WorldWideScience

Sample records for sectoral analysis

  1. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  2. Analysis of leading sector of Jambi City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiani Hardiani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the leading sectors in the city of Jambi. The main data used is GDP data of Jambi City series 2010 for the period of 2012-2014. Analysis tool that is used are Location Quotient, Shift Share, Klassen Typology and Overlay Analysis. The results of the analysis found that of the 14 basic sectors in Jambi City (based on LQ analysis, there are four priority sectors namely electricity and gas procurement, building, large and retail trade, car and motorcycle repairs, health service, and social activities. Keywords: Location Quotient, Shift Share, Klassen Tipology, Overlay Analysis

  3. Mergers & Acquisitions in India: A sectoral analysis

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    Priya Bhalla

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization, deregulation and technological improvements have resulted in increase in M&A across the globe. There is enormous literature existing in the advanced economies. However, very little information is available regarding M&A in India. Various sectors have witnessed differential involvement in M&A activity indicating higher participation by some. Particularly, certain sectors such as financial services and pharmaceuticals demonstrate higher M&A activity. To emphasise differential importance of sectors in M&A activity, it is necessary to conduct a sector-wise analysis. Accordingly, this study attempts to investigate the differential representation of various sectors in M&A. Further, it explores the role played by India in the rising global M&A activity. In light of this, it specifies the factors driving consolidation in the financial sector globally.

  4. Energy demand analysis in the industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillone, B.

    1991-01-01

    This Chapter of the publication is dealing with Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector.Different estimates of energy consumption in Industry taking Thailand as an example is given. Major energy consuming industrial sectors in selected Asian countries are given. Suggestion for the analysis of the energy consumption trends in industry, whether at the overall level or at the sub-sector level (e.g. food) using the conventional approach , through energy/output ratio is given. 4 refs, 7 figs, 13 tabs

  5. Performance measurement in transport sector analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Išoraitė

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the following issues: 1. Performance measurement in literature. The performance measurement has an important role to play in the efficient and effective management of organizations. Kaplan and Johnson highlighted the failure of the financial measures to reflect changes in the competitive circumstances and strategies of modern organizations. Many authors have focused attention on how organizations can design more appropriate measurement systems. Based on literature, consultancy experience and action research, numerous processes have been developed that organizations can follow in order to design and implement systems. Many frameworks have been proposed that support these processes. The objective of such frameworks is to help organizations define a set of measures that reflect their objectives and assess their performance appropriately. 2. Transport sector performance and its impacts measuring. The purpose of transport measurement is to identify opportunities enhancing transport performance. Successful transport sector management requires a system to analyze its efficiency and effectiveness as well as plan interventions if transport sector performance needs improvement. Transport impacts must be measurable and monitorable so that the person responsible for the project intervention can decide when and how to influence them. Performance indicators provide a means to measure and monitor impacts. These indicators essentially reflect quantitative and qualitative aspects of impacts at given time and places. 3. Transport sector output and input. Transport sector inputs are the resources required to deliver transport sector outputs. Transport sector inputs are typically: human resources, particularly skilled resources (including specialists consulting inputs; technology processes such as equipment and work; and finance, both public and private. 4. Transport sector policy and institutional framework; 5. Cause – effect linkages; 6

  6. Analysis of Intra-Industry Trade in Turkish Automotive Sector

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    Füsun YENİLMEZ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The automotive sector is one of the important sectors affecting the economy of a country. Considering the export and import size of the sector, any kind of work to be done for the sector is important. The analysis of Turkey's situation in the sector will contribute to R&D studies to develop the sector, strategic planning and determination of short, medium and long term targets. The aim of the paper is to determine the location of the Turkish automotive industry in world trade. For this purpose, firstly products in the automotive sector foreign trade were reduced to three sub-digit and included in the evaluation. Grubel-Lloyd index is used in the analysis. As a result of the analyzes, Turkey has been determined separately according to the product groups of the countries that have the most intensive trade in industry.

  7. Analysis of exports of the brazilian mineral sector

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    Alison Geovani Schwingel Franck

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to analyze the pattern of specialization of exports of brazilian mineral sector, identifying the most dynamic productive sectors in the period between 1999 and 2015. For this purpose, the Import Coverage Ratio was calculated, as well as the Intra-industry Trade rate (IIT, and the Sector Concentration of Exports. Data were collected from the Foreign Trade Information Analysis System (Alice Web. The results indicated that Brazil has a few competitive mineral groups in its export basket, and that it is concentrated in a few sectors. It was found that the most competitive sectors were Niobium ore, iron, manganese, gold, aluminum, other semimanufaturado and copper.

  8. The French nuclear sector. Situation and predictions 2018 - Sectoral and competitive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This document comprises two reports. A first one, published and updated three times a year, and a second one which is a yearly publication. The first one, based on an analysis of market perspectives and of actor strategies, proposes a synthesis on the consequences of the evolution of the economic environment, on major trends noticed for the nuclear sector, and on predictable evolutions. It proposes the most recent data regarding the activities of more than 100 firms belonging to the sector (notably in terms of electric power production, of turnover for firms specialised in nuclear maintenance or in the fuel cycle). It highlights recent events for companies of the sector: takeovers, investments, restructuring, introduction of new products, and so on. It proposes a sector-based dashboard which contains all the critical figures useful to analyse the sector situation (activity determining factors, key figures for the sector and its environment). The annual report proposes a general presentation of the sector (determining factors of the activity, operated nuclear plants in the world, nuclear power production in the world, uranium production and consumption in the world, maintenance and improvement expenses on nuclear plants, electric power consumption and shares in power generation by different sources in France), an analysis of the evolution of the sector activity (trends, indicators, financial performance of actors in the maintenance of nuclear plants), an overview of important issues for the profession (growth issue despite the maturity of the French market, implications of intensification of foreign competition, of higher safety requirements, and of a decrease of nuclear energy profitability), and an analysis of the sector economic structure (turnovers, personnel, position of France among world exporters, equipment export structure, key figures for nuclear maintenance). The last part proposes presentations of 20 French actors and data and information sheets for 10

  9. The gas market and sector in France. Situation and predictions 2018 - Sector and competitive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Through a detailed analysis of market determining factors, of evolutions of supply and demand, and of major events in firms life, this set of two reports proposes an analysis of the recent situation of the gas sector and of the evolutions of the competitive game. The first report on situation and predictions which is updated three times a year, proposes a synthesis on the consequences of the evolution of the economic environment, on major trends noticed for the sector, and on predictable evolutions. It proposes the most recent predictions regarding natural gas consumption in France and the turnover of the gas sector. It highlights recent events for companies of the sector: takeovers, investments, restructuring, introduction of new products, and so on. It proposes a sector-based dashboard which contains all the critical figures useful to analyse the sector situation (activity determining factors, key figures for the sector and its environment). The second report (the annual one) proposes an overview of trends and competition within the gas sector. It gives an overview of some basic aspects of the activity (sector organisation, gas categories, main customer markets, gas consumption in industry), and of its determining factors, analyses the sector environment (sites connected to the natural gas network, evolution of average temperatures in France, production by chemical industry, by the food industry, and by metallurgy and oil refining, thermal production of electricity, regulatory evolution regarding supports to energy efficiency, and new opportunities). The evolution of the sector activity is analysed through its trends and indicators (turnovers, gas consumption, butane-propane deliveries, wholesale prices, regulated tariffs). The economic structure is also analysed: aspects related to the upstream part (extraction, injection of biogas, natural gas main input and output points, transport and storage, natural gas distribution), and aspects related to gas provision

  10. Sectoral dynamics and technological convergence: an evolutionary analysis of eco-innovation in the automotive sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Lourenco; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2017-01-01

    We know from evolutionary theory that sectoral characteristics are important to innovation. This paper investigates if sectoral characteristics also are important to eco-innovation, a hitherto under-researched theme. We argue that research into possible sectoral patterns in eco-innovation is key...... 1965 to 2012, focusing on powertrain technologies. The empirical analysis is based on patent data amongst big car producers and focuses on identifying changes in two main aspects: (1) the convergence/divergence of firms’ green strategies and technologies within the automotive sector; and (2......) the contribution of alternative key green technological trajectories relative to the dominant design. Our findings indicate that the evolution of relative green patenting has followed a positive, linear growth over the last decades with increasing participation of alternative propulsion technologies and increasing...

  11. Financial Analysis of the Financial Institutions Sector in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlora Prenaj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper work “Financial analysis of the financial institutions sector in Kosovo” treats financial sector in Kosovo. Paper work contains the current position of the economy, economic prospects and macroeconomic projections for the financial sector in Kosovo, future potential and possibilities of financial sector in Kosovo. The main goal of this research is financial analysis of Kosovo financial institutions sector - overview of key indicators. This research evaluates the performances of commercial bank’s profitability, which have operated in the market during the period 2006-2012. This research is conducted through financial analysis coefficients: Return on Equity, Return on assets and Cost to Income. Test t-Student is used to analyze the profitability for the period 2006/2007 before the financial crisis and the period 2011/2012 after financial crisis.

  12. ANALYSIS OF INTER SECTORAL LINKAGES IN SEMARANG REGENCY

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    Fafurida

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze inter economic sectoral linkages and to arrange the Klassen typology of economic sectors in Semarang Regency. The Klassen typology is composed from the result of the linkage analysis. To construct the analysis, this paper also utulizes the input-output analysis. It finds that service sector has the highest backward linkage while farming sector has the highest forward linkage. Based on the Klassen typology analysis, sectors with the highest backward and forward linkages and potential to be the leading sector are farming sector, dan trade, hotel and restaurant sector.Keywords: Backward linkage,forward linkage, Klassen typologyJEL classification number: R15, O21AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji seberapa besar keterkaitan antar sektor ekonomi di Kabupaten Semarang dan memetakan tipologi Klassennya. Tipologi Klasen disusun berdasarkan hasil perhitungan analisis keterkaitannya. Untuk menyusun analisis tersebut, paper ini juga menggunakan analisis input-output. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sektor jasa memiliki keterkaitan ke belakang tertinggi dibandingkan dengan sektor lainnya. Sementara itu, sektor pertanian merupakan sektor yang memiliki keterkaitan ke depan tertinggi. Berdasarkan hasil analisis tipologi Klassen, sektor yang memiliki keterkaitan ke depan dan ke belakang yang tinggi dan dapat menjadi sektor unggulan adalah sektor perdagangan, hotel dan sektor restoran.Kata kunci: Keterkaitan ke belakang, keterkaitan ke depan, tipologi KlassenJEL classification numbers: R15, O21

  13. Energy demand analysis in the household, commercial and agriculture sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillonne, B.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter of the publication is dealing with Energy Demand Analysis in the Household, Commercial and Agricultural Sector. Per Capita total energy consumption in the residential and commercial sector is given and variation among countries are discussed. 12 figs, 1 tab

  14. Analysis of sectoral energy conservation in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mofleh, Anwar; Taib, Soib; Salah, Wael [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Mujeebu, M. Abdul [School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-06-15

    The electrical energy consumption in Malaysia has increased sharply in the past few years, and modern energy efficient technologies are desperately needed for the national energy policy. This article presents a comprehensive picture of the current status of energy consumption and various energy conservation options viable for Malaysian environment. A detailed survey is made to assess the consumption pattern and the existing techniques for energy efficiency. Based on the survey, the feasibility of improving the available systems and adopting new programs in different sectors is investigated. The study reveals the fact that the energy conservation policy of the country has been fairly improved in the last ten years. However the country has to pay more attention to this area and make urgent measures to adopt more energy efficient technologies in various sectors. (author)

  15. Analysis of sectoral energy conservation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mofleh, Anwar; Taib, Soib; Mujeebu, M. Abdul; Salah, Wael

    2009-01-01

    The electrical energy consumption in Malaysia has increased sharply in the past few years, and modern energy efficient technologies are desperately needed for the national energy policy. This article presents a comprehensive picture of the current status of energy consumption and various energy conservation options viable for Malaysian environment. A detailed survey is made to assess the consumption pattern and the existing techniques for energy efficiency. Based on the survey, the feasibility of improving the available systems and adopting new programs in different sectors is investigated. The study reveals the fact that the energy conservation policy of the country has been fairly improved in the last ten years. However the country has to pay more attention to this area and make urgent measures to adopt more energy efficient technologies in various sectors.

  16. Analysis of Health Sector Budget of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulal, R K; Magar, A; Karki, S D; Khatiwada, D; Hamal, P K

    2014-01-01

    Primarily, health sector connects two segments - medicine and public health, where medicine deals with individual patients and public health with the population health. Budget enables both the disciplines to function effectively. The Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2007 has adapted the inspiration of federalism and declared the provision of basic health care services free of cost as a fundamental right, which needs strengthening under foreseen federalism. An observational retrospective cohort study, aiming at examining the health sector budget allocation and outcome, was done. Authors gathered health budget figures (2001 to 2013) and facts published from authentic sources. Googling was done for further information. The keywords for search used were: fiscal federalism, health care, public health, health budget, health financing, external development partner, bilateral and multilateral partners and healthcare accessibility. The search was limited to English and Nepali-language report, articles and news published. Budget required to meet the population's need is still limited in Nepal. The health sector budget could not achieve even gainful results due to mismatch in policy and policy implementation despite of political commitment. Since Nepal is transforming towards federalism, an increased complexity under federated system is foreseeable, particularly in the face of changed political scenario and its players. It should have clear goals, financing policy and strict implementation plans for budget execution, task performance and achieving results as per planning. Additionally, collection of revenue, risk pooling and purchasing of services should be better integrated between central government and federated states to horn effectiveness and efficiency.

  17. Analysis of Public Sector Efficiency in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lovre

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The public sector in developed countries went through various forms of transformation in the twentieth century. The expansion of the public sector resulted in high levels of public spending in developed countries. The financial crisis of 2008 led to recessions in the economies of developed countries, the public debt growth, and actualized the issue of the public sector optimal size and efficiency. This study analysed the public sector efficiency in 19 developed countries. The analysis focuses on the relationship between the size of public expenditure and economic growth in the global financial crisis and the measures implemented. The aim of the research in this paper is a comparison of total and partial efficiency of the public sector in developed countries, in order to determine the characteristics of the public sector operations. The comparison covers the areas of the public sector operations in order to identify sources of inefficiency. Partial and overall efficiency of countries are analysed with different size and concept of the public sector, to determine the relationship between the public sector size, efficiency and welfare of citizens. The research results clearly indicate (unjustified state intervention in developed countries.

  18. ANALYSIS OF CHINESE GARMENT EXPORT SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mina

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Chinese garment export sector. The Chinese garment industry has been an economic pillar ever since the open-door policy and economic reforms of the country took effect in 1979. Earnings from apparel exports have been a major source of foreign revenue. The industry has thus developed and played a vital role in the growth of China?s foreign trade and economic development although some signs of slackened vigour have been revealed recently. To assess the threats and opport...

  19. SECTORAL ANALYSIS: GROWTH ACCOUNTING OF TERTIARY INDUSTRIES

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    Yahya Z. ALSHEHHI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The tertiary sector is one of the modern styles of economic systems in view of the share it occupies in the field of production as well as employment occupied share. Hence, just like other lands, the UAE, witnessed an economic structural change similar to developed and developing nations, where the tertiary industries contributed 55.4% in 2015 to total country’s income. The empirical study aimed to analyze the contribution portion of growth in the tertiary industries through using the growth accounting framework in time-series from 1990 to 2015. The empirical study found that most of the industries contributed significantly to the growth of the tertiary sector. The contribution shares of growth due to labor and capital varied among industries. The main observed results show that there was a vice versa relationship between TFP performance and the size of labor, where the TFP positively corresponded with the decline in the size of labor specifically from 2010-2015.

  20. Impact analysis of leading sub sector on basic sector to regional income in Siak Regency, Riau Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, P.; Nugraha, I.; Abdillah, F.

    2018-02-01

    During this time Siak regency only known as oil producing regency in Riau province, but based on the vision of spatial planning Siak’s regency in 2031 there was a shift from petroleum towards to other sectors such as agribusiness, agroindustry and tourism. The purpose of this study was to identify the sector base, the leading subsectors and shift with their characteristics and to identify the leading subsectors development priority. The method used in this research consisted of the method of Location Quotient (LQ, Shift Share, and Overlay method). The research results were used Location Quotient (LQ) to identify sector’s base in Siak regency based on the document of PDRB. The sector’s refers to the constant prices year of 2000 were mining and quarrying sector (2.25). The sector’s base using document of PDRB at constant prices 2000 without oil and gas sector was the agricultural sector with a value of LQ was 2,45. The leading sub sector in the Siak regency with mining and quarrying sector was oil and gas (1.02) and leading sub sector without oil and gas sector was the plantation sector (1.48) and forestry sector (1.73). Overlay analysis results shown that agriculture sector as a sector base and plantation and forestry as a leading sub sector has positive value and categorize as progressive and competitiveness. Because of that, this leading sub sector gets high priority to developing.

  1. South Africa's electricity consumption: A sectoral decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inglesi-Lotz, Roula; Blignaut, James N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We conduct a decomposition exercise of the South African electricity consumption. → The increase in electricity consumption was due to output and structural changes. → The increasing at a low rate electricity intensity was a decreasing factor to consumption. → Increases in production were proven to be part of the rising trend for all sectors. → Only 5 sectors' consumption were negatively affected by efficiency improvements. -- Abstract: South Africa's electricity consumption has shown a sharp increase since the early 1990s. Here we conduct a sectoral decomposition analysis of the electricity consumption for the period 1993-2006 to determine the main drivers responsible for this increase. The results show that the increase was mainly due to output or production related factors, with structural changes playing a secondary role. While there is some evidence of efficiency improvements, indicated here as a slowdown in the rate of increase of electricity intensity, it was not nearly sufficient to offset the combined production and structural effects that propelled electricity consumption forward. This general economy-wide statement, however, can be misleading since the results, in essence, are very sector specific and the inter-sectoral differences are substantial. Increases in production were proven to be part of the rising trend for all sectors. However, only five out of fourteen sectors were affected by efficiency improvements, while the structural changes affected the sectors' electricity consumption in different ways. These differences concerning the production, structural and efficiency effects on the sectors indicate the need for a sectoral approach in the energy policy-making of the country rather than a blanket or unilateral economy-wide approach.

  2. ANALYSIS OF AGRARIAN SECTOR RESOURCE PROVIDING IN UKRAINE

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    Iryna Bezpyata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is an analysis of material well-being level in agrarian sector of economy by productive resources (by land, labour, hardware providing with that provides efficiency of economic activity and ground of basic directions of the rational bringing in and use of resource potential of agrarian sector of economy in Ukraine in market conditions. Research methodology consists in the use of statistical and economic research methods for analysis of productive resources using modern state of agriculture for period from 2010 to 2014 years. Research results show that the resource providing agrarian sector development can be defined as totality of certain types of resources (land, technological, labour, financial and sources of their forming, directly participating in the processes of agrarian sector economies development that can be mobilized with the purpose of providing the scale using of their potential possibilities and transition of agriculture to the qualitatively new state. Analysis of the modern state of material well-being of agrarian sector resources of economy in Ukraine is unsatisfactory and with every year gets worse. To overcome this problem agricultural commodity producers are unable only by themselves. For the improvement of the economic state of agrarian sector of economy in whole country and regional state support of home agricultural producer, stimulation of his activity is needed. And first of all the self-weighted investment policy of the state should become such measures in the agrarian sector of economy that will allow bringing in of greater amount of investment resources for the improvement of technical equipment at agricultural enterprises, development of production co-operation and products sale, introduction of personnel management modern methodology, increase in labour activity level in agrarian sector, realization of the permanent updating and increase in products quality control, etc. Practical value. Got

  3. Modal analysis of a stiffened toroidal shell sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerreta, R.; Di Pietro, E.; Pizzuto, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the modal analysis of a sector of the toroidal vacuum vessel of a new experimental machine for research in the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion (FTU - Frascati Tokamak Upgrade). The vacuum vessel, one of the most critical components of the experimental device, consist of 12 stainless steel toroidal sectors, and it is designed to withstand pulsed electromagnetic loads during operation. Results of the modal analysis of the stiffened toroidal shell sector are compared and discussed with regard to the experimental data. Theoretical eigenvalues and eigenvectors have been predicted by means of ABAQUS finite element code. Experimental analysis has been carried out on a full scale model and natural frequencies have been measured. Satisfactory agreement between experimental and theoretical eigenvalues has been found

  4. Role of Manufacturing Sector and Trade, Hotel, Restaurant Sector In East Java’s Economy: Input Output Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggari Marya Kresnowati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to (1 analyze the relationship the manufacturing sector and the trade, hotel, and restaurant sector with other sectors in East Java, (2 to analyze the economic impact caused the two sectors based on the multiplier effect, (3 and analyze the economic impact caused by these two sectors if there additional investment funds. This study uses data analysis input output 2010 East Java 19x19 aggregation sector.The results indicate that base metals subsector has the highest linkages to other sectors. Based on household income multiplier effect, trade subsector has the greatest multiplier. Employment multiplier in trade and industrial sectors are in medium rank. This is indicates that the labor has been absorbed well in both sectors. The output multiplier effect, subsector non-metal goods, except petroleum and coal has the highest multiplier. The last, according to the analysis of investment injection simulations Input-Output East Java in 2010, subsector other processing industries has a best value added. Overall, the manufacturing sector has a better influence to East Java's economy than trade, hotel, and restaurant sector.

  5. Customer churn analysis in telecommunication sector

    OpenAIRE

    Şimşek Gürsoy, Umman Tuğba

    2010-01-01

    Data mining is used to analyze mass databases for having meaningful output. One of the most common applications of the data mining, which is called as Churn Analysis is used to predict behavior of customers who are most likely to change provided service, and to create special marketing tools for them. The aim of this paper is to determine customers who want to churn, and to create specific campaigns to them by using a customer data of a major telecommunication firm in Turkey. To determine the...

  6. Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis. As the presence and influence of information and communication technologies (ICTs) continues to widen and deepen, so too does its impact on economic development. However, much work needs to be done before the linkages between economic development ...

  7. Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis. As the presence and influence of information and communication technologies (ICTs) continues to widen and deepen, so too does its impact on economic development. However, much work needs to be done before the linkages between economic development ...

  8. Efficiency in the Community College Sector: Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Belfield, Clive

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates technical efficiency scores across the community college sector in the United States. Using stochastic frontier analysis and data from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System for 2003-2010, we estimate efficiency scores for 950 community colleges and perform a series of sensitivity tests to check for robustness. We…

  9. Vibration Analysis of Annular Sector Plates under Different Boundary Conditions

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    Dongyan Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical framework is developed for the vibration analysis of annular sector plates with general elastic restraints along each edge of plates. Regardless of boundary conditions, the displacement solution is invariably expressed as a new form of trigonometric expansion with accelerated convergence. The expansion coefficients are treated as the generalized coordinates and determined using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. This work allows a capability of modeling annular sector plates under a variety of boundary conditions and changing the boundary conditions as easily as modifying the material properties or dimensions of the plates. Of equal importance, the proposed approach is universally applicable to annular sector plates of any inclusion angles up to 2π. The reliability and accuracy of the current method are adequately validated through numerical examples.

  10. Mutational Analysis of the Rhodopsin Gene in Sector Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Maria L; Durga, Dash; Wolsley, Clive J; Chamney, Sarah; Alexander, Sharon; Brennan, Rosie; Simpson, David A; Silvestri, Giuliana; Willoughby, Colin E

    2015-01-01

    To determine the role of rhodopsin (RHO) gene mutations in patients with sector retinitis pigmentosa (RP) from Northern Ireland. A case series of sector RP in a tertiary ocular genetics clinic. Four patients with sector RP were recruited from the Royal Victoria Hospital (Belfast, Northern Ireland) and Altnagelvin Hospital (Londonderry, Northern Ireland) following informed consent. The diagnosis of sector RP was based on clinical examination, International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV) standard electrophysiology, and visual field analysis. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes and the coding regions and adjacent flanking intronic sequences of the RHO gene were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified and cycle sequenced. Rhodopsin mutational status. A heterozygous missense mutation in RHO (c.173C > T) resulting in a non-conservative substitution of threonine to methionine (p. Thr58Met) was identified in one patient and was absent from 360 control individuals. This non-conservative substitution (p.Thr58Met) replaces a highly evolutionary conserved polar hydrophilic threonine residue with a non-polar hydrophobic methionine residue at position 58 near the cytoplasmic border of helix A of RHO. The study identified a RHO gene mutation (p.Thr58Met) not previously reported in RP in a patient with sector RP. These findings outline the phenotypic variability associated with RHO mutations. It has been proposed that the regional effects of RHO mutations are likely to result from interplay between mutant alleles and other genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors.

  11. Performance Analysis of Indonesia’s Mining Sector Price Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hastra Reza Satyatama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Subprime mortage’s crisis in United States 2008 giving effect to the global capital markets especially the stock price index of the mining sector Indonesia. This research analyzes the effect of BI Rate, exchange rate, world gold price, crude oil price, and Dow Jones Industrial Average on the stock price index of the mining sector. This research employs time series monthly data of 2009-2016 with Error Correction Model-Engle Granger (ECM-EG as the method. The analysis showed that the BI rate, exchange rate and world gold price, has a negative and significant effect. World oil prices affect positively but not significant meanwhile the Dow Jones Industrial Average has a positive and significant impact on the stock price index of the mining sector. For investors in the mining sector, should pay attention to the exchange rate of the rupiah and Dow Jones Index significantly in the mining sector of the stock price index.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v6i2.5395 

  12. Energy and Exergy Analysis of the Danish Industry Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2015-01-01

    % to 56% in 2012. Industries with high-temperature processes, such as the cement and metal production sectors, present the highest exergy efficiencies but the lowest energy ones. The opposite conclusion is drawn for the food, paper and chemical industries. The exergy losses, which indicate the potential......A detailed analysis of the Danish industry is presented in this paper using the energy, exergy and embodied exergy methods. The 22 most energy-intensive process industries, which represent about 80% of the total primary energy use of the industry, were modelled and analysed in details for the years...... is not seen with the embodied exergy efficiency, which remains at around 29% for the Danish industry. This analysis shows that there are still large potentials to recover waste heat in most Danish industrial sectors and thus to increase their efficiencies....

  13. Analysis of the debt burden in Russian economy sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Popova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the debt burden of Russian companies and raises the issue of debt-level heterogeneity across economic sectors. To identify the causes of this heterogeneity, it estimates a regression model that includes both fundamental explanatory variables of companies and industry fixed effects. The results of the analysis demonstrate that standard variables, such as profitability, company size, asset turnover, and fixed-asset turnover ratio have a strong statistical significance. However, these do not fully explain the variation in the debt levels of companies in different sectors. According to model estimation, there are other industry specific factors that produce an imbalance between fundamental factors and companies’ debt levels. An understanding of the formation process and structure of debt burden in individual industries is extremely important for the financial stability of companies and for an effective monetary policy.

  14. Women in development : issues for economic and sector analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Women in Development Division

    1989-01-01

    This paper highlights issues and action plans concerning women in economic and sector analysis and in project design. The paper focuses on the majority of women who are poor. It emphasizes measures to include women in development that contribute to economic performance, poverty reduction, slower population growth, and other broad development objectives. The paper concludes that women already contribute far more economically than is usually recognized. By expanding women's economic choices, ou...

  15. THE ANALYSIS OF THE BEER SECTOR IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA DOBRE-BARON

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse a sector of the Romanian economy which is currently among the most sustainable. It is about production and marketing of beer, a product with a long and rich history around the world but also in Romania. The analysis covers a period of seven years and takes into account the dynamic evolution of those market-specific indicators such as: production, consumption, imports, exports, workforce involved, the contribution to the state budget, etc.

  16. DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS OF BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rashedul Hoque

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Banking sector of Bangladesh is flourishing and contributing to its economy. In this aspect measuring efficiency is important. Data Envelopment Analysis technique is used for this purpose. The data are collected from the annual reports of twenty four different banks in Bangladesh. Data Envelopment Analysis is mainly of two types - constant returns to scale and variable returns to scale. Since this study attempts to maximize output, so the output oriented Data Envelopment Analysis is used. The most efficient bank is one that obtains the highest efficiency score.

  17. The Impact of Productivity Increasing in Indonesian Maritim Sector: General Equilibrium Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyastutik Widyastutik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in productivity in the maritime sector will realize the maritime sector as a prime mover. This study aims to analyze the impact of the maritime sector productivity improvement on the performance of the economy. This research simulates increased productivity in the maritime sector (consisting of the fisheries, oil, gas sub-sector and marine transport services sector using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP version 8. Simulation analysis showed an increase in productivity in the maritime sector has a positive impact on welfare, real GDP, and trade balance of Indonesia. However, the impact of the increase in productivity is not followed by an increase in output in all sectors. This indicates that if the increase in productivity occurs only in the maritime sector alone without being followed by an increase in productivity in other sectors, the sectoral performance is not optimal.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v5i2.3403

  18. HR in the Canadian renewable energy sector: HRSDC situational analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.; Ferguson, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines the human resources needs in the Canadian renewable energy sector. Emerging energies sector has many skills needs, some of which need to be developed. Emerging energy sector includes wind, solar photovoltaic (PV) and bio energy

  19. Analysis of labour risks in the Spanish industrial aerospace sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN LAGUARDIA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Labour risk prevention is an activity integrated within Safety and Hygiene at Work in Spain. In 2003, the Electronic Declaration for Accidents at Work, Delt@ (DELTA was introduced. The industrial aerospace sector is subject to various risks. Our objective is to analyse the Spanish Industrial Aerospace Sector (SIAS using the ACSOM methodology to assess its labour risks and to prioritise preventive actions. The SIAS and the Services Subsector (SS were created and the relevant accident rate data were obtained. The ACSOM method was applied through double contrast (deviation and translocation of the SIAS or SS risk polygon with the considered pattern, accidents from all sectors (ACSOM G or the SIAS. A list of risks was obtained, ordered by action phases. In the SIAS vs. ACSOM G analysis, radiation risks were the worst, followed by overstrains. Accidents caused by living beings were also significant in the SS vs. SIAE, which will be able to be used to improve Risk Prevention. Radiation is the most significant risk in the SIAS and the SS. Preventive actions will be primary and secondary. ACSOM has shown itself to be a valid tool for the analysis of labour risks.

  20. Analysis of labour risks in the Spanish industrial aerospace sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguardia, Juan; Rubio, Emilio; Garcia, Ana; Garcia-Foncillas, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Labour risk prevention is an activity integrated within Safety and Hygiene at Work in Spain. In 2003, the Electronic Declaration for Accidents at Work, Delt@ (DELTA) was introduced. The industrial aerospace sector is subject to various risks. Our objective is to analyse the Spanish Industrial Aerospace Sector (SIAS) using the ACSOM methodology to assess its labour risks and to prioritise preventive actions. The SIAS and the Services Subsector (SS) were created and the relevant accident rate data were obtained. The ACSOM method was applied through double contrast (deviation and translocation) of the SIAS or SS risk polygon with the considered pattern, accidents from all sectors (ACSOM G) or the SIAS. A list of risks was obtained, ordered by action phases. In the SIAS vs. ACSOM G analysis, radiation risks were the worst, followed by overstrains. Accidents caused by living beings were also significant in the SS vs. SIAE, which will be able to be used to improve Risk Prevention. Radiation is the most significant risk in the SIAS and the SS. Preventive actions will be primary and secondary. ACSOM has shown itself to be a valid tool for the analysis of labour risks.

  1. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AN ENTITY FROM CONSTRUCTION SECTOR USING DASHBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN BRICIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper deals with the analysis of performances of economic entities from the construction sector from Romania. The necessary data for preparation and analysis up through dashboard of the economic entity are provided by managerial accounting through Target Costing method. The way of implementing and observing of stages which are completed in managerial accounting through Target Costing method are also presented in the paper based on the existing literature. For data analysis it was used a questionnaire based on three questions whose results were analyzed and which formed the basis of our entire course of scientific approach. The paper ends with the authors' conclusions about the performance analysis of economic entities in a construction project using dashboard showing the benefits of its long-term decisions.

  2. Determinants of Trade Credit: A Preliminary Analysis on Construction Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a preliminary analysis of the correlations between trade credit and some selected measures of financial performance for a sample of 958 firms acting in the construction sector. The examined period covers 2004-2013. The sample derived from Amadeus database contains firms that have sold and bought on credit. Results showed that larger firms offered and used more credit than counterparties. Firms offered and used in same time credit, but not in same level. Firms with higher return on assets and profit margin used and offered less credit from suppliers, respectively to clients. Moreover, more liquid firms used less trade payables.

  3. Analysis of stock market anomalies: US cross-sectoral comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Jílek, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze anomalies in the US stock market. Special attention is put on Day of the week effect, January effect, and Part of the month effect. We focus on comparison of companies with low and high capitalization. We perform an analysis across 6 major industrial sectors. Then, we discuss the findings with results of past projects and finally, we try to find a speculative investment strategy. We found out that neither Day of the week effect nor January effect do no...

  4. Socio-economic analysis in the transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    an important element in the political decision process. The analysis provides information about how the society’s resources – from an economic viewpoint – are used in the best possible way, and how costs and benefits are distributed between e.g. the state, the users and the environment. The society does......This compendium is intended to be a tool for students in conducting socio-economic appraisals in the transport sector following the recommendations made by the Danish Manual for Socio-economic Appraisal (DMT, 2003). The appraisal process is in this compendium outlined as a step-by-step process...

  5. Comparative Analysis of Sectoral Innovation System and Diamond Model: The Case of Telecom Sector of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Rezazadeh Mehrizi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Porter’s model of Competitive advantage of nations (named as Diamond Model has been widely used and criticized as well, over recent two decades. On the other hand, non-mainstream economists have tried to propose new frameworks for industrial analysis, that among them, Sectoral Innovation System (SIS is one of the most influential ones. After proposing an assessment framework, we use this framework to compare SIS and Porter’s models and apply them to the case of second mobile operator in Iran. Briefly, SIS model sheds light on the innovation process and competence building and focuses on system failures that are of special importance in the context of developing countries, while Diamond model has the advantage of brining the production process and the influential role of government into focus, but each one has its own shortcomings for analyzing industrial development in developing countries and both of them fail to pay enough attention to foreign relations and international linkages.

  6. Supporting analysis and assessments quality metrics: Utility market sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In FY96, NREL was asked to coordinate all analysis tasks so that in FY97 these tasks will be part of an integrated analysis agenda that will begin to define a 5-15 year R&D roadmap and portfolio for the DOE Hydrogen Program. The purpose of the Supporting Analysis and Assessments task at NREL is to provide this coordination and conduct specific analysis tasks. One of these tasks is to prepare the Quality Metrics (QM) for the Program as part of the overall QM effort at DOE/EERE. The Hydrogen Program one of 39 program planning units conducting QM, a process begun in FY94 to assess benefits/costs of DOE/EERE programs. The purpose of QM is to inform decisionmaking during budget formulation process by describing the expected outcomes of programs during the budget request process. QM is expected to establish first step toward merit-based budget formulation and allow DOE/EERE to get {open_quotes}most bang for its (R&D) buck.{close_quotes} In FY96. NREL coordinated a QM team that prepared a preliminary QM for the utility market sector. In the electricity supply sector, the QM analysis shows hydrogen fuel cells capturing 5% (or 22 GW) of the total market of 390 GW of new capacity additions through 2020. Hydrogen consumption in the utility sector increases from 0.009 Quads in 2005 to 0.4 Quads in 2020. Hydrogen fuel cells are projected to displace over 0.6 Quads of primary energy in 2020. In future work, NREL will assess the market for decentralized, on-site generation, develop cost credits for distributed generation benefits (such as deferral of transmission and distribution investments, uninterruptible power service), cost credits for by-products such as heat and potable water, cost credits for environmental benefits (reduction of criteria air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions), compete different fuel cell technologies against each other for market share, and begin to address economic benefits, especially employment.

  7. The renewable energy sector. A Flemish socio-economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutsebaut, E.; De Decker, M.

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the most important characteristics of the renewable energy sector in Flanders, Belgium, based on interviews held with the sector. The addressed parameters include turnover, employment, Financial ratios, the characteristics of the sector such as Legal form, year of establishment, geographical location, and so on. [nl

  8. The Mauritius stock exchange: Sectoral analysis, risk and return ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Companies listed on the Mauritius Stock Exchange are classified into seven sectors of the economy, namely Banking & Insurance, Industry, Investments, Sugar, Commerce, Leisure & Hotels and Transport. Significant improvements in market capitalisation and turnover are noted in all sectors except the Transport sector.

  9. Environmental management in sugar-energy sector: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Marize Rodrigues

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of the environmental variable in the business environment, companies started to give greater attention to strategies and practices focused on the rational use of natural resources and minimize the environmental impacts of their business operations. Many productive sectors stood out in the reflections on production and the environment, as is the case of the sugar energy industry, which constitutes a sector with a highly demanding industrial activity of natural resources, whether as sources of inputs as depositories of waste production. Thus, the aim of this paper is a comparative analysis of environmental practices of two sugar energy plants, both from the point of view of their operational strategy and regarding the suitability of the disposal of waste generated by the industrial area. It was concluded that, although many practices adopted by businesses are analogous, one of the studied plants have distinctive environmental performance, because of the increased attention given to the implementation of environmental practices and especially the inclusion of the environmental variable in their strategies.

  10. A post-Kyoto analysis of the Greek electric sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagoumas, A.S.; Kalaitzakis, E.; Papagiannis, G.K.; Dokopoulos, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    The obligations resulting from the Kyoto Protocol (KP) are implemented by many participants, e.g. Greece, by a combination of two methods: (a) application of regional measures which restrict CO 2 emissions and (b) procurement of green certificates e.g. in a Climate Exchange Market (CEX). Therefore, the cost for compliance with the KP depends on the extent each method is used and also on the traded values in the CEX. The energy policy and planning to be considered are long-term items and now extension of the KP to a post-KP is discussed which reaches year 2020. In Greece, the electricity sector is with a weighted CO 2 contribution of 73%, the dominantly emission sector. The paper analyzes the cost and other merits of different scenarios for the expansion of electrical power system in Greece. For different scenarios, the total cost of the electrical power system expansion is calculated as a function of the price of emission certificates. It has been shown that there is a price of 27.5 Euro /tCO 2 , above which specific mitigation measures may lead to cost optimum solutions. A sensitivity analysis is also presented concerning the variation of key parameters like the participation in the system expansion of new supercritical coal units, the price evolution of natural gas, the RES usage rate and the discount rates of the expansion investments. Results may be of interest for a decision on the cost optimum electrical power system expansion

  11. Cost benefit analysis of policy measures in the transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buus Kristensen, N [COWI (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The Government has introduced a national target for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions from the transport sector, which aims to stabilize emissions at the 1988 level, by the year 2005. This target was first formalized in the Government`s 1990 transport action plan, and later repeated in `Traffic 2005`, published in December 1993. The latter document also makes reference to six strategies, which the Government proposed in order to attain the national target. The majority of the transport policy measures will impact on CO{sub 2} emissions from the sector, even if they are targeted at different objectives, e.g. road safety, air pollution, time savings, etc. A long-list of potential measures, which might be adopted with the primary purpose is to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, has been identified from the six overall strategies. The measures identified have been subjected to detailed analyses, to ascertain all the potential impacts. The main emphasis has been on clarifying the potential efficacy of each of the measures in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, and the social costs in a wide sense. The analysis assumes that each policy measure is implemented separately. A methodology is developed that presents the respective consequences in commensurate terms. Similar calculations are undertaken for two different combinations of policy measures. (EG)

  12. Commercial sector gas cooling technology frontier and market share analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pine, G.D.; Mac Donald, J.M.; McLain, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a method, developed for the Gas Research Institute of the United States, that can assist planning for commercial sector natural gas cooling systems R and D. These systems are higher in first cost than conventional electric chillers. Yet, engine-driven chiller designs exist which are currently competitive in U.S. markets typified by high electricity or demand charges. Section II describes a scenario analysis approach used to develop and test the method. Section III defines the technology frontier, a conceptual tool for identifying new designs with sales potential. Section IV describes a discrete choice method for predicting market shares of technologies with sales potential. Section V shows how the method predicts operating parameter, cost, and/or performance goals for technologies without current sales potential (or for enhancing a frontier technology's sales potential). Section VI concludes with an illustrative example for the Chicago office building retrofit market

  13. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFICIENCY. CUSTOMIZE ON HEALTHCARE SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    CLAUDIU CICEA

    2011-01-01

    Efficiency in health service sector is very important because the health sector is a major consumer of resources (especially financial). In this paper the author aims to analyze the efficiency in a social sector (healthcare system) based on cost-benefit analysis.

  14. The Effects of Domestic Macroeconomic Determinants on Stock Returns: A Sector Level Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife Özlen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Investment analysis should be carefully performed in stock markets. Therefore, firms take necessary actions according to stock market behavior and macroeconomic variables. Therefore, the predictability of stock market determinants becomes important. This study aims to identify the effects of selected macroeconomic factors (interest rate, exchange rates, inflation-consumer price index, current account deficit, unemployment rates and sector indices on stock returns of selected 48 companies in 11 different sectors of Istanbul Stock Exchange including electric, food, communication, paper, chemistry, metal-main, metal-product, stone, textile, commerce and transportation sectors. The study employs ARDL approach on the period between the second month of 2005 and the second month of 2012 including 85 monthly observations. According to the results, Sector Indices are found to be quite influential through the selected sectors. Exchanges rate is also significantly influential on almost all the sectors except Communication and Textile sectors. The impacts of Interest Rate, Inflation Rate, Current Account Deficit, and Unemployment Rate are various through the selected sectors. Moreover, the influence of Istanbul Stock Exchange Market on the stock returns of considered companies is significantly clear through the sectors except six companies (two companies from Paper sector, one company from Metal-Main sector, two companies from Stone sector and one company from Textile sector out of 48 companies. Since it includes a wide range of companies and sectors, this study is expected to be useful for all policy makers and investment decisions.

  15. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INNOVATION ASPECT EVIDENCE IN CONSTRUCTION AND MULTI-SECTOR COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Floriani; Ilse Maria Beuren; Nelson Hein

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to make a comparative analysis of innovation aspect evidence among construction and multi-sector companies. Descriptive research was done through a content analysis of administration reports from 2005 to 2007. From the researched material, 14 aspects of innovations were extracted, which offer the basis to the content analysis. Two non-probability samples were developed, the first consisting of 22 multi-sector businesses, within 18 economic sectors, which comprises th...

  16. Energy and exergy analysis at the utility and commercial sectors of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Sattar, M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Abdessalam, H.; Shahruan, B.S.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, sectoral energy and exergy analysis model is applied to the utility and commercial sectors of Malaysia by considering the energy and exergy flows from 1990 to 2003. The energy and exergy efficiencies are determined for the sub-sectors and devices used in these two sectors. It has been found the hydroelectric power plant sub-sector is more energy and exergy efficient compared to the thermal power plant sub-sector. The energy and exergy efficiencies of utility and commercial sectors of Malaysia are compared with a few other countries around the world as well. The utility and commercial sectors of Malaysia are found to be more efficient than that of Thailand, Brunei, China, and Vietnam in 1999

  17. An analysis of employment intensity of sectoral output growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explores the employment intensity of sectoral output growth in Botswana with a view to identifying key sectors of the Botswana economy that are employment intensive. To achieve this objective, the study used both simple elasticities and econometric procedures to provide empirical evidence concerning the extent ...

  18. FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS AND BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION IN HUNGARIAN DAIRY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozsa Andrea

    2014-07-01

    The preliminary sample for the analysis is framed on the basis of three criteria: amount of the subscribed capital, sales revenues and product structure. Those companies are regarded as competitors that have subscribed capitals in excess of HUF 250 million, consistently high levels of sales revenues and diversified product structures. The preliminary sample consists of 7 companies. In 2012, their total sales revenues were as high as about 50% of the overall amount of sales revenues in the sector. Three of the 7 companies are possessed by foreign owners in full or part, whereas 4 of them belong to Hungarian owners. In 2012, Hungarian-owned companies covered more than one-third of the combined sales revenues of the 7 leading companies. Hence, the competitive positions of these 4 companies based on their financial positions are examined. These calculations have relied on the annual reports for the period of 2008–2012 (balance sheets, income statements, cash flow statements. The research has implemented a comprehensive and comparative financial analysis. The main question is what the key financial characteristics of the Hungarian-owned companies are. Financial indicators are calculated and their time-series analysis is accomplished to describe the sample companies’ capital structures, liquidity and profitability. Using comparative analysis of the applied financial ratios the study determines (1 which company has the most advantageous financial conditions for the successful operation; (2 which companies have disadvantageous financial situation; and (3 which companies are in potential financial distress situation. Potential bankruptcy positions are examined by the applications of Altman and Springate models.

  19. Collective bargaining: An analysis of hurdles and applicability in the public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chigudu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the arguments against adopting collective bargaining in the public sector and its benefits. Collective bargaining in the public sector is viewed primarily as undermining democratic governance in one way and paradoxically it is seen as an essential part of democratic governance. In the former view, collective bargaining in the public sector is seen as an interference with administrative law for personal benefit to the detriment of the taxpayer. Proponents of this view argue that unionising public sector employees encourages disloyalty to the government at the expense of public welfare. In the later view, public sector collective bargaining is viewed as a fundamental human right in a pluralistic society. Advocates of this view posit that, public sector unions provide a collective voice that stimulates improvement of government services as well as sound administration of law. They also argue that, public sector collective bargaining represents public policy interests and serves as a watchdog to government’s monopoly power in employment matters. Public sector unions raise employee salaries and perks to levels higher than they would have been in the absence of collective bargaining. These two opposite views are subjected to a critical analysis in this paper, with empirical evidence for both the benefits of public sector collective bargaining and arguments against public sector unions. The article found that public sector collective bargaining depends on the socio-economic background of states although international laws favour public sector unionism.

  20. Energy sector from 1990 to 2005 - analysis and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G.

    2005-01-01

    The paper analyzes the energy sector in the period from 1990 to 2005. What is shown here through an analysis of political, economic, energy, technological and institutional processes, and based on actual developments and non-developments, the consequences on energy situation to be evolved in the next 15 years, are analyzed. A crucial characteristic of this period is the fact that consumption growth is more distant from the trends in the developed countries and is increasingly approaching ones occurring in developing and undeveloped countries. The other such characteristic is lack of technological progress, which could generate desirable structural changes in energy production and demand. Taking in consideration what has been accomplished so far and what has not been accomplished, we cannot expect in the coming period the changes that could significantly modify the relations in the structure of energy production and demand. Keeping the balance between production and demand will be increasingly difficult, as well as keeping the influence on energy prices which will be growing. In this, it is more than ever indispensable that the state takes up its role.(author)

  1. Detection and Analysis of Threats to the Energy Sector: DATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonso Valdes

    2010-03-31

    This report summarizes Detection and Analysis of Threats to the Energy Sector (DATES), a project sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and performed by a team led by SRI International, with collaboration from Sandia National Laboratories, ArcSight, Inc., and Invensys Process Systems. DATES sought to advance the state of the practice in intrusion detection and situational awareness with respect to cyber attacks in energy systems. This was achieved through adaptation of detection algorithms for process systems as well as development of novel anomaly detection techniques suited for such systems into a detection suite. These detection components, together with third-party commercial security systems, were interfaced with the commercial Security Information Event Management (SIEM) solution from ArcSight. The efficacy of the integrated solution was demonstrated on two testbeds, one based on a Distributed Control System (DCS) from Invensys, and the other based on the Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE) from Sandia. These achievements advance the DOE Cybersecurity Roadmap [DOE2006] goals in the area of security monitoring. The project ran from October 2007 until March 2010, with the final six months focused on experimentation. In the validation phase, team members from SRI and Sandia coupled the two test environments and carried out a number of distributed and cross-site attacks against various points in one or both testbeds. Alert messages from the distributed, heterogeneous detection components were correlated using the ArcSight SIEM platform, providing within-site and cross-site views of the attacks. In particular, the team demonstrated detection and visualization of network zone traversal and denial-of-service attacks. These capabilities were presented to the DistribuTech Conference and Exhibition in March 2010. The project was hampered by interruption of funding due to continuing resolution issues and agreement on cost share for four months in 2008

  2. Implementation of the ERM concept in Serbia: Comparative analysis: Real sector and financial sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barjaktarović Lidija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the level of development regarding risk management, with a special focus on ERM (Enterprise Risk Management implementation in the Serbian companies. The aim is to raise the awareness regarding the successful risk management implementation in the companies in Serbia, using the bank sector as the benchmark and the example of good practice. The research was conveyed in 2015 and it confirmed the general trend that the companies in Serbia were more inclined to use traditional methods regarding risk management, that the ownership structure influenced the level of ERM awareness in the companies and finally that the Serbian companies lacked the supporting organizational structures and adequate systems of internal controls which would contribute to the successful ERM implementation.

  3. Major models and data sources for residential and commercial sector energy conservation analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Major models and data sources are reviewed that can be used for energy-conservation analysis in the residential and commercial sectors to provide an introduction to the information that can or is available to DOE in order to further its efforts in analyzing and quantifying their policy and program requirements. Models and data sources examined in the residential sector are: ORNL Residential Energy Model; BECOM; NEPOOL; MATH/CHRDS; NIECS; Energy Consumption Data Base: Household Sector; Patterns of Energy Use by Electrical Appliances Data Base; Annual Housing Survey; 1970 Census of Housing; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; RECS; Solar Market Development Model; and ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book. Models and data sources examined in the commercial sector are: ORNL Commercial Sector Model of Energy Demand; BECOM; NEPOOL; Energy Consumption Data Base: Commercial Sector; F.W. Dodge Data Base; NFIB Energy Report for Small Businesses; ADL Commercial Sector Energy Use Data Base; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; Nonresidential Buildings Surveys of Energy Consumption; General Electric Co: Commercial Sector Data Base; The BOMA Commercial Sector Data Base; The Tishman-Syska and Hennessy Data Base; The NEMA Commercial Sector Data Base; ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book; and Solar Market Development Model. Purpose; basis for model structure; policy variables and parameters; level of regional, sectoral, and fuels detail; outputs; input requirements; sources of data; computer accessibility and requirements; and a bibliography are provided for each model and data source.

  4. Concentration in the Greek private hospital sector: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsioli, Zoe

    2007-07-01

    Over the last 20 years, governments all around the world have attempted to boost the role of market and competition in health care industries in order to increase efficiency and reduce costs. The increased competition and the significant implications on costs and prices of health care services resulted in health care industries being transformed. Large firms are merging and acquiring other firms. If this trend continues, few firms will dominate the health care markets. In this study, I use the simple concentration ratio (CR) for the largest 4, 8 and 20 companies to measure the concentration of Greek private hospitals during the period 1997-2004. Also, the Gini coefficient for inequality is used. For the two different categories of hospitals used (a) general and neuropsychiatric and (b) obstetric/gynaecological it is evident that the top four firms of the first category accounted for 43% of sales in 1997, and 52% in 2004, while the four largest firms of the second category accounted for almost 83% in 1997, and 81% in 2004. Also, the Gini coefficient increases over the 8-year period examined from 0.69 in 1997 to 0.82 in 2004. It explains that the market of the private health care services becomes less equal in the sense that fewer private hospitals and clinics hold more and more of the share of the total sales. From a cross-industry analysis it is clear that the private hospital sector has the highest concentration rate. Finally, it appears that the market structure of the private hospitals in Greece resembles more closely to an oligopoly rather than a monopolistic competition, since very few firms dominate the market.

  5. Analysis of Survivor Benefit Plan - Acceptance and Comparison with Private Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    I COPY AIU WAR COLLEGE ,.SEARCH REPORT ,YSIS OF SURVIVOR BENEFIT PLAN-__CCEPTANCE ’-U AND COMPARISON WITH PRIVATE SECTOR LIEUENNT COLONEL JOHN R...AAA AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF SURVIVOR BENEFIT PLAN--ACCEPTANCE AND COMPARISON WITH PRIVATE SECTOR by John R. Adams Lieutenant...Survivor Benefit Plan (SBP)--Acceptance and Comparison With Private Sector . AUTHORS: John R. Adams, Lieutenant Colonel, USAF; Daniel 3. Kohn

  6. A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC SECTOR CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS RESEARCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea CÎRSTEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to track the evolution of this specific topic of consolidated financial statements in the public sector, in order to be able to present a global picture of the actual knowledge stage of this issue at international level. The study conducted for reaching the proposed objective is a quantitative one. We tried to find out how this issue of public sector consolidated financial statements has sparked the interest of researchers around the world and when the issue was most debated. We concluded that the research of consolidated financial statements in the public sector is in its infancy and nowadays the topic starts to be more and more in the attention of the researchers in this field.

  7. Analysis of risks and investments’ opportunities in water sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fjona Zeneli

    2016-01-01

    These opportunities result from the difference between water supply and water demand; an increasingly difference that requires capital investments in production and water treatment technologies. Investments need to be combined with the knowledge on the legislation, regulatory framework and technological developments. This article may serve to clarify type of investments in drinking water sector, known by literature, to identify opportunities of investment in this sector, indicating the theoretical framework of beta and alpha risk ratio coefficient calculation and to suggest how these types of investments can be allocated to the investment portfolios.

  8. The Indonesian seafood sector; a value chain analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, van A.P.; Beukers, R.; Pijl, van der W.

    2012-01-01

    The Asian region is a major supplier of fish products to the EU market. Over the past five years in par-ticular, the aquaculture sector in some Asian countries has become an important producer as well as ex-porter of whitefish and shrimps. Within the Asian region, CBI is currently studying the

  9. Input-output analysis in fertilizers sector. A case study of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karkacier, O.; Guelse, H.S.; Sayili, M.; Akca, H.

    1999-01-01

    The types of structural analysis in the input-output model known are forward and backwards ties. Fertilizer sector is tied forwardly agriculture, agri-business, chemistry, petro-chemistry and glass sector. In addition, it tied backwardly mining, chemistry, petro-chemistry, electricity, gas, water and transportation. The effect of backward tie of fertilizer sector is more important than its effect of the forward ties. In this study, by means of the year of 1979, 1985 and 1990 input-output table of Turkey the own situation of fertilizer industry and the production relation with other sectors of the economy have been tired to explain with forward and backwards ties. According to the result of the research it was determined that in 1990, (u j ) input coefficient of fertilizer sector is 69 %. That is, 69 percent of the product of fertilizer sector was used as an intermediate goods by other sectors. Therefore, 31 percent of goods produced by fertilizer sector was consumed as a final good. In addition, in this year, (w i ) intermediate use coefficient of fertilizer sector is 52 %. (w i ) intermediate use coefficient of fertilizer sector decreased from 1973 to 1990, as a result of this final use coefficient (1-w i ) increased. Refs. 5 (author)

  10. A decision Enhancement Service for Stakeholder Analysis to Achieve Transformations in the Public Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, Arjan; Janssen, Marijn; Sol, H G

    2015-01-01

    Sourcing has become a popular practice for public sector managers aiming for transformations to save costs and improve service delivery. Nevertheless, public sector sourcing often fails due to stakeholder resistance and power struggles, stressing the need for stakeholder analysis. This paper

  11. Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis | Page 5 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project is designed to expand the scope of conventional investigation beyond the telecommunications industry to include other vertically integrated components of the ICT sector such as manufacturing and services. ... Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis project : country experiences; Malaysia.

  12. Analysis on Investment Behavior of Agricultural Sector in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    In the process of industrialization, China has been a big agricultural country, and the agricultural sector's economic activities have been playing important role in economic growth. This paper established the investment behavior model of agricultural enterprises on the basis of Chinese practice. And then, the model presented the important factors impacting on investment, such as financing cost, wage, and policy factors,etc. Thirdly, this paper in particular usedR-studio to estimate the impact of financing cost and policy factor on investment and capital accumulation of primary industry sector by gathering the data from 2003 to 2013. The results showed that the official interest rate of loans of financial institutions could be the proxy variable as the financing cost of agricultural enterprises, and the employment level of agricultural enterprises had negative impact on investment. Finally, this paper provided some explanations and suggestions on the basis of above results.

