liquid volume. Additionally, it takes into account the heat losses between the pressurizer and primary circuit. The relationships for interfacial mass, energy, and momentum transport are programmed and incorporated into CFX by using expressions in CFX Command Language (CCL) format. Moreover, several additional variables are defined for improving the convergence and allow monitoring of boron dilution sequences and condensation-evaporation rate in different control volumes. For transient states a non - equilibrium stratification in the pressurizer is considered. This paper discusses the model developed and the behavior of the system for representative transients sequences such as the in/out-surge transients and boron dilution sequences. The results of analyzed transients of IRIS can be applied to the design of pressurizer internal structures and components. (author)

  7. Development of a security-by-design handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, David L.; Snell, Mark Kamerer; Iida, Toru; Ochiai, Kazuya; Tanuma, Koji

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that efficient and effective nuclear facility design is best achieved when requirements from the 3S disciplines Safety, Safeguards, and Security - are balanced and intrinsic to the facility design. This can be achieved when policy, processes, methods, and technologies are understood and applied in these areas during all phases of the design process. For the purposes of this paper, Security-by-design will be defined as the system level incorporation of the physical protection system (PPS) into a new or retrofitted nuclear power plant (NPP) or nuclear facility (NF) resulting in intrinsic security. Security-by-design can also be viewed as a framework to achieve robust and durable security systems. This paper reports on work performed to date to create a Security-by-Design Handbook, under a bilateral agreement between the United States and Japan, specifically, a review of physical protection principles and best practices, and a decommissioning to better understand where these principles and practices can be applied. This paper describes physical protection principles and best practices to achieve security-by- design that were gathered from International, Japanese, and U.S. sources. Principles are included for achieving security early in the design process where security requirements are typically less costly and easier to incorporate. The paper then describes a generic design process that covers the entire facility lifecycle from scoping and planning of the project to decommissioning and decontamination. Early design process phases, such as conceptual design, offer opportunities to add security features intrinsic to the facility design itself. Later phases, including design engineering and construction, are important for properly integrating security features into a coherent design and for planning for and assuring the proper performance of the security system during the operation and decommissioning of the facility. The paper also

  8. INPRO economic assessment of the IRIS nuclear reactor for deployment in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves Filho, Orlando Joao Agostinho, E-mail: orlando@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN - RJ), Rua Helio de Almeida, 75, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, 21941-906 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > First INPRO evaluation of IRIS economic competitiveness for deployment in Brazil. > Plant arrangement of three independent IRIS single units constructed in series. > Angra 3 reactor used as reference design for judgment of IRIS economic potential. > IRIS economically competes with 2nd generation nuclear power plants in Brazil - Abstract: This paper presents the results of the economic assessment of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) for deployment in Brazil using the assessment methodology developed under the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), co-ordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). INPRO initiated in 2001 and has the main objective of helping to ensure that nuclear energy will be available to contribute in a sustainable manner to the energy needs of the 21st century. Among its missions is the development of a methodology to assess innovative nuclear energy systems (INSs) on a global, regional and national basis. In 2005, Brazil submitted a proposal for the assessment of two small-size reactors as components of an INS, completed with a conventional open nuclear fuel cycle based on enriched uranium. One of the reactors assessed was IRIS, a small-size, modular, integral-type PWR reactor. IRIS was evaluated with regard to the areas of reactor safety and economics only. This paper outlines the rationale for the study and summarizes the results of the economic assessment. The study concluded that the reference design of IRIS complies with most of INPRO economics criteria and has potential to comply with the remaining ones.

  9. Edge detection techniques for iris recognition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tania, U T; Motakabber, S M A; Ibrahimy, M I

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays security and authentication are the major parts of our daily life. Iris is one of the most reliable organ or part of human body which can be used for identification and authentication purpose. To develop an iris authentication algorithm for personal identification, this paper examines two edge detection techniques for iris recognition system. Between the Sobel and the Canny edge detection techniques, the experimental result shows that the Canny's technique has better ability to detect points in a digital image where image gray level changes even at slow rate

  10. [Electronic Device for Retinal and Iris Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahanský, M; Kolář, R; Mňuk, T

    This paper describes design and construction of a new device for automatic capturing of eye retina and iris. This device has two possible ways of utilization - either for biometric purposes (persons recognition on the base of their eye characteristics) or for medical purposes as supporting diagnostic device. eye retina, eye iris, device, acquisition, image.

  11. IRIS-economics review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.

    2005-01-01

    IRIS is a medium sized advanced light water cooled modular reactor being developed by an international Group led by Westinghouse/BNFL. This reactor design is aimed at a broad spectrum of Utilities looking to install nuclear capacity to match market demands, or at emerging Nations with specific financial constraints looking to strategically optimise their debit levels. The IRIS building block is a multiple module sized at 335 MWe, with a construction period of 3 years and a 60-year plant life. Modules can be installed individually or in parks. In the latter case, deployment can be in single modules or in pairs (twin-unit); both will be built in staggered fashion at time intervals as dictated by economic and market considerations. One of the unique features of IRIS is its ability to offer reduction in costs through increased experience 'Learning' at a single site: In construction, the principal benefit is derived for subsequent modules, and is dependent on maintaining the 'core' team throughout. This is particularly important if there is any significant period between the completion of say module 1 and the start of module 2. This time frame will be driven by the overall market size, projected growth in demand and the level of financial risk the utility is prepared to accept. Learning benefits in construction are derived from skills and experience retention impacting on reducing the number of inputs and construction time. Learning in operation may benefit from a certain delay between modules as this allows operators to build up their 'cumulative experience'. Reactor operations on day 1 would be significantly different from those of say 3 years later. These benefits would be passed on to modules 2 and 3, which would realise them from day 1. Learning in operation is dependent on the ability to retain within the organisation knowledge and records of key events. The benefits from Learning in operation may also be applicable to different sites, in different countries. It

  12. Aspect-oriented security hardening of UML design models

    CERN Document Server

    Mouheb, Djedjiga; Pourzandi, Makan; Wang, Lingyu; Nouh, Mariam; Ziarati, Raha; Alhadidi, Dima; Talhi, Chamseddine; Lima, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    This book comprehensively presents a novel approach to the systematic security hardening of software design models expressed in the standard UML language. It combines model-driven engineering and the aspect-oriented paradigm to integrate security practices into the early phases of the software development process. To this end, a UML profile has been developed for the specification of security hardening aspects on UML diagrams. In addition, a weaving framework, with the underlying theoretical foundations, has been designed for the systematic injection of security aspects into UML models. The

  13. Design tools for complex dynamic security systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Rigdon, James Brian; Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Laguna, Glenn A.; Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Groom, Kenneth Neal; Wilson, David Gerald; Bickerstaff, Robert J.; Harrington, John J.

    2007-01-01

    The development of tools for complex dynamic security systems is not a straight forward engineering task but, rather, a scientific task where discovery of new scientific principles and math is necessary. For years, scientists have observed complex behavior but have had difficulty understanding it. Prominent examples include: insect colony organization, the stock market, molecular interactions, fractals, and emergent behavior. Engineering such systems will be an even greater challenge. This report explores four tools for engineered complex dynamic security systems: Partially Observable Markov Decision Process, Percolation Theory, Graph Theory, and Exergy/Entropy Theory. Additionally, enabling hardware technology for next generation security systems are described: a 100 node wireless sensor network, unmanned ground vehicle and unmanned aerial vehicle.

  14. Bartus Iris biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, R.; Grace, W.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We won a 1994 R&D 100 Award for inventing the Bartas Iris Verification System. The system has been delivered to a sponsor and is no longer available to us. This technology can verify the identity of a person for purposes of access control, national security, law enforcement, forensics, counter-terrorism, and medical, financial, or scholastic records. The technique is non-invasive, psychologically acceptable, works in real-time, and obtains more biometric data than any other biometric except DNA analysis. This project sought to develop a new, second-generation prototype instrument.

  15. Secure steganography designed for mobile platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaian, Sos S.; Cherukuri, Ravindranath; Sifuentes, Ronnie R.

    2006-05-01

    Adaptive steganography, an intelligent approach to message hiding, integrated with matrix encoding and pn-sequences serves as a promising resolution to recent security assurance concerns. Incorporating the above data hiding concepts with established cryptographic protocols in wireless communication would greatly increase the security and privacy of transmitting sensitive information. We present an algorithm which will address the following problems: 1) low embedding capacity in mobile devices due to fixed image dimensions and memory constraints, 2) compatibility between mobile and land based desktop computers, and 3) detection of stego images by widely available steganalysis software [1-3]. Consistent with the smaller available memory, processor capabilities, and limited resolution associated with mobile devices, we propose a more magnified approach to steganography by focusing adaptive efforts at the pixel level. This deeper method, in comparison to the block processing techniques commonly found in existing adaptive methods, allows an increase in capacity while still offering a desired level of security. Based on computer simulations using high resolution, natural imagery and mobile device captured images, comparisons show that the proposed method securely allows an increased amount of embedding capacity but still avoids detection by varying steganalysis techniques.

  16. Intrinsic information Security: Embedding security issues in the design process of telematics systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tettero, Olaf; Tettero, O.

    This book presents a systematic approach to embed information security issues in the design process of telematics systems. The approach supports both designers and user organisations. We elaborate on the activities that designers should perform to design telematics systems in which information

  17. The IRIS user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.; Howells, W.; Telling, M.

    2001-01-01

    The principles of operation of the IRIS instrument based on inelastic neutron scattering and diffraction are described. The procedure of an experiment performance on IRIS consists of selecting sample cans, loading the sample into the neutron beam. Instructions for using the beam line shutter interlock system, IRIS computing procedure, suitable instrument settings and chopper control are included

  18. Security Design Flaws That Affect Usability in Online Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurlen, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    As the popularity of online banking Websites has increased, the security of these sites has become increasingly critical as attacks against these sites are on the rise. However, the design decisions made during construction of the sites could make usability more difficult, where the user has difficulty making good security decisions. This study…

  19. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS OF THE IRIS PROJECT OF INTEREST FOR LATIN AMERICA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.; Petrovic, B.

    2004-01-01

    The IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) reactor design is being developed by an international consortium of 21 organizations from ten countries, including three members from Brazil and one from Mexico. This reflects the interest that Latin America has for a project which addresses the energy needs of the region. Presented here are some of the most recent developments in the IRIS project. The project's highest priority is the current pre-application licensing with the US NRC, which has required an investigation of the major accident sequences and a preliminary probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The results of the accident analyses confirmed the outstanding inherent safety of the IRIS configuration and the PRA analyses indicated a core damage frequency due to internal events of the order of 2E-8. This not only highlights the enhanced safety characteristic of IRIS which should enhance its public acceptance, but it has also prompted IRIS to consider the possibility of being licensed without the need for off-site emergency response planning which would have a very positive economic implication. The modular IRIS, with each module rated at ∼ 335 MWe, is of course an ideal size for developing countries as it allows to easily introduce a moderate amount of power on limited electric grids. IRIS can be deployed in single modules in regions only requiring a few hundred MWs or in multiple modules deployed successively at time intervals in large urban areas requiring a larger amount of power increasing with time. IRIS is designed to operate ''hands-off'' as much as possible, with a small crew, having in mind deployment in areas with limited infrastructure. Thus IRIS has a 48-months maintenance interval, long refueling cycles in excess of three years, and is designed to increase as much as possible operational reliability. For example, the project has recently adopted internal control rod drive mechanisms to eliminate vessel head penetrations and the

  20. Engineering a Light-Attenuating Artificial Iris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareef, Farah J.; Sun, Shan; Kotecha, Mrignayani; Kassem, Iris; Azar, Dimitri; Cho, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Discomfort from light exposure leads to photophobia, glare, and poor vision in patients with congenital or trauma-induced iris damage. Commercial artificial iris lenses are static in nature to provide aesthetics without restoring the natural iris's dynamic response to light. A new photo-responsive artificial iris was therefore developed using a photochromic material with self-adaptive light transmission properties and encased in a transparent biocompatible polymer matrix. Methods The implantable artificial iris was designed and engineered using Photopia, a class of photo-responsive materials (termed naphthopyrans) embedded in polyethylene. Photopia was reshaped into annular disks that were spin-coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form our artificial iris lens of controlled thickness. Results Activated by UV and blue light in approximately 5 seconds with complete reversal in less than 1 minute, the artificial iris demonstrates graded attenuation of up to 40% of visible and 60% of UV light. There optical characteristics are suitable to reversibly regulate the incident light intensity. In vitro cell culture experiments showed up to 60% cell death within 10 days of exposure to Photopia, but no significant cell death observed when cultured with the artificial iris with protective encapsulation. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy confirmed these results as there was no apparent leakage of potentially toxic photochromic material from the ophthalmic device. Conclusions Our artificial iris lens mimics the functionality of the natural iris by attenuating light intensity entering the eye with its rapid reversible change in opacity and thus potentially providing an improved treatment option for patients with iris damage. PMID:27116547

  1. Improved iris localization by using wide and narrow field of view cameras for iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong Gon; Shin, Kwang Yong; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2013-10-01

    Biometrics is a method of identifying individuals by their physiological or behavioral characteristics. Among other biometric identifiers, iris recognition has been widely used for various applications that require a high level of security. When a conventional iris recognition camera is used, the size and position of the iris region in a captured image vary according to the X, Y positions of a user's eye and the Z distance between a user and the camera. Therefore, the searching area of the iris detection algorithm is increased, which can inevitably decrease both the detection speed and accuracy. To solve these problems, we propose a new method of iris localization that uses wide field of view (WFOV) and narrow field of view (NFOV) cameras. Our study is new as compared to previous studies in the following four ways. First, the device used in our research acquires three images, one each of the face and both irises, using one WFOV and two NFOV cameras simultaneously. The relation between the WFOV and NFOV cameras is determined by simple geometric transformation without complex calibration. Second, the Z distance (between a user's eye and the iris camera) is estimated based on the iris size in the WFOV image and anthropometric data of the size of the human iris. Third, the accuracy of the geometric transformation between the WFOV and NFOV cameras is enhanced by using multiple matrices of the transformation according to the Z distance. Fourth, the searching region for iris localization in the NFOV image is significantly reduced based on the detected iris region in the WFOV image and the matrix of geometric transformation corresponding to the estimated Z distance. Experimental results showed that the performance of the proposed iris localization method is better than that of conventional methods in terms of accuracy and processing time.

  2. On techniques for angle compensation in nonideal iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckers, Stephanie A C; Schmid, Natalia A; Abhyankar, Aditya; Dorairaj, Vivekanand; Boyce, Christopher K; Hornak, Lawrence A

    2007-10-01

    The popularity of the iris biometric has grown considerably over the past two to three years. Most research has been focused on the development of new iris processing and recognition algorithms for frontal view iris images. However, a few challenging directions in iris research have been identified, including processing of a nonideal iris and iris at a distance. In this paper, we describe two nonideal iris recognition systems and analyze their performance. The word "nonideal" is used in the sense of compensating for off-angle occluded iris images. The system is designed to process nonideal iris images in two steps: 1) compensation for off-angle gaze direction and 2) processing and encoding of the rotated iris image. Two approaches are presented to account for angular variations in the iris images. In the first approach, we use Daugman's integrodifferential operator as an objective function to estimate the gaze direction. After the angle is estimated, the off-angle iris image undergoes geometric transformations involving the estimated angle and is further processed as if it were a frontal view image. The encoding technique developed for a frontal image is based on the application of the global independent component analysis. The second approach uses an angular deformation calibration model. The angular deformations are modeled, and calibration parameters are calculated. The proposed method consists of a closed-form solution, followed by an iterative optimization procedure. The images are projected on the plane closest to the base calibrated plane. Biorthogonal wavelets are used for encoding to perform iris recognition. We use a special dataset of the off-angle iris images to quantify the performance of the designed systems. A series of receiver operating characteristics demonstrate various effects on the performance of the nonideal-iris-based recognition system.

  3. Design of the XML Security System for Electronic Commerce Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The invocation of World Wide Web (www) first triggered mass adoption of the Internet for public access to digital information exchanges across the globe. To get a big market on the Web, a special security infrastructure would need to be put into place transforming the wild-and-woolly Internet into a network with end-to-end protections. XML (extensible Markup Language) is widely accepted as powerful data representation standard for electronic documents, so a security mechanism for XML documents must be provided in the first place to secure electronic commerce over Internet. In this paper the authors design and implement a secure framework that provides XML signature function, XML Element-wise Encryption function, smart card based crypto API library and Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) security functions to achieve confidentiality, integrity, message authentication, and/or signer authentication services for XML documents and existing non-XML documents that are exchanged by Internet for E-commerce application.

  4. Computational fluid dynamics as a virtual facility for R and D in the IRIS project: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, E.; Inzoli, F.; Ricotti, M.; Uddin, R.; Yan, Y.; Sobh, N.

    2004-01-01

    The pressurized light water cooled, medium power (1000 MWt) IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) has been under development for four years by an international consortium of over 21 organizations from ten countries. The plant conceptual design was completed in 2001 and the preliminary design is nearing completion. The pre-application licensing process with NRC started in October, 2002 and IRIS is one of the designs considered by US utilities as part of the ESP (Early Site Permit) process. The development of a new nuclear plant concept presents the opportunity and potential for a significant usage of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the design process, as it is in many conventional applications related to power generation. A CFD-Group of international scientists has been given the mission of investigating the many application opportunities for CFD related to the IRIS project and to verify the support that the IRIS design process may gain from CFD in terms of time, costs, resource saving, and visibility. The key objective identified is the use of CFD as a design tool for virtual tests in order to simplify the optimization effort for the nuclear plant's components and support the IRIS testing program. In this paper, the CFD-Group is described in terms of their resources and capabilities. A program of activities with identified goals and a possible schedule is also presented.(author)

  5. Task team approach to safeguards and security designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zack, N.R.; Wilkey, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    In 1987, a U.S. department of Energy (DOE) supported task team was organized at the request of the DOE Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID) to provide support for safeguards and security (S and S) designs of the Special Isotope Separation (SIS) facility. Prior to deferral of the project, the SIS facility was to be constructed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to produce weapons grade plutonium from DOE owned fuel grade plutonium. The task team was assembled to provide the resources necessary to assure that S and S considerations were included as an integral part of the design of the facility, and that SIS designs would take advantage of available technology in the areas of physical security, measurements, accountability, and material and personnel tracking. The task team included personnel from DOE/Office of Safeguards and Security (DOE-OSS), DOE-ID, DOE contractors, and the national laboratories providing a wide range of expertise and experience. This paper reports that the team reviewed proposed designs and provided recommendations for safeguards and security features in each stage of the design process. The value of this approach to safeguards and security designs will be discussed with respect to benefits, lessons learned, and recommendations for future applications

  6. Integrated analysis for a small break LOCA in the IRIS reactor using MELCOR and RELAP5 codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Nevo, A.; Manfredini, A.; Oriolo, F.; Paci, S.; Oriani, L.

    2004-01-01

    The pressurized light water cooled, medium power (1000 MWt) IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) has been under development for four years by an international consortium of over 21 organizations from ten countries. The plant conceptual design was completed in 2001 and the preliminary design is nearing completion. The pre-application licensing process with NRC started in October, 2002 and IRIS is one of the designs considered by US utilities as part of the ESP (Early Site Permit) process. This paper's focus is on the use of well known computer codes for integrated (reactor vessel and containment) calculations of the IRIS response to a small break loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In IRIS, large break LOCA events are eliminated by the use of a layout configuration in which the reactor vessel contains all the reactor coolant system components including the core, control rod drive mechanisms, pressurizer, steam generators, and coolant pumps. Thus the IRIS configuration has no large loop piping; also, no pipes with a diameter greater than 0.1 meters are part of the reactor coolant system boundary. For small break LOCAs, IRIS features an innovative mitigation approach that is based on maintaining coolant inventory rather than designing high and low pressure injection systems to provide makeup coolant to the reactor to maintain core cooling. The novel IRIS approach requires development of evaluation models that are different from those used for the current generation of pressurized water reactors. An analysis of small break LOCAs for IRIS is documented in two companion papers, and has been developed using a preliminary evaluation model based on the explicit coupling of the RELAP5 and GOTHIC codes. The objective of this paper is to compare the results obtained via the coupled RELAP/GOTHIC code with different computational tools. A reference case from the preliminary IRIS safety assessment was selected, and the same small break LOCA sequence is analyzed using

  7. Integrating Safeguards and Security with Safety into Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Robert S.; Hockert, John W.; Hebditch, David J.

    2009-01-01

    There is a need to minimize security risks, proliferation hazards, and safety risks in the design of new nuclear facilities in a global environment of nuclear power expansion, while improving the synergy of major design features and raising operational efficiency. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) launched the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) covering many safeguards areas. One of these, launched by NNSA with support of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, was a multi-laboratory project, led by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), to develop safeguards by design. The proposed Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process has been developed as a structured approach to ensure the timely, efficient, and cost effective integration of international safeguards and other nonproliferation barriers with national material control and accountability, physical security, and safety objectives into the overall design process for the nuclear facility lifecycle. A graded, iterative process was developed to integrate these areas throughout the project phases. It identified activities, deliverables, interfaces, and hold points covering both domestic regulatory requirements and international safeguards using the DOE regulatory environment as exemplar to provide a framework and guidance for project management and integration of safety with security during design. Further work, reported in this paper, created a generalized SBD process which could also be employed within the licensed nuclear industry and internationally for design of new facilities. Several tools for integrating safeguards, safety, and security into design are discussed here. SBD appears complementary to the EFCOG TROSSI process for security and safety integration created in 2006, which focuses on standardized upgrades to enable existing DOE facilities to meet a more severe design basis threat. A collaborative approach is suggested.

  8. The Design and Realization of Household Intelligent Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Sheng-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that Smart home has brought great convenience to the lives of humans. However, we have attached quantities of interest in its security as the development of technology goes on. According to the security requirements at the moment, we introduce the scheme of smart home security system based on ZigBee, and design system hardware and software process. By applying a STC89C52 microcontroller, our system is able to accurately detect and give alarms automatically to house fire, harmful gases and thefts.

  9. Security Implications of Physical Design Attributes in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Debajyoti; Pati, Sipra; Harvey, Thomas E

    2016-07-01

    Security, a subset of safety, is equally important in the efficient delivery of patient care. The emergency department (ED) is susceptible to violence creating concerns for the safety and security of patients, staff, and visitors and for the safe and efficient delivery of care. Although there is an implicit and growing recognition of the role of the physical environment, interventions typically have been at the microlevel. The objective of this study was to identify physical design attributes that potentially influence safety and efficiency of ED operations. An exploratory, qualitative research design was adopted to examine the efficiency and safety correlates of ED physical design attributes. The study comprised a multimeasure approach involving multidisciplinary gaming, semistructured interviews, and touring interviews of frontline staff in four EDs at three hospital systems across three states. Five macro physical design attributes (issues that need to be addressed at the design stage and expensive to rectify once built) emerged from the data as factors substantially associated with security issues. They are design issues pertaining to (a) the entry zone, (b) traffic management, (c) patient room clustering, (d) centralization versus decentralization, and (e) provisions for special populations. Data from this study suggest that ED security concerns are generally associated with three sources: (a) gang-related violence, (b) dissatisfied patients, and (c) behavioral health patients. Study data show that physical design has an important role in addressing the above-mentioned concerns. Implications for ED design are outlined in the article. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Iridium Interfacial Stack (IRIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, David James (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An iridium interfacial stack ("IrIS") and a method for producing the same are provided. The IrIS may include ordered layers of TaSi.sub.2, platinum, iridium, and platinum, and may be placed on top of a titanium layer and a silicon carbide layer. The IrIS may prevent, reduce, or mitigate against diffusion of elements such as oxygen, platinum, and gold through at least some of its layers.

  11. TAPIOCA MELANOMA OF THE IRIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEKEIZER, RJW; OOSTERHUIS, JA; HOUTMAN, WA; DEWOLFFROUENDAAL, D

    Clinical identification of tapioca melanoma of the iris is important because its medical treatment may differ from that of other malignant iris melanomas. The characteristic iris nodules must be differentiated from granulomatous uveitis, metastases, and Lisch nodules (neurofibromatosis). We will

  12. Information Systems at Enterprise. Design of Secure Network of Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigushev, N. Y.; Mikhailova, U. V.; Vedeneeva, O. A.; Tsaran, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    No enterprise and company can do without designing its own corporate network in today's information society. It accelerates and facilitates the work of employees at any level, but contains a big threat to confidential information of the company. In addition to the data theft attackers, there are plenty of information threats posed by modern malware effects. In this regard, the computational security of corporate networks is an important component of modern information technologies of computer security for any enterprise. This article says about the design of the protected corporate network of the enterprise that provides the computers on the network access to the Internet, as well interoperability with the branch. The access speed to the Internet at a high level is provided through the use of high-speed access channels and load balancing between devices. The security of the designed network is performed through the use of VLAN technology as well as access lists and AAA server.

  13. Market Design and Supply Security in Imperfect Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwenen, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Supply security in imperfect power markets is modelled under different market designs. In a uniform price auction for electricity with two firms, strategic behaviour may leave firms offering too few capacities and unable to supply all realized demand. Market design that relies oncapacity markets...... increases available generation capacities for sufficiently high capacity prices and consequently decreases energy prices. However, equilibrium capacity prices are non-competitive. Capacity markets can increase security of supply, but cannot mitigate market power, which is exercised in the capacity market...

  14. Iris recognition as a biometric method after cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roizenblatt, Roberto; Schor, Paulo; Dante, Fabio; Roizenblatt, Jaime; Belfort, Rubens

    2004-01-28

    Biometric methods are security technologies, which use human characteristics for personal identification. Iris recognition systems use iris textures as unique identifiers. This paper presents an analysis of the verification of iris identities after intra-ocular procedures, when individuals were enrolled before the surgery. Fifty-five eyes from fifty-five patients had their irises enrolled before a cataract surgery was performed. They had their irises verified three times before and three times after the procedure, and the Hamming (mathematical) distance of each identification trial was determined, in a controlled ideal biometric environment. The mathematical difference between the iris code before and after the surgery was also compared to a subjective evaluation of the iris anatomy alteration by an experienced surgeon. A correlation between visible subjective iris texture alteration and mathematical difference was verified. We found only six cases in which the eye was no more recognizable, but these eyes were later reenrolled. The main anatomical changes that were found in the new impostor eyes are described. Cataract surgeries change iris textures in such a way that iris recognition systems, which perform mathematical comparisons of textural biometric features, are able to detect these changes and sometimes even discard a pre-enrolled iris considering it an impostor. In our study, re-enrollment proved to be a feasible procedure.

  15. Iris recognition in the presence of ocular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Tariq Mehmood; Tan, Shi Zhuan; Dhillon, Baljean

    2009-05-06

    Iris recognition systems are among the most accurate of all biometric technologies with immense potential for use in worldwide security applications. This study examined the effect of eye pathology on iris recognition and in particular whether eye disease could cause iris recognition systems to fail. The experiment involved a prospective cohort of 54 patients with anterior segment eye disease who were seen at the acute referral unit of the Princess Alexandra Eye Pavilion in Edinburgh. Iris camera images were obtained from patients before treatment was commenced and again at follow-up appointments after treatment had been given. The principal outcome measure was that of mathematical difference in the iris recognition templates obtained from patients' eyes before and after treatment of the eye disease. Results showed that the performance of iris recognition was remarkably resilient to most ophthalmic disease states, including corneal oedema, iridotomies (laser puncture of iris) and conjunctivitis. Problems were, however, encountered in some patients with acute inflammation of the iris (iritis/anterior uveitis). The effects of a subject developing anterior uveitis may cause current recognition systems to fail. Those developing and deploying iris recognition should be aware of the potential problems that this could cause to this key biometric technology.

  16. Iris recognition as a biometric method after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roizenblatt Jaime

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biometric methods are security technologies, which use human characteristics for personal identification. Iris recognition systems use iris textures as unique identifiers. This paper presents an analysis of the verification of iris identities after intra-ocular procedures, when individuals were enrolled before the surgery. Methods Fifty-five eyes from fifty-five patients had their irises enrolled before a cataract surgery was performed. They had their irises verified three times before and three times after the procedure, and the Hamming (mathematical distance of each identification trial was determined, in a controlled ideal biometric environment. The mathematical difference between the iris code before and after the surgery was also compared to a subjective evaluation of the iris anatomy alteration by an experienced surgeon. Results A correlation between visible subjective iris texture alteration and mathematical difference was verified. We found only six cases in which the eye was no more recognizable, but these eyes were later reenrolled. The main anatomical changes that were found in the new impostor eyes are described. Conclusions Cataract surgeries change iris textures in such a way that iris recognition systems, which perform mathematical comparisons of textural biometric features, are able to detect these changes and sometimes even discard a pre-enrolled iris considering it an impostor. In our study, re-enrollment proved to be a feasible procedure.

  17. Re-designing the PhEDEx security model

    CERN Document Server

    Wildish, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    PhEDEx. the data-placement tool used by the CMS experiment at the LHC, was conceived in a more trusting time. The security model was designed to provide a safe working environment for site agents and operators, but provided little more protection than that. CMS data was not sufficiently protected against accidental loss caused by operator error or software bugs or from loss of data caused by deliberate manipulation of the database. Operations staff were given high levels of access to the database, beyond what should have been needed to accomplish their tasks. This exposed them to the risk of suspicion should an incident occur. Multiple implementations of the security model led to difficulties maintaining code, which can lead to degredation of security over time.In order to meet the simultaneous goals of protecting CMS data, protecting the operators from undue exposure to risk, increasing monitoring capabilities and improving maintainability of the security model, the PhEDEx security model was redesigned and r...

  18. Iris unwrapping using the Bresenham circle algorithm for real-time iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carothers, Matthew T.; Ngo, Hau T.; Rakvic, Ryan N.; Broussard, Randy P.

    2015-02-01

    An efficient parallel architecture design for the iris unwrapping process in a real-time iris recognition system using the Bresenham Circle Algorithm is presented in this paper. Based on the characteristics of the model parameters this algorithm was chosen over the widely used polar conversion technique as the iris unwrapping model. The architecture design is parallelized to increase the throughput of the system and is suitable for processing an inputted image size of 320 × 240 pixels in real-time using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology. Quartus software is used to implement, verify, and analyze the design's performance using the VHSIC Hardware Description Language. The system's predicted processing time is faster than the modern iris unwrapping technique used today∗.

  19. New modelling strategy for IRIS dynamic response simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cammi, A.; Ricotti, M. E.; Casella, F.; Schiavo, F.

    2004-01-01

    The pressurized light water cooled, medium power (1000 MWt) IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) has been under development for four years by an international consortium of over 21 organizations from ten countries. The plant conceptual design was completed in 2001 and the preliminary design is nearing completion. The pre-application licensing process with NRC started in October, 2002 and IRIS is one of the designs considered by US utilities as part of the ESP (Early Site Permit) process. In this paper the development of an adequate modeling and simulation tool for Dynamics and Control tasks is presented. The key features of the developed simulator are: a) Modularity: the system model is built by connecting the models of its components, which are written independently of their boundary conditions; b) Openness: the code of each component model is clearly readable and close to the original equations and easily customised by the experienced user; c) Efficiency: the simulation code is fast; d) Tool support: the simulation tool is based on reliable, tested and well-documented software. To achieve these objectives, the Modelica language was used as a basis for the development of the simulator. The Modelica language is the results of recent advances in the field of object-oriented, multi-physics, dynamic system modelling. The language definition is open-source and it has already been successfully adopted in several industrial fields. To provide the required capabilities for the analysis, specific models for nuclear reactor components have been developed, to be applied for the dynamic simulation of the IRIS integral reactor, albeit keeping general validity for PWR plants. The following Modelica models have been written to satisfy the IRIS modelling requirements and are presented in this paper: neutronics point kinetic, fuel heat transfer, control rods model, including the innovative internal drive mechanism type, and a once-through type steam generator, thus

  20. IRIS - Generation IV Advanced Light Water Reactor for Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    An international consortium of industry, laboratory, university and utility establishments, led by Westinghouse, is developing a Generation IV Reactor, International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS). IRIS is a modular, integral, light water cooled, low-to-medium power (100-350 MWe) reactor which addresses the requirements defined by the US DOE for Generation IV reactors, i.e., fuel cycle sustainability, enhanced reliability and safety, and improved economics. It features innovative, advanced engineering, but it does not require new technology development since it relies on the proven technology of light water reactors. This paper presents the current reference IRIS design, which features a 1000 MWt thermal core with proven 5%-enriched uranium oxide fuel and four-year long straight burn fuel cycle, integral reactor vessel housing helical tube steam generators and immersed spool pumps. Other major contributors to the high level of safety and economic attractiveness are the safety by design and optimized maintenance approaches, which allow elimination of some classes of accidents, lower capital cost, long operating cycle, and high capacity factors. The path forward for possible future extension to a eight-year cycle will be also discussed. IRIS has a large potential worldwide market because of its proven technology, modularity, low financing, compatibility with existing grids and very limited infrastructure requirements. It is especially appealing to developing countries because of ease of operation and because its medium power is more adaptable to smaller grids. (author)

  1. Design and implementation of a high performance network security processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixin; Bai, Guoqiang; Chen, Hongyi

    2010-03-01

    The last few years have seen many significant progresses in the field of application-specific processors. One example is network security processors (NSPs) that perform various cryptographic operations specified by network security protocols and help to offload the computation intensive burdens from network processors (NPs). This article presents a high performance NSP system architecture implementation intended for both internet protocol security (IPSec) and secure socket layer (SSL) protocol acceleration, which are widely employed in virtual private network (VPN) and e-commerce applications. The efficient dual one-way pipelined data transfer skeleton and optimised integration scheme of the heterogenous parallel crypto engine arrays lead to a Gbps rate NSP, which is programmable with domain specific descriptor-based instructions. The descriptor-based control flow fragments large data packets and distributes them to the crypto engine arrays, which fully utilises the parallel computation resources and improves the overall system data throughput. A prototyping platform for this NSP design is implemented with a Xilinx XC3S5000 based FPGA chip set. Results show that the design gives a peak throughput for the IPSec ESP tunnel mode of 2.85 Gbps with over 2100 full SSL handshakes per second at a clock rate of 95 MHz.

  2. Optimal wavelength band clustering for multispectral iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yazhuo; Zhang, David; Shi, Pengfei; Yan, Jingqi

    2012-07-01

    This work explores the possibility of clustering spectral wavelengths based on the maximum dissimilarity of iris textures. The eventual goal is to determine how many bands of spectral wavelengths will be enough for iris multispectral fusion and to find these bands that will provide higher performance of iris multispectral recognition. A multispectral acquisition system was first designed for imaging the iris at narrow spectral bands in the range of 420 to 940 nm. Next, a set of 60 human iris images that correspond to the right and left eyes of 30 different subjects were acquired for an analysis. Finally, we determined that 3 clusters were enough to represent the 10 feature bands of spectral wavelengths using the agglomerative clustering based on two-dimensional principal component analysis. The experimental results suggest (1) the number, center, and composition of clusters of spectral wavelengths and (2) the higher performance of iris multispectral recognition based on a three wavelengths-bands fusion.

  3. [Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Z

    2007-04-01

    In the year 2005, Chang and Cambell described unusual reaction of the iris during the cataract surgery in patients treated with tamsulosine. This was named as IFIS, an acronym for the Intraoperative Floppy Iris Syndrome. In its advanced stage, the syndrome is characterized by insufficient mydfiasis before the surgery, narrowing of the pupil during the surgery, its impossible dilatation during the surgery by means of stretching, unusual elasticity of the pupilar margin, surging and fluttering iris with tendency to prolapse. The same manifestations we observed in our patients and we confirm the direct connection with tamsulosine hydrochloride treatment. Tamsulosine is the antagonist of alpha 1A adrenergic receptors whose are present, except in the smooth musculature of the prostate gland and the urinary bladder, in the iris dilator as well. At the same time we observed this syndrome rarely in some patients not using tamsulosine. In most cases, these patients were treated with antipsychotic drugs.

  4. Market design and supply security in imperfect power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenen, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Supply security in imperfect power markets is modelled under different market designs. In a uniform price auction for electricity with two firms, strategic behaviour may leave firms offering too few capacities and unable to supply all realized demand. Market design that relies on capacity markets increases available generation capacities for sufficiently high capacity prices and consequently decreases energy prices. However, equilibrium capacity prices are non-competitive. Capacity markets can increase security of supply, but cannot mitigate market power, which is exercised in the capacity market instead of the energy market. - Highlights: • I model two power generating firms who compete to serve stochastic demand in a multiunit uniform price auction. • In equilibrium, blackout probabilities can arise through capacity withholding. • Capacity mechanisms decrease capacity withholding and the expected energy price. • With dominant firms, capacity mechanisms are only effective if capacity prices are non-competitive and include a mark-up for leaving the energy-only market optimum

  5. Calculation of Single Cell and Fuel Assembly IRIS Benchmarks Using WIMSD5B and GNOMER Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pevec, D.; Grgic, D.; Jecmenica, R.

    2002-01-01

    IRIS reactor (an acronym for International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a modular, integral, light water cooled, small to medium power (100-335 MWe/module) reactor, which addresses the requirements defined by the United States Department of Energy for Generation IV nuclear energy systems, i.e., proliferation resistance, enhanced safety, improved economics, and waste reduction. An international consortium led by Westinghouse/BNFL was created for development of IRIS reactor; it includes universities, institutes, commercial companies, and utilities. Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb joined the consortium in year 2001, with the aim to take part in IRIS neutronics design and safety analyses of IRIS transients. A set of neutronic benchmarks for IRIS reactor was defined with the objective to compare results of all participants with exactly the same assumptions. In this paper a calculation of Benchmark 44 for IRIS reactor is described. Benchmark 44 is defined as a core depletion benchmark problem for specified IRIS reactor operating conditions (e.g., temperatures, moderator density) without feedback. Enriched boron, inhomogeneously distributed in axial direction, is used as an integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA). The aim of this benchmark was to enable a more direct comparison of results of different code systems. Calculations of Benchmark 44 were performed using the modified CORD-2 code package. The CORD-2 code package consists of WIMSD and GNOMER codes. WIMSD is a well-known lattice spectrum calculation code. GNOMER solves the neutron diffusion equation in three-dimensional Cartesian geometry by the Green's function nodal method. The following parameters were obtained in Benchmark 44 analysis: effective multiplication factor as a function of burnup, nuclear peaking factor as a function of burnup, axial offset as a function of burnup, core-average axial power profile, core radial power profile, axial power profile for selected

  6. Unconstrained Iris Acquisition and Recognition Using COTS PTZ Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopalan Shreyas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uniqueness of iris patterns among individuals has resulted in the ubiquity of iris recognition systems in virtual and physical spaces, at high security facilities around the globe. Traditional methods of acquiring iris patterns in commercial systems scan the iris when an individual is at a predetermined location in front of the scanner. Most state-of-the-art techniques for unconstrained iris acquisition in literature use expensive custom equipment and are composed of a multicamera setup, which is bulky, expensive, and requires calibration. This paper investigates a method of unconstrained iris acquisition and recognition using a single commercial off-the-shelf (COTS pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ camera, that is compact and that reduces the cost of the final system, compared to other proposed hierarchical multicomponent systems. We employ state-of-the-art techniques for face detection and a robust eye detection scheme using active shape models for accurate landmark localization. Additionally, our system alleviates the need for any calibration stage prior to its use. We present results using a database of iris images captured using our system, while operating in an unconstrained acquisition mode at 1.5 m standoff, yielding an iris diameter in the 150–200 pixels range.

  7. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  8. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Characteristics of Iris Melanocytic Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalet, Alison H.; Li, Yan; Lu, Chen D.; Jia, Yali; Lee, ByungKun; Husvogt, Lennart; Maier, Andreas; Fujimoto, James G.; Thomas, Charles R.; Huang, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate tumor vasculature with optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography (OCTA) in malignant iris melanomas and benign iris lesions. Design Cross-sectional observational clinical study. Participants Patients with iris lesions and healthy volunteers. Methods Eyes were imaged using OCTA systems operating at 1050 and 840 nm wavelengths. Three-dimensional OCTA scans were acquired. Iris melanomas patients treated with radiation therapy were imaged again after I-125 plaque brachytherapy at 6 and 18 months. Main Outcome Measures OCT and OCTA images, qualitative evaluation of iris and tumor vasculature and quantitative vessel density. Results One eye each of eight normal volunteers and nine patients with iris melanomas or benign iris lesions including freckles, nevi, and an iris pigment epithelial (IPE) cyst were imaged. The normal iris has radially-oriented vessels within the stroma on OCTA. Penetration of flow signal in normal iris depended on iris color, with best penetration seen in light to moderately pigmented irides. Iris melanomas demonstrated tortuous and disorganized intratumoral vasculature. In two eyes with nevi there was no increased vascularity; in another, fine vascular loops were noted near an area of ectropion uveae. Iris freckles and the IPE cyst did not have intrinsic vascularity. The vessel density was significantly higher within iris melanomas (34.5%±9.8%, piris nevi (8.0%±1.4%) or normal irides (8.0%±1.2%). Tumor regression after radiation therapy for melanomas was associated with decreased vessel density. OCTA at 1050 nm provided better visualization of tumor vasculature and penetration through thicker tumors than at 840 nm. But in very thick tumors and highly pigmented lesions even 1050 nm OCTA could not visualize their full thickness. Interpretable OCTA images were obtained in 82% participants in whom imaging was attempted. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of OCTA in iris tumors. OCTA may provide a dye-free, no

  9. Development of a coupled containment-reactor coolant system methodology for the analysis of IRIS small break LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredini, Antonio; Oriolo, Francesco; Paci, Sandro; Oriani, Luca

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of the present work is to identify the most relevant physical phenomena for the IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) containment system and the development of an integrated methodology for the simultaneous safety analysis of both the reactor and containment with available computer codes. Specific objectives are: (a) to assess the limitations of the lumped parameter codes on predictions of complex situations; (b) to identify alternatives to classical containment analysis techniques. The characteristic features of an integral reactor like IRIS present a much greater challenge to code developers than conventional, loop type PWRs. In particular, the integral primary system and the containment are strongly coupled during postulated accident conditions and thus an integrated simulation of both systems is required to obtain a reliable phenomenological representation. The comparison of the results obtained in the application of two containment codes (GOTHIC and integrated FUMO) on 'ad hoc' IRIS related benchmarks will also be described. These preliminary calculations were used to test the IRIS containment concept and cooling strategies, at the same time highlighting the most relevant issues that require a more refined investigation. Finally, this activity allowed to perform more refined calculations, in progress at the moment, aimed at showing that the IRIS safety systems and containment design solutions perform their intended functions. (author)

  10. Security credentials management system (SCMS) design and analysis for the connected vehicle system : draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    This report presents an analysis by Booz Allen Hamilton (Booz Allen) of the technical design for the Security Credentials Management System (SCMS) intended to support communications security for the connected vehicle system. The SCMS technical design...