  13. Optimizing Bus Passenger Complaint Service through Big Data Analysis: Systematized Analysis for Improved Public Sector Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng-Kun Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in industry and commerce, passengers have become more accepting of environmental sustainability issues; thus, more people now choose to travel by bus. Government administration constitutes an important part of bus transportation services as the government gives the right-of-way to transportation companies allowing them to provide services. When these services are of poor quality, passengers may lodge complaints. The increase in consumer awareness and developments in wireless communication technologies have made it possible for passengers to easily and immediately submit complaints about transportation companies to government institutions, which has brought drastic changes to the supply–demand chain comprised of the public sector, transportation companies, and passengers. This study proposed the use of big data analysis technology including systematized case assignment and data visualization to improve management processes in the public sector and optimize customer complaint services. Taichung City, Taiwan, was selected as the research area. There, the customer complaint management process in public sector was improved, effectively solving such issues as station-skipping, allowing the public sector to fully grasp the service level of transportation companies, improving the sustainability of bus operations, and supporting the sustainable development of the public sector–transportation company–passenger supply chain.

  14. The electricity market. Situation and predictions 2018 - Sectoral and competitive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This document comprises two reports. A first one, published and updated three times a year, and a second one which is a yearly publication. The first one, based on an analysis of market perspectives and of actor strategies, proposes a synthesis on the consequences of the evolution of the economic environment, on major trends noticed for the electric power sector, and on predictable evolutions. It proposes the most recent data regarding the activities of about 200 firms belonging to the power sector (notably in terms of turnover and of electric power consumption). It highlights recent events for companies of the sector: takeovers, investments, restructuring, introduction of new products, and so on. It proposes a sector-based dashboard which contains all the critical figures useful to analyse the sector situation (activity determining factors, key figures for the sector and its environment). The annual report proposes a presentation of the sector and of the determining factors of its activity, an analysis of the activity evolution (trends, indicators like turnover, electric power consumption and production, prices and regulated tariffs, power imports and exports), a presentation of financial performance of electricity producers, a description of the sector economic structure (evolution of the economic tissue, analysis of structural characteristics), and a presentation of actors and of the competitive landscape (ranking and positioning of electric power providers and producers, market shares, identity sheets of the main actors, highlights, and ranking of the main companies in terms of turnover and of financial performance)

  15. Aid effectiveness in the Education Sector: A Dynamic Panel Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Michaelowa, Katharina; Weber, Anke

    2007-01-01

    Applying the general question of aid effectiveness to the sector of education, this paper provides some evidence for a positive effect of development assistance on primary enrolment and completion. However, even the most optimistic estimates clearly show that at any realistic rate of growth, aid will never be able to move the world markedly closer towards the internationally agreed objective of “Education For All”. Universal primary education requires increased efficiency of educational spend...

  16. Analysis of investment potential for enterprises of economic agrarian sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Dankevych

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with and determines the peculiarities of the investment potential of lands of Ukrainian economic agrarian sector. The author studies the main positives contributing the development of investment for enterprises of agricultural purpose. The reasons that restrain the investment in agriculture are determined. It is emphasized that when using land resources, one should take into account the current specificity of environment in the economic agrarian sector. The article singles out the factors, which form the specificity of development of lease land relations. It is stressed that the important characteristic of lease land relations is their social and economic direction. It is proved that the obligatory condition of a lease agreement has to become the characteristic of a quality state for a land plot. More than a third part of all national income of the country was formed in economic agrarian sector. In particular, 70 % of total amount of retail goods turnover, a third part of main production facilities, a fourth part of population, employed in the Ukrainian economy, was busy working. According to the data of UNO, the potential of Ukrainian lands allows to provide about 100 mln. individuals with foods. To reach this and to renew the present level under current economic conditions one can due to the implementation of essentially new approaches to the organization of agricultural production.

  17. Liquidity Risk Management: An Empirical Analysis on Panel Data Analysis and ISE Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Sibel ÇELİK; Yasemin Deniz AKARIM

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we test the factors affecting liquidity risk management in banking sector in Turkey by using panel regression analysis. We use the data for 9 commercial banks traded in Istanbul Stock Exchange for the period 1998-2008. In conclusion, we find that risky liquid assets and return on equity variables are negatively related with liquidity risk. However, external financing and return on asset variables are positively related with liquidity risk. This finding is importance for banks s...

  18. The change of CO2 emission on manufacturing sectors in Indonesia: An input-output analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putranti, Titi Muswati; Imansyah, Muhammad Handry

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the change of CO2 emission on manufacturing sectors in Indonesia using input-output analysis. The method used supply perspective can measure the impact of an increase in the value added of different productive on manufacturing sectors on total CO2 emission and can identify the productive sectors responsible for the increase in CO2 emission when there is an increase in the value added of the economy. The data used are based on Input-Output Energy Table 1990, 1995 and 2010. The method applied the elasticity of CO2 emission to value added. Using the elasticity approach, one can identify the highest elasticity on manufacturing sector as the change of value added provides high response to CO2 emission. Therefore, policy maker can concentrate on manufacturing sectors with the high response of CO2 emission due to the increase of value added. The approach shows the contribution of the various sectors that deserve more consideration for mitigation policy. Five of highest elasticity of manufacturing sectors of CO2 emission are Spinning & Weaving, Other foods, Tobacco, Wearing apparel, and other fabricated textiles products in 1990. Meanwhile, the most sensitive sectors Petroleum refinery products, Other chemical products, Timber & Wooden Products, Iron & Steel Products and Other non-metallic mineral products in 1995. Two sectors of the 1990 were still in the big ten, i.e. Spinning & weaving and Other foods in 1995 for the most sensitive sectors. The six sectors of 1995 in the ten highest elasticity of CO2 emission on manufacturing which were Plastic products, Other chemical products,Other fabricated metal products, Cement, Iron & steel products, Iron & steel, still existed in 2010 condition. The result of this research shows that there is a change in the most elastic CO2 emission of manufacturing sectors which tends from simple and light manufacturing to be a more complex and heavier manufacturing. Consequently, CO2 emission jumped

  19. An analysis of present and future trends of the service sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechmann, G.; Brosi, G.; Japp, K.P.; Paschen, H.

    1976-07-01

    In this report problems of forecasting in the service sector are discussed. Main emphasis is placed on a critical analysis of attempts at measuring the 'productivity' of services and their 'contribution to the gross national product'. Quantitative forecasting methods are then compared with a social-science approach at assesssing structural trends, esp. in the public sector. Starting from an analysis of constraints and their impact on different goals and objectives in the public service sector restrictions on modernisation strategies are described and alternative policies for rationalisation discussed. (orig.) [de

  20. Climate change policies analysis of sectoral changes in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, C.; Baron, R.; Colombier, M.; Boemare, C.

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses the following question, at the core of Europe's climate policy: Beyond the question of the European Union's ability to meet its emissions commitments under the Kyoto Protocol, are sectoral emissions trends displaying structural changes deemed necessary to reduce emissions, and to attain levels that are consistent with the UNFCCC greenhouse gas concentration stabilisation objectives? What lessons can we draw from emissions trends for the EU future climate policy? Greenhouse gas emissions have been stable for the last decade, but mostly due to events and policy developments unrelated to climate policy, and unlikely to be reproduced in other countries: Germany's reunification, substitution from coal to gas in the United Kingdom driven by power market reform. We should not expect changes of such magnitude in the near future. The issue of our future climate policy hence requires a closer look at underlying trends. Industry's direct emissions decreased thanks to constant improvements in energy efficiency and to the substitution of electricity to direct fossil fuel use. In spite of efficiency gains in the residential sector, increasing floor space and level of equipment entail growing energy consumption. Smaller-size households are now spreading to Southern European countries and should be expected in new Member states as well. Turning to the tertiary/services sector, we find that value added and floor space grew significantly over the decade - 35% and 32% respectively in the EU-15. There again, energy efficiency improvements do not compensate for growing floor spaces. Transport's growth, especially freight, has been significant in all countries. The highest rates of traffic growth per unit of gross domestic product are in Spain and Portugal, two countries where rail infrastructure is fairly limited. CO 2 emissions from transport grew by 18% in the EU between 1990 and 2000. Power generation's CO 2 emissions have decreased slightly in spite of strong

  1. An application of energy and exergy analysis in agricultural sector of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamed, J.U.; Saidur, R.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mekhilef, S.; Ali, M.B.; Furqon, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Thermodynamic losses usually take place in machineries used for agricultural activities. Therefore, it is important to identify and quantify the losses in order to devise strategies or policies to reduce them. An exergy analysis is a tool that can identify the losses occurred in any sector. In this study, an analysis has been carried out to estimate energy and exergy consumption of the agricultural sector in Malaysia. Energy and exergy efficiencies have been determined for the devices used in the agricultural sector of Malaysia, where petrol, diesel and fuel oil are used to run the machineries. Energy and exergy flow diagrams for the overall efficiencies of Malaysian agricultural sector are presented as well. The average overall energy and exergy efficiencies of this sector were found to be 22% and 20.728%, respectively, within the period from 1991 to 2009. These figures were found to be lower than those of Norway but higher than Turkey. - Highlights: ► Highest exergy efficiency was found about 20.7% for the year 2007. ► The exergy efficiency of the agro-sector in Malaysia was lower than that of energy efficiency. ► It was also found that this sector of Malaysia is less efficient than Saudi Arabia and Norway. ► Energy and exergy losses were identified through this analysis. ► Part of the losses can be reduced using appropriate technology, management and policy.

  2. An Application of Multiplier Analysis in Analyzing the Role of Mining Sectors on Indonesian National Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subanti, S.; Hakim, A. R.; Hakim, I. M.

    2018-03-01

    This purpose of the current study aims is to analyze the multiplier analysis on mining sector in Indonesia. The mining sectors defined by coal and metal; crude oil, natural gas, and geothermal; and other mining and quarrying. The multiplier analysis based from input output analysis, this divided by income multiplier and output multiplier. This results show that (1) Indonesian mining sectors ranked 6th with contribute amount of 6.81% on national total output; (2) Based on total gross value added, this sector contribute amount of 12.13% or ranked 4th; (3) The value from income multiplier is 0.7062 and the value from output multiplier is 1.2426.

  3. Risk-based input-output analysis of influenza epidemic consequences on interdependent workforce sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joost R; May, Larissa; Haimar, Amine El

    2013-09-01

    Outbreaks of contagious diseases underscore the ever-looming threat of new epidemics. Compared to other disasters that inflict physical damage to infrastructure systems, epidemics can have more devastating and prolonged impacts on the population. This article investigates the interdependent economic and productivity risks resulting from epidemic-induced workforce absenteeism. In particular, we develop a dynamic input-output model capable of generating sector-disaggregated economic losses based on different magnitudes of workforce disruptions. An ex post analysis of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in the national capital region (NCR) reveals the distribution of consequences across different economic sectors. Consequences are categorized into two metrics: (i) economic loss, which measures the magnitude of monetary losses incurred in each sector, and (ii) inoperability, which measures the normalized monetary losses incurred in each sector relative to the total economic output of that sector. For a simulated mild pandemic scenario in NCR, two distinct rankings are generated using the economic loss and inoperability metrics. Results indicate that the majority of the critical sectors ranked according to the economic loss metric comprise of sectors that contribute the most to the NCR's gross domestic product (e.g., federal government enterprises). In contrast, the majority of the critical sectors generated by the inoperability metric include sectors that are involved with epidemic management (e.g., hospitals). Hence, prioritizing sectors for recovery necessitates consideration of the balance between economic loss, inoperability, and other objectives. Although applied specifically to the NCR, the proposed methodology can be customized for other regions. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Electricity generation sectors under purchase obligation: support arrangement analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    This report aims at assessing the operation of the support arrangement by which currently benefit some electricity production sectors in France (renewable energies, co-generation) with respect to the evolution of the energy mix within the frame of energy transition. Other support arrangements presently adopted in Europe are also addressed as lessons to be learned. Criteria are established for any support arrangement. The report presents the French and European context regarding such support arrangement with purchasing obligation, and addresses the future evolutions of the European Commission. It highlights challenges for the electric system and for the energy market (impact on investments, optimization of market operation), describes and assesses the French purchasing obligation arrangement, and describes and assesses other existing support arrangements

  5. Physical analysis of some features of the gauge theories with Higgs sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshtoev, Kh.M.

    1995-01-01

    A physical analysis of some features of the gauge theories with Higgs sectors is made. It is shown that we should assume gauge transformations in the fermion and Higgs sectors to be different (i.e., to have different charges) in order to remove contradictions arising in gauge theories with Higgs sectors. Then, the Higgs mechanism can be interpreted as some mechanism of gauge field shielding. In such a mechanism fermions remain without masses. The conclusion is made that in the standard theory of the development of the Universe, monopoles cannot survive at low temperatures. 15 refs

  6. The fabrication of steam generators. Situation and predictions 2017 and 2018 - Sectoral and competitive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This report proposes a situational analysis and a discussion of trends for the sector of fabrication of steam generators. It also proposes predictions for 2017 and 2018, and all important figures useful to analyse the sector and its market. It discusses positions of the different actors, and the competitive game between them. Key events in firms life are indicated, and key development axes are identified. The report also proposes a ranking, a presentation of financial performance, and synthetic sheets for 55 leader firms of the sector

  7. Evaluation on the efficiency of the construction sector companies in Malaysia with data envelopment analysis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng Hoe, Lam; Jinn, Lim Shun; Weng Siew, Lam; Hai, Tey Kim

    2018-04-01

    In Malaysia, construction sector is essential parts in driving the development of the Malaysian economy. Construction industry is an economic investment and its relationship with economic development is well posited. However, the evaluation on the efficiency of the construction sectors companies listed in Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE) with Data Analysis Envelopment (DEA) model have not been actively studied by the past researchers. Hence the purpose of this study is to examine the financial performance the listed construction sectors companies in Malaysia in the year of 2015. The results of this study show that the efficiency of construction sectors companies can be obtained by using DEA model through ratio analysis which defined as the ratio of total outputs to total inputs. This study is significant because the inefficient companies are identified for potential improvement.

  8. INNOVATIVE ERP APPLICATIONS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NEW ZEALAND EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sknar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary economic science is looking for ways of research actualisation to resolve the challenges under the world financial crisis. Besides existing challenges in private de-regulated sector, one of the efficient innovations can be found in broadening ERP applications in the Public Sector. This paper approaches to the ERP applications mainly from the economical rather than from technical perspective. Comparative analysis of New Zealand public sector is supported by relevant international practical experience (implementations, and by core fundamental analysis of economical nature of business processes used by public entities. The key advantage (based on a historical timeline comes from a full integration of financial scope and operational activities. Using the example of ERP (as one of the drivers of productivity and performance improvement, the paper is aiming to underline how to bring the best practice and technology (data management and logical architecture from the private sector into the public sphere.

  9. Changes in carbon intensity in China's industrial sector: Decomposition and attribution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Nan; Ma, Zujun; Kang, Jidong

    2015-01-01

    The industrial sector accounts for 70% of the total energy-related CO_2 emissions in China. To gain a better understanding of the changes in carbon intensity in China's industrial sector, this study first utilized logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition analysis to disentangle the carbon intensity into three influencing factors, including the emission coefficient effect, the energy intensity effect, and the structure effect. Then, the analysis was furthered to explore the contributions of individual industrial sub-sectors to each factor by using an extension of the decomposition method proposed in Choi and Ang (2012). The results indicate that from 1996 to 2012, the energy intensity effect was the dominant factor in reducing carbon intensity, of which chemicals, iron and steel, metal and machinery, and cement and ceramics were the most representative sub-sectors. The structure effect did not show a strong impact on carbon intensity. The emission coefficient effect gradually increased the carbon intensity, mainly due to the expansion of electricity consumption, particularly in the metal and machinery and chemicals sub-sectors. The findings suggest that differentiated policies and measures should be considered for various industrial sub-sectors to maximize the energy efficiency potential. Moreover, readjusting the industrial structure and promoting clean and renewable energy is also urgently required to further reduce carbon intensity in China's industrial sector. - Highlights: • The study analyzed the changes in carbon intensity in China's industrial sector. • An extension of the Divisia index decomposition methodology was utilized. • Energy efficiency improvement was the dominant factor reducing carbon intensity. • The sub-sector contributions to the energy efficiency improvement varied markedly. • Emission coefficient growth can be mainly due to the expansion of electricity.

  10. TRANSPORTATION BOT SCHEMES FOR PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR FINANCING SCENARIO ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    WEI, Chien-Hung; CHUNG, Ming-Chih

    2002-01-01

    Transportation Build-Operate-Transfer financing projects have larger payment risks and failure possibilities than other financing projects, and these factors are essential to financing scenarios. The changes of financing scenarios not only affect private sectors' financing process but the conflict between private sectors and banks. This study broadly reviews relevant factors affecting BOT financing strategies, interviews relevant experts and then uses scenario analysis to design a questionnai...

  11. End-use energy analysis in the Malaysian industrial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidur, R.; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahim, N.A.; Mekhilef, S.; Ping, H.W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jamaluddin, M.F. [Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB), Head Office, Bangsar, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2009-02-15

    The industrial sector is the second largest consumer of energy in Malaysia. In this energy audit, the most important parameters that have been collected are as follows: power rating and operation time of energy-consuming equipments/machineries; fossil fuel and other sources of energy use; production figure; peak and off-peak tariff usage behavior and power factor. These data were then analyzed to investigate the breakdown of end-use equipments/machineries energy use, the peak and off-peak usage behavior, power factor trend and specific energy use. The results of the energy audit showed that the highest electrical energy-using equipment was an electric motor followed by pumps and air compressors. The specific energy use has been estimated and compared with four Indonesian industries and it was found that three Malaysian industries were more efficient than the Indonesian counterpart. The study also found that about 64% electrical energy was used in peak hours by the industries and the average power factor ranged from 0.88 to 0.92. The study also estimated energy and bill savings using highly efficient electrical motors along with the payback period. (author)

  12. Consistent economic cross-sectoral climate change impact scenario analysis: Method and application to Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl W. Steininger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change triggers manifold impacts at the national to local level, which in turn have various economy-wide implications (e.g. on welfare, employment, or tax revenues. In its response, society needs to prioritize which of these impacts to address and what share of resources to spend on each respective adaptation. A prerequisite to achieving that end is an economic impact analysis that is consistent across sectors and acknowledges intersectoral and economy-wide feedback effects. Traditional Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs are usually operating at a level too aggregated for this end, while bottom-up impact models most often are not fully comprehensive, focusing on only a subset of climate sensitive sectors and/or a subset of climate change impact chains. Thus, we develop here an approach which applies climate and socioeconomic scenario analysis, harmonized economic costing, and sector explicit bandwidth analysis in a coupled framework of eleven (biophysical impact assessment models and a uniform multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium model. In applying this approach to the alpine country of Austria, we find that macroeconomic feedbacks can magnify sectoral climate damages up to fourfold, or that by mid-century costs of climate change clearly outweigh benefits, with net costs rising two- to fourfold above current damage cost levels. The resulting specific impact information – differentiated by climate and economic drivers – can support sector-specific adaptation as well as adaptive capacity building. Keywords: climate impact, local impact, economic evaluation, adaptation

  13. Changes of energy-related GHG emissions in China: An empirical analysis from sectoral perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xianshuo; Zhao, Tao; Liu, Nan; Kang, Jidong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed the factors impacting China’s emissions from a sectoral perspective. • Sector-specific policies and measures for emissions mitigation were evaluated. • Economic growth dominantly increased the emissions in the economic sectors. • Energy intensity decrease primarily reduced the emissions in the economic sectors. • Residential emissions growth was mainly driven by increase in per-capita energy use. - Abstract: In order to better understand sectoral greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China, this study utilized a logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition analysis to study emission changes from a sectoral perspective. Based on the decomposition results, recently implemented policies and measures for emissions mitigation in China were evaluated. The results show that for the economic sectors, economic growth was the dominant factor in increasing emissions from 1996 to 2011, whereas the decline in energy intensity was primarily responsible for the emission decrease. As a result of the expansion of industrial development, economic structure change also contributed to growth in emissions. For the residential sector, increased emissions were primarily driven by an increase in per-capita energy use, which is partially confirmed by population migration. For all sectors, the shift in energy mix and variation in emission coefficient only contributed marginally to the emissions changes. The decomposition results imply that energy efficiency policy in China has been successful during the past decade, i.e., Top 1000 Priorities, Ten-Key Projects programs, the establishment of fuel consumption limits and vehicle emission standards, and encouragement of efficient appliances. Moreover, the results also indicate that readjusting economic structure and promoting clean and renewable energy is urgently required in order to further mitigate emissions in China

  14. Rings and sector : intrasite spatial analysis of stone age sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapert, Durk

    1992-01-01

    This thesis deals with intrasite spatial analysis: the analysis of spatial patterns on site level. My main concern has been to develop a simple method for analysing Stone Age sites of a special type: those characterised by the presence of a hearth closely associated in space with an artefact

  15. Comparative Analysis of Levels of Banking Sector Markets Concentration in CEE Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Tijana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Banking sector is an important development factor of the total financial and economic system. Number of banks and dispersion of their individual shares defines competitive structure of banking sector, manifested by its concentration. Market concentration may be presented as a function of a number of enterprises competing in a market and their individual comparative market shares. Concentration analysis is significant with regard to the fact that the level of concentration demonstrates relations among competitors in a market, as well as influence each competitor has on consumers, branch and economy as a whole. Starting from 2008 crisis, domino effect of which hit banking sector and has had a huge impact on it, authors of this paper aimed at establishing a level of market concentration of the banking sector in Serbia and countries in the region in 2015 by application of a large number of market concentration indicators.

  16. Input-output analysis of CO2 emissions embodied in trade. The effects of sector aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Bin; Huang, H.C.; Ang, B.W.; Zhou, P.

    2010-01-01

    Energy-related CO 2 emissions embodied in international trade have been widely studied by researchers using the input-output analysis framework. These studies are often conducted at a specific level of sector aggregation and the choice made to a large extent is dictated by economic and energy data availability. We investigate analytically the possible effects of sector aggregation on the study results. We conduct empirical studies using the data of China and Singapore where energy-related CO 2 emissions embodied in their exports are estimated at different levels of sector aggregation. A finding from the studies is that levels around 40 sectors appear to be sufficient to capture the overall share of emissions embodied in a country's exports. Another finding is that in approximating the 'ideal' situation the hybrid data treatment approach produces better results than the uniformly distributed data treatment approach. Other findings and some recommendations are also presented. (author)

  17. THE ANALYSIS OF COMPETITIVENESS IN THE TOURISM SECTOR IN THE ACTUAL CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile ROBU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The past few years have witnessed many storms in the Tourism sector. Under the influence of an extremely volatile world economy (financial crisis, commodity and oil price rises, sharp exchange rate fluctuations, increase terrorism acts in several region with tourism potential Tourism demand slowed significantly. Yet, despite the current difficulties, the Tourism sector remains a critical economic sector worldwide and one that provides significant potential for economic growth and development internationally. A growing national Tourism sector contributes to raises national income, employment, and can improve a country's balance of payments. The sector is thus an important driver of growth and prosperity and,  within developing countries, it can play a leading role in poverty reduction. Despite the overall importance of developing the Tourism sector, many obstacles at the national level continue to hinder its development. This analysis aims to serve two purposes. First, we intend to provide useful comparative information for making decisions related to business and tourism development. Second, and more importantly, we hope that the analysis provides an opportunity for the Tourism industry to highlight the obstacles to Tourism competitiveness.

  18. From Principle to Action. An Analysis of the Financial Sector's Approach to Addressing Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudde, P.; Abadie, A.

    2008-05-01

    The Ministry of the Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment of the Netherlands (VROM), has taken the initiative to commission a study to determine best practice approaches within the financial sector regarding climate change. This study focuses on the indirect climate change footprint of the financial sector, i.e. the impact of the financial sector's clients on climate change. The study sets out to further the body of knowledge relating to the financial sector's approach to understanding and managing the effects of climate change on their clients' business. Specifically, it offers recommendations and potential next steps for both the financial sector and the Dutch government to enable a more focused and definitive approach to understanding, addressing and incorporating climate change considerations into decision-making procedures and policy development. The paper comprises the following analysis: Chapter 1 is an introduction describing why climate change is relevant to the financial sector, and introduces 18 financial institutions which were selected as the basis for the study. Chapter 2 elaborates on challenges for the financial sector regarding the incorporation of climate change considerations into enhanced risk analysis and decision making. Chapter 3 provides a comprehensive overview of the main international business initiatives regarding climate change and sustainability. It can be seen as a summary of Annex I to this report, which identifies which initiatives the 18 financial institutions are involved in. Chapter 4 highlights selected best practices amongst the 18 financial institutions assessed. Chapter 5 provides the main conclusions of the study and puts forward general and specific recommendations and potential next steps for the Dutch government and the financial sector. The Annexes contain fact sheets containing information about the climate change strategy and main activities of these organisations

  19. Determinants of Egyptian Banking Sector Profitability: Time-Series Analysis from 2004-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Youssef Hashem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of banking sector profitability in Egypt to shed light on the most influential variables that have a significant impact on the performance of this vital sector. Design/methodology/approach - The analysis includes a time series model of quarterly data from 2004 to 2014. The model utilizes Cointegration technique to investigate the long-run relationship between the return on equity as a proxy for bank profitability and several bank-specific variables including liquidity, capital adequacy, and percentage of non-performing loans. In addition, Vector Error Correction Model (VECM is utilized to explore the short-run dynamics of the model and the speed of adjustment to reach the long-run equilibrium. Findings - The main findings of this work show that banking sector profitability is inversely related to capital adequacy, the percentage of loan provisions and the ratio of deposits to total assets. On the other hand, it is positively related to the size of the banking sector which implies that the banking sector exhibits economies of scale. Research limitations/implications - The implications of this work is that it helps reveal the major factors affecting bank performance in the short-run and long-run, and hence provide bank managers and monetary policy makers with beneficial insights on how to enhance bank performance. Since the banking sector represents one of the main engines of financing investment, enhancing the efficiency of this sector would contribute to economic growth and prosperity Originality/value - The Vector error correction model showed that about 4% of the disequilibrium is corrected each quarter to reach the long run equilibrium. In addition, all bank specific variables were found to affect profitability in the long-run only. This study would serve as a base that further work on Egyptian banking sector profitability can build on by incorporating more variables in the

  20. Benchmark Analysis of Institutional University Autonomy Higher Education Sectors in Denmark, Lithuania, Romania, Scotland and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa; Gulieva, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    This chapter consolidates the process and the findings from the four benchmark reports. It presents (i) the methodology and methods employed for data collection and data analysis; (ii) the comparative analysis of HE sectors and respective education systems in these countries; (iii) the executive ...

  1. An analysis of the Dutch service sector. Energy consumption and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Patel, M.; Blok, K.

    2002-09-01

    Energy efficiency and its implications for a decrease in carbon dioxide emissions have been a main force behind the current debate on energy issues. Until now, the attention of policy-makers and scientists has been mainly focused on the industrial and residential sectors, although the transport sector has gained relevance in the fast few years. The service sector, on the other hand, has remained at the bottom of the priority list. The main goal of this paper is to explore patterns of energy consumption and energy intensity in the Dutch service sector in the last 15 years. This paper is divided into two parts. The first part deals with developments for the whole sector, including a decomposition analysis, and the second part analyses sectoral developments for five sub-sectors: Wholesale and retail trade, hotels and restaurants; Financial institutes; Real estate renting and business activities; Education and Hospitals. At the aggregate level we have found a strong increase in energy consumption, especially in electricity. Furthermore, we found no evidence of significant decrease in energy intensity in the last decade. Furthermore, the decomposition analysis showed that (a) the activity effect (value added) has been the main driving force behind the increase of energy consumption of the service sector, (b) an increase in labour intensity has also boosted energy consumption and (c) energy intensity (in terms of energy per employee) did not have a significant role on decreasing energy use. At the subsectoral level the picture is blurred, especially due to the lack of good quality data. With exception of the sector Real estate renting and business activities which showed a decrease in energy intensity of about 20% between 1993 and 1999, the decrease in energy intensity is quite low. Hence, the results point towards a failure of actual energy policies to address the service sector. This is in contrast to the fact that, due to the high share of electricity consumption and

  2. Big data analysis framework for healthcare and social sectors in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tae-Min; Ryu, Seewon

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed applications of big data analysis of healthcare and social services in developed countries, and subsequently devised a framework for such an analysis in Korea. We reviewed the status of implementing big data analysis of health care and social services in developed countries, and strategies used by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Korea (Government 3.0). We formulated a conceptual framework of big data in the healthcare and social service sectors at the national level. As a specific case, we designed a process and method of social big data analysis on suicide buzz. Developed countries (e.g., the United States, the UK, Singapore, Australia, and even OECD and EU) are emphasizing the potential of big data, and using it as a tool to solve their long-standing problems. Big data strategies for the healthcare and social service sectors were formulated based on an ICT-based policy of current government and the strategic goals of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. We suggest a framework of big data analysis in the healthcare and welfare service sectors separately and assigned them tentative names: 'health risk analysis center' and 'integrated social welfare service network'. A framework of social big data analysis is presented by applying it to the prevention and proactive detection of suicide in Korea. There are some concerns with the utilization of big data in the healthcare and social welfare sectors. Thus, research on these issues must be conducted so that sophisticated and practical solutions can be reached.

  3. Discriminant analysis in Polish manufacturing sector performance assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Dziechciarz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a presentation of the preliminary results of a larger project on the determination of the attractiveness of manufacturing branches. Results of the performance assessment of Polish manufacturing branches in 2000 (section D „Manufacturing” – based on NACE – Nomenclatures des Activites de Communite Europeene are shown. In the research, the classical (Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis technique was used for the analysis of the profit generation ability by the firms belonging to a certain production branch. For estimation, the data describing group level was used – for cross-validation, the classes data.

  4. Macroergonomic analysis of an assembly sector of a furniture company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiane, A A Z; Danielle, M D; Vanessa, C B

    2012-01-01

    From of Macroergonomic Analysis of Work were diagnosed the main ergonomics demands in a furniture company in the city of Cambé, Paraná. Through this method we could identify the most problematic points of the analyzed environment for posterior solutions of improvement with the objective of increasing the working and psychological quality of the employees, motivating their good performance and satisfaction.

  5. Engendering mobility: towards improved gender analysis in the transport sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It is the purpose of this chapter to advance the discourse between gender analysis and transport, specifically within the urban development context, with a view to promoting an understanding of the strategic role of transport, access and mobility...

  6. Analysis of Market Concentration in Selected Sectors of Public Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Svoboda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is the analysis of influence of market concentration in selected areas of public procurement on chosen parameters of public procurement in years 2007 and 2011. Five concentration ratios and five parameters of contracts are calculated for each of five chosen areas of public tenders in 2007 and 2011. After this task, the correlation analysis between concentration ratios and parameters of contracts is done for finding out mutual relation between these two variables. Correlation analysis is then compared with four created hypotheses about the relationship between market concentration and parameters of public procurement The results of the analysis are surprising, because in most cases, the stated hypotheses were rejected, meaning that the correlations between the parameters of public procurement and market concentration were different than this study predicted based on economic theory. The possible reasons for this result, discussed in the article, are corruption and also poor quality of data from Information system of public procurement administered by the Ministry for Regional Development of Czech Republic.

  7. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of financial market efficiency: Comparison using Dow Jones sector ETF indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Aviral Kumar; Albulescu, Claudiu Tiberiu; Yoon, Seong-Min

    2017-10-01

    This study challenges the efficient market hypothesis, relying on the Dow Jones sector Exchange-Traded Fund (ETF) indices. For this purpose, we use the generalized Hurst exponent and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) methods, using daily data over the timespan from 2000 to 2015. We compare the sector ETF indices in terms of market efficiency between short- and long-run horizons, small and large fluctuations, and before and after the global financial crisis (GFC). Our findings can be summarized as follows. First, there is clear evidence that the sector ETF markets are multifractal in nature. We also find a crossover in the multifractality of sector ETF market dynamics. Second, the utilities and consumer goods sector ETF markets are more efficient compared with the financial and telecommunications sector ETF markets, in terms of price prediction. Third, there are noteworthy discrepancies in terms of market efficiency, between the short- and long-term horizons. Fourth, the ETF market efficiency is considerably diminished after the global financial crisis.

  8. The mineral sector and economic development in Ghana: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Samuel N.

    A computable general equilibrium model (CGE) model is formulated for conducting mineral policy analysis in the context of national economic development for Ghana. The model, called GHANAMIN, places strong emphasis on production, trade, and investment. It can be used to examine both micro and macro economic impacts of policies associated with mineral investment, taxation, and terms of trade changes, as well as mineral sector performance impacts due to technological change or the discovery of new deposits. Its economywide structure enables the study of broader development policy with a focus on individual or multiple sectors, simultaneously. After going through a period of contraction for about two decades, mining in Ghana has rebounded significantly and is currently the main foreign exchange earner. Gold alone contributed 44.7 percent of 1994 total export earnings. GHANAMIN is used to investigate the economywide impacts of mineral tax policies, world market mineral prices changes, mining investment, and increased mineral exports. It is also used for identifying key sectors for economic development. Various simulations were undertaken with the following results: Recently implemented mineral tax policies are welfare increasing, but have an accompanying decrease in the output of other export sectors. World mineral price rises stimulate an increase in real GDP; however, this increase is less than real GDP decreases associated with price declines. Investment in the non-gold mining sector increases real GDP more than investment in gold mining, because of the former's stronger linkages to the rest of the economy. Increased mineral exports are very beneficial to the overall economy. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in mining increases welfare more so than domestic capital, which is very limited. Mining investment and the increased mineral exports since 1986 have contributed significantly to the country's economic recovery, with gold mining accounting for 95 percent of the

  9. AN ANALYSIS OF THE INEQUALITIES BETWEEN THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR IN SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, A J; Kahn, D; Klopper, J

    2017-06-01

    The full extent of the global burden of surgical disease is largely unknown; however, the scope of the problem is thought to be large. Despite the substantial burden of surgical disease, surgical services are inaccessible to many of those who need them most. There are disparities between public and private sectors in South Africa, which compounds inequitable access to surgical care. This study involved a descriptive analysis of surgical resources and included the total number of hospitals, hospital beds, surgical beds, general surgeons (specialist and nonspecialist), and the number of functional operating theatres in South Africa. A comparison was performed between the public sector resources per uninsured population and private sector resources per insured population. Hospitals were contacted during the period 01 October 2014 to 31 December 2014. Surgical resources were concentrated in metropolitan areas of urban provinces. There were striking differences between sectors when a comparison was made between patients with and without health insurance. Private resources were comparable to those available in high income countries (HICs) and were accessible to only 16% of South Africans. Improving access to surgical services in lower middle income countries (LMICs) requires addressing gaps between the public and private sector regarding infrastructure, personnel, as well as equipment. South Africa is unique in that although it is classified as an upper middle income country (UMIC), it comprises of two sectors; a public sector which has resources similar to other LMICs, and a private sector which has resources similar to HICs. These data identified disparities between geographic regions which may be contributing to ongoing inequity in South Africa, and by doing so allows for evidence-based planning towards improving surgical infrastructure and workforce.

  10. Decoupling Economic Growth and Energy Use. An Empirical Cross-Country Analysis for 10 Manufacturing Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, P. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); De Groot, H.L.F. [Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of decoupling economic growth and energy use and its various determinants by exploring trends in energy- and labour productivity across 10 manufacturing sectors and 14 OECD countries for the period 1970-1997. We explicitly aim to trace back aggregate developments in the manufacturing sector to developments at the level of individual subsectors. A cross-country decomposition analysis reveals that in some countries structural changes contributed considerably to aggregate manufacturing energy-productivity growth and, hence, to decoupling, while in other countries they partly offset energy-efficiency improvements. In contrast, structural changes only play a minor role in explaining aggregate manufacturing labour-productivity developments. Furthermore, we find labour-productivity growth to be higher on average than energy-productivity growth. Over time, this bias towards labour-productivity growth is increasing in the aggregate manufacturing sector, while it is decreasing in most manufacturing subsectors.

  11. Analysis of the economic structure of the eating-out sector: The case of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabiedes-Miragaya, Laura

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this article is to analyse the structure of the Spanish eating-out sector from an economic point of view, and more specifically, from the supply perspective. This aspect has been studied less than the demand side, almost certainly due to the gaps which exist in available official statistics in Spain, and which have been filled basically with consumer surveys. For this reason, focus is also placed on the economic relevance of the sector and attention is drawn to the serious shortcomings regarding official statistics in this domain, in contrast to the priority that hotel industry statistics have traditionally received in Spain. Based on official statistics, a descriptive analysis was carried out, focused mainly, though not exclusively, on diverse structural aspects of the sector. Special emphasis was placed on issues such as business demography (for instance, number and types of enterprises, survival rates, size distribution, and age structure), market concentration and structure of costs. Among other conclusions, the analysis allowed us to conclude that: part of the sector is more concentrated than it may at first appear to be; the dual structure of the sector described by the literature in relation to other countries is also present in the Spanish case; and the impact of ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) on the sector are, and will foreseeably continue to be, particularly relevant. The main conclusion of this study refers to the fact that consumers have gained prominence in their contribution to shaping the structure of the sector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling and analysis of long term energy demands in residential sector of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, T.; Sahir, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Residential sector is the core among the energy demand sectors in Pakistan. Currently, various techniques are being used worldwide to assess future energy demands including integrated system modeling (ISM). Therefore, the current study is focused on implementation of ISM approach for future energy demand analysis of Pakistan's residential sector in terms of increase in population, rapid urbanization, household size and type, and increase/decrease in GDP. A detailed business-as-usual (BAU) model is formulated in TIMES energy modeling framework using different factors like growth in future energy services, end-use technology characterization, and restricted fuel supplies. Additionally, the developed model is capable to compare the projected energy demand under different scenarios e.g. strong economy, weak economy and energy efficiency. The implementation of ISM proved a viable approach to predict the future energy demands of Pakistan's residential sector. Furthermore, the analysis shows that the energy consumption in the residential sector would be 46.5 Mtoe (Million Ton of Oil Equivalent) in 2040 compared to 23 Mtoe of the base year (2007) along with 600% increase in electricity demands. The study further maps the potential residential energy policies to congregate the future demands. (author)

  13. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE HEALTH SECTOR IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Tatiana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper comprises an assessment of the Romanian health financing policy and a detailed analysis of income and expenditure trends over the past seven years. The current situation of the health system is evaluated by reviewing the existing health legislation and documents on public health policies from Romania and from abroad, by analyzing the official statistics (the Romanian Yearbook of Health Statistics, Who database and by performing a healthcare system financial analysis. Although the financial efforts of the Romanian state to support the health system have increased, almost all the incomes and expenditures of the health care system having recorded significant increases, the population perception on health services worsened. Financing the health system continues to be inadequate and used in an ineffective way. Health is an essential component of well-being with major socio-economic implications. The organization and functioning of the health system depends on ensuring adequate funding. Romania must develop its health strategy in the context of European Union policies. These policies are based on values and principles such as promoting universal protection against financial risk, promoting a more equitable distribution of the financing burden, promoting equitable provision and use of services relative to need, improving the transparency and accountability of the system to the public, promoting quality and efficiency in service delivery, improving administrative efficiency, while ensuring the financial sustainability of the health system. In this context, in order to support a financially sustainable and high performing health system, the paper includes recommendations for increasing the public incomes in the health insurance system and options to streamline the healthcare services and expenses in the future.

  14. Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis | Page 2 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... to widen and deepen, so too does its impact on economic development. ... The outcomes of such efforts will subsequently inform policy discourse and ... Studies. Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis project : country experiences; Malaysia ... Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity.

  15. Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis | Page 4 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis. As the presence and influence of information and communication technologies (ICTs) continues to widen and deepen, so too does its impact on economic development. However, much work needs to be done before the linkages between economic development ...

  16. Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis | Page 3 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis. As the presence and influence of information and communication technologies (ICTs) continues to widen and deepen, so too does its impact on economic development. However, much work needs to be done before the linkages between economic development ...

  17. An analysis on the short-term sectoral competitiveness impact of carbon tax in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Li Ji Feng; Zhang Yaxiong

    2011-01-01

    Market-based instruments, particularly carbon tax, have recently drawn the attention of Chinese government by their cost-effective contribution to the achievement of China's climate targets. Most of the recent policy proposals have focused on its long-term impact. However, particularly for policy makers, both long term and short term effects of carbon tax would be necessary when determining tax rates. We provided a detailed analysis of short-term impacts of carbon tax on sectoral competitiveness in this paper. We divided China's economy into 36 sectors, based on its 2007 input-output table, in order to examine the ratio of carbon tax added costs to sector GDP. We were thus able to determine the impact level of a carbon tax on each sector. We then divided the sectoral trade impact into domestic competitiveness with regards to foreign imported products and international competitiveness external to the Chinese domestic market. We found that a high tax level (100 yuan/t CO 2 ) may necessitate compensatory measures to certain highly affected industries, and that a low tax rate (10 yuan/t CO 2 ) would generate few competitiveness problems for all industries and may therefore be considered as an appropriate starting point. - Highlights: → We study short-term sectoral competitiveness impact of carbon tax in China. → For each sector, we study its carbon cost, GDP share and trade intensity. → A high rate (100 yuan/t CO 2 ) may require compensatory measures to certain industries. → A low rate (10 yuan/t CO 2 ) would generate few competitiveness problems.

  18. Lost Opportunities in the Buildings Sector: Energy-Efficiency Analysis and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirks, James A.; Anderson, David M.; Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2008-09-12

    This report summarizes the results and the assumptions used in an analysis of the potential “lost efficiency opportunities” in the buildings sector. These targets of opportunity are those end-uses, applications, practices, and portions of the buildings market which are not currently being addressed, or addressed fully, by the Building Technologies Program (BTP) due to lack of resources. The lost opportunities, while a significant increase in effort and impact in the buildings sector, still represent only a small portion of the full technical potential for energy efficiency in buildings.

  19. Energy efficiency of China's industry sector: An adjusted network DEA (data envelopment analysis)-based decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yingnan; Wang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    The process of energy conservation and emission reduction in China requires the specific and accurate evaluation of the energy efficiency of the industry sector because this sector accounts for 70 percent of China's total energy consumption. Previous studies have used a “black box” DEA (data envelopment analysis) model to obtain the energy efficiency without considering the inner structure of the industry sector. However, differences in the properties of energy utilization (final consumption or intermediate conversion) in different industry departments may lead to bias in energy efficiency measures under such “black box” evaluation structures. Using the network DEA model and efficiency decomposition technique, this study proposes an adjusted energy efficiency evaluation model that can characterize the inner structure and associated energy utilization properties of the industry sector so as to avoid evaluation bias. By separating the energy-producing department and energy-consuming department, this adjusted evaluation model was then applied to evaluate the energy efficiency of China's provincial industry sector. - Highlights: • An adjusted network DEA (data envelopment analysis) model for energy efficiency evaluation is proposed. • The inner structure of industry sector is taken into account for energy efficiency evaluation. • Energy final consumption and energy intermediate conversion processes are separately modeled. • China's provincial industry energy efficiency is measured through the adjusted model.

  20. Electricity demand by the commercial sector in Kuwait: an econometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltony, M.N.; Hajeeh, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper models and estimates electricity demand by the Kuwaiti commercial sector, using an error correction model. It also simulates the estimated model under three scenarios and presents an analysis of the results. The empirical results indicate that short- and long-run electricity consumption and the level of economic activity are interrelated. The forecasts show that electricity consumption varies directly with economic growth. They also suggest that an increase of 100 per cent in nominal electricity prices will lead to a reduction in commercial sector electricity demand of 45 per cent by the year 2010. The simulation of the model under the different scenarios demonstrates that the potential for energy conservation exists in the commercial sector

  1. TRANSPORTATION BOT SCHEMES FOR PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR FINANCING SCENARIO ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hung WEI

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation Build-Operate-Transfer financing projects have larger payment risks and failure possibilities than other financing projects, and these factors are essential to financing scenarios. The changes of financing scenarios not only affect private sectors' financing process but the conflict between private sectors and banks. This study broadly reviews relevant factors affecting BOT financing strategies, interviews relevant experts and then uses scenario analysis to design a questionnaire to find out the most important factors affecting BOT financing. The findings of this study are four major factors affecting public and private financing scenarios. In this paper, we also propose some suggestions as possible complements to public and private sector financing strategies.

  2. A conceptual analysis of the role of competitive intelligence in Zimbabwe’s banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maune

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a conceptual framework and analysis of the role of competitive intelligence in Zimbabwe`s banking sector. The article used literature and conceptual research approach. Literature review has shown the concept of competitive intelligence to be multidimensional, with a multitude of varying definitions, as well as multifaceted and fuzzy. The concept of competitive intelligence has been presented variously as a process, a function, a product or a mix of all three. Literature review has also shown numerous intelligence concepts that are linked to the concept of competitive intelligence. This article will increase the academic understanding and state of the concept of competitive intelligence in Zimbabwe`s banking sector as well as assisting the entire banking sector.

  3. The Relative Importance of the Service Sector in the Mexican Economy: A Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Flores

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We conduct a study of the secondary and tertiary sectors with the goal of highlighting the relative im-portance of services in the Mexican economy. We consider a time series analysis approach designed to identify the stochastic nature of the series, as well as to define their long-run and-short run relationships with Gross Domestic Product (GDP. The results of cointegration tests suggest that, for the most part, activities in the secondary and tertiary sectors share a common trend with GDP. Interestingly, the long-run elasticities of GDP with respect to services are on average larger than those with respect to secondary activities. Common cycle tests results identify the existence of common cycles between GDP and the disaggregated sectors, as well as with manufacturing, commerce, real estate and transportation. In this case, the short-run elasticities of secondary activities are on average larger than those corresponding to services.

  4. AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROMANIAN FISHERY SECTOR IN THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the fishery sector represents one of the European Union’s priorities due to the positive impact it has on food security and to its potential to ensure nutritious and quality food at an affordable price as compared to other animal-origin resources. The Community policy in the fishery sector focuses on reducing the Community market dependence on imports and on the sustainable development of business in this domain. Romania aligned with the Community policies and, therefore, important funds were allocated to the national fishery sector. The diversified natural resources, the possibility to use friendly technologies, the qualified staff, the tradition in the domain, and the existence of a number of niche markets all represent motivations for the development of the Romanian fishery sector. The present paper proposes an analysis of the Romanian fishery production and of the European financing effects on the specialized companies. Despite the fact that there have been important resources allocated to the sector and there is a slight positive evolution, the absorption of funds was difficult. The results of the investment may be observed after a long period of time, this is why Romania is still dependent on fishery product imports. Aquaculture represents the main segment towards which the European funds were directed, including in our country, thus providing the greatest part of the income and employment in the domain.

  5. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INNOVATION ASPECT EVIDENCE IN CONSTRUCTION AND MULTI-SECTOR COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Floriani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to make a comparative analysis of innovation aspect evidence among construction and multi-sector companies. Descriptive research was done through a content analysis of administration reports from 2005 to 2007. From the researched material, 14 aspects of innovations were extracted, which offer the basis to the content analysis. Two non-probability samples were developed, the first consisting of 22 multi-sector businesses, within 18 economic sectors, which comprises the companies in the comparison. Aspects of innovation found in this group of companies were compared to those stated in the reports of the administration of the 34 construction companies with open capital, which comprise the second sample. The survey results show that the evidence of innovation aspects are different in construction companies when compared to the administration reports of multi-sector business of 2005, 2006 and 2007. The construction companies state fewer innovation aspects in the administration reports than multisector companies in the analyzed period. The conclusion is that while construction companies can be considered fairly innovative, multi-sectorial companies present more innovations on average.

  6. Development of Electronic Identification Measures in the Public Sector of Lithuania: Analysis of Alteration Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimantas Petrauskas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to analyze, assess and identify alteration possibilities of effective implementation of e-Identification technology solutions focusing on organization capabilities in the public sector of Lithuania.Design/methodology/approach – different methods were used in the research. Content analysis method was used for the issues related to application of e-Identification solutions, technology management and organizational capabilities. During the pilot research, information on specificities of organization capabilities to implement e-Identification solution in the public sector was gathered, analyzed and interlinked with content analysis via comparative and deductive methods.Findings – the research shows that the gap in the area of development of e-Identification solutions in the public sector in Lithuania is affected by the lack of organizational capabilities that need to be developed internally. The challenge is to foster organizational capabilities in the environment, influenced by rapidly emerging new technology solutions (use of smartphones and applications and limited legal regulation. Lifecycle of any technology solutions becomes shorter and jeopardizes its use and functionality in time; therefore, public sector institutions could benefit from holistic e-Identification solution diffusion strategy that incorporates aspects of organizational capabilities.Research limitations/implications – the research findings are limited by the nature of the pilot research (peer review, level of experience in their organizations and environment as well as the geographic scope of the research.Practical implications – the article portrays public sector environment of implementation of e-Identification solutions and particularities of organizational capabilities to manage its development.Originality/value – originality of the article is in the research and assessment of country specific future proof needs to alter and improve the existing

  7. The South African wildlife ranching sector: A Social Accounting Matrix Leontief multiplier analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippus C. Cloete

    2014-10-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this article is to put into context the relative economic contribution of the wildlife ranching sector, as opposed to other land-use options in South Africa. Motivation for the study: Growth in the wildlife ranching sector at the cost of other traditional farming practices resulted in disagreements amongst various role players about the impact thereof on the national economy. The controversy can most probably be explained by different beliefs, coupled with the lack of a proper understanding and quantification of the wildlife ranching sector’s contribution toward the economy. Research methodology: The study employed a Social Accounting Matrix-based Leontief multiplier analysis for South Africa. Main findings: Results from the multiplier analysis revealed that developments within the wildlife ranching sector are likely to make a relatively more superior contribution towards the economy, especially when compared to similar land-use options such as extensive livestock production. Practical/managerial implications: It has been acknowledged by both academia and private sector that a major need exists for more research on the South African wildlife ranching industry, specifically looking at issues such as the industries, economic and social contributions, potentials and constraints. The research, therefore, contributes toward the depth of economic information and research regarding the South African wildlife sector. Contribution/value added: The research provides valuable information in dealing with the ‘popular belief’, especially amongst some of South Africa’s decision makers, namely, that growth in the wildlife ranching sector is not or does not have the ability to contribute significantly toward economic and socioeconomic factors.

  8. Futures Business Models for an IoT Enabled Healthcare Sector: A Causal Layered Analysis Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Julius Francis Gomes; Sara Moqaddemerad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate futures business research by proposing a novel way to combine business models as a conceptual tool with futures research techniques. Design: A futures perspective is adopted to foresight business models of the Internet of Things (IoT) enabled healthcare sector by using business models as a futures business research tool. In doing so, business models is coupled with one of the most prominent foresight methodologies, Causal Layered Analysis (CLA). Qualitative analysis...

  9. Climate cure 2020 measures and instruments to achieve Norwegian climate goals by 2020. Chapter 10 - the transport sector analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    This document is a translation of Chapter 10, Sector analysis of transport, in the Norwegian report Climate Cure 2020, Measures and Instruments for Achieving Norwegian Climate Goals by 2020. The sector analysis has been prepared by an inter agency working group, conducted by the Norwegian Public Road Administration. (Author)

  10. Carbon dioxide emissions from the electricity sector in major countries: a decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangzheng; Liao, Hua; Du, Yun-Fei; Wang, Ce; Wang, Jin-Wei; Liu, Yanan

    2018-03-01

    The electric power sector is one of the primary sources of CO 2 emissions. Analyzing the influential factors that result in CO 2 emissions from the power sector would provide valuable information to reduce the world's CO 2 emissions. Herein, we applied the Divisia decomposition method to analyze the influential factors for CO 2 emissions from the power sector from 11 countries, which account for 67% of the world's emissions from 1990 to 2013. We decompose the influential factors for CO 2 emissions into seven areas: the emission coefficient, energy intensity, the share of electricity generation, the share of thermal power generation, electricity intensity, economic activity, and population. The decomposition analysis results show that economic activity, population, and the emission coefficient have positive roles in increasing CO 2 emissions, and their contribution rates are 119, 23.9, and 0.5%, respectively. Energy intensity, electricity intensity, the share of electricity generation, and the share of thermal power generation curb CO 2 emissions and their contribution rates are 17.2, 15.7, 7.7, and 2.8%, respectively. Through decomposition analysis for each country, economic activity and population are the major factors responsible for increasing CO 2 emissions from the power sector. However, the other factors from developed countries can offset the growth in CO 2 emissions due to economic activities.

  11. The public sector nursing workforce in Kenya: a county-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakaba, Mabel; Mbindyo, Patrick; Ochieng, Jacob; Kiriinya, Rose; Todd, Jim; Waudo, Agnes; Noor, Abdisalan; Rakuom, Chris; Rogers, Martha; English, Mike

    2014-01-27

    Kenya's human resources for health shortage is well documented, yet in line with the new constitution, responsibility for health service delivery will be devolved to 47 new county administrations. This work describes the public sector nursing workforce likely to be inherited by the counties, and examines the relationships between nursing workforce density and key indicators. National nursing deployment data linked to nursing supply data were used and analyzed using statistical and geographical analysis software. Data on nurses deployed in national referral hospitals and on nurses deployed in non-public sector facilities were excluded from main analyses. The densities and characteristics of the public sector nurses across the counties were obtained and examined against an index of county remoteness, and the nursing densities were correlated with five key indicators. Of the 16,371 nurses in the public non-tertiary sector, 76% are women and 53% are registered nurses, with 35% of the nurses aged 40 to 49 years. The nursing densities across counties range from 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000 population. There are statistically significant associations of the nursing densities with a measure of health spending per capita (P value = 0.0028) and immunization rates (P value = 0.0018). A higher county remoteness index is associated with explaining lower female to male ratio of public sector nurses across counties (P value public sector countrywide is complicated by mal-distribution and varying workforce characteristics (for example, age profile) across counties. All stakeholders should support improvements in human resources information systems and help address personnel shortages and mal-distribution if equitable, quality health-care delivery in the counties is to be achieved.

  12. Analysis of health sector gender equality and social inclusion strategy 2009 of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahara, G B; Dhital, S R

    2014-01-01

    The policy on gender equality and social inclusion (GESI) in health sector of Nepal is formulated in 2009 targeting toward poor, vulnerable, marginalized social and ethnic groups. Gender inequality and social discrimination are a social problem that affect on individual health finally. The main objective of this paper is to critically analysis and evaluates the Government's strategy on health sector gender equality and social inclusion in Nepal. We collected published and unpublished information assessing the public health, policy analysis and research needs from different sources. A different policy approaches for the analysis and evaluation of GESI strategies is applied in this paper. Universal education, community participation, individual, group and mass communication approaches, and social capital are the key aspects of effective implementation of policy at target levels.

  13. The consumption of electric power on the tertiary sector - an instrument for economical and social analysis and market studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villela, L.E.

    1991-04-01

    The main subjective of this thesis is to analyse the effects of the growth of the tertiary sector on the electric power demand. In order to accomplish this goal an economical and social, analysis of the tertiary sector is made to identify its dynamic, its relations with the other sectors of the economy and to describe the methodologies for measuring the overall tertiary production. Afterwards it is made an analysis of the electric power consumption evolution in the tertiary sector, in order to identify the consumption per region of the country, per consumers and tertiary subsectors. It is also analysed the product power intensify and, finally its described the present tariff system. (author)

  14. Energy efficiency in the transport sector in the EU-27: A dynamic dematerialization analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziolkowska, Jadwiga R.; Ziolkowski, Bozydar

    2015-01-01

    Energy use in the European Union's (EU) transport sector amounted to 340 Mtoe in 1999 with the following increasing trend up to 379 Mtoe in 2007 and a decrease from 2008 on, down to 365 Mtoe in 2010. This changing pattern posed several fundamental questions and uncertainties regarding the broader picture of energy efficiency and environmental protection. One of them refers to absolute changes in energy use efficiency in the transport sector over time and the ways of measuring efficiency. Traditional scientific approaches conceptualized to measure efficiency of energy use do not address annual dynamics of changes in the energy use in a given sector per capita. Thus, they are not precise enough for political and methodological purposes as they do not reflect the exact amount of energy consumed in the respective countries and societies. This paper shows a possible solution to this problem and a new perspective on measuring energy efficiency by using the product generational dematerialization (PGD) indicator. The PGD indicator allows for measuring energy efficiency as a dynamic change of consumption and population occurring simultaneously. Thus, it provides an extension to the traditional methodology commonly used for measuring efficiency. To visualize a practical application of this approach, the paper provides an example of evaluating energy efficiency in the transport sector in the EU-27 in 2000–2010. The results of the analysis show a clear materialization tendency in the transport sector (the energy consumption change exceeded the population growth) until 2007 and a reverse tendency (dematerialization) between 2008 and 2010. As energy consumption has a direct impact on environmental quality and exhaustion of natural resources, the paper points out the necessity of extending sustainable resource management policies by new methodologies and providing more efficient solutions for energy consumption in the transport sector. - Highlights: • PGD indicator proves a

  15. Decomposition analysis of gas consumption in the residential sector in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogan, Fionn; Cahill, Caiman J.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    To-date, decomposition analysis has been widely used at the macro-economic level and for in-depth analyses of the industry and transport sectors; however, its application in the residential sector has been rare. This paper uses the Log-Mean Divisia Index I (LMDI-I) methodology to decompose gas consumption trends in the gas-connected residential sector in Ireland from 1990 to 2008, which despite an increasing number of energy efficiency policies, experienced total final consumption growth of 470%. The analysis decomposes this change in gas consumption into a number of effects, examining the impact over time of market factors such as a growing customer base, varying mix of dwelling types, changing share of vacant dwellings, changing size of new dwellings, the impact of building regulations policy and other factors such as the weather. The analysis finds the most significant effects are changing customer numbers and changing intensity; the analysis also quantifies the impact of building regulations and compares it with other effects such as changing size of new dwellings. By comparing the historical impact on gas consumption of policy factors and non-policy factors, this paper highlights the challenge for policy-makers in achieving overall energy consumption reduction. - Highlights: ► Contribution to a gap in the literature with a residential sector decomposition analysis of gas TFC. ► Activity effect had the largest impact and was cumulatively the best explainer of total TFC change. ► Intensity effect was the second biggest effect with a 19% share of total TFC change. ► In line with rising surface temperatures, the weather effect is declining over time. ► Building regulations are having a diminishing impact but are being negated by larger dwellings.

  16. Estimating size and scope economies in the Portuguese water sector using the Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Pedro, E-mail: pedrocarv@coc.ufrj.br [Computational Modelling in Engineering and Geophysics Laboratory (LAMEMO), Department of Civil Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Pedro Calmon - Ilha do Fundão, 21941-596 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Center for Urban and Regional Systems (CESUR), CERIS, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Marques, Rui Cunha, E-mail: pedro.c.carvalho@tecnico.ulisboa.pt [Center for Urban and Regional Systems (CESUR), CERIS, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2016-02-15

    This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the Portuguese water sector applying Bayesian and classical statistics to make inference in stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). This study proves the usefulness and advantages of the application of Bayesian statistics for making inference in SFA over traditional SFA which just uses classical statistics. The resulting Bayesian methods allow overcoming some problems that arise in the application of the traditional SFA, such as the bias in small samples and skewness of residuals. In the present case study of the water sector in Portugal, these Bayesian methods provide more plausible and acceptable results. Based on the results obtained we found that there are important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope in the Portuguese water sector, pointing out to the huge advantages in undertaking mergers by joining the retail and wholesale components and by joining the drinking water and wastewater services. - Highlights: • This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the water sector; • The usefulness of the application of Bayesian methods is highlighted; • Important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope are found.

  17. Determinants of energy demand in the French service sector: A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mairet, Nicolas; Decellas, Fabrice

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the changes in the energy consumption of the service sector in France over the period 1995-2006, using the logarithmic mean Divisia index I (LMDI I) decomposition method. The analysis is carried out at various disaggregation levels to highlight the specifics of each sub-sector and end-use according to their respective determinants. The results show that in this period the economic growth of the service sector was the main factor that led to the increase in total energy consumption. Structure, productivity, substitution and intensity effects restricted this growth, but with limited effect. By analyzing each end-use, this paper enables a more precise understanding of the impact of these factors. The activity effect was the main determinant of the increase in energy consumption for all end-uses except for air conditioning, for which the equipment rate effect was the main factor. Structural changes in the service sector primarily impacted energy consumption for space heating and cooking. Improvements in productivity limited the growth of energy consumption for all end-uses except for cooking. Finally, energy efficiency improvements mainly affected space-heating energy use.

  18. Analysis of hospital logistics and costs of the Clinical Engineering Sector in a Philanthropic Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Artur de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals are considered complex organizations mainly due to the high cost of the health care structure employed for care. Reducing operating costs is a challenge for hospital managers. Particularly in the clinical engineering sector, adequate hospital logistics can reduce costs. In this context, the aim of the research was to analyze the activities of hospital logistics of the Clinical Engineering department at a charity hospital, focusing on cost reduction. The paper presents a case study in a large charity hospital located in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, MG. The analysis focuses on the activities of hospital logistics at this hospital clinical engineering sector. The work in this sector is concentrated in the realization and implementation of equipment maintenance, to the detriment of efforts to reduce costs and increase safety for all streams managed by the sector. It was also found that there are risks of increased costs with inadequate routines: (i acquisition of new and large equipment; (ii maintenance and release schedule for use; and (iii the theft of equipment.

  19. Estimating size and scope economies in the Portuguese water sector using the Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the Portuguese water sector applying Bayesian and classical statistics to make inference in stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). This study proves the usefulness and advantages of the application of Bayesian statistics for making inference in SFA over traditional SFA which just uses classical statistics. The resulting Bayesian methods allow overcoming some problems that arise in the application of the traditional SFA, such as the bias in small samples and skewness of residuals. In the present case study of the water sector in Portugal, these Bayesian methods provide more plausible and acceptable results. Based on the results obtained we found that there are important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope in the Portuguese water sector, pointing out to the huge advantages in undertaking mergers by joining the retail and wholesale components and by joining the drinking water and wastewater services. - Highlights: • This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the water sector; • The usefulness of the application of Bayesian methods is highlighted; • Important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope are found.

  20. Energy use efficiency in the Indian manufacturing sector: An interstate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Kankana

    2008-01-01

    This paper approaches the measurement of energy efficiency from a production theoretic framework and uses Data Envelopment Analysis to measure energy efficiency in the Indian manufacturing sector. Using data from the Annual Survey of Industries for the years 1998-99 through 2003-04, the study compares the energy efficiency in manufacturing across states, based on several models. The results show considerable variation in energy efficiency across states. Comparing the results across our models, we find that the relative pricing of energy does not provide the appropriate incentives for energy conservation. A second-stage regression analysis reveals that states with a larger share of manufacturing output in energy-intensive industries have lower energy efficiency. Also, higher quality labor force associates with higher energy efficiency. Finally, the power sector reforms have not yet had any significant impact on achieving energy efficiency

  1. Applying a private sector capitation model to the management of type 2 diabetes in the South African public sector: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmink, Heinrich C; Bertram, Melanie Y; Jina, Ruxana; Wade, Alisha N; Hofman, Karen J

    2014-09-30

    Diabetes mellitus contributes substantially to the non-communicable disease burden in South Africa. The proposed National Health Insurance system provides an opportunity to consider the development of a cost-effective capitation model of care for patients with type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was to determine the potential cost-effectiveness of adapting a private sector diabetes management programme (DMP) to the South African public sector. Cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken with a public sector model of the DMP as the intervention and a usual practice model as the comparator. Probabilistic modelling was utilized for incremental cost-effectiveness ratio analysis with life years gained selected as the outcome. Secondary data were used to design the model while cost information was obtained from various sources, taking into account public sector billing. Modelling found an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of ZAR 8 356 (USD 1018) per life year gained (LYG) for the DMP against the usual practice model. This fell substantially below the Willingness-to-Pay threshold with bootstrapping analysis. Furthermore, a national implementation of the intervention could potentially result in an estimated cumulative gain of 96 997 years of life (95% CI 71 073 years - 113 994 years). Probabilistic modelling found the capitation intervention to be cost-effective, with an ICER of ZAR 8 356 (USD 1018) per LYG. Piloting the service within the public sector is recommended as an initial step, as this would provide data for more accurate economic evaluation, and would also allow for qualitative analysis of the programme.

  2. Analysis of Final Energy Demand by Sector in Malaysia using MAED Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.; Muhammed Zulfakar Mohd Zolkaffly; Alawiah Musa

    2011-01-01

    Energy supply security is important in ensuring a long term supply to fulfill the growing energy demand. This paper presents the use of IAEA energy planning tool, Model for Analysis of Energy Demand (MAED) to analyze, simulate and compare final energy demand by five different sectors in Malaysia under some assumptions, bounds and restrictions and the outcome can be used for planning of energy supply in future. (author)

  3. Emotional Intelligence and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour of Manufacturing Sector Employees: An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Tee Suan Chin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As with diversity, collaboration, co-operation and teamwork havebecome increasingly important issues for management to handle.The purpose of this study is to analyse the level of Emotional Intelligenceand Organisational Citizenship Behaviour among middlemanagement employees in the Malaysian manufacturing sector.A total of 536 employees from different organisations and industriestook part in this survey. Based on the descriptive analysis,employees in some industries tended to have a lower level ofemotional intelligence and organisational citizenship behaviour.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Market Volatility in Indian Banking and IT Sectors by using Average Decline Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kirti AREKAR; Rinku JAIN

    2017-01-01

    The stock market volatility is depends on three major features, complete volatility, volatility fluctuations, and volatility attention and they are calculate by the statistical techniques. Comparative analysis of market volatility for two major index i.e. banking & IT sector in Bombay stock exchange (BSE) by using average decline model. The average degeneration process in volatility has being used after very high and low stock returns. The results of this study explain significant decline in...

  5. Technical efficiency of Spanish electrical sector: analysis of 1998-2001 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Moya, E.; Arevalo Quijada, M. T.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse the technical efficiency of the energy Spanish sector in the course of the stage of liberalization (1998-2001). The study uses the non parametric approach of DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) to derive Malaquist productivity indexes. In the study there is revealed the improvement of productivity of the mentioned companies, as well as the major differentiation between electrical considered companies. (Author) 23 refs

  6. ANALYSIS MODELS OF THE BANKRUPTCY RISK IN ROMANIA’S ENERGY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRON VASILE CRISTIAN IOACHIM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The risk, as a concept found in the economic sphere of business represents an analysis area often approached by researchers from the finance and accounting field. Although it is often seen, along with cost-effectiveness and value, as a fundamental element of finance (Stancu, I., 2007, the risk has often facets that make it useful also in analyzing other sides of the economic sphere of business, such as financial position and economic performance of it. From these meanings, we believe that the most suitable for this purpose is the one through which it is analyzed the ability of an entity to avoid bankruptcy. The present study has as main objectives the presentation of bankruptcy risk of an entity from a theoretical point of view and the analysis (from an empirical and comparative point of view through the scoring method of the implementation of various models for analyzing the risk of bankruptcy (Altman, Conan-holder, Taffler, Robertson in Romania’s energy sector, in order to issue an opinion regarding the optimal method for analyzing the bankruptcy risk in the energy sector. The results show that there are significant differences regarding the analysis of the bankruptcy risk through the appliction of different models, proposing the Conan-Holder model as the most appropriate for this sector.

  7. Factors Influencing the Organizational Stress among Teachers Working in Higher Education Sector in Kerala: An Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areekkuzhiyil, Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to explore the various factors that influence the organizational stress of teachers working in higher education sector in the state of Kerala. The data required for the study has been conveniently collected from 200 teachers working in higher education sector. Exploratory factor analysis revealed nine factors, which significantly…

  8. A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF THE TOURISM SECTOR - CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES IN THE BULGARIAN TOURIST BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostadin Valkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thе analysis presented in current article deepens and summarizes the results of an economic study focused on the management of human resources in the sector "Tourism". The expected changes in organizational and technological terms are taken into account. The law on tourism in the Republic of Bulgaria and the types of taxes that directly and indirectly affect those employed in tourism are considered. Leading accents are the current trends and issues that arise from the lack of skilled workers in this sector and their deficit caused by the seasonal nature of employment. Growing gray economy is concerned as a major obstacle to development of the tourism industry and its future.

  9. Competitive Strategies in the Luxury Sector: a Qualitative Comparative Analysis on the Fashion Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita ANGIONI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the difficult economic period, companies in luxury sector are showing better results than those in the consumer products market. The objective of this paper is to analyse the competitive strategies in the luxury sector and in particular, in the personal luxury. To this end, we have chosen to study the case of an Italian company (Tod's Group, leader in the personal luxury according to consumers perception. Basing on a theoretical model of competitive strategy, this study shows a comparison with the strategic choices of three main competitors of Tod's, which offer products with similar values (Made in Italy, exclusivity and high craftsmanship; they are listed companies; they derive from a family business and the family still holds the company's control. The analysis highlights the ability of the Tod's Group in valorizing its capabilities and skills, and the ability of the management to exploit the available relational network.

  10. Geospatial Analysis Platform and tools: supporting planning and decision making across scales, borders, sectors and disciplines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naude, AH

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available observation and geospatial analysis technologies, as well as the associated need for spatially explicit and sectorally integrated growth and development plans (including plans that deal with multi-scale or cross-border issues), the required statistical... planning. This requires planning and analysis that can (1) facilitate the sharing of spatial and other data, (2) deal with multi-scale or cross-border issues, as well as can (3) support the understanding of patterns and inter-regional dynamics at regional...

  11. Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide

  12. Analysis of Production Funds Efficiency in the Country’s Crane Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Valėnaitė

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methodological aspects of the production funds analysis. In this work the study of literature which examines the basic and transferable funds is presented. Much attention is paid to the analysis of basic production funds in the crane sector. Analysis of the basic production funds in the country’s crane sector is presented. Special attention is paid to the structure of the cranes park and crane utilization efficiency. In the analysis of basic production funds, the factors that impede the efficiency of production funds were established as follows: the greatest negative impact on basic production funds efficiency of businesses was in small tower crane fleet; a small range of tower cranes in the park is reducing the technical possibilities of the lease. Basing on the analysis and observation of tower cranes installation and dismantling, the poor supply of the parts for the work place, lack of competence and motivation of the support staff have been ascertained. After elimination of these factors it is possible to raise the efficiency of the main production funds.Article in Lithuanian

  13. Private participation in infrastructure: A risk analysis of long-term contracts in power sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceran, Nisangul

    The objective of this dissertation is to assess whether the private participation in energy sector through long term contracting, such as Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) type investments, is an efficient way of promoting efficiency in the economy. To this end; the theoretical literature on the issue is discussed, the experience of several developing countries are examined, and a BOT project, which is undertaken by the Enron company in Turkey, has been studied in depth as a case study. Different risk analysis techniques, including sensitivity and probabilistic risk analysis with the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method have been applied to assess the financial feasibility and risks of the case study project, and to shed light on the level of rent-seeking in the BOT agreements. Although data on rent seeking and corruption is difficult to obtain, the analysis of case study investment using the sensitivity and MCS method provided some information that can be used in assessing the level of rent-seeking in BOT projects. The risk analysis enabled to test the sustainability of the long-term BOT contracts through the analysis of projects financial feasibility with and without the government guarantees in the project. The approach of testing the sustainability of the project under different scenarios is helpful to understand the potential costs and contingent liabilities for the government and project's impact on a country's overall economy. The results of the risk analysis made by the MCS method for the BOT project used as the case study strongly suggest that, the BOT projects does not serve to the interest of the society and transfers substantial amount of public money to the private companies, implying severe governance problems. It is found that not only government but also private sector may be reluctant about full privatization of infrastructure due to several factors such as involvement of large sunk costs, very long time period for returns to be received, political and

  14. Evaluating knowledge outsourcing performance Of public sectors with data envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu, Hong-Cheng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the governmental sectors imitating the reformation of enterprises stressing on Knowledge, Contracting Out and Deregulation have become the core policies. Contracting Out is not based on the arbitrariness of an administrator, but the selective efficiency and competition. Connecting the resources between Public and Private Sectors is a concern of Contracting Out, while Knowledge Outsourcing is an innovation to enhance organizational knowledge and the reduction of organizational ignorance. Based on a Knowledge Outsourcing Investigation by the Kaohsiung City Government (Taiwan in the past few years, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and Sensitivity Analysis are integrated for measuring the total efficiency (TE, pure technical efficiency (PTE, and scale efficiency (SE of Knowledge Outsourcing of the sectors in the Kaohsiung City Government for the improvement reference of other counties and cities. From the message acquired from the efficiency and variables with the DEA, one DMU (Data Management Unit, or about 5% of all DMUs, appears to have strong Knowledge Outsourcing efficiency 1, showing favorable Knowledge Outsourcing efficiency. Two DMUs, comprising about 10% of all DMUs, reveal the marginal Knowledge Outsourcing inefficiency between 0.9 and 1. This implies that such sectors could better enhance the Knowledge Outsourcing efficiency. 17 DMUs, representing about 85% of all DMUs, exhibit an obvious Knowledge Outsourcing inefficiency of less than 0.9, so that the Finance and Transportation Bureaus present the lowest Knowledge Outsourcing efficiency.En la medida en que el sector público imita la reforma de aquellas empresas que ponen el acento en el conocimiento, la subcontratación y la desregulación se han convertido en las principales políticas. La subcontratación no se basa en la arbitrariedad de un gestor público, sino en la eficacia selectiva y la competencia. El interés de la subcontratación consiste en poner en contacto los recursos

  15. Job Satisfaction Analysis of Faculty Members in Public Sector Engineering Universities: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMEER ALI SHAHANI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of the researchers have conducted study on the job satisfaction of the faculty members in Non? Engineering Universities only few have paid their attention in the Public Sector Engineering Universities. This study is the first attempt towards the research on faculty members? job satisfaction in public sector engineering universities of Sindh, Pakistan. The focus of this research is to assess the faculty members?job satisfaction on the perspectives of different factors i.e. compensation, research and technology, management style, recognition, working environment, in-service teaching training. The data was collected and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 on five point likert scale. Regression, Correlation and ANOVAs (Analysis of Variance tests were conducted. Results showed that faculty members of the public sector engineering universities have lower job satisfaction. The finding suggested that, the study is useful for the management of universities in order to rectify the areas of dissatisfaction and to tackle the issues related to the faculty members regarding their job satisfaction.

  16. Estimating size and scope economies in the Portuguese water sector using the Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2016-02-15

    This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the Portuguese water sector applying Bayesian and classical statistics to make inference in stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). This study proves the usefulness and advantages of the application of Bayesian statistics for making inference in SFA over traditional SFA which just uses classical statistics. The resulting Bayesian methods allow overcoming some problems that arise in the application of the traditional SFA, such as the bias in small samples and skewness of residuals. In the present case study of the water sector in Portugal, these Bayesian methods provide more plausible and acceptable results. Based on the results obtained we found that there are important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope in the Portuguese water sector, pointing out to the huge advantages in undertaking mergers by joining the retail and wholesale components and by joining the drinking water and wastewater services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An analysis of Grenada's power sector and energy resources: a role for renewable energy technologies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesser, D.

    2004-01-01

    Presently, Grenada's power sector is fully dependent on fossil fuel imports for meeting the country's electricity demand. Electric utilities in Small Island Developing States (SIDS), in general, face high cost of electricity generation due to diseconomies of scale in production, consumption and logistical aspects. Grenada's private power monopoly is no exception and the high cost of import dependent electricity generation places an increasing burden on economic development. In light of rapid technological and economic improvement of renewable energy technologies (RETs), the country's abundant sources of renewable energy should be harnessed. Benefits are envisaged to include lower electricity cost, better environmental performance and a safer and diversified supply of energy. However, barriers for shifting power production towards meaningful contributions from RETs exist, both in government and industry. This work analyses important economic interactions between the power sector and economic development, bringing to attention the importance of power sector reform. Further, present problems of integrating RETs into the grid, ranging from technical and regulatory issues to shareholder interest are investigated. A summary and analysis of past research into renewable sources of energy (RES) underscore the potential for power production from RETs in Grenada. (author)

  18. LMDI Decomposition Analysis of Energy Consumption in the Korean Manufacturing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyi Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The energy consumption of Korea’s manufacturing sector has sharply increased over the past 20 years. This paper decomposes the factors influencing energy consumption in this sector using the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI method and analyzes the specific characteristics of energy consumption from 1991 to 2011. The analysis reveals that the activity effect played a major role in increasing energy consumption. While the structure and intensity effects contributed to the reduction in energy consumption, the structure effect was greater than the intensity effect. Over the periods, the effects moved in opposite directions; that is, the structure effect decreased when the intensity effect increased and vice versa. The energy consumption by each industry is decomposed into two factors, activity and intensity effects. The increase of energy consumption due to the activity effect is largest in the petroleum and chemical industry, followed by the primary metal and non-ferrous industry, and the fabricated metal industry. The decrease of energy consumption due to the intensity effect is largest in the fabricated metal industry, followed by the primary metal and non-ferrous industry, and the non-metallic industry. The energy consumption due to intensity effect in the petroleum and chemical industry has risen. To save energy consumption more efficiently for addressing climate change in this sector, industrial restructuring and industry-specific energy saving policies should be introduced.

  19. Reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector-A qualitative content analysis of the political rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2015-05-01

    In 2009, a reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector took place, and a fundamental change in ownership and structure followed. The reregulation provides an opportunity to reveal the politicians' views on pharmacies. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the political arguments for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During the preparatory work, the rationales of diversity on the market and entrepreneurship were added, while the original rationales of efficiency, price pressure, and better usage of medicines were abandoned. The reform can be seen as a typical New Public Management reform influenced by the notion that private actors are better equipped to perform public activities. The results point to that the reform was done almost solely in order to introduce private ownership in the pharmacy sector, and was not initiated in order to solve any general problems, or to enhance patient outcomes of medicine use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Impact Analysis of Direct Public R&D and Innovation Investments in Turkish Space Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Derya; Cakir, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    According to The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), space sector plays a pivotal role in the functioning of modern societies and their economic development. It is in the scope of OECD's International Futures Programme. The global space economy, as defined by the OECD Space Forum, comprises the space industry's core activities in space manufacturing and in satellite operations, plus other consumer activities that have been derived over the years from governmental research and development. In 2013 commercial revenues generated by the space economy amounted to USD 256.2 billion globally that is huge amount of space investment in the world. Recently, Turkey has also entered to the sector and it has growing strategic interest in space. First satellite project was started with a technology transfer from UK by TUBITAK Space Technologies Research Institute in 2001 and it launched to its orbit in 2003. Then RASAT and GÖKTÜRK-2 satellites were developed and launched to their orbits respectively in 2011 and 2012. Today, we have other satellite projects that are going on, too. However, we do not have a mechanism or a model to assess the impacts of those projects. What kind of model can be used to measure the impact of direct public R&D and innovation investments in Turkish space sector? The aim of this study is to develop a model which would be useful for monitoring the performance of R&D and Innovation investments that are conducted through government policies and strategies and so on to give feedback for effective strategy making. When we look at the impact analysis studies in Turkey, we see a few such as TUBITAK (Özçelik and Taymaz, 2008; Erden, 2010; Tandoǧan, 2011), İşkur (World Bank Report, 2013), Ministry of Economy (TTGV, 2013), Development Agencies (İZKA, 2011; Elçi vd., 2011; Pınar, 2014; Meydan, 2014). There is need for a systematic approach to impact analysis. Since there is no data for this study, we would develop a model with

  1. Economic Crisis and SMEs’ Behavior: An Analysis on the Furniture Sector in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cioppi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the results of a case study analysis carried out on five small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs operating in the furnishing sector of an Italian province. The aim of the study was to analyze which kind of strategies SMEs are adopting in order to face the economic crisis started in 2008. The cases analyzed highlighted the ability of firms in reacting by the development a proactive strategy, which brought them to positive economic results over time. Discussion of results and managerial implications are suggested in order to properly address other enterprises acting in similar market condition

  2. The Relationship between Profit and Productivity in the IT Sector in Romania. Analysis by Panel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Andreea POPA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of process of globalization and economic integration, the objective of economic politics of every country is strengthening of national competitiveness. To stay competitive in global markets, countries are forced to search for factors, new alternatives stimulating economic development. Productivity is among quantities reflecting the level of competitiveness. This paper has three parts. The first part consists of introduction and literature review. In the second part is found analyzing the relationship of dependence between net income and labor productivity and the last part is an analysis of the IT services sector.

  3. Cost analysis of Healthcare in a Private sector Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karambelkar, Geeta; Malwade, Sudhir; Karambelkar, Rajendra

    2016-09-08

    To study the actual cost of care per patient in private-sector level IIIa Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Prospective cost-analysis study. Cost incurred by the family on the treatment of baby, separately for every newborn for entire length of hospitalization, was calculated. 126 newborns were enrolled; High level of intervention was needed for 25.4% babies. The mean cost of care was US $ 90.7 per patient per day. Bulk of the cost of care was the hospital bill.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Market Volatility in Indian Banking and IT Sectors by using Average Decline Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti AREKAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The stock market volatility is depends on three major features, complete volatility, volatility fluctuations, and volatility attention and they are calculate by the statistical techniques. Comparative analysis of market volatility for two major index i.e. banking & IT sector in Bombay stock exchange (BSE by using average decline model. The average degeneration process in volatility has being used after very high and low stock returns. The results of this study explain significant decline in volatility fluctuations, attention, and level between epochs of pre and post particularly high stock returns.

  5. Sector model analysis of risk on cross-jurisdictional treatment of disaster waste related to the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Miori; Itokawa, Etsuko; Ozuka, Yohei

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed the controversial issue of disaster waste treatment in the reconstruction efforts following the Great East Japan Earthquake. Using the Sector Model (Matsumoto 2009), we categorized a range of actions taken in relation to the cross-jurisdictional treatment into the four sectors, government, industry, academia, and private. The analysis through this Sector Model made it possible to map the entire layout of waste treatment, inclusive of less-visible industry and academia sectors. Accordingly, we have argued that differences of risk awareness are not necessarily due to sector differences but rather depend on two aspects of the disaster waste treatment; the safety levels and the nationwide treatment of waste in Japan. We further suggest that the discrepancy in the arguments on safety levels emerged as a result of scientific under-determination and cross-jurisdictional treatment from social and/or political under-determination. (author)

  6. Lessons learnt from a sectoral analysis of greenhouse gas mitigation potential in the Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgopoulou, E.; Mirasgedis, S.; Sarafidis, Y.; Gakis, N.; Hontou, V.; Lalas, D.P.; Steiner, D.; Tuerk, A.; Fruhmann, C.; Pucker, J.

    2015-01-01

    Balkan countries in the process of joining the European Union shall adopt greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets and implement appropriate mitigation policies and measures. This paper presents a simplified methodological framework based on marginal abatement cost curves for estimating the technical and economic mitigation potential at sectoral level (buildings and road transport) in selected Balkan countries. The results of the analysis provide to decision makers useful information regarding the availability of background data, the potential for setting ambitious mitigation targets, and detailed tools for assisting the selection of policies and measures to meet these targets. The analysis performed shows that a significant part of the greenhouse gas emissions abatement potential can be achieved through win–win measures. The incorporation of environmental externalities associated with these interventions, estimated through benefits transfer, further improves the economic performance of these measures, especially in the buildings sector. Moreover, the implementation of these measures is shown to result in positive macroeconomic effects through increases in GDP (gross domestic product) and creation of new jobs. Finally, the rebound effect may restrict the estimated greenhouse gas emission reductions in the buildings of the countries examined due to the low energy performance of the existing building stock. - Highlights: • Analysis of the technical and economic GHG mitigation potential in western Balkans. • Marginal abatement cost curves highlight several win–win interventions. • Incorporation of environmental benefits improves the performance of measures. • Mitigation measures result in significant positive macroeconomic effects. • The investment costs and the rebound effect may influence measures' effectiveness.

  7. Integrated water assessment and modelling: A bibliometric analysis of trends in the water resource sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Fateme; Elsawah, Sondoss; Iwanaga, Takuya; Jakeman, Anthony J.; Pierce, Suzanne A.

    2017-09-01

    There are substantial challenges facing humanity in the water and related sectors and purposeful integration of the disciplines, connected sectors and interest groups is now perceived as essential to address them. This article describes and uses bibliometric analysis techniques to provide quantitative insights into the general landscape of Integrated Water Resource Assessment and Modelling (IWAM) research over the last 45 years. Keywords, terms in titles, abstracts and the full texts are used to distinguish the 13,239 IWAM articles in journals and other non-grey literature. We identify the major journals publishing IWAM research, influential authors through citation counts, as well as the distribution and strength of source countries. Fruitfully, we find that the growth in numbers of such publications has continued to accelerate, and attention to both the biophysical and socioeconomic aspects has also been growing. On the other hand, our analysis strongly indicates that the former continue to dominate, partly by embracing integration with other biophysical sectors related to water - environment, groundwater, ecology, climate change and agriculture. In the social sciences the integration is occurring predominantly through economics, with the others, including law, policy and stakeholder participation, much diminished in comparison. We find there has been increasing attention to management and decision support systems, but a much weaker focus on uncertainty, a pervasive concern whose criticalities must be identified and managed for improving decision making. It would seem that interdisciplinary science still has a long way to go before crucial integration with the non-economic social sciences and uncertainty considerations are achieved more routinely.

  8. Energy efficiency in the industrial sector. Model based analysis of the efficient use of energy in the EU-27 with focus on the industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuder, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    of the industry could be split up into energy intensive subsectors where single production processes dominate the energy consumption, and non-energy intensive subsectors. Ways to reduce the energy consumption in the industrial sector are the use of alternative or improved production or cross cutting technologies and the use of energy saving measures to reduce the demand for useable energy. Based on the analysis within this study, 21 % of the current energy consumption of the industrial sector of the EU and 17 % in Germany could be reduced. Based on the extended understanding of energy efficiency, the model based scenario analysis of the European energy system with the further developed energy system model TIMES PanEU shows that the efficient use of energy at an emission reduction level of 75 % is a slightly increasing primary energy consumption. The primary energy consumption is characterised by a diversified energy carrier and technology mix. Renewable energy sources, nuclear energy and CCS play a key role in the long term. In addition the electricity demand in combination with a strong decarbonisation of the electricity generation is increasing constantly. In the industrial sector the emission reduction is driven by the extended use of electricity, CCS and renewables as well as by the use of improved or alternative process and supply technologies with lower specific energy consumption. Thereby the final energy consumption stays almost on a constant level with increasing importance of electricity and biomass. Both regulatory interventions in the electricity sector and energy saving targets on the primary energy demand lead to higher energy system costs and therewith to a decrease of efficiency based on the extended understanding. The energy demand is reduced stronger than it is efficient and the saving targets lead to the extended use of other resources resulting in totally higher costs. The integrated system analysis in this study points out the interactions

  9. Priority economic sector and household income in Indonesia (an analysis of input output)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subanti, S.; Mulyanto; Hakim, A. R.; Mafruhah, I.; Hakim, I. M.

    2018-03-01

    This purpose of study aims to identify the roles of priority economic sectors on household incomes in Indonesia. Analyse in this paper used nine economic sectors, that representing result of classification from input output table. This study found that (1) priority economic sector are manufacturing sector & trade hotel and restaurant; (2) sector that have looking forward orientation included agriculture, mining & quarrying, and financial ownership & business services; and (3) electricity, gas, and water supply sector give the biggest impact to household income in Indonesia. The suggestion that policies aimed at increasing productivity and raising skills while encouraging individual participation in the formal labour market are essential.

  10. Dominating clasp of the financial sector revealed by partial correlation analysis of the stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenett, Dror Y; Tumminello, Michele; Madi, Asaf; Gur-Gershgoren, Gitit; Mantegna, Rosario N; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2010-12-20

    What are the dominant stocks which drive the correlations present among stocks traded in a stock market? Can a correlation analysis provide an answer to this question? In the past, correlation based networks have been proposed as a tool to uncover the underlying backbone of the market. Correlation based networks represent the stocks and their relationships, which are then investigated using different network theory methodologies. Here we introduce a new concept to tackle the above question--the partial correlation network. Partial correlation is a measure of how the correlation between two variables, e.g., stock returns, is affected by a third variable. By using it we define a proxy of stock influence, which is then used to construct partial correlation networks. The empirical part of this study is performed on a specific financial system, namely the set of 300 highly capitalized stocks traded at the New York Stock Exchange, in the time period 2001-2003. By constructing the partial correlation network, unlike the case of standard correlation based networks, we find that stocks belonging to the financial sector and, in particular, to the investment services sub-sector, are the most influential stocks affecting the correlation profile of the system. Using a moving window analysis, we find that the strong influence of the financial stocks is conserved across time for the investigated trading period. Our findings shed a new light on the underlying mechanisms and driving forces controlling the correlation profile observed in a financial market.

  11. Analysis of the quality of work life in the sewing sector of a clothing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielly Silva de Aquino

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analyze the quality of work life in the sewing sector of a clothing industry located in the Northwest of the Paraná. The research is characterized as an exploratory and descriptive case study. The instrument of data collection was an adaptation of the model considered for Walton. For data analysis descriptive statistics and the diagram of boxes were used (boxplot. The results had disclosed that the eight criterions of the quality of work life investigated had presented levels of satisfaction greater than 50%. A satisfactory general average can be evidenced (66.85% among the employees of the sewing sector in relation to the quality of work life. Although the presented levels of satisfaction, it would be interesting to take some measures aiming to improve them even more. These measures should be directed to the analysis of the criterion “proper and fair compensation”, which presented the worst average and greater dispersion among investigated criteria.

  12. Futures Business Models for an IoT Enabled Healthcare Sector: A Causal Layered Analysis Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Francis Gomes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To facilitate futures business research by proposing a novel way to combine business models as a conceptual tool with futures research techniques. Design: A futures perspective is adopted to foresight business models of the Internet of Things (IoT enabled healthcare sector by using business models as a futures business research tool. In doing so, business models is coupled with one of the most prominent foresight methodologies, Causal Layered Analysis (CLA. Qualitative analysis provides deeper understanding of the phenomenon through the layers of CLA; litany, social causes, worldview and myth. Findings: It is di cult to predict the far future for a technology oriented sector like healthcare. This paper presents three scenarios for short-, medium- and long-term future. Based on these scenarios we also present a set of business model elements for different future time frames. This paper shows a way to combine business models with CLA, a foresight methodology; in order to apply business models in futures business research. Besides offering early results for futures business research, this study proposes a conceptual space to work with individual business models for managerial stakeholders. Originality / Value: Much research on business models has offered conceptualization of the phenomenon, innovation through business model and transformation of business models. However, existing literature does not o er much on using business model as a futures research tool. Enabled by futures thinking, we collected key business model elements and building blocks for the futures market and ana- lyzed them through the CLA framework.

  13. A blocked takeover in the Polish power sector: A model-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiński, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    As the President of the Office of Competition and Consumer Protection refused to approve a government initiated takeover in the Polish power sector and the Court of Competition and Consumer Protection did not make a ruling on that case, the takeover was finally prohibited. In this context, the main aim of this paper is to carry out a quantitative analysis of the impact of the takeover in question on electricity prices and quantities, consumer and producer surpluses, dead weight loss and emissions. The scope of the study covers the Polish power generation sector and the analysis was carried out for 2009. A game theory-based electricity market equilibrium model developed for Poland was applied. The model includes several country-specific conditions, such as a coal-based power generation fuel-mix, a large share of biomass co-combustion, etc. For the sake of clarity, only four scenarios are assumed. The paper concludes that the declared synergy savings did not compensate for the increase in dead weight loss and the transfer of surplus from consumers to producers caused by increased market power. - Highlights: • A takeover blocked by the President of the Office of Competition and Consumer Protection was analysed. • A game theory-based model of the Polish wholesale electricity market was applied. • The impact of the takeover on electricity prices and generation levels, surplus transfers and dead weight loss was estimated. • The results were compared with the declared synergy savings

  14. Tipping points for carbon dioxide and air pollution benefits: an energy systems analysis of natural gas verses electric technologies in the U.S. buildings sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our analysis examines emission trade-offs between electricity and natural gas use in the buildings sector at the system level, including upstream emissions from the electric sector and natural gas mining emissions.

  15. 2015 wind energy observatory. Analysis of market, jobs and future of the wind energy sector in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perot, Olivier; Autier, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    This Power Point presentation proposes graphs, figures, tables and comments on the status and evolution of jobs in the wind energy sector (a growing sector, analysis of job locations), of the wind energy market (assessment of a growing market, dynamic French regions, competitive context, evolution of technologies with higher machines, larger wind farms and a growing production), and on the future of wind energy (a growing number of training courses, an active R and D all over the country, a structuring sector). Sheets presenting actors per categories, and maps of regional activity location are provided in appendix

  16. Oil prices, stock markets and portfolio investment. Evidence from sector analysis in Europe over the last decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedi Arouri, Mohamed El; Khuong Nguyen, Duc

    2010-01-01

    This article extends the understanding of oil-stock market relationships over the last turbulent decade. Unlike previous empirical investigations, which have largely focused on broad-based market indices (national and/or regional indices), we examine short-term linkages in the aggregate as well as sector by sector levels in Europe using different econometric techniques. Our main findings suggest that the reactions of stock returns to oil price changes differ greatly depending on the activity sector. In the out-of-sample analysis we show that introducing oil asset into a diversified portfolio of stocks allows to significantly improve its risk-return characteristics. (author)

  17. An Urban-Spatial Analysis of the Women in the Informal Sectors of Greater Guwahati City of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zona Bhuyan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects the use of urban space by women in urban informal sectors in the city of Guwahati located in North East India. The population influx from across the borders in the aftermath of the partition has huge implications both on polity and on economy of the northeastern states in general and Assam in particular.  Importantly, the urban informal sectors have a sizeable share in terms of its significant contributions towards Gross Domestic Product (GDP as well as generation of employment opportunities largely. Using a feminist perspective, the research is an attempt to investigate the engagement of women in the informal sector in greater Guwahati. Research findings reveal that the occupations of the women workers are location-specific, that is, the manufacturing sectors (textiles, food preparation, printing and skilled service are mainly home/shop based production (fixed locations whereas the service sectors (leisure, caring, elementary construction, elementary sales and cleaning occupation operate at variable locations (construction sites, street pavements, marketplaces and other various locations. Further analysis shows that the informal sector is highly demand dependent and such demands are in the central business areas of the city, therefore informal sector services (skilled services and elementary services are found to be located in and around the central areas of Guwahati city. Women operators in the informal sector are attracted to the central business district because of the many advantages that it enjoys relative to other parts of a city. The paper concludes by calling on policy makers and physical planning agencies to evolve more pragmatic strategies for urban development matters in order that urban informal sector activities can be integrated into urban development plans. Finally, further research is called for on how urban planners could redesign the urban space with appropriate consideration of the informal sector

  18. Logistic Regression Analysis of Operational Errors and Routine Operations Using Sector Characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pfleiderer, Elaine M; Scroggins, Cheryl L; Manning, Carol A

    2009-01-01

    Two separate logistic regression analyses were conducted for low- and high-altitude sectors to determine whether a set of dynamic sector characteristics variables could reliably discriminate between operational error (OE...

  19. ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT DIRECTIONS OF THE BANKING SECTOR THROUGH THE MANAGEMENT OF IT PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віктор Володимирович МОРОЗОВ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the causes and consequences of IT projects’ budgets reformatting in banking organizations are investigated. Analysis and parallels in approaches of choosing IT projects to be implemented in foreign and Ukrainian financial institutions are being conducted. This significantly affects not only the results of investigation and selection of IT projects but also on the development of such organizations in general. The analysis shows that on the background of global GDP decrease, banks around the world are increasing their IT investments, but investments in IT projects are heavily redistributed towards digital transformation. Nevertheless, IT projects are a major driver of banking business development, so their number is rapidly growing every day in the fields of big data analytics, virtualization and cloud computing, mobility, scoring, target marketing, IT infrastructure etc. The authors draw conclusions about trends in implementation of IT projects and their impact on the development of the banking business sector.

  20. Policy Analysis of Poverty Alleviation in Semarang City Using Spatial and Sectoral Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muktiali, M.

    2018-02-01

    Poverty is a multidimensional problem. Therefore, poverty reduction policy is not only related to the increase of income, but also various other dimensions such as improvement of education, health, quality of life, access to electricity, access to sanitation and water supply. Semarang City Government in 2012 initiated a policy of poverty reduction synergy program called “Gerdu Kempling”. Gerdu Kempling is an integrated policy which gives priority to addressing poverty in each village and sub-district in Semarang based on aspects of health, economy, education, infrastructure, and environment. Based on the results of Budget Allocation Analysis and Analysis of Geographic Information Systems (Poverty Mapping), it can be concluded that the program and budget allocation for poverty alleviation in Semarang City are not synchronized either spatially or sectorally.

  1. Ergonomic work analysis: A case study of bus drivers in the private collective transportation sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Adolfo Vicente; Arcanjo, Gemima Santos; Fernandes, Haroldo; Arcanjo, Georgia Santos

    2018-05-03

    The collective transportation system is essential to reduce the number of automobiles in the roads. Concerns exist related to quality, comfort and safety of bus driver's workstations. The objective of this study was to improve the driver's workstation in the private collective transportation sector by analyzing ergonomic practices using the Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA). The EWA was chosen because it seeks to evaluate the labor condition as it relates to the psychophysiological conditions of workers, it complies with regulatory standard 17 (NR17). To identify driver concerns, interviews and questionnaires were administered. The workstation and worker routines were observed. The analysis revealed that the largest number of complaints related to noise, display light and location of the passenger identifier device. Drivers reported discomfort in the knees and lower back. Recommendations were made to improve the workstation and change the routine to minimize the discomfort and ergonomic risk factors.

  2. Funding and financing mechanisms for infrastructure delivery: multi-sector analysis of benchmarking of South Africa against developed countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matji, MP

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 AMPEAK Asset Management Conference 2015 Funding and financing mechanisms for infrastructure delivery: multi-sector analysis of benchmarking of South Africa against developed countries Matji, MP and Ruiters, C Abstract: For developing..., the researcher identifies financing opportunities for infrastructure delivery in South Africa and how such opportunities can be explored, taking into account political dynamics and legislative sector-based frameworks. Keywords: Asset Management, Financing...

  3. Analysis Income Business Food and Beverage Informal Sector in Kecamatan Tampan City Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Novi Ulya; Khaswarina, Shorea; Muwardi, Didi

    2014-01-01

    A development is an effort to gain the more and the better life. There are 4 indicators in gaining the development they are economic change, human resources, social inhibition and the high of life needed. A development in the development country likes Indonesia, generally more consider the development of economic sector in the hope of much progressed in production of job vacancy.There are two kinds of economic activities, they are from formal sector and informal one. Formal sector is a sector...

  4. Sectoral analysis of the causal relationship between electricity consumption and real output in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Chor Foon; Shahbaz, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    This study uses the annual data from 1972 to 2010 to assess the causal relationship between electricity consumption and real output at the aggregate and sectoral levels in Pakistan. This study covers three main economic sectors in Pakistan namely agricultural, manufacturing and services sectors. Our cointegration results reveal that the variables are cointegrated at the aggregate and sectoral levels. At the aggregate level, we find that there is uni-directional Granger causality running from electricity consumption to real output in Pakistan. At the sectoral level, we find that electricity consumption Granger-causes real output in the manufacturing and services sectors. However, there is no causal relationship between electricity consumption and real output in the agricultural sector. The policy implication of these results is that electricity conservation policies in general would deteriorate the process of economic growth as well as the real output in the manufacturing and services sectors in Pakistan. Nevertheless, we suggest the Pakistani government to implement the electricity conservation policies merely to the agricultural sector because such policies may have less or no adverse impact on its real output. - Highlights: • We assess the electricity-growth nexus in Pakistan at the aggregate and sectoral levels. • The variables are cointegrated at both levels. • We find causality from electricity to output at the aggregate level and services. • We find neutral causality in the agricultural sector. • We find bi-directional causality in the manufacturing sector

  5. Analysis the Impact of Technology Spillovers on Total Factor Productivity of Agricultural Sector in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Baniasadi

    2016-09-01

    Group of Eight developed countries (D8 plus China. Technology spillover indexes are thus decomposed into two components: Imports of capital goods and foreign direct investment (FDI. Index of capital goods imports measures imports of capital goods from major commercial partners of Iran (D8 countries and china. Foreign direct investment (FDI represents the share of foreign capital in agricultural sectors. Therefore, the empirical analysis of the technology spillover on the productivity of agricultural sectors is based on theatrical framework and ARDL model. Results and Discussion: According to the results of the ARDL model, technological spillover effect on the TFP of agricultural sector, in long-term shows that technology spillover has a positive and significant effect on agricultural productivity from both channels of capital goods import and foreign direct investment (FDI. But in short-term spillover variable from a capital goods import channel is not significant. This indicates that absorption of the technology from imports of capital goods channel do not perform very well and probably low-tech and without affecting on TFP of agriculture sector is imported. But in long-term technology spillover from imports channels also had a positive impact on total factor productivity of the agricultural sector. In fact, high technologies in long-term can be absorbed through the imports and influenced on TFP. According to thesis study results, the estimated coefficient of error correction term is equal to 0.53.This means that in each period, 53 percent of imbalances of agricultural TFP will be resolved. The average speed of upward of adjustment reflects the fact that in Iran economy, deviations and imbalances have arisen in the agricultural sector TFP caused by technology spillovers shocks, move very fast towards long-run equilibrium. Conclusions: The purpose of this paper is to advance the knowledge for a key question with evident implications for economic policy: What is the

  6. Sector-based political analysis of energy transition: Green shift in the forest policy regime in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergent, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    This article examines energy transition political process from a sector-based approach, through the analysis of recent shift in the French forest policy regime. We demonstrate that, since 2007, energy transition policies have led to a harvesting turn within the French forest policy framework, meaning that priority is given to wood mobilisation, mainly for biomass uses. In addition, our findings suggest that the political authority wielded by the state over forest policy has shifted from forest administrative services to energy agencies and local authorities. Finally, we show that, although implementation of the harvesting turn is a cause of sectoral and inter-sectoral tensions, energy transition challenge also contributes to a process of (re)institutionalisation of mediation relationships among forestry stakeholders and wood-based industries representatives. The article concludes by arguing that sectors should retain relevant institutional frameworks for actors when choosing political arrangements required for implementing energy transition policy. - Highlights: • Implementing energy transition policy potentially challenges sector-based politics. • We propose a policy regime framework and socio-political investigations. • We analyse the political impact of energy transition policy on French forest sector. • Shifts occur in sectoral policy framework, authority, and mediation relationships

  7. Analysis of equatorial plasma bubble zonal drift velocities in the Pacific sector by imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yao

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Using 1024 nights of data from 2002–2005 taken by the Cornell Narrow Field Imager (CNFI, we examine equatorial plasma bubble (EPB zonal drift velocity characteristics. CNFI is located at the Maui Space Surveillance Site on the Haleakala Volcano (geographic: 20.71° N, 203.83° E; geomagnetic: 21.03° N, 271.84° E on the island of Maui, Hawaii. The imager is set up to view in a magnetic field-aligned geometry in order to maximize its resolution. We calculate the zonal drift velocities using two methods: a correlation routine and an EPB west-wall intensity gradient tracking routine. These two methods yield sizeable differences in the evenings, suggesting strong pre-local midnight EPB development. An analysis of the drift velocities is also performed based on the three influencing factors of season, geomagnetic activity, and solar activity. In general, our data match published trends and drift characteristics from past studies. However, we find that the drift magnitudes are much lower than results from other imagers at similar latitude sectors but at different longitude sectors, suggesting that zonal drift velocities have a longitudinal dependence.

  8. A scenario analysis of investment options for the Cuban power sector using the MARKAL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Evelyn L.; Belt, Juan A.B.; Chambers, Adam; Delaquil, Pat; Goldstein, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Cuban power sector faces a need for extensive investment in new generating capacity, under a large number of uncertainties regarding future conditions, including: rate of demand growth, fluctuations in fuel prices, access to imported fuel, and access to investment capital for construction of new power plants and development of fuel import infrastructure. To identify cost effective investment strategies under these uncertainties, a supply and power sector MARKAL model was assembled, following an extensive review of available data on the Cuban power system and resource potentials. Two scenarios were assessed, a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario assuming continued moderate electricity load growth and domestic fuel production growth, and a high growth (HI) scenario assuming rapid electricity demand growth, rapid increase in domestic fuel production, and a transition to market pricing of electricity. Within these two scenarios sets, sensitivity analyses were conducted on a number of variables. The implications of least-cost investment strategies for new capacity builds, investment spending requirements, electricity prices, fuel expenditures, and carbon dioxide emissions for each scenario were assessed. Natural gas was found to be the cost effective fuel for new generation across both scenarios and most sensitivity cases, suggesting that access to natural gas, through increased domestic production and LNG import, is a clear priority for further analysis in the Cuban context.

  9. Comparative analysis of sustainable consumption and production in Visegrad region - conclusions for textile and clothing sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszewska, M.; Militki, J.; Mizsey, P.; Benda-Prokeinova, R.

    2017-10-01

    Gradual environmental degradation, shrinking of non-renewable resources, and lower quality of life are directly or indirectly arising from snowballing consumption. These unfavorable processes concern increasingly textile and clothing sector and are increasingly being felt in Visegrad Region (V4). The objective of the article was to access current consumption patterns in V4 countries, identify the factors that influence those patterns and finally to draw the conclusions for more sustainable consumption and production models as well as to make a comparative analysis of the results across V4 countries. A consumer survey was conducted to examine V4 citizens’ attitudes and behaviors in the context of sustainable consumption. To ensure sample size and comparability across countries 2000 randomly-selected V4 citizens, aged 18 and over, were interviewed. To analyze the supply side of the market and legal framework, the desk research was used. The results allowed to give some guidelines for the joint V4 strategy for solving ecological and social problems of V4 countries as well as the conclusions for textile and clothing sector.

  10. A scenario analysis of investment options for the Cuban power sector using the MARKAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Evelyn L.; Chambers, Adam; Delaquil, Pat; Goldstein, Gary [International Resources Group, 1211 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Belt, Juan A.B. [US Agency for International Development, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20523-3800 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The Cuban power sector faces a need for extensive investment in new generating capacity, under a large number of uncertainties regarding future conditions, including: rate of demand growth, fluctuations in fuel prices, access to imported fuel, and access to investment capital for construction of new power plants and development of fuel import infrastructure. To identify cost effective investment strategies under these uncertainties, a supply and power sector MARKAL model was assembled, following an extensive review of available data on the Cuban power system and resource potentials. Two scenarios were assessed, a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario assuming continued moderate electricity load growth and domestic fuel production growth, and a high growth (HI) scenario assuming rapid electricity demand growth, rapid increase in domestic fuel production, and a transition to market pricing of electricity. Within these two scenarios sets, sensitivity analyses were conducted on a number of variables. The implications of least-cost investment strategies for new capacity builds, investment spending requirements, electricity prices, fuel expenditures, and carbon dioxide emissions for each scenario were assessed. Natural gas was found to be the cost effective fuel for new generation across both scenarios and most sensitivity cases, suggesting that access to natural gas, through increased domestic production and LNG import, is a clear priority for further analysis in the Cuban context. (author)

  11. A multi-sectoral decomposition analysis of city-level greenhouse gas emissions: Case study of Tianjin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jidong; Zhao, Tao; Liu, Nan; Zhang, Xin; Xu, Xianshuo; Lin, Tao

    2014-01-01

    To better understand how city-level greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have evolved, we performed a multi-sectoral decomposition analysis to disentangle the GHG emissions in Tianjin from 2001 to 2009. Five sectors were considered, including the agricultural, industrial, transportation, commercial and other sectors. An industrial sub-sector decomposition analysis was further performed in the six high-emission industrial branches. The results show that, for all five sectors in Tianjin, economic growth was the most important factor driving the increase in emissions, while energy efficiency improvements were primarily responsible for the decrease in emissions. In comparison, the influences from energy mix shift and emission coefficient changes were relatively marginal. The disaggregated decomposition in the industry further revealed that energy efficiency improvement has been widely achieved in the industrial branches, which was especially true for the Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous Metals and Chemical Raw Materials and Chemical Products sub-sectors. However, the energy efficiency declined in a few branches, e.g., Petroleum Processing and Coking Products. Moreover, the increased emissions related to industrial structure shift were primarily due to the expansion of Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous Metals; its share in the total industry output increased from 5.62% to 16.1% during the examined period. - Highlights: • We perform the LMDI analysis on the emissions in five sectors of Tianjin. • Economic growth was the most important factor for the emissions increase. • Energy efficiency improvements mainly contributed to the emission decrease. • Negative energy intensity effect was observed in most of the industrial sub-sectors. • Industrial structure change largely resulted in emission increase

  12. An analysis of the role of information and communication technology sectors on Japanese national economy from 1995 through 2005: An application of multiplier analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to continue the previous studies which focused on Japanese Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors. More specifically, this study aims to analyze the role of ICT sectors on Japanese national economy using simple household income multiplier, one of the analysis instruments in Input-Output (IO) analysis. The analysis period of this study is from 1995-2005. The results show that the sectors did not have an important role on the national economy of Japan on the period. Besides, the results also show that, from the point of view of the multiplier, Japanese national economy tended to stable during the period

  13. Comparative Study and Critical Analysis of Sustainability Reporting in the Oil and Gas Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Prakash M.

    2006-01-01

    Oil and Gas sector is one of the largest and major economic sectors globally. It is also one of the most critical in terms of being a basic driver for all other economic activities worldwide. In the recent times we have seen large scale volatility in Oil and Gas prices and a surge in huge profits for Oil and Gas sector companies. Oil and Gas sector is also one of the major sectors with tremendous impact on not just environmental factors but also on Social and Economic factors. All major Oil a...

  14. An analysis of power sector system losses in Bangladesh and Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhari, W.

    1995-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the analysis of power sector system losses in both the countries which are similar in nature. The design and construction of major power plants, grid substations and transmission lines are constructed on the same pattern. The generation system loss under transmission must not exceed the limit and any loss above this limit could safely be taken as pilferage or theft of energy. The author is of the opinion that socio-economic conditions prevailing in both countries. The author is not in a position to analyse or comment on the causes of non-technical system loss in Pakistan, but he feels that some of the causes could also equally be applicable. (A.B.)

  15. Diclosure and transparency in public sector: an analysis of convergence of the principles of governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Zorzal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies on disclosure of private institutions are common, but do not occur when it comes to public institutions, where the disclosure of management is still very limited. Purpose: The article is part of doctorate research in Information Science in progress and investigates the principles of disclosure and transparency in the light of good governance practices applied to the public sector, to reduce information asymmetry and presents part of this research. Methodology: The methodological procedures were performed literature search and content analysis to identify the principles and standards of good governance practices recommended for public administration, aiming to systematize these recommendations as instruments of governance and verify the convergence of the principles of disclosure and transparency. Results: Partial results show convergence of disclosure and transparency principles. Conclusions: Indicate that public institutions should worry about performing the practices of good governance as a way to mitigate the informational asymmetry.