  11. A lightweight security scheme for wireless body area networks: design, energy evaluation and proposed microprocessor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimis, Georgios; Huang, Li; Massé, Fabien; Tsekoura, Ioanna; Ashouei, Maryam; Catthoor, Francky; Huisken, Jos; Stuyt, Jan; Dolmans, Guido; Penders, Julien; De Groot, Harmke

    2011-10-01

    In order for wireless body area networks to meet widespread adoption, a number of security implications must be explored to promote and maintain fundamental medical ethical principles and social expectations. As a result, integration of security functionality to sensor nodes is required. Integrating security functionality to a wireless sensor node increases the size of the stored software program in program memory, the required time that the sensor's microprocessor needs to process the data and the wireless network traffic which is exchanged among sensors. This security overhead has dominant impact on the energy dissipation which is strongly related to the lifetime of the sensor, a critical aspect in wireless sensor network (WSN) technology. Strict definition of the security functionality, complete hardware model (microprocessor and radio), WBAN topology and the structure of the medium access control (MAC) frame are required for an accurate estimation of the energy that security introduces into the WBAN. In this work, we define a lightweight security scheme for WBAN, we estimate the additional energy consumption that the security scheme introduces to WBAN based on commercial available off-the-shelf hardware components (microprocessor and radio), the network topology and the MAC frame. Furthermore, we propose a new microcontroller design in order to reduce the energy consumption of the system. Experimental results and comparisons with other works are given.

  12. Primary iris leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaney, Gabrielle A; Platt, Sean; Singh, Arun D

    Intraocular leiomyomas are uncommon and usually occur in the ciliary body. Primary leiomyoma of the iris is both rare and a difficult diagnosis to make, given melanocytic tumors are more common and may be amelanotic. The somewhat controversial diagnosis of iris leiomyoma requires further confirmation by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Herein, we describe a 58-year-old man with a 2-mm round translucent pink lesion of the iris. The tumor was excised by sector iridectomy. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity for both smooth muscle actin and desmin and negativity for S-100, HMB45, SOX10, MelanA, CD31, CD34, and h-caldesmon. Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumor was excluded by chromogenic in situ hybridization-Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA. Ultrastructural analysis showed cytoplasmic myofilaments with focal fusiform densities and micropinocytotic vesicles. Our review of previous literature confirmed the unusual nature of this tumor. Primary iris leiomyoma should be considered in the differential of an amelanotic S-100-immunonegative iris tumor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inherent secure communications using lattice based waveform design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, Matthew Owen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The wireless communications channel is innately insecure due to the broadcast nature of the electromagnetic medium. Many techniques have been developed and implemented in order to combat insecurities and ensure the privacy of transmitted messages. Traditional methods include encrypting the data via cryptographic methods, hiding the data in the noise floor as in wideband communications, or nulling the signal in the spatial direction of the adversary using array processing techniques. This work analyzes the design of signaling constellations, i.e. modulation formats, to combat eavesdroppers from correctly decoding transmitted messages. It has been shown that in certain channel models the ability of an adversary to decode the transmitted messages can be degraded by a clever signaling constellation based on lattice theory. This work attempts to optimize certain lattice parameters in order to maximize the security of the data transmission. These techniques are of interest because they are orthogonal to, and can be used in conjunction with, traditional security techniques to create a more secure communication channel.

  14. Iris - nimi marmortahvlilt / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Briti kirjanikust Iris Murdochist pajatava inglise-ameerika mängufilmist "Iris" eesti videolevisse jõudmise puhul. Võrreldakse inglise teatrilavastaja Richard Eyre filmidebüüti Elmo Nüganeni debüütfilmiga "Nimed marmortahvlil"

  15. Secure, Mobile, Wireless Network Technology Designed, Developed, and Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Paulsen, Phillip E.

    2004-01-01

    The inability to seamlessly disseminate data securely over a high-integrity, wireless broadband network has been identified as a primary technical barrier to providing an order-of-magnitude increase in aviation capacity and safety. Secure, autonomous communications to and from aircraft will enable advanced, automated, data-intensive air traffic management concepts, increase National Air Space (NAS) capacity, and potentially reduce the overall cost of air travel operations. For the first time ever, secure, mobile, network technology was designed, developed, and demonstrated with state-ofthe- art protocols and applications by a diverse, cooperative Government-industry team led by the NASA Glenn Research Center. This revolutionary technology solution will make fundamentally new airplane system capabilities possible by enabling secure, seamless network connections from platforms in motion (e.g., cars, ships, aircraft, and satellites) to existing terrestrial systems without the need for manual reconfiguration. Called Mobile Router, the new technology autonomously connects and configures networks as they traverse from one operating theater to another. The Mobile Router demonstration aboard the Neah Bay, a U.S. Coast Guard vessel stationed in Cleveland, Ohio, accomplished secure, seamless interoperability of mobile network systems across multiple domains without manual system reconfiguration. The Neah Bay was chosen because of its low cost and communications mission similarity to low-Earth-orbiting satellite platforms. This technology was successfully advanced from technology readiness level (TRL) 2 (concept and/or application formation) to TRL 6 (system model or prototype demonstration in a relevant environment). The secure, seamless interoperability offered by the Mobile Router and encryption device will enable several new, vehicle-specific and systemwide technologies to perform such things as remote, autonomous aircraft performance monitoring and early detection and

  16. Fundamentals of IP and SoC security design, verification, and debug

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Sandip; Sur-Kolay, Susmita

    2017-01-01

    This book is about security in embedded systems and it provides an authoritative reference to all aspects of security in system-on-chip (SoC) designs. The authors discuss issues ranging from security requirements in SoC designs, definition of architectures and design choices to enforce and validate security policies, and trade-offs and conflicts involving security, functionality, and debug requirements. Coverage also includes case studies from the “trenches” of current industrial practice in design, implementation, and validation of security-critical embedded systems. Provides an authoritative reference and summary of the current state-of-the-art in security for embedded systems, hardware IPs and SoC designs; Takes a "cross-cutting" view of security that interacts with different design and validation components such as architecture, implementation, verification, and debug, each enforcing unique trade-offs; Includes high-level overview, detailed analysis on implementation, and relevant case studies on desi...

  17. Perancangan Program Aplikasi Deteksi Iris Mata untuk Absensi Karyawan Menggunakan Metode Gabor Wavelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To take the employees’ absences in a company, a variety of invented tools or technologies are and already used, for example, attendance cards, fingerprints attendance tool, and attendance tool that uses facial recognition. Attendance tool with a facial recognition uses iris recognition of those employees. Iris code has many properties that hard to forge. Thus, the detection and iris recognition is one of the most secure and accurate for identification. 

  18. Presentation Attack Detection for Iris Recognition System Using NIR Camera Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Baek, Na Rae; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2018-01-01

    Among biometric recognition systems such as fingerprint, finger-vein, or face, the iris recognition system has proven to be effective for achieving a high recognition accuracy and security level. However, several recent studies have indicated that an iris recognition system can be fooled by using presentation attack images that are recaptured using high-quality printed images or by contact lenses with printed iris patterns. As a result, this potential threat can reduce the security level of an iris recognition system. In this study, we propose a new presentation attack detection (PAD) method for an iris recognition system (iPAD) using a near infrared light (NIR) camera image. To detect presentation attack images, we first localized the iris region of the input iris image using circular edge detection (CED). Based on the result of iris localization, we extracted the image features using deep learning-based and handcrafted-based methods. The input iris images were then classified into real and presentation attack categories using support vector machines (SVM). Through extensive experiments with two public datasets, we show that our proposed method effectively solves the iris recognition presentation attack detection problem and produces detection accuracy superior to previous studies. PMID:29695113

  19. Presentation Attack Detection for Iris Recognition System Using NIR Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dat Tien Nguyen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Among biometric recognition systems such as fingerprint, finger-vein, or face, the iris recognition system has proven to be effective for achieving a high recognition accuracy and security level. However, several recent studies have indicated that an iris recognition system can be fooled by using presentation attack images that are recaptured using high-quality printed images or by contact lenses with printed iris patterns. As a result, this potential threat can reduce the security level of an iris recognition system. In this study, we propose a new presentation attack detection (PAD method for an iris recognition system (iPAD using a near infrared light (NIR camera image. To detect presentation attack images, we first localized the iris region of the input iris image using circular edge detection (CED. Based on the result of iris localization, we extracted the image features using deep learning-based and handcrafted-based methods. The input iris images were then classified into real and presentation attack categories using support vector machines (SVM. Through extensive experiments with two public datasets, we show that our proposed method effectively solves the iris recognition presentation attack detection problem and produces detection accuracy superior to previous studies.

  20. Presentation Attack Detection for Iris Recognition System Using NIR Camera Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Baek, Na Rae; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2018-04-24

    Among biometric recognition systems such as fingerprint, finger-vein, or face, the iris recognition system has proven to be effective for achieving a high recognition accuracy and security level. However, several recent studies have indicated that an iris recognition system can be fooled by using presentation attack images that are recaptured using high-quality printed images or by contact lenses with printed iris patterns. As a result, this potential threat can reduce the security level of an iris recognition system. In this study, we propose a new presentation attack detection (PAD) method for an iris recognition system (iPAD) using a near infrared light (NIR) camera image. To detect presentation attack images, we first localized the iris region of the input iris image using circular edge detection (CED). Based on the result of iris localization, we extracted the image features using deep learning-based and handcrafted-based methods. The input iris images were then classified into real and presentation attack categories using support vector machines (SVM). Through extensive experiments with two public datasets, we show that our proposed method effectively solves the iris recognition presentation attack detection problem and produces detection accuracy superior to previous studies.

  1. Image compression with Iris-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gains, David

    2009-05-01

    Iris-C is an image codec designed for streaming video applications that demand low bit rate, low latency, lossless image compression. To achieve compression and low latency the codec features the discrete wavelet transform, Exp-Golomb coding, and online processes that construct dynamic models of the input video. Like H.264 and Dirac, the Iris-C codec accepts input video from both the YUV and YCOCG colour spaces, but the system can also operate on Bayer RAW data read directly from an image sensor. Testing shows that the Iris-C codec is competitive with the Dirac low delay syntax codec which is typically regarded as the state-of-the-art low latency, lossless video compressor.

  2. Toward accurate and fast iris segmentation for iris biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhaofeng; Tan, Tieniu; Sun, Zhenan; Qiu, Xianchao

    2009-09-01

    Iris segmentation is an essential module in iris recognition because it defines the effective image region used for subsequent processing such as feature extraction. Traditional iris segmentation methods often involve an exhaustive search of a large parameter space, which is time consuming and sensitive to noise. To address these problems, this paper presents a novel algorithm for accurate and fast iris segmentation. After efficient reflection removal, an Adaboost-cascade iris detector is first built to extract a rough position of the iris center. Edge points of iris boundaries are then detected, and an elastic model named pulling and pushing is established. Under this model, the center and radius of the circular iris boundaries are iteratively refined in a way driven by the restoring forces of Hooke's law. Furthermore, a smoothing spline-based edge fitting scheme is presented to deal with noncircular iris boundaries. After that, eyelids are localized via edge detection followed by curve fitting. The novelty here is the adoption of a rank filter for noise elimination and a histogram filter for tackling the shape irregularity of eyelids. Finally, eyelashes and shadows are detected via a learned prediction model. This model provides an adaptive threshold for eyelash and shadow detection by analyzing the intensity distributions of different iris regions. Experimental results on three challenging iris image databases demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art methods in both accuracy and speed.

  3. Effect of tamsulosin on iris vasculature and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Roni M.; Hussain, Munira T.; Cooney, Theresa M.; Elner, Victor M.; Hood, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine whether preoperative iris vasculature and morphology are altered in patients who have taken tamsulosin (Flomax). SETTING Academic multispecialty practice. DESIGN Case series. METHODS Patients with current or past tamsulosin use and age- and sex-matched control patients were included. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and iris fluorescein angiography were performed to measure iris vasculature and thickness before cataract surgery. Data collected at surgery included pupil diameter, clinical signs of intraoperative floppy-iris syndrome, and surgical complications. RESULTS Tamsulosin was currently used by 16 patients and in the past by 4 patients; the control group comprised 10 patients. Pharmacologically dilated pupil diameter was significantly smaller preoperatively and immediately postoperatively in the tamsulosin group than in the control group (P = .009 and P = .003, respectively). There was a statistically significant decrease in pupil size intraoperatively in the tamsulosin group (P = .05) but not in the control group (P = .3). Iris-vasculature parameters, specifically time to first vessel fill and percentage of vessel fill on iris fluorescein angiography, were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The AS-OCT measurements of iris morphology were not statistically significantly different between the groups. No surgical complications occurred. No fluorescein dye leakage, staining, or other vascular anomalies were observed. CONCLUSIONS Although there were differences in pupil measurements and intraoperative iris behavior between patients who had been on tamsulosin and control patients, there were no significant differences in iris vasculature on iris fluorescein angiography or in iris morphology on AS-OCT. PMID:24631201

  4. CONSIDERING ANTI-PIRACY SHIP SECURITY: CITADEL DESIGN AND USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Carral

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As piracy continues to pose a threat to the shipping industry, a number of measures for protecting ships, cargo and crew will need to be implemented. Along with other steps, such as deploying military rescue teams, securing the crew within a ship’s citadel has proved to be a highly effective form of self-protection against hostage-taking by pirates. From a design standpoint, aspects that should be considered include the location and dimensions of the citadel, the maximum time crew can stay within it and the specific requirements for various elements of the ship or citadel equipment. Exploiting data on pirate attacks recently occurring in High Risk Areas, this article analyses the design and use of the citadel as a self-protection measure against piracy. As a conclusion, various requirements for these structures are recommended.

  5. Iris image recognition wavelet filter-banks based iris feature extraction schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Rahulkar, Amol D

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the new results in wavelet filter banks based feature extraction, and the classifier in the field of iris image recognition. It provides the broad treatment on the design of separable, non-separable wavelets filter banks, and the classifier. The design techniques presented in the book are applied on iris image analysis for person authentication. This book also brings together the three strands of research (wavelets, iris image analysis, and classifier). It compares the performance of the presented techniques with state-of-the-art available schemes. This book contains the compilation of basic material on the design of wavelets that avoids reading many different books. Therefore, it provide an easier path for the new-comers, researchers to master the contents. In addition, the designed filter banks and classifier can also be effectively used than existing filter-banks in many signal processing applications like pattern classification, data-compression, watermarking, denoising etc.  that will...

  6. Design and realization of a network security model

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, Jiahai; HAN, Fangxi; Tang, Zheng; TAMURA, Hiroki; Ishii, Masahiro

    2002-01-01

    The security of information is a key problem in the development of network technology. The basic requirements of security of information clearly include confidentiality, integrity, authentication and non-repudiation. This paper proposes a network security model that is composed of security system, security connection and communication, and key management. The model carries out encrypting, decrypting, signature and ensures confidentiality, integrity, authentication and non-repudiation. Finally...

  7. Using crypts as iris minutiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Feng; Flynn, Patrick J.

    2013-05-01

    Iris recognition is one of the most reliable biometric technologies for identity recognition and verification, but it has not been used in a forensic context because the representation and matching of iris features are not straightforward for traditional iris recognition techniques. In this paper we concentrate on the iris crypt as a visible feature used to represent the characteristics of irises in a similar way to fingerprint minutiae. The matching of crypts is based on their appearances and locations. The number of matching crypt pairs found between two irises can be used for identity verification and the convenience of manual inspection makes iris crypts a potential candidate for forensic applications.

  8. The Buyers’ Perspective on Security Design: Hedge Funds and Convertible Bond Call Provisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.D. Grundy (Bruce); P. Verwijmeren (Patrick)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe provide evidence that security design reflects the interplay of capital supplier and security issuer preferences. While call provisions have historically been the default option in convertible security design, only a minority of post-2005 issues are callable. Because hedge funds

  9. Iris metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk; Kilavuzoglu, Ayse Ebru; Altiparmak, U Emrah; Cosar, C Banu; Ozkiris, Abdullah

    2016-03-08

    Iris metastasis in patients with gastric cancer is extremely rare. Herein, it is aimed to report on a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma and iris metastasis. A 65-year-old patient with the history of gastric cancer was admitted for eye pain and eye redness on his left eye. There was ciliary injection, severe +4 cells with hypopyon in the anterior chamber and a solitary, friable, yellow-white, fleshy-creamy vascularized 2 mm × 4 mm mass on the upper nasal part of the iris within the left eye. The presented patient's mass lesion in the iris fulfilled the criteria of the metastatic iris lesion's appearance. The ocular metastasis occurred during chemotherapy. Iris metastasis can masquerade as iridocyclitis with pseudohypopyon or glaucoma. In patients with a history of gastric cancer that present with an iris mass, uveitis, and high intraocular pressure, ocular metastasis of gastric cancer should be a consideration.

  10. Hardware security and trust design and deployment of integrated circuits in a threatened environment

    CERN Document Server

    Chaves, Ricardo; Natale, Giorgio; Regazzoni, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to hardware security, from specification to implementation. Applications discussed include embedded systems ranging from small RFID tags to satellites orbiting the earth. The authors describe a design and synthesis flow, which will transform a given circuit into a secure design incorporating counter-measures against fault attacks. In order to address the conflict between testability and security, the authors describe innovative design-for-testability (DFT) computer-aided design (CAD) tools that support security challenges, engineered for compliance with existing, commercial tools. Secure protocols are discussed, which protect access to necessary test infrastructures and enable the design of secure access controllers. Covers all aspects of hardware security including design, manufacturing, testing, reliability, validation and utilization; Describes new methods and algorithms for the identification/detection of hardware trojans; Defines new architectures capable o...

  11. Iris reconstruction combined with iris-claw intraocular lens implantation for the management of iris-lens injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shufang; Wang, Mingling; Xiao, Tianlin; Zhao, Zhenquan

    2016-03-01

    To study the efficiency and safety of iris reconstruction combined with iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in the patients with iris-lens injuries. Retrospective, noncomparable consecutive case series study. Eleven patients (11 eyes) following iris-lens injuries underwent iris reconstructions combined with iris-claw IOL implantations. Clinical data, such as cause and time of injury, visual acuity (VA), iris and lens injuries, surgical intervention, follow-up period, corneal endothelial cell count, and optical coherence tomography, were collected. Uncorrected VA (UCVA) in all injured eyes before combined surgery was equal to or iris returned to its natural round shape or smaller pupil, and the iris-claw IOLs in the 11 eyes were well-positioned on the anterior surface of reconstructed iris. No complications occurred in those patients. Iris reconstruction combined with iris-claw IOL implantation is a safe and efficient procedure for an eye with iris-lens injury in the absence of capsular support.

  12. Designing Intelligent Secure Android Application for Effective Chemical Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukran, Mohd Afizi Mohd; Naim Abdullah, Muhammad; Nazri Ismail, Mohd; Maskat, Kamaruzaman; Isa, Mohd Rizal Mohd; Shahfee Ishak, Muhammad; Adib Khairuddin, Muhamad

    2017-08-01

    Mobile services support various situations in everyday life and with the increasing sophistication of phone functions, the daily life is much more easier and better especially in term of managing tools and apparatus. Since chemical inventory management system has been experiencing a new revolution from antiquated to an automated inventory management system, some additional features should be added in current chemical inventory system. Parallel with the modern technologies, chemical inventory application using smart phone has been developed. Several studies about current related chemical inventory management using smart phone application has been done in this paper in order to obtain an overview on recent studies in smartphone application for chemical inventory system which are needed in schools, universities or other education institutions. This paper also discuss about designing the proposed secure mobile chemical inventory system. The study of this paper can provide forceful review analysis support for the chemical inventory management system related research.

  13. Integrated radiotherapy imaging system (IRIS): design considerations of tumour tracking with linac gantry-mounted diagnostic x-ray systems with flat-panel detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbeco, Ross I; Jiang, Steve B; Sharp, Gregory C; Chen, George T; Mostafavi, Hassan; Shirato, Hiroki

    2004-01-21

    The design of an integrated radiotherapy imaging system (IRIS), consisting of gantry mounted diagnostic (kV) x-ray tubes and fast read-out flat-panel amorphous-silicon detectors, has been studied. The system is meant to be capable of three main functions: radiographs for three-dimensional (3D) patient set-up, cone-beam CT and real-time tumour/marker tracking. The goal of the current study is to determine whether one source/panel pair is sufficient for real-time tumour/marker tracking and, if two are needed, the optimal position of each relative to other components and the isocentre. A single gantry-mounted source/imager pair is certainly capable of the first two of the three functions listed above and may also be useful for the third, if combined with prior knowledge of the target's trajectory. This would be necessary because only motion in two dimensions is visible with a single imager/source system. However, with previously collected information about the trajectory, the third coordinate may be derived from the other two with sufficient accuracy to facilitate tracking. This deduction of the third coordinate can only be made if the 3D tumour/marker trajectory is consistent from fraction to fraction. The feasibility of tumour tracking with one source/imager pair has been theoretically examined here using measured lung marker trajectory data for seven patients from multiple treatment fractions. The patients' selection criteria include minimum mean amplitudes of the tumour motions greater than 1 cm peak-to-peak. The marker trajectory for each patient was modelled using the first fraction data. Then for the rest of the data, marker positions were derived from the imager projections at various gantry angles and compared with the measured tumour positions. Our results show that, due to the three dimensionality and irregular trajectory characteristics of tumour motion, on a fraction-to-fraction basis, a 'monoscopic' system (single source/imager) is inadequate for

  14. Security-by-design approach of the KALIMER 600 SFR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Dong Sup; Lee, Yong Bum

    2012-01-01

    Security measures as well as safety and safeguards measures should be incorporated and addressed early in the design process to enhance the cost effectiveness of a PPS (Physical Protection System). Safety, security, operations, and safeguards design teams and regulators need to be flexible and perform 'trade studies' on the available options. In this paper, SBD (Security by Design) measures in the design phase of the KALIMER 600 SFR (Sodium Cooled Reactor) plant are identified and discussed qualitatively

  15. Designing Fuzzy Rule Based Expert System for Cyber Security

    OpenAIRE

    Goztepe, Kerim

    2016-01-01

    The state of cyber security has begun to attract more attention and interest outside the community of computer security experts. Cyber security is not a single problem, but rather a group of highly different problems involving different sets of threats. Fuzzy Rule based system for cyber security is a system consists of a rule depository and a mechanism for accessing and running the rules. The depository is usually constructed with a collection of related rule sets. The aim of this study is to...

  16. Regenerative Heater Optimization for Steam Turbo-Generation Cycles of Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants with a Comparison of Two Concepts for the Westinghouse International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.C.

    2002-01-01

    The intent of this study is to discuss some of the many factors involved in the development of the design and layout of a steam turbo-generation unit as part of a modular Generation IV nuclear power plant. Of the many factors involved in the design and layout, this research will cover feed water system layout and optimization issues. The research is arranged in hopes that it can be generalized to any Generation IV system which uses a steam powered turbo-generation unit. The research is done using the ORCENT-II heat balance codes and the Salisbury methodology to be reviewed herein. The Salisbury methodology is used on an original cycle design by Famiani for the Westinghouse IRIS and the effects due to parameter variation are studied. The vital parameters of the Salisbury methodology are the incremental heater surface capital cost (S) in $/ft 2 , the value of incremental power (I) in $/kW, and the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) in Btu/ft 2 -degrees Fahrenheit-hr. Each is varied in order to determine the effects on the cycles overall heat rate, output, as well as, the heater surface areas. The effects of each are shown. Then the methodology is then used to compare the optimized original Famiani design consisting of seven regenerative feedwater heaters with an optimized new cycle concept, INRC8, containing four regenerative heaters. The results are shown. It can be seen that a trade between the complexity of the seven stage regenerative Famiani cycle and the simplicity of the INRC8 cycle can be made. It is desired that this methodology can be used to show the ability to evaluate modularity through the value of size a complexity of the system as well as the performance. It also shows the effectiveness of the Salisbury methodology in the optimization of regenerative cycles for such an evaluation

  17. IRiS: construction of ARG networks at genomic scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Asif; Pybus, Marc; Melé, Marta; Utro, Filippo; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Calafell, Francesc; Parida, Laxmi

    2011-09-01

    Given a set of extant haplotypes IRiS first detects high confidence recombination events in their shared genealogy. Next using the local sequence topology defined by each detected event, it integrates these recombinations into an ancestral recombination graph. While the current system has been calibrated for human population data, it is easily extendible to other species as well. IRiS (Identification of Recombinations in Sequences) binary files are available for non-commercial use in both Linux and Microsoft Windows, 32 and 64 bit environments from https://researcher.ibm.com/researcher/view_project.php?id = 2303 parida@us.ibm.com.

  18. Security-aware design for cyber-physical systems a platform-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Chung-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Addressing the rising security issues during the design stages of cyber-physical systems, this book develops a systematic approach to address security at early design stages together with all other design constraints. Cyber-attacks become more threatening as systems are becoming more connected with the surrounding environment, infrastructures, and other systems. Security mechanisms can be designed to protect against attacks and meet security requirements, but there are many challenges of applying security mechanisms to cyber-physical systems including open environments, limited resources, strict timing requirements, and large number of devices. Designed for researchers and professionals, this book is valuable for individuals working in network systems, security mechanisms, and system design. It is also suitable for advanced-level students of computer science. .

  19. Integrated risk information system (IRIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuxen, L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is an electronic information system developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) containing information related to health risk assessment. IRIS is the Agency`s primary vehicle for communication of chronic health hazard information that represents Agency consensus following comprehensive review by intra-Agency work groups. The original purpose for developing IRIS was to provide guidance to EPA personnel in making risk management decisions. This original purpose for developing IRIS was to guidance to EPA personnel in making risk management decisions. This role has expanded and evolved with wider access and use of the system. IRIS contains chemical-specific information in summary format for approximately 500 chemicals. IRIS is available to the general public on the National Library of Medicine`s Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) and on diskettes through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS).

  20. Sandia's experience in designing and implementing integrated high security physical protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    As DOE's lead laboratory for physical security, Sandia National Laboratories has had a major physical security program for over ten years. Activities have ranged from component development and evaluation, to full scale system design and implementation. This paper presents some of the lessons learned in designing and implementing state-of-the-art high security physical protection systems for a number of government facilities. A generic system design is discussed for illustration purposes. Sandia efforts to transfer technology to industry are described

  1. Secure Retrieval of FFTF Testing, Design, and Operating Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butner, R. Scott; Wootan, David W.; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    One of the goals of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is to preserve the knowledge that has been gained in the United States on Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR). In addition, preserving LMR information and knowledge is part of a larger international collaborative activity conducted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A similar program is being conducted for EBR-II at the Idaho Nuclear Laboratory (INL) and international programs are also in progress. Knowledge preservation at the FFTF is focused on the areas of design, construction, startup, and operation of the reactor. As the primary function of the FFTF was testing, the focus is also on preserving information obtained from irradiation testing of fuels and materials. This information will be invaluable when, at a later date, international decisions are made to pursue new LMRs. In the interim, this information may be of potential use for international exchanges with other LMR programs around the world. At least as important in the United States, which is emphasizing large-scale computer simulation and modeling, this information provides the basis for creating benchmarks for validating and testing these large scale computer programs. Although the preservation activity with respect to FFTF information as discussed below is still underway, the team of authors above is currently retrieving and providing experimental and design information to the LMR modeling and simulation efforts for use in validating their computer models. On the Hanford Site, the FFTF reactor plant is one of the facilities intended for decontamination and decommissioning consistent with the cleanup mission on this site. The reactor facility has been deactivated and is being maintained in a cold and dark minimal surveillance and maintenance mode until final decommissioning is pursued. In order to ensure protection of information at risk, the program to date has focused on sequestering and secure retrieval

  2. Design and Evaluation of a Secure Virtual Power Plant.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Tillay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    For three years, Sandia National Laboratories, Georgia Institute of Technology, and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign investigated a smart grid vision in which renewable-centric Virtual Power Plants (VPPs) provided ancillary services with interoperable distributed energy resources (DER). This team researched, designed, built, and evaluated real-time VPP designs incorporating DER forecasting, stochastic optimization, controls, and cyber security to construct a system capable of delivering reliable ancillary services, which have been traditionally provided by large power plants or other dedicated equipment. VPPs have become possible through an evolving landscape of state and national interconnection standards, which now require DER to include grid-support functionality and communications capabilities. This makes it possible for third party aggregators to provide a range of critical grid services such as voltage regulation, frequency regulation, and contingency reserves to grid operators. This paradigm (a) enables renewable energy, demand response, and energy storage to participate in grid operations and provide grid services, (b) improves grid reliability by providing additional operating reserves for utilities, independent system operators (ISOs), and regional transmission organization (RTOs), and (c) removes renewable energy high-penetration barriers by providing services with photovoltaics and wind resources that traditionally were the jobs of thermal generators. Therefore, it is believed VPP deployment will have far-reaching positive consequences for grid operations and may provide a robust pathway to high penetrations of renewables on US power systems. In this report, we design VPPs to provide a range of grid-support services and demonstrate one VPP which simultaneously provides bulk-system energy and ancillary reserves.

  3. Re-designing the PhEDEx Security Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    C-H, Huang; Wildish, T.; X, Zhang

    2014-06-01

    PhEDEx, the data-placement tool used by the CMS experiment at the LHC, was conceived in a more trusting time. The security model provided a safe environment for site agents and operators, but offerred little more protection than that. Data was not sufficiently protected against loss caused by operator error or software bugs or by deliberate manipulation of the database. Operators were given high levels of access to the database, beyond what was actually needed to accomplish their tasks. This exposed them to the risk of suspicion should an incident occur. Multiple implementations of the security model led to difficulties maintaining code, which can lead to degredation of security over time. In order to meet the simultaneous goals of protecting CMS data, protecting the operators from undue exposure to risk, increasing monitoring capabilities and improving maintainability of the security model, the PhEDEx security model was redesigned and re-implemented. Security was moved from the application layer into the database itself, fine-grained access roles were established, and tools and procedures created to control the evolution of the security model over time. In this paper we describe this work, we describe the deployment of the new security model, and we show how these enhancements improve security on several fronts simultaneously.

  4. Re-designing the PhEDEx security model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang C-H; Wildish, T; Zhang X

    2014-01-01

    PhEDEx, the data-placement tool used by the CMS experiment at the LHC, was conceived in a more trusting time. The security model provided a safe environment for site agents and operators, but offerred little more protection than that. Data was not sufficiently protected against loss caused by operator error or software bugs or by deliberate manipulation of the database. Operators were given high levels of access to the database, beyond what was actually needed to accomplish their tasks. This exposed them to the risk of suspicion should an incident occur. Multiple implementations of the security model led to difficulties maintaining code, which can lead to degredation of security over time. In order to meet the simultaneous goals of protecting CMS data, protecting the operators from undue exposure to risk, increasing monitoring capabilities and improving maintainability of the security model, the PhEDEx security model was redesigned and re-implemented. Security was moved from the application layer into the database itself, fine-grained access roles were established, and tools and procedures created to control the evolution of the security model over time. In this paper we describe this work, we describe the deployment of the new security model, and we show how these enhancements improve security on several fronts simultaneously.

  5. IRIS Mission Operations Director's Colloquium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Robert; Mazmanian, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Pursuing the Mysteries of the Sun: The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) Mission. Flight controllers from the IRIS mission will present their individual experiences on IRIS from development through the first year of flight. This will begin with a discussion of the unique nature of IRISs mission and science, and how it fits into NASA's fleet of solar observatories. Next will be a discussion of the critical roles Ames contributed in the mission including spacecraft and flight software development, ground system development, and training for launch. This will be followed by experiences from launch, early operations, ongoing operations, and unusual operations experiences. The presentation will close with IRIS science imagery and questions.

  6. Ordinal measures for iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenan; Tan, Tieniu

    2009-12-01

    Images of a human iris contain rich texture information useful for identity authentication. A key and still open issue in iris recognition is how best to represent such textural information using a compact set of features (iris features). In this paper, we propose using ordinal measures for iris feature representation with the objective of characterizing qualitative relationships between iris regions rather than precise measurements of iris image structures. Such a representation may lose some image-specific information, but it achieves a good trade-off between distinctiveness and robustness. We show that ordinal measures are intrinsic features of iris patterns and largely invariant to illumination changes. Moreover, compactness and low computational complexity of ordinal measures enable highly efficient iris recognition. Ordinal measures are a general concept useful for image analysis and many variants can be derived for ordinal feature extraction. In this paper, we develop multilobe differential filters to compute ordinal measures with flexible intralobe and interlobe parameters such as location, scale, orientation, and distance. Experimental results on three public iris image databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ordinal feature models.

  7. The IRIS user-guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.A.

    1997-10-01

    This is the first version of the IRIS User-Guide. IRIS is continually evolving and improving and so some of the information contained within this manual will become out of date quite quickly. The basics behind the operation of IRIS, however, should remain essentially constant for the foreseeable future. Updated manuals will be produced when appropriate although it should always be remembered that the most up-to-date sources of information concerning IRIS are the instrument scientist and the local contacts for the experiments. It would be appreciated, however, if this user-guide were to be the first point of call. (author)

  8. Scale Invariant Gabor Descriptor-Based Noncooperative Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yingzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new noncooperative iris recognition method is proposed. In this method, the iris features are extracted using a Gabor descriptor. The feature extraction and comparison are scale, deformation, rotation, and contrast-invariant. It works with off-angle and low-resolution iris images. The Gabor wavelet is incorporated with scale-invariant feature transformation (SIFT for feature extraction to better extract the iris features. Both the phase and magnitude of the Gabor wavelet outputs were used in a novel way for local feature point description. Two feature region maps were designed to locally and globally register the feature points and each subregion in the map is locally adjusted to the dilation/contraction/deformation. We also developed a video-based non-cooperative iris recognition system by integrating video-based non-cooperative segmentation, segmentation evaluation, and score fusion units. The proposed method shows good performance for frontal and off-angle iris matching. Video-based recognition methods can improve non-cooperative iris recognition accuracy.

  9. Scale Invariant Gabor Descriptor-based Noncooperative Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new noncooperative iris recognition method is proposed. In this method, the iris features are extracted using a Gabor descriptor. The feature extraction and comparison are scale, deformation, rotation, and contrast-invariant. It works with off-angle and low-resolution iris images. The Gabor wavelet is incorporated with scale-invariant feature transformation (SIFT for feature extraction to better extract the iris features. Both the phase and magnitude of the Gabor wavelet outputs were used in a novel way for local feature point description. Two feature region maps were designed to locally and globally register the feature points and each subregion in the map is locally adjusted to the dilation/contraction/deformation. We also developed a video-based non-cooperative iris recognition system by integrating video-based non-cooperative segmentation, segmentation evaluation, and score fusion units. The proposed method shows good performance for frontal and off-angle iris matching. Video-based recognition methods can improve non-cooperative iris recognition accuracy.

  10. IRIS: A Comprehensive Approach to Implementing Nuclear Power in Countries with Smaller Electric Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, B.; Carelli, M. D.; Sandell, L.; Storrick, G. D.; Cavlina, N.

    2008-01-01

    Many emerging markets and smaller size countries are considering the nuclear option and the deployment of their first nuclear reactor(s). However, some of their requirements and available infrastructure are quite different from those of larger countries currently employing nuclear power. Specific considerations might include: a small size electrical grid, in some cases on the order of a few GWe; limited financial resources; no nuclear experience; inadequate availability of necessary material and people infrastructure. Large nuclear power plants of 1000 MWe or greater do not provide best fit. The IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) reactor, under development by an international team of eighteen organizations from nine countries led by Westinghouse specifically addresses these needs. IRIS is an advanced PWR with integral configuration that yields a simple design with enhanced safety. The IRIS size is 335 MWe and may be deployed in single or multiple modules. It can fit almost any grid, or a small utility within a larger grid; moreover, it allows incremental power additions as needed. The capital outlay is of the order of hundreds of millions rather than a few billions dollars. Successive construction and operation of multiple modules significantly reduces the required capital resources and capital at risk with generation income from earlier plants offsetting the construction outlays of subsequent ones. This is highly desirable in both developed and emerging markets, but it may be of critical importance to the latter. IRIS safety characteristics allow for licensing with a significantly reduced size of emergency zone, a critical feature for small countries and when cogeneration is desired. In fact, IRIS is designed to produce steam for district heating, water desalination and bio-fuel generation in addition to electricity. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has announced in February 2008 its intention to contribute to funding the licensing of a 'Grid

  11. Design Considerations for a Cognitive Radio Trust and Security Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Ramjee; Tragos, Elias Z.

    2012-01-01

    towards pushing further the attainable spectral efficiency gains. Taking a step back, our work looks into the critical challenges with respect to reliability, robustness and security, which hinder operators from investing in this new technology. We propose a new conceptual framework for trust and security...

  12. Design of the national health security preparedness index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun Jacobson, Evin; Inglesby, Tom; Khan, Ali S; Rajotte, James C; Burhans, Robert L; Slemp, Catherine C; Links, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    The importance of health security in the United States has been highlighted by recent emergencies such as the H1N1 influenza pandemic, Superstorm Sandy, and the Boston Marathon bombing. The nation's health security remains a high priority today, with federal, state, territorial, tribal, and local governments, as well as nongovernment organizations and the private sector, engaging in activities that prevent, protect, mitigate, respond to, and recover from health threats. The Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR), led an effort to create an annual measure of health security preparedness at the national level. The collaborative released the National Health Security Preparedness Index (NHSPI(™)) in December 2013 and provided composite results for the 50 states and for the nation as a whole. The Index results represent current levels of health security preparedness in a consistent format and provide actionable information to drive decision making for continuous improvement of the nation's health security. The overall 2013 National Index result was 7.2 on the reported base-10 scale, with areas of greater strength in the domains of health surveillance, incident and information management, and countermeasure management. The strength of the Index relies on the interdependencies of the many elements in health security preparedness, making the sum greater than its parts. Moving forward, additional health security-related disciplines and measures will be included alongside continued validation efforts.

  13. Economic assessment of the IRIS reactor for deployment in Brazil using INPRO methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves Filho, Orlando Joao Agostinho

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the main results of the evaluation of the economic competitiveness of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) for deployment in Brazil using the assessment methodology developed under the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), co-ordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). INPRO was initiated in 2001 and has the main objective of helping to ensure that nuclear energy will be available to contribute in a sustainable manner to the energy needs of the 21st century. Among its missions are the development of a methodology to assess innovative nuclear energy systems (INS) on a global, regional and national basis, and to facilitate the co-operation among IAEA Member States for planning the development and deployment of INS. Brazil joined INPRO since its beginning and in 2005 submitted a proposal for the screening assessment of two small-sized integral-type PWR reactors as alternative components of an INS completed with a conventional open nuclear fuel cycle based on enriched uranium. This paper outlines the rationale and the main results of the economic assessment of the IRIS-based INS completed in August 2008. The study concluded that IRIS reference design satisfies most of INPRO criteria in the area of economics. (author)

  14. Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility Security System Design Description. System 54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WHITEHURST, R.

    2000-01-01

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility security system. The system's primary purpose is to provide reasonable assurance that breaches of security boundaries are detected and assessment information is provided to protective force personnel. In addition, the system is utilized by Operations to support reduced personnel radiation goals and to provide reasonable assurance that only authorized personnel are allowed to enter designated security areas

  15. The Buyers’ Perspective on Security Design: Hedge Funds and Convertible Bond Call Provisions

    OpenAIRE

    Grundy, Bruce; Verwijmeren, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe provide evidence that security design reflects the interplay of capital supplier and security issuer preferences. While call provisions have historically been the default option in convertible security design, only a minority of post-2005 issues are callable. Because hedge funds dominate the market for new convertibles today and because convertible arbitrage is less risky without callability, the recent diminution in the frequency of call provisions in new convertible bond issu...

  16. The buyers’ perspective on security design: Hedge funds and convertible bond call provisions

    OpenAIRE

    Grundy, Bruce D.; Verwijmeren, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    We provide evidence that security design reflects the interplay of capital supplier and security issuer preferences. While call provisions have historically been the default option in convertible security design, only a minority of post-2005 issues are callable. Because hedge funds dominate the market for new convertibles today and because convertible arbitrage is less risky without callability, the recent diminution in the frequency of call provisions in new convertible bond issues illustrat...

  17. Design and Implementation of a Secure Modbus Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fovino, Igor Nai; Carcano, Andrea; Masera, Marcelo; Trombetta, Alberto

    The interconnectivity of modern and legacy supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems with corporate networks and the Internet has significantly increased the threats to critical infrastructure assets. Meanwhile, traditional IT security solutions such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems and antivirus software are relatively ineffective against attacks that specifically target vulnerabilities in SCADA protocols. This paper describes a secure version of the Modbus SCADA protocol that incorporates integrity, authentication, non-repudiation and anti-replay mechanisms. Experimental results using a power plant testbed indicate that the augmented protocol provides good security functionality without significant overhead.

  18. Does Iris Change Over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Hunny; Vatsa, Mayank; Singh, Richa; Majhi, Banshidhar

    2013-01-01

    Iris as a biometric identifier is assumed to be stable over a period of time. However, some researchers have observed that for long time lapse, the genuine match score distribution shifts towards the impostor score distribution and the performance of iris recognition reduces. The main purpose of this study is to determine if the shift in genuine scores can be attributed to aging or not. The experiments are performed on the two publicly available iris aging databases namely, ND-Iris-Template-Aging-2008–2010 and ND-TimeLapseIris-2012 using a commercial matcher, VeriEye. While existing results are correct about increase in false rejection over time, we observe that it is primarily due to the presence of other covariates such as blur, noise, occlusion, and pupil dilation. This claim is substantiated with quality score comparison of the gallery and probe pairs. PMID:24244305

  19. Does iris change over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Hunny; Vatsa, Mayank; Singh, Richa; Majhi, Banshidhar

    2013-01-01

    Iris as a biometric identifier is assumed to be stable over a period of time. However, some researchers have observed that for long time lapse, the genuine match score distribution shifts towards the impostor score distribution and the performance of iris recognition reduces. The main purpose of this study is to determine if the shift in genuine scores can be attributed to aging or not. The experiments are performed on the two publicly available iris aging databases namely, ND-Iris-Template-Aging-2008-2010 and ND-TimeLapseIris-2012 using a commercial matcher, VeriEye. While existing results are correct about increase in false rejection over time, we observe that it is primarily due to the presence of other covariates such as blur, noise, occlusion, and pupil dilation. This claim is substantiated with quality score comparison of the gallery and probe pairs.

  20. New methods in iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugman, John

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents the following four advances in iris recognition: 1) more disciplined methods for detecting and faithfully modeling the iris inner and outer boundaries with active contours, leading to more flexible embedded coordinate systems; 2) Fourier-based methods for solving problems in iris trigonometry and projective geometry, allowing off-axis gaze to be handled by detecting it and "rotating" the eye into orthographic perspective; 3) statistical inference methods for detecting and excluding eyelashes; and 4) exploration of score normalizations, depending on the amount of iris data that is available in images and the required scale of database search. Statistical results are presented based on 200 billion iris cross-comparisons that were generated from 632500 irises in the United Arab Emirates database to analyze the normalization issues raised in different regions of receiver operating characteristic curves.

  1. Does iris change over time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunny Mehrotra

    Full Text Available Iris as a biometric identifier is assumed to be stable over a period of time. However, some researchers have observed that for long time lapse, the genuine match score distribution shifts towards the impostor score distribution and the performance of iris recognition reduces. The main purpose of this study is to determine if the shift in genuine scores can be attributed to aging or not. The experiments are performed on the two publicly available iris aging databases namely, ND-Iris-Template-Aging-2008-2010 and ND-TimeLapseIris-2012 using a commercial matcher, VeriEye. While existing results are correct about increase in false rejection over time, we observe that it is primarily due to the presence of other covariates such as blur, noise, occlusion, and pupil dilation. This claim is substantiated with quality score comparison of the gallery and probe pairs.

  2. Designing a machinery control system (MCS) security testbed

    OpenAIRE

    Desso, Nathan H.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Industrial control systems (ICS) face daily cyber security threats, can have a significant impact to the security of our nation, and present a difficult challenge to defend. Critical infrastructures, including military systems like the machinery control systems (MCS) found onboard modern U.S. warships, are affected because of their use of commercial automation solutions. The increase of automated control systems within the U.S. Navy sa...

  3. Designing a Physical Security System for Risk Reduction in a Hypothetical Nuclear Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, A.A.; Abd Elaziz, M.

    2017-01-01

    Physical security in a nuclear facility means detection, prevention and response to threat, the ft, sabotage, unauthorized access and illegal transfer involving radioactive and nuclear material. This paper proposes a physical security system designing concepts to reduce the risk associated with variant threats to a nuclear facility. This paper presents a study of the unauthorized removal and sabotage in a hypothetical nuclear facility considering deter, delay and response layers. More over, the study involves performing any required upgrading to the security system by investigating the nuclear facility layout and considering all physical security layers design to enhance the weakness for risk reduction

  4. Design of security scheme of the radiotherapy planning administration system based on the hospital information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Yongzhi; Zhao Jinzao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To design a security scheme of radiotherapy planning administration system. Methods: Power Builder 9i language was used to program the system through the model of client-server machine. Oracle 9i was used as the database server. Results In this system, user registration management, user login management, application-level functions of control, database access control, and audit trail were designed to provide system security. Conclusions: As a prototype for the security analysis and protection of this scheme provides security of the system, application system, important data and message, which ensures the system work normally. (authors)

  5. Design and Implementation of GSM Based Automated Home Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Love Aggarwal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Automated Home Security System aims at building a security system for common households using GSM modem, sensors and microcontroller. Since many years, impeccable security system has been the prime need of every man who owns a house. The increasing crime rate has further pressed the need for it. Our system is an initiative in this direction. The system provides security function by monitoring the surroundings at home for intruders, fire, gas leakages etc. using sensors and issue alerts to the owners and local authorities by using GSM via SMS. It provides the automation function as it can control (On/Off the various home appliances while the owners are away via SMS. Thus the Automated Home Security System is self-sufficient and can be relied upon undoubtedly. Also, it is capable of establishing two way communication with its owner so that he/she can keep a watch on his/her home via sensor information or live video streaming. A camera can be installed for continuous monitoring of the system and its surroundings. The system consists of two main parts: hardware and software. Hardware consists of Microcontroller, Sensors, Buzzer and GSM modem while software is implemented by tools using Embedded ‘C’.

  6. Used fuel extended storage security and safeguards by design roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Samuel G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lindgren, Eric Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Ketusky, Edward [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); England, Jeffrey [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Scherer, Carolynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sprinkle, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Michael. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rauch, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scaglione, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunn, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    In the United States, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is safely and securely stored in spent fuel pools and dry storage casks. The available capacity in spent fuel pools across the nuclear fleet has nearly reached a steady state value. The excess SNF continues to be loaded in dry storage casks. Fuel is expected to remain in dry storage for periods beyond the initial dry cask certification period of 20 years. Recent licensing renewals have approved an additional 40 years. This report identifies the current requirements and evaluation techniques associated with the safeguards and security of SNF dry cask storage. A set of knowledge gaps is identified in the current approaches. Finally, this roadmap identifies known knowledge gaps and provides a research path to deliver the tools and models needed to close the gaps and allow the optimization of the security and safeguards approaches for an interim spent fuel facility over the lifetime of the storage site.

  7. Real Time MODBUS Transmissions and Cryptography Security Designs and Enhancements of Protocol Sensitive Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Shahzad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT security has become a major concern due to the growing demand for information and massive development of client/server applications for various types of applications running on modern IT infrastructure. How has security been taken into account and which paradigms are necessary to minimize security issues while increasing efficiency, reducing the influence on transmissions, ensuring protocol independency and achieving substantial performance? We have found cryptography to be an absolute security mechanism for client/server architectures, and in this study, a new security design was developed with the MODBUS protocol, which is considered to offer phenomenal performance for future development and enhancement of real IT infrastructure. This study is also considered to be a complete development because security is tested in almost all ways of MODBUS communication. The computed measurements are evaluated to validate the overall development, and the results indicate a substantial improvement in security that is differentiated from conventional methods.

  8. Iris Matching Based on Personalized Weight Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenbo; Sun, Zhenan; Tan, Tieniu

    2011-09-01

    Iris recognition typically involves three steps, namely, iris image preprocessing, feature extraction, and feature matching. The first two steps of iris recognition have been well studied, but the last step is less addressed. Each human iris has its unique visual pattern and local image features also vary from region to region, which leads to significant differences in robustness and distinctiveness among the feature codes derived from different iris regions. However, most state-of-the-art iris recognition methods use a uniform matching strategy, where features extracted from different regions of the same person or the same region for different individuals are considered to be equally important. This paper proposes a personalized iris matching strategy using a class-specific weight map learned from the training images of the same iris class. The weight map can be updated online during the iris recognition procedure when the successfully recognized iris images are regarded as the new training data. The weight map reflects the robustness of an encoding algorithm on different iris regions by assigning an appropriate weight to each feature code for iris matching. Such a weight map trained by sufficient iris templates is convergent and robust against various noise. Extensive and comprehensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed personalized iris matching strategy achieves much better iris recognition performance than uniform strategies, especially for poor quality iris images.

  9. Design of large scale applications of secure multiparty computation : secure linear programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogh, de S.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Secure multiparty computation is a basic concept of growing interest in modern cryptography. It allows a set of mutually distrusting parties to perform a computation on their private information in such a way that as little as possible is revealed about each private input. The early results of

  10. Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) for Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) through a Common Global Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badwan, Faris M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Michael Conrad [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pshakin, Gennady [Obninsk Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-23

    Small Modular Reactors (SMR) with power levels significantly less than the currently standard 1000 to 1600-MWe reactors have been proposed as a potential game changer for future nuclear power. SMRs may offer a simpler, more standardized, and safer modular design by using factory built and easily transportable components. Additionally, SMRs may be more easily built and operated in isolated locations, and may require smaller initial capital investment and shorter construction times. Because many SMRs designs are still conceptual and consequently not yet fixed, designers have a unique opportunity to incorporate updated design basis threats, emergency preparedness requirements, and then fully integrate safety, physical security, and safeguards/material control and accounting (MC&A) designs. Integrating safety, physical security, and safeguards is often referred to as integrating the 3Ss, and early consideration of safeguards and security in the design is often referred to as safeguards and security by design (SSBD). This paper describes U.S./Russian collaborative efforts toward developing an internationally accepted common approach for implementing SSBD/3Ss for SMRs based upon domestic requirements, and international guidance and requirements. These collaborative efforts originated with the Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Security working group established under the U.S.-Russia Bilateral Presidential Commission during the 2009 Presidential Summit. Initial efforts have focused on review of U.S. and Russian domestic requirements for Security and MC&A, IAEA guidance for security and MC&A, and IAEA requirements for international safeguards. Additionally, example SMR design features that can enhance proliferation resistance and physical security have been collected from past work and reported here. The development of a U.S./Russian common approach for SSBD/3Ss should aid the designer of SMRs located anywhere in the world. More specifically, the application of this approach may

  11. Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) for Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) through a Common Global Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badwan, Faris M.; Demuth, Scott Francis; Miller, Michael Conrad; Pshakin, Gennady

    2015-01-01

    Small Modular Reactors (SMR) with power levels significantly less than the currently standard 1000 to 1600-MWe reactors have been proposed as a potential game changer for future nuclear power. SMRs may offer a simpler, more standardized, and safer modular design by using factory built and easily transportable components. Additionally, SMRs may be more easily built and operated in isolated locations, and may require smaller initial capital investment and shorter construction times. Because many SMRs designs are still conceptual and consequently not yet fixed, designers have a unique opportunity to incorporate updated design basis threats, emergency preparedness requirements, and then fully integrate safety, physical security, and safeguards/material control and accounting (MC&A) designs. Integrating safety, physical security, and safeguards is often referred to as integrating the 3Ss, and early consideration of safeguards and security in the design is often referred to as safeguards and security by design (SSBD). This paper describes U.S./Russian collaborative efforts toward developing an internationally accepted common approach for implementing SSBD/3Ss for SMRs based upon domestic requirements, and international guidance and requirements. These collaborative efforts originated with the Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Security working group established under the U.S.-Russia Bilateral Presidential Commission during the 2009 Presidential Summit. Initial efforts have focused on review of U.S. and Russian domestic requirements for Security and MC&A, IAEA guidance for security and MC&A, and IAEA requirements for international safeguards. Additionally, example SMR design features that can enhance proliferation resistance and physical security have been collected from past work and reported here. The development of a U.S./Russian common approach for SSBD/3Ss should aid the designer of SMRs located anywhere in the world. More specifically, the application of this approach may

  12. Design and Analysis of Secure Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiong; Zhang, Hua

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, with the development of science and technology and the progress of the times, China's wireless network technology has become increasingly prosperous and it plays an important role in social production and life. In this context, in order to further to enhance the stability of wireless network data transmission and security enhancements, the staff need to focus on routing security and carry out related work. Based on this, this paper analyzes the design of wireless sensor based on secure routing protocol.

  13. Iris recognition via plenoptic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J.; Boehnen, Chris Bensing; Bolme, David S.

    2017-11-07

    Iris recognition can be accomplished for a wide variety of eye images by using plenoptic imaging. Using plenoptic technology, it is possible to correct focus after image acquisition. One example technology reconstructs images having different focus depths and stitches them together, resulting in a fully focused image, even in an off-angle gaze scenario. Another example technology determines three-dimensional data for an eye and incorporates it into an eye model used for iris recognition processing. Another example technology detects contact lenses. Application of the technologies can result in improved iris recognition under a wide variety of scenarios.

  14. Micropropagation of Iris sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevremović, Slađana; Jeknić, Zoran; Subotić, Angelina

    2013-01-01

    Irises are perennial plants widely used as ornamental garden plants or cut flowers. Some species accumulate secondary metabolites, making them highly valuable to the pharmaceutical and perfume industries. Micropropagation of irises has successfully been accomplished by culturing zygotic embryos, different flower parts, and leaf base tissues as starting explants. Plantlets are regenerated via somatic embryogenesis, organogenesis, or both processes at the same time depending on media composition and plant species. A large number of uniform plants are produced by somatic embryogenesis, however, some species have decreased morphogenetic potential overtime. Shoot cultures obtained by organogenesis can be multiplied for many years. Somatic embryogenic tissue can be reestablished from leaf bases of in vitro-grown shoots. The highest number of plants can be obtained by cell suspension cultures. This chapter describes effective in vitro plant regeneration protocols for Iris species from different types of explants by somatic embryogenesis and/or organogenesis suitable for the mass propagation of ornamental and pharmaceutical irises.

  15. IRIS core criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jecmenica, R.; Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Grgic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Three-dimensional Monte Carlo computer code KENO-VI of CSAS26 sequence of SCALE-4.4 code system was applied for pin-by-pin calculations of the effective multiplication factor for the first cycle IRIS reactor core. The effective multiplication factors obtained by the above mentioned Monte Carlo calculations using 27-group ENDF/B-IV library and 238-group ENDF/B-V library have been compared with the effective multiplication factors achieved by HELIOS/NESTLE, CASMO/SIMULATE, and modified CORD-2 nodal calculations. The results of Monte Carlo calculations are found to be in good agreement with the results obtained by the nodal codes. The discrepancies in effective multiplication factor are typically within 1%. (author)

  16. An aspect-oriented methodology for designing secure applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georg, Geri; Ray, Indrakshi; Anastasakis, Kyriakos; Bordbar, Behzad; Toahchoodee, Manachai; Houmb, S.H.

    We propose a methodology, based on aspect-oriented modeling (AOM), for incorporating security mechanisms in an application. The functionality of the application is described using the primary model and the attacks are specified using aspects. The attack aspect is composed with the primary model to

  17. Efficient iris texture analysis method based on Gabor ordinal measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajouri, Imen; Aydi, Walid; Ghorbel, Ahmed; Masmoudi, Nouri

    2017-07-01

    With the remarkably increasing interest directed to the security dimension, the iris recognition process is considered to stand as one of the most versatile technique critically useful for the biometric identification and authentication process. This is mainly due to every individual's unique iris texture. A modestly conceived efficient approach relevant to the feature extraction process is proposed. In the first place, iris zigzag "collarette" is extracted from the rest of the image by means of the circular Hough transform, as it includes the most significant regions lying in the iris texture. In the second place, the linear Hough transform is used for the eyelids' detection purpose while the median filter is applied for the eyelashes' removal. Then, a special technique combining the richness of Gabor features and the compactness of ordinal measures is implemented for the feature extraction process, so that a discriminative feature representation for every individual can be achieved. Subsequently, the modified Hamming distance is used for the matching process. Indeed, the advanced procedure turns out to be reliable, as compared to some of the state-of-the-art approaches, with a recognition rate of 99.98%, 98.12%, and 95.02% on CASIAV1.0, CASIAV3.0, and IIT Delhi V1 iris databases, respectively.

  18. Shape adaptive, robust iris feature extraction from noisy iris images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrati, Hamed; Dehghani, Mohammad Javad; Danyali, Habibolah

    2013-10-01

    In the current iris recognition systems, noise removing step is only used to detect noisy parts of the iris region and features extracted from there will be excluded in matching step. Whereas depending on the filter structure used in feature extraction, the noisy parts may influence relevant features. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of noise factors on feature extraction has not been considered in the previous works. This paper investigates the effect of shape adaptive wavelet transform and shape adaptive Gabor-wavelet for feature extraction on the iris recognition performance. In addition, an effective noise-removing approach is proposed in this paper. The contribution is to detect eyelashes and reflections by calculating appropriate thresholds by a procedure called statistical decision making. The eyelids are segmented by parabolic Hough transform in normalized iris image to decrease computational burden through omitting rotation term. The iris is localized by an accurate and fast algorithm based on coarse-to-fine strategy. The principle of mask code generation is to assign the noisy bits in an iris code in order to exclude them in matching step is presented in details. An experimental result shows that by using the shape adaptive Gabor-wavelet technique there is an improvement on the accuracy of recognition rate.

  19. Design of a Super-Pixel-Based Quantum Secure Authentication Demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Chris; Tentrup, Tristan B.H.; Pinkse, Pepijn W.H.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum Secure Authentication (QSA) is a method recently developed to authenticate a multiple-scattering key [1]. Previous implementations only showed proof-of-principle setups. We present a design of a compact and robust demonstration device for Quantum Secure Authentication. The challenge and

  20. Autonomy-based security design: the allocation of cash flow and control rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Song, F.; Thakor, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    We derive debt, equity, convertible debt and asset-backed debt securities as optimal security designs in an environment in which the owner-manager has an endogenous control preference - a desire for autonomy - arising from the anticipation of future disagreement with investors over a

  1. Academy Distance Learning Tools (IRIS) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — IRIS is a suite of front-end web applications utilizing a centralized back-end Oracle database. The system fully supports the FAA Academy's Distance Learning Program...

  2. Iris Murdoch armastusest / Udo uibo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibo, Udo, 1956-

    2010-01-01

    Londoni Kingstoni ülikool omandas 50 000 naesterlingi eest 164 Iris Murdochi kirja prantsuse kirjanikule, keeleeksperimentaatorile Raymond Quenaule, millest selgub Murdochi ühepoolne ning vastamata jäänud tunne Quenau suhtes.

  3. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA?s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is a compilation of electronic reports on specific substances found in the environment and their potential to cause...

  4. Engineering Trade-off Considerations Regarding Design-for-Security, Design-for-Verification, and Design-for-Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth

    2018-01-01

    The United States government has identified that application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware are at risk from a variety of adversary attacks. This finding affects system security and trust. Consequently, processes are being developed for system mitigation and countermeasure application. The scope of this tutorial pertains to potential vulnerabilities and countermeasures within the ASIC/FPGA design cycle. The presentation demonstrates how design practices can affect the risk for the adversary to: change circuitry, steal intellectual property, and listen to data operations. An important portion of the design cycle is assuring the design is working as specified or as expected. This is accomplished by exhaustive testing of the target design. Alternatively, it has been shown that well established schemes for test coverage enhancement (design-for-verification (DFV) and design-for-test (DFT)) can create conduits for adversary accessibility. As a result, it is essential to perform a trade between robust test coverage versus reliable design implementation. The goal of this tutorial is to explain the evolution of design practices; review adversary accessibility points due to DFV and DFT circuitry insertion (back door circuitry); and to describe common engineering trade-off considerations for test versus adversary threats.

  5. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF IRIS HUNGARICA AND IRIS SIBIRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev V. M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Referring to the latest data, infectious diseases command a large part of among the total number of pathologies in the world and are an important problem in medicine. The leading role in prevention and treatment of diseases of microbial origin belongs to antibacterial chemotherapeutic agents. Advantages of antibiotics of synthetic origin are the high activity compared to phytogenic drugs. But it is known that microorganisms can release the resistance to synthetic antibiotics, so the use of drugs based on the plant materials is appropriate: phytogenic drugs more rarely induce the formation of resistance of the strains of microorganisms, they have a gentle action, can be used for a long-term, have the low cost. Therefore, it is appropriate to examine the drug plants with the aim of determination their antibacterial activity.Iris hungarica Waldst et Kit. and Iris sibirica L. are the representatives of the family Iridaceae, genus Iris and they have a wide spectrum of the pharmacological activity. Biologically active substances that were recovered from plants of the genus Iris (tectoridin, iristectorigenin B, nigracin, kaempferol, quercetin, etc. exhibited an antitumor, antimicrobial, estrogenic, insecticidal, antiplasmatic, anticholinesterase action, they were the inhibitors of enzymes and exhibited the immunomodulatory properties, which made these plants perspective for the research study. Raw materials Irises are constituent components of more than 9 medicines. Materials and Methods. The objects of the study were the leaves and rhizomes of Iris hungarica and Iris sibirica that were prepared during the growing season in 2014 in the M.M. Gryshko National botanical garden (Kiev, Ukraine. The dry and lipophilic extracts from the leaves and rhizomes of Irises were used to establish the antimicrobial activity. For the study of extracts antimicrobial activity was used agar well diffusion method. According to the WHO recommendations the

  6. [Principles and methodology for ecological rehabilitation and security pattern design in key project construction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Ding; Lu, Yi-He; Tian, Hui-Ying; Shi, Qian

    2007-03-01

    Global ecological security becomes increasingly important with the intensive human activities. The function of ecological security is influenced by human activities, and in return, the efficiency of human activities will also be affected by the patterns of regional ecological security. Since the 1990s, China has initiated the construction of key projects "Yangtze Three Gorges Dam", "Qinghai-Tibet Railway", "West-to-East Gas Pipeline", "West-to-East Electricity Transmission" and "South-to-North Water Transfer" , etc. The interaction between these projects and regional ecological security has particularly attracted the attention of Chinese government. It is not only important for the regional environmental protection, but also of significance for the smoothly implementation of various projects aimed to develop an ecological rehabilitation system and to design a regional ecological security pattern. This paper made a systematic analysis on the types and characteristics of key project construction and their effects on the environment, and on the basis of this, brought forward the basic principles and methodology for ecological rehabilitation and security pattern design in this construction. It was considered that the following issues should be addressed in the implementation of a key project: 1) analysis and evaluation of current regional ecological environment, 2) evaluation of anthropogenic disturbances and their ecological risk, 3) regional ecological rehabilitation and security pattern design, 4) scenario analysis of environmental benefits of regional ecological security pattern, 5) re-optimization of regional ecological system framework, and 6) establishment of regional ecosystem management plan.

  7. The design of a compact integral medium size PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirvan, Koroush; Hejzlar, Pavel; Kazimi, Mujid S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model the IRIS reactor in RELAP5 and VIPRE codes. ► We use Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers and internally and externally cooled fuel pins in IRIS. ► We increase the IRIS power by 50% and demonstrate adequate safety performance. ► We show significant potential gain in economics for any integral PWR reactor design. - Abstract: Integral reactors have been proposed in recent years as a means to eliminate loss of coolant events, and reduce the number of large vessels of a nuclear power plant. In this paper the focus on how to further increase the power that can be derived from a given vessel volume. The example is applied to the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), a medium size, light water reactor rated at 1000 MWt. The IRIS is an integral design containing all pumps and steam generators along with a traditional PWR core inside the reactor vessel. IRIS was designed with 8 Once-Through Helically Coiled Steam Generators (OTHSG), located above the core, in an annular region between the riser and the pressure vessel wall. This work examines ideas to increase its power output in the same vessel size while maintaining or improving the safety margins. The combination of Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHE) and Internally and EXternally cooled Annular Fuel (IXAF) is proposed to implement such improvement in otherwise the reference IRIS design. Safety implications of such steam generator and fuel design changes for the same reactor size are examined, under both steady state and transients, using the RELAP5 and VIPRE codes. It is found that the IRIS reactor power can be increased by 50% by using the PCHE and IXAF. The proposed design is found to be less expensive per unit electric power produced, these improvements and analyses can be applied to any integral reactor design.

  8. Select Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Plant Design for Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) per Used Fuel Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sprinkle, James K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-26

    As preparation to the year-end deliverable (Provide SSBD Best Practices for Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant) for the Work Package (FT-15LA040501–Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage), the initial step was to select a generic dry-storage pilot plant design for SSBD. To be consistent with other DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) activities, the Used Fuel Campaign was engaged for the selection of a design for this deliverable. For the work Package FT-15LA040501–“Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage”, SSBD will be initiated for the Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant described by the layout of Reference 2. SSBD will consider aspects of the design that are impacted by domestic material control and accounting (MC&A), domestic security, and international safeguards.

  9. Designing indicators of long-term energy supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.C.; Van Arkel, W.G.; Boots, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    To our knowledge, so far amazingly little research work has been undertaken to construct meaningful indicators of long-run energy supply security for a particular nation or region. Currently, in addressing energy supply security, policy makers tend to emphasise short-term supply disruptions. In contrast, this pre-study accords with the broader Sustainability Outlook in considering the long-term perspective. This report starts with taking stock, in a concise way, of the official EU energy outlook and issues related to the opportunities to administer changes in the energy mix at the level of major energy use categories. Then a brief survey of relevant literature is made on long-term strategies to ensure survival of systems - be it biological, social, etc. - in an environment largely characterised by high uncertainty and a lot of unchartered territory. We found the work of Andrew Stirling very inspiring in this context. Based on his work and considering the limitations of the present research activity, we retained the Shannon index as the best 'simple' indicator of diversity. In the core of the report, the Shannon index is elaborated into four indicators of long-term energy supply security. Stepwise, additional aspects of long-term energy supply security are introduced. These aspects are: Diversification of energy sources in energy supply; Diversification of imports with respect to imported energy sources; Long-term political stability in regions of origin; The resource base in regions of origin, including the home region/country itself. After small adjustments to allow for data availability, these indicators were applied to the reference year 2030 of four long-term scenarios with data of base year 1995 and projections for underlying variables provided by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP). Preliminary interpretation of the results suggests the usefulness of the indicators presented in this report. A second activity undertaken in this report was

  10. Novel Iris Biometric Watermarking Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Discrete Cosine Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel iris biometric watermarking scheme is proposed focusing on iris recognition instead of the traditional watermark for increasing the security of the digital products. The preprocess of iris image is to be done firstly, which generates the iris biometric template from person's eye images. And then the templates are to be on discrete cosine transform; the value of the discrete cosine is encoded to BCH error control coding. The host image is divided into four areas equally correspondingly. The BCH codes are embedded in the singular values of each host image's coefficients which are obtained through discrete cosine transform (DCT. Numerical results reveal that proposed method can extract the watermark effectively and illustrate its security and robustness.

  11. System and prospect assesment of the small innovative reactor IRIS-50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumbanraja, Sahala M.; Wibowo

    2002-01-01

    System and prospect of the small innovative reactor IRIS-50 in Indonesia have been studied. IRIS-50 (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is an advanced light water cooled modular reactor being developed by an international consortium led by Westinghouse. This reactor is specifically developed to match market demands, or to developing country. This reactor is based on simplified operation and maintenance, enhanced and safety, easy to inspect, short construction time, small investment cost, competitive generating cost, and easily suited to the infrastructures. IRIS main characteristic is integral reactor concept, being all the major reactor coolant system components located inside the pressure vessel

  12. Design of a Secure System Considering Quality of Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seondong Heo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in networking technologies have provided users with useful information services. Such information services may bring convenience and efficiency, but might be accompanied by vulnerabilities to a variety of attacks. Therefore, a variety of research to enhance the security of the systems and get the services at the same time has been carried out. Especially, research on intrusion-tolerant systems (ITSs has been conducted in order to survive against every intrusion, rather than to detect and prevent them. In this paper, an ITS based on effective resource conversion (ERC is presented to achieve the goal of intrusion-tolerance. Instead of using the fixed number of virtual machines (VMs to process requests and recover as in conventional approaches, the ITS based on ERC can transform the assigned resources depending on the system status. This scheme is proved to maintain a certain level of quality of service (QoS and quality of security service (QoSS in threatening environments. The performance of ERC is compared with previous studies on ITS by CSIM 20, and it is verified that the proposed scheme is more effective in retaining a specific level of QoS and QoSS.

  13. A new objective criterion for IRIS localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basit, A.

    2010-01-01

    Iris localization is the most important step in iris recognition systems. For commonly used databases, exact data is not given which describe the true results of localization. To cope with this problem a new objective criterion for iris localization is proposed in this paper based on our visual system. A specific number of points are selected on pupil boundary, iris boundary, upper eyelid and lower eyelid using the original image and then distance from these points to the result of complete iris localization has been calculated. If the determined distance is below a certain threshold then iris localization is considered correct. Experimental results show that proposed criterion is very effective. (author)

  14. Selection of security system design via games of imperfect information and multi-objective genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lins, Isis Didier; Rêgo, Leandro Chaves; Moura, Márcio das Chagas

    2013-01-01

    This work analyzes the strategic interaction between a defender and an intelligent attacker by means of a game and reliability framework involving a multi-objective approach and imperfect information so as to support decision-makers in choosing efficiently designed security systems. A multi-objective genetic algorithm is used to determine the optimal security system's configurations representing the tradeoff between the probability of a successful defense and the acquisition and operational costs. Games with imperfect information are considered, in which the attacker has limited knowledge about the actual security system. The types of security alternatives are readily observable, but the number of redundancies actually implemented in each security subsystem is not known. The proposed methodology is applied to an illustrative example considering power transmission lines in the Northeast of Brazil, which are often targets for attackers who aims at selling the aluminum conductors. The empirical results show that the framework succeeds in handling this sort of strategic interaction. -- Highlights: ► Security components must have feasible costs and must be reliable. ► The optimal design of security systems considers a multi-objective approach. ► Games of imperfect information enable the choice of non-dominated configurations. ► MOGA, reliability and games support the entire defender's decision process. ► The selection of effective security systems may discourage attacker's actions

  15. Design and Development of Layered Security: Future Enhancements and Directions in Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Aamir; Lee, Malrey; Kim, Suntae; Kim, Kangmin; Choi, Jae-Young; Cho, Younghwa; Lee, Keun-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    Today, security is a prominent issue when any type of communication is being undertaken. Like traditional networks, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems suffer from a number of vulnerabilities. Numerous end-to-end security mechanisms have been proposed for the resolution of SCADA-system security issues, but due to insecure real-time protocol use and the reliance upon open protocols during Internet-based communication, these SCADA systems can still be compromised by security challenges. This study reviews the security challenges and issues that are commonly raised during SCADA/protocol transmissions and proposes a secure distributed-network protocol version 3 (DNP3) design, and the implementation of the security solution using a cryptography mechanism. Due to the insecurities found within SCADA protocols, the new development consists of a DNP3 protocol that has been designed as a part of the SCADA system, and the cryptographically derived security is deployed within the application layer as a part of the DNP3 stack. PMID:26751443

  16. Design and Development of Layered Security: Future Enhancements and Directions in Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, security is a prominent issue when any type of communication is being undertaken. Like traditional networks, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA systems suffer from a number of vulnerabilities. Numerous end-to-end security mechanisms have been proposed for the resolution of SCADA-system security issues, but due to insecure real-time protocol use and the reliance upon open protocols during Internet-based communication, these SCADA systems can still be compromised by security challenges. This study reviews the security challenges and issues that are commonly raised during SCADA/protocol transmissions and proposes a secure distributed-network protocol version 3 (DNP3 design, and the implementation of the security solution using a cryptography mechanism. Due to the insecurities found within SCADA protocols, the new development consists of a DNP3 protocol that has been designed as a part of the SCADA system, and the cryptographically derived security is deployed within the application layer as a part of the DNP3 stack.

  17. Leveraging Technology and Tank Design Characteristics for 2020 Security Landscape

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doody, Mark

    2000-01-01

    ...: using precision munitions, multisensor arrays, information dominance, advanced materials, hybrid engine designs, and lighter more deployable platforms that allow for quick entry anywhere in the world...

  18. Secure Voice System Integrated Conferencing Analysis and Interoperation Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-17

    8217 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . r~ . DEFENSE~~~ ~ ~ COMNCAIN ENIERNGCNE 4f* ’co.t. SECUE VOCE SSTE COMUCTSCECSROAION CNEOPRATIO DESIGN4C-0 UNCLASSIFIED

  19. On the Design of Forgiving Biometric Security Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Raphael C.-W.; Whitley, John N.; Parish, David J.

    This work aims to highlight the fundamental issue surrounding biometric security systems: it’s all very nice until a biometric is forged, but what do we do after that? Granted, biometric systems are by physical nature supposedly much harder to forge than other factors of authentication since biometrics on a human body are by right unique to the particular human person. Yet it is also due to this physical nature that makes it much more catastrophic when a forgery does occur, because it implies that this uniqueness has been forged as well, threatening the human individuality; and since crime has by convention relied on identifying suspects by biometric characteristics, loss of this biometric uniqueness has devastating consequences on the freedom and basic human rights of the victimized individual. This uniqueness forgery implication also raises the motivation on the adversary to forge since a successful forgery leads to much more impersonation situations when biometric systems are used i.e. physical presence at crime scenes, identification and access to security systems and premises, access to financial accounts and hence the ability to use the victim’s finances. Depending on the gains, a desperate highly motivated adversary may even resort to directly obtaining the victim’s biometric parts by force e.g. severing the parts from the victim’s body; this poses a risk and threat not just to the individual’s uniqueness claim but also to personal safety and well being. One may then wonder if it is worth putting one’s assets, property and safety into the hands of biometrics based systems when the consequences of biometric forgery far outweigh the consequences of system compromises when no biometrics are used.

  20. Iris Template Protection Based on Local Ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics have been widely studied in recent years, and they are increasingly employed in real-world applications. Meanwhile, a number of potential threats to the privacy of biometric data arise. Iris template protection demands that the privacy of iris data should be protected when performing iris recognition. According to the international standard ISO/IEC 24745, iris template protection should satisfy the irreversibility, revocability, and unlinkability. However, existing works about iris template protection demonstrate that it is difficult to satisfy the three privacy requirements simultaneously while supporting effective iris recognition. In this paper, we propose an iris template protection method based on local ranking. Specifically, the iris data are first XORed (Exclusive OR operation with an application-specific string; next, we divide the results into blocks and then partition the blocks into groups. The blocks in each group are ranked according to their decimal values, and original blocks are transformed to their rank values for storage. We also extend the basic method to support the shifting strategy and masking strategy, which are two important strategies for iris recognition. We demonstrate that the proposed method satisfies the irreversibility, revocability, and unlinkability. Experimental results on typical iris datasets (i.e., CASIA-IrisV3-Interval, CASIA-IrisV4-Lamp, UBIRIS-V1-S1, and MMU-V1 show that the proposed method could maintain the recognition performance while protecting the privacy of iris data.

  1. Design concept of CSRAS (Cyber Security Risk Analysis and Assessment System) for digital I and C systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J. G.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, D. Y.; Lee, C. K.

    2012-01-01

    The instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs) have been digitalized recently. Hence, cyber security becomes an important feature to be incorporated into the I and C systems. The Regulatory Guide 5.71 published by U.C NRC in 2010 presents a comprehensive set of security controls for the cyber security of I and C systems in NPPs. However, the application of security controls specified in the RG 5.71 in a specific I and C system still requires many analysis efforts based on the understanding of the security controls, since the guideline does not provide the details to system designers or developers regarding what, where, and how to apply the security controls. To apply security controls to I and C systems, cyber security requirements should be identified based on the cyber security policy and program, then the design and implementation of security controls should be performed along with the I and C system development life cycle. It can be assumed that cyber security requirements are identified during the system design(SD) phase and the design and implementation of security controls is performed during the component design(CD) phase. When identifying security requirements and performing the design and implementation of security controls, cyber security risk assessments should be processed with the understanding of the characteristics of target systems. In this study, the Cyber Security Risk Analysis and Assessment System (CSRAS) has been developed as a tool for analyzing security requirements and technical security controls considering based on a general cyber security risk assessment procedure with the consideration of the characteristics of I and C systems and the development phases

  2. Design concept of CSRAS (Cyber Security Risk Analysis and Assessment System) for digital I and C systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J. G.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, D. Y.; Lee, C. K. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs) have been digitalized recently. Hence, cyber security becomes an important feature to be incorporated into the I and C systems. The Regulatory Guide 5.71 published by U.C NRC in 2010 presents a comprehensive set of security controls for the cyber security of I and C systems in NPPs. However, the application of security controls specified in the RG 5.71 in a specific I and C system still requires many analysis efforts based on the understanding of the security controls, since the guideline does not provide the details to system designers or developers regarding what, where, and how to apply the security controls. To apply security controls to I and C systems, cyber security requirements should be identified based on the cyber security policy and program, then the design and implementation of security controls should be performed along with the I and C system development life cycle. It can be assumed that cyber security requirements are identified during the system design(SD) phase and the design and implementation of security controls is performed during the component design(CD) phase. When identifying security requirements and performing the design and implementation of security controls, cyber security risk assessments should be processed with the understanding of the characteristics of target systems. In this study, the Cyber Security Risk Analysis and Assessment System (CSRAS) has been developed as a tool for analyzing security requirements and technical security controls considering based on a general cyber security risk assessment procedure with the consideration of the characteristics of I and C systems and the development phases.

  3. Reliability of iris recognition as a means of identity verification and future impact on transportation worker identification credential

    OpenAIRE

    McLaren, Simon R.

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security is deploying the Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) to U.S. ports to help ensure only authorized individuals having undergone background checks have access to secure areas. Congress mandated the TWIC have a biometric authenticator; DHS chose fingerprints. This thesis argues iris scanning is a better choice because of the nature of the maritime environment and because iris scanning is a more accurate biometric. This thesis also argues th...

  4. Design optimization for security-and safety-critical distributed real-time applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Wei; Pop, Paul; Jiang, Ke

    2016-01-01

    requirements on confidentiality of messages, task replication is used to enhance system reliability, and dynamic voltage and frequency scaling is used for energy efficiency of tasks. It is challenging to address these factors simultaneously, e.g., better security protections need more computing resources......In this paper, we are interested in the design of real-time applications with security, safety, timing, and energy requirements. The applications are scheduled with cyclic scheduling, and are mapped on distributed heterogeneous architectures. Cryptographic services are deployed to satisfy security...... and consume more energy, while lower voltages and frequencies may impair schedulability and security, and also lead to reliability degradation. We introduce a vulnerability based method to quantify the security performance of communications on distributed systems. We then focus on determining the appropriate...

  5. Conceptual Design Approach to Implementing Hardware-based Security Controls in Data Communication Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad Salah; Jung, Jaecheon [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In the Korean Advanced Power Reactor (APR1400), safety control systems network is electrically isolated and physically separated from non-safety systems data network. Unidirectional gateways, include data diode fiber-optic cabling and computer-based servers, transmit the plant safety critical parameters to the main control room (MCR) for control and monitoring processes. The data transmission is only one-way from safety to non-safety. Reverse communication is blocked so that safety systems network is protected from potential cyberattacks or intrusions from non-safety side. Most of commercials off-the-shelf (COTS) security devices are software-based solutions that require operating systems and processors to perform its functions. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) offer digital hardware solutions to implement security controls such as data packet filtering and deep data packet inspection. This paper presents a conceptual design to implement hardware-based network security controls for maintaining the availability of gateway servers. A conceptual design of hardware-based network security controls was discussed in this paper. The proposed design is aiming at utilizing the hardware-based capabilities of FPGAs together with filtering and DPI functions of COTS software-based firewalls and intrusion detection and prevention systems (IDPS). The proposed design implemented a network security perimeter between the DCN-I zone and gateway servers zone. Security control functions are to protect the gateway servers from potential DoS attacks that could affect the data availability and integrity.

  6. Conceptual Design Approach to Implementing Hardware-based Security Controls in Data Communication Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad Salah; Jung, Jaecheon

    2016-01-01

    In the Korean Advanced Power Reactor (APR1400), safety control systems network is electrically isolated and physically separated from non-safety systems data network. Unidirectional gateways, include data diode fiber-optic cabling and computer-based servers, transmit the plant safety critical parameters to the main control room (MCR) for control and monitoring processes. The data transmission is only one-way from safety to non-safety. Reverse communication is blocked so that safety systems network is protected from potential cyberattacks or intrusions from non-safety side. Most of commercials off-the-shelf (COTS) security devices are software-based solutions that require operating systems and processors to perform its functions. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) offer digital hardware solutions to implement security controls such as data packet filtering and deep data packet inspection. This paper presents a conceptual design to implement hardware-based network security controls for maintaining the availability of gateway servers. A conceptual design of hardware-based network security controls was discussed in this paper. The proposed design is aiming at utilizing the hardware-based capabilities of FPGAs together with filtering and DPI functions of COTS software-based firewalls and intrusion detection and prevention systems (IDPS). The proposed design implemented a network security perimeter between the DCN-I zone and gateway servers zone. Security control functions are to protect the gateway servers from potential DoS attacks that could affect the data availability and integrity

  7. 77 FR 31869 - Iris Lacustris (Dwarf Lake Iris); Draft Recovery Plan for Review and Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ...-FF03E00000] Iris Lacustris (Dwarf Lake Iris); Draft Recovery Plan for Review and Comment AGENCY: Fish and... Service (Service) announces availability for public review of the draft recovery plan for the Iris lacustris (dwarf lake iris), a species that is federally listed as threatened under the Endangered Species...

  8. Designing Security-Hardened Microkernels For Field Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieb, Jeffrey; Graham, James

    Distributed control systems (DCSs) play an essential role in the operation of critical infrastructures. Perimeter field devices are important DCS components that measure physical process parameters and perform control actions. Modern field devices are vulnerable to cyber attacks due to their increased adoption of commodity technologies and that fact that control networks are no longer isolated. This paper describes an approach for creating security-hardened field devices using operating system microkernels that isolate vital field device operations from untrusted network-accessible applications. The approach, which is influenced by the MILS and Nizza architectures, is implemented in a prototype field device. Whereas, previous microkernel-based implementations have been plagued by poor inter-process communication (IPC) performance, the prototype exhibits an average IPC overhead for protected device calls of 64.59 μs. The overall performance of field devices is influenced by several factors; nevertheless, the observed IPC overhead is low enough to encourage the continued development of the prototype.

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrolein (2003 Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Acrolein: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Acrolein and accompanying toxicological review have been added to the IRIS Database.

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of Chloroform (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Chloroform: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Chloroform and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  11. PLATEAU IRIS SYNDROME--CASE SERIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feraru, Crenguta Ioana; Pantalon, Anca Delia; Chiselita, Dorin; Branisteanu, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Plateau iris is characterized by closing the anterior chamber angle due to a large ciliary body or due to its anterior insertion that alters the position of iris periphery in respect to the trabecular meshwork. There are two aspects that need to be differentiated: plateau iris configuration and plateau iris syndrome. The first describes a situation when the iris root is flat and the anterior chamber is not shallow, the latter refers to a post laser iridotomy condition in which a patent iridotomy has removed the relative pupillary block, but goniscopically confirmed angle closure recurs without central shallowing of the anterior chamber. Isolated plateau iris syndrome is rare compared to plateau iris configuration. We hereby present two case reports of plateau iris syndrome in young patients who came to an ophthalmologic consult by chance.