  16. Detection of masses in mammograms by analysis of gradient vector convergence using sector filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhari, Y.; Karimian, A.; Mohammadbeigi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Although mammography is the main diagnostic method for breast cancer, but the interpretation of mammograms is a difficult task and depends on the experience and skill of the radiologists. Computer Aided Detection (CADe) systems have been proposed to help radiologist in interpretation of mammograms. In this paper a novel filter called Sector filter is proposed to detect masses. This filter works based on the analysis of convergence of gradient vectors toward the center of filter. Using this filter, rounded convex regions, which are more likely to be pertained to a mass, could be detected in a gray scale image. After applying this filter on the images with two scales and their linear combination suspicious points were selected by a specific process. After implementation of the proposed method, promising results were achieved. The performance of the proposed method in this research was competitive or in some cases even better than that of other suggested methods in the literature. (authors)

  17. A stable systemic risk ranking in China's banking sector: Based on principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Libing; Xiao, Binqing; Yu, Honghai; You, Qixing

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we compare five popular systemic risk rankings, and apply principal component analysis (PCA) model to provide a stable systemic risk ranking for the Chinese banking sector. Our empirical results indicate that five methods suggest vastly different systemic risk rankings for the same bank, while the combined systemic risk measure based on PCA provides a reliable ranking. Furthermore, according to factor loadings of the first component, PCA combined ranking is mainly based on fundamentals instead of market price data. We clearly find that price-based rankings are not as practical a method as fundamentals-based ones. This PCA combined ranking directly shows systemic risk contributions of each bank for banking supervision purpose and reminds banks to prevent and cope with the financial crisis in advance.

  18. Analysis of the campaign videos posted by the Third Sector on YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Van-Wyck

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Web 2.0 social networks have become one of the tools most widely used by the third sector organisations. This research article examines the formal aspects, content and significance of the videos posted by these organisations on YouTube. Methods. The study is based on the quantitative content analysis of 370 videos of this type, with the objective of identifying the main characteristics. Results. The results indicate that this type of videos are characterised by low levels of creativity, the incorporation of a great amount of very clear information, the predominance of explicit content and the use of very similar formats. Conclusions. Based on the research results, it was concluded that these organisations produce campaign videos with predictable messages that rely on homogeneous structures that can be easily classified in two types: predominantly informative and predominantly persuasive.

  19. Methods and Models for Capacity and Patient Flow Analysis in Hospital Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozlowski, Dawid

    at a private hospital in Denmark or at a hospital abroad if the public healthcare system is unable to provide treatment within the stated maximum waiting time guarantee. A queue modelling approach is used to analyse the potential negative consequences of the policy on the utilization of public hospital......This thesis is concerned about the novel applications of operations research methods for capacity and flow analysis within hospital sector. The first part of the thesis presents a detailed Discrete-Event Simulation (DES) model that has been developed as an analytical tool designed to facilitate...... by an improved patient flow. The specially developed structure of the model facilitates its reuse at different units, with no advanced modelling skills required in day-to-day use. This feature amplifies the usefulness of DES in conducting comprehensive patient flow analyses at any department with emergency...

  20. Análisis estructural del sector azucarero y el etanol del Valle del Cauca Structural analysis of the sugar and ethanol sector of the Valle del Cauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L. Cruz Aguilar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Al analizar el sector azucarero y el etanol del Valle del Cauca se pretende demostrar que de seguir el precio internacional del azúcar por encima de 16 centavos de dólar la libra, la industria azucarera contaría con mecanismos de coordinación que le permitirán direccionar su producción de caña de azúcar hacia este eslabón de la cadena productiva por ser el que mayor margen de utilidad le produce, sin tener que aumentar la cantidad de hects sembradas de manera proporcional al incremento del azúcar exportada. Cuestión que consolido al sector azucarero como uno de los dinamizadores de la economía colombiana, pero a la fecha ha obligado al gobierno a rebajar el porcentaje de alcohol carburante en la gasolina del 10 al 8% y crea dudas sobre el cumplimiento de los decretos que incrementan de manera sustancial el porcentaje de alcohol carburante para los motores de 2000 cms³.Analysis of the sector tries to demonstrate that following the international price of sugar above 16 cents a pound, the sugar industry will count on coordinating mechanisms that will allow them to direct their production of cane sugar to the link in the productive chain which will produce the greatest profit margin will produce, without having to increase the number of acres planted in proportion to the increase in sugar exported. This consolidated the sugar industry as one of the driving forces of the Colombian economy, but to date has forced the government to lower the percentage of ethanol fuel in gasoline from 10 to 8 percent and casts doubt on the implementation of decrees which substantially increase the percentage of alcohol fuel for engines of 2000 cms³.

  1. Sectoral linkage analysis of three main air pollutants in China's industry: Comparing 2010 with 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weiwei; Wang, Yuan; Zuo, Jian; Luo, Yincheng

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the driving forces of air pollution in China, the changes in linkages amongst inter-industrial air pollutant emissions were analyzed by hypothetical extraction method under the input-output framework. Results showed that the emissions of SO 2 , soot and dust from industrial sources increased by 56.46%, 36.95% and 11.69% respectively in 2010, compared with 2002. As major contributors to emissions, the power and gas sectors were responsible for the growing SO 2 emissions, the nonmetal products sector for soot emissions, and the metals mining, smelting and pressing sectors for dust emissions. The increasing volume of emissions was mainly driven by the growing demand in the transport equipment and electrical equipment sectors. In addition, the expansion in the metals mining, smelting and pressing sectors could result in even more severe air pollution. Therefore, potential effective strategies to control air pollution in China are: (1) reducing the demand of major import sectors in the equipment manufacturing industry; (2) promoting R&D in low-emissions-production technologies to the power and gas sectors, the metals mining, smelting and pressing sectors, and the nonmetal products sector, and (3) auditing the considerable industrial scale expansion in the metals mining, smelting and pressing sectors and optimizing the industrial structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tourism innovation in the forestry sector: comparative analysis between Auckland Region (New Zealand) and Trentino (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Notaro S; Paletto A; Piffer M

    2012-01-01

    Innovation is a primary aspect of economic growth and development and depends on the ability of entrepreneurs to create economic value by introducing new products or services, designing different production processes or rearranging organisational practices. The spreading of innovation is a key element in all economic sectors, including the forestry sector. Four types of innovation can be found in the forestry sector: product innovations (e.g., wood assortments), service innovations (e.g., bio...

  3. ANALYSIS OF LABOR MARKET IN THE SECONDARY SECTOR ON ROMANIAN DEVELOPMENT REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina\tALPOPI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze and highlight the evolution of workforce engaged in the secondary sector. We determined too the unemployment rate distribution, which is coupled with the decline of industry and constructions and there are identified zones and cities affected by major rising unemployment. The increase of unemployed number in the secondary sector was primarily due to the decline of manufacturing industry and mining. At Bucharest and growth poles level, it shows that between the secondary sector branches: industry and construction, the most employees are engaged in the industrial sector, especially in manufacturing industries, although this sector ranks on the second place in order of preference. Most of the employees choose jobs into the tertiary sector. Regarding the distribution of the number of employees per industrial subsectors, it appears that most of them work in manufacturing, followed water supply and waste, then energy supply and a very small percentage in the mining. The activity sectors reveal that most employees are engaged in secondary and tertiary sectors, and then, in a very small proportion, in the primary sector. At regional poles level, the largest number of employees are engaged in industrial sector. In the construction sector, the number of employees is small. Counties associated of Bucharest metropolitan area recorded the greatest number of employees in construction. All analyzed territories recorded positive evolutions in the number of employees in 2011 compared to 2002. Counties associated of some metropolitan areas, including Bucharest, showed a positive trend, superior to other types of areas in 2011 compared to 2002. Compared to the situation in construction sector, the industry is characterized by a decrease of the number of employees in 2011 compared to 2002. Even in a general context characterized by instability in the industry, some types of analyzed areas showed a rising trend. In 2011, compared to 2006

  4. Examining the sectoral energy use in Turkish economy (1980-2000) with the help of decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediger, Volkan S.; Huvaz, Ozkan

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the sectoral energy use in the Turkish economy for the 1980-2000 period when significant changes occurred in the economic and demographic structure of the country. These changes had several impacts on the energy use in the primary sectors such as agriculture, industry and services. Decomposition analysis is conducted on these sectors by using the additive version of the LMDI method due to its advantages over others. Although a close relationship exists between primary energy consumption and GDP, analyses show that significant variations occurred in the sectoral energy use during the 1982, 1988-1989, 1994 and 1998-2000 periods. Such variations are related to the economic policies of the governments. The Turkish economy has undergone a transformation from agricultural to industrial enhanced by rapid urbanization, especially after 1982. However, industrialization has not been completed yet, and the energy demand should be increasing faster than national income until the energy intensity of the country reaches a peak. This study is performed on three basic sectors; however, decomposition into secondary and tertiary sectors will provide detailed information for further investigations

  5. The Role of Bioeconomy Sectors and Natural Resources in EU Economies: A Social Accounting Matrix-Based Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia D. Fuentes-Saguar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The bio-based economy will be crucial in achieving a sustainable development, covering all ranges of natural resources. In this sense, it is very relevant to analyze the economic links between the bioeconomic sectors and the rest of the economy, determining their total and decomposed impact on economic growth. One of the major problems in carrying out this analysis is the lack of information and complete databases that allow analysis of the bioeconomy and its effects on other economic activities. To overcome this issue, disaggregated social accounting matrices have been obtained for the highly bio-based sectors of the 28 European Union member states. Using this complex database, a linear multiplier analysis shows the future key role of bio-based sectors in boosting economic development in the EU. Results show that the bioeconomy has not yet unleashed its full potential in terms of output and job creation. Thus, output and employment multipliers show that many sectors related to the bioeconomy are still underperforming compared to the EU average, particularly those with higher value added; although, they are still crucial sectors for the wealth creation.

  6. Analysis of energy development sustainability: The example of the lithuanian district heating sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveselis, Vaclovas; Dzenajavičienė, Eugenija Farida; Masaitis, Sigitas

    2017-01-01

    Today, sustainable energy development is one of key issues on European development agenda. The article describes one of sustainable energy development promoting tool - the eco-labelling scheme for district heating and cooling systems elaborated within the framework of Intelligent Energy for Europe program project “Ecoheat4cities” and partially funded by European Agency for Competitiveness and Innovation. The scheme is based on measured energy and environmental performance data of the district heating and cooling system and considers primary non-renewable energy usage together with the share of renewable energy and carbon dioxide emissions calculated using life-cycle analysis methodology. The “power bonus” approach is used for performance indicators of the heat generated in cogeneration installations. An analysis of a number of Lithuanian district heating companies using elaborated labelling criteria shows positive trends towards fulfilling Lithuania's energy policy goals. The labelling scheme gives opportunity for policy makers and urban planners to compare different heat supply options and decide upon exploiting district heating advantages and benefits for reaching EU energy and environment policy goals. - Highlights: • Overview of Lithuania's district heating sector was performed via main sustainability criteria. • Developing to greener and more efficient state was disclosed via analysis of three years activity results. • Green labelling may help district heating companies to maintain existing and attract new potential consumers.

  7. Uruguay Energy Supply Options Study: a Detailed Multi-Sector Integrated Energy Supply and Demand Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conzelmann, G.; Veselka, T.

    1997-01-01

    Uruguay is in the middle of making critical decisions affecting the design of its future energy supply system.Momentum for change is expected to come from several directions including recent and foreseeable upgrades and modifications to energy conversion facilities, the importation of natural gas from Argentina, the possibility for a stronger interconnection of regional electricity systems, the country s membership in MERCOSUR, and the potential for energy sector reforms by the Government of Uruguay.The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of several fuel diversification strategies on Uruguay s energy supply system.The analysis pays special attention to fuel substitution trends due to potential imports of natural gas via a gas pipeline from Argentina and increasing electricity ties with neighboring countries.The Government of Uruguay contracted Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study several energy development scenario ns with the support of several Uruguayan Institutions.Specifically, ANL was asked to conduct a detailed energy supply and demand analysis, develop energy demand projections based on an analysis of past energy demand patterns with support from local institutions, evaluate the effects of potential natural gas imports and electricity exchanges, and determine the market penetration of natural gas under various scenarios

  8. European CO2 emission trends: A decomposition analysis for water and aviation transport sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoni, V.; Galmarini, S.

    2012-01-01

    A decomposition analysis is used to investigate the main factors influencing the CO 2 emissions of European transport activities for the period 2001–2008. The decomposition method developed by Sun has been used to investigate the carbon dioxide emissions intensity, the energy intensity, the structural changes and the economy activity growth effects for the water and the aviation transport sectors. The analysis is based on Eurostat data and results are presented for 14 Member States, Norway and EU27. Results indicate that economic growth has been the main factor behind the carbon dioxide emissions increase in EU27 both for water and aviation transport activities. -- Highlights: ► Decomposition analysis is used to investigate factors that influenced the energy-related CO 2 emissions of European transport. ► Economic growth has been the main factor affecting the energy-related CO 2 emissions increases. ► Investigating the CO 2 emissions drivers is the first step to define energy efficiency policies and emission reduction strategies.

  9. Analysis of Low-Carbon Economy Efficiency of Chinese Industrial Sectors Based on a RAM Model with Undesirable Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Meng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial energy and environment efficiency evaluation become especially crucial as industrial sectors play a key role in CO2 emission reduction and energy consumption. This study adopts the additive range-adjusted measure data envelope analysis (RAM-DEA model to estimate the low-carbon economy efficiency of Chinese industrial sectors in 2001–2013. In addition, the CO2 emission intensity mitigation target for each industrial sector is assigned. Results show that, first, most sectors are not completely efficient, but they have experienced and have improved greatly during the period. These sectors can be divided into four categories, namely, mining, light, heavy, and electricity, gas, and water supply industries. The efficiency is diverse among the four industrial categories. The average efficiency of the light industry is the highest among the industries, followed by those of the mining and the electricity, gas, and water supply industries, and that of the heavy industry is the lowest. Second, the electricity, gas, and water supply industry shows the biggest potential for CO2 emission reduction, thus containing most of the sectors with large CO2 emission intensity mitigation targets (more than 45%, followed by the mining and the light industries. Therefore, the Chinese government should formulate diverse and flexible policy implementations according to the actual situation of the different sectors. Specifically, the sectors with low efficiency should be provided with additional policy support (such as technology and finance aids to improve their industrial efficiency, whereas the electricity, gas, and water supply industry should maximize CO2 emission reduction.

  10. Structural analysis of electricity consumption by productive sectors. The Spanish case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara, Vicent [Departamento de Economia Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edificio B 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); del Rio, Pablo; Hernandez, Felix [Institute for Public Goods and Policies (IPP), Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/Albasanz 26-28, Madrid 28037 (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this paper is to identify those sectors that contribute most to electricity consumption in Spain, using a methodology based on input-output tables, and to derive some recommendations aimed at increasing energy efficiency in those sectors. This input-output approach is complemented with a sector-focused study in which the availability of electricity-efficient technologies per sector and the barriers to their uptake are identified. This hybrid approach is deemed useful to derive policy implications. We thus propose several instruments to remove those barriers. (author)

  11. Structural analysis of electricity consumption by productive sectors. The Spanish case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, Vicent; Rio, Pablo del; Hernandez, Felix

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify those sectors that contribute most to electricity consumption in Spain, using a methodology based on input-output tables, and to derive some recommendations aimed at increasing energy efficiency in those sectors. This input-output approach is complemented with a sector-focused study in which the availability of electricity-efficient technologies per sector and the barriers to their uptake are identified. This hybrid approach is deemed useful to derive policy implications. We thus propose several instruments to remove those barriers.

  12. Analysis of Inter-Sectoral Differentiation in Setting the Vision and Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka Blažević

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Design and implementation of strategy is the backbone of the business enterprise. Strategic management process begins by establishing the vision and mission. Therefore, they are important components of further development of the overall company strategy. Following the above, we can conclude that it is of paramount importance to set a quality statement about the vision and mission to develop strategies in a positive direction, being at the same time comprehensible and stimulating to all target groups. Economic development divides activities in four different sectors (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. Each sector has its own specifics, which become a key component of differentiation of that sector in relation to others. Therefore, it can be assumed that the company's strategy within each sector is set in accordance with sector specifics. On the basis of the above mentioned facts we come to a conclusion that there are key components that are company’s strategies specific for each sector, which also differentiate strategy compared to strategies of other sectors. The aim of this paper is to find specific components to develop a strategy for each sector, and key components of inter-sectoral differentiation in setting the vision and mission.

  13. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG GROWTH IN AGRICULTURAL SECTOR, POVERY AND INEQUALITY IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid SAEED

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between growth in agricultural sector and poverty in Pakistan. It explores that how much the poor people have gained from growth in agricultural sector of Pakistan by considering growth magnitude and benefits obtained by the poor people resulting from growth for the period of 1985 to 2005 through applying OLS Regression Technique. The results indicate that the variable of growth in agricultural sector is significantly and negatively associated with the variable of poverty, i.e., the growth in agricultural sector of Pakistan will result in reducing the level of poverty in Pakistan.

  14. Methodology of analysis of economic evidence of cartel in the resale retail of the fuel sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Cleber Ribeiro da Silva; Tiryaki, Gisele Ferreira; Ramos, Maria Olivia

    2010-01-01

    The existence of anti competitive conduct such as cartels would lead to a situation of high prices and profits harming competition and society in general. The methodology of economic analysis of evidence of cartel by the ANP in the resale market of fuels involves analysis of the behavior of the average prices of resale and distribution, the nominal average gross margin on resale, the coefficient of variation of prices of resale and distribution of fuel for a given period by the municipality. Combining the analysis of these elements, the ANP has suggested the investigation into possible cartels. This text aims to bring contributions for a better definition of the relevant market in the analysis of economic evidence in cartel in the market for resale of fuel and add elements currently not considered in the analysis of ANP and regulation of the sector. To this end, this article is organized into three sections besides the introduction and final consideration. The first section takes place at deconstitution some myths about cartels thread reseller retailer of automotive fuel by analyzing the main causes leading to complaints by consumers. Then presents a conceptual analysis of relevant market, since this definition is essential to characterize anti-competitive practices of operations performed by companies holding market power, notably the formation of cartels. Finally, it is a discussion on how the action of the main bodies involved in dismantling of anti competitive practices in the industry. Expected to find results that work with greater integration between agencies to safeguard competition and better defining the relevant market segment for the resale of fuel. (author)

  15. China's energy consumption under the global economic crisis: Decomposition and sectoral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fangyi; Song, Zhouying; Liu, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that there is a strong relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. Most countries′ energy demands declined during the economic depression of 2008–2009 when a worldwide economic crisis occurred. As an export-oriented economy, China suffered a serious exports decline in the course of the crisis. However, it was found that energy consumption continued to increase. Against such a background, this paper aims to assess and explain the factors causing the growth of energy consumption in China. First, we will explain the impact of domestic final use and international trade on energy consumption by using decomposition analysis. Second, embodied energy and its variation across sectors are quantified to identify the key sectors contributing to the growth. Lastly, the policy implications for long-term energy conservation are discussed. The results show that the decline in exports was one of the driving forces for energy consumption reduction in the crisis, but that the growth of domestic demand in manufacturing and construction, largely stimulated by economic stimulus plans, had the opposite effect on energy consumption. International trade contributed to decreasing energy consumption of China during and after the crisis because the structure of exports and imports changed in this period. - Highlights: • We analyze the reasons for China's energy consumption change under the global economic crisis during 2007–2010. • Domestic final use growth, especially in construction and manufacturing of machinery and equipment, resulted in energy consumption increase. • International trade is identified as a driver of energy consumption reduction during and after the crisis. • Increasing China's share of consumption or reducing its share of investment in the GDP can reduce national energy intensity

  16. THE NIGERIAN GAS MASTER-PLAN, INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES, ISSUES AFFECTING POWER SECTOR: AN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. INGWE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian Gas Master-Plan, Investment Opportunities, Challenges, Issues Affecting Power Sector: an Analysis. The objective of this article is to contribute towards understanding of the Nigerian Gas Master Plan (NGMP/Plan and its bifurcations with key socio-economic development factors. I applied the method of discourse to bring to being some points that have hitherto been unknown about the Master-plan and its inter-relationships and bifurcations. Elaborated here are the spectacular gains that have accrued to the Latin American country, Trinidad and Tobago, from its recent development of natural gas resources. This was considered suitable and significant here for highlighting that if such spectacular achievements could be realized from Trinidad and Tobago’s relatively smaller gas deposit (15.3 tcf, probable reserves (8.4 tcf, possible reserves (6.2 tcf would be by far greater considering Nigeria’s larger natural gas reserves (184 tcf wealth as earlier stated. I show that the Plan is well designed relevant to addressing Nigeria’s current development needs generally. It presents potentials for stimulating Nigeria’s economic growth by harnessing the country’s abundant natural gas reserves. The Plan enumerates/ elaborates huge investment opportunities. Some challenges likely to be faced in the implementation/management of the Plan are already being surmounted as recent reports show that some of its key investments have been realized and the required infrastructure are being provided. Regarding the issues in the Master-plan that are likely to affect and are affecting Nigeria’s power sector development, I reckon that they are mostly positive factors due to the way the plan promises to stimulate electricity generation in our country.

  17. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CERTIFICATION SCHEMES IN THE BRAZILIAN FRUIT SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉA CRISTINA DÖRR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Certification has become increasingly relevant as a marketing signal for agribusiness especially in the fruit sector over the past few years. Substantial parts of many value chains are by now certified by standards as GlobalGAP, Fair Trade, Integrated Fruit Production and Organic. At the same time, in developed countries, particularly in the European Union and the United States, demand for higher levels of food safety has led to the implementation of certification programs that address more types of safety-related attributes and impose stricter standards. Certification systems play an important role in any market that is burdened with a high degree of information asymmetry and quality uncertainty. Thus, producers and exporters of fresh fruit and vegetables from developing countries like Brazil are increasingly required to demonstrate the safety and traceability of their produce up to the consumption stage. The comparative analysis of the four certification schemes which exist in the fruit sector in Brazil has shown that GlobalGAP and the Integrated Fruit Production (PIF are similar certification schemes. However, they differ with respect to the number of requirements and their distribution over various stages (e.g. production, post-harvesting. Contrary to PIF and GlobalGAP, Fairtrade certification concentrates on producers’ organizations and cooperatives where small-scale farmers belong to and not on individual farmers. In addition, a lot of attention is paid to the labour and environmental conditions, besides the guarantee of a minimum price for farmers. With respect to organic certification, the requirements are not directed to a particular product or crop and their level of compliance is not indicated. Major emphasis is put on the production system. Organic and Fairtrade certification do not have an own book keeping for records.

  18. LMDI decomposition analysis of greenhouse gas emissions in the Korean manufacturing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kyonghwa; Kim, Suyi

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we decomposed Korean industrial manufacturing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using the log mean Divisia index (LMDI) method, both multiplicatively and additively. Changes in industrial CO 2 emissions from 1991 to 2009 may be studied by quantifying the contributions from changes in five different factors: overall industrial activity (activity effect), industrial activity mix (structure effect), sectoral energy intensity (intensity effect), sectoral energy mix (energy-mix effect) and CO 2 emission factors (emission-factor effect). The results indicate that the structure effect and intensity effect played roles in reducing GHG emissions, and the structure effect played a bigger role than the intensity effect. The energy-mix effect increased GHG emissions, and the emission-factor effect decreased GHG emissions. The time series analysis indicates that the GHG emission pattern was changed before and after the International Monetary Fund (IMF) regime in Korea. The structure effect and the intensity effect had contributed more in emission reductions after rather than before the IMF regime in Korea. The structure effect and intensity effect have been stimulated since the high oil price period after 2001. - Highlights: • We decomposed greenhouse gas emissions of Korea's manufacturing industry using LMDI. • The structure effect and intensity effect play a role in reducing GHG emissions. • The role of structure effect was bigger than intensity effect. • The energy-mix effect increased and the emission-factor effect decreased GHG emissions. • The GHG emission pattern has been changed before and after IMF regime in Korea

  19. Analysis of 'new physics' in the flavor sector using effective field theory methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassinger, Benjamin M.

    2010-01-01

    The enormous amount of data collected by the B factories as well as the perspective concerning the upcoming experiments at the LHC provide us with the opportunity to perform high precision tests of the standard model. This dissertation presents two model independent precision tests of the weak sector of the standard model using extensions of the weak currents which are set up using effective field theory methods in order to control the size of the different contributions. Constraints on the coefficients of the terms can then be obtained by comparison with experimental results. The first analysis incorporates a test of the lefthandedness of the weak interaction in the quark sector. By introducing additional weak couplings the differential and total decay rates of the inclusive semileptonic decay anti B → X c l anti ν l are calculated. The calculation includes the computation of the heavy-quark expansion which describes the interaction of the decaying b quark with respect to the background field of the B meson, up to order 1/m b 4 . This has been done in a new, systematic way which does not involve the calculation of gluon matrix elements. Furthermore, radiative corrections have been included up to order O(α s ) including renormalization group running. The second part deals with the introduction of lepton flavor violating operators in the context of leptonic τ decays. These operators give rise to the effective four-fermion vertex τ→ll ' l'' as well as the subsequent radiative decay τ→lγ * →ll '+ l '- . The resulting Dalitz distributions turn out to predict completely different signatures for the radiative and the effective four-fermion vertices and provide the opportunity to check, whether the decay is induced either by a radiative or by an effective four-fermion vertex. Since different models which contain lepton flavor violation are normally more sensitive to one of those decay modes than to the other, the analysis therefore allows the comparison of

  20. Analysis of ''new physics'' in the flavor sector using effective field theory methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassinger, Benjamin M

    2010-02-05

    The enormous amount of data collected by the B factories as well as the perspective concerning the upcoming experiments at the LHC provide us with the opportunity to perform high precision tests of the standard model. This dissertation presents two model independent precision tests of the weak sector of the standard model using extensions of the weak currents which are set up using effective field theory methods in order to control the size of the different contributions. Constraints on the coefficients of the terms can then be obtained by comparison with experimental results. The first analysis incorporates a test of the lefthandedness of the weak interaction in the quark sector. By introducing additional weak couplings the differential and total decay rates of the inclusive semileptonic decay anti B {yields} X{sub c}l anti {nu}{sub l} are calculated. The calculation includes the computation of the heavy-quark expansion which describes the interaction of the decaying b quark with respect to the background field of the B meson, up to order 1/m{sub b}{sup 4}. This has been done in a new, systematic way which does not involve the calculation of gluon matrix elements. Furthermore, radiative corrections have been included up to order O({alpha}{sub s}) including renormalization group running. The second part deals with the introduction of lepton flavor violating operators in the context of leptonic {tau} decays. These operators give rise to the effective four-fermion vertex {tau}{yields}ll{sup '}l'' as well as the subsequent radiative decay {tau}{yields}l{gamma}{sup *}{yields}ll{sup '+}l{sup '-}. The resulting Dalitz distributions turn out to predict completely different signatures for the radiative and the effective four-fermion vertices and provide the opportunity to check, whether the decay is induced either by a radiative or by an effective four-fermion vertex. Since different models which contain lepton flavor violation are normally more sensitive to one of those

  1. Experience curves in the wind energy sector use : analysis and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junginger, Martin

    2000-01-01

    The wind energy sector is one of the fastest-growing energy sectors in the world. Both prices of wind turbines and cost of wind-generated electricity have dropped significantly over the last twenty years. However, electricity from wind is not yet fully able to compete with fossil fuel based

  2. Need Analysis for Air Conditioners in Public Sector of Surabaya City Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwiarti Larasputri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In typical buildings, air conditioners have the biggest percentage in energy consumption among all sectors. It makes a good management for air conditioners is needed and important in order to use the energy efficiently. Having a very hot and humid weather, it gives impact that most of buildings in Surabaya installed air conditioners, including Surabaya City Government office buildings. However, there is no regulation nor guidance how to manage air conditioners in Surabaya City Government, while Surabaya itself has a goal to become a green-eco city. Then, the existing condition of air conditioners usage in Surabaya Government units (SKPDs is evaluated. The evaluation resulted that most of air conditioners were over capacity and not all of them were efficient in energy consumption. Therefore, a need analysis is required to help Surabaya City Government managing its air conditioners better. By applying two different concepts, one is based on the architectural view and another one is based on green building criteria, the existing condition is analyzed and two procedures of need analysis are produced. The procedures can be implemented for two different conditions of office building rooms in Surabaya City Government.

  3. Impact of insurance sector activity on economic growth – A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Richterková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compute the overall effect size concerning the impact of insurance sector activity on economic growth. The connection of insurance activity and economic growth has been a widely investigated topic due to numerous papers and research attempts performed so far. The results, however, often differ among individual studies. Therefore a comprehensive analysis of the significance of causality from insurance activity, measured by insurance premium, to business cycle fluctuation, is well-required. Using 10 published and unpublished studies, we conduct a meta-analysis of the literature on the impact of insurance activity on economic growth. Insurance premium is taken as the measure of insurance activity. The combined significance test of individual t-statistics is employed. The calculation of the effect size allows understand the true effect relying on synthesis of so far published research with significantly higher amount of observations and better precision. Our results confirm positive effect of insurance activity on economic growth and are particularly important for policy makers who set the policy towards subjects in the insurance market.

  4. Greenhouse gas mitigation options in the forestry sector of The Gambia: Analysis based on COMAP model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallow, B.P.

    1996-12-31

    Results of the 1993 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory of The Gambia showed net CO{sub 2} emissions of over (1.66 x 10{sup 6} tons) and 1% was due to uptake by plantations (0.01 x 10{sup 6} tons). This is a clear indication that there is need to identify changes in the land-use policy, law and tenure that discourages forest clearing at the same time significantly influencing the sustainable distribution of land among forestry, rangeland and livestock, and agriculture. About 11% of the total area of The Gambia is either fallow or barren flats that once supported vegetation and hence is still capable of supporting vegetation. The US Country Study Programme has provided the Government of The Gambia through the National Climate Committee funds to conduct Assessment of Mitigation Options to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The Forestry Sector is one area for which assessment is being conducted. The assessment is expected to end in September 1996. The Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) is one of the Models supplied to the National Climate Committee by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, on behalf of the US Country Study Programme, and is being used to conduct the analysis in The Gambia.

  5. CFD analysis of rewetting of a single sector AHWR fuel cluster with changing jet directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debbarma, Ajoy, E-mail: ajoy@debbarma.me; Pandey, Krishna Murari, E-mail: kmpandey2001@yahoo.com

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • CFD analysis of three modes of jet impingement in AHWR fuel cluster is analyzed. • Single sector (9 rod bundle) of AHWR has been analyzed with ANSYS 14.0-CFX. • It is observed that the wetting delay gets reduced significantly by proposed jet models. - Abstract: The transient numerical analysis of the rewetting of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) fuel assembly with jet impingement has been conducted. The present study is concerned with three different types of jet impingement directions, Model: M is the existing design of AHWR and other two Model: X and X2 was introduced in the study and compared with an existing model of AHWR. The present investigation aims to study thermo-rewetting behavior with respect to the coolant jet impingement directions. The computational results are validated with available experimental data. It is observed that the wetting delay has been reduced significantly with the proposed jet models and the jet direction has been an effective parameter in increasing the rewetting performance.

  6. ANALYSIS OF WINE SECTOR: DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS THE WORLD AND IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Except unwelcoming and unfriendly area of agriculture, in general, Antarctica, all continents meet grape-vine, which is plant trees with the largest expansion around the globe. Wine, the wine produced extremely complex (the composition of the entering over 300 different chemical compounds has a great importance both rational human nutrition as well as increase the national income of a country cultivators, shown standing figures showing growing share while the global economy horticulture and viticulture crops in agricultural production. Thus, we can appreciate the importance of wine products both from a social and economic one. This study aims to develop a blueprint for the wine sector and to capture its evolution both globally and especially in Europe. We believe that an incursion in the analysis of wine-growing in the world and in Europe leaning on the development of wine production and consumption is particularly useful in our proof is the importance of wine in contemporary society. The study is part of a broader analysis is investigating the applicability of the marketing mix in the wine industry.

  7. The analysis of labor force participation in rubber smallholding sector in Banyuasin Regency, South Sumatera, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yusuf

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The fact is that natural rubber has a strategic role as it is one of the commodities industry tropical crops. In addition, it also has important and strategic role in sup-porting the national economy, primarily as a source of livelihood of millions of rub-ber farmers in rural areas. This study analyzed the potential of using family labor in rubber smallholding sector in Banyuasin Regency, South Sumatra Province, Indo-nesia. The total sample used for the study was 280 respondents of households. Data was analyzed using multiple regression analyses. The multiple regression analysis used to identify the determinants of labor force participation decision regarding work in the rubber smallholding in the study area such as rubber production (kg per year per hectare, number of family workers, age of family head, location of dwelling, education of family head, and average years of schooling of family workers. Based on the analysis, only two factors affected significantly family labor force participation outside their smallholdings, namely number of family labor and education of family head.

  8. SEADS 3.0 Sectoral Energy/Employment Analysis and Data System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, Joseph M.; Anderson, David A.; Schultz, Robert W.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2007-12-17

    SEADS 3.0, the Sectoral Energy/Employment Analysis and Data System, is a revision and upgrading of SEADS--PC, a software package designed for the analysis of policy that could be described by modifying final demands of consumer, businesses, or governments (Roop, et al., 1995). If a question can be formulated so that implications can be translated into changes in final demands for goods and services, then SEADS 3.0 provides a quick and easy tool to assess preliminary impacts. And SEADS 3.0 should be considered just that: a quick and easy way to get preliminary results. Often a thorough answer, even to such a simple question as, “What would be the effect on U. S. energy use and employment if the Federal Government doubled R&D expenditures?” requires a more sophisticated analytical framework than the input-output structure embedded in SEADS 3.0. This tool uses a static, input-output model to assess the impacts of changes in final demands on first industry output, then employment and energy use. The employment and energy impacts are derived by multiplying the industry outputs (derived from the changed final demands) by industry-specific energy and employment coefficients. The tool also allows for the specification of regional or state employment impacts, though this option is not available for energy impacts.

  9. Analysis of empirical determinants of credit risk in the banking sector of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Račić Željko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the detection and analysis of empirical determinants of credit risk in the banking sector of the Republic of Serbia. The paper is based on an analysis of results of the application of the linear regression model, during the period from the third quarter of 2008 to the third quarter of 2014. There are three main findings. Firstly, the higher lending activity of banks contributes to the increasing share of high-risk loans in the total withdrawn loans (delayed effect of 3 years. Secondly, the growth of loans as opposed to deposits contributes to the increased exposure of banks to credit risk. Thirdly, the factors that reduce the exposure of banks to credit risk increase profitability, growth of interest rate spread and real GDP growth. Bearing in mind the overall market conditions and dynamics of the economic recovery of the country, there is a general conclusion based on the results that in the coming period the question of non-performing loans (NPLs in the Republic of Serbia will present a challenge for both lenders and borrowers.

  10. Job Demands, Job Resources, Burnout, Work Engagement, and Their Relationships: An Analysis Across Sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Anja; Elst, Tinne Vander; Baillien, Elfi; Sercu, Maarten; Schouteden, Martijn; De Witte, Hans; Godderis, Lode

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight in the importance of job demands and resources and the validity of the Job Demands Resources Model across sectors. We used one-way analyses of variance to examine mean differences, and multi-group Structural Equation Modeling analyses to test the strength of the relationships among job demands, resources, burnout, and work engagement across the health care, industry, service, and public sector. The four sectors differed in the experience of job demands, resources, burnout, and work engagement, but they did not vary in how (strongly) job demands and resources associated with burnout and work engagement. More attention is needed to decrease burnout and increase work engagement, particularly in industry, service, and the public sector. The Job Demands-Resources model may be helpful in this regard, as it is valid across sectors.

  11. Energy consumption analysis of Spanish food and drink, textile, chemical and non-metallic mineral products sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán; Mainar-Toledo, M.D.; Scarpellini, Sabina; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides quantitative information for energy consumption from four different industry sectors based on an energy analysis obtained by means of in-situ energy audits and complementary information. The latter information was taken from Saving Strategy and Energy Efficiency in Spain (Estrategia de Ahorro y Eficiencia Energética en España 2004–2010, E4) documents and the 2009 Industrial Survey of Spain from the National Statistics Institute (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, INE). The results show an estimate of energy consumption for each sector, namely Spanish food, drink and tobacco (9.6%), textile (4.5%), chemical (14.7%), and non-metallic mineral products (24.3%), as well as the degree of inefficiency for each, obtained by means of a stochastic frontier production function model. These results are combined with the energy consumption analysis to identify potential energy saving opportunities around 20.0% of the total energy consumption for all studied sectors. These energy saving opportunities are classified according to thermal or electrical energy consumption and percentage savings of the total energy consumption. -- Highlights: ► This study presents the analysis of four Spanish energy-consuming industrial sectors. ► The four selected sectors account for 33.0% of the total industrial SMEs. ► An audit was carried out in several factories from each analysed industrial sector. ► Stochastic Cobb-Douglas frontiers were used to estimate production frontiers. ► Potential energy saving opportunities around 20.0% of the total energy consumption.

  12. A conjoint analysis of corporate preferences for the sectoral crediting mechanism: a case study of Shanxi Province in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, S.; Smits, M.; Wang, C.

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to understand corporate preferences in designing and planning new market-based instruments. Using the method of conjoint analysis, this paper evaluates corporate preferences for policy alternatives of the sectoral crediting mechanism aiming at supporting its discussions and

  13. Financial Health of the Higher Education Sector: 2015-16 Financial Results. Data Analysis. March 2017/02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the financial health of the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) funded higher education sector in England. The analysis covers the financial results for 2015-16. This does not include further education or sixth-form colleges, or alternative providers of higher education.

  14. Analysis of the South African input-output table to determine sector specific economic impacts: A study on real estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douw Gert Brand Boshoff

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Input-output analysis is a well known method of analysing specific economic activity and the influence of different sectors on the economy and on one another. This study investigates the ability of input-output analysis to consider the importance of commercial real estate on the economy. It analyses the economic activity, contribution to GDP, employment created and taxes generated with reference to direct, indirect and induced impacts. The research shows the contribution of the specific sector on the economy and highlights the ability of input-output analysis to determine the impact of different types of property and locational analysis. The interaction of property with the economy is discussed, which also enables the use of the analysis reported here for short term future forecasting, whereby expected real estate activity is used to forecast the direct, indirect and induced effects on the economy.

  15. Global financial crisis and weak-form efficiency of Islamic sectoral stock markets: An MF-DFA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensi, Walid; Tiwari, Aviral Kumar; Yoon, Seong-Min

    2017-04-01

    This paper estimates the weak-form efficiency of Islamic stock markets using 10 sectoral stock indices (basic materials, consumer services, consumer goods, energy, financials, health care, industrials, technology, telecommunication, and utilities). The results based on the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) approach show time-varying efficiency for the sectoral stock markets. Moreover, we find that they tend to show high efficiency in the long term but moderate efficiency in the short term, and that these markets become less efficient after the onset of the global financial crisis. These results have several significant implications in terms of asset allocation for investors dealing with Islamic markets.

  16. The skills gap in nursing management in South Africa: a sectoral analysis: a research paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Rubin

    2010-03-01

    To identify competencies important for effective nursing management and to assess managers' proficiency therein. A lack of management capacity has been identified as the key stumbling block to health delivery in South Africa. Despite nursing managers being central to overcoming the challenges facing health care, there has been a paucity of research that empirically evaluates their skill levels. A survey was conducted among 171 senior nursing managers in South Africa using a self-administered questionnaire. Public sector managers assessed themselves as being relatively less competent than private sector managers. The largest skill gaps for public sector managers were for 'ethico-legal', 'task-related' and 'controlling' skills whereas those for private sector managers were for 'ethico-legal', 'health-related ' and 'task-related' skills. This research confirmed the lack of management capacity within the health sector and identified areas in which the skills deficit was most significant for both the public and private sectors. These findings reflect the needs of nursing managers and will be useful in the conceptualization, design and delivery of health management programmes aimed at enhancing management and leadership capacity in the health sector in South Africa.

  17. Analysis of the competitiveness and development of the thermal solar sector in France. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAAIJK, Paul

    2013-10-01

    This synthesis reports a comprehensive study (October 2013) for ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, which presents an assessment of the present structure of the solar thermal sector in France (and overseas territories): main actors, Research and Development activities, qualification and certification of equipment, distribution, design and education aspects, installation, etc. In the second and third parts of the report, the demand and the perception of the offer by clients are assessed, followed by a presentation of the sector cost structure and a comparison of various competitive systems. In the last part of the synthesis, a diagnostic of the sector is exposed, with propositions and recommendations

  18. Technological innovations in the horticultural sector in northwestern Mexico: adoption speed and diffusion networks analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belem Dolores Avendaño-Ruiz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the identification of innovation adoption and diffusion processes in the export horticultural sector in northwestern Mexico, and the differences identified taking into account the type of producer depending on the production size. The results of the adoption speed index suggests that large producers are distinguished as being early adopters and leaders in innovation adoption in this activity; but as long as there is a technological gap between small and large producers, that is increased even more by economical limita-tions, these will be identified as late adopters for this activity, supported by public programs for its adoption. The study was conducted in four entities of northwestern Mexico, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora and Sinaloa, that in average contribute with 17 % of the national horticultural production. The international market is a strong promotor in innovation adoption, particularly in those related to food safety standards that are adopted by 84 % of the producers. The network analysis highlights the role of union organizations as technological innovation diffusors, e.g. the Confederation of Agricultural Associations of the Sinaloa State, and the Local Agricultural Association of horticulture, Fruits and Legumes of Hermosillo in Sonora.

  19. Economic Analysis of Solar Energy Using in Oil Sector Economy in Republic of Tatarstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, L. I.; Goshunova, A. V.; Nutfullina, D. I.

    2017-11-01

    In the current economic conditions further increase of the profit or maintenance of its current level on the base of extensive development factors is no longer possible. The example of the oil-extracting company in the Republic of Tatarstan demonstrates that in the future it will be possible to replace traditional energy sources with solar energy; it will reduce energy costs for oil extraction, production costs and provide an increase of corporate efficiency. The economic analysis results show that the use of solar electricity can lead to 4.68% reduction in total electricity costs. In addition, the energy consumption per ton of oil produced is reduced. The share of electricity costs in the oil cost is reducing from 12.13% to 11.56%. Consequently, in the long term, the impact of total energy costs reduction can become more significant. In this way solar energy can become quite a real alternative in ensuring the energy needs of the economy of the oil-extracting sector of the Republic of Tatarstan and become a driver of intensive economic development.

  20. Multitemporal analysis of the change of earth covering; high basin Guatiquia River - Low Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Gonzalez, Jose Luis

    1999-01-01

    One of the basic functions inside the environmental administration has been the record of the variables of the natural environment. The earth covering corresponds to one of the elements that to the registered being and analyzed, shows with more fidelity the evolution of the environment. At the present time, and from their creation in 1992, the project Guatiquia River - PRG that covers 90.000 approximately has. Located between the Cundinamarca and Meta Departments, it has looked for to obtain the necessary technical elements to achieve a sustainable handling in the area, for it, it intended to be ahead a study that allows to quantify and to analyze the changes of the earth covering, reason for which, it was ahead the present study: multitemporal analysis of the change of earth covering high basin of the Guatiquia River low sector, for a total surface of 13997.64 hectares (corresponding to 15.8% of the area of action of the Project Guatiquia River), and having as basic tools the remote perception and the geographical information systems, it was carried out the prosecution of the information of earth covering in the study area for the years 1993 and 1997 starting from which, were determined and analyzed the changes of earth covering, they were presented in cartographic documents to scale 1:25.000, corresponding to a detailed study

  1. An Analysis of French Mergers and Acquisitions in Different Sectors of the Czech Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Thivant

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, French enterprises have been heavily investing in the Czech Republic. Today, France is the fifth biggest investor to the Czech Republic, and French companies are among the most important employers. The aim of this study is to analyze the presence of French firms in Czech Republic by look at the example the French-Czech mergers and acquisitions (M&A, and to explain the main motivation of the location of French firms in the country. Using a review of documents and secondary data analysis, we observe that French enterprises have invested especially in the Czech manufacturing sector, energy & power, consumer staples and financial services. In this study, we evaluate if French corporations try to optimize their production process within so-called global value chains, and if French companies have invested in their own strategic domain area or another strategic area by using the diversification growth approach. Finally, we present examples of successful mergers and acquisitions of French firms realized in the Czech Republic.

  2. Analysis of the strain on employees in the retail sector considering work-life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zülch, Gert; Stock, Patricia; Schmidt, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Many companies currently strive to support their employees' work-life balance through appropriate measures in order to improve employees' loyalty towards the company and to recruit new employees. In this context, flexibility in the area of working times is a measure that can influence employees' private lives immensely. This is why the individualisation of working time arrangements has been accorded high importance in current discussions on work-life balance. In this area, best practice examples can be found showing how working-time arrangements can improve the situation of the employees. It should be noted, however, that there is not one single perfect working-time model. A working-time model must always be adapted specifically to the actual situation of the company and the employees. Therefore, a targeted analysis of the challenges facing the company and the demands on the employees is essential for the creation of an appropriate working time policy. In particular, the employees' working-time preferences must be appropriately taken into account. Owing, however, to a combination of organisational complications and legal data protection restrictions, it is for the most part impossible to meet these working-time preferences in their entirety. This paper, which is based on an employee survey, illustrates the strain on employees in the retail sector and identifies different types of working-time preferences.

  3. Analysis of Three Actors: Roles of Government, Private Sector, and University toward Startup Growth in Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinintya Audori Fathin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information, communication, and technology advancements in 21st century encourage startups to innovate and develop their business further. Because it’s an ICT based business which is supported by the existence of internet, this kind of business starts to become borderless. As a result, the distributions of the products start to become unlimited. The conveniences offered by these advancements invite more ICT based product developers. The positive impact as a result of that such as more new jobs, easier way to access the markets, and also cheaper production cost with guaranteed profits. In addition to that, this of course also becomes an added value to the country because it increases Network Readiness Index and nation’s income from taxes. This research aims to analyze startup’s growth, in addition to its relation with related actors such as government, private sectors, and universities. Analysis on every actor will emphasize on their contribution to startup developments in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta directly or indirectly. In conclusion, there will be an illustration about how big the contributions and how close the actors are between startups and the three actors.

  4. Analysis of International Policies In The Solar Electricity Sector: Lessons for India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Ranjit; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Gambhir, Ashwin; Phadke, Amol

    2011-08-10

    Although solar costs are dropping rapidly, solar power is still more expensive than conventional and other renewable energy options. The solar sector still needs continuing government policy support. These policies are driven by objectives that go beyond the goal of achieving grid parity. The need to achieve multiple objectives and ensure sufficient political support for solar power makes it diffi cult for policy makers to design the optimal solar power policy. The dynamic and uncertain nature of the solar industry, combined with the constraints offered by broader economic, political and social conditions further complicates the task of policy making. This report presents an analysis of solar promotion policies in seven countries - Germany, Spain, the United States, Japan, China, Taiwan, and India - in terms of their outlook, objectives, policy mechanisms and outcomes. The report presents key insights, primarily in qualitative terms, and recommendations for two distinct audiences. The first audience consists of global policy makers who are exploring various mechanisms to increase the penetration of solar power in markets to mitigate climate change. The second audience consists of key Indian policy makers who are developing a long-term implementation plan under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission and various state initiatives.

  5. Analysis of energy use and efficiency in Turkish manufacturing sector SMEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuet, Semih; Soner, Selin

    2007-01-01

    Small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) have an important role in the Turkish economy because of the workforce involved. According to the size of the industrial facilities, there are different cost components related to the total production costs. Energy cost is usually a small portion of the total production cost, but the Turkish industrial sector comprises approximately 35% of Turkey's total energy consumption and 98.8% of the total number of enterprises in Turkey constitutes the SMEs. Because of the uncertainty of energy costs in the world, it is important to take preventive measures to reduce energy costs and increase efficiencies in industry and consequently in SMEs. In this paper, medium sized enterprises are taken into consideration essentially. Because of getting homogeneity, enterprises with the number of workers between 100 and 200 in the metallic goods industry have been considered in the survey. Energy management includes increasing the profitability by reduced operational costs, and it is also a potential for improving market share. Many different evaluation models have been published in the energy management literature. However, there have not been so many systematic approaches to compare the relative efficiency of the systems. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a special linear programming model for deriving the comparative efficiency of multiple-input multiple-output decision making units (DMUs). An evaluation of energy efficiency in 20 medium sized companies has been conducted, and the results are discussed in this paper

  6. OECD Structural Analysis Databases: Sectoral Principles in the Study of Markets for Goods and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina D. Simonova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the characteristics of the information database of the OECD structural business statistics in the analysis of markets of goods and services, and macroeconomic trends. The system of indicators of structural statistics is presented in OECD publications and on-line access to a wide range of users. Collected data sources generated by the OECD offices are based on the national statistical offices of country-members, Russia and the BRICS. Data on the development of economic sectors are calculated according to the methodology of individual countries, regional and international standards: annual national accounts of countries, annual industry and business surveys, methodology of short-term indicators, statistics of international trade in goods. Data are aggregated on the basis of complex indicators statements of the enterprises' questionnaire and business surveys. Information system of structural statistics which is available and continuously updated, has certain features. It is composed of several subsystems: Structural Statistics on Industry and Services, EU entrepreneurship statistics, Indicators of Industry and Services, International Trade in Commodities Statistics. The grouping of industries is based on the International standard industrial classification of all economic activities (ISIC. Classification of foreign trade flows is made in accordance with the Harmonized system of description and coding of goods. The structural statistics databases comprise four classes of industries' grouping according to the technology intensity. The paper discusses the main reasons for the non-comparability of data in the subsystems in certain time intervals.

  7. Cyber Threat and Vulnerability Analysis of the U.S. Electric Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, Colleen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Mission Support Center; Sterbentz, Dane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Mission Support Center; Wright, Aaron [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Mission Support Center

    2016-12-20

    With utilities in the U.S. and around the world increasingly moving toward smart grid technology and other upgrades with inherent cyber vulnerabilities, correlative threats from malicious cyber attacks on the North American electric grid continue to grow in frequency and sophistication. The potential for malicious actors to access and adversely affect physical electricity assets of U.S. electricity generation, transmission, or distribution systems via cyber means is a primary concern for utilities contributing to the bulk electric system. This paper seeks to illustrate the current cyber-physical landscape of the U.S. electric sector in the context of its vulnerabilities to cyber attacks, the likelihood of cyber attacks, and the impacts cyber events and threat actors can achieve on the power grid. In addition, this paper highlights utility perspectives, perceived challenges, and requests for assistance in addressing cyber threats to the electric sector. There have been no reported targeted cyber attacks carried out against utilities in the U.S. that have resulted in permanent or long term damage to power system operations thus far, yet electric utilities throughout the U.S. have seen a steady rise in cyber and physical security related events that continue to raise concern. Asset owners and operators understand that the effects of a coordinated cyber and physical attack on a utility’s operations would threaten electric system reliability–and potentially result in large scale power outages. Utilities are routinely faced with new challenges for dealing with these cyber threats to the grid and consequently maintain a set of best practices to keep systems secure and up to date. Among the greatest challenges is a lack of knowledge or strategy to mitigate new risks that emerge as a result of an exponential rise in complexity of modern control systems. This paper compiles an open-source analysis of cyber threats and risks to the electric grid, utility best practices

  8. WORK ACCIDENTS ANALYSIS, EMPHASIZING THE FOREST SECTORS, IN A FEDERAL HIGH EDUCATION INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héder Alencar Vianna

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the probable causes of accidents at work, of the forest sectors, of a Federal Institution of Higher education in Minas Gerais State looking for minimizing risks damages to worker’s health and safety. The analyses were accomplished by means of the Accidents Communications in Service data bank and the results showed that in the studied period, for the forest sector, 50.71% of the accidents were attributed to the insecure act, 16.98% to insecure condition and 17.94% to personal factor of insecurity. The functional evaluation indicated that in 7.14% of the accidents occurred with workers that were not in the function established by the employment respective contracts. The rates of gravity and frequency of accidents calculated for the forest sectors allowed to conclude that the indices were higher than the others sectors and much higher than the values published by the Brazilian Ministry of Social Service and Assistance.

  9. ANALYSIS ON IMPACT OF INDRADHANUSH PROJECT IN BANKING SECTOR IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Keshava; Pavithra Kumari

    2016-01-01

    It was on the period of time immediately before the occasion of India`s Independence day 2015 that government announced Indradhanush for Indian Public Sector Banks. The mission aimed to improving the functioning of Public Sector Banks. Modi impressed with the word Indradhanush and loved to give new slogans which can have some impact on the memory of the listeners/ leaders. By using the Indradhanush the bureaucrats in finance minister have tried to appraise Modi as this indicates 7colours (ste...

  10. Competitive Strategies in the Luxury Sector: a Qualitative Comparative Analysis on the Fashion Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Margherita ANGIONI; Francesco DONINI

    2017-01-01

    Despite the difficult economic period, companies in luxury sector are showing better results than those in the consumer products market. The objective of this paper is to analyse the competitive strategies in the luxury sector and in particular, in the personal luxury. To this end, we have chosen to study the case of an Italian company (Tod's Group), leader in the personal luxury according to consumers perception. Basing on a theoretical model of competitive strategy, this study shows a compa...

  11. An Analysis of Industry and Sector-Specific Impacts of a Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Escolar, Royce Elvin O.

    2004-01-01

    The paper aims to identify industry and macrolevel factors that affect competitiveness of selected sectors upon the implementation of the JPEPA. Priority sectors identified by the Department of Trade and Industry, accounting for 82% of total Philippine exports to Japan in 2002, were included in the study. For Philippine industries to gain, market access issues on trade facilitation, nontariff barriers and recognition of standards come into play especially for the service and agricultural sect...

  12. Restructuring of the electric power sector in Brazil. Analysis of the new institutional structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Marcelo Jose C.; Oliveira, Humberto Renato de; Sampaio, Cristiane Collich

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the risks related to the State of not following its original principles and objectives regarding the energy sector. The challenges and risks of the State with its new function as regulator, through the regulation agencies, will be analysed. A comparison between the institutional structure of the Brazilian electrical sector and other countries will be accomplished, focusing on the following aspects: competition, regulation and commercial operation. (author)

  13. THE ANALYSIS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE VALUES IN PUBLIC SECTORS IN LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija Ivanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organizational culture is an important issue because of its` big influence on enterprises’ productivity and consequently on realization of their objectives and goals. The validation and harmonization of organizational values and employees’ values has an important role in increasing operational efficiency. It has long been established that enterprises and organizations, where creative and interested employees who support and understand the organizational values of the company work, operate more effectively. In this article elements of organizational culture are studied with a particular focus on the meaning of organizational culture values. This article also reveals an evaluation of the organizational culture in public sectors in Latvia (based on publicly available data and sources of information. In the research there is an indepth analysis of official public organizational culture values included. The analysis has been done in the context of rating different leaders’ organizational values. In this article we analyze the conclusions of various writers on the subject of organizational culture framework characterization. The research of values guidance as well as a view of cultural meaning and influence on both individual and organizational development is described here. The authors analyze the results of empirical research about official public values of companies and the results of a public leaders’ survey (as well as the personal values of employees which provide an opportunity to compare organizational employees’ values with the common results of organizations. Conclusions shows public characterization of values and values distribution in potentially limitative and positive values. The in-depth research of organizational values is based on A. Maslow’s (Maslow 2000 hierarchy of needs approach and developed on R. Barrett`s (Barrett 2006 sample of seven levels of consciousness.