  12. IRIS and the National Research Council (NRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 2011 National Academies’ National Research Council (NRC) review of the IRIS Program's assessment of Formaldehyde, EPA and NRC have had an ongoing relationship into the improvements of developing the IRIS Assessments.

  13. Quality assessment for online iris images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makinana, S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition systems have attracted much attention for their uniqueness, stability and reliability. However, performance of this system depends on quality of iris image. Therefore there is a need to select good quality images before features can...

  14. LDPC and SHA based iris recognition for image authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Seetharaman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel way to authenticate an image using Low Density Parity Check (LDPC and Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA based iris recognition method with reversible watermarking scheme, which is based on Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT and threshold embedding technique. The parity checks and parity matrix of LDPC encoding and cancellable biometrics i.e., hash string of unique iris code from SHA-512 are embedded into an image for authentication purpose using reversible watermarking scheme based on IWT and threshold embedding technique. Simply by reversing the embedding process, the original image, parity checks, parity matrix and SHA-512 hash are extracted back from watermarked-image. For authentication, the new hash string produced by employing SHA-512 on error corrected iris code from live person is compared with hash string extracted from watermarked-image. The LDPC code reduces the hamming distance for genuine comparisons by a larger amount than for the impostor comparisons. This results in better separation between genuine and impostor users which improves the authentication performance. Security of this scheme is very high due to the security complexity of SHA-512, which is 2256 under birthday attack. Experimental results show that this approach can assure more accurate authentication with a low false rejection or false acceptance rate and outperforms the prior arts in terms of PSNR.

  15. The German electricity market. Does the present market design provide security of supply?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Matthias; Peichert, Patrick; Perner, Jens; Riechmann, Christoph; Niedrig, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A heated discussion is being waged in Germany and large parts of Europe over the introduction of what are referred to as capacity mechanisms, whose purpose is to provide security of supply in the electricity sector. In this context two consulting firms have undertaken a both qualitative and quantitative study of the fitness of the present market design, which is based on the ''Energy-Only Market'' (EOM), to provide security of supply in the German electricity market. The authors come to the conclusion that, if suitably framed, the EOM can continue to provide a secure electricity supply in accordance with consumer preferences and at the lowest possible cost.

  16. Degradation monitoring in IRIS steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpay, B.; Holloway, J. P.; Lee, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    We present a degradation monitoring technique based on unscented Kalman filtering (UKF), which uses a nonlinear system model without linearization to estimate the status of the component/state variables. To test the applicability of the methodology, the fouling of tubes is chosen among various degradation mechanisms for the IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) steam generators (SGs). The degradation monitoring algorithm diagnoses the tube fouling and estimates the thickness of the crud deposited on the secondary side of the SG along with the increase in the pressure drop triggered by fouling. A stand-alone SG model developed with the RELAP5 code was used to simulate the transient behavior of the SG and drive an UKF state estimate. By using the secondary side outlet temperature as the measurement and the nodal pressures along the secondary side as states, UKF generated accurate estimates of the crud layer thicknesses for different crud formations. (authors)

  17. Eyelid Localization for Iris Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ea

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new eyelid localization algorithm based on a parabolic curve fitting. To deal with eyelashes, low contrast or false detection due to iris texture, we propose a two steps algorithm. First, possible edge candidates are selected by applying edge detection on a restricted area inside the iris. Then, a gradient maximization is applied along every parabola, on a larger area, to refine parameters and select the best one. Experiments have been conducted on a database of 151 iris that have been manually segmented. The performance evaluation is carried out by comparing the segmented images obtained by the proposed method with the manual segmentation. The results are satisfactory in more than 90% of the cases.

  18. Designing and implementing the logical security framework for e-commerce based on service oriented architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Luhach, Ashish Kr.; Dwivedi, Sanjay K; Jha, C K

    2014-01-01

    Rapid evolution of information technology has contributed to the evolution of more sophisticated E- commerce system with the better transaction time and protection. The currently used E-commerce models lack in quality properties such as logical security because of their poor designing and to face the highly equipped and trained intruders. This editorial proposed a security framework for small and medium sized E-commerce, based on service oriented architecture and gives an analysis of the emin...

  19. A CAREM reactor's design evaluation from the nuclear security point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, J.M.; Felizia, E.R.; Navarro, N.R.; Caruso, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to define the adequate rules for CAREM reactor security systems design and processes which aim to assure verification of the CALIN regulations 'Radiological Criteria' in relation to accidents concerning CAREM reactor design. (Author) [es

  20. Evaluating Online Dialogue on "Security" Using a Novel Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Payal

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores evaluation strategies to gauge the impact of a novel instructional design on international community participation online. This is done by conceptualizing and devising indicators for measuring "engagement" online amongst marginalized adult communities worldwide. In doing so, a review of online evaluation literature is…

  1. Proceedings of the IRI Task Force Activity 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicella, S.M.

    2002-08-01

    This ICTP Internal Report contains the list of papers presented, activity report and the write up of a number of presentations delivered during the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) Task Force Activity 2001 which took place at the Abdus Salam ICTP during May 2001, particularly centred in the week from 21-25 May. The 2001 Task Force Activity is the eighth successful encounter of specialists organized by the URSI-Cospar IRI Working Group and the Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics of Trieste, Italy. This project continues the IRI Task Force Activities at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, Italy. The primary focus of this activity was the development of a specification model for ionospheric variability. Such a model is high on the wish list of users of ionospheric models. Climatological models like IRI provide monthly mean values of ionospheric parameters. Understandably a satellite designer or operator needs to know not only the monthly average conditions but also the expected deviations from these mean values. The main discussions and presentations took place during the week 21-25 May. The format was similar to last year's activity with presentations and round-table discussions in the morning and follow-on work in small subgroups in front of computer terminals in the afternoon. This Proceedings contains also four papers of the previous IRI Task Force Activity which were omitted

  2. Automatic quantification of iris color

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, S.; Harder, Stine; Andersen, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    regions. The result is a blue-brown ratio for each eye. Furthermore, an image clustering approach has been used with promising results. The approach is based on using a sparse dictionary of feature vectors learned from a training set of iris regions. The feature vectors contain both local structural...... information and colour information. For each iris an explanatory histogram is build, containing information about the weighted occurrence of each visual word. A hierarchical agglomerative clustering of the entire set of photos is performed using the distance between the explanatory histograms. The approach...

  3. Ekspert i undervisning - IRIS Connect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wullum, Annemette Heine; Eriksen, Frits Hedegaard

    Ekspert i undervisning – IRIS Connect Credoet bag de seneste års mange læreruddannelsesreformer har været, at flere og dybere kundskaber vil styrke de studerendes forudsætninger for at løse opgaverne i pædagogisk praksis. Et forhold, som bliver overset i forbindelse med uddannelsesreformerne, er...... praksis, og hvad ”effektiv” undervisning er. Hovedantagelserne bag projektet er, at de studerendes personbundne kundskaber kan synliggøres, at deres lægmandsopfattelser af, hvad ”effektiv” undervisning er, kan udfordres gennem analyser og drøftelser, og at brugen af IRIS Connects dataindsamlings- og...

  4. Report printer (COBOL IRIS 50)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Daniele

    1973-10-01

    The research thesis reports a detailed study of the Report Writer of the COBOL language in order to integrate it into the IRIS 50 COBOL compiler. In order to use existing compiler processing, the author developed a simulation of the Report Writer by using Cobol statements generated in the declarative part of the Division procedure. After a brief presentation of the IRIS 50 computer, the author presents the general plan of the compiler with modifications and adjunctions exclusively due to the Report Writer. The next part addresses the practical implementation and the problems met and solved during this implementation

  5. A lightweight security scheme for wireless body area networks: design, energy evaluation and proposed microprocessor design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selimis, G.; Huang, L.; Massé, F.; Tsekoura, I.; Ashouei, M.; Catthoor, F.; Huisken, J.; Stuyt, J.; Dolmans, G.; Penders, J.; Groot, H. de

    2011-01-01

    In order for wireless body area networks to meet widespread adoption, a number of security implications must be explored to promote and maintain fundamental medical ethical principles and social expectations. As a result, integration of security functionality to sensor nodes is required. Integrating

  6. What Genes Tell about Iris Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Stine; Christoffersen, Susanne R.; Johansen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Predicting phenotypes based on genotypes is generally hard, but has shown good results for prediction of iris color. We propose to correlate the appearance of iris with DNA. Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have previously been shown to correlate with human iris color, and we demonstrat...

  7. CFD modeling of the IRIS pressurizer dynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, Ronny R.; Montesinos, Maria E.; Garcia, Carlos; Bueno, Elizabeth D.; Mazaira, Leorlen R.; Bezerra, Jair L.; Lira, Carlos A.B. Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Integral layout of nuclear reactor IRIS makes possible the elimination of the spray system, which is usually used to mitigate in-surge transient and also help to Boron homogenization. The study of transients with deficiencies in the Boron homogenization in this technology is very important, because they can cause disturbances in the reactor power and insert a strong reactivity in the core. The detailed knowledge of the behavior of multiphase multicomponent flows is challenging due to the complex phenomena and interactions at the interface. In this context, the CFD modeling is employed in the design of equipment in the nuclear industry as it allows predicting accidents or predicting their performance in dissimilar applications. The aim of the present research is to model the IRIS pressurizer's dynamic using the commercial CFD code CFX. A symmetric tri dimensional model equivalent to 1/8 of the total geometry was adopted to reduce mesh size and minimize processing time. The model considers the coexistence of four phases and also takes into account the heat losses. The relationships for interfacial mass, energy, and momentum transport are programmed and incorporated into CFX. Moreover, two subdomains and several additional variables are defined to monitoring the boron dilution sequences and condensation-evaporation rates in different control volumes. For transient states a non - equilibrium stratification in the pressurizer is considered. This paper discusses the model developed and the behavior of the system for representative transients sequences. The results of analyzed transients of IRIS can be applied to the design of pressurizer internal structures and components. (author)

  8. CFD modeling of the IRIS pressurizer dynamic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, Ronny R.; Montesinos, Maria E.; Garcia, Carlos; Bueno, Elizabeth D.; Mazaira, Leorlen R., E-mail: rsanz@instec.cu, E-mail: mmontesi@instec.cu, E-mail: cgh@instec.cu, E-mail: leored1984@gmail.com [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Bezerra, Jair L.; Lira, Carlos A.B. Oliveira, E-mail: jair.lima@ufpe.br, E-mail: cabol@ufpe.br [Universida Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Integral layout of nuclear reactor IRIS makes possible the elimination of the spray system, which is usually used to mitigate in-surge transient and also help to Boron homogenization. The study of transients with deficiencies in the Boron homogenization in this technology is very important, because they can cause disturbances in the reactor power and insert a strong reactivity in the core. The detailed knowledge of the behavior of multiphase multicomponent flows is challenging due to the complex phenomena and interactions at the interface. In this context, the CFD modeling is employed in the design of equipment in the nuclear industry as it allows predicting accidents or predicting their performance in dissimilar applications. The aim of the present research is to model the IRIS pressurizer's dynamic using the commercial CFD code CFX. A symmetric tri dimensional model equivalent to 1/8 of the total geometry was adopted to reduce mesh size and minimize processing time. The model considers the coexistence of four phases and also takes into account the heat losses. The relationships for interfacial mass, energy, and momentum transport are programmed and incorporated into CFX. Moreover, two subdomains and several additional variables are defined to monitoring the boron dilution sequences and condensation-evaporation rates in different control volumes. For transient states a non - equilibrium stratification in the pressurizer is considered. This paper discusses the model developed and the behavior of the system for representative transients sequences. The results of analyzed transients of IRIS can be applied to the design of pressurizer internal structures and components. (author)

  9. Design and visualization of synthetic holograms for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Škeren, M; Nývlt, M; Svoboda, J

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a software for the design and visualization of holographic elements containing full scale of visual effects. It enables to simulate an observation of the holographic elements under general conditions including different light sources with various spectral and coherence properties and various geometries of reconstruction. Furthermore, recent technologies offer interesting possibilities for the 3D visualization such as the 3D techniques based on shutter or polarization glasses, anaglyphs, etc. The presented software is compatible with the mentioned techniques and enables an application of the 3D hardware tools for visualization. The software package can be used not only for visualization of the existing designs, but also for a fine tuning of the spatial, kinetic, and color properties of the hologram. Moreover, the holograms containing all types of the 3D effects, general color mixing, kinetic behavior, diffractive cryptograms, etc. can be translated using the software directly to a high resolution micro-structure.

  10. Integration of the security systems in the architectural design of nuclear and important buildings in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algohary, S.

    2007-01-01

    The new and emerging threats to buildings and infrastructure which are faced by todays engineering design and facility management community in Egypt demand new approaches and solutions that are innovative and increasingly based on risk management principles. In the wake of the damage of Taba hotel in south Sinai (2004) and Sharm El-Sheik hotels in Egypt (July, 2005), there was a growing awareness of public vulnerability to terrorist attacks. This awareness leads to increase the expectations form and responsibilities of the architects, engineers and construction professionals This study reviews and assesses different types of threats to nuclear and important buildings. It identifies also the architectural design, vulnerability and risk management that can enhance security. It also introduces a new approach for integration of architectural design and security in nuclear and important buildings in Egypt. The results shows that escalating threats and risks to important buildings and infrastructures change the role of planners, architects, engineers and builders by increasing the focus on the importance of applying viable security principles to the building designs. Architects in Egypt can assume an important role in improving the life-safety features of important buildings by increasing and integrating new security principles and approaches to improve the security and performance of the buildings against man made disasters

  11. Integration of holography into the design of bank notes and security documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Paul

    2000-10-01

    The use of holograms and other diffractive optically variable devices have been used successfully in the fight against counterfeiting of security documents for several years. More recently they have become globally accepted as a key security feature on banknotes as reflected in their prime use on the Euronotes to be issues in 2002. The success of the design and origination of these images depends upon their strong visual appeal, their overt and covert content and the ability to offer unique features that provides an extremely difficult barrier for the would be counterfeiter to overcome. The basic design principles both for banknote and general security print application are discussed in this review document. TO be effective as a security device the image must be fit for the purpose. This means that the image must contain the level of overt and covert features that are easy to recognize, containing high level security features and form part of an educational program aimed at the product user and specifically trained security personnel. More specifically it must meet a clearly defined performance criteria.

  12. Security challenges in designing I and C systems for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, Rajendra Prasad; Jayanthi, T.; Madhusoodanan, K.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.

    2016-01-01

    Geographically distributed instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in any nuclear power plant (NPP) facilitate the operator with remote access to real-time data and issue supervisory command to remote control devices deployed in the field. The increased connectivity to plant communication network has exposed I and C systems to security vulnerabilities both in terms of physical and logical access. For example, denial-of service and fault induction attack can disrupt the operation of I and C systems by delaying or blocking the flow of data through plant communication network. The design process of I and C system is quite challenging since an engineer has to consider both safety and security features implemented in hardware and software components of the system. This paper analyzes attack taxonomy based on available data and presents Security Tree Analysis (STA) technique towards building safe and secures I and C systems for Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  13. A giant traumatic iris cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lott Pooi Wah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 52 year-old construction worker presented with progressive painful blurring of vision in the left eye associated with redness for past 1 month. There was a history of penetrating injury in the same eye 10 years ago and he underwent primary wound toilet and suturing, lens removal with intraocular lens implantation. Slit lamp examination revealed a corneal scar at 9’oclock, a large transilluminant iris cyst superotemporally and adherent to corneal endothelium. It was extended from angle of the pupil and obstructing the visual axis. The patient underwent excision of an iris cyst through superior limbal incision. Viscodissection was done to separate the cyst from the corneal endothelium and underlying iris stroma. Trypan blue ophthalmic solution was injected into the cyst to stain the cyst capsule. Post operatively 7 days, vision improved to 6/7.5 without complication. There was no recurrence up to 1 year postoperation. Histopathological finding revealed a benign cyst mass lined by simple cuboidal to nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. We had achieved a good surgical outcome with no complication to date for our case study. We advocate this modified surgical method to completely remove iris cyst.

  14. Dynamic Features for Iris Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, R M; Gonzaga, A

    2012-08-01

    The human eye is sensitive to visible light. Increasing illumination on the eye causes the pupil of the eye to contract, while decreasing illumination causes the pupil to dilate. Visible light causes specular reflections inside the iris ring. On the other hand, the human retina is less sensitive to near infra-red (NIR) radiation in the wavelength range from 800 nm to 1400 nm, but iris detail can still be imaged with NIR illumination. In order to measure the dynamic movement of the human pupil and iris while keeping the light-induced reflexes from affecting the quality of the digitalized image, this paper describes a device based on the consensual reflex. This biological phenomenon contracts and dilates the two pupils synchronously when illuminating one of the eyes by visible light. In this paper, we propose to capture images of the pupil of one eye using NIR illumination while illuminating the other eye using a visible-light pulse. This new approach extracts iris features called "dynamic features (DFs)." This innovative methodology proposes the extraction of information about the way the human eye reacts to light, and to use such information for biometric recognition purposes. The results demonstrate that these features are discriminating features, and, even using the Euclidean distance measure, an average accuracy of recognition of 99.1% was obtained. The proposed methodology has the potential to be "fraud-proof," because these DFs can only be extracted from living irises.

  15. Design and Implementation of Wiki Services in a Multilevel Secure Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ong, Kar L

    2007-01-01

    The Monterey Security Architecture (MYSEA) provides a distributed multilevel secure networking environment where authenticated users can securely access data and services at different security classification levels...

  16. Reducing Error Rates for Iris Image using higher Contrast in Normalization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminu Ghali, Abdulrahman; Jamel, Sapiee; Abubakar Pindar, Zahraddeen; Hasssan Disina, Abdulkadir; Mat Daris, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    Iris recognition system is the most secured, and faster means of identification and authentication. However, iris recognition system suffers a setback from blurring, low contrast and illumination due to low quality image which compromises the accuracy of the system. The acceptance or rejection rates of verified user depend solely on the quality of the image. In many cases, iris recognition system with low image contrast could falsely accept or reject user. Therefore this paper adopts Histogram Equalization Technique to address the problem of False Rejection Rate (FRR) and False Acceptance Rate (FAR) by enhancing the contrast of the iris image. A histogram equalization technique enhances the image quality and neutralizes the low contrast of the image at normalization stage. The experimental result shows that Histogram Equalization Technique has reduced FRR and FAR compared to the existing techniques.

  17. Gaze Estimation for Off-Angle Iris Recognition Based on the Biometric Eye Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph W [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Iris recognition is among the highest accuracy biometrics. However, its accuracy relies on controlled high quality capture data and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Non-ideal iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics. In this paper, we present a gaze estimation method designed for use in an off-angle iris recognition framework based on the ANONYMIZED biometric eye model. Gaze estimation is an important prerequisite step to correct an off-angle iris images. To achieve the accurate frontal reconstruction of an off-angle iris image, we first need to estimate the eye gaze direction from elliptical features of an iris image. Typically additional information such as well-controlled light sources, head mounted equipment, and multiple cameras are not available. Our approach utilizes only the iris and pupil boundary segmentation allowing it to be applicable to all iris capture hardware. We compare the boundaries with a look-up-table generated by using our biologically inspired biometric eye model and find the closest feature point in the look-up-table to estimate the gaze. Based on the results from real images, the proposed method shows effectiveness in gaze estimation accuracy for our biometric eye model with an average error of approximately 3.5 degrees over a 50 degree range.

  18. Design and implementation of modular home security system with short messaging system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budijono Santoso

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Today we are living in 21st century where crime become increasing and everyone wants to secure they asset at their home. In that situation user must have system with advance technology so person do not worry when getting away from his home. It is therefore the purpose of this design to provide home security device, which send fast information to user GSM (Global System for Mobile mobile device using SMS (Short Messaging System and also activate - deactivate system by SMS. The Modular design of this Home Security System make expandable their capability by add more sensors on that system. Hardware of this system has been designed using microcontroller AT Mega 328, PIR (Passive Infra Red motion sensor as the primary sensor for motion detection, camera for capturing images, GSM module for sending and receiving SMS and buzzer for alarm. For software this system using Arduino IDE for Arduino and Putty for testing connection programming in GSM module. This Home Security System can monitor home area that surrounding by PIR sensor and sending SMS, save images capture by camera, and make people panic by turn on the buzzer when trespassing surrounding area that detected by PIR sensor. The Modular Home Security System has been tested and succeed detect human movement.

  19. Design of High-Security USB Flash Drives Based on Chaos Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teh-Lu Liao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to propose a novel design of high-security USB flash drives with the chaos authentication. A chaos authentication approach with the non-linear encryption and decryption function design is newly proposed and realized based on the controller design of chaos synchronization. To complete the design of high-security USB flash drives, first, we introduce six parameters into the original Henon map to adjust and obtain richer chaotic state responses. Then a discrete sliding mode scheme is proposed to solve the synchronization problem of discrete hyperchaotic Henon maps. The proposed sliding mode controller can ensure the synchronization of the master-slave Henon maps. The selection of the switching surface and the existence of the sliding motion are also addressed. Finally, the obtained results are applied to design a new high-security USB flash drive with chaos authentication. We built discrete hyperchaotic Henon maps in the smartphone (master and microcontroller (slave, respectively. The Bluetooth module is used to communicate between the master and the slave to achieve chaos synchronization such that the same random and dynamical chaos signal can be simultaneously obtained at both the USB flash drive and smartphone, and pass the chaos authentication. When users need to access data in the flash drive, they can easily enable the encryption APP in the smartphone (master for chaos authentication. After completing the chaos synchronization and authentication, the ARM-based microcontroller allows the computer to access the data in the high-security USB flash drive.

  20. Ultra-Low-Power Design and Hardware Security Using Emerging Technologies for Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiann-Shiun Yuan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review article for Internet of Things (IoT applications, important low-power design techniques for digital and mixed-signal analog–digital converter (ADC circuits are presented. Emerging low voltage logic devices and non-volatile memories (NVMs beyond CMOS are illustrated. In addition, energy-constrained hardware security issues are reviewed. Specifically, light-weight encryption-based correlational power analysis, successive approximation register (SAR ADC security using tunnel field effect transistors (FETs, logic obfuscation using silicon nanowire FETs, and all-spin logic devices are highlighted. Furthermore, a novel ultra-low power design using bio-inspired neuromorphic computing and spiking neural network security are discussed.

  1. Human engineering considerations in designing a computerized controlled access security system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.W.; Banks, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a human engineering effort in the design of a major security system upgrade at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This upgrade was to be accomplished by replacing obsolete and difficult-to-man (i.e., multiple operator task actions required) security equipment and systems with a new, automated, computer-based access control system. The initial task was to assist the electronic and mechanical engineering staff in designing a computerized security access system too functionally and ergonomically accommodate 100% of the Laboratory user population. The new computerized access system was intended to control entry into sensitive exclusion areas by requiring personnel to use an entry booth-based system and/or a remote access control panel system. The primary user interface with the system was through a control panel containing a magnetic card reader, function buttons, LCD display, and push-button keypad

  2. Three-batch reloading scheme for IRIS reactor extended cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jecmenica, R.; Pevec, D.; Grgic, D.

    2004-01-01

    To fully exploit the IRIS reactor optimized maintenance, and at the same time improve fuel utilization, a core design enabling a 4-year operating cycle together with a three-batch reloading scheme is desirable. However, this requires not only the increased allowed burnup but also use of fuel with uranium oxide enriched beyond 5%. This paper considers three-batch reloading scheme for a 4-year operating cycle with the assumptions of increased discharge burnup and fuel enrichment beyond 5%. Calculational model of IRIS reactor core has been developed based on FER FA2D code for group constants generation and NRC's PARCS nodal code for global core analysis. Studies have been performed resulting in a preliminary design of a three-batch core configuration for the first cycle. It must be emphasized that this study is outside the current IRIS licensing efforts, which rely on the present fuel technology (enrichment below 5%), but it is of long-term interest for potential future IRIS design upgrades. (author)

  3. 78 FR 69139 - Physical Security-Design Certification and Operating Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... Operating Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Standard review plan--draft section..., ``Physical Security--Design Certification and Operating Reactors.'' The public comment period was originally....regulations.gov and search for Docket ID NRC-2013-0225. Address questions about NRC dockets to Carol Gallagher...

  4. Iris reconstruction using artificial iris prosthesis for management of aniridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Yehia S; Osman, Amr A; Hassanein, Dina H; Zeid, Ashraf M; Sherif, Ahmed M

    2018-01-01

    To discuss the limitations and benefits of the BrightOcular prosthetic artificial iris device in management of aniridia associated with aphakia or cataract. This is a retrospective study including 5 eyes of 4 patients who underwent implantation of the BrightOcular iris prosthesis (Stellar Devices) for total or partial aniridia. The cases included 2 eyes of 1 patient with congenital aniridia associated with congenital cataract and 3 eyes with traumatic aniridia: 1 with subluxated cataractous lens and 2 with aphakia. In all cases, the iris prosthesis was implanted after a 3-piece acrylic intraocular lens was implanted. We evaluated the clinical course with a minimum follow-up period of 6 months, the intraoperative and postoperative complications, and the cosmetic satisfaction of patients. All patients had improved uncorrected distance visual acuity and best-corrected distance visual acuity. All patients had a transient corneal edema that resolved within the first postoperative week. Only the patient with congenital aniridia had a permanent increase in intraocular pressure and developed a band keratopathy throughout a 2-year follow-up period. The prosthesis was well-centered in all eyes except for one case that required scleral suture fixation after 3 months. All patients had a satisfactory cosmetic appearance. BrightOcular iris prosthesis is a safe and useful tool to correct aniridia associated with pseudophakia or aphakia. Being foldable, it is easy to be implanted through a small incision and placed in the ciliary sulcus without sutures when properly sized. Cosmetic results are satisfactory. Sizing methods should be improved.

  5. A systematic approach for analysis and design of secure health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blobel, B; Roger-France, F

    2001-06-01

    A toolset using object-oriented techniques including the nowadays popular unified modelling language (UML) approach has been developed to facilitate the different users' views for security analysis and design of health care information systems. Paradigm and concepts used are based on the component architecture of information systems and on a general layered security model. The toolset was developed in 1996/1997 within the ISHTAR project funded by the European Commission as well as through international standardisation activities. Analysing and systematising real health care scenarios, only six and nine use case types could be found in the health and the security-related view, respectively. By combining these use case types, the analysis and design of any thinkable system architecture can be simplified significantly. Based on generic schemes, the environment needed for both communication and application security can be established by appropriate sets of security services and mechanisms. Because of the importance and the basic character of electronic health care record (EHCR) systems, the understanding of the approach is facilitated by (incomplete) examples for this application.

  6. Verified by Visa and MasterCard SecureCode: Or, How Not to Design Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Steven J.; Anderson, Ross

    Banks worldwide are starting to authenticate online card transactions using the '3-D Secure' protocol, which is branded as Verified by Visa and MasterCard SecureCode. This has been partly driven by the sharp increase in online fraud that followed the deployment of EMV smart cards for cardholder-present payments in Europe and elsewhere. 3-D Secure has so far escaped academic scrutiny; yet it might be a textbook example of how not to design an authentication protocol. It ignores good design principles and has significant vulnerabilities, some of which are already being exploited. Also, it provides a fascinating lesson in security economics. While other single sign-on schemes such as OpenID, InfoCard and Liberty came up with decent technology they got the economics wrong, and their schemes have not been adopted. 3-D Secure has lousy technology, but got the economics right (at least for banks and merchants); it now boasts hundreds of millions of accounts. We suggest a path towards more robust authentication that is technologically sound and where the economics would work for banks, merchants and customers - given a gentle regulatory nudge.

  7. Safeguards and security by design support for the next generation nuclear plant project - Progress in safeguards by design (SBD) by the United States National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornard, T.; Casey Durst, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project was authorized by the United States Energy Policy Act of 2005 with the principal objective of designing, licensing, and building a Generation IV nuclear plant capable of producing both high-temperature process heat and electricity. The two candidate NGNP reactor concepts are pebble- and prismatic-fueled high-temperature gas reactors that will be licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The conceptual design phase of the project was completed in December 2010. This paper summarizes support provided to the NGNP project to facilitate consideration of international safeguards during the design phase, or safeguards by design (SBD). Additional support was provided for domestic safeguards (material control and accounting) and physical protection, or safeguards and security by design (2SBD). The main focus of this paper is on SBD and international safeguards. Included is an overview of the international safeguards guidance contained in guidance reports for SBD. These reports contain guidance and suggestions intended to be useful to the industry design teams, but they do not contain ready-made solutions. Early and frequent interaction of design stakeholders with the International Atomic Energy Agency and the NRC are essential to a successful endeavor. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  8. Nuclear Systems Enhanced Performance Program, Maintenance Cycle Extension in Advanced Light Water Reactor Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor Neill Todreas

    2001-10-01

    A renewed interest in new nuclear power generation in the US has spurred interest in developing advanced reactors with features which will address the public's concerns regarding nuclear generation. However, it is economic performance which will dictate whether any new orders for these plants will materialize. Economic performance is, to a great extent, improved by maximizing the time that the plant is on-line generating electricity relative to the time spent off-line conducting maintenance and refueling. Indeed, the strategy for the advanced light water reactor plant IRIS (International Reactor, Innovative and Secure) is to utilize an eight year operating cycle. This report describes a formalized strategy to address, during the design phase, the maintenance-related barriers to an extended operating cycle. The top-level objective of this investigation was to develop a methodology for injecting component and system maintainability issues into the reactor plant design process to overcome these barriers. A primary goal was to demonstrate the applicability and utility of the methodology in the context of the IRIS design. The first step in meeting the top-level objective was to determine the types of operating cycle length barriers that the IRIS design team is likely to face. Evaluation of previously identified regulatory and investment protection surveillance program barriers preventing a candidate operating PWR from achieving an extended (48 month) cycle was conducted in the context of the IRIS design. From this analysis, 54 known IRIS operating cycle length barriers were identified. The resolution methodology was applied to each of these barriers to generate design solution alternatives for consideration in the IRIS design. The methodology developed has been demonstrated to narrow the design space to feasible design solutions which enable a desired operating cycle length, yet is general enough to have broad applicability. Feedback from the IRIS design team

  9. Safeguards and security design guidelines for conceptual monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byers, K.R.; Clark, R.G.; Harms, N.L.; Roberts, F.P.

    1984-07-01

    Existing safeguards/security regulations and licensing requirements that may be applicable to an MRS facility are not currently well-defined. Protection requirements consistent with the NRC-graded safeguards approach are identified, as a baseline safeguards system with a comparison of the impacts on safeguards and security of salient features of the different storage concepts. In addition, MRS facility design features and operational considerations are proposed that would enhance facility protection and provide additional assurance that protection systems and procedures would be effectively implemented. 3 figures

  10. Implantable electronics: emerging design issues and an ultra light-weight security solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Seetharam; Wang, Xinmu; Bhunia, Swarup

    2010-01-01

    Implantable systems that monitor biological signals require increasingly complex digital signal processing (DSP) electronics for real-time in-situ analysis and compression of the recorded signals. While it is well-known that such signal processing hardware needs to be implemented under tight area and power constraints, new design requirements emerge with their increasing complexity. Use of nanoscale technology shows tremendous benefits in implementing these advanced circuits due to dramatic improvement in integration density and power dissipation per operation. However, it also brings in new challenges such as reliability and large idle power (due to higher leakage current). Besides, programmability of the device as well as security of the recorded information are rapidly becoming major design considerations of such systems. In this paper, we analyze the emerging issues associated with the design of the DSP unit in an implantable system. Next, we propose a novel ultra light-weight solution to address the information security issue. Unlike the conventional information security approaches like data encryption, which come at large area and power overhead and hence are not amenable for resource-constrained implantable systems, we propose a multilevel key-based scrambling algorithm, which exploits the nature of the biological signal to effectively obfuscate it. Analysis of the proposed algorithm in the context of neural signal processing and its hardware implementation shows that we can achieve high level of security with ∼ 13X lower power and ∼ 5X lower area overhead than conventional cryptographic solutions.

  11. Design of secure digital communication systems using chaotic modulation, cryptography and chaotic synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, T.-I.; Liao, T.-L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a secure digital communication system based on chaotic modulation, cryptography, and chaotic synchronization techniques. The proposed system consists of a Chaotic Modulator (CM), a Chaotic Secure Transmitter (CST), a Chaotic Secure Receiver (CSR) and a Chaotic Demodulator (CDM). The CM module incorporates a chaotic system and a novel Chaotic Differential Peaks Keying (CDPK) modulation scheme to generate analog patterns corresponding to the input digital bits. The CST and CSR modules are designed such that a single scalar signal is transmitted in the public channel. Furthermore, by giving certain structural conditions of a particular class of chaotic system, the CST and the nonlinear observer-based CSR with an appropriate observer gain are constructed to synchronize with each other. These two slave systems are driven simultaneously by the transmitted signal and are designed to synchronize and generate appropriate cryptography keys for encryption and decryption purposes. In the CDM module, a nonlinear observer is designed to estimate the chaotic modulating system in the CM. A demodulation mechanism is then applied to decode the transmitted input digital bits. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated through the numerical simulation of an illustrative communication system. Synchronization between the chaotic circuits of the transmitter and receiver modules is guaranteed through the Lyapunov stability theorem. Finally, the security features of the proposed system in the event of attack by an intruder in either the time domain or the frequency domain are discussed

  12. Lentes plegables suturadas a iris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunia Cruz Izquierdo

    Full Text Available Para la corrección quirúrgica de la afaquia existen en la actualidad varias técnicas quirúrgicas que permiten fijar los lentes intraoculares plegables o rígidos en cámara posterior suturados al iris o al sulcus ciliar. En estas circunstancias el cirujano determinará cuándo, dónde y el tipo de lente mejor a implantar. Se presenta un paciente con una afaquia traumática del ojo izquierdo, con agudeza visual sin corrección de movimiento de mano a 1 m. Se le realizó implante secundario de lente intraocular plegable de cámara posterior suturada al iris. En el examen biomicroscópico en lámpara de hendidura del ojo izquierdo se observó midriasis media paralítica, refracción dinámica de +11,00 (0,6 y tensión ocular normal. Se le realizó examen por bimicroscopía indirecta sin alteración. Al mes de operado la agudeza visual mejor corregida alcanzó la unidad de visión. Las complicaciones presentadas fueron ovalización de la pupila y depósitos de pigmentos de iris en el lente intraocular.

  13. DCT-based iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Donald M; Rakshit, Soumyadip; Zhang, Dexin

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents a novel iris coding method based on differences of discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of overlapped angular patches from normalized iris images. The feature extraction capabilities of the DCT are optimized on the two largest publicly available iris image data sets, 2,156 images of 308 eyes from the CASIA database and 2,955 images of 150 eyes from the Bath database. On this data, we achieve 100 percent Correct Recognition Rate (CRR) and perfect Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves with no registered false accepts or rejects. Individual feature bit and patch position parameters are optimized for matching through a product-of-sum approach to Hamming distance calculation. For verification, a variable threshold is applied to the distance metric and the False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rate (FRR) are recorded. A new worst-case metric is proposed for predicting practical system performance in the absence of matching failures, and the worst case theoretical Equal Error Rate (EER) is predicted to be as low as 2.59 x 10(-4) on the available data sets.

  14. QKD-Based Secured Burst Integrity Design for Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, A. M.; Sivasubramanian, A.; Parvathavarthini, B.

    2016-03-01

    The field of optical transmission has undergone numerous advancements and is still being researched mainly due to the fact that optical data transmission can be done at enormous speeds. It is quite evident that people prefer optical communication when it comes to large amount of data involving its transmission. The concept of switching in networks has matured enormously with several researches, architecture to implement and methods starting with Optical circuit switching to Optical Burst Switching. Optical burst switching is regarded as viable solution for switching bursts over networks but has several security vulnerabilities. However, this work exploited the security issues associated with Optical Burst Switching with respect to integrity of burst. This proposed Quantum Key based Secure Hash Algorithm (QKBSHA-512) with enhanced compression function design provides better avalanche effect over the conventional integrity algorithms.

  15. Design impacts of safeguards and security requirements for a US MOX fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkkila, B.H.; Rinard, P.M.; Thomas, K.E.; Zack, N.R.; Jaeger, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    The disposition of plutonium that is no longer required for the nation's defense is being structured to mitigate risks associated with the material's availability. In the 1997 Record of Decision, the US Government endorsed a dual-track approach that could employ domestic commercial reactors to effect the disposition of a portion of the plutonium in the form of mixed oxide (MOX) reactor fuels. To support this decision, the Office of Materials Disposition requested preparation of a document that would review US requirements for safeguards and security and describe their impact on the design of a MOX fuel fabrication facility. The intended users are potential bidders for the construction and operation of the facility. The document emphasizes the relevant DOE Orders but also considers the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. Where they are significantly different, the authors have highlighted this difference and provided guidance on the impact to the facility design. Finally, the impacts of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards on facility design are discussed. Security and materials control and accountability issues that influence facility design are emphasized in each area of discussion. This paper will discuss the prepared report and the issues associated with facility design for implementing practical, modern safeguards and security systems into a new MOX fuel fabrication facility

  16. PLATEAU IRIS – DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Cornel; Iliescu, Daniela Adriana; Batras, Mehdi; Timaru, Cristina Mihaela; De Simone, Algerino

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of our study was to review the current knowledge on the diagnosis and treatment options of plateau iris configuration and syndrome. Systematic review methodology: Relevant publications on plateau iris that were published until 2014. Conclusions: Plateau iris syndrome is a form of primary angle closure glaucoma caused by a large or anteriorly positioned ciliary body that leads to mechanical obstruction of trabecular meshwork. This condition is most often found in younger patients. Plateau iris has been considered an abnormal anatomic variant of the iris that can be diagnosed on ultrasound biomicroscopy or optical coherence tomography of anterior segment. Patients with plateau iris syndrome can be recognized by the lack of response in angle opening after iridotomy. The treatment of choice in these cases is argon laser peripheral iridoplasty PMID:27373109

  17. PLATEAU IRIS--DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Cornel; Iliescu, Daniela Adriana; Batras, Mehdi; Timaru, Cristina Mihaela; De Simone, Algerino

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to review the current knowledge on the diagnosis and treatment options of plateau iris configuration and syndrome. Relevant publications on plateau iris that were published until 2014. Plateau iris syndrome is a form of primary angle closure glaucoma caused by a large or anteriorly positioned ciliary body that leads to mechanical obstruction of trabecular meshwork. This condition is most often found in younger patients. Plateau iris has been considered an abnormal anatomic variant of the iris that can be diagnosed on ultrasound biomicroscopy or optical coherence tomography of anterior segment. Patients with plateau iris syndrome can be recognized by the lack of response in angle opening after iridotomy. The treatment of choice in these cases is argon laser peripheral iridoplasty.

  18. Video-based noncooperative iris image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yingzi; Arslanturk, Emrah; Zhou, Zhi; Belcher, Craig

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a video-based noncooperative iris image segmentation scheme that incorporates a quality filter to quickly eliminate images without an eye, employs a coarse-to-fine segmentation scheme to improve the overall efficiency, uses a direct least squares fitting of ellipses method to model the deformed pupil and limbic boundaries, and develops a window gradient-based method to remove noise in the iris region. A remote iris acquisition system is set up to collect noncooperative iris video images. An objective method is used to quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the segmentation results. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. The proposed method would make noncooperative iris recognition or iris surveillance possible.

  19. Exploring the feasibility of iris recognition for visible spectrum iris images obtained using smartphone camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trokielewicz, Mateusz; Bartuzi, Ewelina; Michowska, Katarzyna; Andrzejewska, Antonina; Selegrat, Monika

    2015-09-01

    In the age of modern, hyperconnected society that increasingly relies on mobile devices and solutions, implementing a reliable and accurate biometric system employing iris recognition presents new challenges. Typical biometric systems employing iris analysis require expensive and complicated hardware. We therefore explore an alternative way using visible spectrum iris imaging. This paper aims at answering several questions related to applying iris biometrics for images obtained in the visible spectrum using smartphone camera. Can irides be successfully and effortlessly imaged using a smartphone's built-in camera? Can existing iris recognition methods perform well when presented with such images? The main advantage of using near-infrared (NIR) illumination in dedicated iris recognition cameras is good performance almost independent of the iris color and pigmentation. Are the images obtained from smartphone's camera of sufficient quality even for the dark irides? We present experiments incorporating simple image preprocessing to find the best visibility of iris texture, followed by a performance study to assess whether iris recognition methods originally aimed at NIR iris images perform well with visible light images. To our best knowledge this is the first comprehensive analysis of iris recognition performance using a database of high-quality images collected in visible light using the smartphones flashlight together with the application of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) iris recognition methods.

  20. Three tenets for secure cyber-physical system design and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jeff; Cybenko, George

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a threat-driven quantitative mathematical framework for secure cyber-physical system design and assessment. Called The Three Tenets, this originally empirical approach has been used by the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) for secure system research and development. The Tenets were first documented in 2005 as a teachable methodology. The Tenets are motivated by a system threat model that itself consists of three elements which must exist for successful attacks to occur: - system susceptibility; - threat accessibility and; - threat capability. The Three Tenets arise naturally by countering each threat element individually. Specifically, the tenets are: Tenet 1: Focus on What's Critical - systems should include only essential functions (to reduce susceptibility); Tenet 2: Move Key Assets Out-of-Band - make mission essential elements and security controls difficult for attackers to reach logically and physically (to reduce accessibility); Tenet 3: Detect, React, Adapt - confound the attacker by implementing sensing system elements with dynamic response technologies (to counteract the attackers' capabilities). As a design methodology, the Tenets mitigate reverse engineering and subsequent attacks on complex systems. Quantified by a Bayesian analysis and further justified by analytic properties of attack graph models, the Tenets suggest concrete cyber security metrics for system assessment.