  14. Healthcare sector efficiency in Gujarat (India: an exploratory study using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh C. Purohit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of efficiency in resource utilization in healthcare sector has been recognized globally. In this paper we focus on efficiency of healthcare system at sub-state level (i.e., district level in India using Gujarat state and its district level data for 2012-13. In spite of being an economically advanced state, in terms of infant mortality rate (IMR the state is not the lowest. We explore the reasons for relative performance of different districts with data envelopment analysis (DEA. We used IMR as output variables. Using principal component analysis we tried a sub-set of variables, which had low correlations. Thus, four factor scores relating to medical officer, lady medical officer, Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy doctor, pharmacist, were used for DEA. We have focused on Charnes, Cooper, and Rhodes scores (or constant returns to scale technical efficiency score, and discussed efficiency rankings based on these. Thus, our results pertaining to district level health system efficiency in Gujarat State indicate that some of the districts have low efficiency in utilization of inputs like doctors, beds and workload per health institutions. There are also other districts, which need more of these inputs, which may enhance their output and efficiency. Thus, it is suggested that the efficiency in Valsad needs an improvement much more than other districts, whereas districts like Ahmadabad and Surat need more of both medical manpower and facilities. Even in case of Vadodara and Rajkot, the ranking in terms of most of medical manpower and facilities is low and thus these districts may also be benefitted by additional inputs. Hence, there is a mix of both inefficiency and inadequacy of inputs, which is reflected in our results.

  15. Power-Controlled CDMA Cell Sectorization with Multiuser Detection: A Comprehensive Analysis on Uplink and Downlink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Yener

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the joint optimization problem of cell sectorization, transmit power control and multiuser detection for a CDMA cell. Given the number of sectors and user locations, the cell is appropriately sectorized such that the total transmit power, as well as the receiver filters, is optimized. We formulate the corresponding joint optimization problems for both the uplink and the downlink and observe that in general, the resulting optimum transmit and receive beamwidth values for the directional antennas at the base station are different. We present the optimum solution under a general setting with arbitrary signature sets, multipath channels, realistic directional antenna responses and identify its complexity. We propose a low-complexity sectorization algorithm that performs near optimum and compare its performance with that of optimum solution. The results suggest that by intelligently combining adaptive cell sectorization, power control, and linear multiuser detection, we are able to increase the user capacity of the cell. Numerical results also indicate robustness of optimum sectorization against Gaussian channel estimation error.

  16. Power-Controlled CDMA Cell Sectorization with Multiuser Detection: A Comprehensive Analysis on Uplink and Downlink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Changyoon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the joint optimization problem of cell sectorization, transmit power control and multiuser detection for a CDMA cell. Given the number of sectors and user locations, the cell is appropriately sectorized such that the total transmit power, as well as the receiver filters, is optimized. We formulate the corresponding joint optimization problems for both the uplink and the downlink and observe that in general, the resulting optimum transmit and receive beamwidth values for the directional antennas at the base station are different. We present the optimum solution under a general setting with arbitrary signature sets, multipath channels, realistic directional antenna responses and identify its complexity. We propose a low-complexity sectorization algorithm that performs near optimum and compare its performance with that of optimum solution. The results suggest that by intelligently combining adaptive cell sectorization, power control, and linear multiuser detection, we are able to increase the user capacity of the cell. Numerical results also indicate robustness of optimum sectorization against Gaussian channel estimation error.

  17. A Novel Water Supply Network Sectorization Methodology Based on a Complete Economic Analysis, Including Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Campbell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The core idea behind sectorization of Water Supply Networks (WSNs is to establish areas partially isolated from the rest of the network to improve operational control. Besides the benefits associated with sectorization, some drawbacks must be taken into consideration by water operators: the economic investment associated with both boundary valves and flowmeters and the reduction of both pressure and system resilience. The target of sectorization is to properly balance these negative and positive aspects. Sectorization methodologies addressing the economic aspects mainly consider costs of valves and flowmeters and of energy, and the benefits in terms of water saving linked to pressure reduction. However, sectorization entails other benefits, such as the reduction of domestic consumption, the reduction of burst frequency and the enhanced capacity to detect and intervene over future leakage events. We implement a development proposed by the International Water Association (IWA to estimate the aforementioned benefits. Such a development is integrated in a novel sectorization methodology based on a social network community detection algorithm, combined with a genetic algorithm optimization method and Monte Carlo simulation. The methodology is implemented over a fraction of the WSN of Managua city, capital of Nicaragua, generating a net benefit of 25,572 $/year.

  18. Functional Analysis in Public Sector Funkcinė analizė viešajame sektoriuje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė Tunčikienė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The main aim of the paper is to explore the theoretical aspects of functional analysis on purpose to identify the essence of functional analysis in public sector. This objective was chosen in reference to relevant problem of modern-day, i.e. inefficiency and ineffectiveness of public sector activities. The article contains functional analysis goals, tasks formed by different sources of literature; also, interpretations of the process of functional analysis are introduced. The conclusions were made that the main goal of functional analysis is to suggest an optimal set of functions that have to be performed in order to assure high quality of public services and minimal possible costs throughout all the hierarchical levels of government.

    Keywords: public sector, public administration reform, public institutions, functional analysis, effectiveness.

    Visuomenei itin aktuali per didelių viešojo sektoriaus išlaidų bei nepakankamai kokybiškų viešųjų paslaugų problema. Siekiant mažinti viešojo sektoriaus išlaidas ir kartu gerinti viešųjų paslaugų kokybę, būtina grįsti institucijų veiklos būtinumą ir kartu adekvatumą besikeičiantiems aplinkos reikalavimams. Siekiant išspręsti tokio pobūdžio uždavinius, viešajame sektoriuje vis tvirčiau įsigali tendencija taikyti verslo praktikoje patikrintas ir teigiamai pasitvirtinusias valdymo priemones. Viena svarbiausių i

  19. Energy use in the Greek manufacturing sector: A methodological framework based on physical indicators with aggregation and decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salta, Myrsine; Polatidis, Heracles; Haralambopoulos, Dias

    2009-01-01

    A bottom-up methodological framework was developed and applied for the period 1985-2002, to selected manufacturing sub-sectors in Greece namely, food, beverages and tobacco, iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, non-metallic minerals and paper. Disaggregate physical data were aggregated according to their specific energy consumption (SEC) values and physical energy efficiency indicators were estimated. The Logarithmic Mean Divisia index method was also used and the effects of the production, structure and energy efficiency to changes in sub-sectoral manufacturing energy use were further assessed. Primary physical energy efficiency improved by 28% for the iron and steel and by 9% for the non-metallic minerals industries, compared to the base year 1990. For the food, beverages and tobacco and the paper sub-sectors, primary efficiency deteriorated by 20% and by 15%, respectively; finally electricity efficiency deteriorated by 7% for the non-ferrous metals. Sub-sectoral energy use is mainly driven by production output and energy efficiency changes. Sensitivity analysis showed that alternative SEC values do not influence the results whereas the selected base year is more critical for this analysis. Significant efficiency improvements refer to 'heavy' industry; 'light' industry needs further attention by energy policy to modernize its production plants and improve its efficiency

  20. Energy use in the Greek manufacturing sector: A methodological framework based on physical indicators with aggregation and decomposition analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salta, Myrsine; Polatidis, Heracles; Haralambopoulos, Dias [Energy Management Laboratory, Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, University Hill, Mytilene 81100 (Greece)

    2009-01-15

    A bottom-up methodological framework was developed and applied for the period 1985-2002, to selected manufacturing sub-sectors in Greece namely, food, beverages and tobacco, iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, non-metallic minerals and paper. Disaggregate physical data were aggregated according to their specific energy consumption (SEC) values and physical energy efficiency indicators were estimated. The Logarithmic Mean Divisia index method was also used and the effects of the production, structure and energy efficiency to changes in sub-sectoral manufacturing energy use were further assessed. Primary physical energy efficiency improved by 28% for the iron and steel and by 9% for the non-metallic minerals industries, compared to the base year 1990. For the food, beverages and tobacco and the paper sub-sectors, primary efficiency deteriorated by 20% and by 15%, respectively; finally electricity efficiency deteriorated by 7% for the non-ferrous metals. Sub-sectoral energy use is mainly driven by production output and energy efficiency changes. Sensitivity analysis showed that alternative SEC values do not influence the results whereas the selected base year is more critical for this analysis. Significant efficiency improvements refer to ''heavy'' industry; ''light'' industry needs further attention by energy policy to modernize its production plants and improve its efficiency. (author)

  1. ANÁLISIS INTERNO DE LAS COOPERATIVAS AGROALIMENTARIAS CATALANAS DESDE UNA PERSPECTIVA COMPARADA: LOS SECTORES DEL ACEITE Y LA FRUTA DULCE / INTERNAL ANALYSIS OF CATALAN AGRARIAN COOPERATIVES SINCE A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE: THE OIL OLIVE SECTOR AND THE SWEET FRUIT SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard CRISTÓBAL FRANSI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Para poder formular estrategias y llevar a cabo actuaciones que permitan mejorar la posición competitiva de las cooperativas, es necesario realizar un análisis de las mismas. Las cooperativas agrarias, al igual que el resto de empresas, también están sometidas a cambios y por ello es necesario conocer sus puntos fuertes y débiles con la finalidad de detectar tanto oportunidades como amenazas. Hasta ahora el objetivo principal de las cooperativas ha estado el de la comercialización de los productos. Sin embargo, la nueva situación socioeconómica plantea la necesidad de que dichas entidades asuman nuevos objetivos, tales como la mejora de la calidad y la conservación del medio ambiente, nuevas estrategias de ventas, diversificación de la producción, etc. En el presente artículo se analizan las características generales del sector cooperativo en Cataluña para ver en que grado dicho sector tiene protagonismo en las fases posteriores a la producción. Para ello, se ha realizado un estudio comparativo basándose en diferentes aspectos de la estructura interna tanto de las cooperativas de fruta dulce como de las cooperativas de aceite. / With the aim to develop strategies that allow improving the cooperatives competitive position, is necessary to realize an analysis of these organizations. Agricultural cooperatives, as the rest of business, are affected for changes. Thus it is necessary to know his strong and weak points with the purpose to detect as their opportunities as their threats. Until now the main objective of the cooperatives has been the products commercialization. However, the new socioeconomic situation poses the need that these organizations assume new objectives, such as the quality improvement, the environment conservation, new sales strategies, production diversification, etc. This present paper analyses the general characteristics of the cooperative sector in Catalonia with the aim to see which degree of prominence has

  2. A health app developer's guide to law and policy: a multi-sector policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa; Karliychuk, Tanya; Gillies, Donna; Mintzes, Barbara; Raven, Melissa; Grundy, Quinn

    2017-10-02

    Apps targeted at health and wellbeing sit in a rapidly growing industry associated with widespread optimism about their potential to deliver accessible and cost-effective healthcare. App developers might not be aware of all the regulatory requirements and best practice principles are emergent. Health apps are regulated in order to minimise their potential for harm due to, for example, loss of personal health privacy, financial costs, and health harms from delayed or unnecessary diagnosis, monitoring and treatment. We aimed to produce a comprehensive guide to assist app developers in producing health apps that are legally compliant and in keeping with high professional standards of user protection. We conducted a case study analysis of the Australian and related international policy environment for mental health apps to identify relevant sectors, policy actors, and policy solutions. We identified 29 policies produced by governments and non-government organisations that provide oversight of health apps. In consultation with stakeholders, we developed an interactive tool targeted at app developers, summarising key features of the policy environment and highlighting legislative, industry and professional standards around seven relevant domains: privacy, security, content, promotion and advertising, consumer finances, medical device efficacy and safety, and professional ethics. We annotated this developer guidance tool with information about: the relevance of each domain; existing legislative and non-legislative guidance; critiques of existing policy; recommendations for developers; and suggestions for other key stakeholders. We anticipate that mental health apps developed in accordance with this tool will be more likely to conform to regulatory requirements, protect consumer privacy, protect consumer finances, and deliver health benefit; and less likely to attract regulatory penalties, offend consumers and communities, mislead consumers, or deliver health harms. We

  3. Cost analysis of various low pathogenic avian influenza surveillance systems in the Dutch egg layer sector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Rutten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As low pathogenic avian influenza viruses can mutate into high pathogenic viruses the Dutch poultry sector implemented a surveillance system for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI based on blood samples. It has been suggested that egg yolk samples could be sampled instead of blood samples to survey egg layer farms. To support future decision making about AI surveillance economic criteria are important. Therefore a cost analysis is performed on systems that use either blood or eggs as sampled material. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effectiveness of surveillance using egg or blood samples was evaluated using scenario tree models. Then an economic model was developed that calculates the total costs for eight surveillance systems that have equal effectiveness. The model considers costs for sampling, sample preparation, sample transport, testing, communication of test results and for the confirmation test on false positive results. The surveillance systems varied in sampled material (eggs or blood, sampling location (farm or packing station and location of sample preparation (laboratory or packing station. It is shown that a hypothetical system in which eggs are sampled at the packing station and samples prepared in a laboratory had the lowest total costs (i.e. € 273,393 a year. Compared to this a hypothetical system in which eggs are sampled at the farm and samples prepared at a laboratory, and the currently implemented system in which blood is sampled at the farm and samples prepared at a laboratory have 6% and 39% higher costs respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows that surveillance for avian influenza on egg yolk samples can be done at lower costs than surveillance based on blood samples. The model can be used in future comparison of surveillance systems for different pathogens and hazards.

  4. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis for national-level priority-setting in the health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edejer Tessa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA is potentially an important aid to public health decision-making but, with some notable exceptions, its use and impact at the level of individual countries is limited. A number of potential reasons may account for this, among them technical shortcomings associated with the generation of current economic evidence, political expediency, social preferences and systemic barriers to implementation. As a form of sectoral CEA, Generalized CEA sets out to overcome a number of these barriers to the appropriate use of cost-effectiveness information at the regional and country level. Its application via WHO-CHOICE provides a new economic evidence base, as well as underlying methodological developments, concerning the cost-effectiveness of a range of health interventions for leading causes of, and risk factors for, disease. The estimated sub-regional costs and effects of different interventions provided by WHO-CHOICE can readily be tailored to the specific context of individual countries, for example by adjustment to the quantity and unit prices of intervention inputs (costs or the coverage, efficacy and adherence rates of interventions (effectiveness. The potential usefulness of this information for health policy and planning is in assessing if current intervention strategies represent an efficient use of scarce resources, and which of the potential additional interventions that are not yet implemented, or not implemented fully, should be given priority on the grounds of cost-effectiveness. Health policy-makers and programme managers can use results from WHO-CHOICE as a valuable input into the planning and prioritization of services at national level, as well as a starting point for additional analyses of the trade-off between the efficiency of interventions in producing health and their impact on other key outcomes such as reducing inequalities and improving the health of the poor.

  5. Analysis of the impacts of combining carbon taxation and emission trading on different industry sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheng F.; Lin, Sue J.; Lewis, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Application of price mechanisms has been the important instrument for carbon reduction, among which the carbon tax has been frequently advocated as a cost-effective economic tool. However, blanket taxes applied to all industries in a country might not always be fair or successful. It should therefore be implemented together with other economic tools, such as emission trading, for CO 2 reduction. This study aims to analyze the impacts of combining a carbon tax and emission trading on different industry sectors. Results indicate that the 'grandfathering rule (RCE2000)' is the more feasible approach in allocating the emission permit to each industry sector. Results also find that the accumulated GDP loss of the petrochemical industry by the carbon tax during the period 2011-2020 is 5.7%. However, the accumulated value of GDP will drop by only 4.7% if carbon taxation is implemented together with emission trading. Besides, among petrochemical-related industry sectors, up-stream sectors earn profit from emission trading, while down-stream sectors have to purchase additional emission permits due to failure to achieve their emission targets

  6. An application of energy and exergy analysis in residential sector of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Masjuki, H.H.; Jamaluddin, M.Y.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the useful concept of energy and exergy utilization is defined, analyzed and applied to the residential sector of Malaysia by taking into account the energy and exergy flows for a period of 8 years from the year 1997 to 2004. The energy and exergy efficiencies are determined for the devices used in this sector and found to be 70% and 28%, respectively. Energy and exergy flow diagrams for the overall efficiencies of Malaysian residential sector are also illustrated in this paper. It is found that the current methodology applied in Saudi Arabia is suitable to analyze energy and exergy use in Malaysian residential sector. It has been found that the exergy efficiency of the Malaysian residential sector appears to be much lower than its corresponding energy efficiency. It has been observed that about 21% of total exergy losses are caused by refrigerator-freezer and 12% of total loss is caused by air conditioner. Washing machine, fan and rice cooker contribute about 11%, 10% and 8% of total exergy losses, respectively

  7. Analysis of the renewable energy sector in Spain at the European level comparative; Analisis del sector de las energias renovables en Espana. Estudio comparativo a nivel europeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, F. J.

    2011-07-01

    The energy sector, in particular renewable energy, represents a strategic sector for the Spanish and European industry. Policy decisions to its regulation or deregulation is critical. Regulatory frameworks mark a way to contrast their effectiveness and efficiency. However, it is necessary to deepen the theoretical foundations as the natural capital or the limits to growth, to place in a framework more accurately. This article presents specific data on the economic, fiscal, labor and environmental conditions to date has involved the promotion of this sector and its international impact. (Author)

  8. Agriculture Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  9. System dynamics analysis of strategies to reduce energy use in aluminum-intensive sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanes, Rebecca J.; Nicholson, Scott; 25-29 June 2017, Carpenter, Alberta

    2017-07-13

    Aluminum is one of the most widely used materials in industry, with applications in buildings, vehicles, aircraft, and consumer products. Its ubiquity is also on the rise: aluminum is beginning to supplant steel in lightweight vehicles and aircraft, and is used in many green or LEED-certified buildings. Although aluminum tends to be highly recycled, particularly by manufacturers of aluminum products, the sector as a whole is still far from a closed system. As a result, the increase in aluminum consumption also means an increase in primary aluminum production-an energy-intensive process-and an increase in consumption of the raw material bauxite, which in the U.S. is almost entirely imported. Our objectives for this study are to identify and analyze aluminum sector technologies and practices that reduce the energy required to manufacture aluminum products and reduce U.S. dependence on imported aluminum and bauxite. To accomplish these objectives, we will develop a system dynamics (SD) model of aluminum production, use and recycling in key application areas, including aerospace, ground vehicles and consumer products. The model will cover the entire aluminum supply chain as it exists in the U.S., from bauxite importing and refining, to the manufacture of products, to the product use phase and end-of-life processing steps. Aluminum flows throughout the model will be determined by the annual domestic demand for each application area as well as demand projections that extend to 2030. Energy consumption will be tracked based on the flows of aluminum through each step of the supply chain. Using the SD model, we will evaluate several technologies and practices that have the potential to reduce energy consumption and reliance on imported bauxite. These include implementation of advanced primary aluminum production technologies, increased recycling within and between application areas, increased material efficiency and increased product lifetimes. Each of these strategies

  10. Turkish Banking Sector Credit-Deposit Developments Regionally Analysis (2005-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalet HAZAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Banking sector takes over the mediation function between fund suppliers and demand. So by the time the financial system gets deeper, banking sector involves to the dinamics and becomes a vital part of economic growth. In our country which expressed as having insufficiant savings, regionally analising in 2005-2011 period developments is the purpose of this study. On the numerical estimations, in spite of having more capacity to purchase parity, big cities shows a higher performance for savings. However especially the cities in the regions of East and Southeast Anatolia, purchase capacity parity is lower and savings are under their own costs.

  11. Analysis of the Innovative Climate in the Private and the Public Sector in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cene Bavec

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents empirical research on innovative climate in theprivate and public sectors in Slovenia based on West’s model and theshortened questionnaire developed by Kivimaki and Elovanio. The resultsreveal that in our case the model is more three-factor than theoriginal four-factor model, very likely because of the non-random sample.Results also show that there are no statistically significant differencesin innovative climate between the private and public sector, norbetween companies with less and companies with more than 250 employees.Significant differences in innovative climate are indicatorsjust regarding the satisfaction with work and partially regarding employees’type of work.

  12. Rapid Budget Analysis of the Agricultural Sector for the General Budget Support Annual Review 2010/11

    OpenAIRE

    Francken, Nathalie; Zorya, S

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the budget analysis chapter is to provide an overall assessment of how well the approved budget allocations in 2010-11 align with the strategic objectives and with sector strategic priorities of the Second National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (known by its Kiswahili acronym, MKUKUTA II). It also assesses the consistency of the actual spending and approved budget in 2009-10. In evaluating the alignment of the budget and MKUKUTA's strategic objectives and ...

  13. Sensemaking and politics in MNCs: A comparative analysis of vocabularies within the global manufacturing discourse in one industrial sector

    OpenAIRE

    Geppert, M

    2003-01-01

    This article compares sensemaking processes in multinational corporations (MNCs) situated in the same industrial sector. Our comparative analysis of three MNCs and their subsidiaries in Germany and the United Kingdom aims to shed light on the contextual dimension (institutions, culture, and politics) of the sensemaking process. First, I discuss ideologies related to the discourse about global restructuring of manufacturing. Second, I compare similarities and differences in vocabularies of the...

  14. Economic analysis of the water demand in the hotels and restaurants sector: Shadow prices and elasticities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Ana; Atwi, Majed; Barberán, Ramón; Mur, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Despite the growing economic importance of tourism, and its impact on relative water shortage, little is known about the role that water plays in the productive process of hotels and restaurants and, therefore, the possible implications of water demand management policy for this sector. This study aims to fill this gap. It is based on the microdata of 676 firms in the sector, operating in the city of Zaragoza (Spain) for a 12 year period. Based on the Translog cost function, we estimate the shadow price of water in the short run and, from a long-run perspective, its direct price elasticity, its cross elasticities relative to labor, capital, and supplies, and its elasticity with respect to the level of output. The results obtained show that water provides sector firms returns that are on average higher than its price, although in the case of hotels the margin is really narrow. This situation provides policy makers with a margin for applying price increases without affecting the sector's viability, with some caution in the case of hotels. Water demand elasticity equals -0.38 in the case of hotels, but it is not significant in the case of restaurants and bar-cafes; hence, only in hotels is there potential for influencing water use patterns, encouraging the resource's conservation through pricing policy. Moreover, capital is a substitutive factor of water, and the elasticity of water with respect to output is 0.40, all of which should also be considered by policy makers in water resource management.

  15. Conditional Election and Partisan Cycles in Government Support to the Agricultural Sector: An Empirical Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; Haan, de J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the effect of elections and government ideology on public funding to the agricultural sector using a panel model for more than 70 democratic countries from 1975-2009.We find that support for agriculture increases prior to elections, and that right-wing governments redistribute more income

  16. Sector-Based Analysis of the Education-Occupation Mismatch in the Turkish Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercan, Murat Anil; Karakas, Mesut; Citci, Sadettin Haluk; Babacan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of sectorial undereducation and overeducation problems in the Turkish labor market. In order to cope with this issue, the 2009 Household Labor Force Survey (TurkStat), which covers 145,934 individuals within 27 sectors, was utilized. An objective measure of education-occupation mismatch based…

  17. analysis of the influence of agricultural and non-agricultural sectors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INIAMA

    agricultural GDP led to a 0.243% and 0.743% change in the economy respectively. It means that the economy is inelastic with respect to agricultural and non-agricultural sector performance. The economy is more inelastic with respect to agricultural production than non-agricultural production. In countries where economies ...

  18. An Analysis of Three Curriculum Approaches to Teaching English in Public-Sector Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Kathleen; Garton, Sue

    2017-01-01

    This article explores three current, influential English language teaching (ELT) curriculum approaches to the teaching of English in public-sector schools at the primary and secondary level and how the theory of each approach translates into curriculum practice. These approaches are communicative language teaching (CLT), genre-based pedagogy, and…

  19. Evaluation of Large-Scale Public-Sector Reforms: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidahl, Karen N.; Gjelstrup, Gunnar; Hansen, Hanne Foss; Hansen, Morten Balle

    2017-01-01

    Research on the evaluation of large-scale public-sector reforms is rare. This article sets out to fill that gap in the evaluation literature and argues that it is of vital importance since the impact of such reforms is considerable and they change the context in which evaluations of other and more delimited policy areas take place. In our…

  20. Generalized switching regression analysis of private and public sector wage structures in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dustmann, C.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyzes wage structures in the public and the private sector for Germany. The data contains a rich set of variables on parents' characteristics that we use as instruments. We extend the empirical literature in this field by endogenizing education level and hours worked, and by using life

  1. Women workers and unions in Europe: an analysis by industrial sector.

    OpenAIRE

    Hastings, S; Coleman M

    1992-01-01

    Based on a survey carried out in 1992. Identifies various factors influencing the degree of trade unionization of women. Studies the concentration and growth of women's employment in part-time work and the small firm sector. Covers the relationship between union membership and the extent of unemployment insurance, maternity leave and maternity benefits.

  2. Cost Analysis of Various Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Surveillance Systems in the Dutch Egg Layer Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, N.; Gonzales, J.L.; Elbers, A.R.; Velthuis, A.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background As low pathogenic avian influenza viruses can mutate into high pathogenic viruses the Dutch poultry sector implemented a surveillance system for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) based on blood samples. It has been suggested that egg yolk samples could be sampled instead of blood

  3. Organizational analysis of the seed sector of rice in Guinea: stakeholders, perception and institutional linkages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okry, F.; Mele, van P.; Nuijten, H.A.C.P.; Struik, P.C.; Mongbo, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the organization of the rice seed sector in Guinea with the overall objectives to assess how organizational settings affect seed supply to small-scale farmers and to suggest institutional changes that would favour seed service and uptake of varieties. Data were collected in

  4. Management control, accountability, and learning in public sector organizations: A critical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.; Hinna, A.; Gnan, L.; Monteduro, F.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: In the past decades, Dutch public sector organizations (PSOs) have been encouraged to become more “business-like” in their internal control and accountability processes, following a more general trend toward New Public Management (NPM) in Western societies. However, in the Netherlands, this

  5. Leadership Strategies of Performance Measures Impacts in Public Sector Management: A National Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala, James Joseph

    A quantitative and qualitative study examined three leadership strategies found in performance-based management (human resource, scientific management and political strategies used in public sector management); a framework by which performance measurement (PM) supports leadership strategies; and how the strategies impact PM. It examined leadership…

  6. Sectoral linkages of financial services as channels of economic development—An input–output analysis of the Nigerian and Kenyan economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Freytag

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sectoral linkages of financial services of the Nigerian and Kenyan economies are evaluated by means of an input–output analysis for 2007, 2009 and 2011. Backward linkages, forward linkages, multiplier effects and variation indices for the financial services sectors are determined. Due to the increasing importance of mobile money, we additionally investigate these linkages for the communication sector. We find high forward and backward linkages for the Nigerian financial services sector only. Here, changes in final demand for or primary input into the financial sector have a wide and evenly spread impact on the rest of the economy classifying the financial sector as a key sector. Regarding Kenya, however, the sectoral linkages of the financial services sector are lower. This may be due to the well-developed mobile financial market in Kenya. But results for the communication sector, however, yield rather low linkage values and multiplier effects for both economies. All results are confirmed by a robustness test. Nonetheless, they could have been influenced by a lack of data coverage especially with regard to mobile money and a high degree of informal financial transactions. Still, our findings confirm the significance of financial services as channels of economic development for both the economies.

  7. Sectoral analysis of energy consumption and energy related CO2 emissions in Finland 1990-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirjavainen, M.; Tamminen, E.

    2002-03-01

    This study describes the development of energy consumption and energy related CO 2 emissions in Finland between 1990-1999. For better understanding of the factors behind the development in main sectors, special indicators are calculated to evaluate how the overall development of the sector is affected by the general activity of the sector, changes in sectoral structure and changes in end-use intensities within the sector. The specific energy consumption of space heating reduced especially during the first half of the decade. Also the total CO 2 emissions caused by space heating reduced, in spite of the increase in the building stock. The main reason for this has been the reduction in specific CO 2 emissions in production of district heat. Regardless of the increased traffic and slightly increased use of passenger cars over public transport, the total energy consumption as well as total CO 2 emissions in passenger transport reduced during the decade. The main reason for this is that the specific fuel consumption of passenger cars has reduced significantly. Volumes in freight traffic increased rapidly after the recession, and as no significant changes have occurred in either specific consumptions or in shares of different transport modes, the total energy use as well as total CO 2 emissions of freight transport have increased. The major factors affecting the energy use and CO 2 emissions of the manufacturing sector have been changes in production volumes. After the recession, growth has been rapid and that has resulted in increased total energy use and CO 2 emissions. Anyway, the especially rapid growth of the less energy intensive electronics industry has resulted in downward overall energy intensity within manufacturing sector. Major factors affecting the specific CO 2 emissions in energy production have been changes in the primary energy supply mix. In electricity production, the major factors have been the increase in nuclear capacity and the variation in net

  8. Relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in a water-scarce area in China: A quantitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Gao, Lei; Liu, Pin; Hailu, Atakelty

    2014-07-01

    Northern China has been facing severe water scarcity as a result of vigorous economic growth, population expansion and changing lifestyles. A typical case is Shandong province whose water resources per capita is approximately only a sixth of the national average and a twentieth of the global average. It is useful to assess the implications of the province’s growth and trade patterns for water use and water conservation strategies. This study quantitatively analyses relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in Shandong using an input-output model for virtual water resources. The changes in key indicators for 1997-2007 are tracked and the effects of water-saving policies on these changes are examined. The results highlight the benefits of applying a virtual water trade analysis on a water-scarce region where water resources exhibit highly heterogeneous temporal and geographical distributions. The net export of virtual water in Shandong was initially large, but this declined over the years and the province has recently become a net importer. Between 1997 and 2002, water use in most sectors increased due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Since then, water use in all Shandong economic sectors exhibit a downward trend despite continued increases in goods and services net exports, a trend which can be attributed to the vigorous implementation of water-saving policies and measures, especially water use quotas. Economic sectors consume water directly and indirectly and understanding the pattern of virtual water trade implied by sectoral relationships is important for managing water scarcity problems. This study fills the knowledge gap in the existing literature created by the lack of case studies that dynamically assess virtual water trade and analyse the effects of water-saving policies and measures. The study draws policy recommendations that are relevant for future water planning in Shandong and other regions in northern China.

  9. Regional total factor energy efficiency: An empirical analysis of industrial sector in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhao-Hua; Zeng, Hua-Lin; Wei, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We evaluate energy efficiency under framework of total factor energy efficiency. ► We focus on industry sector of China. ► We use statistical data of industrial enterprises above designated size. ► Energy efficiencies among regions in China are obvious because of technological differences. ► Large scale of investment should be stopped especially in central and western regions. -- Abstract: The rapid growth of the Chinese economy has resulted in great pressure on energy consumption, especially the energy intensive sector – the industrial sector. To achieve sustainable development, China has to consider how to promote energy efficiency to meet the demand of Chinese rapid economic growth, as the energy efficiency of China is relatively low. Meanwhile, the appeal of energy saving and emission reduction has been made by the Chinese central government. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the energy efficiency of industrial sector in China and to assess efficiency development probabilities. The framework of total factor energy efficiency index is adopted to determine the discrepancy of energy efficiency in Chinese industrial sector based on the provincial statistical data of industrial enterprises above designated size in 30 provinces from 2005 to 2009, with gross industrial output as the output value and energy consumption, average remaining balance of capital assets and average amount of working force as the input values. Besides, in considerate of the regional divide of China, namely eastern, central, and western, and economic development differences in each region, energy efficiency of each region is also analysed in this paper. The results show that there is room for China to improve its energy efficiency, especially western provinces which have large amount of energy input excess. Generally speaking, insufficient technological investment and fail of reaching best scale of manufacture are two factors preventing China from energy

  10. Análisis del fracaso empresarial por sectores: factores diferenciadores = Cross-industry analysis of business failure: differential factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Mures Quintana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo se centra en el análisis del fracaso empresarial por sectores, a fin de identificar los factores explicativos y predictivos de este fenómeno que son diferentes en tres de los principales sectores que se distinguen en toda economía: industria, construcción y servicios. Para cada uno de estos sectores, seguimos el mismo procedimiento. En primer lugar, aplicamos un análisis de componentes principales con el que identificamos los factores explicativos del fracaso empresarial en los tres sectores. A continuación, consideramos dichos factores como variables independientes en un análisis discriminante, que aplicamos para predecir el fracaso de una muestra de empresas, utilizando no sólo información financiera en forma de ratios, sino también otras variables no financieras relativas a las empresas, así como información externa a las mismas que refleja las condiciones macroeconómicas bajo las que desarrollan su actividad. This paper focuses on a cross-industry analysis of business failure, in order to identify the explanatory and predictor factors of this event that are different in three of the main industries in every economy: manufacturing, building and service. For each one of these industries, the same procedure is followed. First, a principal components analysis is applied in order to identify the explanatory factors of business failure in the three industries. Next, these factors are considered as independent variables in a discriminant analysis, so as to predict the firms’ failure, using not only financial information expressed by ratios, but also other non-financial variables related to the firms, as well as external information that reflects macroeconomic conditions under which they develop their activity.

  11. Análisis de Creación de Valor Económico para Empresas del Sector Textil (Value added analysis for the textile sector businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Valerio Alfaro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La industria textil ha sido un pilar fundamental en el desarrollo de la economía global al generar un comercio sin fronteras. Hoy en día, las empresas de este sector basan sus éxitos o fracasos en tres variables fundamentales como lo son (1 el costo, (2 la calidad y (3 el tiempo de entrega de sus productos. No ha de sorprender que si sus resultados no son positivos, exista presión en la reducción de gastos, lo que influye en la toma de decisiones para cierres de plantas o traslados a otras regiones donde haya un costo competitivo. No obstante, más allá de los análisis financieros, la calidad del producto y el nivel de entregas, la pregunta clave sería: ¿estas empresas han creado o destruido riqueza? Por consiguiente, el énfasis de este estudio se centra en el desarrollo y análisis de un modelo que permita determinar si las empresas de este sector han creado o destruido riqueza en los diferentes periodos, puesto que ellas no cuentan con una herramienta que les brinde dicha información y les ayude en la toma de decisiones. Como resultado del modelo planteado se llega a la conclusión de que ninguna de ellas mantiene una tendencia marcada y que los diferentes métodos no son afines entre sí en los mismos periodos; sin embargo, se orienta mejor la toma decisiones mediante la interpretación de los resultados, en lugar de depender exclusivamente de los registros financieros.   ABSTRACT Textile industries are fundamental in the development of a barrier-free global economy. Nowadays, these companies can pin their success or failure to three fundamental variables: (1 cost, (2 quality, and (3 product delivery time. It is not rare that if year end results aren´t positive, there is pressure to reduce expenses and influence decision making regarding plant closures, or outsourcing from areas where there still are competitive costs. However, besides the financial results, product quality and service level considerations, a key question arises

  12. Gas-to-power market and investment incentive for enhancing generation capacity: An analysis of Ghana's electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, Jorik; Poudineh, Rahmatallah

    2016-01-01

    Ghana's electricity generation capacity is currently insufficient to meet demand, making power outages and load shedding common. The resulting impact is potentially devastating for the country's growth prospects. Traditionally, lack of an affordable and reliable fuel supply for power generation, coupled with ineffective institutions and an unfavourable investment climate, have resulted in Ghana's electricity sector performing poorly. In light of the 2007 discovery of natural gas reserves in Ghanaian waters, this paper examines whether domestic gas could advance the performance of the electricity sector, and if so, how. The results of our analysis show that utilization of gas reserves in Ghana's gas-to-power market is an economically superior strategy compared to an export-oriented utilization scheme. The lack of an effective regulatory framework for investment, skill shortages, and an inefficient electricity pricing structure continue to be the main constraining factors. Our analysis also considers possible approaches to modification of the electricity tariff in order to send the right signal to potential investors in generation capacity, without compromising the affordability of power supply. - Highlights: •We examine if domestic gas can improve the Ghanaian electricity sector performance. •We compare domestic gas-to-power market utilisation versus gas export. •It shows that gas-to-power market is more economical compared to gas export. •Ineffective investment regime, skill shortage and inefficient tariffs are barriers.

  13. [Evaluation of residual osteomuscular function using computerised movement analysis for building sector workers: specificity and technical problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orso, M I; Centemeri, R; Latocca, R; Riva, M; Cesana, G

    2012-01-01

    Occupational Health Doctors active in building sector firms frequently have to evaluate residual workers' osteomuscular function in patients coming back to work after an accident happened during work time or free time. Definition of their specific individual work suitability is usually carried out utilizing semeiotic tests in which subjective evaluation of every single Medical Doctor is real important in definition of final results and this fact can cause legal controversies. In our research we describe the application of computerised movement analysis on 10 workers of building sector. In every patient examined this technical method has been able to study objectively the tridimensional ranges of motion of most important osteomuscular districts. The possibility to have an objective evaluation of residual osteomuscular function has a relevant importance both in definition of workers' work suitability at the moment in which they start again their activities and in possible future legal conflicts.

  14. Comparative Analysis of the Efficiency of the Water Supply and Sanitation Sector in the Period 2000-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Raychev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the comparative multiparametric analysis of the efficiency of the economic activity of the water and sewerage operators in Bulgaria in the period 2000-2015. It is part of a comprehensive study of a scientific project, according to the Ordinance No.9 of the Ministry of Education and Science of 08.08.2013, with No.НПИ-130/2014, on the topic: „The concession as a factor for development of the Water Supply and Sanitation sector in the Republic of Bulgaria“. Conclusions and recommendations concerning the efficiency of revenues, financial results and management of the WSS operators in the statistical regions of the country are made. The possibilities for restructuring the water sector have been examined in order to improve its economic activity and the quality of the WSS services provided to the population.

  15. An application of multiplier analysis in analyzing the role of information and communication technology sectors on Indonesian national economy: 1990-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to continue the previous studies which focused on Indonesian Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors. More specifically, this study aims to analyze the role of ICT sectors on Indonesian national economy using simple household income multiplier, one of the analysis tools in Input-Output (IO) analysis. The analysis period of this study is from 1990-2005. The results show that the sectors did not have an important role on the national economy of Indonesia on the period. Besides, the results also show that, from the point of view of the multiplier, Indonesian national economy tended to stable during the period

  16. Chances for the development of manufactures of capital goods. Analysis of the situation and sector evolution; Oportunidades para el desarrollo de los fabricantes de bienes de equipo. Analisis de la situacion y evolucion del sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez Ramos, M. L.

    2012-07-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the situation and development in the capital goods sector in Spain. This industry is not just an important sector in the Spanish economy but, given its structural characteristics (dynamism, influence on the production processes of other activities and presence in all developed countries), it conditions the recovery of our economy. The article includes an analysis of the weaknesses, threats, strengths and opportunities of the sector. Further, it is crucial its contribution to make sustainable development of industrial activity. Also, it deals with those opportunities that are presented for the future development of this industry such as eco-design, energy efficiency and life cycle analysis. (Author)

  17. Recruitment Practices In It Sector A Comparative Analysis Of Select Indian amp Mnc Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. N. Sree Rajani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recruitment and selection lie at the heart of how businesses procure human resource required to maintain a sustainable competitive advantage over its competitors. Staffing personnel and especially managerial personnel in the organizations may well represent one of the most important human resource management functions. Information technology essentially refers to the digital processing storage and communication of information of all kinds. The IT sector is likely to give employment to 9 million people in India by 2008 and also generate 87 billion in annual revenues and 225 billion in market in India by 2008. The present article focuses on how efficiently the IT sector follows the Recruitment amp selection processes and to trace out the differences of the same between the Indian amp MNC companies if any.

  18. Understanding the evolution of eco-innovative activity in the automotive sector: a patent based analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Lourenco; Andersen, Maj Munch

    The paper aims to analyze the evolution of eco-innovative activity and strategies in the automotive sector over time. We suggest to use a patent count methodology tracking the development of selected technologies considered as promising ?green technologies? in the automotive sector. The paper...... their patent portfolios in order to generate competitive advantages derived from the introduction of eco-innovations, activities emerging in the 1990s and accelerating in scope and radicality in the end zeroes. All the firms are engaging in developing new alternative green trajectories to the existing dominant...... demonstrates the current fluid emerging stage of the greening of the economy but also illustrates that eco-innovation is already an important competitive factor globally....

  19. Analysis of the technological capacity of pymes in the metal sector- an evaluation methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Divitt Velosa García

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg Las pymes del sector metalmecánico, requieren mejorar su desempeño empresarial de tal forma que esto permita el desarrollo de ventajas competitivas frente a mercados globales. Estas ventajas se pueden lograr de muchas formas, pero una de las fuentes que en los últimos años ha tomado gran importancia es a través del sistema de producción (Hill, 2000. En este trabajo se presenta una metodología para medir la capacidad tecnológica de producción en las pymes del sector metalmecánico colombiano, con el objetivo de evaluar la gestión frente a dos aspectos específicos diseño y manufactura, y de acuerdo con los resultados proponer estrategias para que estas empresas puedan mejorar su capacidad tecnológica.

  20. South-East Region in Bulgaria: Economic Performance and Key Sectors Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoaneta GOLEMANOVA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to provide insight into the economicperformance of the South-east region (SER of Bulgaria by presenting quantitativerelationships between sectors in the regional economy. Methodologically it is basedon the construction of the regional Input–Output model. It was carried out troughapplying the non-servey GRIT technique, based on Flegg & Webber locationquotient (2000. The dirived Rasmussen & Hirschman backward linkages andMattas & Shrestha input-output elasticities from the model enable to identify thekey economic sectors within the region. This could be considered as a starting pointfor the future impact assesment of different EU policies, as well as designing ofbetter regional development strategies, assuring better economic performance.

  1. Capital dynamics and local health systems: searching for a comprehensive analysis of the health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Siliansky de Andreazzi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a proposal of a methodology aimed to analyze the health care sector according to the dynamics of capital accumulation. That approach could be summed up to more traditional approaches founded in the Public Health field, based in a political perspective. The proposal departs from concepts and methods of Industrial Organization, already used for health care markets, in the European and Latin-American (CEPAL contexts. We aggregated economic and historical variables to these approaches, which delimitate possibilities and impose constraints to the strategies of the local agents. The objective of the paper is to give methodological support to public managers at state and local level, whose role as the single commander in their territories is prescribed by the present health policy in Brazil. That includes all the fields related to private sector regulation in health: from planning the supply to quality control of providers.

  2. An analysis of the legal and market framework for the cogeneration sector in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loncar, D.; Duic, N.; Bogdan, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Following a strategic orientation towards sustainable development, the Government of the Republic of Croatia has changed its energy legislation and has put forward a framework for the systematic development and increased use of renewable energy sources and cogeneration. This paper focuses on changes in the regulatory context relevant to the cogeneration sector and also analyses the impact of energy market transition on cogeneration viability in municipal district heating, industry, services and the residential sector. Particular attention has been paid to the expected changes of heat, electricity and gas prices. We present a simple model for quantitative prediction of the cogeneration system profitability at different power levels under given national circumstances. Our findings support a need for a strong institutional support for initial penetration of the micro-cogeneration technologies into the Croatian energy system. (author)

  3. R & D PROJECTS ARTICULATING SCIENTIFIC SYSTEM WITH ENTREPRENEUR SECTOR, AN ANALYSIS FROM THE DISTANCE COGNITIVA APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez, Francisco José

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the interaction between universities and nearby firms from the research and development projects executed from the School of Engineering of the National University of Mar del Plata, analyzing the characteristics of companies linked contractually. The working hypothesis proposes to explain, through the concept of "cognitive distance" (Boschma, 2005; Dirk Fornahl et al., 2011, the competitive advantage presented by medium and large companies from mature sectors and small companies from technological sectors, to engage with the scientific and technological institutions. The results indicate that the company is contractually associated with the School of Engineering have demanded further developments of technological innovation, and reduced demand for services. While the origin of the application responds to a pattern adjusted to the proposed hypothesis.

  4. Evaluation of Social Networks Sites in the Banking Sector: An Analysis of Top 200International Banks

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCISCO JAVIER MIRANDA; ANTONIO CHAMORRO; SERGIO RUBIO; VÍCTOR MORGADO

    2013-01-01

    Social networks have become an interesting marketing tool for the banking sector to manage contact and interaction with their actual and potential customers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of Facebook by the top 200 international banks. Our paper proposes a new instrument called Facebook Assessment Index (FAI), which uses three categories to evaluate the essential information on a firm's Facebook page: popularity, interactivity, and content. Only 60% of the banks tested had...

  5. Banking sector governance: Lessons from Hong Kong listed bands. A three year perspective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Sh. D.

    2011-01-01

    Hong Kong's financial sector is popular within the banking industry for the range of service providers themselves. Using the case study approach, this paper explores the changes to the boards of directors and governance issues of the 12 listed banks on Hong Kong stock exchange over a three year period. It focuses on issues such as the number of directors on the boards, their qualifications, type of directors in terms of independence, outside directorships held, and the auditors of the financi...

  6. Approaches to Conducting Political Economy Analysis in the Urban Water Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Manghee, Seema; Poole, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Progress in urban water supply and sanitation has been slow over the past few decades. The sector suffers from issues of equity and efficiency. Today, more than 780 million people are still without access to improved sources of water, and 2.5 billion lack improved sanitation. Those average figures mask huge disparities between the rich and the poor, the poor consistently have less access t...

  7. Analysis of the sector petroleum refineries in energy scenarios for The Netherlands. Analyse van de sector raffinaderijen voor de Nationale Energie Verkenningen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Oostvoorn, F

    1926-07-01

    The calculations with regard to the oil sector in general and the petroleum refineries in particular of the energy scenarios for The Netherlands are described. Calculations have been made with the help of the energy models SELPE and SERUM, developed for the total energy scene of The Netherlands and the petroleum refineries respectively. The results of the calculations with respect to the petroleum refineries are compared. This resulted in adjustment of the parameters for the oil sector in the SELPE energy model and the consequences of these adjustments for the energy scenarios for The Netherlands. 3 figs., 15 tabs., 10 refs.

  8. Analysis of environmental impacts of renewable energy on the Moroccan electricity sector: A System Dynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentouf, M.; Allouch, M.

    2018-05-01

    Producing electricity at an affordable price while taking into account environmental concerns has become a major challenge in Morocco. Moreover, the technical and financial issues related to renewable electricity plants are still hindering their efficient integration in the country. In fact, the energy sector (both electricity and heat) accounted for more than half of all Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions in the kingdom due to the major reliance on fossil fuels for answering the growing local demand. The key strategies to alleviate this critical situation include the integration of more renewable energies in the total energy mix and the enhancement of energy efficiency measures in different sectors. This paper strives to (1) evaluate the potential of carbon dioxide mitigation in Moroccan electricity sector following the actual and projected strategies and (2) highlight the policy schemes to be taken in order to achieve the ambitious carbon dioxide mitigation targets in the mid-term. A system dynamics model was built in order to simulate different scenarios of carbon dioxide mitigation policies up to 2030. The results shows that the achievement of renewable energies projects by 2030 could save 228.143 MtCO2 between 2020 and 2030 and an additional 18.127 MtCO2 could be avoided in the same period by enhancing energy efficiency measures.

  9. An Analysis of the Factors Leading to Rising Credit Risk in the Zimbabwe Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Sandada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to analyse the factors that lead to rising credit risk in the Zimbabwean banking sector. The objective was to ascertain the impact of macroeconomic, industry and bank specific factors on rising credit risk in in Zimbabwe. The study aimed at contributing to credit risk management literature by providing evidence Sub Saharan context. Being anchored on the positivist quantitative research approach, a survey was carried out gather the data that were analysed using descriptive, correlation and regression analyses. The results revealed that the most significant factors leading to credit risk in the Zimbabwean banking sector were macroeconomic and bank specific factors. The industry factors did not show a significant influence on the rising credit risk. The research findings of this study will a valuable addition to the existing knowledge and provide a platform for further research on how the credit risk problems can be dealt with. While credit risk is known as one of the risks inherent to any banking institutions, the alarming levels of credit risk in the Zimbabwe banking sector has motivated this current study to critically analyse the factors that have led to the high credit risk levels.

  10. Project management in the public sector: a bibliometric analysis (1988-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Honorato Clemente

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of management of projects in the public sector has manifested itself as a governmental initiative which ensures and contributes to governance and focusses on transparency, accountability, the efficient and effective use of public resources, the implementation of policies and changes and, principally, on the maintenance of public trust. This being the case, the aim of this study is to present a bibliometric study about the management of projects in the public sector in order to identify publication trends and theoretical currents within this field. Data was gathered from the Web of Science Core Collection database and the software Sitkis and Ucinet were utilized to generate the networks. Descriptive and network analyses such as reference articles, co-citations and key words are presented. Findings suggest that management and execution methods of construction and infrastructure projects, such as Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT and Public-Private Partnerships, are relevant within the field of project management in the public sector.

  11. Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Financial Sector Reforms on Savings Mobilization in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enobong Udoh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether Nigeria witnessed considerable savings mobilization amidst financial sector reforms from 2007 to 2015 using the estimation method of Autoregressive Distributed Lag. Unlike previous papers in this area that mostly focused on interest rates liberalization thesis, this paper goes deeper by looking at financial reforms across money, capital and foreign exchange markets. The estimation results show that there are still structural rigidities in the money, foreign exchange and equity markets nexus. In that, the following variables that proxy financial sector reforms namely treasury bill yield, interest rate spread, market capitalization ratio and currency in circulation ratio (which proxy technological modernization of payment systems all went against a priori expectation. However, financial reforms had one success story in credit/loans advances to private/public sectors (financial deepening which posted its correct economic sign. In sum, except for the financial deepening variable it can be safely concluded that financial reforms in Nigeria is yet to positively impact savings mobilization. The regulatory and reform authorities must show effectiveness in reforms implementation.

  12. Impact Of Mining Sector To Poverty And Income Inequality In Indonesia A Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarlan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the decentralization was implemented by Indonesia government in the last decade the provincial government has more powerful authority to use and manage on the own provinces. The use of natural resources is blessed by the God for community welfare. By using 30 provincial cross-section data that the mining sector has a negative affected and statistically significant to economic growth and it has unsignificantly affected for decreasing poverty and also unsignificant for income inequality in Indonesia. The purpose of this research is to understand the affect of mining sector to poverty and income inequality in Indonesia from 2002 to 2011. The research used explanatory method by using time-series and cross-section data and applied a two stage simultaneous equation method 2SLS. The important finding in this research is a mining sector had a negative impact on economic growth and economic growth was not significant statistically for poverty reduction b inflation did not have any impact on economic growth and had a positive impact poverty headcount poverty gap and poverty severity and c economic growth had positive impact on income inequality.

  13. Energy use for economic growth: A trivariate analysis from Tunisian agriculture sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebri, Maamar; Abid, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Following the importance of energy in the agrarian economies, the investigation of the causal relationship between energy consumption in agriculture sector and economic growth has a fundamental role in implementing suitable policies. This paper examines the causal relationship between energy consumption and agricultural value added, controlling for trade openness, in Tunisia from 1980 to 2007. The relationship is investigated at aggregated as well as disaggregated components of energy consumption, including oil and electricity. Using Granger's technique, it is shown that various results are obtained regarding the direction of causality between competing variables. Nevertheless, the most common finding suggest that trade openness and both aggregated and disaggregated energy consumption Granger causes agricultural value added. Therefore, the energy-led growth and trade-led growth hypotheses are supported in the Tunisian agriculture sector. An important policy implication resulting from this study is that energy can be considered as a limiting factor to agriculture value added and, therefore, shocks to energy supply would have a negative impact onto agriculture performance. Furthermore, trade liberalization seems to be a stimulus factor to the Tunisian agriculture development. - Highlights: ► We study the energy consumption-economic growth nexus of Tunisian agriculture sector. ► We use Johansen's cointegration approach and Granger causality. ► Energy consumption can be considered as limiting factor to agricultural performance. ► Electrical energy will represent an important input to agricultural production growth.

  14. Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, M.A.; Woodruff, M.G.; Ashton, W.B.

    1992-08-01

    The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model's parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed

  15. The Effect of Tariff Reduction in Agricultural Sector on Macroeconomic Variables: Using Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Heidari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Economic effects of membership in the WTO in recent years, has been one of the most important issues for Iranian economy. If Iran joins the WTO, in this process, tariff reduction in agricultural sector will be one of the policies which has to be employed. Therefore, investigating economic effects of tariff reduction or even its elimination in this sector will be necessary in running effective policies to minimize the probabilistic losses of accession. Tariffs on agricultural products in Iran are determined merely on the basis of annual country economy, and have no long term strategy. Government is just obliged to impose effective tariffs on agricultural products imports, in order to protect local productions. On the other hand, according to the census of population and housing, the share of agricultural sector in employment has reduced during the past decade. Moreover, Iran central bank information indicated the reduction in the share of agricultural sector in GDP for the past decade. Declining the share of agriculture in production and employment, considering the high number of university graduates in the field of agriculture along with rising unemployment rate of this group, motivated this study to investigate the effect of tariff reduction in this sector on macroeconomic variables. Materials and Methods: This study analyzed the welfare effects of import tariffs reduction in agricultural sector from Iran most important commercial partners and vice versa, using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP, based on computable general equilibrium (CGE model. Moreover, the effects of tariffs reduction, is investigated on output, price level and transfer of production factors between different economic sectors. In order to simulate the above model, we used GTAP version 8 which covers 57 commodities and 113 regions with economic information of these regions. This model uses Social Accounting Matrix of countries as data information. Our

  16. Decarbonizing the European electricity sector. Modeling and policy analysis for electricity and CO_2 infrastructure networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oei, Pao-Yu Charly Robin

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation uses three models to analyze different decarbonization strategies for combating global climate change: The cost minimizing mixed-integer model CCTS-Mod examines the economics of Carbon Capture, Transport, and Storage (CCTS) for the electricity and industry sector; the welfare maximizing quadratically constrained model ELMOD focuses on different trajectories for renewable energy sources (RES) and transmission grid expansions; and the equilibrium model ELCO combines the insights of the individual sectors to a combined CCTS and electricity investment and dispatch model. Modeling results show that an investment in CCTS is beneficial for the iron and steel sector once the CO_2 certificate price exceeds 50 Euros/t CO_2. The threshold is 75 Euros/t CO_2 for the cement industry and 100 Euros/t CO_2 for the electricity sector. Additional revenues from using CO_2 for enhanced oil recovery (CO_2-EOR) lead to an earlier adoption of CCTS in the North Sea region. The lack of economies of scale results in increasing CO_2 storage costs of more than 30%, while transport costs even double. Research from the last years, however, indicates that CCTS is unlikely to play an important role in decarbonizing the electricity sector. The identified reasons for this are incumbents' resistance to structural change, wrong technology choices, over-optimistic cost estimates, a premature focus on energy projects instead of industry, and the underestimation of transport and storage issues. Keeping global temperature rise below 2 C therefore implies the phase-out of fossilfueled power plants and, in particular, of CO_2-intensive coal power plants. The low CO_2 price established by the European Emissions Trading Scheme is insufficient to induce a fuel switch in the medium term. Therefore, supplementary national measures are necessary to reduce coal-based power generation; i.a. feed-in tariffs for RES, minimum CO_2 prices, or emissions performance standards. Analyses for Germany show

  17. Small distributed generation versus centralised supply: a social cost-benefit analysis in the residential and service sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulli, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims at measuring the social benefits of small CHP distributed generation (DG) in the residential and service sectors. We do this by comparing the social costs of decentralised and centralised supplies, simulating 'ideal' situations in which any source of allocative inefficiencies is eliminated. This comparison focuses on assessing internal and external costs. The internal costs are calculated by simulating the optimal prices of the electricity and gas inputs. The external costs are estimated by using and elaborating the results of the dissemination process of the ExternE project, one of the most recent and accurate methodologies in this field. The analysis takes into account the main sources of uncertainty about the parameter values, including uncertainty about external cost estimations. Despite these sources of uncertainty, the paper concludes that centralised supply is still preferable to small DG. In fact, the overall range of DG social competitiveness is restricted, even considering further remarkable improvements in DG electrical efficiency and investment costs. The results are particularly unfavourable for the residential sector, whereas, in the service sector, the performance of DG technologies is slightly better

  18. Energy supply options for Lithuania: A detailed multi-sector integrated energy demand, supply and environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    The Technical Co-operation (TC) project Energy Supply Options for Lithuania: A Detailed Multi-Sector Integrated Energy Demand, Supply and Environmental Analysis (LIT/0/004) was implemented 2001-2002 by a national team with support from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The principal objective of the project was to conduct a comprehensive assessment of Lithuania's future energy supply options taking into consideration the early closure of the Ignalina nuclear power plant (Ignalina NPP). Lithuania, a country in transition to full membership of the European Union, has to comply with the energy acquis (Chapter 14). The 'acquis communautaire' (the body of common rights and obligations which bind all the Member States together) must be adopted by all applicant countries. Implementing the acquis requires not only adequate legislation, well functioning institutions (e.g. a regulatory body as required in the electricity and gas directives) or schedules for restructuring the energy sector but also measures to enhance energy supply security, improvement of energy networks, efficiency improvements throughout the energy system and compliance with European environmental standards. Within the overall context of the transition to EU membership, this study focuses on the future development of the electricity sector and the impacts on energy supply security and environmental performance of a closure of Ignalina NPP by 2009, a pre-condition for accession stipulated by the European Union. The project coincided with the preparation of the new National Energy Strategy for Lithuania and therefore was set up to support the strategy formulation process

  19. The Applicability of the Risk Analysis System in Tax Audit Effectiveness (A Sample Application on Gaziantep Carpet Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Ahmet UĞUR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tax audit which is an undeniable part of the correct collection of taxes covering a significant portion of public expenditure is increasingly important in our tax where the basis of the declaration is valid. The necessity of tax audit to be effective is accepted by everyone without a doubt, but the issue of efficiency in tax audit has always been a problem. The effectiveness of tax audit is increasingly important in terms of the fiscal policy of the country and therefore of general economic policy. Various options have been put forward on ways to improve the efficiency of tax audit. One of these options is the risk analysis method. Risk analysis is an activity in which taxpayer's activities are analyzed in terms of groups and sectors through the risk analysis system which is formed by collecting all kind of information data and statistics and it is the activity to identify risk areas in this way. In this sense this study addresses a sample application of the risk analysis system for the Gaziantep Carpet Sector.