  1. Iris Recognition: The Consequences of Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop DanielA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition for human identification is one of the most accurate biometrics, and its employment is expanding globally. The use of portable iris systems, particularly in law enforcement applications, is growing. In many of these applications, the portable device may be required to transmit an iris image or template over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel. Typically, a full resolution image (e.g., VGA is desired to ensure sufficient pixels across the iris to be confident of accurate recognition results. To minimize the time to transmit a large amount of data over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel, image compression can be used to reduce the file size of the iris image. In other applications, such as the Registered Traveler program, an entire iris image is stored on a smart card, but only 4 kB is allowed for the iris image. For this type of application, image compression is also the solution. This paper investigates the effects of image compression on recognition system performance using a commercial version of the Daugman iris2pi algorithm along with JPEG-2000 compression, and links these to image quality. Using the ICE 2005 iris database, we find that even in the face of significant compression, recognition performance is minimally affected.

  2. Iris Recognition: The Consequences of Image Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Robert W.; Bishop, Daniel A.; Du, Yingzi; Belcher, Craig

    2010-12-01

    Iris recognition for human identification is one of the most accurate biometrics, and its employment is expanding globally. The use of portable iris systems, particularly in law enforcement applications, is growing. In many of these applications, the portable device may be required to transmit an iris image or template over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel. Typically, a full resolution image (e.g., VGA) is desired to ensure sufficient pixels across the iris to be confident of accurate recognition results. To minimize the time to transmit a large amount of data over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel, image compression can be used to reduce the file size of the iris image. In other applications, such as the Registered Traveler program, an entire iris image is stored on a smart card, but only 4 kB is allowed for the iris image. For this type of application, image compression is also the solution. This paper investigates the effects of image compression on recognition system performance using a commercial version of the Daugman iris2pi algorithm along with JPEG-2000 compression, and links these to image quality. Using the ICE 2005 iris database, we find that even in the face of significant compression, recognition performance is minimally affected.

  3. Progress in safeguards by design (SBD) by the United States National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA has described the Safeguards by Design (SBD) concept as an approach in which international safeguards are fully integrated into the design process of a new nuclear facility from the initial planning through design, construction, operation, and decommissioning. Often, international safeguards features are added following completion of the facility design. Earlier consideration of safeguards features has the potential to reduce the need for costly re-designs or retrofits of the facility and can result in a more efficient and effective safeguards design. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) initiated a project in 2008 through its Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to establish a global norm for the use of SBD. The NGSI SBD program is evolving in parallel with a similar effort at the IAEA, while taking into account the IAEA's SBD achievements and future plans. The NGSI program includes DOE laboratory studies, international workshops, engagement with industry and the IAEA, and setting an example through its planned use in new nuclear facilities in the United States. Consistent with this effort, the NGSI program has sponsored 'Lessons Learned' studies and the preparation of facility-specific SBD Guidance documents. The NGSI program also takes into account successes that the NNSA has had with implementing safeguards early into facility designs within the U.S. The purpose of this paper is the presentation of the most recent developments in SBD under NGSI within the U.S. as well as the presentation of 'Lessons Learned' integrating safeguards into new nuclear facility designs of the U.S. Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE), namely the Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) project at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee and to discuss its relevance to international safeguards. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  4. Nuclear power desalinating complex with IRIS reactor plant and Russian distillation desalinating unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostin, V. I.; Panov, Yu.K.; Polunichev, V. I.; Fateev, S. A.; Gureeva, L. V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper has been prepared as a result of Russian activities on the development of nuclear power desalinating complex (NPDC) with the IRIS reactor plant (RP). The purpose of the activities was to develop the conceptual design of power desalinating complex (PDC) and to evaluate technical and economical indices, commercial attractiveness and economical efficiency of PDC based on an IRIS RP with distillation desalinating plants. The paper presents the main results of studies as applied to dual-purpose PDC based on IRIS RP with different types of desalinating plants, namely: characteristics of nuclear power desalinating complex based on IRIS reactor plant using Russian distillation desalinating technologies; prospective options of interface circuits of the IRIS RP with desalinating plants; evaluations of NPDC with IRIS RP output based on selected desalinating technologies for water and electric power supplied to the grid; cost of water generated by NPDC for selected interface circuits made by the IAEA DEEP code as well as by the Russian TEO-INVEST code; cost evaluation results for desalinated water of PDC operating on fossil fuel and conditions for competitiveness of the nuclear PDC based on IRIS RP compared with analog desalinating complexes operating on fossil fuel.(author)

  5. Design Impedance Mismatch Physical Unclonable Functions for IoT Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new design, Physical Unclonable Function (PUF scheme, for the Internet of Things (IoT, which has been suffering from multiple-level security threats. As more and more objects interconnect on IoT networks, the identity of each thing is very important. To authenticate each object, we design an impedance mismatch PUF, which exploits random physical factors of the transmission line to generate a security unique private key. The characteristic impedance of the transmission line and signal transmission theory of the printed circuit board (PCB are also analyzed in detail. To improve the reliability, current feedback amplifier (CFA method is applied on the PUF. Finally, the proposed scheme is implemented and tested. The measure results show that impedance mismatch PUF provides better unpredictability and randomness.

  6. Safeguards and security by design (SSBD) for the domestic threat. Theft and sabotage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMuth, Scott; Mullen, Mark; Pan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the Safeguards by Design (SBD) concept has received significant interest with respect to international (IAEA) safeguards objectives. However, less attention has been focused on the equally important topic of domestic (or national) Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD), which addresses domestic requirements for material control and accounting (MC and A) and for physical protection, such as those of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the United States. While international safeguards are concerned with detecting State diversion of nuclear material from peaceful uses to nuclear explosives purposes, domestic material control and accounting (MC and A) and physical protection are focused on non-State theft and sabotage. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has described the Safeguards by Design (SBD) concept as an approach in which 'international safeguards are fully integrated into the design process of a new nuclear facility from the initial planning through design, construction, operation, and decommissioning.' This same concept is equally applicable to SSBD for domestic requirements. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a project through its Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), and more specifically its Materials Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) program, to develop a domestic SSBD discipline and methodology in parallel with similar efforts for international safeguards sponsored by the DOE Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the IAEA. This paper identifies the key domestic safeguards and security requirements (i.e., MC and A and physical protection) and explains how and why Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) is important and beneficial for the design of future US nuclear energy systems. (author)

  7. Safeguards and security by design (SSBD) for the domestic threat - theft and sabotage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demuth, Scott F.; Mullen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Safeguards by Design (SBD) is receiving significant interest with respect to international safeguards objectives. However, less attention has been focused on the equally important topic of domestic Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD), which addresses requirements such as those of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the United States. While international safeguards are concerned with detecting State diversion of nuclear material from peaceful to nuclear explosives purposes, domestic Material Protection, Control and Accounting measures (MPC and A) are focused on non-State theft and sabotage. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has described the Safeguards by Design (SBD) concept as an approach in which 'international safeguards are fully integrated into the design process of a new nuclear facility from the initial planning through design, construction, operation, and decommissioning.' This same concept is equally applicable to SSBD for domestic requirements. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a project through its Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) and more specifically its Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program, to develop a domestic SSBD discipline and methodology in parallel with similar efforts sponsored by the DOE Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the IAEA for international safeguards. This activity includes the participation of industry (through DOE-sponsored contracts) and DOE National Laboratories. This paper will identify the key domestic safeguards and security requirements (i.e. MC and A and physical protection) and explain how and why Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) is important and beneficial for the design of future US nuclear energy systems.

  8. Constructing New Biorthogonal Wavelet Type which Matched for Extracting the Iris Image Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isnanto, R Rizal; Suhardjo; Susanto, Adhi

    2013-01-01

    Some former research have been made for obtaining a new type of wavelet. In case of iris recognition using orthogonal or biorthogonal wavelets, it had been obtained that Haar filter is most suitable to recognize the iris image. However, designing the new wavelet should be done to find a most matched wavelet to extract the iris image features, for which we can easily apply it for identification, recognition, or authentication purposes. In this research, a new biorthogonal wavelet was designed based on Haar filter properties and Haar's orthogonality conditions. As result, it can be obtained a new biorthogonal 5/7 filter type wavelet which has a better than other types of wavelets, including Haar, to extract the iris image features based on its mean-squared error (MSE) and Euclidean distance parameters.

  9. Secure image encryption algorithm design using a novel chaos based S-Box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çavuşoğlu, Ünal; Kaçar, Sezgin; Pehlivan, Ihsan; Zengin, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new chaotic system is developed for creating S-Box and image encryption algorithm. • Chaos based random number generator is designed with the help of the new chaotic system. NIST tests are run on generated random numbers to verify randomness. • A new S-Box design algorithm is developed to create the chaos based S-Box to be utilized in encryption algorithm and performance tests are made. • The new developed S-Box based image encryption algorithm is introduced and image encryption application is carried out. • To show the quality and strong of the encryption process, security analysis are performed and compared with the AES and chaos algorithms. - Abstract: In this study, an encryption algorithm that uses chaos based S-BOX is developed for secure and speed image encryption. First of all, a new chaotic system is developed for creating S-Box and image encryption algorithm. Chaos based random number generator is designed with the help of the new chaotic system. Then, NIST tests are run on generated random numbers to verify randomness. A new S-Box design algorithm is developed to create the chaos based S-Box to be utilized in encryption algorithm and performance tests are made. As the next step, the new developed S-Box based image encryption algorithm is introduced in detail. Finally, image encryption application is carried out. To show the quality and strong of the encryption process, security analysis are performed. Proposed algorithm is compared with the AES and chaos algorithms. According to tests results, the proposed image encryption algorithm is secure and speed for image encryption application.

  10. Iris Image Classification Based on Hierarchical Visual Codebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenan Sun; Hui Zhang; Tieniu Tan; Jianyu Wang

    2014-06-01

    Iris recognition as a reliable method for personal identification has been well-studied with the objective to assign the class label of each iris image to a unique subject. In contrast, iris image classification aims to classify an iris image to an application specific category, e.g., iris liveness detection (classification of genuine and fake iris images), race classification (e.g., classification of iris images of Asian and non-Asian subjects), coarse-to-fine iris identification (classification of all iris images in the central database into multiple categories). This paper proposes a general framework for iris image classification based on texture analysis. A novel texture pattern representation method called Hierarchical Visual Codebook (HVC) is proposed to encode the texture primitives of iris images. The proposed HVC method is an integration of two existing Bag-of-Words models, namely Vocabulary Tree (VT), and Locality-constrained Linear Coding (LLC). The HVC adopts a coarse-to-fine visual coding strategy and takes advantages of both VT and LLC for accurate and sparse representation of iris texture. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed iris image classification method achieves state-of-the-art performance for iris liveness detection, race classification, and coarse-to-fine iris identification. A comprehensive fake iris image database simulating four types of iris spoof attacks is developed as the benchmark for research of iris liveness detection.

  11. Design And Implementation Of Bank Locker Security System Based On Fingerprint Sensing Circuit And RFID Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaing Mar Htwe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main goal of this system is to design a locker security system using RFID and Fingerprint. In this system only authenticated person can open the door. A security system is implemented containing door locking system using passive type of RFID which can activate authenticate and validate the user and unlock the door in real time for secure access. The advantage of using passive RFID is that it functions without a battery and passive tags are lighter and are less expensive than the active tags. This system consists of fingerprint reader microcontroller RFID reader and PC. The RFID reader reads the id number from passive. The fingerprint sensor will check incoming image with enrolled data and it will send confirming signal for C program. If both RFID check and fingerprint image confirmation are matched the microcontroller will drive door motor according to sensors at door edges. This system is more secure than other systems because two codes protection method used.

  12. [Surgical treatment with an artificial iris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, C S; Hoffmann, A E

    2015-10-01

    Iris defects with their disturbed pupillary function, visual impairment and glare constitute a therapeutic challenge in surgical reconstruction. A new therapeutic option for distinctive defects consists in the implantation of a custom-made silicone iris. This new and challenging therapy provides the opportunity to achieve an individual, aesthetically appealing and good functional result for the patient.

  13. Feature Vector Construction Method for IRIS Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinokikh, G.; Fartukov, A.; Korobkin, M.; Yoo, J.

    2017-05-01

    One of the basic stages of iris recognition pipeline is iris feature vector construction procedure. The procedure represents the extraction of iris texture information relevant to its subsequent comparison. Thorough investigation of feature vectors obtained from iris showed that not all the vector elements are equally relevant. There are two characteristics which determine the vector element utility: fragility and discriminability. Conventional iris feature extraction methods consider the concept of fragility as the feature vector instability without respect to the nature of such instability appearance. This work separates sources of the instability into natural and encodinginduced which helps deeply investigate each source of instability independently. According to the separation concept, a novel approach of iris feature vector construction is proposed. The approach consists of two steps: iris feature extraction using Gabor filtering with optimal parameters and quantization with separated preliminary optimized fragility thresholds. The proposed method has been tested on two different datasets of iris images captured under changing environmental conditions. The testing results show that the proposed method surpasses all the methods considered as a prior art by recognition accuracy on both datasets.

  14. Feature Set Fusion for Spoof Iris Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. L. Suvarchala

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition is considered as one of the most promising noninvasive biometric systems providing automated human identification. Numerous programs, like unique ID program in India - Aadhar, include iris biometric to provide distinctive identity identification to citizens. The active area is usually captured under non ideal imaging conditions. It usually suffers from poor brightness, low contrast, blur due to camera or subject's relative movement and eyelid eyelash occlusions. Besides the technical challenges, iris recognition started facing sophisticated threats like spoof attacks. Therefore it is vital that the integrity of such large scale iris deployments must be preserved. This paper presents the development of a new spoof resistant approach which exploits the statistical dependencies of both general eye and localized iris regions in textural domain using spatial gray level dependence matrix (SGLDM, gray level run length matrix (GLRLM and contourlets in transform domain. We did experiments on publicly available fake and lens iris image databases. Correct classification rate obtained with ATVS-FIr iris database is 100% while it is 95.63% and 88.83% with IITD spoof iris databases respectively.

  15. Impact of sensor-scene interaction on the design of an IR security surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claassen, J.P.; Phipps, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    Recent encouraging developments in infrared staring arrays with CCD readouts and in real time image processors working on and off the focal plane have suggested that technologies suitable for infrared security surveillance may be available in a two-to-five year time frame. In anticipation of these emerging technologies, an investigation has been undertaken to establish the design potential of a passive IR perimeter security system incorporating both detection and verification capabilities. To establish the design potential, it is necessary to characterize the interactions between the scene ad the sensor. To this end, theoretical and experimental findings were employed to document (1) the emission properties of scenes to include an intruder, (2) the propagation and emission characteristics of the intervening atmosphere, and (3) the reception properties of the imaging sensor. The impact of these findings are summarized in the light of the application constraints. Optimal wavelengths, intruder and background emission characteristics, weather limitations, and basic sensor design considerations are treated. Although many system design features have been identified to this date, continued efforts are required to complete a detailed system design to include the identifying processing requirements. A program to accomplish these objectives is presented

  16. Fuel management options to extend the IRIS reactor cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, B.; Franceschini, F.

    2004-01-01

    To optimize plant operation, reduce scheduled maintenance outage, and increase capacity factor, IRIS is designed to enable extended cycles of up to four years. However, due to the enrichment licensing limitation (less than 5% enriched uranium oxide) there is a tradeoff between the achievable cycle length and fuel utilization, i.e., the average fuel discharge burnup. The longest individual cycle may be achieved with the single-batch straight burn, but at the expense of a lower burnup. Considering the IRIS basic performance requirements, a cycle length in the range of three to four years is deemed desirable. This paper examines different fuel management options, i.e., the influence of the required cycle length on the corresponding reloading strategy, including a two-batch and a three-batch reloading. A reference two-batch core design has been developed for the first cycle, as well as for the transition cycles leading to equilibrium. Main core performance parameters are evaluated. This core design provides the framework for the safety analyses needed to prepare the IRIS safety evaluations. Alternate designs are also considered.(author)

  17. Enhanced iris recognition method based on multi-unit iris images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kwang Yong; Kim, Yeong Gon; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2013-04-01

    For the purpose of biometric person identification, iris recognition uses the unique characteristics of the patterns of the iris; that is, the eye region between the pupil and the sclera. When obtaining an iris image, the iris's image is frequently rotated because of the user's head roll toward the left or right shoulder. As the rotation of the iris image leads to circular shifting of the iris features, the accuracy of iris recognition is degraded. To solve this problem, conventional iris recognition methods use shifting of the iris feature codes to perform the matching. However, this increases the computational complexity and level of false acceptance error. To solve these problems, we propose a novel iris recognition method based on multi-unit iris images. Our method is novel in the following five ways compared with previous methods. First, to detect both eyes, we use Adaboost and a rapid eye detector (RED) based on the iris shape feature and integral imaging. Both eyes are detected using RED in the approximate candidate region that consists of the binocular region, which is determined by the Adaboost detector. Second, we classify the detected eyes into the left and right eyes, because the iris patterns in the left and right eyes in the same person are different, and they are therefore considered as different classes. We can improve the accuracy of iris recognition using this pre-classification of the left and right eyes. Third, by measuring the angle of head roll using the two center positions of the left and right pupils, detected by two circular edge detectors, we obtain the information of the iris rotation angle. Fourth, in order to reduce the error and processing time of iris recognition, adaptive bit-shifting based on the measured iris rotation angle is used in feature matching. Fifth, the recognition accuracy is enhanced by the score fusion of the left and right irises. Experimental results on the iris open database of low-resolution images showed that the

  18. An Accurate and Efficient User Authentication Mechanism on Smart Glasses Based on Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Hui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern society, mobile devices (such as smart phones and wearable devices have become indispensable to almost everyone, and people store personal data in devices. Therefore, how to implement user authentication mechanism for private data protection on mobile devices is a very important issue. In this paper, an intelligent iris recognition mechanism is designed to solve the problem of user authentication in wearable smart glasses. Our contributions include hardware and software. On the hardware side, we design a set of internal infrared camera modules, including well-designed infrared light source and lens module, which is able to take clear iris images within 2~5 cm. On the software side, we propose an innovative iris segmentation algorithm which is both efficient and accurate to be used on smart glasses device. Another improvement to the traditional iris recognition is that we propose an intelligent Hamming distance (HD threshold adaptation method which dynamically fine-tunes the HD threshold used for verification according to empirical data collected. Our final system can perform iris recognition with 66 frames per second on a smart glasses platform with 100% accuracy. As far as we know, this system is the world’s first application of iris recognition on smart glasses.

  19. Adapting Rational Unified Process (RUP) approach in designing a secure e-Tendering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Haslina; Robie, Muhammad Afdhal Muhammad; Baharom, Fauziah; Darus, Norida Muhd; Saip, Mohamed Ali; Yasin, Azman

    2016-08-01

    e-Tendering is an electronic processing of the tender document via internet and allow tenderer to publish, communicate, access, receive and submit all tender related information and documentation via internet. This study aims to design the e-Tendering system using Rational Unified Process approach. RUP provides a disciplined approach on how to assign tasks and responsibilities within the software development process. RUP has four phases that can assist researchers to adjust the requirements of various projects with different scope, problem and the size of projects. RUP is characterized as a use case driven, architecture centered, iterative and incremental process model. However the scope of this study only focusing on Inception and Elaboration phases as step to develop the model and perform only three of nine workflows (business modeling, requirements, analysis and design). RUP has a strong focus on documents and the activities in the inception and elaboration phases mainly concern the creation of diagrams and writing of textual descriptions. The UML notation and the software program, Star UML are used to support the design of e-Tendering. The e-Tendering design based on the RUP approach can contribute to e-Tendering developers and researchers in e-Tendering domain. In addition, this study also shows that the RUP is one of the best system development methodology that can be used as one of the research methodology in Software Engineering domain related to secured design of any observed application. This methodology has been tested in various studies in certain domains, such as in Simulation-based Decision Support, Security Requirement Engineering, Business Modeling and Secure System Requirement, and so forth. As a conclusion, these studies showed that the RUP one of a good research methodology that can be adapted in any Software Engineering (SE) research domain that required a few artifacts to be generated such as use case modeling, misuse case modeling, activity

  20. Efficient Iris Localization via Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris localization is one of the most important processes in iris recognition. Because of different kinds of noises in iris image, the localization result may be wrong. Besides this, localization process is time-consuming. To solve these problems, this paper develops an efficient iris localization algorithm via optimization model. Firstly, the localization problem is modeled by an optimization model. Then SIFT feature is selected to represent the characteristic information of iris outer boundary and eyelid for localization. And SDM (Supervised Descent Method algorithm is employed to solve the final points of outer boundary and eyelids. Finally, IRLS (Iterative Reweighted Least-Square is used to obtain the parameters of outer boundary and upper and lower eyelids. Experimental result indicates that the proposed algorithm is efficient and effective.

  1. IRIS Toxicological Review of Tetrahydrofuran (THF) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Tetrahydrofuran, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from other Federal agencies and White House Offices are provided below with external peer review panel comments. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for tetrahydrofuran. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effects that may result from chronic (or lifetime) exposure to chemicals in the environment. IRIS contains chemical-specific summaries of qualitative and quantitative health information in support of two steps of the risk assessment paradigm, i.e., hazard identification and dose-response evaluation. IRIS assessments are used in combination with specific situational exposure assessment information to evaluate potential public health risk associated with environmental contaminants.

  2. Framework for Integrating Safety, Operations, Security, and Safeguards in the Design and Operation of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Horak, Karl Emanuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaChance, Jeffrey L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tolk, Keith Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whitehead, Donnie Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2007-10-01

    The US is currently on the brink of a nuclear renaissance that will result in near-term construction of new nuclear power plants. In addition, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) ambitious new Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program includes facilities for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel and reactors for transmuting safeguards material. The use of nuclear power and material has inherent safety, security, and safeguards (SSS) concerns that can impact the operation of the facilities. Recent concern over terrorist attacks and nuclear proliferation led to an increased emphasis on security and safeguard issues as well as the more traditional safety emphasis. To meet both domestic and international requirements, nuclear facilities include specific SSS measures that are identified and evaluated through the use of detailed analysis techniques. In the past, these individual assessments have not been integrated, which led to inefficient and costly design and operational requirements. This report provides a framework for a new paradigm where safety, operations, security, and safeguards (SOSS) are integrated into the design and operation of a new facility to decrease cost and increase effectiveness. Although the focus of this framework is on new nuclear facilities, most of the concepts could be applied to any new, high-risk facility.

  3. Use of risk assessment methods for security design and analysis of nuclear and radioactive facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Andrade, Marcos C.; Jordao, Elizabete

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the applicability of risk assessment methods for analyzing the physical protection of nuclear and radioactive facilities. One of the important processes for physical protection in nuclear and radioactive facilities is the identifying of areas containing nuclear materials, structures, systems or components to be protected from sabotage, which could directly or indirectly lead to unacceptable radiological consequences. A survey of the international guidelines and recommendations about vital area identification, design basis threat (DBT), and the security of nuclear and radioactive facilities was carried out. The traditional methods used for quantitative risk assessment, like FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis), Event and Decision Trees, Fault and Success Trees, Vulnerability Assessment, Monte Carlo Simulation, Probabilistic Safety Assessment, Scenario Analysis, and Game Theory, among others, are highlighted. The applicability of such techniques to security issues, their pros and cons, the general resources needed to implement them, as data or support software, are analyzed. Finally, an approach to security design and analysis, beginning with a qualitative and preliminary examination to determine the range of possible scenarios, outcomes, and the systems to be included in the analyses, and proceeding to a progressively use of more quantitative techniques is presented. (author)

  4. Design, implementation and security of a typical educational laboratory computer network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pokorný

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer network used for laboratory training and for different types of network and security experiments represents a special environment where hazardous activities take place, which may not affect any production system or network. It is common that students need to have administrator privileges in this case which makes the overall security and maintenance of such a network a difficult task. We present our solution which has proved its usability for more than three years. First of all, four user requirements on the laboratory network are defined (access to educational network devices, to laboratory services, to the Internet, and administrator privileges of the end hosts, and four essential security rules are stipulated (enforceable end host security, controlled network access, level of network access according to the user privilege level, and rules for hazardous experiments, which protect the rest of the laboratory infrastructure as well as the outer university network and the Internet. The main part of the paper is dedicated to a design and implementation of these usability and security rules. We present a physical diagram of a typical laboratory network based on multiple circuits connecting end hosts to different networks, and a layout of rack devices. After that, a topological diagram of the network is described which is based on different VLANs and port-based access control using the IEEE 802.1x/EAP-TLS/RADIUS authentication to achieve defined level of network access. In the second part of the paper, the latest innovation of our network is presented that covers a transition to the system virtualization at the end host devices – inspiration came from a similar solution deployed at the Department of Telecommunications at Brno University of Technology. This improvement enables a greater flexibility in the end hosts maintenance and a simultaneous network access to the educational devices as well as to the Internet. In the end, a vision of a

  5. Integrating Safety, Operations, Security, and Safeguards (ISOSS) into the design of small modular reactors : a handbook.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, Bobby D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mendez, Carmen Margarita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The existing regulatory environment for nuclear reactors impacts both the facility design and the cost of operations once the facility is built. Delaying the consideration of regulatory requirements until late in the facility design - or worse, until after construction has begun - can result in costly retrofitting as well as increased operational costs to fulfill safety, security, safeguards, and emergency readiness requirements. Considering the scale and scope, as well as the latest design trends in the next generation of nuclear facilities, there is an opportunity to evaluate the regulatory requirements and optimize the design process for Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), as compared to current Light Water Reactors (LWRs). To this end, Sandia has embarked on an initiative to evaluate the interactions of regulations and operations as an approach to optimizing the design of SMR facilities, supporting operational efficiencies, as well as regulatory requirements. The early stages of this initiative consider two focus areas. The first focus area, reported by LaChance, et al. (2007), identifies the regulatory requirements established for the current fleet of LWR facilities regarding Safety, Security, Operations, Safeguards, and Emergency Planning, and evaluates the technical bases for these requirements. The second focus area, developed in this report, documents the foundations for an innovative approach that supports a design framework for SMR facilities that incorporates the regulatory environment, as well as the continued operation of the facility, into the early design stages, eliminating the need for costly retrofitting and additional operating personnel to fulfill regulatory requirements. The work considers a technique known as Integrated Safety, Operations, Security and Safeguards (ISOSS) (Darby, et al., 2007). In coordination with the best practices of industrial operations, the goal of this effort is to develop a design framework that outlines how ISOSS

  6. IRI STORM validation over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralambous, Haris; Vryonides, Photos; Demetrescu, Crişan; Dobrică, Venera; Maris, Georgeta; Ionescu, Diana

    2014-05-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model includes an empirical Storm-Time Ionospheric Correction Model (STORM) extension to account for storm-time changes of the F layer peak electron density (NmF2) during increased geomagnetic activity. This model extension is driven by past history values of the geomagnetic index ap (The magnetic index applied is the integral of ap over the previous 33 hours with a weighting function deduced from physically based modeling) and it adjusts the quiet-time F layer peak electron density (NmF2) to account for storm-time changes in the ionosphere. In this investigation manually scaled hourly values of NmF2 measured during the main and recovery phases of selected storms for the maximum solar activity period of the current solar cycle are compared with the predicted IRI-2012 NmF2 over European ionospheric stations using the STORM model option. Based on the comparison a subsequent performance evaluation of the STORM option during this period is quantified.

  7. Adaptive fuzzy observer based synchronization design and secure communications of chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Chang-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Euntai; Park, Mignon

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a synchronization design scheme based on an alternative indirect adaptive fuzzy observer and its application to secure communication of chaotic systems. It is assumed that their states are unmeasurable and their parameters are unknown. Chaotic systems and the structure of the fuzzy observer are represented by the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model. Using Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive law is derived to estimate the unknown parameters and the stability of the proposed system is guaranteed. Through this process, the asymptotic synchronization of chaotic systems is achieved. The proposed observer is applied to secure communications of chaotic systems and some numerical simulation results show the validity of theoretical derivations and the performance of the proposed observer

  8. Design and Implementation of a Secure Wireless Mote-Based Medical Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malasri, Kriangsiri; Wang, Lan

    2009-01-01

    A medical sensor network can wirelessly monitor vital signs of humans, making it useful for long-term health care without sacrificing patient comfort and mobility. For such a network to be viable, its design must protect data privacy and authenticity given that medical data are highly sensitive. We identify the unique security challenges of such a sensor network and propose a set of resource-efficient mechanisms to address these challenges. Our solution includes (1) a novel two-tier scheme for verifying the authenticity of patient data, (2) a secure key agreement protocol to set up shared keys between sensor nodes and base stations, and (3) symmetric encryption/decryption for protecting data confidentiality and integrity. We have implemented the proposed mechanisms on a wireless mote platform, and our results confirm their feasibility. PMID:22454585

  9. Designing a Secure Storage Repository for Sharing Scientific Datasets using Public Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumbhare, Alok [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Simmhan, Yogesth [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prasanna, Viktor [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-11-14

    As Cloud platforms gain increasing traction among scientific and business communities for outsourcing storage, computing and content delivery, there is also growing concern about the associated loss of control over private data hosted in the Cloud. In this paper, we present an architecture for a secure data repository service designed on top of a public Cloud infrastructure to support multi-disciplinary scientific communities dealing with personal and human subject data, motivated by the smart power grid domain. Our repository model allows users to securely store and share their data in the Cloud without revealing the plain text to unauthorized users, the Cloud storage provider or the repository itself. The system masks file names, user permissions and access patterns while providing auditing capabilities with provable data updates.

  10. 17 CFR 240.3a12-8 - Exemption for designated foreign government securities for purposes of futures trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption for designated foreign government securities for purposes of futures trading. 240.3a12-8 Section 240.3a12-8 Commodity and... trading. (a) When used in this Rule, the following terms shall have the meaning indicated: (1) The term...

  11. Teaching Case: IS Security Requirements Identification from Conceptual Models in Systems Analysis and Design: The Fun & Fitness, Inc. Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Janine L.; Parrish, James L., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This teaching case introduces students to a relatively simple approach to identifying and documenting security requirements within conceptual models that are commonly taught in systems analysis and design courses. An introduction to information security is provided, followed by a classroom example of a fictitious company, "Fun &…

  12. Integrated electrochromic iris device for low power and space-limited applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutschmann, T; Oesterschulze, E

    2014-01-01

    We present a micro-electrooptical iris based on the electrochromic polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene). Two ring-shaped concentric polymer-segments embedded in a transparent electrochemical cell form the micro iris. The polymer layers change their absorption when an external voltage is applied. This iris device benefits from the absence of any mechanically moving part. This renders a very slim design possible, which is suited for small integrated camera systems. During operation the polymer maintains its absorbing state without power consumption. Its low driving voltage of maximum 1.5 V is beneficial for battery powered applications. The impact of the iris on the depth of focus and transmission control as well as its dynamical behavior will be addressed. (paper)

  13. Secondary iris recognition method based on local energy-orientation feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Guang; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Dong, Hongxing

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a secondary iris recognition based on local features. The application of the energy-orientation feature (EOF) by two-dimensional Gabor filter to the extraction of the iris goes before the first recognition by the threshold of similarity, which sets the whole iris database into two categories-a correctly recognized class and a class to be recognized. Therefore, the former are accepted and the latter are transformed by histogram to achieve an energy-orientation histogram feature (EOHF), which is followed by a second recognition with the chi-square distance. The experiment has proved that the proposed method, because of its higher correct recognition rate, could be designated as the most efficient and effective among its companion studies in iris recognition algorithms.

  14. Risk-informed approach for safety, safeguards, and security (3S) by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Burr, Tom; Howell, John

    2011-01-01

    Over several decades the nuclear energy society worldwide has developed safety assessment methodology based on probabilistic risk analysis for incorporating its benefit into design and accident prevention for nuclear reactors. Although safeguards and security communities have different histories and technical aspects compared to safety, risk assessment as a supplement to their current requirements could be developed to promote synergism between Safety, Safeguards, and Security (3S) and to install effective countermeasures in the design of complex nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Since the 3S initiative was raised by G8 countries at Hokkaido Toyako-Summit in 2008, one approach to developing synergism in a 3S By Design (3SBD) process has been the application of risk-oriented assessment methodology. In the existing regulations of safeguards and security, a risk notion has already been considered for inherent threat and hazard recognition. To integrate existing metrics into a risk-oriented approach, several mathematical methods have already been surveyed, with attention to the scarcity of intentional acts in the case of safeguards and the sparseness of actual event data. A two-dimensional probability distribution composed of measurement error and incidence probabilities has been proposed to formalize inherent difficulties in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards criteria. In particular, the incidence probability that is difficult to estimate has been explained using a Markov model and game theory. In this work, a feasibility study of 3SBD is performed for an aqueous reprocessing process, and synergetic countermeasures are presented for preliminary demonstration of 3SBD. Although differences and conflicts between individual 'S' communities exist, the integrated approach would be valuable for optimization and balance between the 3S design features as well as for effective and efficient implementation under existing regulation frameworks. In addition

  15. Relationship of the Van Herick Grading System with Peripheral Iris Configuration and Level of Iris Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Faisal Aziz; Niazi, Shafaq Pervez Khan; Khan, Assad Zaman

    2017-09-01

    To determine the relationship of the van Herick angle grading system with the level of iris insertion and peripheral iris configuration. Observational study. Eye department, Combined Military Hospital, Malir Cantt., Karachi, from May to October 2015. Sixty-five eyes of 65 patients were recruited. Anterior chamber depth at the temporal limbus was measured as a fraction of corneal section thickness using van Herick technique and graded on the standard 4-point scale of the van Herick grading system. Gonioscopy of the temporal quadrant was performed with a Posner 4 mirror goniolens and both the true level of iris insertion and peripheral iris configuration were recorded on a 4-point scale so as to equate with the van Herick 4-point grading system. Spearman's rho test was applied to determine the relationship of the van Herick grading system with level of iris root insertion and peripheral iris configuration. Amoderate positive correlation between van Herick grade and peripheral iris configuration was found which was statistically significant (rs=0.42, p < 0.001). Astatistically significant and moderate positive correlation was also detected between van Herick grade and the level of iris insertion (rs=0.45, p < 0.001). The van Herick grade has a moderately positive relationship with the peripheral iris configuration and true level of iris insertion.

  16. Application of Framework for Integrating Safety, Security and Safeguards (3Ss) into the Design Of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badwan, Faris M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Demuth, Scott F [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-06

    Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Research and Development develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development focused on used nuclear fuel recycling and waste management to meet U.S. needs. Used nuclear fuel is currently stored onsite in either wet pools or in dry storage systems, with disposal envisioned in interim storage facility and, ultimately, in a deep-mined geologic repository. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Integrating safety, security, and safeguards (3Ss) fully in the early stages of the design process for a new nuclear facility has the potential to effectively minimize safety, proliferation, and security risks. The 3Ss integration framework could become the new national and international norm and the standard process for designing future nuclear facilities. The purpose of this report is to develop a framework for integrating the safety, security and safeguards concept into the design of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility (UNFSF). The primary focus is on integration of safeguards and security into the UNFSF based on the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approach to addressing the safety/security interface (10 CFR 73.58 and Regulatory Guide 5.73) for nuclear power plants. The methodology used for adaptation of the NRC safety/security interface will be used as the basis for development of the safeguards /security interface and later will be used as the basis for development of safety and safeguards interface. Then this will complete the integration cycle of safety, security, and safeguards. The overall methodology for integration of 3Ss will be proposed, but only the integration of safeguards and security will be applied to the design of the

  17. Off-Angle Iris Correction Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph T [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In many real world iris recognition systems obtaining consistent frontal images is problematic do to inexperienced or uncooperative users, untrained operators, or distracting environments. As a result many collected images are unusable by modern iris matchers. In this chapter we present four methods for correcting off-angle iris images to appear frontal which makes them compatible with existing iris matchers. The methods include an affine correction, a retraced model of the human eye, measured displacements, and a genetic algorithm optimized correction. The affine correction represents a simple way to create an iris image that appears frontal but it does not account for refractive distortions of the cornea. The other method account for refraction. The retraced model simulates the optical properties of the cornea. The other two methods are data driven. The first uses optical flow to measure the displacements of the iris texture when compared to frontal images of the same subject. The second uses a genetic algorithm to learn a mapping that optimizes the Hamming Distance scores between off-angle and frontal images. In this paper we hypothesize that the biological model presented in our earlier work does not adequately account for all variations in eye anatomy and therefore the two data-driven approaches should yield better performance. Results are presented using the commercial VeriEye matcher that show that the genetic algorithm method clearly improves over prior work and makes iris recognition possible up to 50 degrees off-angle.

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thallium compounds are used in the semiconductor industry, the manufacture of optic lenses and low-melting glass, low-temperature thermometers, alloys, electronic devices, mercury lamps, fireworks, and imitation germs, and clinically as an imaging agent in the diagnosis of certain tumors. EPA's assessment of noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of thallium compounds was last prepared and added to the IRIS database between 1988 and 1990. The IRIS program is preparing an assessment that will incorporate current health effects information available for thallium and compounds, and current risk assessment methods. The IRIS assessment for thallium compounds will consist of a Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary. The Toxicological Review is a critical review of the physiochemical and toxicokinetic properties of a chemical, and its toxicity in humans and experimental systems. The assessment will present reference values for the noncancer effects of thallium compounds (RfD and Rfc), and a cancer assessment. The Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary have been subject to Agency review, Interagency review, and external scientific peer review. The final product will reflect the Agency opinion on the overall toxicity of thallium and compounds. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for thallium and compounds. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effec

  19. Role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Iris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For efficiency using the amphibious plant iris to restore polluted water, the promoting effect of different arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi(AMFon iris was investigated, by monitoring the plant growth index, the physicochemical properties of the soil and the plant photosynthesis indexes. The result showed that the promoting effects of the AMF on the aboveground part and the underground part of the iris were based on different mechanism. For the underground part of the iris, the AMF stimulated its growth through the nutrient enrichment which was performed by the enormous hypha network. The nitrogen absorbing rate of the G. mosseae and the G. intraradices infected iris increased about 71.75% and 42.55%, and the phosphorous absorbing rate increased 8.36% and 9.5% separately. For the aboveground part of the iris, the AMF strengthened the conductance of the leaves’ stomas to control the balance between the net photosynthesis rate and the transpiration rate, so that the utilization rate of water resources was optimized, the metabolic rate was accelerated and the growth of the plant was promoted eventually. In this study, the promoting effect of the G. mosseae on the photosynthesis rate of the iris was significantly better than that of the G. intraradices(P<0.05.

  20. Security controls in an integrated Biobank to protect privacy in data sharing: rationale and study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai-Igarashi, Takako; Kinoshita, Kengo; Nagasaki, Masao; Ogishima, Soichi; Nakamura, Naoki; Nagase, Sachiko; Nagaie, Satoshi; Saito, Tomo; Nagami, Fuji; Minegishi, Naoko; Suzuki, Yoichi; Suzuki, Kichiya; Hashizume, Hiroaki; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Hozawa, Atsushi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Kure, Shigeo; Tamiya, Gen; Kawaguchi, Yoshio; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2017-07-06

    With the goal of realizing genome-based personalized healthcare, we have developed a biobank that integrates personal health, genome, and omics data along with biospecimens donated by volunteers of 150,000. Such a large-scale of data integration involves obvious risks of privacy violation. The research use of personal genome and health information is a topic of global discussion with regard to the protection of privacy while promoting scientific advancement. The present paper reports on our plans, current attempts, and accomplishments in addressing security problems involved in data sharing to ensure donor privacy while promoting scientific advancement. Biospecimens and data have been collected in prospective cohort studies with the comprehensive agreement. The sample size of 150,000 participants was required for multiple researches including genome-wide screening of gene by environment interactions, haplotype phasing, and parametric linkage analysis. We established the T ohoku M edical M egabank (TMM) data sharing policy: a privacy protection rule that requires physical, personnel, and technological safeguards against privacy violation regarding the use and sharing of data. The proposed policy refers to that of NCBI and that of the Sanger Institute. The proposed policy classifies shared data according to the strength of re-identification risks. Local committees organized by TMM evaluate re-identification risk and assign a security category to a dataset. Every dataset is stored in an assigned segment of a supercomputer in accordance with its security category. A security manager should be designated to handle all security problems at individual data use locations. The proposed policy requires closed networks and IP-VPN remote connections. The mission of the biobank is to distribute biological resources most productively. This mission motivated us to collect biospecimens and health data and simultaneously analyze genome/omics data in-house. The biobank also has the

  1. The concave iris in pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lance; Ong, Ee Lin; Crowston, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    To visualize the changes of the iris contour in patients with pigment dispersion syndrome after blinking, accommodation, and pharmacologic miosis using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Observational case series. A total of 33 eyes of 20 patients with pigment dispersion syndrome. Each eye was imaged along the horizontal 0- to 180-degree meridian using the Visante Anterior Segment Imaging System (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA). Scans were performed at baseline and after focusing on an internal fixation target for 5 minutes, forced blinking, accommodation, and pharmacologic miosis with pilocarpine 2%. Quantitative analysis of the changes in the iris configuration. After 5 minutes of continual fixation, the iris became planar with the mean ± standard deviation curvature decreasing from 214 ± 74 μm to 67 ± 76 μm (P pigment dispersion syndrome after forced blinking, but the iris concavity recovered to 227 ± 113 μm (P = 0.34) and 238 ± 119 μm (P = 0.19) with the -3.0 and -6.0 diopter lenses, respectively. Pilocarpine-induced miosis caused the iris to assume a planar configuration in all subjects. This study shows that the iris in pigment dispersion syndrome assumes a planar configuration when fixating and that the concavity of the iris surface is not restored by blinking. Accommodation restored the iris concavity, suggesting that the posterior curvature of the iris in pigment dispersion syndrome is induced and probably maintained, at least in part, by accommodation. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Designing, Capturing and Validating History-Sensitive Security Policies for Distributed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Alejandro Mario; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    has the capability of combining both history-sensitive and future-sensitive policies, providing even more flexibility and power. Moreover, we propose a global Logic for reasoning about the systems designed with this language. We show how the Logic can be used to validate the combination of security...... this approach with history-based components, as is traditional in reference-monitor-based approaches to mandatory access control. Our developments are performed in an Aspect-oriented coordination language, aiming to describe the Bell-LaPadula policy as elegantly as possible. Furthermore, the resulting language...

  3. SEGMENTATION AND QUALITY ANALYSIS OF LONG RANGE CAPTURED IRIS IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Deshpande

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The iris segmentation plays a major role in an iris recognition system to increase the performance of the system. This paper proposes a novel method for segmentation of iris images to extract the iris part of long range captured eye image and an approach to select best iris frame from the iris polar image sequences by analyzing the quality of iris polar images. The quality of iris image is determined by the frequency components present in the iris polar images. The experiments are carried out on CASIA-long range captured iris image sequences. The proposed segmentation method is compared with Hough transform based segmentation and it has been determined that the proposed method gives higher accuracy for segmentation than Hough transform.

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride): In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health. This document presents background information and justification for the Intergrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Summary of the hazard and dose-response assessment of dichloromethane. IRIS Summaries may include oral reference dose (RfD) and inhalation reference concentration (RfC) values for chronic and other exposure durations, and a carcinogencity assessment. Internet/NCEA web site

  5. A novel iris localization algorithm using correlation filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohit, Mausumi; Sharma, Jitu

    2015-06-01

    Fast and efficient segmentation of iris from the eye images is a primary requirement for robust database independent iris recognition. In this paper we have presented a new algorithm for computing the inner and outer boundaries of the iris and locating the pupil centre. Pupil-iris boundary computation is based on correlation filtering approach, whereas iris-sclera boundary is determined through one dimensional intensity mapping. The proposed approach is computationally less extensive when compared with the existing algorithms like Hough transform.

  6. Conceptual design of technical security systems for Russian nuclear facilities physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmailov, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    Conceptual design of technical security systems (TSS) used in the early stages of physical protection systems (PPS) design for Russia nuclear facilities is discussed. The importance of work carried out in the early stages was noted since the main design solutions are being made within this period (i.e. selection of a structure of TSS and its components). The methods of analysis and synthesis of TSS developed by ''Eleron'' (MINATOM of Russia) which take into account the specific conditions of Russian nuclear facilities and a scope of equipment available are described in the review. TSS effectiveness assessment is based on a probability theory and a simulation. The design procedure provides for a purposeful choice of TSS competitive options including a ''cost-benefit'' criterion and taking into account a prechosen list of design basis threats to be used for a particular facility. The attention is paid to a practical aspect of the methods application as well as to the bilateral Russian-American scientific and technical co-operation in the PPS design field

  7. Artificial neural network used in the study of sensitivities in IRIS reactor pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Samuel Pimentel; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade; Lapa, Celso Marcelo Franklin

    2011-01-01

    In general, the technique of sensibility analysis studies the behavior of the ratio between the variation of output results and the variation of input parameters. This study performed in the reactor pressurizer, which is a component responsible for control of the pressure inside the vessel, has fundamental importance in designing the security of any concept of advanced reactor. Above all, for its feature of passive action of the pressurizer (there is no spray), this analysis becomes a necessary step for safety and performance of the plant. The direct method through code MODPRESS, which represents the pressurizer model of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), has required large computational effort. Unlike this method, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), beyond faster, do not require a typical linear behavior of the system. Moreover, they can also use experimental data for their training and learning. If the ANN are satisfactory in this theoretical case may be used for future mapping and forecasting of the behavior of various phenomena in both plant operation and small-scale experiment to be installed in CRCN-NE. Based on the results obtained in this study, one can conclude that the artificial neural networks are presented as an alternative to MODPRESS code, as well as a great tool to calculate the sensitivity coefficient. (author)

  8. Porcine cadaver iris model for iris heating during corneal surgery with a femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Fan, Zhongwei; Wang, Jiang; Yan, Ying; Juhasz, Tibor; Kurtz, Ron

    2015-03-01

    Multiple femtosecond lasers have now been cleared for use for ophthalmic surgery, including for creation of corneal flaps in LASIK surgery. Preliminary study indicated that during typical surgical use, laser energy may pass beyond the cornea with potential effects on the iris. As a model for laser exposure of the iris during femtosecond corneal surgery, we simulated the temperature rise in porcine cadaver iris during direct illumination by the femtosecond laser. Additionally, ex-vivo iris heating due to femtosecond laser irradiation was measured with an infrared thermal camera (Fluke corp. Everett, WA) as a validation of the simulation.

  9. Deep Learning-Based Iris Segmentation for Iris Recognition in Visible Light Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arsalan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Existing iris recognition systems are heavily dependent on specific conditions, such as the distance of image acquisition and the stop-and-stare environment, which require significant user cooperation. In environments where user cooperation is not guaranteed, prevailing segmentation schemes of the iris region are confronted with many problems, such as heavy occlusion of eyelashes, invalid off-axis rotations, motion blurs, and non-regular reflections in the eye area. In addition, iris recognition based on visible light environment has been investigated to avoid the use of additional near-infrared (NIR light camera and NIR illuminator, which increased the difficulty of segmenting the iris region accurately owing to the environmental noise of visible light. To address these issues; this study proposes a two-stage iris segmentation scheme based on convolutional neural network (CNN; which is capable of accurate iris segmentation in severely noisy environments of iris recognition by visible light camera sensor. In the experiment; the noisy iris challenge evaluation part-II (NICE-II training database (selected from the UBIRIS.v2 database and mobile iris challenge evaluation (MICHE dataset were used. Experimental results showed that our method outperformed the existing segmentation methods.

  10. Designing and constructing/installing technical security countermeasures (TSCM) into supersensitive facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The design and construction of supersensitive facilities and the installation of systems secure from technical surveillance and sabotage penetration involve ''TSCM'' in the broad sense of technical ''security'' countermeasures. When the technical threat was at a lower level of intensity and sophistication, it was common practice to defer TSCM to the future facility occupant. However, the New Moscow Embassy experience has proven this course of action subject to peril. Although primary concern with the embassy was audio surveillance, elsewhere there are other threats of equal or greater concern, e.g., technical implants may be used to monitor readiness status or interfere with the operation of C3I and weapons systems. Present and future technical penetration threats stretch the imagination. The Soviets have committed substantial hard scientific resources to a broad range of technical intelligence, even including applications or parapsychology. Countering these threats involves continuous TSCM precautions from initial planning to completion. Designs and construction/installation techniques must facilitate technical inspections and preclude the broadest range of known and suspected technical penetration efforts

  11. Designing and constructing/installing technical security countermeasures (TSCM) into supersensitive facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The design and construction of supersensitive facilities and the installation of systems secure from technical surveillance and sabotage penetration involve ''TSCM'' in the broad sense of technical ''security'' countermeasures. When the technical threat was at a lower level of intensity and sophistication, it was common practice to defer TSCM to the future facility occupant. However, the New Moscow Embassy experience has proven this course of action subject to peril. Although primary concern with the embassy was audio surveillance, elsewhere there are other threats of equal or greater concern, e.g., technical implants may be used to monitor readiness status or interfere with the operation of C3I and weapons systems. Present and future technical penetration threats stretch the imagination. The Soviets have committed substantial hard scientific resources to a broad range of technical intelligence, even including applications or parapsychology. Countering these threats involves continuous TSCM precautions from initial planning to completion. Designs and construction/installation techniques must facilitate technical inspections and preclude the broadest range of known and suspected technical penetration efforts.

  12. A cyber security risk assessment for the design of I and C system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jae Gu; Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Cheal Kwon; Kwon, Kee Choon; Lee, Dong Young

    2012-01-01

    The applications of computers and communication system and network technologies in nuclear power plants have expanded recently. This application of digital technologies to the instrumentation and control systems of nuclear power plants brings with it the cyber security concerns similar to other critical infrastructures. Cyber security risk assessments for digital instrumentation and control systems have become more crucial in the development of new systems and in the operation of existing systems. Although the instrumentation and control systems of nuclear power plants are similar to industrial control systems, the former have specifications that differ from the latter in terms of architecture and function, in order to satisfy nuclear safety requirements, which need different methods for the application of cyber security risk assessment. In this paper, the characteristics of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control systems are described, and the considerations needed when conducting cyber security risk assessments in accordance with the life cycle process of instrumentation and control systems are discussed. For cyber security risk assessments of instrumentation and control systems, the activities and considerations necessary for assessments during the system design phase or component design and equipment supply phase are presented in the following 6 steps: 1) System Identification and Cyber Security Modeling, 2) Asset and Impact Analysis, 3) Threat Analysis, 4) Vulnerability Analysis, 5) Security Control Design, and 6) Penetration test. The results from an application of the method to a digital reactor protection system are described.

  13. A cyber security risk assessment for the design of I and C system in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jae Gu; Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Cheal Kwon; Kwon, Kee Choon; Lee, Dong Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    The applications of computers and communication system and network technologies in nuclear power plants have expanded recently. This application of digital technologies to the instrumentation and control systems of nuclear power plants brings with it the cyber security concerns similar to other critical infrastructures. Cyber security risk assessments for digital instrumentation and control systems have become more crucial in the development of new systems and in the operation of existing systems. Although the instrumentation and control systems of nuclear power plants are similar to industrial control systems, the former have specifications that differ from the latter in terms of architecture and function, in order to satisfy nuclear safety requirements, which need different methods for the application of cyber security risk assessment. In this paper, the characteristics of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control systems are described, and the considerations needed when conducting cyber security risk assessments in accordance with the life cycle process of instrumentation and control systems are discussed. For cyber security risk assessments of instrumentation and control systems, the activities and considerations necessary for assessments during the system design phase or component design and equipment supply phase are presented in the following 6 steps: 1) System Identification and Cyber Security Modeling, 2) Asset and Impact Analysis, 3) Threat Analysis, 4) Vulnerability Analysis, 5) Security Control Design, and 6) Penetration test. The results from an application of the method to a digital reactor protection system are described.

  14. Information Security Awareness On-Line Materials Design with Knowledge Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ruey-Shiang; Keh, Huan-Chao; Huang, Nan-Ching; Huang, Tien-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Information Security Awareness, though known as a primary and important issue in the domain of Information Security, CSI computer crime and security survey showed poor security awareness training in public and private sectors. In many studies, the authors have found that the usage of knowledge maps helps the process of learning and conception…

  15. IRIS Bimonthly Public Meeting (Oct 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The meeting was held to obtain input from the scientific community and the public on studies and data that will be used in the assessments of Diisononyl Phthalate (DINP) and Hexavalent Chromium (Cr(VI)) that are under IRIS development.

  16. IRIS Bimonthly Public Meeting (Apr 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA hosted a public meeting/webinar to provide an opportunity for the public to give input and participate in an open discussion regarding several IRIS chemical assessments for Diethyl Phthalate (DEP) and Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD).

  17. An Application for Descriptive Nearness: Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polat Kadirhan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Near Set Theory has various applications in the literature. In this paper, using the concept descriptive nearness, we show how to perform iris recognition. This process has a few algorithms given via Mathematica Script Language.

  18. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Steffen; Reddy, Bhanu Pratap; Momtaz, Farshad; Givargis, Tony

    2016-04-22

    Body area sensor networks (BANs) utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system.

  19. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Steffen; Pratap Reddy, Bhanu; Momtaz, Farshad; Givargis, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Body area sensor networks (BANs) utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system. PMID:27110785

  20. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Peter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Body area sensor networks (BANs utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system.

  1. Multi-image encryption based on synchronization of chaotic lasers and iris authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Santo; Mukhopadhyay, Sumona; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2012-07-01

    A new technique of transmitting encrypted combinations of gray scaled and chromatic images using chaotic lasers derived from Maxwell-Bloch's equations has been proposed. This novel scheme utilizes the general method of solution of a set of linear equations to transmit similar sized heterogeneous images which are a combination of monochrome and chromatic images. The chaos encrypted gray scaled images are concatenated along the three color planes resulting in color images. These are then transmitted over a secure channel along with a cover image which is an iris scan. The entire cryptology is augmented with an iris-based authentication scheme. The secret messages are retrieved once the authentication is successful. The objective of our work is briefly outlined as (a) the biometric information is the iris which is encrypted before transmission, (b) the iris is used for personal identification and verifying for message integrity, (c) the information is transmitted securely which are colored images resulting from a combination of gray images, (d) each of the images transmitted are encrypted through chaos based cryptography, (e) these encrypted multiple images are then coupled with the iris through linear combination of images before being communicated over the network. The several layers of encryption together with the ergodicity and randomness of chaos render enough confusion and diffusion properties which guarantee a fool-proof approach in achieving secure communication as demonstrated by exhaustive statistical methods. The result is vital from the perspective of opening a fundamental new dimension in multiplexing and simultaneous transmission of several monochromatic and chromatic images along with biometry based authentication and cryptography.

  2. Cross-layer design for intrusion detection and data security in wireless ad hoc sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2007-09-01

    A wireless ad hoc sensor network is a configuration for area surveillance that affords rapid, flexible deployment in arbitrary threat environments. There is no infrastructure support and sensor nodes communicate with each other only when they are in transmission range. The nodes are severely resource-constrained, with limited processing, memory and power capacities and must operate cooperatively to fulfill a common mission in typically unattended modes. In a wireless sensor network (WSN), each sensor at a node can observe locally some underlying physical phenomenon and sends a quantized version of the observation to sink (destination) nodes via wireless links. Since the wireless medium can be easily eavesdropped, links can be compromised by intrusion attacks from nodes that may mount denial-of-service attacks or insert spurious information into routing packets, leading to routing loops, long timeouts, impersonation, and node exhaustion. A cross-layer design based on protocol-layer interactions is proposed for detection and identification of various intrusion attacks on WSN operation. A feature set is formed from selected cross-layer parameters of the WSN protocol to detect and identify security threats due to intrusion attacks. A separate protocol is not constructed from the cross-layer design; instead, security attributes and quantified trust levels at and among nodes established during data exchanges complement customary WSN metrics of energy usage, reliability, route availability, and end-to-end quality-of-service (QoS) provisioning. Statistical pattern recognition algorithms are applied that use observed feature-set patterns observed during network operations, viewed as security audit logs. These algorithms provide the "best" network global performance in the presence of various intrusion attacks. A set of mobile (software) agents distributed at the nodes implement the algorithms, by moving among the layers involved in the network response at each active node

  3. Design and Security Analysis of a Fragment of Internet of Things Telecommunication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Alexandrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper comprises the development and implementation of systems using the concept of Internet of Things. In terms of active development of industries, use the concept of the Internet of Things, the information security problem is urgent. To create a protected module of information-telecommunication system which implements the Internet of Things concept, it is important to take into account all its aspects. To determine relevant threats, it is necessary to use the detailed risk analysis according to existing GOST standards when choosing protection measures, one must rely on identified relevant threats. Actual threats and necessary protective actions are determined in this paper for implementation of Smart House computer appliance module, in order to develop a protected part of Smart House, which is necessary for realization of room access control. We solved the following tasks in the work, namely, a description of the system Smart Home, a description of steps and evaluation system security Smart Home; implementation of hardware assembly and writing a code for the selected fragment of the system; safety evaluation of the selected fragment Smart House and identification of actual threats; make recommendations to counter current threats; software implementation of one of the most urgent threats and software implementation of protective measures for a selected threat. A feature of the work is an integrated approach to the design with the use of the intruder models, analysis of the system’s assets and evaluation of their security.

  4. AES Cardless Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) Biometric Security System Design Using FPGA Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nabihah; Rifen, A. Aminurdin M.; Helmy Abd Wahab, Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Automated Teller Machine (ATM) is an electronic banking outlet that allows bank customers to complete a banking transactions without the aid of any bank official or teller. Several problems are associated with the use of ATM card such card cloning, card damaging, card expiring, cast skimming, cost of issuance and maintenance and accessing customer account by third parties. The aim of this project is to give a freedom to the user by changing the card to biometric security system to access the bank account using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm. The project is implemented using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) DE2-115 board with Cyclone IV device, fingerprint scanner, and Multi-Touch Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Second Edition (MTL2) using Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware (VHSIC) Description Language (VHDL). This project used 128-bits AES for recommend the device with the throughput around 19.016Gbps and utilized around 520 slices. This design offers a secure banking transaction with a low rea and high performance and very suited for restricted space environments for small amounts of RAM or ROM where either encryption or decryption is performed.

  5. Secured Hash Based Burst Header Authentication Design for Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, A. M.; Sivasubramanian, A.; Parvathavarthini, B.

    2017-12-01

    The optical burst switching (OBS) is a promising technology that could meet the fast growing network demand. They are featured with the ability to meet the bandwidth requirement of applications that demand intensive bandwidth. OBS proves to be a satisfactory technology to tackle the huge bandwidth constraints, but suffers from security vulnerabilities. The objective of this proposed work is to design a faster and efficient burst header authentication algorithm for core nodes. There are two important key features in this work, viz., header encryption and authentication. Since the burst header is an important in optical burst switched network, it has to be encrypted; otherwise it is be prone to attack. The proposed MD5&RC4-4S based burst header authentication algorithm runs 20.75 ns faster than the conventional algorithms. The modification suggested in the proposed RC4-4S algorithm gives a better security and solves the correlation problems between the publicly known outputs during key generation phase. The modified MD5 recommended in this work provides 7.81 % better avalanche effect than the conventional algorithm. The device utilization result also shows the suitability of the proposed algorithm for header authentication in real time applications.

  6. Design of parallel dual-energy X-ray beam and its performance for security radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Myoung, Sung Min; Chung, Yong Hyun

    2011-01-01

    A new concept of dual-energy X-ray beam generation and acquisition of dual-energy security radiography is proposed. Erbium (Er) and rhodium (Rh) with a copper filter were positioned in front of X-ray tube to generate low- and high-energy X-ray spectra. Low- and high-energy X-rays were guided to separately enter into two parallel detectors. Monte Carlo code of MCNPX was used to derive an optimum thickness of each filter for improved dual X-ray image quality. It was desired to provide separation ability between organic and inorganic matters for the condition of 140 kVp/0.8 mA as used in the security application. Acquired dual-energy X-ray beams were evaluated by the dual-energy Z-map yielding enhanced performance compared with a commercial dual-energy detector. A collimator for the parallel dual-energy X-ray beam was designed to minimize X-ray beam interference between low- and high-energy parallel beams for 500 mm source-to-detector distance.

  7. The thermal relay design to improve power system security for the HTS cables in Icheon substation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hansang; Yang, Byeong-Mo; Jang, Gilsoo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •It is important to study thermal characteristics of the HTS cable. •The thermal relay in the Icheon substation has been developed. •Well-designed thermal relay has been verified through PSCAD/EMTDC simulations. -- Abstract: This paper proposes a model for thermal protection relay for the high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables and thermal protection scheme in Icheon substation in Korea. The thermal protection is one of the most important factors to guarantee the reliability of the HTS cable as well as power system security. The superconductivity of the HTS cables, which can be guaranteed by the liquid nitrogen near 70 K, can be threatened by the large fault current. To avoid the overheating in HTS cable and to secure the power system operation with the HTS cable, the thermal protection relay should be considered. To find the optimal thermal-protection scheme, the model for the superconducting power system has been achieved in Icheon substation and the thermal protection scheme has been verified through PSCAD/EMTDC simulation

  8. The thermal relay design to improve power system security for the HTS cables in Icheon substation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hansang, E-mail: hslee80@kiu.ac.kr [School of Railway and Electrical Engineering, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Byeong-Mo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Munji-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-760 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Gilsoo, E-mail: gjang@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong 5-ga, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •It is important to study thermal characteristics of the HTS cable. •The thermal relay in the Icheon substation has been developed. •Well-designed thermal relay has been verified through PSCAD/EMTDC simulations. -- Abstract: This paper proposes a model for thermal protection relay for the high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables and thermal protection scheme in Icheon substation in Korea. The thermal protection is one of the most important factors to guarantee the reliability of the HTS cable as well as power system security. The superconductivity of the HTS cables, which can be guaranteed by the liquid nitrogen near 70 K, can be threatened by the large fault current. To avoid the overheating in HTS cable and to secure the power system operation with the HTS cable, the thermal protection relay should be considered. To find the optimal thermal-protection scheme, the model for the superconducting power system has been achieved in Icheon substation and the thermal protection scheme has been verified through PSCAD/EMTDC simulation.

  9. The infrared imaging spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: latest science cases and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Shelley A.; Walth, Gregory; Do, Tuan; Marshall, Daniel; Larkin, James E.; Moore, Anna M.; Adamkovics, Mate; Andersen, David; Armus, Lee; Barth, Aaron; Cote, Patrick; Cooke, Jeff; Chisholm, Eric M.; Davidge, Timothy; Dunn, Jennifer S.; Dumas, Christophe; Ellerbroek, Brent L.; Ghez, Andrea M.; Hao, Lei; Hayano, Yutaka; Liu, Michael; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; Lu, Jessica R.; Mao, Shude; Marois, Christian; Pandey, Shashi B.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Schoeck, Matthias; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Subramanian, Smitha; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tan, Jonathan C.; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Treu, Tommaso; Simard, Luc; Weiss, Jason L.; Wincentsen, James; Wong, Michael; Zhang, Kai

    2016-07-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) first light instrument IRIS (Infrared Imaging Spectrograph) will complete its preliminary design phase in 2016. The IRIS instrument design includes a near-infrared (0.85 - 2.4 micron) integral field spectrograph (IFS) and imager that are able to conduct simultaneous diffraction-limited observations behind the advanced adaptive optics system NFIRAOS. The IRIS science cases have continued to be developed and new science studies have been investigated to aid in technical performance and design requirements. In this development phase, the IRIS science team has paid particular attention to the selection of filters, gratings, sensitivities of the entire system, and science cases that will benefit from the parallel mode of the IFS and imaging camera. We present new science cases for IRIS using the latest end-to-end data simulator on the following topics: Solar System bodies, the Galactic center, active galactic nuclei (AGN), and distant gravitationally-lensed galaxies. We then briefly discuss the necessity of an advanced data management system and data reduction pipeline.

  10. Advanced operational strategy for the IRIS reactor: Load follow through mechanical shim (MSHIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franceschini, Fausto; Petrovic, Bojan

    2008-01-01

    The renaissance of nuclear power brings more attention to advanced reactor designs and their improved performance and flexibility, including their enhanced load follow capability. Reactor control strategy used to perform transients including power changes has impact on the overall control system design. In particular, as the power change is performed within a load follow maneuver, several modifications occur in the core from a neutronic view point: the fuel and moderator temperature change, the xenon concentration and distribution are modified, the power distribution skewed axially, etc. These changes need to be adequately counterbalanced to keep both the core critical and the power distribution acceptable. The traditional approach in PWRs is to compensate for the reactivity change due to the power variation by adjusting the soluble boron concentration and moving a limited number of control rod banks. However, advanced reactors may adopt a different strategy for a variety of reasons. For example, water-cooled reactors that do not use soluble boron in coolant obviously cannot use its adjustment for this purpose. Moreover, Integral Primary System Reactors (IPSRs) using soluble boron, due to their integral design, have a large inventory of primary coolant. Therefore dilution/boration strategy, while in principle an option, becomes expensive for short time changes and leads to large volume of liquid effluent, in particular toward the end of cycle. Therefore, a capability to perform load follow without changing soluble boron concentration is very desirable for a range of reactor designs. International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is an advanced medium-size IPSR that has been selected as the reference reactor for the purpose of this study. A capability to perform load follow maneuvers without changing soluble boron concentration has been examined and demonstrated through implementation of the Westinghouse Mechanical Shim (MSHIM) control strategy. A control bank

  11. Comparative consideration and design of a security depot for high radioactive glass-enclosed materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroni, U.

    1985-01-01

    From the beginning of 1990 the COGEMA shall supply glass-enclosed high radioactive waste of the reprocessing of German fuel elements back to the Federal Republic of Germany. As to this time the final waste storage in the salt stock of Gorleben will not be available the glass cannisters have to be deposited above ground. First a comparison is made out of a number of proposed storage concepts for the deposition of HAW-glass blocks. The safety technical behaviour of the facility is considered. On the basis of the gained results a new facility design is presented, which can take 450 glass cannisters in a discoid built up cast-steel vessel and makes possible the utilization of the resulting radioactive heat of dissociation. During the development of this concept besides a compact, reasonable method of building and the thermodynamic behaviour of the storage the aspect of high security against release of radioactive materials was emphasized. (orig.) [de

  12. Application of the Quality Functional Deployment Method in Mobility Aid Securement System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The Independent Locking Securement System Project (ILS System Project) is a : successful attempt to respond to the transportation community's need for a : "universal" securement/restraint system that will accommodate most wheeled : mobility aids, inc...

  13. Iris autofluorescence in Fuchs' heterochromic uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Jia, Yading; Zhang, Suhua; Xie, Juan; Chang, Xin; Hou, Jia; Li, Gaiyun; Koch, Douglas D; Wang, Li

    2016-10-01

    To explore the characteristic autofluorescence patterns of iris depigmentation in eyes diagnosed with Fuchs' heterochromic uveitis (FHU). Near-infrared autofluorescence images and colour images of iris were taken in 21 eyes of 21 patients with FHU, 30 eyes of 15 normal subjects, 30 eyes of 15 normal age-related iris atrophy and 33 eyes of 20 patients with uveitis other than FHU. The confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (Heidelberg Retina Angiograph 2, HRA2) was used for melanin-related autofluorescence imaging. The indocyanine green angiography mode of HRA2 was applied for near-infrared laser imaging, and the wavelength of the excitation laser was 795 nm. Iris colour images were also taken with the slit lamp. In normal iris, moderately intense autofluorescence was noted for the pigment ruff at the pupillary border, the crests in the pupillary zone and the collarette; and there was mild autofluorescence in the ciliary zone. In eyes with age-related iris atrophy and uveitis, much less autofluorescence was seen than the healthy normal irides. In eyes with FHU, there was moderate but discontinuous autofluorescence in the pigment ruff, a petaloid pattern of autofluorescence in the pupillary zone, moderate autofluorescence in the collarette and reticular pattern of autofluorescence in the ciliary zone. Characteristic autofluorescence patterns appeared in eyes diagnosed with FHU. Near-infrared autofluorescence is a promising objective technique to document the iris changes in FHU. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. 75 FR 25239 - Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Announcement of Availability of Literature Searches...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Information System (IRIS); Announcement of Availability of Literature Searches for IRIS Assessments AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice; Announcement of availability of literature searches for IRIS... the availability of literature searches for four IRIS assessments and requesting scientific...

  15. Exploiting the User: Adapting Personas for Use in Security Visualization Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, Jennifer C.; McColgin, David W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Crow, Vernon L.; Edwards, Keith

    2007-10-29

    It has long been noted that visual representations of complex information can facilitate rapid understanding of data {citation], even with respect to ComSec applications {citation]. Recognizing that visualizations can increase usability in ComSec applications, [Zurko, Sasse] have argued that there is a need to create more usable security visualizations. (VisSec) However, usability of applications generally fall into the domain of Human Computer Interaction (HCI), which generally relies on heavy-weight user-centered design (UCD) processes. For example, the UCD process can involve many prototype iterations, or an ethnographic field study that can take months to complete. The problem is that VisSec projects generally do not have the resources to perform ethnographic field studies, or to employ complex UCD methods. They often are running on tight deadlines and budgets that can not afford standard UCD methods. In order to help resolve the conflict of needing more usable designs in ComSec, but not having the resources to employ complex UCD methods, in this paper we offer a stripped-down lighter weight version of a UCD process which can help with capturing user requirements. The approach we use is personas which a user requirements capturing method arising out of the Participatory Design philosophy [Grudin02].

  16. Biometric iris image acquisition system with wavefront coding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Yang, Hsi-Wen; Huang, Shao-Hung; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Biometric signatures for identity recognition have been practiced for centuries. Basically, the personal attributes used for a biometric identification system can be classified into two areas: one is based on physiological attributes, such as DNA, facial features, retinal vasculature, fingerprint, hand geometry, iris texture and so on; the other scenario is dependent on the individual behavioral attributes, such as signature, keystroke, voice and gait style. Among these features, iris recognition is one of the most attractive approaches due to its nature of randomness, texture stability over a life time, high entropy density and non-invasive acquisition. While the performance of iris recognition on high quality image is well investigated, not too many studies addressed that how iris recognition performs subject to non-ideal image data, especially when the data is acquired in challenging conditions, such as long working distance, dynamical movement of subjects, uncontrolled illumination conditions and so on. There are three main contributions in this paper. Firstly, the optical system parameters, such as magnification and field of view, was optimally designed through the first-order optics. Secondly, the irradiance constraints was derived by optical conservation theorem. Through the relationship between the subject and the detector, we could estimate the limitation of working distance when the camera lens and CCD sensor were known. The working distance is set to 3m in our system with pupil diameter 86mm and CCD irradiance 0.3mW/cm2. Finally, We employed a hybrid scheme combining eye tracking with pan and tilt system, wavefront coding technology, filter optimization and post signal recognition to implement a robust iris recognition system in dynamic operation. The blurred image was restored to ensure recognition accuracy over 3m working distance with 400mm focal length and aperture F/6.3 optics. The simulation result as well as experiment validates the proposed code

  17. Watermarking security

    CERN Document Server

    Bas, Patrick; Cayre, François; Doërr, Gwenaël; Mathon, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This book explains how to measure the security of a watermarking scheme, how to design secure schemes but also how to attack popular watermarking schemes. This book gathers the most recent achievements in the field of watermarking security by considering both parts of this cat and mouse game. This book is useful to industrial practitioners who would like to increase the security of their watermarking applications and for academics to quickly master this fascinating domain.

  18. Security of Color Image Data Designed by Public-Key Cryptosystem Associated with 2D-DWT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D. C.; Sharma, R. K.; Kumar, Manish; Kumar, Kuldeep

    2014-08-01

    In present times the security of image data is a major issue. So, we have proposed a novel technique for security of color image data by public-key cryptosystem or asymmetric cryptosystem. In this technique, we have developed security of color image data using RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) cryptosystem with two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (2D-DWT). Earlier proposed schemes for security of color images designed on the basis of keys, but this approach provides security of color images with the help of keys and correct arrangement of RSA parameters. If the attacker knows about exact keys, but has no information of exact arrangement of RSA parameters, then the original information cannot be recovered from the encrypted data. Computer simulation based on standard example is critically examining the behavior of the proposed technique. Security analysis and a detailed comparison between earlier developed schemes for security of color images and proposed technique are also mentioned for the robustness of the cryptosystem.

  19. Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damato, Bertil; Kacperek, Andrzej; Chopra, Mona; Sheen, Martin A.; Campbell, Ian R.; Errington, R. Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To report on outcomes after proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2004, 88 patients with iris melanoma received proton beam radiotherapy, with 53.1 Gy in 4 fractions. Results: The patients had a mean age of 52 years and a median follow-up of 2.7 years. The tumors had a median diameter of 4.3 mm, involving more than 2 clock hours of iris in 32% of patients and more than 2 hours of angle in 27%. The ciliary body was involved in 20%. Cataract was present in 13 patients before treatment and subsequently developed in another 18. Cataract had a 4-year rate of 63% and by Cox analysis was related to age (p = 0.05), initial visual loss (p < 0.0001), iris involvement (p < 0.0001), and tumor thickness (p < 0.0001). Glaucoma was present before treatment in 13 patients and developed after treatment in another 3. Three eyes were enucleated, all because of recurrence, which had an actuarial 4-year rate of 3.3% (95% CI 0-8.0%). Conclusions: Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma is well tolerated, the main problems being radiation-cataract, which was treatable, and preexisting glaucoma, which in several patients was difficult to control

  20. Balloon cell nevus of the iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcos, Mohib W; Odashiro, Alexandre; Bazin, Richard; Pereira, Patricia Rusa; O'Meara, Aisling; Burnier, Miguel N

    2014-12-01

    Balloon cell nevus is a rare histopathological lesion characterized by a predominance of large, vesicular and clear cells, called balloon cells. There is only 1 case of balloon cell nevus of the iris reported in the literature. A 55 year-old man presented a pigmented elevated lesion in the right iris since the age of 12 years old. The lesion had been growing for the past 2 years and excision was performed. Histopathological examination showed a balloon cell nevus composed of clear and vacuolated cells without atypia. A typical spindle cell nevus of the iris was also observed. The differential diagnosis included xanthomatous lesions, brown adipocyte or other adipocytic lesions, clear cell hidradenoma, metastatic clear cell carcinoma of the kidney and clear cell sarcoma. The tumor was positive for Melan A, S100 protein and HMB45. Balloon cell nevus of the iris is rare but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of melanocytic lesions of the iris. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. A risk-based approach to designing effective security force training exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.; Eisenhawer, S.W.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of a security force in protecting a nuclear facility is often evaluated using training exercises that pit a group of simulated attackers against a security team. In the situation studied here, a security force was regularly tested by a regulatory body with the responsibility for security oversight. It was observed that the regulators were continually imposing more challenging security scenarios by assigning increasingly sophisticated facility knowledge to the attackers. Not surprisingly, the security forces' assessed effectiveness decreased until eventually they were unable to successfully resist the attacks. Security managers maintained that the knowledge attributed to the attackers was becoming increasingly unrealistic and feared they would be forced to concentrate resources on unrealistic scenarios at the expense of more credible threats.

  2. Mixed coherent states in coupled chaotic systems: Design of secure wireless communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneshwaran, M.; Dana, S. K.; Padmanaban, E.

    2016-12-01

    A general coupling design is proposed to realize a mixed coherent (MC) state: coexistence of complete synchronization, antisynchronization, and amplitude death in different pairs of similar state variables of the coupled chaotic system. The stability of coupled system is ensured by the Lyapunov function and a scaling of each variable is also separately taken care of. When heterogeneity as a parameter mismatch is introduced in the coupled system, the coupling function facilitates to retain its coherence and displays the global stability with renewed scaling factor. Robust synchronization features facilitated by a MC state enable to design a dual modulation scheme: binary phase shift key (BPSK) and parameter mismatch shift key (PMSK), for secure data transmission. Two classes of decoders (coherent and noncoherent) are discussed, the noncoherent decoder shows better performance over the coherent decoder, mostly a noncoherent demodulator is preferred in biological implant applications. Both the modulation schemes are demonstrated numerically by using the Lorenz oscillator and the BPSK scheme is demonstrated experimentally using radio signals.

  3. Comparison of features response in texture-based iris segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bachoo, A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available the Fisher linear discriminant and the iris region of interest is extracted. Four texture description methods are compared for segmenting iris texture using a region based pattern classification approach: Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Discrete...

  4. Changes of the eye optics after iris constriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Montés-Micó

    2010-10-01

    Conclusion: Iris constriction slightly modifies the optics of the eye. The small hyperopic shift of the best image plane after iris constriction may be explained by a change in the lens shape and/or position.

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Tetrahydrofuran (THF) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Tetrahydrofuran, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the iris/process.htm">IRIS Assessment Development Proc...

  6. IRIS Assessment Plan for Uranium (Scoping and Problem Formulation Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January 2018, EPA released the IRIS Assessment Plan for Uranium (Oral Reference Dose) (Scoping and Problem Formulation Materials). An IRIS Assessment Plan (IAP) communicates to the public the plan for assessing each individual chemical and includes summary informatio...

  7. IRIS Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride (Final Report, 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Vinyl Chloride and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  8. A fourier transform quality measure for iris images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makinana, S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available to ensure that good quality images are selected for feature extraction, in order to improve iris recognition system. In addition, this research proposes a measure of iris image quality using a Fourier Transform. The experimental results demonstrate...

  9. Correlation of iris biometrics and DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Stine; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm

    2013-01-01

    The presented work concerns prediction of complex human phenotypes from genotypes. We were interested in correlating iris color and texture with DNA. Our data consist of 212 eye images along with DNA: 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used two types of biometrics to describe the eye...... images: One for iris color and one for iris texture. Both biometrics were high dimensional and a sparse principle component analysis (SPCA) reduced the dimensions and resulted in a representation of data with good interpretability. The correlations between the sparse principal components (SPCs......) and the 32 SNPs were found using a canonical correlation analysis (CCA). The result was a single significant canonical correlation (CC) for both biometrics. Each CC comprised two correlated canonical variables, consisting of a linear combination of SPCs and a linear combination of SNPs, respectively...

  10. Bilateral acute iris transillumination: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumali Degirmenci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT is a recently defined disease characterized with bilateral acute, severe pigment dispersion of iris and pupil sphincter paralysis. The etiopathogenesis of the disease is unknown, but antibiotics such as moxifloxacin, clarithromycin, viral infections, and fumigation therapies were considered as probable etiologic factors. A 33-year-old female was referred to our clinic for acute iridocyclitis refractory to azathioprine, colchicum and corticosteroid treatments. Ophthalmic examination revealed bilateral pigment dispersion, significant iris transillumination, heavy pigment deposition in iridocorneal angle, and elevated intraocular pressure. Upon systemic evaluation she was found to have bacterial urinary tract infection. BAIT is an important cause of pigment dispersion and clinicians must be vigilant for this condition to avoid unnecessary diagnostic tests and treatment.

  11. Internet Renewable energy Information System (IRIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäurle, Britta; Nielsen, Vilhjalmur; Ménard, Lionel

    1999-01-01

    Even though the Internet is now a widely accessible data source, the unorganised flood of information makes a specific request e.g. for renewable energy products inefficient. In addition, existing databases on renewable energies are often old and incomplete. The objective of IRIS has been...... to organise and retrieve renewable energy product information on the Internet instead of collecting it manually. Updating coincides with the self interestself-interest of manufacturers to present their latest renewable energy products on their own HTML documents. IRIS is based on a set of powerful tools...... and intends to find, extract, collect and index HTML documents with standardised META tags that are widely spread across web servers on the Internet. This paper presents the structure of IRIS, the software tools, and gives one example of how to categorise and prepare web-sites with product information...

  12. Cataract influence on iris recognition performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trokielewicz, Mateusz; Czajka, Adam; Maciejewicz, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the experimental study revealing weaker performance of the automatic iris recognition methods for cataract-affected eyes when compared to healthy eyes. There is little research on the topic, mostly incorporating scarce databases that are often deficient in images representing more than one illness. We built our own database, acquiring 1288 eye images of 37 patients of the Medical University of Warsaw. Those images represent several common ocular diseases, such as cataract, along with less ordinary conditions, such as iris pattern alterations derived from illness or eye trauma. Images were captured in near-infrared light (used in biometrics) and for selected cases also in visible light (used in ophthalmological diagnosis). Since cataract is a disorder that is most populated by samples in the database, in this paper we focus solely on this illness. To assess the extent of the performance deterioration we use three iris recognition methodologies (commercial and academic solutions) to calculate genuine match scores for healthy eyes and those influenced by cataract. Results show a significant degradation in iris recognition reliability manifesting by worsening the genuine scores in all three matchers used in this study (12% of genuine score increase for an academic matcher, up to 175% of genuine score increase obtained for an example commercial matcher). This increase in genuine scores affected the final false non-match rate in two matchers. To our best knowledge this is the only study of such kind that employs more than one iris matcher, and analyzes the iris image segmentation as a potential source of decreased reliability

  13. A modified COMS plaque for iris melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Scanderbeg

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma of the iris is a rare condition compared to posterior ocular tumors and in this case report we presenta 51-year-old female patient with diffuse iris melanoma. Traditional COMS (Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Studyplaques are used at our institution for radiation therapy, so a novel modification of the traditional plaque was requiredto allow better conformance with placement on the cornea. The usual silastic insert was machined to dimensions incompliance with the cornea, placed without incident, and treatment delivered with excellent patient tolerance of themodified plaque.

  14. IRIS Toxicological Review of Trichloroethylene (TCE) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Trichloroethylene (TCE) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. The purpose of this Toxicological Review is to provide scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment in IRIS pertaining to chronic exposure to trichloroethylene. It is not intended to be a comprehensive treatise on the chemical or toxicological nature of trichloroethylene.

  15. Plateau iris secondary to iridociliary cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Arteaga, J; Díaz-Céspedes, R A; Suriano, M M

    2015-11-01

    We present a case of plateau iris and glaucoma due to multiple unilateral iridociliary cysts. The patient was treated with iridotomy Nd: YAG laser and 360° iridoplasty, without achieving pressure control. Phacoemulsification improved the hypertension. Dynamic gonioscopy and OCT of the anterior chamber was also performed before and after treatment. Iridociliary cysts are a benign condition that can cause iris plateau configuration, and can produce a difficult to treat ocular hypertension. Cystotomy, peripheral iridoplasty, and other treatments have been proposed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of Inorganic Arsenic (Cancer) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Science Advisory Board (SAB) conducted a review of the scientific basis supporting the human health cancer hazard and dose-response assessment of inorganic arsenic that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. EPA revised the assessment and is now returning the assessment to the SAB and releasing the document to the public for a focused review of EPA's responses to the SAB recommendations. This draft IRIS health assessment addresses only cancer human health effects that may result from chronic exposure to this chemical.

  17. Design and Implementation of Corporate Actions on a Decentralized Securities Depository

    OpenAIRE

    Hedin, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Trading securities is a process that requires multiple trusted intermediaries to ensure that the trade is done correctly. The securities industry is therefore very slow and expensive; the central securities depository (CSD) being one of the main contributors to the disruption. In an effort to fix this, financial institutions has recently started looking into the blockchain technology; the innovation behind the cryptocurrency Bitcoin. Bitcoin is a digital currency that can be traded peer-to-pe...

  18. Designing a Secure E-commerce with Credential Purpose-based Access Control

    OpenAIRE

    Norjihan Abdul Ghani; Harihodin Selamat; Zailani Mohamed Sidek

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth of e-commerce has created a great opportunities for both businesses and end users. The essential e-commerce process is required for the successful operation and management of e-commerce activities. One of the processes is access control and security. E-commerce must establish a secure access between the parties in an e-commerce transaction by authenticating users, authorizing access, and enforcing security features. The e-commerce application must authorize access to only tho...

  19. A patient with multiple iris | Asselman | Southern African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IRIS results from a pathological inflammatory response to pre-existing infective, host or other antigens, alive or dead, causing clinical deterioration in HIV-infected patients after initiating ART.1 A case definition for IRIS is shown in Table I. The most common forms of IRIS described occur in association with mycobacterial and ...

  20. IRIS: Supporting & Managing the Research Life-Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollini, Andrea; Mennielli, Michele; Mornati, Susanna; Palmer, David T.

    2016-01-01

    IRIS is a new Current Research Information System (CRIS) developed by Cineca to upgrade and replace two previous solutions that have been used by Italian universities in the last 10 years. At the end of 2015, sixty-three Italian institutions are using IRIS. One of the main components of IRIS is DSpace-CRIS, an open source solution that can also be…

  1. Ethnicity distinctiveness through iris texture features using Gabor filters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabuza-Hocquet, Gugulethu P

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Research in iris biometrics has been focused on utilizing iris features as a means of identity verification and authentication. However, not enough research work has been done to explore iris textures to determine soft biometrics such as gender...