  20. Local and regional interactions between air quality and climate in New Delhi- A sector based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrapu, Pallavi

    Deteriorating air quality is one of the major problems faced worldwide and in particular in Asia. The world's most polluted megacities are located in Asia highlighting the urgent need for efforts to improve the air quality. New Delhi (India), one of the world's most polluted cities, was the host of the Common Wealth Games during the period of 4-14 October 2010. This high profile event provided a good opportunity to accelerate efforts to improve air quality. Computational advances now allow air quality forecast models to fully couple the meteorology with chemical constituents within a unified modeling system that allows two-way interactions. The WRF-Chem model is used to simulate air quality in New Delhi. The thesis focuses on evaluating air quality and meteorology feedbacks. Four nested domains ranging from South Asia, Northern India, NCR Delhi and Delhi city at 45km, 15km, 5km and 1.67km resolution for a period of 20 day (26th Sep--15th Oct, 2010) are used in the study. The predicted mean surface concentrations of various pollutants show similar spatial distributions with peak values in the middle of the domain reflecting the traffic and population patterns in the city. Along with these activities, construction dust and industrial emissions contribute to high levels of criteria pollutants. The study evaluates the WRF-Chem capabilities using a new emission inventory developed over Delhi at a fine resolution of 1.67km and evaluating the results with observational data from 11 monitoring sties placed at various Game venues. The contribution of emission sectors including transportation, power, industry, and domestic to pollutant concentrations at targeted regions are studied and the results show that transportation and domestic sector are the major contributors to the pollution levels in Delhi, followed by industry. Apart from these sectors, emissions outside of Delhi contribute 20-50% to surface concentrations depending on the species. This indicates that pollution

  1. Media Portrayal of the Nursing Homes Sector: A Longitudinal Analysis of 51 U.S. Newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edward Alan; Livingstone, Ian; Ronneberg, Corina R

    2017-06-01

    Most Americans' low opinion of the nursing home (NH) sector could derive, in part, from the way in which it is portrayed in the media. This study furthers understanding of media portrayal of the NH sector by identifying how NHs were depicted in 51U.S. newspapers from 1999 to 2008. Keyword searches of the LexisNexis database were performed to identify 16,280 NH-related articles. Article content was analyzed, and tone, themes, prominence, and central actor were assessed. Basic frequencies and descriptive statistics were used to examine article content across regions, market type, and over time. Findings reveal considerably less NH coverage in the Western United States and a steady decline in NH coverage nationally over time. Most articles were news stories; more than one third were located on the front page of the newspaper or section. Most articles focused on NH industry and government interests, very few on residents/family and community concerns. Most articles were neutral or negative in tone; very few were positive or mixed. Common themes included quality, financing, and legal concerns. Tone, themes, and other article attributes varied across region, market type, and over time. Overall, findings reveal changes in how newspapers framed NH coverage, not only with respect to tone but also with respect to what dimensions of this complex issue have been emphasized during the time period analyzed. Variation in media coverage may contribute to differences in government and public views toward the NH sector across regions and over time. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Analysis of the energy metabolism of urban socioeconomic sectors and the associated carbon footprints: Model development and a case study for Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Hongmei; Fath, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Cities consume 80% of the world's energy; therefore, analyzing urban energy metabolism and the resulting carbon footprint provides basic data for formulating target carbon emission reductions. While energy metabolism includes both direct and indirect consumptions among sectors, few researchers have studied indirect consumption due to a lack of data. In this study, we used input–output analysis to calculate the energy flows among directly linked sectors. Building on this, we used ecological network analysis to develop a model of urban energy flows and also account for energy consumption embodied by the flows among indirectly linked sectors (represented numerically as paths with a length of 2 or more). To illustrate the model, monetary input–output tables for Beijing from 2000 to 2010 were analyzed to determine the embodied energy consumption and associated carbon footprints of these sectors. This analysis reveals the environmental pressure based on the source (energy consumption) and sink (carbon footprint) values. Indirect consumption was Beijing's primary form, and the carbon footprint therefore resulted mainly from indirect consumption (both accounting for ca. 60% of the total, though with considerable variation among sectors). To reduce emissions, the utilization efficiency of indirect consumption must improve. - Highlights: • We quantified the embodied energy transfers among Beijing's socioeconomic sectors. • We calculated the sectors' intensity of energy consumption and carbon footprint. • The indirect energy consumption was higher than the direct for all sectors. • The high-indirect-consumption sectors are at the end of industrial supply chains. • High-indirect-consumption sectors can improve upstream products energy efficiency

  3. Job insecurity and salary in the Spanish hotel sector: a regional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    García-Pozo, Alejandro; Lópe- Rubio, José; Sánchez-Ollero, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    The economic crisis in which the Spanish economy finds itself has had serious negative impact on wages and in the lack of job stability for Spanish workers. In this paper, using the data available from the sample of 2010 of the Spanish Wage Structure Survey (WSS), we estimate the return to human capital in the hotel sector for the main Spanish touristic regions. For this purpose has been estimated an expanded version of the Mincer (1974) wage equation which includes, in addition to variables ...

  4. SECTORAL STRUCTURE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESS IN RUSSIA: STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Pin’kovetskaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The research urgency is caused by the implementation of the Federal strategy of development of small and medium business for the period up to 2030.The purpose of the study: determination of the regularities characteristic of the sectoral structure of small and medium business. Objectives of the study: to establish the patterns and trends, characterizing the current structure of small and medium business by types of economic activity and the number of their employees, the definition of specific indicators of the number of employees per enterprise, as well as estimation of the distribution of these parameters on the aggregates of entrepreneurial structures in the regions. The results of continuous monitoring activities of small and medium business in 2015 were used as input data. The study was based on the comparison of indicators for the business sector and the full circle of legal entities and individual entrepreneurs.Research methodology is based on the consideration of sets of entities generated by the sectoral and territorial characteristics. Modeling of the values’ differentiation of the number of workers per enterprise based on the development of the density function of the normal distribution. The quality of the developed models was verified with Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Pearson and Shapiro-Wilk. According to the results of modeling, the mean values of the number of workers on six main activities are set, as well as the intervals of changes of these parameters on the aggregates of small and medium enterprises, located in most regions of the country.The obtained results have some theoretical significance, in particular, when conducting research, related to the justification of the number of enterprises and number of employees, the formation of measures for the increase of efficiency of activity of the business sector. Given in the article, density function of the normal distribution can be used to establish the plans and programs of

  5. Analysis of the gas-lubricated flat-sector-pad thrust bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etsion, I.

    1976-01-01

    A flat sector-shaped pad geometry for a gas-lubricated thrust bearing is analyzed considering both the pitch and roll of the pad. It is shown that maximum load capacity is achieved when the pad is tilted so as to create uniform minimum film thickness along the pad trailing edge. Performance characteristics for various geometries and operating conditions of gas thrust bearings are presented in the form of design curves, and a comparison is made with the rectangular slider approximation. It is found that this approximation is unsafe for practical design, since it always overestimates load capacity.

  6. Stumbling reform process in the energy sector. Analysis of recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veraart, M.D.L.

    2010-01-01

    These are turbulent times for the Dutch energy sector. The peace did not return when the Unbundling Act was implemented. The privatization of Nuon and Essent caused quite a stir. In the opinion of the author part of this stir was unjustified. It was the logical consequence of the liberalization of the energy markets that started 15 years ago. The soap does not end with the sale of the energy companies. The establishment of the public grid companies and finding a destination for the returns of the sales are new issues of conflict that emerge. [nl

  7. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Electric power production and distribution equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.S.; Miller, R.W.

    1988-09-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for electric power production and distribution equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for electric power production and distribution equipment

  8. The footwear factory's assembly sector: opposing organizational structure and quality from the ergonomic work analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kláudia M M N; Coelho, Bernardo G P; Junior, Josemir V S; Faria, Luiz F M; Dutra, Ludmila; Alvarenga, Marília; Roggini, Renan; Echternach, Eliza Helena de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Data from 2006 indicated that Brazilian footwear leather industry was composed of approximately 9,488 formally registered establishments, considering the leather industry, footwear and leather goods. It was responsible for 211,582 people employed. However, in spite of having many employees, this kind of organization found several problems when analyzed from the ergonomics view. With this premise, then, in order to identify bottlenecks and other engineering problems that could cause discomfort and motivation lack among workers, leading directly to the loss of the product quality, the assembly sector of women's shoes factory was characterized.

  9. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Oil and gas field machinery and equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil and gas field machinery and equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for oil and gas field machinery and equipment

  10. Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector: a joint analysis from big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei-Ming; Guo, Zong-Kuan; Cai, Rong-Gen; Zhang, Yuan-Zhong

    2017-06-01

    We investigate constraints on Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector from a joint analysis of big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. The effect of Lorentz invariance violation during the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis changes the predicted helium-4 abundance, which influences the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background at the recombination epoch. In combination with the latest measurement of the primordial helium-4 abundance, the Planck 2015 data of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies give a strong constraint on the deformation parameter since adding the primordial helium measurement breaks the degeneracy between the deformation parameter and the physical dark matter density.

  11. Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector: a joint analysis from big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Wei-Ming; Cai, Rong-Gen [Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physical Sciences, Beijing (China); Guo, Zong-Kuan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Astronomy and Space Science, Beijing (China); Zhang, Yuan-Zhong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing (China)

    2017-06-15

    We investigate constraints on Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector from a joint analysis of big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. The effect of Lorentz invariance violation during the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis changes the predicted helium-4 abundance, which influences the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background at the recombination epoch. In combination with the latest measurement of the primordial helium-4 abundance, the Planck 2015 data of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies give a strong constraint on the deformation parameter since adding the primordial helium measurement breaks the degeneracy between the deformation parameter and the physical dark matter density. (orig.)

  12. Analysis of the Risk of Company's Bankruptcy in Polish Food and Beverage Production Sector Using the Cox Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Dominiak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the risk of a company’s bankruptcy in Polish food and beverages production sector (NACE, No. 15 has been carried out using econometric modelling in the form of the Cox regression. The purpose of this paper was to find factors (models describing the risk of a company’s bankruptcy. The described approach to modelling of the risk of bankruptcy is – in the case of quantitative variables – the use of “raw” positions from financial accounts. (original abstract

  13. Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector: a joint analysis from big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Wei-Ming; Cai, Rong-Gen; Guo, Zong-Kuan; Zhang, Yuan-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    We investigate constraints on Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector from a joint analysis of big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. The effect of Lorentz invariance violation during the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis changes the predicted helium-4 abundance, which influences the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background at the recombination epoch. In combination with the latest measurement of the primordial helium-4 abundance, the Planck 2015 data of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies give a strong constraint on the deformation parameter since adding the primordial helium measurement breaks the degeneracy between the deformation parameter and the physical dark matter density. (orig.)

  14. An Analysis of the Factors Influencing the Adoption of Activity Based Costing (ABC in the Financial Sector in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip C. James

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Financial institutions are increasingly operating in a highly competitively environment and therefore cost management has become an imperative. This paper investigates the factors influencing the adoption of activity-based costing (ABC methodology within the financial sector in Jamaica. Quantitative analysis was done using the generalized linear logistic regression model. The results show that there are three main factors that are statistically significant in the decision to implement an ABC system, these are: companies perception of the ability of ABC to assist in cost control, the proportion of overhead to total cost and finally, the action of competitors, that is, whether a competitor adopts the ABC methodology

  15. Analysis of the market penetration of clean coal technologies and its impacts in China's electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hao; Nakata, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses policy instruments for promoting the market penetration of clean coal technologies (CCTs) into China's electricity sector and the evaluation of corresponding effects. Based on the reality that coal will remain the predominant fuel to generate electricity and conventional pulverized coal boiler power plants have serious impacts on environment degradation, development of clean coal technologies could be one alternative to meet China's fast growing demand of electricity as well as protect the already fragile environment. A multi-period market equilibrium model is applied and an electricity model of China is established to forecast changes in the electricity system up to 2030s. Three policy instruments: SO 2 emission charge, CO 2 emission charge and implementing subsidies are considered in this research. The results show that all instruments cause a significant shift in China's electricity structure, promote CCTs' competitiveness and lead China to gain great benefit in both resource saving and environment improvement. Since resource security and environment degradation are becoming primary concerns in China, policies that could help to gain generations' market share of advanced coal-based technologies such as CCTs' is suitable for the current situation of China's electricity sector. (author)

  16. Assessment of Technical Efficiency of Public Sector Banks in India Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna BHATIA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to analyze technical efficiency of Public Sector Banks (PSBs in India during the period 1990-91 to 2011-12. The paper also examines whether there is statistically significant difference in efficiency of PSBs in the reformatory era (1990-91 to 2000-01 as compared to the post reformatory era (2001-02 to 2011-12. Using CAMEL framework, the paper also investigates the determinants of efficiency of PSBs. The results show that PSBs exhibit higher mean of the efficiency parameters in post reformatory era (2001-02 to 2011-12 than in the reformatory era (1990-91 to 2000-01. PSBs inefficiency is attributed to Pure Technical Inefficiency in reformatory era whereas the same is accredited to scale inefficiency in the post reformatory era. Paired t test shows that there is significant difference in performance of Public Sector Banks in reformatory era and post reformatory in all the Efficiency parameters. The results of Panel Data TOBIT regression suggest that various CAMEL parameters have significant impact on the technical efficiency of PSBs.

  17. An analysis of headquarters location in the Canadian oil and gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, K.T.

    1993-04-01

    Headquarters location theory identifies several factors which are expected to influence the location of corporate head offices. Some of these factors directly affect the costs of operation and the basic profitability of the company, such as the cost of office space, tax levels, availability of qualified labour, cost of labour, proximity to corporate activities, and agglomeration with other services and companies. Headquarters location theory is applied to Canada's energy sector. During the previous 27 years, concentration of energy company headquarters has shifted from Toronto to Calgary. A regression model tests the extent to which those factors identified in the literature appear to be statistically significant for the headquarters relocation experience in Canada's energy sector. The results of the tests suggest that certain factors do appear to significantly influence relocation decisions. These factors are agglomeration with other oil and gas companies, and relative proximity to oil and gas operations (which unexpectedly displayed a negative coefficient). The agglomeration factor was by far the most significant. 44 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Is technological change biased toward energy? A multi-sectoral analysis for the French economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanfil, Fatih; Yeddir-Tamsamani, Yasser

    2010-01-01

    Since the adoption and implementation of new technologies has an important influence on the structure and performance of the economy in both developed and developing countries, many research papers are devoted to the technology-economy nexus. Motivated by the fact that the impact of technical progress on the demand for different production factors may vary depending on the bias of the technological change, in this paper, by estimating a translog cost-share system and using state-space modeling technique, we investigate to what extent the direction of technical change is biased toward energy and away from other factors. By applying this methodology to the French economy for the period 1978-2006 the obtained results suggest that: first, technical change has a non-neutral impact on factor demands; second, capital-saving technical progress is present in the majority of the sectors studied; third, energy demand has increased in all sectors but electricity and gas. These findings may have important policy implications for environmental and energy issues in France.

  19. Current status and analysis of renewable promotional policies in Indian restructured power sector - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Randhir; Sood, Yog Raj

    2011-01-01

    Restructuring has changed the traditional mission and mandates of power utilities in complex ways, and had large impacts on environmental, social, and political conditions for any particular country. At the same time, new regulatory approaches are being found for reducing environmental impacts in restructured power sectors. India has a vast supply of renewable energy resources, and it has one of the largest programs in the world for deploying renewable energy based products and systems. So this paper attempts to review the various policies and measures undertaken by Indian government for promotion of renewable energy. The aim of this paper is also to review the current policy mechanisms, especially investment- or generation-based price-driven and capacity-driven mechanisms, ranging from investment incentives for the development of renewable energy projects, feed-in tariffs, production tax incentives, tradable green certificates, and their effects upon the prospects of encouraging as well as expanding the development of renewable energy in Indian restructured power sector. This will make renewable more attractive in the Indian future electricity market. (author)

  20. Credit Risk Determinants in Banking Sector: A Comparative Analysis of the PIB (Pakistan, India and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Waqas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the empirical study is to investigate credit risk determinants in banking sectors across three kinds of South Asian economies. An accumulated sample of 105 unbalanced panel data of financial firms over the period of 2000-2015, by applying General Method of Moment (GMM estimation techniques one-step at the difference in order to identify factors influencing credit risk. This study is inspired by two broad categories of explanatory variables which are bank-specific and macroeconomic. Bank-specific factors influencing unsystematic risk, while macroeconomic factors promoting systematic risk. The study uses a proxy of non-performing loans for credit risk in banking sectors of Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh. The empirical results have been found aligned with theoretical arguments and literature as expected. In comparison, NPLs in Pakistan is greater than India and Bangladesh, while India has the lowest ratio of non-performing loans. The study documents that bank-specific factors (inefficiency, profitability, capital ratio and leverage have a significant contribution towards credit risk. Further, the study also finds a significant impact of macroeconomic variables on non-performing loans. While, the result in the case of Bangladesh predict contradictions, that have no significant effect on non-performing loans at various level. The overall results indicate that credit risk is not influenced by only external factors but also affect by internal factors like bad management and skimping etc.

  1. An Analysis of the Impact of Heat Waves in Labor and Crop Productivity in the Agricultural Sector in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, F.; Wehner, M. F.; Gilless, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    California agriculture is an important economic activity for the state. California leads the nation in farms sales since 1950. In addition, agricultural employment in California reached approximately 410,000. Production of many fruits and vegetables is labor intensive and labor costs represent anywhere from 20% to 40% of total production costs. In additon, agricutlural production growth has been the highest for labor intensive crops such as berries (all types) and nuts. Given the importance of the agricultural sector and the labor component whithin it, the analysis of the impact of climate change on the agricultural sector of California becomes imperative. Heat waves are a weather related extreme that impact labor productivity, specially outdoor labor producitivity. We use crop production function analysis that incorporates socio economic variables such as crop prices, total acreage, production levels and harvest timiline with climate related variables such as an estimated Heat Index (HI) to analize the impact of heat waves on crop production via an impact on labor productivity for selected crops in the Central and Imperial Valleys in California. The analysis finds that the impact of heat waves varies by the degree of labor intensity of the crop and the relative intensity of the heat wave.

  2. A preliminary design and structural analysis on the central column for supporting the full 40 .deg. Sectors at tokamak in pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Kyoungo; Park, Hyun Ki; Kim, Dong Jin; Moon, Jaeh Wan; Kim, Byung Seok; Watson, Emma; Shaw, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The ITER Tokamak machine is composed of nine 40 .deg. sectors shaped of torus. Each 40.deg. sector is made up of one 40 .deg. vacuum vessel (VV), two 20 .deg. toroidal filed coils and associated vacuum vessel thermal shield (VVTS) segments which consist of one inboard and two outboard VVTS. The VV/TFC/VVTS 40 .deg. sectors are sub assembled at assembly building respectively at sector sub assembly tool and then nine sub assembled 40 .deg. sectors are finally assembled at in-pit of Tokamak building. ITER sector assembly tools are the purpose built assembly tools to assemble nine 40 .deg. sectors into the complete ITER Tokamak machine at Tokamak in pit. Based on the design description document, final report prepared by the ITER organization (IO) and tooling requirements, Korea has carried out the conceptual and preliminary design of these assembly tools. Especially, the central column is the main tool, which is composed of some hollow cylinders, to support full nine 40 .deg. sectors at Tokamak in pit. Configuration and structural analysis of the central column are presented

  3. Sustainability and Solvence analysis: a study of selected companies of open capital of the sugar sector and alcohol in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leuter Duarte Cardoso Júnior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The sugar and alcohol sector in Brazil now suffered transformations in its dynamics in in the last five years, as prices in the domestic and international market for low sugar and limitations to the production of ethanol and other relevant factor are higher production cost, and higher standards of production sustainability. Economic literature discuss the existence of a crises after 2008. The objective of the article is to verify the solvency of Biosev and São Martinho companies during the period 2012 and 2014. For solvency analysis we used models of discriminant analysis: Kanitz, Matias and Elizabetsky and to make it possible to use the models to data collected by means of accounting and financial statements of companies. The main result is that companies have low liquidity and are insolvent according to the discriminant analysis models used.

  4. Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE). Part I. Sectoral Analysis of Climate Impacts in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeotti, M.; Goria, A.; Spantidaki, E.; Mombrini, P.

    2004-02-01

    This paper focuses on the results of the research work carried out by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) within the WISE project. This project aims at investigating the effects and the impacts of extreme weather events, particularly very warm summers, mild winters and storms, on the socio-economic systems of European countries. The output consists of a series of empirical studies, both of quantitative and qualitative descriptive nature. The work of FEEM in the WISE project covers the quantitative analysis of the impacts of climate extremes on the socio-economic system in Italy and the analysis of individuals' perception of climate extremes based on results from individuals' surveys. In this paper is presented the statistical modelling of the impact of weather, through quantitative analysis of activity time series. In particular, the core sectors analysed include fires, health, energy use, tourism and agriculture

  5. Models for residential- and commercial-sector energy-conservation analysis: applications, limitations, and future potential. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Henry E.; Fullen, Robert E.

    1980-09-01

    This report reviews four of the major models used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for energy conservation analyses in the residential- and commercial-building sectors. The objective is to provide a critical analysis of how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. For this, the study brings together information on the models' analytical structure and their strengths and limitations in policy applications these are then employed to assess the most-effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy-conservation policy and analysis. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  6. Scenario analysis of the new energy policy for Taiwan's electricity sector until 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Fung-Fei; Chou, Seng-Cho; Lu, Tai-Ken

    2013-01-01

    For this study, we constructed the following three case scenarios based on the Taiwanese government's energy policy: a normal scenario, the 2008 “Sustainable Energy Policy Convention” scenario, and the 2011 “New Energy Policy” scenario. We then employed a long-term Generation Expansion Planning (GEP) optimization model to compare the three case scenarios' energy mix for power generation for the next å15 years to further explore their possible impact on the electricity sector. The results provide a reference for forming future energy policies and developing strategic responses. - Highlights: • We constructed three case scenarios based on the Taiwan government's energy policy. • We employed a long-term Generation Expansion Planning optimization model. • A significant gap exists between the carbon reduction target and baseline. • The carbon reduction target requires a holistic resolution needed taking seriously

  7. Competition policies and environmental quality: Empirical analysis of the electricity sector in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asane-Otoo, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, electricity markets across OECD countries have been subjected to profound structural changes with far-reaching implications on the economy and the environment. This paper investigates the effect of restructuring – changes in entry regulations, the degree of vertical integration and ownership structure – on GHG emissions. The findings show that competition policies – particularly reducing the degree of vertical integration and increasing privatization – correlate negatively with emission intensity. However, the environmental effect of reducing market entry barriers is generally insignificant. Integration of competition and stringent environmental policies are required to reduce GHG emissions and improve environmental quality. - Highlights: •Empirical study on competition policies and GHG emissions from the electricity sector. •Product market regulation scores for OECD countries are used to measure the extent of competition. •Evidence of a positive relationship between competition policies and environmental quality. •Integration of competition and stringent environmental policies is recommended.

  8. Patent Applications on Representative Sectors of Biotechnology in Brazil: an Analysis of the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Machado Mendes

    2013-12-01

    The website of European Patent Office (EPO patent database - Espacenet was used to conduct the survey, and the search strategy fields selected for the patent applications were: (i Priority Number: BR (Brazil, and (ii the International Patent Classification (IPC - C12N, C07K14, and C07H21/04. The patent applications by Brazilian residents, from 2000 to 2010 in the Espacenet for the classifications adopted indicates a total of 396 patent applications in the most representative sectors in biotechnology over the past 10 years. After the Brazilian Innovation Law there is a growth trend line particularly in the years 2007 and 2008. The universities hold 48% of the patent applications in biotechnology, following by Individuals/ Researchers with 20%, Public Research Centers and Private Firms with 15%, and 11% of the total, respectively.

  9. Greenhouse effect and waste sector in Italy: Analysis and quantitative estimates of methane emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzullo, Marcello; Tognotti, Leonardo

    1997-01-01

    Methane is the most important atmospheric gas with a considerable effect on climate change after carbon dioxide. In this work methane emissions from waste have been evaluated. Estimates include emissions resulting from anaerobic degradation of landfill municipal solid waste and industrial and municipal wastewater anaerobic treatments. The adopted methodology follows specific guidelines carried out by IPCC (Intergovernamental Panel on Climate Change), the scientific reference commission for the Framework Convention on Climate Change subscribed in 1992 during the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. Some factors used in the methodology for landfill emissions have been modified and adapted to the italian situation. The estimate of emission resulting from industrial wastewater anaerobic treatments has required preliminary evaluation of annual wastewater quantities produced by some significant industrial sectors

  10. Micromechanics-Based Damage Analysis of Fracture in Ti5553 Alloy with Application to Bolted Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettaieb, Mohamed Ben; Van Hoof, Thibaut; Minnebo, Hans; Pardoen, Thomas; Dufour, Philippe; Jacques, Pascal J.; Habraken, Anne Marie

    2015-03-01

    A physics-based, uncoupled damage model is calibrated using cylindrical notched round tensile specimens made of Ti5553 and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The fracture strain of Ti5553 is lower than for Ti-6Al-4V in the full range of stress triaxiality. This lower ductility originates from a higher volume fraction of damage sites. By proper heat treatment, the fracture strain of Ti5553 increases by almost a factor of two, as a result of a larger damage nucleation stress. This result proves the potential for further optimization of the damage resistance of the Ti5553 alloy. The damage model is combined with an elastoviscoplastic law in order to predict failure in a wide range of loading conditions. In particular, a specific application involving bolted sectors is addressed in order to determine the potential of replacing the Ti-6Al-4V by the Ti5553 alloy.

  11. Power sector scenarios for Thailand: An exploratory analysis 2002-2022

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulugetta, Yacob; Mantajit, Nathinee; Jackson, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Power sector scenarios for Thailand are constructed in this paper to represent the range of opportunities and constraints associated with divergent set of technical and policy options. They include Business-As-Usual (BAU), No-New-Coal (NNC), and Green Futures (GF) scenarios over a 20-year period (2002-2022). The results from the BAU scenario show that fossil fuels will continue to dominate electricity generation in Thailand during the study period. Similar results are obtained for the NNC option, although the dependence shifts from coal and oil towards natural gas-based power generation. This may represent a better environmental pathway but an all out shift from coal to natural gas is likely to increase Thailand's dependence on imported fuel, making it more vulnerable to unstable global oil and gas prices. The GF scenario offers a more optimistic route that allows the country to confront its energy security dilemma whilst fulfilling its environmental commitments by giving renewable energy technologies a prominent place in the country's power generation mix. Over the study period, our result showed little difference between the three scenarios in terms of financing new generation plants despite an early misgiving about the viability of an ambitious renewable energy programme. This paper also goes beyond the financial evaluation of each scenario to provide a comparison of the scenarios in terms of their greenhouse gas emissions together with the comparative costs of emissions reductions. Indeed, if such externalities are taken into account to determine 'viability', the GF scenario represents an attractive way forward for the Thai power sector

  12. Envisioning the Third Sector's Welfare Role: Critical Discourse Analysis of ‘Post-Devolution’ Public Policy in the UK 1998–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Paul; Wincott, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Welfare state theory has struggled to come to terms with the role of the third sector. It has often categorized welfare states in terms of the pattern of interplay between state social policies and the structure of the labour market. Moreover, it has frequently offered an exclusive focus on state policy – thereby failing to substantially recognize the role of the formally organized third sector. This study offers a corrective view. Against the backdrop of the international shift to multi-level governance, it analyses the policy discourse of third sector involvement in welfare governance following devolution in the UK. It reveals the changing and contrasting ways in which post-devolution territorial politics envisions the sector's role as a welfare provider. The mixed methods analysis compares policy framing and the structural narratives associated with the development of the third sector across the four constituent polities of the UK since 1998. The findings reveal how devolution has introduced a new spatial policy dynamic. Whilst there are elements of continuity between polities – such as the increasing salience of the third sector in welfare provision – policy narratives also provide evidence of the territorialization of third sector policy. From a methodological standpoint, this underlines the distinctive and complementary role discourse-based analysis can play in understanding contemporary patterns and processes shaping welfare governance. PMID:25574063

  13. Envisioning the Third Sector's Welfare Role: Critical Discourse Analysis of 'Post-Devolution' Public Policy in the UK 1998-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Paul; Wincott, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Welfare state theory has struggled to come to terms with the role of the third sector. It has often categorized welfare states in terms of the pattern of interplay between state social policies and the structure of the labour market. Moreover, it has frequently offered an exclusive focus on state policy - thereby failing to substantially recognize the role of the formally organized third sector. This study offers a corrective view. Against the backdrop of the international shift to multi-level governance, it analyses the policy discourse of third sector involvement in welfare governance following devolution in the UK. It reveals the changing and contrasting ways in which post-devolution territorial politics envisions the sector's role as a welfare provider. The mixed methods analysis compares policy framing and the structural narratives associated with the development of the third sector across the four constituent polities of the UK since 1998. The findings reveal how devolution has introduced a new spatial policy dynamic. Whilst there are elements of continuity between polities - such as the increasing salience of the third sector in welfare provision - policy narratives also provide evidence of the territorialization of third sector policy. From a methodological standpoint, this underlines the distinctive and complementary role discourse-based analysis can play in understanding contemporary patterns and processes shaping welfare governance.

  14. Sustainable urban development? An analysis of fuel innovation in the auto-rickshaw sector in Bangalore and Hyderabad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baud, I.S.A.; Bokhorst, J.R.; van de Loo, T.J.C.; Quaedvlieg, J.G.J.; Rothuizen, J.V.; Tulleners, B.A.W.

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the question of what contributions fuel transitions can make to more sustainable development in urban areas in India. A major sector of private collective transportation is studied—the auto-rickshaw sector, in which a private sector-led transition to gas has taken place. The

  15. Public Sector Education Institution's Analysis: A Way Forward to Curtail Rural-Regional Education Accessibility Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Aftab Hussain Talpur

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The availability of accessible educational facilities is essential for the better rural education. However, because of the huge population, lack of resources and absence of proper policy plans; the distance between educational facilities and rural communities is mounting as time progresses. These sorts of problematic circumstances put damaging effects on education standards and become responsible for the declining literacy rate. Hence, the goal of this research is to investigate the lack of educational institutions with respect to indigenous standards. Therefore, in this study, the dearth of education institutions was determined for the one of the most deprived sub-regions of Pakistan, i.e. Badin. The data were collected through observations, questionnaire survey, and from secondary sources, like census report and other pertinent public sector documents. The outcome of this study can be taken as an input to develop policy plans, targeting the education accessibility issues of backward communities. This research could show a guiding-path to local planning agencies, as these can come-up with the policy plans to trounce the education accessibility issues from the bucolic sub-regions of developing countries

  16. Does competition improve financial stability of the banking sector in ASEAN countries? An empirical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Chan Sok; Isa, Che Ruhana

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the influence of competition on the financial stability of the commercial banks of Association of Southeast Asian Nation (ASEAN) over the 1990 to 2014 period. Panzar-Rosse H-statistic, Lerner index and Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) are used as measures of competition, while Z-score, non-performing loan (NPL) ratio and equity ratio are used as measures of financial stability. Two-step system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimates demonstrate that competition measured by H-statistic is positively related to Z-score and equity ratio, and negatively related to non-performing loan ratio. Conversely, market power measured by Lerner index is negatively related to Z-score and equity ratio and positively related to NPL ratio. These results strongly support the competition-stability view for ASEAN banks. We also capture the non-linear relationship between competition and financial stability by incorporating a quadratic term of competition in our models. The results show that the coefficient of the quadratic term of H-statistic is negative for the Z-score model given a positive coefficient of the linear term in the same model. These results support the non-linear relationship between competition and financial stability of the banking sector. The study contains significant policy implications for improving the financial stability of the commercial banks. PMID:28486548

  17. Does competition improve financial stability of the banking sector in ASEAN countries? An empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noman, Abu Hanifa Md; Gee, Chan Sok; Isa, Che Ruhana

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the influence of competition on the financial stability of the commercial banks of Association of Southeast Asian Nation (ASEAN) over the 1990 to 2014 period. Panzar-Rosse H-statistic, Lerner index and Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) are used as measures of competition, while Z-score, non-performing loan (NPL) ratio and equity ratio are used as measures of financial stability. Two-step system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimates demonstrate that competition measured by H-statistic is positively related to Z-score and equity ratio, and negatively related to non-performing loan ratio. Conversely, market power measured by Lerner index is negatively related to Z-score and equity ratio and positively related to NPL ratio. These results strongly support the competition-stability view for ASEAN banks. We also capture the non-linear relationship between competition and financial stability by incorporating a quadratic term of competition in our models. The results show that the coefficient of the quadratic term of H-statistic is negative for the Z-score model given a positive coefficient of the linear term in the same model. These results support the non-linear relationship between competition and financial stability of the banking sector. The study contains significant policy implications for improving the financial stability of the commercial banks.

  18. Technical and economical analysis of an induced demand in the photovoltaic sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciorba, Umberto; Pauli, Francesco; Menna, Pietro

    2004-01-01

    We analyse the potential economic impact of a demand of photovoltaic (PV) devices in Morocco, in terms of induced production and job creation. In Morocco a high potential for PV installations exists as proved by the number of national and international deployment initiatives currently underway. In our study, we first describe the manufacturing process providing as final output the solar modules and associate the corresponding costs to each step of the process. These costs are needed to determine the technical coefficients of an ad hoc PV sector to be added to the Morocco Leontief matrix. Then, using the input-output methodology, we evaluate the economic impact of the production of 5 MW p modules a year under different hypotheses. A production of 5 MW p PV modules, which require an overall investment of euro 16.3 millions, increases production of euro 57.6 millions if cells are locally produced and of euro 22.3 millions when the cells are imported, creating 2570 and 489 jobs, respectively. These results outline the importance of availability of intermediate inputs in local economical context

  19. The Mexican electricity sector: Policy analysis and reform (1992–2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez-Camperos, Adriana María; Rodríguez-Padilla, Víctor; Guido-Aldana, Pedro Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the cause–effect relation of the structural reform in the Mexican electricity sector, called the Public Electricity Service Act, from 1992 to 2009. One of the main arguments of the reform is to attract private investment in order to reduce the financial load of the government in infrastructure for the development of the National Electric Power System by means of six modalities (Power Self-Supply, Cogeneration, Small Power Production, Independent Power Production, Power Export and Power Import). The article presents the global context of reforms adopted in 1990. The major policies and events are presented in chronological order (before and after reform). In addition, it analyses the new institutional framework, the evolution of modalities, technologies of electricity generation and tariffs. The main conclusion is that the result of reform could be considered a partial progress. The Independent Power Production modality shows greater participation, while Power Self-Supply and Cogeneration are lower. The subsidy policy is maintained. Progress is needed in policies and strengthening, and also in updating regulatory and normative frameworks

  20. Multifractality of sectoral price indices: Hurst signature analysis of Cantillon effects in disequilibrium factor markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Robert F.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents Hurst exponent signatures from time series of aggregate price indices for the US over the 1975-2011 time period. Though all highly aggregated, these indices include both broad measures of consumer and producer prices. The constellation of prices evolves as a complex system throughout processes of production and distribution, culminating in the final delivery of output to consumers. Massive feedback characterizes this system, where the demand for consumable output determines the demand for the inputs used to produce it, and supply scarcities for the necessary inputs in turn determine the supply of the final product. Prices in both factor and output markets are jointly determined by interdependent supply and demand conditions. Fractal examination of the interplay among market prices would be of interest regardless, but added interest arises from the consideration of how these markets respond to external shocks over the business cycle, particularly monetary expansion. Because the initial impact of monetary injection is localized in specific sectors, the way the impact on prices diffuses throughout the economy is of special interest.

  1. Technical analysis and economic effect of an industrial initiative in the photovoltaic sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciorba, U.; Pauli, F.; Menna, P.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper it is assessed the potential economic impact of an industrial initiative in the photovoltaic manufacturing sector, in terms of induced production and job creation, to be implemented in Morocco. This country exhibits indeed a high potential for photovoltaic installations as proved by the relevant number of national and international deployment programs currently underway. Solar electricity generation schemes look very promising for the relevant role they could play in the future, CO2-emission free, world energy scenarios making potentially more appealing the planning of longer-term public investments. In this study, it was described the manufacturing process providing the solar modules as final output and associate to each step of the process the corresponding costs. Then, using input-output method, it was evaluated the economic impact of the production of 5 MWp modules a year under different hypotheses. A production of 5MWp photovoltaic modules, which require an overall investment of Euro 16.3 millions increases gross domestic product of Euro 57.6 millions if cells are locally produced and only of Euro 22.3 millions when the cells are imported, creating 2570 and 489 jobs, respectively. These results outline the importance of availability of inputs in local economical context [it

  2. ANALYSIS OF CURRENT STATE AND FUTURE TRENDS OF AUTO PARTS MANUFACTURING SECTOR IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA MIHAI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the economy of any country, the auto parts manufacturing sector holds an important percentage in the national automotive industry. The dynamics of sales within it can vary significantly on short term, depending on the automotive market trend. This is also the case of the current situation in Romania, where the effect of the regressive automotive sales evolution will propagate, most probably, with a significant delay for the companies involved in production and trade of auto parts (for both first-assembly manufacture and car maintenance and repair. The statistical data indicate that even though the total volume of vehicles delivered decreased with 7.4% in 2011 as compared to 2010, the total turnover of the companies in the automotive industry increased with 7.8%. The apparent paradox is explained in the present article through the particularities of the demand for spare parts intended for the rolling stock in operation and through the effective organization of the distribution system.

  3. Navigating the financial crisis in Helvetic Waters: An analysis of the banking sector (2007-09

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Paulet

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As has been argued throughout this paper, the different way in which banks have been affected by the crisis is closely linked to their distinct business model. Consequently, the characteristic structure of the balance sheet in big banks and ethical banks is correlated with their divergent dynamic during the crisis. While the financial turmoil has left the business approach of ethical banks unchanged, as evidenced in the striking stability of their balance sheet from 2007 to 2009, the pattern shown by big banks has substantially changed over this same period. These developments would tend to suggest the need to reform the business model of big banks. There is no clear empirical evidence that a banking system with a large number of small institutions would be any more stable than the system as it currently stands. Besides, financing certain big projects would always require the existence of large international banks. Both types of financial institutions are in fact complementary. How to regulate the banking and financial sector is thus a complex and multifaceted issue. One cannot impose the same requirements on big international-oriented banks and small domestic banks. As this paper has tried to demonstrate, both have a distinct business model.

  4. The Mexican energy sector: integrated dynamic analysis of the natural gas/refining system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes-Regueiro, Francisco; Leach, Matthew; Ruth, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    Environmental regulations in Mexico could dramatically increase demand for natural gas in the following years. This increase could lead to gas price shocks and a counter-intuitive increase in carbon emissions. The effect would be accentuated if Mexico lacks the funds required to carry on with investments in gas development and processing capacity. With the use of a dynamic computer model, this study addresses responses of the Mexican oil and gas industries to perturbations such as: changes in regulatory and environmental policies; changes in institutional arrangements such as those arising from market liberalization; and lack of availability of investment funds. The study also assesses how regulatory policies can be designed to minimize the economic inefficiencies arising from the business cycle disruptions that some perturbations may cause. In addition, this study investigates how investment responses will shape the Mexican energy sector in the future, particularly with respect to both the relative importance of different fuels for power generation and heating purposes and the nature of competition in the Mexican natural gas market. Furthermore, this study explores the direct consequences of these responses on the level of carbon emissions. (Author)

  5. Integration of the heat and refrigeration sector into the electricity market model PowerFlex for the analysis of sector encompasing effects on the climate protection goals and EE integration. Scientific final report - actualized version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Matthias; Hesse, Tilman; Kenkmann, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    The report covers the following issues: (i) Detailed description of the heat sector and its coupling to the electricity sector within the electricity market model PowerFlex: provate heat demand, derivation of heat load profiles, development of a technology and energy carrier mix, data inputs for the electricity market regulation. (ii) Creation of an empirically based data basis for the air conditioning of building, its coupling to the electricity system and derivation of recommendations: preparation of a representative empirical determination of the status quo and the factors that provoke private households to install air conditions, effective parameters for the development of energy demand for air conditioning of residential homes, preparation of a data input for the electricity market model - methodology and results. (iii) Preparation of generic renewable energy supply time series with different levels of fluctuation: Methodology of the renewable energy profile calculation, calculation of the supply profile for photovoltaics, calculation of the supply profile for onshore wind and offshore wind. (iv) Extension of the electricity market model PowerFlex to PowerFlex-heat and cold for the sector encompassing scenario analysis: extension of the module to cogeneration power plants, power-to-heat and power-to-gas for the detailed description of the heat sector, extension of the module for load management, scenarios and interpretation of the results.

  6. Analysis of multi-pollutant policies for the U.S. power sector under technology and policy uncertainty using MARKAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Ming-Che; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2010-01-01

    Investments in power generation, pollution controls, and electricity end use equipment are made in the face of uncertainty. Unanticipated events can cause regret-commitments that in retrospect were the wrong choices. We analyze how three uncertainties-electricity demand growth, natural gas prices, and power sector greenhouse gas regulations-could affect electric power sector investment decisions and costs in the U.S. over the next four decades. The effect of multi-pollutant regulations such as the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) upon these decisions and costs is also considered. We use decision trees to structure the problem, defining multiple futures for each uncertainty and then simulating how the U.S. energy market responds to them. A two-stage stochastic version of the energy-economy model MARKAL simulates the market. Relative importance of the uncertainties is assessed using two indices: expected cost of ignoring uncertainty (ECIU) and expected value of perfect information (EVPI). We also calculate the value of policy coordination (VPC), the cost saved by avoiding surprise changes in policy. An example shows how a stochastic program can be used to compute these indices. The analysis shows that the possibility of greenhouse gas regulation is the most important uncertainty by these measures.

  7. A RESEARCH ANALYSIS OF THE LEVEL OF EMPLOYEES’ SATISFACTION BY TRAINING PROGRAMS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA BANKING SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisa DELIĆ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Investment into people through education, professional training in accordance to bank’s needs, and work on “nurturing” the readiness to challenges and changes are all significant starting points for achieving bank competitiveness. Identifying the dominant forms of employee training and determining the level of employee satisfaction by the existing training programs, which is the basic goal of this paper, enable bank managers to obtain valid information on appropriate changes of certain training programs and development of employees. The paper presents the results of the empirical research conducted in a subject BiH bank, aimed at defining the methods of employee training that are characteristic of the banking sector and the level of employee satisfaction by training programs they attend. The research included 172 employees of the subject bank. The authors believe that the critical analysis of the employee training and development methods applied in the banking sector as well as the criteria for selecting the programs for the realization of these methods can lead to widening the scientific knowledge in the field of human resource management in banking and to creating specific recommendations for bank managers which they can/need apply in their practice in order to improve the entire business operations.

  8. Report on the analysis of the quality assurance and quality control data for the petroleum refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorton, N.; Michajluk, S.; Powell, T.; Lee, G.

    1992-07-01

    The Ontario Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement (MISA) program has the ultimate goal of virtual elimination of persistent toxic contaminants from all discharges to provincial waterways. MISA effluent monitoring regulations, first promulgated for the petroleum refining sector, require direct dischargers to monitor their effluents for a specified number of contaminants and a specified frequency over a one-year period. The refineries were also required to carry out a quality control program on all process effluent streams and for specified analytical test groups. Two types of quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) data were required: field QA/QC, which would indicate problems with field contamination or sampling, and laboratory QA/QC, which would indicate problems with the laboratory. The objectives of QA/QC analysis are to identify the significance of biases, chronic contamination, data variability, and false results, to assess data validity, and to allow data comparability among companies and laboratories. Of the 149 parameters monitored in the petroleum refining sector, 34 qualified as candidates for setting effluent limits. The QA/QC evaluation of monitoring data for the 34 parameters confirmed the presence of 18 parameters at such levels that they could be used to set statistically valid quantitative limits. 50 tabs

  9. Analysis of successful rate factors for small and medium enterprises in furniture manufacturing sector in Klaten Regency - Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhi Utomo, R.; Lasminiasih; Prajaka, S.

    2018-03-01

    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are business activities that can expand the level of employment rate and provide economic services to the wider community and can play a role in the process of equalizing and improving people’s income, stimulating economic growth as well as realizing national stabilities. The aim of this study is to identify the factors of the success rate for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in furniture manufacturing sector in Klaten regency, Central Java, Indonesia. The method employed in this study was descriptive qualitative by also employing quantitative analysis of which the data were collected through observations, interviews and by administering questionnaires. The results seemed to indicate that the furniture business in Klaten is still experiencing difficulties in managing its various aspects of business, namely in terms of marketing (either directly or indirectly or by making the best use media of technology) and managing capital. All this time, the SMEs in furniture manufacturing sector in Klaten have been utilizing a very simple system in producing tables, chairs, wardrobes and any other furniture products which are then distributed to be sold by larger furniture companies. This condition makes the SMEs unable to be independent in running their business.

  10. Analysis of CO2 emissions reduction in the Malaysian transportation sector: An optimisation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapa, Siti Indati; Bekhet, Hussain Ali

    2016-01-01

    The demand for transport services is expected to rise, causing the CO 2 emissions level to increase as well. In Malaysia, the transportation sector accounts for 28% of total CO 2 emissions, of which 85% comes from road transport. By 2020, Malaysia is targeting a reduction in CO 2 emissions intensity by up to 40% and in this effort the role of road transport is paramount. This paper attempts to investigate effective policy options that can assist Malaysia in reducing the CO 2 emissions level. An Optimisation model is developed to estimate the potential CO 2 emissions mitigation strategies for road transport by minimising the CO 2 emissions under the constraint of fuel cost and demand travel. Several mitigation strategies have been applied to analyse the effect of CO 2 emissions reduction potential. The results demonstrate that removal of fuel price subsidies can result in reductions of up to 652 ktonnes of fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions can be decreased by 6.55%, which would enable Malaysia to hit its target by 2020. CO 2 emissions can be reduced significantly, up to 20%, by employing a combination of mitigation policies in Malaysia. This suggests that appropriate mitigation policies can assist the country in its quest to achieve the CO 2 emissions reduction target. - Highlights: • An optimisation model for CO 2 emissions reduction in Malaysia's road transport is formulated. • Sensible policy options to achieve the CO 2 emissions reduction target are provided. • Increase in fuel price has induced shift towards fuel efficient vehicles. • The CO 2 emissions can be reduced up to 5.7 MtCO 2 with combination of mitigation policies.

  11. [Job satisfaction vs. occupational stress - Quantitative analysis of 3 organizational units of a public sector institution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozińska-Pawełczyk, Anna

    2018-05-22

    The influence of subjective perception of occupational stress and its individual factors on the overall level of job satisfaction was analyzed. The respondents were also asked to answer the question of the potential differences in terms of variables in managers and non-managers, and in various demographic factors. This article presents the results of a study conducted among 5930 people employed in 3 units of the examined public sector institution. The research was conducted using computer-assisted web interview method. The parameters of the polynomial model of ordered categories were estimated. The results showed a statistically significant effect between the variables and the differences between the groups of subjects. Analyzes showed slight differences between men and women. Employees with a low level of stress and high job satisfaction were noted in the oldest group, aged over 55 years, and in managers. Low levels of stress and job satisfaction were observed in young employees with the shortest period of employment. Among those least satisfied with the work and experiencing high levels of stress there were respondents with 6-15 years of employment in non-managerial positions. While the highest levels of stress and high satisfaction were found in people aged 46-55 years, with more than 20 years of work experience. The results of the estimation of the polynomial model parameters of ordered categories indicate that the level of perceived stress is related to the level of job satisfaction. The lower the level of stress and stressors in the workplace, the greater the job satisfaction in the surveyed unit. Med Pr 2018;69(3):301-315. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  12. Doing more for less: identifying opportunities to expand public sector access to safe abortion in South Africa through budget impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lince-Deroche, Naomi; Harries, Jane; Constant, Deborah; Morroni, Chelsea; Pleaner, Melanie; Fetters, Tamara; Grossman, Daniel; Blanchard, Kelly; Sinanovic, Edina

    2018-02-01

    To estimate the costs of public-sector abortion provision in South Africa and to explore the potential for expanding access at reduced cost by changing the mix of technologies used. We conducted a budget impact analysis using public sector abortion statistics and published cost data. We estimated the total costs to the public health service over 10 years, starting in South Africa's financial year 2016/17, given four scenarios: (1) holding service provision constant, (2) expanding public sector provision, (3) changing the abortion technologies used (i.e. the method mix), and (4) expansion plus changing the method mix. The public sector performed an estimated 20% of the expected total number of abortions in 2016/17; 26% and 54% of all abortions were performed illegally or in the private sector respectively. Costs were lowest in scenarios where method mix shifting occurred. Holding the proportion of abortions performed in the public-sector constant, shifting to more cost-effective service provision (more first-trimester services with more medication abortion and using the combined regimen for medical induction in the second trimester) could result in savings of $28.1 million in the public health service over the 10-year period. Expanding public sector provision through elimination of unsafe abortions would require an additional $192.5 million. South Africa can provide more safe abortions for less money in the public sector through shifting the methods provided. More research is needed to understand whether the cost of expanding access could be offset by savings from averting costs of managing unsafe abortions. South Africa can provide more safe abortions for less money in the public sector through shifting to more first-trimester methods, including more medication abortion, and shifting to a combined mifepristone plus misoprostol regimen for second trimester medical induction. Expanding access in addition to method mix changes would require additional funds. Copyright

  13. Competitive effects and instruments of power sector reforms. International reform concepts blockade structures, risk distribution. A political economy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebchen, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Power sectors with weak or inadequate competition structures are the rule, despite numerous attempts at reform. But can afford modern economies this defect for a long time? Why can the implementation of competition are blocked so effectively? The author studied international reform experiences and opens up interesting insights that can also reflect on problems of the German energy turnaround: The difficulty of timing and coordination of the reform components, the development of resistance levels of individual interest groups, breach of contract as a rational alternative, causes unwanted price effects, shifting interest situations of major stakeholders, change dynamics impending regulatory risks, pending financing risks, stranded cost-conflict situations for power stations disconnected from the grid and facilities and instruments of a political and regulatory risk management for reforms. With numerous examples, background analyzes and instruments to reform analysis, this book is aimed at investors, policy planners and analysts. [de

  14. How sustainable is Japan's foreign aid policy? An analysis of Japan's official development assistance and funding for energy sector projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hideka

    Japan has adopted a sustainable development strategy since the late 1980s in the effort to address social and environmental damages caused by past Japan-funded projects in partner nations. Even after about a decade and a half of the policy implementation, however, there are few reports which critically examine effects of the adoption of the idea of sustainable development. This dissertation evaluates Japan's foreign aid policy to determine the extent to which new revisions of aid policy have improved the environmental sustainability of the policy. This dissertation reviews the mainstream idea of sustainable development (also known as the sustainable development paradigm in this dissertation) to reveal the nature of the idea of sustainable development that Japan's foreign aid policy depends on. A literature review of two development discourses---modernization theory and ecological modernization theory---and three types of critiques against the sustainable development paradigm---focused on adverse impacts of modern science, globalization, and environmental overuse---reveals core logics of and problems with the sustainable development paradigm. Japan's foreign aid policy impacts on energy sector development in recipient countries is examined by means of a quantitative analysis and a qualitative analysis. Specifically, it examines the effect of Japan's ODA program over fifteen years that proposed to facilitate sustainable development in developing countries. Special emphasis is given to investigation of ODA disbursements in the energy sector and detailed case studies of several individual energy projects are performed. The dissertation discovers that the sustainable development paradigm guiding Japan's ODA has little capacity to accomplish its goals to bring about social and ecological improvement in developing countries. This dissertation finds three fundamental weaknesses in Japanese ODA policy on energy sector development as well as the sustainable development

  15. Assessing National Employment Impacts of Investment in Residential and Commercial Sector Energy Efficiency: Review and Example Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, David M.; Belzer, David B.; Livingston, Olga V.; Scott, Michael J.

    2014-06-18

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) modeled the employment impacts of a major national initiative to accelerate energy efficiency trends at one of two levels: • 15 percent savings by 2030. In this scenario, efficiency activities save about 15 percent of the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) Reference Case electricity consumption by 2030. It is assumed that additional energy savings in both the residential and commercial sectors begin in 2015 at zero, and then increase in an S-shaped market penetration curve, with the level of savings equal to about 7.0 percent of the AEO 2014 U.S. national residential and commercial electricity consumption saved by 2020, 14.8 percent by 2025, and 15 percent by 2030. • 10 percent savings by 2030. In this scenario, additional savings begin at zero in 2015, increase to 3.8 percent in 2020, 9.8 percent by 2025, and 10 percent of the AEO reference case value by 2030. The analysis of the 15 percent case indicates that by 2030 more than 300,000 new jobs would likely result from such policies, including an annual average of more than 60,000 jobs directly supporting the installation and maintenance of energy efficiency measures and practices. These are new jobs resulting initially from the investment associated with the construction of more energy-efficient new buildings or the retrofit of existing buildings and would be sustained for as long as the investment continues. Based on what is known about the current level of building-sector energy efficiency jobs, this would represent an increase of more than 10 percent from the current estimated level of over 450,000 such jobs. The more significant and longer-lasting effect comes from the redirection of energy bill savings toward the purchase of other goods and services in the general economy, with its attendant influence on increasing the total number of jobs. This example analysis utilized PNNL’s ImSET model, a modeling framework that PNNL has used over the past two decades to assess

  16. A threat analysis framework as applied to critical infrastructures in the Energy Sector.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, John T.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The need to protect national critical infrastructure has led to the development of a threat analysis framework. The threat analysis framework can be used to identify the elements required to quantify threats against critical infrastructure assets and provide a means of distributing actionable threat information to critical infrastructure entities for the protection of infrastructure assets. This document identifies and describes five key elements needed to perform a comprehensive analysis of threat: the identification of an adversary, the development of generic threat profiles, the identification of generic attack paths, the discovery of adversary intent, and the identification of mitigation strategies.