  2. VASIR: An Open-Source Research Platform for Advanced Iris Recognition Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yooyoung; Micheals, Ross J; Filliben, James J; Phillips, P Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    The performance of iris recognition systems is frequently affected by input image quality, which in turn is vulnerable to less-than-optimal conditions due to illuminations, environments, and subject characteristics (e.g., distance, movement, face/body visibility, blinking, etc.). VASIR (Video-based Automatic System for Iris Recognition) is a state-of-the-art NIST-developed iris recognition software platform designed to systematically address these vulnerabilities. We developed VASIR as a research tool that will not only provide a reference (to assess the relative performance of alternative algorithms) for the biometrics community, but will also advance (via this new emerging iris recognition paradigm) NIST's measurement mission. VASIR is designed to accommodate both ideal (e.g., classical still images) and less-than-ideal images (e.g., face-visible videos). VASIR has three primary modules: 1) Image Acquisition 2) Video Processing, and 3) Iris Recognition. Each module consists of several sub-components that have been optimized by use of rigorous orthogonal experiment design and analysis techniques. We evaluated VASIR performance using the MBGC (Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge) NIR (Near-Infrared) face-visible video dataset and the ICE (Iris Challenge Evaluation) 2005 still-based dataset. The results showed that even though VASIR was primarily developed and optimized for the less-constrained video case, it still achieved high verification rates for the traditional still-image case. For this reason, VASIR may be used as an effective baseline for the biometrics community to evaluate their algorithm performance, and thus serves as a valuable research platform.

  3. Design and implementation of a secure workflow system based on PKI/PMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kai; Jiang, Chao-hui

    2013-03-01

    As the traditional workflow system in privilege management has the following weaknesses: low privilege management efficiency, overburdened for administrator, lack of trust authority etc. A secure workflow model based on PKI/PMI is proposed after studying security requirements of the workflow systems in-depth. This model can achieve static and dynamic authorization after verifying user's ID through PKC and validating user's privilege information by using AC in workflow system. Practice shows that this system can meet the security requirements of WfMS. Moreover, it can not only improve system security, but also ensures integrity, confidentiality, availability and non-repudiation of the data in the system.

  4. Hadoop-Based Healthcare Information System Design and Wireless Security Communication Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human health information from healthcare system can provide important diagnosis data and reference to doctors. However, continuous monitoring and security storage of human health data are challenging personal privacy and big data storage. To build secure and efficient healthcare application, Hadoop-based healthcare security communication system is proposed. In wireless biosensor network, authentication and key transfer should be lightweight. An ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography based lightweight digital signature and key transmission method are proposed to provide wireless secure communication in healthcare information system. Sunspot wireless sensor nodes are used to build healthcare secure communication network; wireless nodes and base station are assigned different tasks to achieve secure communication goal in healthcare information system. Mysql database is used to store Sunspot security entity table and measure entity table. Hadoop is used to backup and audit the Sunspot security entity table. Sqoop tool is used to import/export data between Mysql database and HDFS (Hadoop distributed file system. Ganglia is used to monitor and measure the performance of Hadoop cluster. Simulation results show that the Hadoop-based healthcare architecture and wireless security communication method are highly effective to build a wireless healthcare information system.

  5. Design and develop a video conferencing framework for real-time telemedicine applications using secure group-based communication architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Kiah, M L; Al-Bakri, S H; Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Hussain, Muzammil

    2014-10-01

    One of the applications of modern technology in telemedicine is video conferencing. An alternative to traveling to attend a conference or meeting, video conferencing is becoming increasingly popular among hospitals. By using this technology, doctors can help patients who are unable to physically visit hospitals. Video conferencing particularly benefits patients from rural areas, where good doctors are not always available. Telemedicine has proven to be a blessing to patients who have no access to the best treatment. A telemedicine system consists of customized hardware and software at two locations, namely, at the patient's and the doctor's end. In such cases, the video streams of the conferencing parties may contain highly sensitive information. Thus, real-time data security is one of the most important requirements when designing video conferencing systems. This study proposes a secure framework for video conferencing systems and a complete management solution for secure video conferencing groups. Java Media Framework Application Programming Interface classes are used to design and test the proposed secure framework. Real-time Transport Protocol over User Datagram Protocol is used to transmit the encrypted audio and video streams, and RSA and AES algorithms are used to provide the required security services. Results show that the encryption algorithm insignificantly increases the video conferencing computation time.

  6. Developing virtual REU cohorts: Reflections from the IRIS Undergraduate Internship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenthal, M.; Taber, J.; Aster, R.; Frassetto, A.

    2007-12-01

    Beginning in 2006, the IRIS Education and Outreach program received funding from the National Science Foundation (EAR-0453427) to explore a novel approach to the traditional Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) model. This model blends the spirit of an REU program, which traditionally hosts participants in one location with successful prior IRIS experience hosting students at widely separated institutions to participate in summer research. A unique feature the IRIS Undergraduate Internship Program is that throughout the summer, interns form and sustain a virtual community, offering assistance, sharing ideas, asking questions, and relaying life experiences while conducting their research at diverse institutions. Key to IRIS's REU model is a combination of: one-on-one mentoring by researchers at IRIS institutions across the US, developing a strong unity among interns through both face-to-face and on-line interactions, participation of an IRIS REU alumni mentor to provide both group and intern-specific guidance developing interns' abilities to self-evaluate and work independently, through carefully designed web-based tools, and increasing interns' awareness of the IRIS and broader Earth Science community; demonstrating the role they will play in this larger community. Virtual interaction is facilitated by 1) bringing students together for face-to-face contact, through a week long orientation held annually at the IRIS PASSCAL Instrument Center on the campus of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, and 2) the community enabling web infrastructure at http://www.iris.edu/internship/. During the orientation students engage in classes in geophysics basics, career preparation, as well as training to communicate virtually. Our experiences and evaluations from the 2006 and 2007 field seasons have:shown the increasing demand for electronic advertising of REU programs, provided support for several assumptions of the model including the key role of both the

  7. Distribution and multiplication of iris severe mosaic potyvirus in bulbous Iris in relation to metabolic activity : implications for ISMV detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der C.I.M.

    1994-01-01

    During cultivation of iris, several viruses may cause severe damage like yield reduction and discoloration of the plant. In commercial stocks in the Netherlands virtually all plants are infected with iris mild mosaic virus (IMMV) while iris severe mosaic virus (ISMV) and narcissus latent

  8. Dynamical Analysis, Synchronization, Circuit Design, and Secure Communication of a Novel Hyperchaotic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to introduce a novel fourth-order hyperchaotic system. The hyperchaotic system is constructed by adding a linear feedback control level based on a modified Lorenz-like chaotic circuit with reduced number of amplifiers. The local dynamical entities, such as the basic dynamical behavior, the divergence, the eigenvalue, and the Lyapunov exponents of the new hyperchaotic system, are all investigated analytically and numerically. Then, an active control method is derived to achieve global chaotic synchronization of the novel hyperchaotic system through making the synchronization error system asymptotically stable at the origin based on Lyapunov stability theory. Next, the proposed novel hyperchaotic system is applied to construct another new hyperchaotic system with circuit deformation and design a new hyperchaotic secure communication circuit. Furthermore, the implementation of two novel electronic circuits of the proposed hyperchaotic systems is presented, examined, and realized using physical components. A good qualitative agreement is shown between the simulations and the experimental results around 500 kHz and below 1 MHz.

  9. Design of a sensor network system with a self-maintenance function for homeland security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Takeshi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Iyomoto, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we develop a new concept of a robust wireless sensor network for homeland security applications. The sensor system consists of intelligent radiation sensors that can communicate each other through the wireless network. This structure can cover a wide area with a flexible geometry which is suitable for detecting a moving object with a detectable radiation source. Also, it has a tolerance against both the partial node's failure and packet errors; realized by a Self-Maintenance function. The Self-maintenance function is a function that enables an artifact to find, diagnosis and fix the trouble automatically and maintain itself. So far some approaches have been tried to realize robust monitoring system by applying the idea of multiplex system, based on ''2 out of 3'', but this requires a large amount of the hardware and is not suitable for sensor network systems. We designed a sensor network system with Self-Maintenance function based on qualitative reasoning technique for robust wireless sensor network system, and an instrument network based on ZigBee has been set up for investigations. CsI(Tl) gamma-ray detectors are used as sensors. The network system picks up correlation signals from sensors even some of sensors send false signals, which can be used as a reliable detection system for practical use. (author)

  10. The Design and Analysis of a Secure Personal Healthcare System Based on Certificates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Kang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the development of information technology (IT, it has been applied to various fields such as the smart home, medicine, healthcare, and the smart car. For these fields, IT has been providing continuous prevention and management, including health conditions beyond the mere prevention of disease, improving the quality of life. e-Healthcare is a health management and medical service to provide prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and the follow-up management of diseases at any time and place in connection with information communication technology, without requiring patients to visit hospitals. However, e-Healthcare has been exposed to eavesdropping, manipulation, and the forgery of information that is personal, biological, medical, etc., and is a security threat from malicious attackers. This study suggests a security service model to exchange personal health records (PHRs for e-Healthcare environments. To be specific, this study suggests a scheme in which communicators are able to securely authorize and establish security channels by constituting the infrastructure each organization relies on. In addition, the possibility of establishing a security service model is indicated by suggesting an e-Healthcare system for a secure e-Healthcare environment as a secure personal health record system. This is anticipated to provide securer communication in e-Healthcare environments in the future through the scheme suggested in this study.

  11. Design and Research of a New secure Authentication Protocol in GSM networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Ai-qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the first line of defense in the security application system, Authentication is an important security service. Its typical scheme is challenge/response mechanism and this scheme which is simple-structured and easy to realize has been used worldwide. But these protocols have many following problems In the GSM networks such as the leakage of user indentity privacy, no security protection between home registers and foreign registers and the vicious intruders’ information stealing and so on. This paper presents an authentication protocol in GSM networks based on maths operation and modular square root technique . The analysis of the security and performance has also been done. The results show that it is more robust and secure compared to the previous agreements.

  12. Numerical stress analysis of the iris tissue induced by pupil expansion: Comparison of commercial devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Perera, Shamira A.; Girard, Michaël J. A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose (1) To use finite element (FE) modelling to estimate local iris stresses (i.e. internal forces) as a result of mechanical pupil expansion; and to (2) compare such stresses as generated from several commercially available expanders (Iris hooks, APX dilator and Malyugin ring) to determine which design and deployment method are most likely to cause iris damage. Methods We used a biofidelic 3-part iris FE model that consisted of the stroma, sphincter and dilator muscles. Our FE model simulated expansion of the pupil from 3 mm to a maximum of 6 mm using the aforementioned pupil expanders, with uniform circular expansion used for baseline comparison. FE-derived stresses, resultant forces and area of final pupil opening were compared across devices for analysis. Results Our FE models demonstrated that the APX dilator generated the highest stresses on the sphincter muscles, (max: 6.446 MPa; average: 5.112 MPa), followed by the iris hooks (max: 5.680 MPa; average: 5.219 MPa), and the Malyugin ring (max: 2.144 MPa; average: 1.575 MPa). Uniform expansion generated the lowest stresses (max: 0.435MPa; average: 0.377 MPa). For pupil expansion, the APX dilator required the highest force (41.22 mN), followed by iris hooks (40.82 mN) and the Malyugin ring (18.56 mN). Conclusion Our study predicted that current pupil expanders exert significantly higher amount of stresses and forces than required during pupil expansion. Our work may serve as a guide for the development and design of next-generation pupil expanders. PMID:29538452

  13. Iris recognition based on key image feature extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, X; Tian, Q; Zhang, J; Wu, S; Zeng, Y

    2008-01-01

    In iris recognition, feature extraction can be influenced by factors such as illumination and contrast, and thus the features extracted may be unreliable, which can cause a high rate of false results in iris pattern recognition. In order to obtain stable features, an algorithm was proposed in this paper to extract key features of a pattern from multiple images. The proposed algorithm built an iris feature template by extracting key features and performed iris identity enrolment. Simulation results showed that the selected key features have high recognition accuracy on the CASIA Iris Set, where both contrast and illumination variance exist.

  14. IRIS Bimonthly Public Meeting (Jun 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    On June 25-27, 2014, EPA hosted a public meeting/webinar, to provide an opportunity for the public to give input and participate in an open discussion regarding several IRIS chemical assessments of Hexavalent Chromium (Cr(VI)) and Inorganic Arsenic (iAs).

  15. IRIS Public Science Meeting (June 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This June 2016 public meeting is made available to solicit comments on the public comment draft of the IRIS Assessment of tert-Butanol. The draft document was re-opened in the docket for a 60-day public comment period closing on July 16, 2016.

  16. Iris Murdoch, Liberal Education and Human Flourishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William

    2009-01-01

    Articulating the good of liberal education--what we should teach and why we should teach it--is necessary to resist the subversion of liberal education to economic or political ends and the mania for measurable skills. I argue that Iris Murdoch's philosophical writings enrich the work of contemporary Aristotelians, such as Joseph Dunne and…

  17. Iris recognition using the JAVAVis Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Martin García

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This project has been created to develop a biometric identification system through a man’s iris using a computer to perform the processing of the pictures. To develop this application, and to differentiate the project from others who have already implemented, we have used the image processing library JAVAVis and JAVA as a programming language.

  18. IRI profile parameters at equatorial latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinisch, B.W.; Huang Xueqin; Conway, J.

    2002-01-01

    The IRI bottom-side electron density profile is specified as a function of three parameters B0, B1, and D1 describing the F2 layer thickness and shape, and the shape of the F1 layer, respectively. Together with the URSI or CCIR coefficients for the F2 layer peak density and height, they completely specify the profiles as function of time, season and solar activity. In support of the international effort of determining the best set of parameters we have analyzed the diurnal variations of B0, B1, and D1 for Jicamarca for high solar activity during 1999 and 2000 for different seasons and magnetic activity. The B0 values vary from a minimum of ∼95 km at 0300 LT to ∼250 km at local noon (1700 UT). The diurnal variation is similar to the IRI2000 prediction. B1 varies from ∼1.9 at daytime to ∼2.2 at night. The value of D1 is ∼0.5. The parameters show little Kp dependence. Standard deviations are shown. We calculated the ionospheric total electron contents for March and April 1998 from the ionogram profiles at Jicamarca and compared them with IRI predictions using the IRI 2000 parameters. While there is fair agreement, a significant time shift of 1 to 2 hours occurs in the transition from night to daytime values. (author)

  19. Survey of HTR related research at IRI, Delft, Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.; Wallerbos, E.J.M.; Van der Hagen, T.H.J.J.; Van Dam, H. [Interfaculty Reactor Institute IRI, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Tuerkcan, E. [ECN Nuclear Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    1998-09-01

    High temperature helium-cooled reactors have a large potential for inherent safety. Therefore, several projects on HTR research are being carried out or were carried out at the Interfaculty Reactor Institute (IRI) of the Delft University of Technology in Delft, Netherlands. As part of a larger research programme measurements of core reactivity, reactivity worth of safety rods and of small samples being oscillated in the reactor core were carried out at the PROTEUS facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute at Villigen, Switzerland. Together with other partners in the Netherlands a small inherently safe co-generation plant with a pebble-bed HTR core was designed and analysed. It was verified that such a reactor can operate continuously for 10 years by adding continuously fuel pebbles until the maximum available core height is reached. As a new, innovative, inherently safe reactor type the design of a fluidized-bed reactor with coated fuel particles on a helium gas stream is discussed and results are shown for the analysis of inherent criticality safety under varying coolant flow rates. IRI is also taking part in the new IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme, which involves participation in the start-up experiments of the Japanese HTTR and carrying out calculations for the core physics benchmark test. 11 refs.

  20. Checking the new IRI model: The bottomside B parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosert, M.; Buresova, D.; Miro, G.; Lazo, B.; Ezquer, R.

    2003-01-01

    Electron density profiles obtained at Pruhonice (50.0, 15.0), El Arenosillo (37.1, 353.2) and Havana (23, 278) were used to check the bottom-side B parameters BO (thickness parameter) and B1 (shape parameter) predicted by the new IRI - 2000 version. The electron density profiles were derived from ionograms using the ARP technique. The data base includes daytime and nighttime ionograms recorded under different seasonal and solar activity conditions. Comparisons with IRI predictions were also done. The analysis shows that: a) The parameter B1 given by IRI 2000 reproduces better the observed ARP values than the IRI-90 version and b) The observed BO values are in general well reproduced by both IRI versions: IRI-90 and IRI-2000. (author)

  1. IRIS Toxicological Review of Benzo[a]pyrene (Interagency ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January 2017, EPA finalized the IRIS assessment of Benzo[a]pyrene. The Toxicological Review was reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release. Consistent with the May 2009 IRIS assessment development process, all written comments on IRIS assessments submitted by other federal agencies and White House Offices are made publicly available. Accordingly, interagency comments and the interagency science discussion materials provided to other agencies, including interagency review drafts of the IRIS Toxicological Review of Benzo[a]pyrene are posted on this site. EPA is undertaking an update of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The outcome of this project is an updated Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for BaP that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  2. Toward noncooperative iris recognition: a classification approach using multiple signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Hugo; Alexandre, Luís A

    2007-04-01

    This paper focuses on noncooperative iris recognition, i.e., the capture of iris images at large distances, under less controlled lighting conditions, and without active participation of the subjects. This increases the probability of capturing very heterogeneous images (regarding focus, contrast, or brightness) and with several noise factors (iris obstructions and reflections). Current iris recognition systems are unable to deal with noisy data and substantially increase their error rates, especially the false rejections, in these conditions. We propose an iris classification method that divides the segmented and normalized iris image into six regions, makes an independent feature extraction and comparison for each region, and combines each of the dissimilarity values through a classification rule. Experiments show a substantial decrease, higher than 40 percent, of the false rejection rates in the recognition of noisy iris images.

  3. Checking the new IRI model The bottomside B parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Mosert, M; Ezquer, R; Lazo, B; Miro, G

    2002-01-01

    Electron density profiles obtained at Pruhonice (50.0, 15.0), El Arenosillo (37.1, 353.2) and Havana (23, 278) were used to check the bottom-side B parameters BO (thickness parameter) and B1 (shape parameter) predicted by the new IRI - 2000 version. The electron density profiles were derived from ionograms using the ARP technique. The data base includes daytime and nighttime ionograms recorded under different seasonal and solar activity conditions. Comparisons with IRI predictions were also done. The analysis shows that: a) The parameter B1 given by IRI 2000 reproduces better the observed ARP values than the IRI-90 version and b) The observed BO values are in general well reproduced by both IRI versions: IRI-90 and IRI-2000.

  4. Combining GPS measurements and IRI model predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Juan, J.M.; Sanz, J.; Bilitza, D.

    2002-01-01

    The free electrons distributed in the ionosphere (between one hundred and thousands of km in height) produce a frequency-dependent effect on Global Positioning System (GPS) signals: a delay in the pseudo-orange and an advance in the carrier phase. These effects are proportional to the columnar electron density between the satellite and receiver, i.e. the integrated electron density along the ray path. Global ionospheric TEC (total electron content) maps can be obtained with GPS data from a network of ground IGS (international GPS service) reference stations with an accuracy of few TEC units. The comparison with the TOPEX TEC, mainly measured over the oceans far from the IGS stations, shows a mean bias and standard deviation of about 2 and 5 TECUs respectively. The discrepancies between the STEC predictions and the observed values show an RMS typically below 5 TECUs (which also includes the alignment code noise). he existence of a growing database 2-hourly global TEC maps and with resolution of 5x2.5 degrees in longitude and latitude can be used to improve the IRI prediction capability of the TEC. When the IRI predictions and the GPS estimations are compared for a three month period around the Solar Maximum, they are in good agreement for middle latitudes. An over-determination of IRI TEC has been found at the extreme latitudes, the IRI predictions being, typically two times higher than the GPS estimations. Finally, local fits of the IRI model can be done by tuning the SSN from STEC GPS observations

  5. Extending the Capture Volume of an Iris Recognition System Using Wavefront Coding and Super-Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao; Chang, Chin-Chen

    2016-12-01

    Iris recognition has gained increasing popularity over the last few decades; however, the stand-off distance in a conventional iris recognition system is too short, which limits its application. In this paper, we propose a novel hardware-software hybrid method to increase the stand-off distance in an iris recognition system. When designing the system hardware, we use an optimized wavefront coding technique to extend the depth of field. To compensate for the blurring of the image caused by wavefront coding, on the software side, the proposed system uses a local patch-based super-resolution method to restore the blurred image to its clear version. The collaborative effect of the new hardware design and software post-processing showed great potential in our experiment. The experimental results showed that such improvement cannot be achieved by using a hardware-or software-only design. The proposed system can increase the capture volume of a conventional iris recognition system by three times and maintain the system's high recognition rate.

  6. The design of a dynamic security system at the XXIII Summer Olympics at Los Angeles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    The security requirements of the XXIII Summer Olympic Games at Los Angeles provided a challenge unparalleled in the history of the modern games. This paper discusses the dynamics involved and suggests that the principles used are applicable to many of today's security environments. The success of the Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) employed at each of the three Olympic villages and at the Piper Technical Center is a known fact. How it was accomplished is addressed in a straightforward, systematic way. The paper also recognizes the contributions made by the security community, law enforcement agencies, the government, military, the security industry and RandD organizations. It was a team effort that reflected the spirit of the games and the American ''can-do'' attitude

  7. Ten years of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome in the era of α-blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Al-Ali, Badereddin; Radmayr, Christian; Weber, Maria; Horninger, Wolfgang; Findl, Oliver; Plas, Eugen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The use of alpha-1 receptor antagonists in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has created a problem in ophthalmic surgery, the so-called intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS). This consists of a billowing iris, insufficient pupillary dilation with progressive intraoperative miosis, and protrusion of iris tissue through the tunnel and side port incision that are made for access to the anterior chamber during surgery. IFIS presents particular difficulties in cataract surgery which is carried out through the pupil with manipulations in the immediate vicinity of the iris. The complications range from poor visibility of the operative field to iris damage with the surgical instruments and to rupture of the posterior capsule, with loss of lens material into the vitreous body. Material and methods A comprehensive literature review was performed using MEDLINE with MeSH terms and keywords ‘benign prostatic hyperplasia’, ‘intraoperative floppy iris syndrome’, ‘adrenergic alpha-antagonist’ and ‘cataract surgery’. In addition, reference lists from identified publications were reviewed to identify reports and studies of interest from 2001 to 2017. Results The A total of 95% of experienced ophthalmologic surgeons reported that systematic treatment with tamsulosin represents a challenging surgical condition increasing the risk of complications. Alpha-blockers are commonly prescribed, with 1,079,505 packages of tamsulosin prescribed each month in 2014 in Austria. Dose modification may be one way to reduce the risk of IFIS. A lower incidence of IFIS was reported in patients on tamsulosin in Japan, but the recommended dosage was lower than that used in Europe and the US (0.2 mg vs. 0.4 mg). Conclusions We showed that not all patients taking tamsulosin experience IFIS. Moreover, larger investigations with a prospective design are needed, including studies to monitor the pre- and post-therapeutic ophthalmologic changes under tamsulosin

  8. Design of Secure and Lightweight Authentication Protocol for Wearable Devices Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Wazid, Mohammad; Kumar, Neeraj; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Park, YoungHo

    2017-09-18

    Wearable devices are used in various applications to collect information including step information, sleeping cycles, workout statistics, and health related information. Due to the nature and richness of the data collected by such devices, it is important to ensure the security of the collected data. This paper presents a new lightweight authentication scheme suitable for wearable device deployment. The scheme allows a user to mutually authenticate his/her wearable device(s) and the mobile terminal (e.g., Android and iOS device) and establish a session key among these devices (worn and carried by the same user) for secure communication between the wearable device and the mobile terminal. The security of the proposed scheme is then demonstrated through the broadly-accepted Real-Or-Random model, as well as using the popular formal security verification tool, known as the Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA). Finally, we present a comparative summary of the proposed scheme in terms of the overheads such as computation and communication costs, security and functionality features of the proposed scheme and related schemes, and also the evaluation findings from the NS2 simulation.

  9. Transient classification for the IRIS reactor using self-organized maps built in free platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doraskevicius Junior, Waldemar

    2005-01-01

    Kohonen's Self Organized Maps (SOM) were tested with data from several operational conditions of the nuclear reactor IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) to develop an effective tool in the classification and transient identification in nuclear reactors. The data were derived from 56 simulations of the operation of IRIS, from steady-state conditions to accidents. The digital system built for the tests was based on the JAVA platform for the portability and scalability, and for being one of the free development platforms. Satisfactory results of operation classification were obtained with reasonable processing time in personal computers; about two to five minutes were spent for ordination and convergence of the learning on the data base. The methodology of this work was extended to the supervision of logistics of natural gas for Brazilian pipelines, showing satisfactory results for the classification of deliveries for simultaneous measurement in several points. (author)

  10. Computer Models for IRIS Control System Transient Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary D Storrick; Bojan Petrovic; Luca Oriani

    2007-01-01

    This report presents results of the Westinghouse work performed under Task 3 of this Financial Assistance Award and it satisfies a Level 2 Milestone for the project. Task 3 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled 'Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor' focuses on developing computer models for transient analysis. This report summarizes the work performed under Task 3 on developing control system models. The present state of the IRIS plant design--such as the lack of a detailed secondary system or I and C system designs--makes finalizing models impossible at this time. However, this did not prevent making considerable progress. Westinghouse has several working models in use to further the IRIS design. We expect to continue modifying the models to incorporate the latest design information until the final IRIS unit becomes operational. Section 1.2 outlines the scope of this report. Section 2 describes the approaches we are using for non-safety transient models. It describes the need for non-safety transient analysis and the model characteristics needed to support those analyses. Section 3 presents the RELAP5 model. This is the highest-fidelity model used for benchmark evaluations. However, it is prohibitively slow for routine evaluations and additional lower-fidelity models have been developed. Section 4 discusses the current Matlab/Simulink model. This is a low-fidelity, high-speed model used to quickly evaluate and compare competing control and protection concepts. Section 5 describes the Modelica models developed by POLIMI and Westinghouse. The object-oriented Modelica language provides convenient mechanisms for developing models at several levels of detail. We have used this to develop a high-fidelity model for detailed analyses and a faster-running simplified model to help speed the I and C development process. Section

  11. DESIGN MODELING OF A UNIVERSITY’S COMPREHENSIVE-INTEGRATED SECURITY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Dulyasova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the safety of higher education institutions is considered to be of great importance nowadays. Security challenges need to be addressed through a comprehensive and integrative approach. This approach provides neutralisation of various threats systemically, risk prevention, minimisation of the tangible and moral harm. The project concept of “safe university” is proposed and substantiated for the above-mentioned purposes. Materials and Methods: the authors used a special literature survey on the issue, which is divided into three main groups of publications, where the complex security of educational institutions is considered in the context of the general theory of security, in the educational-methodical plan and within the framework of sociological, psychological and pedagogical approaches. The legislative and regulatory sources also indicated, legislative and regulatory legal acts reviews, “Safe City” concept, National standard “Information security technologies: complex and integrated ones. Standard requirements to architecture and technologies of intellectual systems of monitoring for safety of the companies and the territories” (State standard specification P 56875-2016, documents of higher education institutions, media reports. The analysis and generalisation of information was coupled with project modeling of the new comprehensive system of higher education institution security. Results: the authors introduce the concept, architecture and model of the comprehensive integrated higher education institution security, monitoring based on measures and indicators pertaining to implementation of standard requirements and level of satisfaction with safety, evaluation of the taken measures in terms of efficiency. Discussion and Conclusions: the main contours of the model for comprehensive integrated security system in a higher education institution and algorithm of interaction between the subjects are determined. These

  12. Graphite analyser upgrade for the IRIS spectrometer at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, S.I.; Telling, M.T.F.; Carlile, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The pyrolytic graphite (PG) analyser bank on the IRIS high resolution inelastic spectrometer [1] at ISIS is to be upgraded. At present the analyser consists of 1350 graphite pieces (6 rows by 225 columns) cooled to 25K [2]. The new analyser array, however, will provide a three-fold increase in area and employ 4212 crystal pieces (18 rows by 234 columns). In addition, the graphite crystals will be cooled close to liquid helium temperature to further reduce thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) and improve the sensitivity of the spectrometer [2]. For an instrument such as IRIS, with its analyser in near back-scattering geometry, optical aberration and variation in the time-of-flight of the analysed neutrons is introduced as one moves out from the horizontal scattering plane. To minimise such effects, the profile of the analyser array has been redesigned. The concept behind the design of the new analyser bank and factors that effect the overall resolution of the instrument are discussed. Results of Monte Carlo simulations of the expected resolution and intensity of the complete instrument are presented and compared to the current instrument performance. (author) [1] C.J. Carlile et al, Physica B 182 (1992) 431-440.; [2] C.J. Carlile et al, Nuclear Instruments and Methods In Physics Research A 338 (1994) 78-82

  13. IRIS COLOUR CLASSIFICATION SCALES--THEN AND NOW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Mariana; Avram, Alina

    2015-01-01

    Eye colour is one of the most obvious phenotypic traits of an individual. Since the first documented classification scale developed in 1843, there have been numerous attempts to classify the iris colour. In the past centuries, iris colour classification scales has had various colour categories and mostly relied on comparison of an individual's eye with painted glass eyes. Once photography techniques were refined, standard iris photographs replaced painted eyes, but this did not solve the problem of painted/ printed colour variability in time. Early clinical scales were easy to use, but lacked objectivity and were not standardised or statistically tested for reproducibility. The era of automated iris colour classification systems came with the technological development. Spectrophotometry, digital analysis of high-resolution iris images, hyper spectral analysis of the human real iris and the dedicated iris colour analysis software, all accomplished an objective, accurate iris colour classification, but are quite expensive and limited in use to research environment. Iris colour classification systems evolved continuously due to their use in a wide range of studies, especially in the fields of anthropology, epidemiology and genetics. Despite the wide range of the existing scales, up until present there has been no generally accepted iris colour classification scale.

  14. Iris Recognition Using Feature Extraction of Box Counting Fractal Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotimah, C.; Juniati, D.

    2018-01-01

    Biometrics is a science that is now growing rapidly. Iris recognition is a biometric modality which captures a photo of the eye pattern. The markings of the iris are distinctive that it has been proposed to use as a means of identification, instead of fingerprints. Iris recognition was chosen for identification in this research because every human has a special feature that each individual is different and the iris is protected by the cornea so that it will have a fixed shape. This iris recognition consists of three step: pre-processing of data, feature extraction, and feature matching. Hough transformation is used in the process of pre-processing to locate the iris area and Daugman’s rubber sheet model to normalize the iris data set into rectangular blocks. To find the characteristics of the iris, it was used box counting method to get the fractal dimension value of the iris. Tests carried out by used k-fold cross method with k = 5. In each test used 10 different grade K of K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN). The result of iris recognition was obtained with the best accuracy was 92,63 % for K = 3 value on K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) method.

  15. IRIS COLOUR CLASSIFICATION SCALES – THEN AND NOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Mariana; Avram, Alina

    2015-01-01

    Eye colour is one of the most obvious phenotypic traits of an individual. Since the first documented classification scale developed in 1843, there have been numerous attempts to classify the iris colour. In the past centuries, iris colour classification scales has had various colour categories and mostly relied on comparison of an individual’s eye with painted glass eyes. Once photography techniques were refined, standard iris photographs replaced painted eyes, but this did not solve the problem of painted/ printed colour variability in time. Early clinical scales were easy to use, but lacked objectivity and were not standardised or statistically tested for reproducibility. The era of automated iris colour classification systems came with the technological development. Spectrophotometry, digital analysis of high-resolution iris images, hyper spectral analysis of the human real iris and the dedicated iris colour analysis software, all accomplished an objective, accurate iris colour classification, but are quite expensive and limited in use to research environment. Iris colour classification systems evolved continuously due to their use in a wide range of studies, especially in the fields of anthropology, epidemiology and genetics. Despite the wide range of the existing scales, up until present there has been no generally accepted iris colour classification scale. PMID:27373112

  16. ORACLE DATABASE SECURITY

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina-Maria Titrade

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some security issues, namely security database system level, data level security, user-level security, user management, resource management and password management. Security is a constant concern in the design and database development. Usually, there are no concerns about the existence of security, but rather how large it should be. A typically DBMS has several levels of security, in addition to those offered by the operating system or network. Typically, a DBMS has user a...

  17. TB-IRIS and remodelling of the T cell compartment in highly immunosuppressed HIV+ patients with TB: the CAPRI T (ANRS-12614) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridas, V.; Pean, P.; Jasenosky, L.D.; Madec, Y.; Laureillard, D.; Sok, T.; Sath, S.; Borand, L.; Marcy, O.; Chan, S.; Tsitsikov, E.; Delfraissy, J.-F.; Blanc, F.-X.; Goldfeld, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of tuberculosis (TB)-associated immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS) upon immunological recovery and the T cell compartment after initiation of TB and antiretroviral therapy (ART). Design and methods We prospectively evaluated T cell immunophenotypes by flow cytometry and cytokines by Luminex assays in a subset (n=154) of highly immunosuppressed HIV+ patients with TB from the CAMELIA randomized clinical trial. We compared findings from patients who developed TB-IRIS to findings from patients who did not develop TB-IRIS. Data were evaluated with mixed effect linear regression, Kaplan-Meier estimates, and Wilcoxon rank sum tests, and q-values were calculated to control for multiple comparisons. Results Development of TB-IRIS was associated with significantly greater pre-ART frequencies of HLA-DR+CD45RO+CD4+, CCR5+CD4+, OX40+CD4+, and Fas+ effector memory (EM) CD8+ T cells, and significantly elevated levels of plasma IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-10 and viral load. Post-ART initiation, EM CD4+ and Fas+ EM CD4+ T cell frequencies significantly expanded, and central memory (CM) CD4+ T cell frequencies significantly contracted in patients who experienced TB-IRIS. By week 34 post-TB treatment initiation, EM/CM CD4+ T cell ratios were markedly higher in TB-IRIS versus non-TB-IRIS patients. Conclusions A distinct pattern of pre-ART T cell and cytokine markers appear to poise the immune response to develop TB-IRIS. Experience of TB-IRIS is then associated with long-term remodeling of the CD4+ T cell memory compartment towards an EM-dominated phenotype. We speculate that these pre- and post-ART TB-IRIS-associated immune parameters may contribute to superior immune control of TB/HIV co-infection and better clinical outcome. PMID:25486415

  18. Prosessiautomaation häiriösuojaus

    OpenAIRE

    Aalto, Joni

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tutustua prosessiteollisuuden automaatio- ja ohjausjärjestelmien häiriösuojaukseen ja varmistaa sen oikeanlainen rakenne ja toiminta käytännössä. Työ tehtiin Insta Automation Oy:lle, joka vastaa Boliden Harjavallan sähkökunnossapidosta ja sähkösuunnittelusta. Työ tehtiin Boliden Harjavallan sulaton alueella. Työhön kuului häiriöttömän eli TE-maadoituksen rakenteen tarkastaminen ja mittaus sekä prosessinohjaukseen käytettävän Metso DNA-järjestelmän sähköns...

  19. The design and implementation of web mining in web sites security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Guo-Yin; Gu, Guo-Chang; Li, Jian-Li

    2003-06-01

    The backdoor or information leak of Web servers can be detected by using Web Mining techniques on some abnormal Web log and Web application log data. The security of Web servers can be enhanced and the damage of illegal access can be avoided. Firstly, the system for discovering the patterns of information leakages in CGI scripts from Web log data was proposed. Secondly, those patterns for system administrators to modify their codes and enhance their Web site security were provided. The following aspects were described: one is to combine web application log with web log to extract more information, so web data mining could be used to mine web log for discovering the information that firewall and Information Detection System cannot find. Another approach is to propose an operation module of web site to enhance Web site security. In cluster server session, Density-Based Clustering technique is used to reduce resource cost and obtain better efficiency.

  20. Design and Implementation of Secure and Reliable Communication using Optical Wireless Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, Muhammad; Bajpai, Ambar; Zhao, Yan; Sangwongngam, Paramin; Wuttisittikulkij, Lunchakorn

    2014-11-01

    Wireless networking intensify the tractability in the home and office environment to connect the internet without wires but at the cost of risks associated with stealing the data or threat of loading malicious code with the intention of harming the network. In this paper, we proposed a novel method of establishing a secure and reliable communication link using optical wireless communication (OWC). For security, spatial diversity based transmission using two optical transmitters is used and the reliability in the link is achieved by a newly proposed method for the construction of structured parity check matrix for binary Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes. Experimental results show that a successful secure and reliable link between the transmitter and the receiver can be achieved by using the proposed novel technique.

  1. Information Systems Security Audit

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Popescu; Veronica Adriana Popescu; Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2007-01-01

    The article covers:Defining an information system; benefits obtained by introducing new information technologies; IT management;Defining prerequisites, analysis, design, implementation of IS; Information security management system; aspects regarding IS security policy; Conceptual model of a security system; Auditing information security systems and network infrastructure security.

  2. IRIS Toxicological Review of Trichloroacetic Acid (TCA) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. The draft Toxicological Review of trichloroacetic acid provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to trichloroacetic acid.

  3. Unsupervised detection of non-iris occlusions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Krupička, Mikuláš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 5 (2015), s. 60-65 ISSN 0167-8655 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Iris recognition * Color * Markov random field * Texture Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 1.586, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/RO/haindl-0444723.pdf

  4. Optimal Face-Iris Multimodal Fusion Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Sharifi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometric systems are considered a way to minimize the limitations raised by single traits. This paper proposes new schemes based on score level, feature level and decision level fusion to efficiently fuse face and iris modalities. Log-Gabor transformation is applied as the feature extraction method on face and iris modalities. At each level of fusion, different schemes are proposed to improve the recognition performance and, finally, a combination of schemes at different fusion levels constructs an optimized and robust scheme. In this study, CASIA Iris Distance database is used to examine the robustness of all unimodal and multimodal schemes. In addition, Backtracking Search Algorithm (BSA, a novel population-based iterative evolutionary algorithm, is applied to improve the recognition accuracy of schemes by reducing the number of features and selecting the optimized weights for feature level and score level fusion, respectively. Experimental results on verification rates demonstrate a significant improvement of proposed fusion schemes over unimodal and multimodal fusion methods.

  5. [Analysis of iris: history and future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of the iris has ancient roots, but iridology in its present sense was established by Philippi Meyers in 1670. The discipline was further developed by Ignaz Péczely in 1881 and by Nils Liljequist in 1890. Other studies have been published in Germany, Sweden, Norway, England, France, USA, Australia and elsewhere, and iridology is practiced worldwide. The techniques used are described and the sources of error are mentioned when several photos from the same patient are compared (e.g. the influences of differences in pupil size, magnification and the effect of oblique light). The iris key (irigraphy) and the interpretation of different sights are discussed in some detail; there is little agreement among iridologists. Some iris diagnoses are of little interest to day and some modern diseases are missing in the diagnostic system. Controlled studies reveal that iridology is of no use whatsoever for the detection of cancer and other diseases in the stomach, intestines, kidney, lungs and heart. The reason for the continued popularity of iridology is discussed, and it is concluded that this type of alternative medicine is not harmless.

  6. Design of advanced primitives for secure multiparty computation : special shuffles and integer comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villegas Bautista, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    In modern cryptography, the problem of secure multiparty computation is about the cooperation between mutually distrusting parties computing a given function. Each party holds some private information that should remain secret as much as possible throughout the computation. A large body of research

  7. A design pattern for event-based processing of security-enriched SOAP messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko; Lo Iacono, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    For Web Services in Cloud Computing contexts, the efficient processing of XML documents is a major topic of interest. Especially for WS-Security-enriched messages, processing performance nowadays tends to become a major issue. Streaming XML processing approaches lead to valuable optimization due ...

  8. The Design of NetSecLab: A Small Competition-Based Network Security Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. P.; Uluagac, A. S.; Fairbanks, K. D.; Copeland, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a competition-style of exercise to teach system and network security and to reinforce themes taught in class. The exercise, called NetSecLab, is conducted on a closed network with student-formed teams, each with their own Linux system to defend and from which to launch attacks. Students are expected to learn how to: 1) install…

  9. Gabor Weber Local Descriptor for Bovine Iris Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Shengnan; Zhao, Lindu; Yang, Shicai

    2013-01-01

    Iris recognition is a robust biometric technology. This paper proposes a novel local descriptor for bovine iris recognition, named Gabor Weber local descriptor (GWLD). We first compute the Gabor magnitude maps for the input bovine iris image, and then calculate the differential excitation and orientation for each pixel over each Gabor magnitude map. After that, we use these differential excitations and orientations to construct the GWLD histogram representation. Finally, histogram intersectio...

  10. HyspIRI Low Latency Concept and Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Topics include HyspIRI low latency data ops concept, HyspIRI data flow, ongoing efforts, experiment with Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS) approach to injecting new algorithms into SensorWeb, low fidelity HyspIRI IPM testbed, compute cloud testbed, open cloud testbed environment, Global Lambda Integrated Facility (GLIF) and OCC collaboration with Starlight, delay tolerant network (DTN) protocol benchmarking, and EO-1 configuration for preliminary DTN prototype.

  11. A Novel QKD-based Secure Edge Router Architecture Design for Burst Confidentiality in Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, A. M.; Sivasubramanian, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Optical Burst Switching (OBS) is an emergent result to the technology issue that could achieve a viable network in future. They have the ability to meet the bandwidth requisite of those applications that call for intensive bandwidth. The field of optical transmission has undergone numerous advancements and is still being researched mainly due to the fact that optical data transmission can be done at enormous speeds. The concept of OBS is still far from perfection facing issues in case of security threat. The transfer of optical switching paradigm to optical burst switching faces serious downfall in the fields of burst aggregation, routing, authentication, dispute resolution and quality of service (QoS). This paper proposes a framework based on QKD based secure edge router architecture design to provide burst confidentiality. The QKD protocol offers high level of confidentiality as it is indestructible. The design architecture was implemented in FPGA using diverse models and the results were taken. The results show that the proposed model is suitable for real time secure routing applications of the Optical burst switched networks.