  17. Industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The industrial sector is categorized as related to among others, the provision of technical and engineering services, supply of products, testing and troubleshooting of parts, systems and industrial plants, quality control and assurance as well as manufacturing and processing. A total of 161 entities comprising 47 public agencies and 114 private companies were selected for the study in this sector. The majority of the public agencies, 87 %, operate in Peninsular Malaysia. The remainders were located in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study on both public agencies and private companies are presented in subsequent sections of this chapter. (author)

  18. Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)

  19. Sensitivity analysis of Portfolio Volatility: Importance of Weights, Sectors and the Impact of Trading Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    E. Borgonovo; PERCOCO M

    2007-01-01

    This work discusses the Sensitivity Analysis (SA) of portfolio volatility ( σ_{p}) and its role in the interpretation of trading/reallocation strategies. Starting from recent findings in the SA field, we show that results obtained utilizing partial derivatives (PD) or Elasticity (E) cannot be applied to the analysis of the generic trading strategy. We show that such limitations can be overcome by making use of the Differential Importance Measure (D). We also show that, thanks to D additivity ...

  20. PRA (probabilistic risk analysis) in the nuclear sector. Quantifying human error and human malice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyes, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    Regardless of the regulatory style chosen ('command and control' or 'functional') a vital prerequisite for coherent safety regulations in the nuclear power industry is the ability to assess accident risk. In this paper we present a critical analysis of current techniques of probabilistic risk analysis applied in the industry, with particular regard to the problems of quantifying risks arising from, or exacerbated by, human risk and/or human error. (Author)

  1. The price of independents: an analysis of the independent power sector in England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branston, J. Robert

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a focused analysis of the role of entrants into the electricity generation market since privatisation. It examines subsequent developments in the market and in the industry's structure and performance. The analysis draws heavily upon new information gained from telephone interviews with many of those involved with the so-called 'independent power producers' (IPPs), as well as information in the existing literature. Our key finding is that IPP entry has not significantly increased competition and has adversely affected the future viability of the electricity system. We attribute these failures to the very policies that encouraged the initial entry of the IPPs

  2. A Hybrid Model for IT Investment Analysis: Application to RFID Adoption in the Retail Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiri, Narges A.

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study. One of the major obstacles in Information Technology (IT) adoption is its return on investment analysis. IT benefits in organizations are hard to measure and are usually realized over time. System dynamics approach has been used in IT literature to identify the impact of IT on business processes. Given benefits of any IT…

  3. Innovation management and marketing in the high-tech sector: A content analysis of advertisements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhard, D.; Brem, Alexander; Baccarella, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Advertizing high-technology products is a tricky and critical task for every company, since it means operating in an environment with high market uncertainty. The work presents results of a content analysis of 110 adverts for consumer electronics products which examines how these products and the...

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis for sector-wide priority setting in health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C.W. Hutubessy (Raymond)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractCost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) provides one means by which decision-makers may assess and potentially improve the performance of health systems. The process can help to ensure that resources devoted to health systems are achieving the maximum possible benefit in terms of outcomes

  5. The Effect of the Global Financial Crisis and the Sovereign Debt Crisis on Public Sector Accounting: A Contextual Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Igbawase Abanyam; Paul Aondona Angahar

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of global financial crisis and the sovereign debt crisis on public sector accounting. The global financial crisis and sovereign debt crisis were contextually analysed bringing out clearly its effect on public sector accounting which include accounting issues related to public sector intervention, accounting for recapitalization of investment, accounting for fiscal support, accounting for financial guarantees. The paper found out that, the unresolved fiscal and d...

  6. Occupational Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap in Private- and Public-Sector Employment: A Distributional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Juan; Cobb-Clark, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    We use HILDA data from 2001 - 2006 to analyse the source of the gender wage gap across public- and private-sector wage distributions in Australia. We are particularly interested in the role of gender segregation within sector-specific occupations in explaining relative wages. We find that, irrespective of labour market sector, the gender wage gap among low-paid, Australian workers is more than explained by differences in wage-related characteristics. The gender wage gap among high-wage worker...

  7. Dynamic analysis of natural gas distribution sector in Bahia: case study of the Gas State Company entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    For the Natural Gas Distribution Sector in Bahia, some preliminary scenarios and theoretical concerns are presented under the perspectives of the Gas State Company entry. These scenarios are derived from the going institutional changes and physical expansion of the Sector with the increasing natural gas usage. The study has the objective of anticipating, for the State Government and its partners in the Company, the strategies and relevant problems for a successful entrance into this Sector. (author)

  8. Sustainability in the UK domestic sector : A review and analysis of the sustainable energy innovations available to homeowners

    OpenAIRE

    Hultgren, Elin

    2015-01-01

    The UK Government has set an ambitious legislative goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 % by 2050. Of the total energy used in the UK, 31 % is used in the domestic sector. In the domestic sector energy is used for space and hot water heating, lighting, appliances and cooking. Space and hot water heating make up 82 % of the total energy used in the UK domestic sector. Almost all of the energy used in the UK domestic sector originates from depletable resources. In order for the UK to...

  9. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. Final Project Report. California Energy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis for the Industry and Building Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report on the California Energy Balance version 2 (CALEB v2) database documents the latest update and improvements to CALEB version 1 (CALEB v1) and provides a complete picture of how energy is supplied and consumed in the State of California. The CALEB research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) performed the research and analysis described in this report. CALEB manages highly disaggregated data on energy supply, transformation, and end-use consumption for about 40 different energy commodities, from 1990 to 2008. This report describes in detail California's energy use from supply through end-use consumption as well as the data sources used. The report also analyzes trends in energy demand for the "Manufacturing" and "Building" sectors. Decomposition analysis of energy consumption combined with measures of the activity driving that consumption quantifies the effects of factors that shape energy consumption trends. The study finds that a decrease in energy intensity has had a very significant impact on reducing energy demand over the past 20 years. The largest impact can be observed in the industry sector where energy demand would have had increased by 358 trillion British thermal units (TBtu) if subsectoral energy intensities had remained at 1997 levels. Instead, energy demand actually decreased by 70 TBtu. In the "Building" sector, combined results from the "Service" and "Residential" subsectors suggest that energy demand would have increased by 264 TBtu (121 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 143 TBtu in the "Residential" sector) during the same period, 1997 to 2008. However, energy demand increased at a lesser rate, by only 162 TBtu (92 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 70 TBtu in the "Residential" sector). These energy intensity reductions can be indicative of energyefficiency improvements during the past 10 years. The research presented in this report provides a basis for developing an energy-efficiency performance index to measure

  10. Supply risk analysis: applying system dynamics to the Colombian healthcare sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Zamora Aguas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses supply risk in the oncological medicine supply chain (SC in Colombia. A system dynamics model was developed for assessing supply risk impact on SC operation and performance. The costs of risk and logis-tics operation were evaluated in current conditions and in a risk mitigation scenario. The model was based on a systematic analysis of supply networks, mainly concerning the reduction of overall SC costs and improving service, quality and opportunity performance index. This article has resulted from research into SC risk management (SCRM carried out by the Universidad Nacional de Colombia’s SEPRO research group.

  11. Analysis of ''new physics'' in the flavor sector using effective field theory methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassinger, Benjamin M.

    2010-02-05

    The enormous amount of data collected by the B factories as well as the perspective concerning the upcoming experiments at the LHC provide us with the opportunity to perform high precision tests of the standard model. This dissertation presents two model independent precision tests of the weak sector of the standard model using extensions of the weak currents which are set up using effective field theory methods in order to control the size of the different contributions. Constraints on the coefficients of the terms can then be obtained by comparison with experimental results. The first analysis incorporates a test of the lefthandedness of the weak interaction in the quark sector. By introducing additional weak couplings the differential and total decay rates of the inclusive semileptonic decay anti B {yields} X{sub c}l anti {nu}{sub l} are calculated. The calculation includes the computation of the heavy-quark expansion which describes the interaction of the decaying b quark with respect to the background field of the B meson, up to order 1/m{sub b}{sup 4}. This has been done in a new, systematic way which does not involve the calculation of gluon matrix elements. Furthermore, radiative corrections have been included up to order O({alpha}{sub s}) including renormalization group running. The second part deals with the introduction of lepton flavor violating operators in the context of leptonic {tau} decays. These operators give rise to the effective four-fermion vertex {tau}{yields}ll{sup '}l'' as well as the subsequent radiative decay {tau}{yields}l{gamma}{sup *}{yields}ll{sup '+}l{sup '-}. The resulting Dalitz distributions turn out to predict completely different signatures for the radiative and the effective four-fermion vertices and provide the opportunity to check, whether the decay is induced either by a radiative or by an effective four-fermion vertex. Since different models which contain lepton flavor violation are normally more

  12. Efficiency analysis of the designations of origin in the Spanish wine sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vidal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The wine Common Market Organisation has established two concepts for recognizing the quality of wines in the European Union (EU. The first corresponds to the so-called Protected Designation of Origin (PDO, and the second to the Protected Geographical Indication (PGI. The set of Spanish PDOs includes the subset of Spanish DOs (Designation of Origin, which have been recognized as quality wines by Spanish authorities since 1932. Spain accounts for 67 DOs but, due to a lack of data, only 34 of them are suitable for carrying out our analysis. We will analyze the efficiency of this subset for the 2008, 2009 and 2010 seasons resorting to Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and using a new additive based efficiency measure known as BAM (Bounded Adjusted Measure. Since we are using panel data, we will also evaluate the productivity associated with this data set resorting to Malmquist indexes. Our results show that the efficiency behavior of the subset of Spanish DOs is uniform over the time periods analyzed and that productivity experiments only minor and irrelevant changes. They also show that three DOs are in a very good competitive position while another three DOs are in a very bad position. We end up suggesting some economic reasons for explaining these results.

  13. The evolution of legal aspects on the Brazilian electric power sector, a critical analysis; Evolucao dos marcos regulatorios do mercado de energia eletrica no Brasil, uma analise critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Adriano Silva

    2007-07-01

    The electric sector went through deep changes along these 125 years of electrification of the country, mainly the alternation of their investment bases, hour being private for the most part, state hour. The legal bases of concession and regulation also varied in this period, trying to adapt to the effective model of the time. This work intends to analyze the evolution of the regulatory models of the electric sector, identifying the main changes of paradigms and to compare the efficiency of the models already implanted in the segment, with views to the increment of the offer of energy in the period, molding a critical profile of the best model already adopted in the national electric sector. To compare qualitatively these models requests an analysis of the investment bases a priori in the sector, identifying the contribution of resources has been private or state, following by the government's legal positioning in the sense of being only regulator, or regulator and investor, concluding with an analysis of the electric power offer in the period and the power of self-financing of the companies, in order to assent that the mixed model is the most appropriate model for the sustainable growth of the electric power generation sector in Brazil. (author)

  14. Analysis of Costs and Time Frame for Reducing CO2 Emissions by 70% in the U.S. Auto and Energy Sectors by 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supekar, Sarang D; Skerlos, Steven J

    2017-10-03

    Using a least-cost optimization framework, it is shown that unless emissions reductions beyond those already in place begin at the latest by 2025 (±2 years) for the U.S. automotive sector, and by 2026 (-3 years) for the U.S. electric sector, 2050 targets to achieve necessary within-sector preventative CO 2 emissions reductions of 70% or more relative to 2010 will be infeasible. The analysis finds no evidence to justify delaying climate action in the name of reducing technological costs. Even without considering social and environmental damage costs, delaying aggressive climate action does not reduce CO 2 abatement costs even under the most optimistic trajectories for improvements in fuel efficiencies, demand, and technology costs in the U.S. auto and electric sectors. In fact, the abatement cost for both sectors is found to increase sharply with every year of delay beyond 2020. When further considering reasonable limits to technology turnover, retirements, and new capacity additions, these costs would be higher, and the feasible time frame for initiating successful climate action on the 70% by 2050 target would be shorter, perhaps having passed already. The analysis also reveals that optimistic business-as-usual scenarios in the U.S. will, conservatively, release 79-108 billion metric tons of CO 2 . This could represent up to 13% of humanity's remaining carbon budget through 2050.

  15. The evolution of legal aspects on the Brazilian electric power sector, a critical analysis; Evolucao dos marcos regulatorios do mercado de energia eletrica no Brasil, uma analise critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Adriano Silva

    2007-07-01

    The electric sector went through deep changes along these 125 years of electrification of the country, mainly the alternation of their investment bases, hour being private for the most part, state hour. The legal bases of concession and regulation also varied in this period, trying to adapt to the effective model of the time. This work intends to analyze the evolution of the regulatory models of the electric sector, identifying the main changes of paradigms and to compare the efficiency of the models already implanted in the segment, with views to the increment of the offer of energy in the period, molding a critical profile of the best model already adopted in the national electric sector. To compare qualitatively these models requests an analysis of the investment bases a priori in the sector, identifying the contribution of resources has been private or state, following by the government's legal positioning in the sense of being only regulator, or regulator and investor, concluding with an analysis of the electric power offer in the period and the power of self-financing of the companies, in order to assent that the mixed model is the most appropriate model for the sustainable growth of the electric power generation sector in Brazil. (author)

  16. International comparisons of the technical efficiency of the hospital sector: panel data analysis of OECD countries using parametric and non-parametric approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varabyova, Yauheniya; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2013-09-01

    There is a growing interest in the cross-country comparisons of the performance of national health care systems. The present work provides a comparison of the technical efficiency of the hospital sector using unbalanced panel data from OECD countries over the period 2000-2009. The estimation of the technical efficiency of the hospital sector is performed using nonparametric data envelopment analysis (DEA) and parametric stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). Internal and external validity of findings is assessed by estimating the Spearman rank correlations between the results obtained in different model specifications. The panel-data analyses using two-step DEA and one-stage SFA show that countries, which have higher health care expenditure per capita, tend to have a more technically efficient hospital sector. Whether the expenditure is financed through private or public sources is not related to the technical efficiency of the hospital sector. On the other hand, the hospital sector in countries with higher income inequality and longer average hospital length of stay is less technically efficient. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Access to Vocational Training in Three Sectors of the European Economy. Comparative Analysis. 2nd Edition. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassibille, Gerard; Paul, Jean-Jacques

    This report presents findings of a study of the theoretical and practical methods of access to continuing vocational training. It summarizes six reports that compare the following: the construction sector in Spain, France, Italy, and Luxembourg; the banking, insurance, commerce, and administration sectors in Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, and…

  18. Analysis of the scenarios with the participation of nuclear energy in the Mexican electric sector using the Decades program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosa P, E.; Trejo G, M.G.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Francois L, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    At the moment the energetic planning demands a technical, economic and environmental analysis of the different options of electric generation to be able to find the best solution of supply and energy readiness, already that it is indispensable for the development of the productive activities and to assure the competitiveness of the economy of a country. The expansion analyses of the Mexican Electric Sector its are carried out daily in the Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE) with some programs, among them Decades. However, up to where we have information only there is been considering a type of reactor like candidate being that exist several options that show promising characteristics for what its should be considered in the analyses. With this work its got rich the Decades database of the nuclear power stations that can be used as candidates to consider in the variable system of the expansion studies. Its have been carried out some comparative analysis between two types of nuclear centrals that at the moment offer in the market, specifically the AP600 type PWR reactor of 600 M We and the one BWR with capacity of 1300 M We. Later on it is sought to analyze two or three scenarios of the system of electric generation in Mexico to a term of twenty or twenty-five years. (Author)

  19. A retrospective content analysis of studies on factors constraining the implementation of health sector reform in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakyi, E Kojo

    2008-01-01

    Ghana has undertaken many public service management reforms in the past two decades. But the implementation of the reforms has been constrained by many factors. This paper undertakes a retrospective study of research works on the challenges to the implementation of reforms in the public health sector. It points out that most of the studies identified: (1) centralised, weak and fragmented management system; (2) poor implementation strategy; (3) lack of motivation; (4) weak institutional framework; (5) lack of financial and human resources and (6) staff attitude and behaviour as the major causes of ineffective reform implementation. The analysis further revealed that quite a number of crucial factors obstructing reform implementation which are particularly internal to the health system have either not been thoroughly studied or overlooked. The analysis identified lack of leadership; weak communication and consultation; lack of stakeholder participation, corruption and unethical professional behaviour as some of the missing variables in the literature. The study, therefore, indicated that there are gaps in the literature that needed to be filled through rigorous reform evaluation based on empirical research particularly at district, sub-district and community levels. It further suggested that future research should be concerned with the effects of both systems and structures and behavioural factors on reform implementation.

  20. ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS THE BASIS SUPPORT THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS AND FISHERIES SECTOR, ROMANIA DURING 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents funding opportunities to support investment and rural development and fisheries sector. Adoption of the national program and rural development as a strategic document for implementing European programs meant for rural Romania assumption of an intervention model is based on a medium-term strategy on the development of the village world. The work is based on the analysis of official documents indicating alignment programs of intervention policies in the field and on their analysis of available data that refers to the current state of implementation of programs referring to Romanian rural development. Given that the Common Agricultural Policythe (CAP budget for 2014-2020 is higher than the amounts allocated for the 2007-2013 program, consider that in determining the coordinates of financial allocation for the next year must take into account the problems encountered in previous period to eliminate them, because the efficiency of the implementation of funds to support rural development objectives depends largely on rural transformation internally and reducing disparities in the regions and communities, and externally in relation to Member States of the European Union .

  1. Econometric analysis of exchange rate in Serbia and its influence on agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pažun Brankica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to empirically estimate equilibrium exchange rate level of Serbian dinar. In that purpose reduced form equilibrium real exchange rate approach (ERER is used, developed by IMF's Consultative Group on Exchange Rate Issues (CGER. The research was made by using ARDL approach in the single-country analysis. It has been started from dynamic model which has described relation between real effective exchange rate and a set of fundamental variables. Bound test has been provided due to determination of the long-term relationship existence between variables. F-statistics has been used for long-term relationship testing between dependent variable and set of indicators. Since assumptions were met, least squares method was used for coefficient estimation. The results have shown constant dinar's overvaluation over medium term.

  2. Competitiveness of rural tourism sector in Vojvodina: The analysis of key stakeholders' attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demirović Dunja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is considered to be one of the appropriate instruments for the revitalization of rural areas and for ensuring a sustainable future. For this reason, determining the factors that influence the improvement of the competitive position of the tourism market is of great importance for their further development. In this paper, the authors have surveyed 136 tourism experts in order to assess the current state of all factors that affect/could affect the competitiveness of rural tourism destinations in Vojvodina. Also, the analysis should show if employees of the private rural companies and others have a different view of the competitiveness of Vojvodina as a destination for rural tourism in relation to the employees at faculties/ institutes, tourist organizations, travel agencies, national and provincial institutions, as well as whether there is a statistically significant difference in the attitudes of respondents on average scores for determinants of competitiveness depending on the socio-demographic characteristics of respondents.

  3. Parametric sensitivity analysis for techno-economic parameters in Indian power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallah, Subhash; Bansal, N.K.

    2011-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is a technique that evaluates the model response to changes in input assumptions. Due to uncertain prices of primary fuels in the world market, Government regulations for sustainability and various other technical parameters there is a need to analyze the techno-economic parameters which play an important role in policy formulations. This paper examines the variations in technical as well as economic parameters that can mostly affect the energy policy of India. MARKAL energy simulation model has been used to analyze the uncertainty in all techno-economic parameters. Various ranges of input parameters are adopted from previous studies. The results show that at lower discount rate coal is the least preferred technology and correspondingly carbon emission reduction. With increased gas and nuclear fuel prices they disappear from the allocations of energy mix.

  4. Energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Within the framework of assessing the state of the environment in Lebanon, this chapter describes primary energy demand, the electricity generating sector and environmental impacts arising from the energy sector.Apart from hydropower and traditional energy sources, which together represent 1.7% of energy consumption, all energy in Lebanon derives from imported petroleum products and some coal.Tables present the imports of different petroleum products (Gasoil, Kerosene, fuel oil, coal etc...), their use, the energy balance and demand.Energy pricing and pricing policies, formal and informal electricity generations in Lebanon are described emphasized by tables. The main environmental impacts are briefly summarized. Thermal power stations give rise to emissions of Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), particulates, oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) and CO/CO 2 from combustion of primary fuel informally generated power from both industry and domestic consumption produce particulate materials and emissions of NO x and SO 2 projected emissions of SO 2 from the power sector with the present generating capacity and with the new combined cycle power plants in operation are shown. Other environmental impacts are described. Recommendations for supply and environment policy are presented

  5. Unemployment, public-sector health care expenditure and HIV mortality: An analysis of 74 countries, 1981-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Da Zhou, Charlie; Williams, Callum; Zeltner, Thomas; Atun, Rifat

    2015-06-01

    The global economic downturn has been associated with increased unemployment and reduced public-sector expenditure on health care (PSEH). We determined the association between unemployment, PSEH and HIV mortality. Data were obtained from the World Bank and the World Health Organisation (1981-2009). Multivariate regression analysis was implemented, controlling for country-specific demographics and infrastructure. Time-lag analyses and robustness-checks were performed. Data were available for 74 countries (unemployment analysis) and 75 countries (PSEH analysis), equating to 2.19 billion and 2.22 billion people, respectively, as of 2009. A 1% increase in unemployment was associated with a significant increase in HIV mortality (men: 0.1861, 95% CI: 0.0977 to 0.2744, P = 0.0000, women: 0.0383, 95% CI: 0.0108 to 0.0657, P = 0.0064). A 1% increase in PSEH was associated with a significant decrease in HIV mortality (men: -0.5015, 95% CI: -0.7432 to -0.2598, P = 0.0001; women: -0.1562, 95% CI: -0.2404 to -0.0720, P = 0.0003). Time-lag analysis showed that significant changes in HIV mortality continued for up to 5 years following variations in both unemployment and PSEH. Unemployment increases were associated with significant HIV mortality increases. PSEH increases were associated with reduced HIV mortality. The facilitation of access-to-care for the unemployed and policy interventions which aim to protect PSEH could contribute to improved HIV outcomes.

  6. Unemployment, public–sector health care expenditure and HIV mortality: An analysis of 74 countries, 1981–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahiben Maruthappu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global economic downturn has been associated with increased unemployment and reduced public–sector expenditure on health care (PSEH. We determined the association between unemployment, PSEH and HIV mortality. Methods: Data were obtained from the World Bank and the World Health Organisation (1981–2009. Multivariate regression analysis was implemented, controlling for country–specific demographics and infrastructure. Time–lag analyses and robustness–checks were performed. Findings: Data were available for 74 countries (unemployment analysis and 75 countries (PSEH analysis, equating to 2.19 billion and 2.22 billion people, respectively, as of 2009. A 1% increase in unemployment was associated with a significant increase in HIV mortality (men: 0.1861, 95% CI: 0.0977 to 0.2744, P<0.0001, women: 0.0383, 95% CI: 0.0108 to 0.0657, P=0.0064. A 1% increase in PSEH was associated with a significant decrease in HIV mortality (men: –0.5015, 95% CI: –0.7432 to –0.2598, P=0.0001; women: –0.1562, 95% CI: –0.2404 to –0.0720, P=0.0003. Time–lag analysis showed that significant changes in HIV mortality continued for up to 5 years following variations in both unemployment and PSEH. Interpretation: Unemployment increases were associated with significant HIV mortality increases. PSEH increases were associated with reduced HIV mortality. The facilitation of access–to–care for the unemployed and policy interventions which aim to protect PSEH could contribute to improved HIV outcomes.

  7. Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, David H; Chakraborty, Subrata; Mahapatra, Prasanta; Steinhardt, Laura

    2010-11-25

    Ensuring health worker job satisfaction and motivation are important if health workers are to be retained and effectively deliver health services in many developing countries, whether they work in the public or private sector. The objectives of the paper are to identify important aspects of health worker satisfaction and motivation in two Indian states working in public and private sectors. Cross-sectional surveys of 1916 public and private sector health workers in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India, were conducted using a standardized instrument to identify health workers' satisfaction with key work factors related to motivation. Ratings were compared with how important health workers consider these factors. There was high variability in the ratings for areas of satisfaction and motivation across the different practice settings, but there were also commonalities. Four groups of factors were identified, with those relating to job content and work environment viewed as the most important characteristics of the ideal job, and rated higher than a good income. In both states, public sector health workers rated "good employment benefits" as significantly more important than private sector workers, as well as a "superior who recognizes work". There were large differences in whether these factors were considered present on the job, particularly between public and private sector health workers in Uttar Pradesh, where the public sector fared consistently lower (P public sector, where all 17 items had greater discordance for public sector workers than for workers in the private sector (P < 0.001). There are common areas of health worker motivation that should be considered by managers and policy makers, particularly the importance of non-financial motivators such as working environment and skill development opportunities. But managers also need to focus on the importance of locally assessing conditions and managing incentives to ensure health workers are motivated in

  8. Analysis of the Environmental Efficiency of the Chinese Transportation Sector Using an Undesirable Output Slacks-Based Measure Data Envelopment Analysis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Song

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many countries are attempting to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions while increasing the productivity and efficiency of their industries. An undesirable-output-oriented data envelopment analysis (DEA model with slacks-based measure (SBM was used to evaluate the changes in the environmental efficiency of the transportation sector in 30 Chinese provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions between 2003 and 2012. The potential for decreasing CO2 emissions and energy saving was also assessed. Transportation was found to be inefficient in most of the provinces and the average environmental efficiency was low (0.45. The overall average efficiency reached a maximum in 2005 and continually decreased until a minimum was reached in 2009; since then, it has increased. In general, transportation is more efficient in eastern than in central or western China. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out on the input and output indicators. Based on these findings, some policies are proposed to improve the environmental efficiency of the transportation sector in China.

  9. Analysis of legal and economic aspects of precipitation weather derivatives for Serbian agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Weather derivatives are not present in Serbia nor in the neighbouring countries and have no significant application in the European Union, either. Weather derivatives originated in the USA, where the market for these instruments is most developed, in terms of both economy and law. However, positive effects of their application, through the decrease of influence of unfavourable weather conditions on agricultural crops, are a good basis for their further study. The most common reasons for their absence from our financial market are their complexity and the inexistence of prerequisites for their introduction. This paper analyses legal and economic aspects of weather derivatives, as forms of financial derivatives, as well as weather derivative contracts concluded with the aim of hedging against precipitation exposure. The goal of the analysis is to find an optimal contract structure, but also the conditions that have to be met in order for its signing to be economically justified for both contractual parties, as well as the creation of preconditions for this weather derivative contract to be the instrument of trade on the financial market. The paper also analyses normative frameworks for the conclusion of these derivative contracts, as well as the necessity to educate market participants, which refers both to agricultural producers and financial institutions. Furthermore, it emphasizes the difference in relation to the classical contract of insurance against drought risk.

  10. Using the organizational network analysis to build competitiveness on the example of enterprise energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawrzynek Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary organizations operate in dynamic, complex markets. One of the directions of their development is the increase of competitiveness level. This level must be based on factors for building competitive advantage, clear for the given organization, or, in a broader sense, based on general conditions for the increase of competitiveness. One of these directions could be innovation, which would lead to development and the gaining of new markets. Being innovative depends on the ideas and their implementation. This in turn depends on knowledge, primarily tacit knowledge, which is associated with the employees. To identify it, and next lead to its diffusion and application, the organization must learn the dependencies in which employees function, and match to them certain actions that would result in the increase of innovation potential. The learning of the actual relations is possible with the application of the organizational network analysis. This paper presents an example of applying organizational networks in an enterprise, on the basis of a conducted study. The results suggest that such tools are useful and that the organization, after the interventions it launched, achieves in the analyzed area a level of competitiveness higher than in other areas.

  11. ANÁLISIS EMPRESARIAL DE LAS COOPERATIVAS DEL SECTOR DE LA FRUTA DULCE EN CATALUÑA / BUSINESS ANALYSIS OF CATALONIAN FRESH FRUIT COOPERATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard CRISTÓBAL FRANSI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El cooperativismo agrario ha estado ligado desde sus orígenes al sector de las frutas y hortalizas, sector que arrastra desde hace años una problemática de carácter estructural, incrementada, sobretodo en el caso de la fruta, por las graves crisis de precios, la saturación de los mercados y una competencia creciente de las importaciones de terceros países. En este difícil marco, los productores deben seguir invirtiendo para mantener la competitividad y la rentabilidad de sus explotaciones, y las cooperativas, por su importancia económica, deben acometer políticas que permitan garantizar la viabilidad de dicho sector. En el presente trabajo realizamos un análisis del sector cooperativo frutícola catalán, con el fin de detectar sus puntos fuertes y débiles, así como posibles carencias y demandas. Las conclusiones muestran que las cooperativas son importantes en el sector de la fruticultura, debido sobretodo a su contribución activa a la conservación del territorio y su papel generador de empleo en numerosas zonas rurales. Pero se hace necesario la adopción de firmes decisiones y la implantación de medidas de apoyo que permitan garantizar los intereses de los socios y las necesidades de los consumidores./ The agricultural cooperatives have been linked from the origins to fruit and vegetable sector. This sector dragged on for years a structural problem, increased, especially in the case of fruit, for serious price crisis, the market saturation and increasing competition. In this difficult context, producers must keep investing to maintain competitiveness and profitability. The cooperatives, by their economic importance, should undertake policies to ensure the viability of this sector. In this paper we do an analysis of Catalan fruit cooperative sector, to identify their strengths and weaknesses, and possible deficiencies and demands. The findings show that cooperatives are important in the fruit growing sector, mainly due to their

  12. Financial Health of the Higher Education Sector: 2015-16 to 2018-19 Forecasts. Data Analysis. November 2016/34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the forecast financial health of the HEFCE-funded higher education (HE) sector in England. The analysis covers the financial forecasts for the period 2015-16 to 2018-19, based on information submitted by higher education institutions (HEIs) to HEFCE in July 2016. Financial Reporting Standard (FRS) 102 is the new…

  13. Is Italian regulation of Deceptive advertising Really Effective? A Content Analysis of the Authority’s Sentences (1999-2004) in Three Sectors: Mobile Communication, Cosmetics, Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    K. Premazzi

    2005-01-01

    Study involving a content analysis of the Italian Authority’s Sentences about deceptive advertising in the mobile communication, cosmetics, and retailing sector in the period 1999-2004, with the main aim to assess the effectiveness of the Italian regulation on this subject.

  14. Energy use in Poland, 1970--1991: Sectoral analysis and international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Salay, J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides an analysis of how and why energy use has changed in Poland since the 1970s, with particular emphasis on changes since the country began its transition from a centrally planned to a market economy in 1989. The most important factors behind the large decline in Polish energy use in 1990 were a sharp fall in industrial output and a huge drop in residential coal use driven by higher prices. The structural shift away from heavy industry was slight. Key factors that worked to increase energy use were the rise in energy intensity in many heavy industries and the shift toward more energy intensive modes of transport. The growth in private activities in 1991 was nearly sufficient to balance out continued decline in industrial energy use in that year. We compared energy use in Poland and the factors that shape it with similar elements in the West. We made a number of modifications to the Polish energy data to bring it closer to a Western energy accounting framework, and augmented these with a variety of estimates in order to construct a sufficiently detailed portrait of Polish energy use to allow comparison with Western data. Per capita energy use in Poland was not much below W. European levels despite Poland`s much lower GDP per capita. Poland has comparatively high energy intensities in manufacturing and residential space heating, and a large share of heavy industries in manufacturing output, all factors that contribute to higher energy use per capita. The structure of passenger and freight transportation and the energy intensity of automobiles contribute to lower energy use per capita in Poland than in Western Europe, but the patterns in Poland are moving closer to those that prevail in the West.

  15. The Tuberculosis Cascade of Care in India’s Public Sector: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Srinath; Pai, Madhukar; Thomas, Beena E.; Chadha, Vineet K.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2016-01-01

    ,083,243), or 39%, of 2,700,000 TB patients achieved the optimal outcome of 1-y recurrence-free survival. The separate cascades for different forms of TB highlight different patterns of patient attrition. Pretreatment loss to follow-up of diagnosed patients and post-treatment TB recurrence were major points of attrition in the new smear-positive TB cascade. In the new smear-negative and MDR TB cascades, a substantial proportion of patients who were evaluated at RNTCP diagnostic facilities were not successfully diagnosed. Retreatment smear-positive and MDR TB patients had poorer treatment outcomes than the general TB population. Limitations of our analysis include the lack of available data on the cascade of care in the private sector and substantial uncertainty regarding the 1-y period prevalence of TB in India. Conclusions Increasing case detection is critical to improving outcomes in India’s TB cascade of care, especially for smear-negative and MDR TB patients. For new smear-positive patients, pretreatment loss to follow-up and post-treatment TB recurrence are considerable points of attrition that may contribute to ongoing TB transmission. Future multisite studies providing more accurate information on key steps in the public sector TB cascade and extension of this analysis to private sector patients may help to better target interventions and resources for TB control in India. PMID:27780217

  16. Development and trade competitiveness of the European wine sector: A gravity analysis of intra-EU flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Lombardi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the intra-EU trade of the world׳s chief wine exporters, namely Italy, France and Spain. Using an augmented version of the gravity model we empirically assess which of the three countries have experienced growth in intra-EU market trade. Effects of transportation costs, as well as demand and supply gaps between origin and destination countries, on the size of bilateral trade flows were specifically taken into account. Estimation results highlight the differences between bulk and bottled wine, providing useful information for European producers and policy-makers involved on regulation of wine sector. As concern bulk wine, Italy and Spain show no element of growth in competitiveness, while France shows a statistically significant annual decrease. In contrast, estimates for bottled wine all show a growth tendency, albeit with a different magnitude of coefficients. Italy is the country with the highest trend, followed by Spain and France which instead has a decidedly modest growth in export values. However, analysis of pricing policies shows that France does not appear to target an increase in export volumes so much as an increase in average unit price, while Italy, and especially Spain, have a tendency to increase export volumes, also to the detriment of prices.

  17. Internalisation of external cost in the power generation sector: Analysis with Global Multi-regional MARKAL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafaj, Peter; Kypreos, Socrates

    2007-01-01

    The Global MARKAL-Model (GMM), a multi-regional 'bottom-up' partial equilibrium model of the global energy system with endogenous technological learning, is used to address impacts of internalisation of external costs from power production. This modelling approach imposes additional charges on electricity generation, which reflect the costs of environmental and health damages from local pollutants (SO 2 , NO x ) and climate change, wastes, occupational health, risk of accidents, noise and other burdens. Technologies allowing abatement of pollutants emitted from power plants are rapidly introduced into the energy system, for example, desulphurisation, NO x removal, and CO 2 scrubbers. The modelling results indicate substantial changes in the electricity production system in favour of natural gas combined cycle, nuclear power and renewables induced by internalisation of external costs and also efficiency loss due to the use of scrubbers. Structural changes and fuel switching in the electricity sector result in significant reduction of emissions of both local pollution and CO 2 over the modelled time period. Strong decarbonisation impact of internalising local externalities suggests that ancillary benefits can be expected from policies directly addressing other issues then CO 2 mitigation. Finally, the detailed analysis of the total generation cost of different technologies points out that inclusion of external cost in the price of electricity increases competitiveness of non-fossil generation sources and fossil power plants with emission control

  18. Overview and analysis of current BIPV products: new criteria for supporting the technological transfer in the building sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Bonomo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for nearly-Zero Energy Buildings is rapidly contributing to change the building skin from being a passive barrier towards a sensitive and active interface. Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV is a unique solution for delivering clean, safe, affordable and decentralized electricity to people transforming the building surfaces in active solar collectors. Despite photovoltaic (PV technology and their basic usage are today known to everybody, the particular requirements for building integration have brought to the surface some issues over the years so that BIPV is still a niche market. Starting from this observation, the paper presents the results of an investigation on the current market of BIPV products for roofs and façade. The analysis aimed to identify the relevant possibilities the products today offer and the level of information that the producers make available within the technical description of BIPV systems. After disclosing the actual lack of information in comparison to conventional building products, the authors propose to implement a new “building-based” approach that could support the BIPV market by including a more comprehensive description of the product’s quality (today mainly comprising electrical and basic physical features. Such a “building-technology” perspective, also considering the recent normative framework in BIPV field, is expected to encourage the technological transfer of PV in the building sector by facilitating the daily work of architects, installers and the whole value chain.

  19. Structural integration and performance of inter-sectoral public health-related policy networks: An analysis across policy phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, D. T. J. M.; Raab, J.; Grêaux, K. M.; Stronks, K.; Harting, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Inter-sectoral policy networks may be effective in addressing environmental determinants of health with interventions. However, contradictory results are reported on relations between structural network characteristics (i.e., composition and integration) and network performance, such as

  20. Structural integration and performance of inter-sectoral public health-related policy networks : An analysis across policy phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Dorothee; Raab, J.; Grêaux, Kimberley M.; Stronks, Karien; Harting, Janneke

    2017-01-01

    Background: Inter-sectoral policy networks may be effective in addressing environmental determinants of health with interventions. However, contradictory results are reported on relations between structure and network characteristics (i.e., composition and integration) and network performance, such

  1. Critical Success Factors For M-Commerce In Saudi Arabia's Private Sector: A Multiple Case Study Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Norah Suliman Alturaigi

    2018-01-01

    Many developing country firms are investing huge money in the sector of mobile commerce (m-commerce). Simplifying and understanding the factors which can impact on m-commerce success enables the organisations’ managers to focus their efforts on the key areas of their m-commerce businesses, thereby contributing to the successful implementation of m-commerce. This study provides a clear understanding of m-commerce in the private sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and identifies the critical ...

  2. Liquidity Analysis Using Cash Flow Ratios as Compared to Traditional Ratios in the Pharmaceutical Sector in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Sulayman H. Atieh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the liquidity position of the Jordanian pharmaceutical sector using the traditional ratios as compared to the more recently developed cash flow ratios. The research involved the comparison between traditional ratios and cash flow ratios of the big seven companies of the pharmaceutical industry in Jordan over six years period (2007¨C2012). The companies were all from the same sector, and the data was obtained from the annual reports of these companies. T...

  3. Panel estimation for transport sector CO2 emissions and its affecting factors: A regional analysis in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chuanguo; Nian, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    With rapid economic growth, the transport sector plays an important role in China′s CO 2 emissions. The existing research is extensively concerned with transport sector CO 2 emissions in recent years, but little attention has been paid to regional differences. This paper investigates CO 2 emissions in the transport sector at the national and regional levels using the STIRPAT model and provincial panel data from 1995 to 2010 in China. The results showed that passenger transport dominates CO 2 emissions in the transport sector, but its influence varies across regions. Electrification has significant potential to lower CO 2 emissions because of resulting higher fuel efficiency and reduced pollution. Energy efficiency improvement is effective but limited in reducing emissions due to increasing demand from economic development and population growth. These results not only contribute to advancing the existing literature, but also merit particular attention from policy makers in China. - Highlights: • We investigate China′s CO 2 emissions in the transport sector. • Passenger transport dominates CO 2 emissions in the transport sector. • The effects of passenger transport on CO 2 emissions vary across regions. • Energy efficiency improvement is effective but limited in reducing emissions

  4. BRAZILIAN AND INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS APPLIED TO THE PUBLIC SECTOR AND THE CHALLENGE OF CONVERGENCE: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS - IPSAS AND NBCTSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Ribeiro Filho (in memoriam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this study is to analyze the current stage of conceptual convergence between Brazilian accounting standards applied to the public sector (NBCTSP and the International Public Sector Accounting Standard (IPSAS. The complexity and range of transactions between public or private sector entities, as a result of market internationalization, demand continuous and dynamic assessment of the events that promote quantitative or qualitative equity changes. For this evaluation process, observing accounting principles and standards is important to guarantee, among other information characteristics, understandability and comparability, thus reducing costs for investors and users in general, in view of the barriers raised by diverse languages, cultures, tax and economic policies. For convergence analysis, the standards’ contents were subject to a comparative study, based on a descriptive analysis, with a view to verifying the existing adherence between Brazilian and international standards applied to the public sector. The results found highlight that different aspects still have to be discussed with a view to an actual convergence with the international standards; the current convergence is partial. The high-quality conceptual exposure of the NBCPSPs is observed though, while the contents of the IPSAS are more focused on operating procedures

  5. Work satisfaction of professional nurses in South Africa: a comparative analysis of the public and private sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillay Rubin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work satisfaction of nurses is important, as there is sufficient empirical evidence to show that it tends to affect individual, organizational and greater health and social outcomes. Although there have been several studies of job satisfaction among nurses in South Africa, these are limited because they relate to studies of individual organizations or regions, use small samples or are dated. This paper presents a national study that compares and contrasts satisfaction levels of nurses in both public and private sectors. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of professional nurses conducted throughout South Africa using a pretested and self-administered questionnaire. Univariate and bivariate statistical models were used to evaluate levels of satisfaction with various facets of work and to elicit the differences in satisfaction levels between different groups of nurses. A total of 569 professional nurses participated in the study. Results Private-sector nurses were generally satisfied, while public-sector nurses were generally dissatisfied. Public-sector nurses were most dissatisfied with their pay, the workload and the resources available to them. They were satisfied only with the social context of the work. Private-sector nurses were dissatisfied only with their pay and career development opportunities. Professional nurses in the more rural provinces, those intending to change sectors and those more likely not to be in their current positions within the next five years were also more likely to be dissatisfied with all facets of their work. Conclusion This study highlighted the overall dissatisfaction among South African nurses and confirmed the disparity between the levels of job satisfaction between the public and private sectors. Health managers should address those factors that affect job satisfaction, and therefore retention, of nurses in South Africa. Improving the work environment so that it provides a context

  6. Work satisfaction of professional nurses in South Africa: a comparative analysis of the public and private sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Rubin

    2009-02-20

    Work satisfaction of nurses is important, as there is sufficient empirical evidence to show that it tends to affect individual, organizational and greater health and social outcomes. Although there have been several studies of job satisfaction among nurses in South Africa, these are limited because they relate to studies of individual organizations or regions, use small samples or are dated. This paper presents a national study that compares and contrasts satisfaction levels of nurses in both public and private sectors. This was a cross-sectional survey of professional nurses conducted throughout South Africa using a pretested and self-administered questionnaire. Univariate and bivariate statistical models were used to evaluate levels of satisfaction with various facets of work and to elicit the differences in satisfaction levels between different groups of nurses. A total of 569 professional nurses participated in the study. Private-sector nurses were generally satisfied, while public-sector nurses were generally dissatisfied. Public-sector nurses were most dissatisfied with their pay, the workload and the resources available to them. They were satisfied only with the social context of the work. Private-sector nurses were dissatisfied only with their pay and career development opportunities. Professional nurses in the more rural provinces, those intending to change sectors and those more likely not to be in their current positions within the next five years were also more likely to be dissatisfied with all facets of their work. This study highlighted the overall dissatisfaction among South African nurses and confirmed the disparity between the levels of job satisfaction between the public and private sectors. Health managers should address those factors that affect job satisfaction, and therefore retention, of nurses in South Africa. Improving the work environment so that it provides a context congruent with the aspirations and values systems of nurses is more

  7. Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahapatra Prasanta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ensuring health worker job satisfaction and motivation are important if health workers are to be retained and effectively deliver health services in many developing countries, whether they work in the public or private sector. The objectives of the paper are to identify important aspects of health worker satisfaction and motivation in two Indian states working in public and private sectors. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of 1916 public and private sector health workers in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India, were conducted using a standardized instrument to identify health workers' satisfaction with key work factors related to motivation. Ratings were compared with how important health workers consider these factors. Results There was high variability in the ratings for areas of satisfaction and motivation across the different practice settings, but there were also commonalities. Four groups of factors were identified, with those relating to job content and work environment viewed as the most important characteristics of the ideal job, and rated higher than a good income. In both states, public sector health workers rated "good employment benefits" as significantly more important than private sector workers, as well as a "superior who recognizes work". There were large differences in whether these factors were considered present on the job, particularly between public and private sector health workers in Uttar Pradesh, where the public sector fared consistently lower (P P Conclusion There are common areas of health worker motivation that should be considered by managers and policy makers, particularly the importance of non-financial motivators such as working environment and skill development opportunities. But managers also need to focus on the importance of locally assessing conditions and managing incentives to ensure health workers are motivated in their work.

  8. Sectoral assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J M; Fenhann, J; Gorham, R; Makundi, W; Sathaye, J

    1999-09-01

    This publication contains five papers that were written as a part of the GEF project, The Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations. The main goal of the project was to assess the greenhouse gas reductions and incremental costs of mitigation option sin Ecuador, Argentina, Senegal, Mauritius, Vietnam, Indonesia, Estonia and Hungary. In addition, regional studies were conducted for the Andean Pact nations and Southern Africa to assess various aspects of regional co-operation in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The GEF study also involved the development of a methodological framework for climate change assessment, with a special emphasis on developing countries. These guidelines have been published in a separate document, Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations: Methodological Guidelines. The papers in this publication focus on various methodological and policy aspects of greenhouse gas mitigation at the sectoral level, and are outgrowth of work performed on other parts of the GEF project. (au)

  9. Return on Investment in the Public Sector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bigham, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    .... This demand has created a trend in the public sector, not only in the United States, but worldwide as well, towards the importation of private sector business practices to improve accountability-oriented analysis...

  10. Use of plasma-source multicollector magnetic-sector mass spectrometry for uranium and plutonium analysis in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price Russ, G.; Williams, Ross

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The ability to detect and isotopically characterize uranium and plutonium in environmental samples is of primary importance in the search for nuclear proliferation. The utility of isotope ratio measurements for environmental monitoring is limited by sample preparation costs, measurement precision, and sensitivity. This is particularly true for wide-area monitoring where the number of samples required varies inversely with obtainable precision and sensitivity. Historically isotopic measurements have been made by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). While requiring extensive sample preparation, no other technique matched its precision and sensitivity for such measurements. Inductively-coupled-plasma, magnetic-sector, multicollector, mass spectrometry offers the prospect of extending the state-of-the-art to higher precision while increasing sensitivity and reducing costs through more rapid analysis and reduced sample preparation. At LLNL this technique is being implemented in the form of an IsoProbe (Micromass, UK). This paper will present data for both standards and IAEA supplied samples demonstrating the power and limitations of the technique. The precision and sensitivity of the IsoProbe results will be compared to TIMS performance for comparable samples. For 48 determinations of natural uranium, using the double spike to correct for bias, a relative standard deviation of 0.04% (1σ) for 238 U/ 235 U has been obtained in a preliminary study. This is a substantial improvement over the TIMS result of 0.1% reported at the previous conference. Further improvements can be expected as we gain a better understanding of the background peaks occurring in the IsoProbe spectra. (author)

  11. Analysis of energy use in building services of the industrial sector in California: A literature review and a preliminary characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, H.; Borgers, T.; Gadgil, A.; Sezgen, O.

    1991-04-01

    Energy use patterns in many of California's fastest-growing industries are not typical of those in the mix of industries elsewhere in the US. Many California firms operate small and medium-sized facilities, often in buildings used simultaneously or interchangeably for commercial (office, retail, warehouse) and industrial activities. In these industrial subsectors, the energy required for building services'' to provide occupant comfort and necessities (lighting, HVAC, office equipment, computers, etc.) may be at least as important as the more familiar process energy requirements -- especially for electricity and on-peak demand. In this report, published or unpublished information on energy use for building services in the industrial sector have been compiled and analyzed. Seven different sources of information and data relevant to California have been identified. Most of these are studies and/or projects sponsored by the Department of Energy, the California Energy Commission, and local utilities. The objectives of these studies were diverse: most focused on industrial energy use in general, and, in one case, the objective was to analyze energy use in commercial buildings. Only one of these studies focused directly on non-process energy use in industrial buildings. Our analysis of Northern California data for five selected industries shows that the contribution of total electricity consumption for lighting ranges from 9.5% in frozen fruits to 29.1% in instruments; for air-conditioning, it ranges from nonexistent in frozen fruits to 35% in instrument manufacturing. None of the five industries selected had significant electrical space heating. Gas space heating ranges from 5% in motor vehicles facilities to more than 58% in the instrument manufacturing industry. 15 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. An Analysis of the U.S. Wood Products Import Sector: Prospects for Tropical Wood Products Exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A.R.T.W. Bandara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. has dramatically altered its wood product imports and exports during the past few years,and at present, it is the second largest wood product importer in the world. Hence, an understanding ofmarket structures, factors in selecting foreign suppliers, and the emphasis placed on environmentalissues/certification are critical to understand from the perspective of wood products importers in the U.S.This study provides an analysis of the U.S. wood products import sector with special emphasis on currentand future opportunities for tropical wood products exporters to the U.S. market.In this study, 158 wood products importers in the U.S. were surveyed using a mailingquestionnaire. The adjusted response rate was 40.6 percent. Results indicated that most of the respondentswere small to medium scale firms, but major importers of wood products. According to respondents,wood products to the U.S. mainly come from Brazil, Chile, and China. From the importers’ perspective,Brazilian wood products ranked first for its quality followed by wood products from Chile and Finland.Product quality, long term customer relationships, on-time delivery of orders, fair prices, and supplierreputation were the factors deemed important in selecting overseas suppliers. Majority of respondentswere importing certified wood products. FSC, SFI, and ISO 14000 were the mostly accepted certificationprograms. However, certification was not a major factor in foreign supplier selection criteria. Whenconsidered the U.S. wood products importers’ tendency to diversify their products and species imported,attractive opportunities exist for wood products suppliers from tropical countries.

  13. An analysis of policies for cotrimoxazole, amoxicillin and azithromycin use in Namibia's public sector: Findings and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibuule, Dan; Mubita, Mwangana; Naikaku, Ester; Kalemeera, Francis; Godman, Brian B; Sagwa, Evans

    2017-02-01

    Despite Namibia's robust medicine use systems and policies, antibiotic use indicators remain suboptimal. Recent medicine use surveys rank cotrimoxazole, amoxicillin and azithromycin (CAA) among the most used medicines. However, there is rising resistance to CAA (55.9%-96.7%). Unfortunately, to date, there have been limited studies evaluating policies to improve antibiotic use in Namibia. To evaluate public sector pharmaceutical policies and guidelines influencing the therapeutic use of CAA antibiotics in Namibia. Evaluate Namibia's pharmaceutical policies and guidelines for CAA use through quantitative text analysis. The main outcome variables were the existence of antibiotic policies, therapeutic indications per antibiotic and the type/level of healthcare facility allowed to use the antibiotic. Policies for antibiotic use were limited, with only the draft Namibia Medicines Policy having a statement on antibiotic use. Several essential antibiotics had no therapeutic indications mentioned in the guidelines. Twenty-nine antibiotics were listed for 69 therapeutic indications; CAA (49.3%) antibiotics and ATC J01C/J01D (48%) having the highest indications per antibiotic. For CAA antibiotics, this suggested use was mainly for acute respiratory infections (n=22, 37.2%). Published policies (58.6%-17/29) recommended antibiotics for use at the primary healthcare (PHC) level, with CAA antibiotics recommended mostly for respiratory tract infections and genitourinary infections. Policy and guidelines for antibiotic use in Namibia are not comprehensive and are skewed towards PHCs. Existing policies promote the wide use of CAA antibiotics, which may inadvertently result in their inappropriate use enhancing resistance rates. This calls for the development of more comprehensive antibiotic guidelines and essential medicine lists in tandem with local antimicrobial resistance patterns. In addition, educational initiatives among all key stakeholder groups. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. An Empirical Analysis to Design Enhanced Customer Lifetime Value Based on Customer Loyalty: Evidences from Iranian Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Safari Kahreh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The more a marketing paradigm evolves, the more long-term relationship with customers gains its importance. Also, the move towards a customer-centred approach to marketing, coupled with the increasing availability of customer transaction data, has led to an interest in understanding and estimating customer lifetime value (CLV. There are several researches about the CLV formulas and calculating relations. But the effect of the CLV on the other departments of the organization and especially the effect of the CLV on the key parameters for organization’s profitability such as customer loyalty and satisfaction had little attention. This research is about these shortcomings and covers another essential element for organizational sustainable profitability, customer loyalty. The main purpose of this research is to demonstrate the effect of customer loyalty on the customer lifetime value. For this purpose one of the biggest parts of service sector in Iran is selected and the data from this sector are gathered and analyzed. Banking sector is the biggest body of Iranian service sector of economy. By means of a valid questionnaire, data were gathered from banking sector and after analyzing the hypotheses, results show that the high customer loyalty strongly affects on the enhanced customer lifetime value. In the final section of this paper, both applied and theoretical recommendations will be provided.

  15. AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN BANKING AND NON-FINANCIAL SECTORS' VULNERABILITY TO POSSIBLE EXTERNAL FINANCIAL SHOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Егор Николаевич Поляков

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article explains to what extent currency mismatch in banking and non-financial sectors determine vulnerability of Russian economy with respect to possible external shock. The authors explain how Central Bank of Russia exchange rate policy depends on currency mismatches and to what extent currency mismatches determined the slowdown of Russian economy during the financial crisis. The article shows the dynamics of currency mismatch from 2004 to 2012 year. The authors offer the model of the relationship between capital flight and external debt of private sector. The authors present the results of stress test of Russian economy. The stress test implies external shock similar to external shock of the end of 2008. According to stress test as of end of 2012 both banking and private sectors are less vulnerable to possible external shock. Meanwhile authors made a conclusion that vulnerability of a private sector remains unacceptably high. The authors recommend 2 ways how to decelerate the currency mismatch of a private sector. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-6-8

  16. Workplace violence: differences in perceptions of nursing work between those exposed and those not exposed: a cross-sector analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegney, Desley; Tuckett, Anthony; Parker, Deborah; Eley, Robert M

    2010-04-01

    Nurses are at high risk of incurring workplace violence during their working life. This paper reports the findings on a cross-sectional, descriptive, self-report, postal survey in 2007. A stratified random sample of 3000 of the 29 789 members of the Queensland Nurses Union employed in the public, private and aged care sectors resulted in 1192 responses (39.7%). This paper reports the differences: between those nurses who experienced workplace violence and those who did not; across employment sectors. The incidence of workplace violence is highest in public sector nursing. Patients/clients/residents were the major perpetrators of workplace violence and the existence of a workplace policy did not decrease levels of workplace violence. Nurses providing clinical care in the private and aged care sectors experienced more workplace violence than more senior nurses. Although workplace violence was associated with high work stress, teamwork and a supportive workplace mitigated workplace violence. The perception of workplace safety was inversely related to workplace violence. With the exception of public sector nursing, nurses reported an inverse relationship with workplace violence and morale.

  17. Analysis of the Banking Sector Performance in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Serbia Before and After the Global Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošnjak Antonija

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is the banking sector of the three neighbouring countries Bosnia and Herzegovina; Montenegro; and Serbia. These are former communist countries which have been going through the transition from centrally-planned economies to open market economies over the past 25 years. During the transition process, structural reforms were conducted to transform the banking sector into a sector suitable for open market economy. These reforms are considered to be the most successful ones in the region. Before the Global Financial Crisis of 2008-09, the economies of the three selected countries were experiencing credit booms. The aim of this research was to examine how the banking sector is performing on an aggregated level years after the crisis and whether the performance is better or worse compared to the pre-crisis period. The findings show that the banking sector was performing better before the crisis in all three countries. After the crisis, the three countries experienced prolonged slow credit growth and had higher nonperforming loans.