  12. A Modified Recession Vector Method Based on the Optimization-Simulation Approach to Design Problems of Information Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Bykov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern practical task-solving techniques for designing information security systems in different purpose automated systems assume the solution of optimization tasks when choosing different elements of a security system. Formulations of mathematical programming tasks are rather often used, but in practical tasks it is not always analytically possible to set target function and (or restrictions in an explicit form. Sometimes, calculation of the target function value or checking of restrictions for the possible decision can be reduced to carrying out experiments on a simulation model of system. Similar tasks are considered within optimization-simulation approach and require the ad hoc methods of optimization considering the possible high computational effort of simulation.The article offers a modified recession vector method, which is used in tasks of discrete optimization to solve the similar problems. The method is applied when the task to be solved is to minimize the cost of selected information security tools in case of restriction on the maximum possible damage. The cost index is the linear function of the Boolean variables, which specify the selected security tools, with the restriction set as an "example simulator". Restrictions can be actually set implicitly. A validity of the possible solution is checked using a simulation model of the system.The offered algorithm of a method considers features of an objective. The main advantage of algorithm is that it requires a maximum of m+1 of steps where m is a dimensionality of the required vector of Boolean variables. The algorithm provides finding a local minimum by using the Hamming metrics in the discrete space; the radius of neighborhood is equal to 1. These statements are proved.The paper presents solution results of choosing security tools with the specified basic data.

  13. Iris double recognition based on modified evolutionary neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Liu, Yuan-Ning; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Huo, Guang; Liu, Wen-Tao; Feng, Jia-Kai

    2017-11-01

    Aiming at multicategory iris recognition under illumination and noise interference, this paper proposes a method of iris double recognition based on a modified evolutionary neural network. An equalization histogram and Laplace of Gaussian operator are used to process the iris to suppress illumination and noise interference and Haar wavelet to convert the iris feature to binary feature encoding. Calculate the Hamming distance for the test iris and template iris , and compare with classification threshold, determine the type of iris. If the iris cannot be identified as a different type, there needs to be a secondary recognition. The connection weights in back-propagation (BP) neural network use modified evolutionary neural network to adaptively train. The modified neural network is composed of particle swarm optimization with mutation operator and BP neural network. According to different iris libraries in different circumstances of experimental results, under illumination and noise interference, the correct recognition rate of this algorithm is higher, the ROC curve is closer to the coordinate axis, the training and recognition time is shorter, and the stability and the robustness are better.

  14. An iris recognition algorithm based on DCT and GLCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, G.; Wu, Ye-qing

    2008-04-01

    With the enlargement of mankind's activity range, the significance for person's status identity is becoming more and more important. So many different techniques for person's status identity were proposed for this practical usage. Conventional person's status identity methods like password and identification card are not always reliable. A wide variety of biometrics has been developed for this challenge. Among those biologic characteristics, iris pattern gains increasing attention for its stability, reliability, uniqueness, noninvasiveness and difficult to counterfeit. The distinct merits of the iris lead to its high reliability for personal identification. So the iris identification technique had become hot research point in the past several years. This paper presents an efficient algorithm for iris recognition using gray-level co-occurrence matrix(GLCM) and Discrete Cosine transform(DCT). To obtain more representative iris features, features from space and DCT transformation domain are extracted. Both GLCM and DCT are applied on the iris image to form the feature sequence in this paper. The combination of GLCM and DCT makes the iris feature more distinct. Upon GLCM and DCT the eigenvector of iris extracted, which reflects features of spatial transformation and frequency transformation. Experimental results show that the algorithm is effective and feasible with iris recognition.

  15. Multispectral diagnostic imaging of the iris in pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Daniel K; Lukic, Ana; Yang, Yongyi; Wilensky, Jacob T; Wernick, Miles N

    2012-08-01

    To determine if wavelength selection with near infrared iris imaging may enhance iris transillumination defects (ITDs) in pigment dispersion syndrome. An experimental apparatus was used to acquire iris images in 6 African-American (AA) and 6 White patients with pigment dispersion syndrome. Light-emitting diode probes of 6 different spectral bands (700 to 950 nm) were used to project light into patients' eyes. Iris patterns were photographed, ITD regions of interest were outlined, and region of interest contrasts were calculated for each spectral band. Contrasts varied as a function of wavelength (Ppigmented eyes may be slightly longer than for less pigmented eyes.

  16. Iris Transponder-Communications and Navigation for Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Courtney B.; Smith, Amy E.; Aguirre, Fernando H.

    2014-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed the Iris CubeSat compatible deep space transponder for INSPIRE, the first CubeSat to deep space. Iris is 0.4 U, 0.4 kg, consumes 12.8 W, and interoperates with NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) on X-Band frequencies (7.2 GHz uplink, 8.4 GHz downlink) for command, telemetry, and navigation. This talk discusses the Iris for INSPIRE, it's features and requirements; future developments and improvements underway; deep space and proximity operations applications for Iris; high rate earth orbit variants; and ground requirements, such as are implemented in the DSN, for deep space operations.

  17. Spatula scaffold: An iris-sparing technique for lensectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Priya; Agarwal, Amar

    2017-12-01

    Lensectomy with vitrectomy is often performed for crystalline lenticular subluxation. We report a new technique and a practical approach that involves the placement of a spatula beneath the iris tissue that facilitates retroiridial removal of subluxated lens and acts as a scaffold by protecting the iris tissue from being accidentally trapped into the vitrectomy cutter port. Our technique facilitates management of the lens and vitreous without any trauma to the iris and secondarily obviates the need to perform an iris repair procedure that may arise due to iatrogenic reasons.

  18. A gallery approach for off-angle iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Mahmut; Yoldash, Rashiduddin; Boehnen, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    It has been proven that hamming distance score between frontal and off-angle iris images of same eye differs in iris recognition system. The distinction of hamming distance score is caused by many factors such as image acquisition angle, occlusion, pupil dilation, and limbus effect. In this paper, we first study the effect of the angle variations between iris plane and the image acquisition systems. We present how hamming distance changes for different off-angle iris images even if they are coming from the same iris. We observe that increment in acquisition angle of compared iris images causes the increment in hamming distance. Second, we propose a new technique in off-angle iris recognition system that includes creating a gallery of different off-angle iris images (such as, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 degrees) and comparing each probe image with these gallery images. We will show the accuracy of the gallery approach for off-angle iris recognition.

  19. Gabor Weber Local Descriptor for Bovine Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition is a robust biometric technology. This paper proposes a novel local descriptor for bovine iris recognition, named Gabor Weber local descriptor (GWLD. We first compute the Gabor magnitude maps for the input bovine iris image, and then calculate the differential excitation and orientation for each pixel over each Gabor magnitude map. After that, we use these differential excitations and orientations to construct the GWLD histogram representation. Finally, histogram intersection is adopted to measure the similarity between different GWLD histograms. The experimental results on the SEU bovine iris database verify the representation power of our proposed local descriptor.

  20. Multispectral iris recognition based on group selection and game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Foysal; Roy, Kaushik

    2017-05-01

    A commercially available iris recognition system uses only a narrow band of the near infrared spectrum (700-900 nm) while iris images captured in the wide range of 405 nm to 1550 nm offer potential benefits to enhance recognition performance of an iris biometric system. The novelty of this research is that a group selection algorithm based on coalition game theory is explored to select the best patch subsets. In this algorithm, patches are divided into several groups based on their maximum contribution in different groups. Shapley values are used to evaluate the contribution of patches in different groups. Results show that this group selection based iris recognition

  1. Retropupillary Fixation of Iris-Claw Intraocular Lens for Aphakic Eyes in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, Martina; Thaler-Saliba, Sarah; Plainer, Sophie; Vidic, Bertram; El-Shabrawi, Yosuf; Ardjomand, Navid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report outcome, complications and safety of retropupillary fixated iris-claw intraocular lenses in a pediatric population. Design Retrospective study. Patients and Methods Ten consecutive pediatric patients (15 eyes) underwent placement of retropupillary fixated iris-claw intraocular lenses between October 2007 and July 2013 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University Graz and General Hospital Klagenfurt, Austria. Postoperative visual acuity and complications were analyzed. Results Median final best-corrected visual acuity improved by 0.12 logMAR from preoperative baseline. Mean postoperative spherical equivalent was -0.05 ± 1.76 D. No serious complications were observed intra- or postoperatively during the entire follow-up period of up to 40 months. One patient experienced a haptic disenclavation with IOL subluxation immediately after a car accident. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that iris-claw intraocular lens implantation behind the iris is safe in children with lack of capsular support and yields excellent visual outcome with low complication rate. PMID:26110864

  2. Retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens for the surgical correction of aphakia in cases with microspherophakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Mosaad Fouda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of retropupillary fixation of an iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL; Verisyse polymethyl methacrylate IOL, Abbott Medical Optics [AMO], Netherlands for the surgical correction of aphakia in microspherophakic eyes without sufficient capsular support. Design: This was a prospective, interventional, noncomparative case series. Methods: This interventional case series comprised 17 eyes of 9 microspherophakic patients. Retropupillary fixation of the Verisyse iris-claw IOL (AMO was performed in all cases. The surgical time was measured. Corrected distance visual acuity, astigmatism, intraocular pressure (IOP, tissue reaction, pigment dispersion, and stability of the IOL were studied 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, and 6 months postoperatively. Results: Eight patients had familial microspherophakia and one patient had Marfan's syndrome. Eighty-two percent of the cases achieved a visual acuity of 0.3 or better. There was no significant postoperative inflammatory reaction. Transient elevation of IOP was recorded in two cases in the 1st week only. One IOL developed disengagement of one of the haptics from the iris and was successfully re-engaged. All the other IOLs were well centered and stable. The mean surgical time was 18.0 ± 4.5 min. Conclusions: Retropupillary fixation of an iris-claw IOL is a safe and effective procedure that provides early visual recovery. It is also a time-saving method for correcting aphakia in microspherophakic eyes without sufficient capsular support.

  3. Promoting seismology education and research via the IRIS Education and Public Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, J. J.; Bravo, T. K.; Dorr, P. M.; Hubenthal, M.; Johnson, J. A.; McQuillan, P.; Sumy, D. F.; Welti, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology's Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program is committed to advancing awareness and understanding of seismology and geophysics, while inspiring careers in the Earth sciences. To achieve this mission, IRIS EPO combines content and research expertise of consortium membership with educational and outreach expertise of IRIS staff to create a portfolio of programs, products, and services that target a range of audiences, including grades 6-12 students and teachers, undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, and the general public. IRIS also partners with UNAVCO and other organizations in support of EarthScope where the facilities are well-suited for sustained engagement of multiple audiences. Examples of research-related EPO products and services include the following resources. Tools developed in collaboration with IRIS Data Services provide public and educational access to data, and to a suite of data products. Teachers can stream seismic data from educational or research sensors into their classroom, and the Active Earth Monitor display, designed for visitor centers, universities and small museums, provides views of recent data along with animations that explain seismology concepts, and stories about recent research. Teachable Moment slide sets, created in collaboration with the University of Portland within 24 hours of major earthquakes, provide interpreted USGS tectonic maps and summaries, animations, visualizations, and other event-specific information so educators can explore newsworthy earthquakes with their students. Intro undergraduate classroom activities have been designed to introduce students to some grand challenges in seismological research, while our Research Experiences for Undergraduates program pairs students with seismology researchers throughout the Consortium and provides the opportunity for the students to present their research at a national meeting. EPO activities are evaluated via a

  4. Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS): a practical approach to medical and surgical considerations in cataract extractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storr-Paulsen, Allan; Nørregaard, Jens Christian; Børme, Kim Kamp

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS) during cataract surgery is characterized by iris fluttering, iris prolapse towards the incisions, and a progressive pupillary constriction leading to high rates of complications. The syndrome has been reported following the treatment of benign...

  5. Design of Cyberwar Laboratory Exercises to Implement Common Security Attacks against IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Malekzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless network communications, radio waves travel through free space; hence, the information reaches any receiving point with appropriate radio receivers. This aspect makes the wireless networks vulnerable to various types of attacks. A true understanding of these attacks provides better ability to defend the network against the attacks, thus eliminating potential threats from the wireless systems. This work presents a series of cyberwar laboratory exercises that are designed for IEEE 802.11 wireless networks security courses. The exercises expose different aspects of violations in security such as confidentiality, privacy, availability, and integrity. The types of attacks include traffic analysis, rogue access point, MAC filtering, replay, man-in-the-middle, and denial of service attacks. For each exercise, the materials are presented as open-source tools along with descriptions of the respective methods, procedures, and penetration techniques.

  6. Towards the cyber security paradigm of ehealth: Resilience and design aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamäki, Jyri; Pirinen, Rauno

    2017-06-01

    Digital technologies have significantly changed the role of healthcare clients in seeking and receiving medical help, as well as brought up more cooperative policy issues in healthcare cross-border services. Citizens continue to take a more co-creative role in decisions about their own healthcare, and new technologies can enable and facilitate this emergent trend. In this study, healthcare services have been intended as a critical societal sector and therefore healthcare systems are focused on as critical infrastructures that ought to be protected from all types of fears, including cyber security threats and attacks. Despite continual progress in the systemic risk management of cyber domain, it is clear that anticipation and prevention of all possible types of attack and malfunction are not achievable for current or future cyber infrastructures. This study focuses on the investigation of a cyber security paradigm, adaptive systems and sense of resilience in a healthcare critical information infrastructure.

  7. Design and Hardware Implementation of a New Chaotic Secure Communication Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiong

    Full Text Available In this paper, a scheme for chaotic modulation secure communication is proposed based on chaotic synchronization of an improved Lorenz system. For the first time, the intensity limit and stability of the transmitted signal, the characteristics of broadband and the requirements for accuracy of electronic components are presented by Multisim simulation. In addition, some improvements are made on the measurement method and the proposed experimental circuit in order to facilitate the experiments of chaotic synchronization, chaotic non-synchronization, experiment without signal and experiment with signal. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, some numerical simulations are presented. Then, the proposed chaotic secure communication circuit is implemented through analog electronic circuit, which is characterized by its high accuracy and good robustness.

  8. Design and Hardware Implementation of a New Chaotic Secure Communication Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li; Lu, Yan-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Fang; Zhang, Xin-Guo; Gupta, Parag

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a scheme for chaotic modulation secure communication is proposed based on chaotic synchronization of an improved Lorenz system. For the first time, the intensity limit and stability of the transmitted signal, the characteristics of broadband and the requirements for accuracy of electronic components are presented by Multisim simulation. In addition, some improvements are made on the measurement method and the proposed experimental circuit in order to facilitate the experiments of chaotic synchronization, chaotic non-synchronization, experiment without signal and experiment with signal. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, some numerical simulations are presented. Then, the proposed chaotic secure communication circuit is implemented through analog electronic circuit, which is characterized by its high accuracy and good robustness.

  9. Safeguarding the User - Developing a Multimodal Design for Surveying and Raising Internet Safety and Security Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa; Sharp, Robin; Andersen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    Internet safety and security for the user is an issue of great importance for the successful implementation of ICT, but since it is a complex field, with a specialist vocabulary that cannot immediately be understood by the common user, it is difficult to survey the field. The user may not underst......Internet safety and security for the user is an issue of great importance for the successful implementation of ICT, but since it is a complex field, with a specialist vocabulary that cannot immediately be understood by the common user, it is difficult to survey the field. The user may...... describes an ICT-based research method that combines a verbal mode of inquiry with a visual mode employing illustrations, animations and simulations to provide the user with a multimodal media experience. The rationale for this is that we are working in a complex technical field with a specialist vocabulary...

  10. Design, Release, Update, Repeat: The Basic Process of a Security Protocol’s Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Young B. Choi; Nathan D. Hunter

    2017-01-01

    Companies, businesses, colleges, etc. throughout the world use computer networks and telecommunications to run their operations. The convenience, information-gathering, and organizational abilities provided by computer networks and the Internet is undeniably useful. However, as computer and network technology continues to become increasingly advanced, the threat and number of cyber-attacks rises. Without advanced and well-developed security protocols, companies, businesses, colleges, and even...

  11. Designing a Secure Exam Management System (SEMS) for M-Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiiali, Mustafa; Ozkaya, Armagan; Altun, Halis; Haddad, Hatem; Alier, Marc

    2016-01-01

    M-learning has enhanced the e-learning by making the learning process learner-centered. However, enforcing exam security in open environments where each student has his/her own mobile/tablet device connected to a Wi-Fi network through which it is further connected to the Internet can be one of the most challenging tasks. In such environments,…

  12. Design and Analysis of a secure multi-party communication protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Herberth, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In the past years digital communication became an important aspect in every day life. Everything is shared and discussed in groups of friends, family or business part- ners without a proper way to protect that information. This master thesis introduces the first secure robust multi-party communication protocol which mimics a physical conversation with the help of a Diffie-Hellman key tree and social behaviours. Robust- ness against offline group members is reached by taking advantage of trans...

  13. A design of toxic gas detecting security robot car based on wireless path-patrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ho-Chih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because a toxic gas detecting/monitoring system in a chemical plant is not movable, a gas detecting/monitoring system will be passive and the detecting range will also be constrained. This invention is an active multi-functional wireless patrol car that can substitute for humans that inspect a plant's security. In addition, to widen the monitoring vision within the environment, two motors used to rotate a wireless IPCAM with two axes are presented. Also, to control the robot car's movement, two axis motors used to drive the wheel of the robot car are also installed. Additionally, a toxic gas detector is linked to the microcontroller of the patrol car. The detected concentration of the gas will be fed back to the server pc. To enhance the robot car's patrolling duration, a movable electrical power unit in conjunction with a wireless module is also used. Consequently, this paper introduces a wireless path-patrol and toxic gas detecting security robot car that can assure a plant's security and protect workers when toxic gases are emitted.

  14. Breaking a chaos-based secure communication scheme designed by an improved modulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shujun; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Chen Guanrong

    2005-01-01

    Recently Bu and Wang [Bu S, Wang B-H. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;19(4):919-24] proposed a simple modulation method aiming to improve the security of chaos-based secure communications against return-map-based attacks. Soon this modulation method was independently cryptanalyzed by Chee et al. [Chee CY, Xu D, Bishop SR. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;21(5):1129-34], Wu et al. [Wu X, Hu H, Zhang B. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;22(2):367-73], and Alvarez et al. [Alvarez G, Montoya F, Romera M, Pastor G. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, in press, arXiv:nlin/0406065] via different attacks. As an enhancement to the Bu-Wang method, an improving scheme was suggested by Wu et al. by removing the relationship between the modulating function and the zero-points. The present paper points out that the improved scheme proposed by Wu et al. is still insecure against a new attack. Compared with the existing attacks, the proposed attack is more powerful and can also break the original Bu-Wang scheme. Furthermore, it is pointed out that the security of the modulation-based schemes proposed by Wu et al. is not so satisfactory from a pure cryptographical point of view. The synchronization performance of this class of modulation-based schemes is also discussed

  15. Breaking a chaos-based secure communication scheme designed by an improved modulation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shujun [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: hooklee@mail.com; Alvarez, Gonzalo [Instituto de Fisica Aplicada, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 144-28006 Madrid (Spain); Chen Guanrong [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-07-01

    Recently Bu and Wang [Bu S, Wang B-H. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;19(4):919-24] proposed a simple modulation method aiming to improve the security of chaos-based secure communications against return-map-based attacks. Soon this modulation method was independently cryptanalyzed by Chee et al. [Chee CY, Xu D, Bishop SR. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;21(5):1129-34], Wu et al. [Wu X, Hu H, Zhang B. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;22(2):367-73], and Alvarez et al. [Alvarez G, Montoya F, Romera M, Pastor G. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, in press, arXiv:nlin/0406065] via different attacks. As an enhancement to the Bu-Wang method, an improving scheme was suggested by Wu et al. by removing the relationship between the modulating function and the zero-points. The present paper points out that the improved scheme proposed by Wu et al. is still insecure against a new attack. Compared with the existing attacks, the proposed attack is more powerful and can also break the original Bu-Wang scheme. Furthermore, it is pointed out that the security of the modulation-based schemes proposed by Wu et al. is not so satisfactory from a pure cryptographical point of view. The synchronization performance of this class of modulation-based schemes is also discussed.

  16. A statistical investigation into the stability of iris recognition in diverse population sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John J.; Etter, Delores M.

    2014-05-01

    Iris recognition is increasingly being deployed on population wide scales for important applications such as border security, social service administration, criminal identification and general population management. The error rates for this incredibly accurate form of biometric identification are established using well known, laboratory quality datasets. However, it is has long been acknowledged in biometric theory that not all individuals have the same likelihood of being correctly serviced by a biometric system. Typically, techniques for identifying clients that are likely to experience a false non-match or a false match error are carried out on a per-subject basis. This research makes the novel hypothesis that certain ethnical denominations are more or less likely to experience a biometric error. Through established statistical techniques, we demonstrate this hypothesis to be true and document the notable effect that the ethnicity of the client has on iris similarity scores. Understanding the expected impact of ethnical diversity on iris recognition accuracy is crucial to the future success of this technology as it is deployed in areas where the target population consists of clientele from a range of geographic backgrounds, such as border crossings and immigration check points.

  17. Effect of tamsulosin on iris vasculature and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Roni M; Hussain, Munira T; Cooney, Theresa M; Elner, Victor M; Hood, Christopher T

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether preoperative iris vasculature and morphology are altered in patients who have taken tamsulosin (Flomax). Academic multispecialty practice. Case series. Patients with current or past tamsulosin use and age- and sex-matched control patients were included. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and iris fluorescein angiography were performed to measure iris vasculature and thickness before cataract surgery. Data collected at surgery included pupil diameter, clinical signs of intraoperative floppy-iris syndrome, and surgical complications. Tamsulosin was currently used by 16 patients and in the past by 4 patients; the control group comprised 10 patients. Pharmacologically dilated pupil diameter was statistically significantly smaller preoperatively and immediately postoperatively in the tamsulosin group than in the control group (P=.009 and P=.003, respectively). There was a statistically significant decrease in pupil size intraoperatively in the tamsulosin group (P=.05) but not in the control group (P=.3). Iris-vasculature parameters, specifically time to first vessel fill and percentage of vessel fill on iris fluorescein angiography, were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The AS-OCT measurements of iris morphology were not statistically significantly different between the groups. No surgical complications occurred. No fluorescein dye leakage, staining, or other vascular anomalies were observed. Although there were differences in pupil measurements and intraoperative iris behavior between patients who had been on tamsulosin and control patients, there were no significant differences in iris vasculature on iris fluorescein angiography or in iris morphology on AS-OCT. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Iris Genotypes (Iris spp Using ISSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyedeh zeinab attari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some of Iris species are growing in different parts of the Iran as wild species. Iris species have important medicinal and horticultural properties. Understanding of the genetic variation within and between populations is essential for the establishment of effective and efficient methods for conservation of the plants. Genetic variation studies are fundamental for the management and conservation of this species. The use of molecular markers is a powerful tool in the genetic study of populations. The use of DNA marker, such as AFLP, SSR, RAPD and ISSR represents an alternative method in detection of polymorphism. ISSRs are highly variable, require less investment in time, money and labor than other methods. ISSR can generate higher percentages of polymorphic loci than other PCR methods. These can serve as an efficient tool for phylogenetic studies. ISSRs had reported that used in studies of cultivated species to produce genetic linkage maps and to determine the relatedness of lines of agriculturally important species. ISSR analysis involves the PCR amplification of regions between adjacent, inversely oriented microsatellites, using a single simple sequence repeat (SSR motifs (dinucleotide, trinucleotide, tetranucleotide or penta nucleotides. Therefore, little is known about the genetic variability of the Iranian Iris ssp .The objectives of this study were to evaluate genetic diversity among genotypes using ISSR markers and the degree of polymorphism generated from ISSR technique as a pre-requisite for their applicability to population genetics studies in Iris ssp. Materials and Methods: To evaluate genetic variations in some wild Iris genotypes, Iris kopetdaghensis ،Iris songarica and Iris fosteriana were collected from some parts of Khorasan province. Genomic DNA was extracted from young leaves following the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB procedure. Extracted DNA concentration was quantified by using the spectrophotometer

  19. An unusual case of seed dispersal in an invasive aquatic; yellow flag iris (Iris pseudacorus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding reproductive mode of invasive plants can help managers plan more efficacious control. Invasive aquatics typically reproduce primarily through vegetative means. Yellow flag iris is an invasive plant species often growing as an emergent aquatic. There have been contradictory reports of i...

  20. Information Security Maturity Model

    OpenAIRE

    Information Security Maturity Model

    2011-01-01

    To ensure security, it is important to build-in security in both the planning and the design phases andadapt a security architecture which makes sure that regular and security related tasks, are deployedcorrectly. Security requirements must be linked to the business goals. We identified four domains thataffect security at an organization namely, organization governance, organizational culture, thearchitecture of the systems, and service management. In order to identify and explore the strengt...

  1. Unclonable Security Codes Designed from Multicolor Luminescent Lanthanide-Doped Y2O3 Nanorods for Anticounterfeiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Nagpal, Kanika; Gupta, Bipin Kumar

    2017-04-26

    The duplicity of important documents has emerged as a serious problem worldwide. Therefore, many efforts have been devoted to developing easy and fast anticounterfeiting techniques with multicolor emission. Herein, we report the synthesis of multicolor luminescent lanthanide-doped Y 2 O 3 nanorods by hydrothermal method and their usability in designing of unclonable security codes for anticounterfeiting applications. The spectroscopic features of nanorods are probed by photoluminescence spectroscopy. The Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ , Y 2 O 3 :Tb 3+ , and Y 2 O 3 :Ce 3+ nanorods emit hypersensitive red (at 611 nm), strong green (at 541 nm), and bright blue (at 438 nm) emissions at 254, 305, and 381 nm, respectively. The SEM and TEM/HRTEM results reveal that these nanorods have diameter and length in the range of 80-120 nm and ∼2-5 μm, respectively. The two-dimensional spatially resolved photoluminescence intensity distribution in nanorods is also investigated by using confocal photoluminescence microscopic technique. Further, highly luminescent unclonable security codes are printed by a simple screen printing technique using luminescent ink fabricated from admixing of lanthanide doped multicolor nanorods in PVC medium. The prospective use of these multicolor luminescent nanorods provide a new opportunity for easily printable, highly stable, and unclonable multicolor luminescent security codes for anti-counterfeiting applications.

  2. Analysis of different containment models for IRIS small break LOCA, using GOTHIC and RELAP5 codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papini, Davide; Grgic, Davor; Cammi, Antonio; Ricotti, Marco E.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced nuclear water reactors rely on containment behaviour in realization of some of their passive safety functions. Steam condensation on containment walls, where non-condensable gas effects are significant, is an important feature of the new passive containment concepts, like the AP600/1000 ones. In this work the international reactor innovative and secure (IRIS) was taken as reference, and the relevant condensation phenomena involved within its containment were investigated with different computational tools. In particular, IRIS containment response to a small break LOCA (SBLOCA) was calculated with GOTHIC and RELAP5 codes. A simplified model of IRIS containment drywell was implemented with RELAP5 according to a sliced approach, based on the two-pipe-with-junction concept, while it was addressed with GOTHIC using several modelling options, regarding both heat transfer correlations and volume and thermal structure nodalization. The influence on containment behaviour prediction was investigated in terms of drywell temperature and pressure response, heat transfer coefficient (HTC) and steam volume fraction distribution, and internal recirculating mass flow rate. The objective of the paper is to preliminarily compare the capability of the two codes in modelling of the same postulated accident, thus to check the results obtained with RELAP5, when applied in a situation not covered by its validation matrix (comprising SBLOCA and to some extent LBLOCA transients, but not explicitly the modelling of large dry containment volumes). The option to include or not droplets in fluid mass flow discharged to the containment was the most influencing parameter for GOTHIC simulations. Despite some drawbacks, due, e.g. to a marked overestimation of internal natural recirculation, RELAP5 confirmed its capability to satisfactorily model the basic processes in IRIS containment following SBLOCA.

  3. Dom IRIS in njegova vloga v rehabilitaciji: Smart Home IRIS and its role in rehabilitation: Smart Home IRIS and its role in rehabilitation:

    OpenAIRE

    Jenko, Mojca; Ocepek, Julija; Zupan, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Smart Home IRIS is a demonstrative apartment, founded in 2008 on the basis of numerous European smart home projects. The aim of this study was to establish the role of Smart Home IRIS in improving quality of life for persons with disabilities and elderly in Slovenia and the satisfaction of persons who have already been involved in a treatment in it. We analyzed a satisfaction questionnaire of the treatment in Smart Home IRIS, sent to all patients in 2008 (79 in total), as well as the problems...

  4. Synchronizing modified van der Pol-Duffing oscillators with offset terms using observer design: application to secure communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodjouong, G J; Fotsin, H B; Woafo, P

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses the adaptive synchronization of the modified van der Pol-Duffing (MVDPD) oscillator with offset terms. From our investigations of the system dynamics, we obtain that the system presents a chaotic behaviour at weak values of the offset parameters. Routh-Hurwitz criteria are used to study the asymptotic stability of the steady states. An adaptive observer design method is applied to achieve synchronization of two identical MVDPD oscillators with offset. Numerical simulations are given to validate the proposed synchronization approach. Moreover, as an application, the proposed scheme is applied to secure communication. Also, simulation results verify the proposed scheme's success in the communication application

  5. Frontal view reconstruction for iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Bolme, David S; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-02-17

    Iris recognition can be accomplished for a wide variety of eye images by correcting input images with an off-angle gaze. A variety of techniques, from limbus modeling, corneal refraction modeling, optical flows, and genetic algorithms can be used. A variety of techniques, including aspherical eye modeling, corneal refraction modeling, ray tracing, and the like can be employed. Precomputed transforms can enhance performance for use in commercial applications. With application of the technologies, images with significantly unfavorable gaze angles can be successfully recognized.

  6. Small incision guarded hydroaspiration of iris lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arun D

    2017-11-01

    To describe the technique and results of a minimally invasive surgical technique for resection of small iris lesions. Consecutive case series of 22 patients with localised, small iris lesions that were resected using the described surgical technique that composed of multiple, small corneal incisions created to allow for internal iris resection with 23-gauge horizontal vitrectomy scissors, followed by guarded tumour aspiration through a clear plastic tubing (diameter 3.5 mm) primed with viscoelastic agent. The mean largest basal diameter was 3.0 mm (range 1.5-5.0 mm; median 3.0 mm) and mean thickness was 1.3 mm (range 0.5-2.5 mm; median 1.0 mm). Use of multiple (2-4) small corneal incisions (range 2.0-3.0 mm; mean 2.8 mm) allowed reduced postoperative morbidity (significant hyphema (0%), hypotony (0%), wound leak (0%), >2 line change in best corrected visual acuity at postoperative 1 week (4.5%) and mean corneal astigmatism of 1.0 D (range 0.14-2.99 D; median 0.8 D) at postoperative 4-12 weeks. The tumour could be resected with clear surgical margins in all neoplastic cases (benign (2), borderline (1) and malignant (16)). Local recurrence or metastases were not observed in any melanoma case over a mean follow-up of 33.0 months (range 1.0-90.0 months; median 33.5 months). Small incision guarded hydroaspiration is a minimally invasive surgical technique for resection of select small iris lesions. Use of multiple small corneal incisions avoids morbidity associated with a single large corneoscleral incision, and use of guarded aspiration may eliminate the risk of wound contamination by the malignant tumour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. RFID protocol design, optimization, and security for the Internet of Things

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Alex X; Liu, Xiulong; Li, Keqiu

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the topic of RFID protocol design and optimization and the authors aim to demystify complicated RFID protocols and explain in depth the principles, techniques, and practices in designing and optimizing them.

  8. Grading of Iris Color with an Extended Photographic Reference Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luuk Franssen

    2008-01-01

    Conclusion: The new method is promising to be more accurate than existing iris color classification systems in clinical situations where objective colorimetry-based systems are not available. The method may be useful to assess iris translucency and fundus reflectance as sources of variation in retinal straylight.

  9. Driving Simulator study for intelligent cooperative intersection safety system (IRIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, J.; Schendzielorz, T.; Mathias, P.; Feenstra, P.

    2008-01-01

    About forty percent of all accidents occur at intersections. The Intelligent Cooperative Intersection Safety system (IRIS), as part of the European research project SAFESPOT, is a roadside application and aims at minimizing the number of accidents at controlled and uncontrolled intersections. IRIS

  10. An enhanced iris recognition and authentication system using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iris recognition and authentication has a major issue in its code generation and verification accuracy, in order to enhance the authentication process, a binary bit sequence of iris is generated, which contain several vital information that is used to calculate the Mean Energy and Maximum Energy that goes into the eye with an ...

  11. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ammonia (Revised External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August 2013, EPA submitted a revised draft IRIS assessment of ammonia to the agency's Science Advisory Board (SAB) and posted this draft on the IRIS website. EPA had previously released a draft of the assessment for public comment, held a public meeting about the draft, and ...

  12. Eclipse-Free-Time Assessment Tool for IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, David

    2012-01-01

    IRIS_EFT is a scientific simulation that can be used to perform an Eclipse-Free- Time (EFT) assessment of IRIS (Infrared Imaging Surveyor) mission orbits. EFT is defined to be those time intervals longer than one day during which the IRIS spacecraft is not in the Earth s shadow. Program IRIS_EFT implements a special perturbation of orbital motion to numerically integrate Cowell's form of the system of differential equations. Shadow conditions are predicted by embedding this integrator within Brent s method for finding the root of a nonlinear equation. The IRIS_EFT software models the effects of the following types of orbit perturbations on the long-term evolution and shadow characteristics of IRIS mission orbits. (1) Non-spherical Earth gravity, (2) Atmospheric drag, (3) Point-mass gravity of the Sun, and (4) Point-mass gravity of the Moon. The objective of this effort was to create an in-house computer program that would perform eclipse-free-time analysis. of candidate IRIS spacecraft mission orbits in an accurate and timely fashion. The software is a suite of Fortran subroutines and data files organized as a "computational" engine that is used to accurately predict the long-term orbit evolution of IRIS mission orbits while searching for Earth shadow conditions.

  13. Iris Recognition for Partially Occluded Images: Methodology and Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poursaberi A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate iris detection is a crucial part of an iris recognition system. One of the main issues in iris segmentation is coping with occlusion that happens due to eyelids and eyelashes. In the literature, some various methods have been suggested to solve the occlusion problem. In this paper, two different segmentations of iris are presented. In the first algorithm, a circle is located around the pupil with an appropriate diameter. The iris area encircled by the circular boundary is used for recognition purposes then. In the second method, again a circle is located around the pupil with a larger diameter. This time, however, only the lower part of the encircled iris area is utilized for individual recognition. Wavelet-based texture features are used in the process. Hamming and harmonic mean distance classifiers are exploited as a mixed classifier in suggested algorithm. It is observed that relying on a smaller but more reliable part of the iris, though reducing the net amount of information, improves the overall performance. Experimental results on CASIA database show that our method has a promising performance with an accuracy of 99.31%. The sensitivity of the proposed method is analyzed versus contrast, illumination, and noise as well, where lower sensitivity to all factors is observed when the lower half of the iris is used for recognition.

  14. Iris-based medical analysis by geometric deformation features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Zhang, D; Li, Naimin; Cai, Yan; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Kuanguan

    2013-01-01

    Iris analysis studies the relationship between human health and changes in the anatomy of the iris. Apart from the fact that iris recognition focuses on modeling the overall structure of the iris, iris diagnosis emphasizes the detecting and analyzing of local variations in the characteristics of irises. This paper focuses on studying the geometrical structure changes in irises that are caused by gastrointestinal diseases, and on measuring the observable deformations in the geometrical structures of irises that are related to roundness, diameter and other geometric forms of the pupil and the collarette. Pupil and collarette based features are defined and extracted. A series of experiments are implemented on our experimental pathological iris database, including manual clustering of both normal and pathological iris images, manual classification by non-specialists, manual classification by individuals with a medical background, classification ability verification for the proposed features, and disease recognition by applying the proposed features. The results prove the effectiveness and clinical diagnostic significance of the proposed features and a reliable recognition performance for automatic disease diagnosis. Our research results offer a novel systematic perspective for iridology studies and promote the progress of both theoretical and practical work in iris diagnosis.

  15. Design and Numerical Simulation of Unidirectional Chaotic Synchronization and its Application in Secure Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sambas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chaotic systems are characterized by sensitive dependence on initial conditions, similar to random behavior, and continuous broad-band power spectrum. Chaos is a good potential to be used in secure communications system. In this paper, in order to show some interesting phenomena of three-order Jerk circuit with modulus nonlinearity, the chaotic behavior as a function of a variable control parameter, has been studied. The initial study in this paper is to analyze the phase portraits, the Poincaré maps, the bifurcation diagrams, while the analysis of the synchronization in the case of unidirectional coupling between two identical generated chaotic systems, has been presented. Moreover, some appropriate comparisons are made to contrast some of the existing results. Finally, the effectiveness of the unidirectional coupling scheme between two identical Jerk circuits in a secure communication system is presented in details. Integration of theoretical physics, the numerical simulation by using MATLAB 2010, as well as the implementation of circuit simulations by using MultiSIM 10.0 has been performed in this study

  16. Design and Analysis of Optimization Algorithms to Minimize Cryptographic Processing in BGP Security Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Vinay K; Montgomery, Doug

    2017-07-01

    The Internet is subject to attacks due to vulnerabilities in its routing protocols. One proposed approach to attain greater security is to cryptographically protect network reachability announcements exchanged between Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routers. This study proposes and evaluates the performance and efficiency of various optimization algorithms for validation of digitally signed BGP updates. In particular, this investigation focuses on the BGPSEC (BGP with SECurity extensions) protocol, currently under consideration for standardization in the Internet Engineering Task Force. We analyze three basic BGPSEC update processing algorithms: Unoptimized, Cache Common Segments (CCS) optimization, and Best Path Only (BPO) optimization. We further propose and study cache management schemes to be used in conjunction with the CCS and BPO algorithms. The performance metrics used in the analyses are: (1) routing table convergence time after BGPSEC peering reset or router reboot events and (2) peak-second signature verification workload. Both analytical modeling and detailed trace-driven simulation were performed. Results show that the BPO algorithm is 330% to 628% faster than the unoptimized algorithm for routing table convergence in a typical Internet core-facing provider edge router.

  17. Retrospective Evaluation of Topical Bimatoprost and Iris Pigmentation Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski-Larsen, Lisa A; Ruth, Nadine H; Fabi, Sabrina G

    2017-12-01

    Topical bimatoprost is a topical prostaglandin analog originally used to treat glaucoma and more recently used to cosmetically induce hypertrichosis of the eyelashes. Iris pigmentation change has been noted in the treatment of glaucoma but has not been assessed with the cosmetic periorbital application of bimatoprost. To evaluate for iris pigmentation change with the long-term cosmetic use of topical bimatoprost. A retrospective chart review in a cosmetic dermatology practice of women (N = 50) who consistently purchased topical bimatoprost over an average of 4.59 years was compared with that of age-matched non-bimatoprost patients (N = 50). A blinded evaluator assessed each patient for iris pigmentary change. No iris pigmentation change was noted with the cutaneous application of bimatoprost. The cutaneous application of bimatoprost appears to be safe with minimal risk for iris pigmentation change.

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of n-Butanol (External Review Draft ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of n-butanol that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for n-butanol. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effects that may result from chronic (or lifetime) exposure to chemicals in the environment. IRIS contains chemical-specific summaries of qualitative and quantitative health information in support of two steps of the risk assessment paradigm, i.e., hazard identification and dose-response evaluation. IRIS assessments are used in combination with specific situational exposure assessment information to evaluate potential public health risk associated with environmental contaminants.

  19. Manejo del síndrome de iris laxo intraoperatorio en la cirugía de cataratas Management of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome in the cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belmary Aragonés Cruz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de iris laxo intraoperatorio se caracteriza por una tríada de signos: ondulación, prolapso, y miosis progresiva. Este síndrome puede observarse en pacientes que serán sometidos a cirugía de catarata y son portadores de hiperplasia prostática benigna u otra patología tratada con alfabloqueadores sistémicos. Si el oftalmólogo tiene conocimiento de esta terapia puede planificar una estrategia quirúrgica adecuada y de esta manera disminuir la tasa de complicaciones.The intraoperative floppy iris syndrome is characterized by a triad: wave, prolapse of the iris, and progressive miosis. This syndrome can be observed in patients that will undergo cataract surgery, who are carriers of benign prostatic hyperplasia or another pathology treated with systemic alphablockers. If the ophthalmologist is acquainted with this therapy, he/she may design a suitable surgical strategy to reduce complications after surgery.

  20. Advanced Instrumentation and Control Methods for Small and Medium Reactors with IRIS Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Wesley Hines; Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Michael Doster; Robert M. Edwards; Kenneth D. Lewis; Paul Turinsky; Jamie Coble

    2011-05-31

    Development and deployment of small-scale nuclear power reactors and their maintenance, monitoring, and control are part of the mission under the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) program. The objectives of this NERI-consortium research project are to investigate, develop, and validate advanced methods for sensing, controlling, monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis of these reactors, and to demonstrate the methods with application to one of the proposed integral pressurized water reactors (IPWR). For this project, the IPWR design by Westinghouse, the International Reactor Secure and Innovative (IRIS), has been used to demonstrate the techniques developed under this project. The research focuses on three topical areas with the following objectives. Objective 1 - Develop and apply simulation capabilities and sensitivity/uncertainty analysis methods to address sensor deployment analysis and small grid stability issues. Objective 2 - Develop and test an autonomous and fault-tolerant control architecture and apply to the IRIS system and an experimental flow control loop, with extensions to multiple reactor modules, nuclear desalination, and optimal sensor placement strategy. Objective 3 - Develop and test an integrated monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis system for SMRs using the IRIS as a test platform, and integrate process and equipment monitoring (PEM) and process and equipment prognostics (PEP) toolboxes. The research tasks are focused on meeting the unique needs of reactors that may be deployed to remote locations or to developing countries with limited support infrastructure. These applications will require smaller, robust reactor designs with advanced technologies for sensors, instrumentation, and control. An excellent overview of SMRs is described in an article by Ingersoll (2009). The article refers to these as deliberately small reactors. Most of these have modular characteristics, with multiple units deployed at the same plant site. Additionally, the topics focus