  18. Evaluation of the sector network for the industry's system of analysis 1996-2002; Evaluering av bransjenettverket for industris analyseordning 1996-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roenning, Anne; Modahl, Ingunn Saur

    2005-07-01

    Enova wanted to carry out an evaluation of the sector network for the industry's analysis arrangement 1996-2002. This evaluation considers the arrangement's results in relation to its purposes, and contains an assessment of its effects related to energy consumption and energy efficiency. The data is based on meeting with IFE (Institute for Energy Technology), a survey among the sector network's member companies, interviews with advisors, companies and IFE, a survey among the advisors, and reported data from companies to IFE's database of applications and final reports. The methodology for collection of data on energy saving is based on a direct method instead of an indirect method, originally planned. Based on this evaluation it is concluded that the sector network analysis arrangement or advisory service has been a success. The evaluation has revealed that the industry has gained knowledge about possibilities for a more efficient and environmentally-friendly energy consumption, i.e. an increased competency of action. Additionally, based on the feedback from the companies in the surveys, it was revealed that the companies after the participation in the analysis have carried out energy saving measures equal to 809 GWh. The target figure for the analysis arrangement was energy savings of 350 GWh before 2005 (ml)

  19. THE ANALYSIS STRUCTURES OF THE COSTS AND OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COSTS AND REVENUES IN THE SECTOR OF SEWERAGE AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÜLÖP ÁRPÁD-ZOLTÁN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of costs in relation to revenues by enterprises from the branch of water and sanitation in Romania is a necessity. Through this analysis, we can have a perspective on the costs and revenue generated by operators of water and sewage, wastewater treatment. In a previous research we realized this sectoral analysis for the activity of drinking water. In the present research do this sectoral analysis on the activity of sewage, wastewater treatment. This research gives us an overview of the costs that they generate the activity of the treatment plant and on the structure of costs in the formation of the tariff for sewage, wastewater treatment plant. This cost structure and the relationship between the cost and the tariff applied is presented at the level of the sector of activity. As a last step, I study the correlation of costs, company size, geographical area, number of employees, respectively the correlation of the tariff with these elements, respectively, with the elements of cost found in the accounts of these enterprises.

  20. Results of the Spanish Nuclear Sector in the “Analysis of the Potential Development of Energy Technologies in Spain”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, R.; León, P.T.

    2015-07-01

    On June 30, 2011, driven by the Minister of Science and Technology Cristina Garmendia, the ALINNE Alliance (Alliance for Energy Research and Innovation) was established. ALINNE is a non-profit initiative created to unite and coordinate efforts among all actors in the value chain of R & D in energy, allowing to respond to the main policy challenges that the R&D have in the field of the energy sector, Contributing to the definition of a work patterns nationwide and European positioning. The founder members of ALINNE are composed of eleven representatives of the private sector who are the presidents of the nine Spanish companies with active participation in the field of R&D and leading theIBEX 35 at the time, two SMEs, and nine representatives of the public sector. The CIEMAT currently holds the secretariat of the Alliance. (Author)

  1. Banking sector globalization and bank performance: A comparative analysis of low income countries with emerging markets and advanced economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Ghosh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of financial services liberalization is the increasing presence of foreign banks in a nation. This study examines the impact of banking sector globalization on bank profits and cost efficiency by using a panel of 169 nations spanning 1998–2013. Employing both fixed-effects and GMM estimations, and including banking-industry and macroeconomic controls, I find greater banking-sector globalization to reduce both profits and cost inefficiency, thereby reflecting increased competitiveness and informational asymmetries in host markets, as well as assimilation of better technology, managerial practices by domestic banks. The results are further examined for nations across different levels of economic development and with different degrees of foreign bank presence. Only in emerging markets and in nations with more than 50% foreign banks, greater banking sector globalization positively affects profits. From a policy perspective, the findings call for banking regulatory authorities to implement polices to reduce informational asymmetries in host markets.

  2. Results of the Spanish Nuclear Sector in the “Analysis of the Potential Development of Energy Technologies in Spain”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, R.; León, P.T.

    2015-01-01

    On June 30, 2011, driven by the Minister of Science and Technology Cristina Garmendia, the ALINNE Alliance (Alliance for Energy Research and Innovation) was established. ALINNE is a non-profit initiative created to unite and coordinate efforts among all actors in the value chain of R & D in energy, allowing to respond to the main policy challenges that the R&D have in the field of the energy sector, Contributing to the definition of a work patterns nationwide and European positioning. The founder members of ALINNE are composed of eleven representatives of the private sector who are the presidents of the nine Spanish companies with active participation in the field of R&D and leading theIBEX 35 at the time, two SMEs, and nine representatives of the public sector. The CIEMAT currently holds the secretariat of the Alliance. (Author)

  3. Do elections matter for private-sector healthcare management in Brazil? An analysis of municipal health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Alecia J; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Blendon, Robert J

    2017-07-12

    This study analyzed several political determinants of increased private-sector management in Brazilian health care. In Brazil, the poor depend almost exclusively on the public Unified Health System (the SUS), which remains severely underfunded. Given the overhead costs associated with privately contracted health services, increased private management is one driver of higher expenditures in the system. Although left parties campaign most vocally in support of greater public control of the SUS, the extent to which their stated positions translate into health care policy remains untested. Drawing on multiple publicly available data sources, we used linear regression to analyze how political party-in-power and existing private sector health care contracting affect the share of privately managed health care services and outsourcing in municipalities. Data from two election periods-2004 to 2008 and 2008 to 2012-were analyzed. Our findings showed that although private sector contracting varies greatly across municipalities, this variation is not systematically associated with political party in power. This suggests that electoral politics plays a relatively minor role in municipal-level health care administration. Existing levels of private sector management appear to have a greater effect on the public-private makeup of the Brazilian healthcare system, suggesting a strong role of path dependence in the evolution of Brazilian health care delivery. Despite campaign rhetoric asserting distinct positions on privatization in the SUS, factors other than political party in power have a greater effect on private-sector health system management at the municipal-level in Brazil. Given the limited effect of elections on this issue, strengthening participatory bodies such as municipal health councils may better enfranchise citizens in the fundamental debate over public and private roles in the health care sector.

  4. Brazilian and International Accounting Standards Applied to the Public Sector and the Challenge of Convergence: a Comparative Analysis - IPSAS and NBCTSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rodrigues Fragoso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this study is to analyze the current stage of conceptual convergence between Brazilian accounting standardsapplied to the public sector (NBCTSP and the International Public Sector Accounting Standard (IPSAS.The complexity and range of transactions between public or private sector entities, as a result of market internationalization,demand continuous and dynamic assessment of the events that promote quantitative or qualitative equitychanges. For this evaluation process, observing accounting principles and standards is important to guarantee, amongother information characteristics, understandability and comparability, thus reducing costs for investors and users in general, in view of the barriers raised by diverse languages, cultures, tax and economic policies. For convergenceanalysis, the standards’ contents were subject to a comparative study, based on a descriptive analysis, with a viewto verifying the existing adherence between Brazilian and international standards applied to the public sector. Theresults found highlight that different aspects still have to be discussed with a view to an actual convergence with theinternational standards; the current convergence is partial. The high-quality conceptual exposure of the NBCPSPsis observed though, while the contents of the IPSAS are more focused on operating procedures.

  5. CSR Actions in Companies and Perception of Their Reputation by Managers: Analysis in the Rural Area of an Emerging Country in the Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Ángel Del Brío

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests, from a managerial point of view, the influence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR actions directed towards health and environmental matters over the perception of a company’s reputation. The literature review suggests an absence of this kind of study focused on the banking sector of developing countries. CSR activities oriented to health and subsistence in the rural areas of emerging countries are proved to hold a positive influence on the perception of managers of the banking sector of corporate reputation. On the other hand, it has not been possible to validate whether CSR activities oriented to environmental issues (or infrastructure in rural areas will positively influence the perception of Peruvian banking sector managers of corporate reputation. The outcomes mentioned seem plausible due to health and subsistence being undoubtedly the most valued factors among people living in rural areas, where there are the most development deficiencies. This work contributes by empirically analyzing a relationship barely addressed in the field of business administration: the influence of CSR and corporate reputation. Furthermore, the authors take the analysis to a context unexplored by previous researchers, applying the concepts to the banking sector of an emerging country.

  6. A decomposition analysis of the driving factors of CO_2 (Carbon dioxide) emissions from the power sector in the European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmellos, M.; Kopidou, D.; Diakoulaki, D.

    2016-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to investigate the driving factors of CO_2 emissions from electricity generation in all European Union countries (EU-28) during the period 2000–2012. Particular emphasis is placed on the assessment of any potential association between the examined driving factors and major climate and energy policies implemented during the examined period. In addition, the analysis distinguishes two subperiods, namely 2000–2007 and 2007–2012 in order to detect the impact of the economic crisis on each distinct driving factor and, consequently, on the total level of CO_2 emissions from the power sector. The model developed to analyse the changes in CO_2 emissions from the power sector across EU-28, is based on LMDI-I method and takes into account five driving factors: level of activity, electricity intensity, electricity trade, efficiency of electricity generation and fuel mix. The obtained results show that in times of economic growth the main factor counterbalancing the activity effect was in most countries the decreasing electricity intensity, while the contribution of all other factors becomes apparent later, despite the economic crisis and in view of the Kyoto targets. - Highlights: • LMDI is used to identify driving forces of CO_2 emissions from EU's power sector. • Declining electricity intensity was the main restrictive factor before 2007. • Fuel shifts contributed to emissions fall mostly after 2007, despite the crisis. • Trade effect is notable and indicates growing carbon leakage in the power sector.

  7. Energy commercialization in the new environment of the Brazilian electric power sector. A methodology for production allocation strategies analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Dorel Soares; Lima, Wagner da Silva

    1999-01-01

    The restructuring of the Brazilian Electric Sector has modified the rules for purchase and sale of energy, resulting in the creation of the Wholesale Energy Market. In this new context, the decision of the exposure level to the spot market price and the purchase of energy through bilateral contracts becomes so much a strategic variable for consumers or dealers, as for hydro and thermal generators. This work presents a methodology for planning of energy commercialization envisaging purchase and sale energy opportunities provided by the new Regulatory Framework of the Brazilian Electric Sector. (author)

  8. Who, What, Where: an analysis of private sector family planning provision in 57 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Oona M R; Benova, Lenka; Macleod, David; Goodman, Catherine; Footman, Katharine; Pereira, Audrey L; Lynch, Caroline A

    2015-12-01

    Family planning service delivery has been neglected; rigorous analyses of the patterns of contraceptive provision are needed to inform strategies to address this neglect. We used 57 nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys in low- and middle-income countries (2000-2013) in four geographic regions to estimate need for contraceptive services, and examined the sector of provision, by women's socio-economic position. We also assessed method mix and whether women were informed of side effects. Modern contraceptive use among women in need was lowest in sub-Saharan Africa (39%), with other regions ranging from 64% to 72%. The private sector share of the family planning market was 37-39% of users across the regions and 37% overall (median across countries: 41%). Private sector users accessed medical providers (range across regions: 30-60%, overall mean: 54% and median across countries 23%), specialised drug sellers (range across regions: 31-52%, overall mean: 36% and median across countries: 43%) and retailers (range across regions: 3-14%, overall mean: 6% and median across countries: 6%). Private retailers played a more important role in sub-Saharan Africa (14%) than in other regions (3-5%). NGOs and FBOs served a small percentage. Privileged women (richest wealth quintile, urban residents or secondary-/tertiary-level education) used private sector services more than the less privileged. Contraceptive method types with higher requirements (medical skills) for provision were less likely to be acquired from the private sector, while short-acting methods/injectables were more likely. The percentages of women informed of side effects varied by method and provider subtype, but within subtypes were higher among public than private medical providers for four of five methods assessed. Given the importance of private sector providers, we need to understand why women choose their services, what quality services the private sector provides, and how it can be improved

  9. Analysis of major risk factors affecting those working in the agrarian sector (based on a sociological survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekoten, Olena M; Dereziuk, Anatolii V; Ihnaschuk, Olena V; Holovchanska, Svitlana E

    Issues related to labour potential, its state and problems have consistently been a focus of attention for the International Labour Organisation (ILO). Its respective analysis shows that labour potential problems remain unresolved in many countries of the world. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), adverse working conditions are among major factors of occupational disease development in Europe and the reason for disabilities of economically active population during 2.5% of their lifetime. The aim of the present study is to identify and analyse major risk factors, which have a bearing on people working in agriculture in the course of exercising their occupation, with account of forms of ownership of agricultural enterprises. Carried out was a cross-sectional study involving a sociological survey of 412 respondents - those working in agriculture - who made up the primary group and the control group. The study revealed 21 risk factors, 9 of which were work-related. A modified elementary cybernetic model of studying impact efficiency was developed with the view of carrying out a structural analysis of the sample group and choosing relevant methodological approaches. It has been established that harmful factors related to working environment and one's lifestyle are decisive in the agrarian sector, particularly for workers of privately owned businesses. For one out of three respondents harmful working conditions manifested themselves as industrial noise (31.7±3.4), vibration (29.0±2.1) trunk bending and constrained working posture (36.6±3.4). The vast majority of agricultural workers (91.6±2.5) admitted they could not afford proper rest during their annual leave; male respondents abused alcohol (70.6±3.0) and smoking (41.4±2.0 per 100 workers). The research established the structure of risk factors, which is sequentially represented by the following groups: behavioral (smoking, drinking of alcohol, rest during annual leave, physical culture), working

  10. End-of-Life in the railway sector: Analysis of recyclability and recoverability for different vehicle case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delogu, Massimo; Del Pero, Francesco; Berzi, Lorenzo; Pierini, Marco; Bonaffini, Davide

    2017-02-01

    The railway system represents one of the most resource-efficient answer to our ever-growing demand for transport service and the development trends for the following years forecast a substantial increase in this sector. Considering the European Union, rolling stock realizes a significant share of both goods and passengers carriage while it is responsible for a derisory quota of environmental impact and energy consumption involved by transportation. Contrary to the low environmental impact, the amount of End-of-Life (EoL) waste generated by rolling stocks in relation to the number of vehicles is notable, much greater than in the case of road vehicles. As railway vehicles are constituted by many heterogeneous components, the EoL rolling stock is a precious source of materials, whose recycling brings measurable economic benefits and needs to be appropriately debated. The paper presents calculation of recoverability/recyclability rate for different typologies of vehicles representative of railway transport; calculation is performed on the basis of primary data and according to the recyclability and recoverability calculation method issued by UNIFE in the context of Product Category Rules (PCR). The typologies of railway vehicles taken into account are electric metro, diesel commuter train and high-speed electric train. The analysis envisages also to replicate the calculation in case innovative materials and manufacturing technologies are adopted in the construction of car-body structure. Results show that recyclability/recoverability rates are abundantly over the quota of 90% for each one of the three trains, these latter being made in major part of metals that benefit from very efficient recovery processes. The adoption of innovative materials and manufacturing technologies for car-body structure involves a scarce reduction of recyclability and recoverability rates (about 2% and 0.2% respectively) due to the introduction of components and materials characterized by

  11. Analysis of socio-environmental benefits from the implementation of cleaner production strategies in the agricultural sector of the middle reaches of the river chinchiná, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Florez Yepes, Gloria Yaneth; Calderon Cuartas, Paola Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the socio-environmental benefits generated by the implementation of cleaner production strategies in the agriculture and livestock sectors, in the middle part of the Chinchina river basin, Colombia. The methodology involves recording of field data on the basis of interviews and semi-structured dialogue; processing and analysis of data on the basis of matrix adaptation and network diagramming; and assessment of socio-environmental benefits, with determina...

  12. Parallel imports of hospital pharmaceuticals: An empirical analysis of price effects from parallel imports and the design of procurement procedures in the Danish hospital sector

    OpenAIRE

    Hostenkamp, Gisela; Kronborg, Christian; Arendt, Jacob Nielsen

    2012-01-01

    We analyse pharmaceutical imports in the Danish hospital sector. In this market medicines are publicly tendered using first-price sealed-bid procurement auctions. We analyse whether parallel imports have an effect on pharmaceutical prices and whether the way tenders were organised matters for the competitive effect of parallel imports on prices. Our theoretical analysis shows that the design of the procurement rules affects both market structure and pharmaceutical prices. Parallel imports may...

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Government of Moldova and Georgia's Management of the Education Sector. The Magic Wand or the Achilles Heel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel OLARI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human capital is one of the few resources that can offer to the Republic of Moldova a comparative advantage. However, if labor is not specialized in fields required by potential investors – job providers – human capital remains an untapped resource. The development of human resources and the efficient use of existing potential are two of the most important factors contributing to comprehensive economic growth of Georgia. Fast economic growth is an important precondition for increasing population's welfare and reducing poverty. At the same time, creation of equal opportunities for developing human capital through provision of quality services, social justice and strengthening the social systems is necessary as it provides access to quality education and healthcare systems. This research paper consists in an analysis of the political views of Moldova and Georgia's Government on Education sector. Also, to understand better the issues related to this area, I will focus my attention more on the financial aspects of this sector. In order to obtain the correct comparative analysis of the Moldova and Georgia' situation, I will use the macroeconomic aggregates. The methods used in this research document are chronologically and progressive analysis. Finally, it is supposed to be able to respond at the question: the Government of Moldova and Georgia's Management of the Education sector. The Magic wand or the Achilles heel?

  14. Market penetration analysis of the use of hydrogen in the road transport sector of the Madrid region, using MARKAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras, A.; Guervos, E.; Posso, F.

    2009-01-01

    Nobody can doubt today that hydrogen will, in the not-too-distant future, represent a very significant percentage of the total energy used by the transport sector. This study therefore consists of the modelling and simulation of energy consumption, by type of vehicle and fuel or energetic vector, in the road transport sector of the Madrid Region, during the period 2010-2050, using the MARKAL model. It has been necessary to complete this model by adding numerous specifications in order to determine the features of the Madrid Region, the richest Region in Spain. For the purpose of the study, three growth scenarios, based on short-term energy forecasts made by different official organizations, have been proposed for the energy consumption of the road transport sector in the Region. The results show a profound change in the current situation as there is a significant decrease in the consumption of fossil fuels and an increase in that of alternative non-fossil fuels and hydrogen. The latter, in particular, will rise from 0.1% in the year 2010, to around 50% in the year 2050, which will mean a drastic drop in the sector's CO 2 and atmospheric pollutant emissions. (author)

  15. Structural integration and performance of inter-sectoral public health-related policy networks: An analysis across policy phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, D T J M; Raab, J; Grêaux, K M; Stronks, K; Harting, J

    2017-12-01

    Inter-sectoral policy networks may be effective in addressing environmental determinants of health with interventions. However, contradictory results are reported on relations between structural network characteristics (i.e., composition and integration) and network performance, such as addressing environmental determinants of health. This study examines these relations in different phases of the policy process. A multiple-case study was performed on four public health-related policy networks. Using a snowball method among network actors, overall and sub-networks per policy phase were identified and the policy sector of each actor was assigned. To operationalise the outcome variable, interventions were classified by the proportion of environmental determinants they addressed. In the overall networks, no relation was found between structural network characteristics and network performance. In most effective cases, the policy development sub-networks were characterised by integration with less interrelations between actors (low cohesion), more equally distributed distances between the actors (low closeness centralisation), and horizontal integration in inter-sectoral cliques. The most effective case had non-public health central actors with less connections in all sub-networks. The results suggest that, to address environmental determinants of health, sub-networks should be inter-sectorally composed in the policy development rather than in the intervention development and implementation phases, and that policy development actors should have the opportunity to connect with other actors, without strong direction from a central actor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Heads and tails: both sides of the coin: an analysis of hybrid organizations in the Dutch waste management sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karré, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, Philip Marcel Karré argues that hybridity can only be fully understood and managed when one considers both sides of the coin, and sees benefits and risks as each other’s flipsides. By analyzing hybrid organizations in the Dutch waste management sector, he develops a perspective on

  17. Building regulatory enforcement regimes : Comparative analysis of private sector involvement in the enforcement of public building regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Heijden, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    It is often assumed that traditional regulatory regimes centered on governmental action will benefit from greater private sector involvement. And, under the catchy phrase "from government to governance" globally a wide variety of hybrid forms of governance has emerged. However, little empirical

  18. Market penetration analysis of the use of hydrogen in the road transport sector of the Madrid region, using MARKAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, A.; Guervos, E. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Posso, F. [Science Department, ULA - Tachira, San Cristobal 5001 (Venezuela)

    2009-01-15

    Nobody can doubt today that hydrogen will, in the not-too-distant future, represent a very significant percentage of the total energy used by the transport sector. This study therefore consists of the modelling and simulation of energy consumption, by type of vehicle and fuel or energetic vector, in the road transport sector of the Madrid Region, during the period 2010-2050, using the MARKAL model. It has been necessary to complete this model by adding numerous specifications in order to determine the features of the Madrid Region, the richest Region in Spain. For the purpose of the study, three growth scenarios, based on short-term energy forecasts made by different official organizations, have been proposed for the energy consumption of the road transport sector in the Region. The results show a profound change in the current situation as there is a significant decrease in the consumption of fossil fuels and an increase in that of alternative non-fossil fuels and hydrogen. The latter, in particular, will rise from 0.1% in the year 2010, to around 50% in the year 2050, which will mean a drastic drop in the sector's CO{sub 2} and atmospheric pollutant emissions. (author)

  19. Regional impacts of environmental regulations and technical change in the US forestry sector: a multiregional CGE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouranga G. Das; Janki R.R. Alavalapati; Douglas R. Carter; Marions E. Tsigas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a multiregional computable general equilibrium model, which divides the United States (US) into four broad geographical regions and aggregates other nations into the rest of the world, is used to analyze the effects associated with environmental and technological policy shifts in the US forest sector. In particular, we analyze the impacts of: (i) a 20%...

  20. Foreign direct investment and technology spillovers in low and middle-income countries : a comparative cross-sectoral analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob, J.; Sasso, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the trends in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows worldwide across sectors and across value-chain activities, with a particular focus on low- and middle-income countries in comparison with advanced countries. We begin by discussing the growing fragmentation of global

  1. Organizational culture in the financial sector : evidence from a cross-industry analysis of employee personal values and career success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, André

    2017-01-01

    We assess the organizational culture in the finance industry in relation to the global financial crisis (GFC) and consider the potential of cultural change to improve the financial sector. To avoid (response) biases, we build on the person-organization (P-O) fit literature and develop a novel,

  2. Partnerships of a feather flock together? An analysis of the emergence of networks of partnerships in the global cocoa sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bitzer, V.C.; Glasbergen, P.; Leroy, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we move away from the case study approach dominant in the literature on partnerships and explore the emergence of networks of partnerships. Taking the global cocoa sector as our research setting, we examine 55 partnerships to analyse the linkages between them, their evolution over

  3. Energy. Sector 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this article is to report the results of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventory for the year 1994. The following GHG are of interest in the energy sector: Carbon dioxide CO 2 , methane CH 4 , nitrous oxide N 2 O, oxides of nitrogen NO x , carbon monoxide CO, sulphur dioxide SO 2 and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). The inventory has focused on the following GHG related sources: -Electricity generation through the electric utility. -Private generation of electricity -Manufacturing industries and construction -Transport: road, domestic aviation and national navigation -Energy use in the residential sector -Energy use in the commercial/institutional sector -Energy use in the agriculture/forestry/fishing sector The fuel types taken into consideration are:Gasoline, jet Kerosene, Kerosene for household use, gas oil, diesel oil, fuel oil, LPG, lubricating oil, coal, wood and charcoal (solid biomass). Care has been taken to eliminate the fuel used by international marine and aviation bunkers from the national inventory. The amount of GHG released to the atmosphere has been estimated using the IPCC methodology and emission factors .Where national emission factors differed from those of IPCC, the factors are discussed. Complete documentation of compiled information and data sources are attached to this article.Finally both the reference approach and analysis by source categories have been carried out and are reported in this inventory

  4. Use of family planning and child health services in the private sector: an equity analysis of 12 DHS surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Nirali M; Sprockett, Andrea

    2018-04-24

    A key component of universal health coverage is the ability to access quality healthcare without financial hardship. Poorer individuals are less likely to receive care than wealthier individuals, leading to important differences in health outcomes, and a needed focus on equity. To improve access to healthcare while minimizing financial hardships or inequitable service delivery we need to understand where individuals of different wealth seek care. To ensure progress toward SDG 3, we need to specifically understand where individuals seek reproductive, maternal, and child health services. We analyzed Demographic and Health Survey data from Bangladesh, Cambodia, DRC, Dominican Republic, Ghana, Haiti, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal and Zambia. We conducted weighted descriptive analyses on current users of modern FP and the youngest household child under age 5 to understand and compare country-specific care seeking patterns in use of public or private facilities based on urban/rural residence and wealth quintile. Modern contraceptive prevalence rate ranged from 8.1% to 52.6% across countries, generally rising with increasing wealth within countries. For relatively wealthy women in all countries except Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Senegal and Zambia, the private sector was the dominant source. Source of FP and type of method sought across facilities types differed widely across countries. Across all countries women were more likely to use the public sector for permanent and long-acting reversible contraceptive methods. Wealthier women demonstrated greater use of the private sector for FP services than poorer women. Overall prevalence rates for diarrhea and fever/ARI were similar, and generally not associated with wealth. The majority of sick children in Haiti did not seek treatment for either diarrhea or fever/ARI, while over 40% of children with cough or fever did not seek treatment in DRC, Haiti, Mali, and Senegal. Of all children who sought care for diarrhea, more

  5. Social sector expenditure and child mortality in India: a state-level analysis from 1997 to 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna M Makela

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: India is unlikely to meet the Millennium Development Goal for child mortality. As public policy impacts child mortality, we assessed the association of social sector expenditure with child mortality in India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mixed-effects regression models were used to assess the relationship of state-level overall social sector expenditure and its major components (health, health-related, education, and other with mortality by sex among infants and children aged 1-4 years from 1997 to 2009, adjusting for potential confounders. Counterfactual models were constructed to estimate deaths averted due to overall social sector increases since 1997. Increases in per capita overall social sector expenditure were slightly higher in less developed than in more developed states from 1997 to 2009 (2.4-fold versus 2-fold, but the level of expenditure remained 36% lower in the former in 2009. Increase in public expenditure on health was not significantly associated with mortality reduction in infants or at ages 1-4 years, but a 10% increase in health-related public expenditure was associated with a 3.6% mortality reduction (95% confidence interval 0.2-6.9% in 1-4 years old boys. A 10% increase in overall social sector expenditure was associated with a mortality reduction in both boys (6.8%, 3.5-10.0% and girls (4.1%, 0.8-7.5% aged 1-4 years. We estimated 119,807 (95% uncertainty interval 53,409-214,662 averted deaths in boys aged 1-4 years and 94,037 (14,725-206,684 in girls in India in 2009 that could be attributed to increases in overall social sector expenditure since 1997. CONCLUSIONS: Further reduction in child mortality in India would be facilitated if policymakers give high priority to the social sector as a whole for resource allocation in the country's 5-year plan for 2012-2017, as public expenditure on health alone has not had major impact on reducing child mortality.

  6. Social sector expenditure and child mortality in India: a state-level analysis from 1997 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makela, Susanna M; Dandona, Rakhi; Dilip, T R; Dandona, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    India is unlikely to meet the Millennium Development Goal for child mortality. As public policy impacts child mortality, we assessed the association of social sector expenditure with child mortality in India. Mixed-effects regression models were used to assess the relationship of state-level overall social sector expenditure and its major components (health, health-related, education, and other) with mortality by sex among infants and children aged 1-4 years from 1997 to 2009, adjusting for potential confounders. Counterfactual models were constructed to estimate deaths averted due to overall social sector increases since 1997. Increases in per capita overall social sector expenditure were slightly higher in less developed than in more developed states from 1997 to 2009 (2.4-fold versus 2-fold), but the level of expenditure remained 36% lower in the former in 2009. Increase in public expenditure on health was not significantly associated with mortality reduction in infants or at ages 1-4 years, but a 10% increase in health-related public expenditure was associated with a 3.6% mortality reduction (95% confidence interval 0.2-6.9%) in 1-4 years old boys. A 10% increase in overall social sector expenditure was associated with a mortality reduction in both boys (6.8%, 3.5-10.0%) and girls (4.1%, 0.8-7.5%) aged 1-4 years. We estimated 119,807 (95% uncertainty interval 53,409-214,662) averted deaths in boys aged 1-4 years and 94,037 (14,725-206,684) in girls in India in 2009 that could be attributed to increases in overall social sector expenditure since 1997. Further reduction in child mortality in India would be facilitated if policymakers give high priority to the social sector as a whole for resource allocation in the country's 5-year plan for 2012-2017, as public expenditure on health alone has not had major impact on reducing child mortality.

  7. [Diagnostics and Eradication Therapy for MRSA Carriers in the Outpatient Sector: an Analysis of the Reimbursement Situation in the Light of Current Reimbursement Changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendler, M; Hübner, C S; Fleßa, S

    2017-10-01

    Infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) occurs in both the inpatient and outpatient sector. The reimbursement for diagnostic services and eradication therapy in the outpatient sector was regulated for the first time on 01.04.2012 and after a 2-year test period, has been adopted into the standard range of care services. The aim of this retrospective study was to give an overview of the current situation in services and reimbursement in Germany and describe MRSA patients and their treatment in the outpatient sector. Secondary data, namely reimbursement data of the National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (KBV) und the Physicians' Association (KV) Mecklenburg-West Pomerania for the period 01/04/2012-31/03/2014 were analyzed. Results show that on the federal level, MRSA services amounting to € 3,235,870.18 have been reimbursed and that diagnostic costs exceed treatment costs. In Germany, 5,627 doctors invoiced services related to MRSA; 51,56% of these were general practitioners and 21,25% specialists in internal medicine working in general practice. In the KV Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, patients were elderly (average age 69,13), cost for services were on average 27,76 €, and 76,85% of the patients were treated within one quarter. On the whole, there were regional differences in the identification and eradication of MRSA in the outpatient setting. In order to provide an extended base for a more efficient resource allocation in the health care sector, in addition to analysis of MRSA eradication from the medical point of view, attention needs to be paid to patient flow between the out- and inpatient sectors, as well as economic aspects. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Socio-Economic Development in Kenya's Cooperative Sector: An Empirical Analysis of Cooperatives in Nairobi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyongesa, D.J.W.; M'mboyi, F.

    2002-01-01

    A lot of stigma is attached to HIV/AIDS pandemic in Kenya. Many organizations have tried and continue trying to educate the public on this scourge. However, none of these organizations has thought of the cooperative sector. This research is unique because it examines the Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Socio-economic Development of Kenya's Cooperative sector. It is an empirical analysis of Cooperatives in Nairobi Province with special reference to the Savings and Credit Cooperatives (SACCOS). It was a joint research that examined HIV/AIDS from a multidisciplinary approach. The general objective was to identify and quantify the effects of HIV/AIDS on the performance of cooperative societies, particularly the impact of HIV/AIDS on savings, share capital, age groups and gender. Questionnaires were administered to a randomly selected sample of cooperative societies in the province. PCGIVE computer package was used to run regressions on simultaneous and recursive models. The findings clearly show that between 1991 and 2000 cooperatives in Nairobi province lost approximately USD 479 million due to HIV/AIDS pandemic. Besides, though savings, share capital and assets increased significantly, the scourge was negative the gains. Of the dead and the infected, females and ages between 18-48 were more affected by the epidemic. Policy specify recommendations vital for containment of HIV/AIDS in the cooperative sub sector of the Kenyan economy are made. These are with a view to classifying the appropriate roles of both public and private sectors in fighting the HIV/AIDS pandemic within the cooperative sector. Last but not least further areas of research are suggested

  9. Low carbon society scenario analysis of transport sector of an emerging economy—The AIM/Enduse modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvakkumaran, Sujeetha; Limmeechokchai, Bundit

    2015-01-01

    The transport sector of a country is the backbone driving the economy forward. Thailand’s land transport sector is modelled using the AIM/Enduse, which is a recursive dynamic optimization model, based on bottom-up modelling principle. The travel demand is divided into two major categories which are passenger travel and freight travel. The objective of this paper is to analyse the mitigation possible through low carbon society (LCS) measures and emission tax (ET). Two scenario clusters are devised along with the BAU case. The LCS scenario cluster has three designed scenarios which are LCS-L, LCS-M and LCS-H. The emission tax (ET) cluster has four scenarios, where the taxes of 50, 100, 200 and 500 USD/t-CO 2 are implemented. Along with this the marginal abatement costs (MAC) of the counter-measures (CMs) and the co-benefits in terms of energy security, productivity and air pollutant mitigation are also assessed. Results show that LCS scenarios are possible of mitigating up to 1230 Mt-CO 2 cumulatively, from 2010 to 2050. In terms of MACs, new vehicles play a pivotal role, along with hybrid vehicles. The Average Abatement Cost (AAC) assessment shows that the AAC of LCS-H scenario is in the order of 100 USD/t-CO 2 . All the LCS and ET scenarios show an enhancement in energy security and also a threefold increase in productivity. There is distinct mitigation in terms of air pollutants from the transport sector as well. -- Highlights: •Thailand transport sector has been modelled using AIM/Enduse model. •Potential cumulative mitigation of CO 2 during 2010–2050 is approximately 30% when compared the BAU scenario. •Abatement cost curves show that various counter measures are practical in the transport sector. •Energy security is enhanced due to CO 2 mitigation in the LCS scenario

  10. Reconstruction of global gridded monthly sectoral water withdrawals for 1971-2010 and analysis of their spatiotemporal patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongwei; Hejazi, Mohamad; Li, Xinya; Tang, Qiuhong; Vernon, Chris; Leng, Guoyong; Liu, Yaling; Döll, Petra; Eisner, Stephanie; Gerten, Dieter; Hanasaki, Naota; Wada, Yoshihide

    2018-04-01

    Human water withdrawal has increasingly altered the global water cycle in past decades, yet our understanding of its driving forces and patterns is limited. Reported historical estimates of sectoral water withdrawals are often sparse and incomplete, mainly restricted to water withdrawal estimates available at annual and country scales, due to a lack of observations at seasonal and local scales. In this study, through collecting and consolidating various sources of reported data and developing spatial and temporal statistical downscaling algorithms, we reconstruct a global monthly gridded (0.5°) sectoral water withdrawal dataset for the period 1971-2010, which distinguishes six water use sectors, i.e., irrigation, domestic, electricity generation (cooling of thermal power plants), livestock, mining, and manufacturing. Based on the reconstructed dataset, the spatial and temporal patterns of historical water withdrawal are analyzed. Results show that total global water withdrawal has increased significantly during 1971-2010, mainly driven by the increase in irrigation water withdrawal. Regions with high water withdrawal are those densely populated or with large irrigated cropland production, e.g., the United States (US), eastern China, India, and Europe. Seasonally, irrigation water withdrawal in summer for the major crops contributes a large percentage of total annual irrigation water withdrawal in mid- and high-latitude regions, and the dominant season of irrigation water withdrawal is also different across regions. Domestic water withdrawal is mostly characterized by a summer peak, while water withdrawal for electricity generation has a winter peak in high-latitude regions and a summer peak in low-latitude regions. Despite the overall increasing trend, irrigation in the western US and domestic water withdrawal in western Europe exhibit a decreasing trend. Our results highlight the distinct spatial pattern of human water use by sectors at the seasonal and annual

  11. Diurnal, seasonal, and annual trends in tropospheric CO in Southwest London during 2000-2015: Wind sector analysis and comparisons with urban and remote sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Paniagua, Iván Y.; Lowry, David; Clemitshaw, Kevin C.; Palmer, Paul I.; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Mendoza, Alberto; O'Doherty, Simon; Forster, Grant; Lanoisellé, M.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2018-03-01

    Ambient carbon monoxide (CO) and meteorological parameters measured at the Egham (EGH) semi-rural site in SW London during 2000-2015 have permitted wind sector analysis of diurnal and seasonal cycles, and interpretation of long-term trends. CO daily amplitudes are used as a proxy for anthropogenic emissions. At EGH, morning and evening peaks in CO arise from the dominant contribution of road transport sources. Smaller amplitudes are observed during weekends than weekdays due to lower combustion emissions, and for mornings compared to evenings due to the timing of the development and break-up of the nocturnal inversion layer or planetary boundary layer (PBL). A wavelet transform revealed that the dominant mode of CO variability is the annual cycle, with apparent winter maxima likely due to increased CO emissions from domestic heating with summer minima ascribed to enhanced dispersion and dilution during the annual maximum of PBL mixing heights. Over the last two decades, both mitigation measures to reduce CO emissions and also a major switch to diesel cars, have accompanied a change at EGH from the dominance of local diurnal sources to a site measuring close to Atlantic background levels in summer months. CO observed in the S and SW wind sectors has declined by 4.7 and 5.9 ppb yr-1 respectively. The EGH CO record shows the highest levels in the early 2000s, with levels in E and calm winds comparable to those recorded at background stations in Greater London. However, since 2012, levels in S-SW sector have become more comparable with Mace Head background except during rush-hour periods. Marked declines in CO are observed during 2000-2008 for the NE, E, SE (London) and calm wind sectors, with the smallest declines observed for the S, SW and W (background) sectors. For the majority of wind sectors, the decline in CO is less noticeable since 2008, with an apparent stabilisation for NE, E and SE after 2009. The EGH CO data record exhibits a similar but slower exponential

  12. Method Development for Rapid Analysis of Natural Radioactive Nuclides Using Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, J.M.; Ji, Y.Y.; Lee, H.; Park, J.H.; Jang, M.; Chung, K.H.; Kang, M.J.; Choi, G.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    As an attempt to reduce the social costs and apprehension arising from radioactivity in the environment, an accurate and rapid assessment of radioactivity is highly desirable. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are widely spread throughout the environment. The concern with radioactivity from these materials has therefore been growing for the last decade. In particular, radiation exposure in the industry when handling raw materials (e.g., coal mining and combustion, oil and gas production, metal mining and smelting, mineral sands (REE, Ti, Zr), fertilizer (phosphate), and building materials) has been brought to the public's attention. To decide the proper handling options, a rapid and accurate analytical method that can be used to evaluate the radioactivity of radionuclides (e.g., {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 40}K) should be developed and validated. Direct measuring methods such as alpha spectrometry, a liquid scintillation counter (LSC), and mass-spectrometry are usually used for the measurement of radioactivity in NORM samples, and they encounter the most significant difficulties during pretreatment (e.g., purification, speciation, and dilution/enrichment). Since the pretreatment process consequently plays an important role in the measurement uncertainty, method development and validation should be performed. Furthermore, a-spectrometry has a major disadvantage of a long counting time, while it has a prominent measurement capability at a very low activity level of {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 226}Ra. Contrary to the α-spectrometry method, a measurement technique using ICP-MS allow radioactivity in many samples to be measured in a short time period with a high degree of accuracy and precision. In this study, a method was developed for a rapid analysis of natural radioactive nuclides using ICP-MS. A sample digestion process was established using LiBO{sub 2} fusion and Fe co-precipitation. A magnetic

  13. The irruption of AirBNB and its effects on hotels' profitability: An analysis of Barcelona's hotel sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aznar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to analyze the existence of a relationship between the presence of nearby substitute products, mainly Airbnb flats or rooms, and the effect on the revenue and profitability of hotels. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical study is based on the analysis of financial information provided in the annual reports of a sample consisting of 43 hotels (11.78% of the population. As an explanatory variable for profitability, we have considered the presence of apartments listed in Airbnb that are no farther than one kilometer from each hotel. Considering that most of the variables used do not follow a normal distribution, the existence of a relationship between profitability and the explanatory variables has been tested using non-parametric tests, namely, the Spearman correlation coefficient and Kruskall-Wallis test. Findings: We found a positive correlation between presence of Airbnb apartments and return on equity. This fact can be explained by considering the presence of Airbnb apartments as a variable that measures the attractiveness of the location from a tourist’s point of view. Hotels located near the city center or main tourist areas of the city have a higher level of profitability. We also found no evidence of any relationship between profitability and star category; 4- and 3-star hotels have experienced, on average, a lower drop in revenues between 2008 and 2013 and they also obtained a higher average level of profitability in 2013 as compared to the upper segment of 5-star hotels. Research limitations/implications: This research has been conducted in the city of Barcelona. Future research using the same methodology should be applied to other cities with an important hospitality sector to reinforce our findings. The main implications of this research refer to the importance of location as a key strategic variable in hospitality, and to the change in the system customers use to evaluate the quality of a

  14. INAA and chemical analysis of water and sediments sampled in 1996 from the Romanian sector of the Danube river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelica, A.; Georgescu, I.I.; Oprica, M.H.I.; Borcia, C.

    1999-01-01

    Water and sediment samples collected during spring 1996 from 20 sampling sites of the Romanian sector of the Danube river and the Black Sea coast were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and by chemical methods to determine major, minor and trace element contents. The concentrations of 43 elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, Hg, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, W, Yb, Zr, Zn) were investigated by INAA at WWR-S reactor in Bucharest. Chemical methods were used to determine the content of P 2 O 5 and SiO 2 in sediments. For INAA, the water residues and sediment samples were irradiated at the WWR-S reactor in Bucharest at a neutron fluence rate of 2.3·10 12 cm -2 s -1 . As standards, reference materials IAEA-Soil 7 and WTM (sludge from city water treatment, from the Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques Kosice, Slovakia) as well as chemical compounds of Al, Ca, Mg, V were used. Mono-standard method was applied in the case of Ti and Sr (Cl and Zn as standards, respectively). By chemical methods, the amount of SiO 2 was determined in sediment samples after the treatment with concentrated HCl and residuum dis-aggregation by fusion (melting with a mixture of Na 2 CO 3 and K 2 CO 3 ). Phosphorus was determined by spectrophotometry with ammonium molybdate and by reduction with ascorbic acid. It can be seen that, both for water and sediment samples, the highest contents of Al, Co, Cs, Fe, Rb, and Sb were found at the sites located upstream the Portile de Fier dam: at Turnu Severin (for water) and Orsova (for sediments). Ag, Au, Ni, Yb, Zr were determined only in some of the water samples at the following concentration levels: ng L -1 (Au, Lu), tens of ng L -1 (Ag, Tb, Yb), hundreds of ng L -1 (Ag), μg L -1 (Ni, Zr), tens of μg L -1 (Ni, Ti). From a comparison with results of our previous studies for the Danube bottom sediments, no significant

  15. Sectoral energy demand data: Sources and Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ounali, A.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter of the publication is dealing with Sectoral Energy Demand Data giving details about the Sources and Issues. Some comments are presented on rural energy surveys. Guidelines for the Definition and Desegregation of Sectoral Energy Consumption is given and Data Necessary for Sectoral Energy Demand Analysis is discussed

  16. Leading sector development in Muaro Jambi District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Safri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to improve economic development and economic growth of Muaro Jambi Regency is a must. Efforts to increase economic development and economic growth can occur, if local governments are able to determine or identify priority sectors or become a base sector. Given the importance of determining and defining the right and correct strategy in the development of leading economic sectors/bases, it is necessary to conduct further study related to the development of leading sector policy in Muaro Jambi Regency. Analysis tools that are used are LQ (Location Quotient and SWOT analysis. The results of the analysis found that of there are three sectors that are the main sector or base in Muaro Jambi Regency, namely agriculture, livestock, plantation, fishery and forestry sector, mining and quarrying sector and manufacturing industry sector. Strategies that can be done in order to maintain and develop the sector and sub-sectors/recommended base there are several alternative strategies that combine internal environmental conditions and external environment Muaro Jambi Regency is S - O (power against opportunities, S - T (power against threats W - O (weakness to opportunity and W - T (weakness to threat. Keywords: Location Quotient, SWOT Analysis, Base Sector

  17. Analysis of China’s Carbon Emissions Base on Carbon Flow in Four Main Sectors: 2000–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Reducing carbon emissions is a major way to achieve green development and sustainability for China’s future. This paper elaborates the detailed features of China’s carbon flow for 2013 with the carbon flow chart and shows the changing characteristics of China’s CO2 flow from the viewpoint of specific sectors and energies from 2000 and 2013. The results show that (1 from 2000 to 2013, China’s CO2 emissions approximately grew by 9% annually, while the CO2 intensity of China diminished at different rates. (2 The CO2 emissions from the secondary industry are prominent from the perspective of four main sectors, accounting for 83.5% of emissions. Manufacturing plays an important part in the secondary industry with 45% of the emissions, in which the “smelting and pressing of metal” takes up a large percentage of about 50% of the emissions from manufacturing. (3 The CO2 emissions produced by coal consumption are dominant in energy-related emissions with a contribution of 65%, which will decrease in the future. (4 From the aspect of different sectors, the CO2 emissions mainly come from the “electricity and heating” sector and the “smelting, pressing and manufacturing of metals” sub-sector. It is essential and urgent to propose concrete recommendations for CO2 emissions mitigation. Firstly, the progression of creative technology is inevitable and undeniable. Secondly, the government should make different CO2 emissions reduction policies among different sectors. For example, the process emissions play an important role in “non-metallic minerals” while in “smelting and manufacturing of metals” it is energy emissions. Thirdly, the country can change the energy structure and promote renewable energy that is powered by wind or other low-carbon energy sources. Alternatively, coke oven gas can be a feasible substitution. Finally, policy makers should be aware that the emissions from residents have been growing at a fast rate. It is

  18. End use technology choice in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS): An analysis of the residential and commercial building sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkerson, Jordan T.; Cullenward, Danny; Davidian, Danielle; Weyant, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is arguably the most influential energy model in the United States. The U.S. Energy Information Administration uses NEMS to generate the federal government's annual long-term forecast of national energy consumption and to evaluate prospective federal energy policies. NEMS is considered such a standard tool that other models are calibrated to its forecasts, in both government and academic practice. As a result, NEMS has a significant influence over expert opinions of plausible energy futures. NEMS is a massively detailed model whose inner workings, despite its prominence, receive relatively scant critical attention. This paper analyzes how NEMS projects energy demand in the residential and commercial sectors. In particular, we focus on the role of consumers' preferences and financial constraints, investigating how consumers choose appliances and other end-use technologies. We identify conceptual issues in the approach the model takes to the same question across both sectors. Running the model with a range of consumer preferences, we estimate the extent to which this issue impacts projected consumption relative to the baseline model forecast for final energy demand in the year 2035. In the residential sector, the impact ranges from a decrease of 0.73 quads (− 6.0%) to an increase of 0.24 quads (+ 2.0%). In the commercial sector, the impact ranges from a decrease of 1.0 quads (− 9.0%) to an increase of 0.99 quads (+ 9.0%). - Highlights: • This paper examines the impact of consumer preferences on final energy in the Commercial and Residential sectors of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). • We describe the conceptual and empirical basis for modeling consumer technology choice in NEMS. • We offer a range of alternative parameters to show the energy demand sensitivity to technology choice. • We show there are significant potential savings available in both building sectors. • Because the model uses its own

  19. Scenario analysis of energy saving and CO_2 emissions reduction potentials to ratchet up Japanese mitigation target in 2030 in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakiyama, Takako; Kuramochi, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses to what extent CO_2 emissions from electricity in the residential sector can be further reduced in Japan beyond its post-2020 mitigation target (known as “Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC)”). The paper examines the reduction potential of electricity demand and CO_2 emissions in the residential sector by conducting a scenario analysis. Electricity consumption scenarios are set up using a time-series regression model, and used to forecast the electricity consumption patterns to 2030. The scenario analysis also includes scenarios that reduce electricity consumption through enhanced energy efficiency and energy saving measures. The obtained results show that Japan can reduce electricity consumption and CO_2 emissions in the residential sector in 2030 more than the Japanese post-2020 mitigation target indicates. At the maximum, the electricity consumption could be reduced by 35 TWh, which contributes to 55.4 MtCO_2 of emissions reduction in 2030 compared to 2013 if the voluntarily targeted CO_2 intensity of electricity is achieved. The result implies that Japan has the potential to ratchet up post-2020 mitigation targets discussed under the Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). - Highlights: • Further reduction of electricity consumption is possible beyond Japan's post-2020 mitigation target. • Energy saving efforts by households and incentives to reduce electricity demands are required. • Improvement of CO_2 intensity from electricity is a key factor in the reduction of CO_2 emissions.

  20. The French wind energy market by 2020. Market evolution and competition context within the sector. Analysis of business model and of financial performance of fleet operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    As the French wind energy sector has been recovering a good dynamics since 2014, notably for onshore production whereas some uncertainties remain present for offshore production, this report aims at assessing market perspectives by 2020, and at identifying business opportunities for the different involved actors. The first part identifies some determining factors for the sector activity, proposes an analysis of the activity for the 2002-2015 period (installed power, electricity production, turnover, equipment manufacturers, operators) and its perspectives by 2020 (evolution of determining factors, installed power, market share evolution for manufacturers, opportunities and threats on the medium term). The second part discusses the main elements of the operators' business models, and analyses fleet managers' financial data. Structural drivers and brakes are then discussed, as well as the French, European and World context (installed power, installed offshore power, electricity production, energy policy, law for energy transition, commitment of public authorities in favour of wind energy, competitiveness of wind energy). Some highlights and aspects of offer evolution are outlined: development of offshore wind energy, diversification of operators, international development, takeovers and capital increase, new financing modes. The last parts propose an analysis of the economic structure of the sector in France (types of interveners, staff, location, machine power evolution) and an overview of the main actors. Identity sheets of the main operators and equipment manufacturers are provided, as well as economic and financial data of 200 operators which can be compared through 5 key indicators

  1. The role of hemifield sector analysis in multifocal visual evoked potential objective perimetry in the early detection of glaucomatous visual field defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa MF

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad F Mousa,1 Robert P Cubbidge,2 Fatima Al-Mansouri,1 Abdulbari Bener3,41Department of Ophthalmology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; 2School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK; 3Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Department of Public Health, Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar; 4Department Evidence for Population Health Unit, School of Epidemiology and Health Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UKObjective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a new analysis method of mfVEP objective perimetry in the early detection of glaucomatous visual field defects compared to the gold standard technique.Methods and patients: Three groups were tested in this study; normal controls (38 eyes, glaucoma patients (36 eyes, and glaucoma suspect patients (38 eyes. All subjects underwent two standard 24-2 visual field tests: one with the Humphrey Field Analyzer and a single mfVEP test in one session. Analysis of the mfVEP results was carried out using the new analysis ­protocol: the hemifield sector analysis protocol.Results: Analysis of the mfVEP showed that the signal to noise ratio (SNR difference between superior and inferior hemifields was statistically significant between the three groups (analysis of variance, P < 0.001 with a 95% confidence interval, 2.82, 2.89 for normal group; 2.25, 2.29 for glaucoma suspect group; 1.67, 1.73 for glaucoma group. The difference between superior and inferior hemifield sectors and hemi-rings was statistically significant in 11/11 pair of sectors and hemi-rings in the glaucoma patients group (t-test P < 0.001, statistically significant in 5/11 pairs of sectors and hemi-rings in the glaucoma suspect group (t-test P < 0.01, and only 1/11 pair was statistically significant (t-test P < 0.9. The sensitivity and specificity of the hemifield sector analysis protocol in detecting glaucoma was 97% and 86

  2. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the modeling work carried out in this project was to quantify long-term scenarios for the future emission reduction potentials in the iron and steel sector. The main focus of the project is to examine the impacts of carbon reduction options in the U.S. iron and steel sector under a set of selected scenarios. In order to advance the understanding of carbon emission reduction potential on the national and global scales, and to evaluate the regional impacts of potential U.S. mitigation strategies (e.g., commodity and carbon trading), we also included and examined the carbon reduction scenarios in China’s and India’s iron and steel sectors in this project. For this purpose, a new bottom-up energy modeling framework, the Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency Modeling (ISEEM), (Karali et al. 2012) was used to provide detailed annual projections starting from 2010 through 2050. We used the ISEEM modeling framework to carry out detailed analysis, on a country-by-country basis, for the U.S., China’s, and India’s iron and steel sectors. The ISEEM model applicable to iron and steel section, called ISEEM-IS, is developed to estimate and evaluate carbon emissions scenarios under several alternative mitigation options - including policies (e.g., carbon caps), commodity trading, and carbon trading. The projections will help us to better understand emission reduction potentials with technological and economic implications. The database for input of ISEEM-IS model consists of data and information compiled from various resources such as World Steel Association (WSA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), China Steel Year Books, India Bureau of Mines (IBM), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and recent LBNL studies on bottom-up techno-economic analysis of energy efficiency measures in the iron and steel sector of the U.S., China, and India, including long-term steel production in China. In the ISEEM-IS model, production technology and manufacturing details are

  3. Economic analysis of the expected environmental impact of the Single European Market through the transport, waste and energy sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brutscher, S.

    1993-01-01

    Similarly to other studies the present dissertation presupposes that the Single European Market will lead to an increase in transport waste quantities, and energy consumption and consequently to greater environmental pollution. Of central importance here is the concept of ''expletive costs'' introduced in this paper which describes that damage to the natural and human environment which is not compensated. It forms out that the sectors of transport, waste, and energy alone will most probably send the expletive costs of the Single European Market into astronomic dimensions. In view of the interdependencies of these three sectors it seems doubtful whether the economic benefit to be expected from the establishment of the Single European Market can justify the additional environmental damage thus caused. (HP) [de

  4. Organizational Culture in the Financial Sector: Evidence from a Cross-Industry Analysis of Employee Personal Values and Career

    OpenAIRE

    van Hoorn, Andre

    2015-01-01

    We assess the organizational culture in the finance industry in relation to the global financial crisis (GFC) and consider the potential of cultural change to improve the financial sector. To avoid (response) biases, we build on the person-organization (P-O) fit literature and develop a novel, indirect method for assessing organizational culture that revolves around relationships between employees’ personal traits and their career success in the industry or organization under study. We analyz...

  5. Environmental assessment and investment strategies of provincial industrial sector in China — Analysis based on DEA model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Juan, E-mail: wangjuan_tju@163.com [College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao, Tao [College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Xiaohu [College of Civil Aviation, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210016 (China)

    2016-09-15

    As an energy-intensive industry, the industrial sector consumes 70% of energy consumption and causes serious environmental pollution in China. Also, the government emphasized the promotion of R&D investment in the industrial sector in China's National Plan on Climate Change (2014–2020). It is meaningful and contributes to assessing energy and environmental performance, as well as R&D and industrial pollution control (IPC) investment strategies of China's industrial sector. A non-radial DEA model, as with natural and managerial disposability, was adopted to evaluate this from provincial and regional perspectives during the 2008–2012 period. Energy and environmental performance was evaluated by unified efficiency under natural disposability (UEN), unified efficiency under managerial disposability (UEM), and unified efficiency under natural and managerial disposability (UENM). The empirical results indicated that Shandong and Hainan were efficient under natural and managerial disposability, while other provinces had the potential to improve their energy and environmental performance. The number of provinces that was fit for investments of R&D and IPC increased from 2008 to 2010, then decreased in 2011 and 2012. In spite of this, many provincial industrial sectors should make efforts to reduce pollution by investment on technology. Tianjin, Heilongjiang, Jiangxi and Henan were especially the best investment objects because investments of R&D and IPC turned to be effective for them during the whole study period. Moreover, western China had the highest average UENM, followed by eastern China and central China. Eastern China and central China were rewarding to expand investments. Coal consumption was the main factor to negatively affect unified efficiency whereas the increase in economic development level was primarily responsible for the improvement of unified efficiency. According to the results, differentiated suggestions to further improve energy and

  6. Intangibles and the gender wage gap: An analysis of gender wage gaps across occupations in the Finnish private sector

    OpenAIRE

    Asplund, Rita; Napari, Sami

    2011-01-01

    The paper compares the gender wage differentials of two occupation groups - innovation and non-innovation workers - separately for manufacturing and services using Finnish private-sector data. We apply a decomposition method based on unconditional quantile regression techniques to identify key factors underlying the gender wage gaps observed along the whole wage distribution, as well as changes in these wage gaps between 2002 and 2009. This more nuanced approach provides important new insight...

  7. Situational analysis of the Canadian renewable energy sector with a focus on human resource issues : 2007 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Several factors are steering world energy supplies away from traditional fossil fuel sources and toward renewable energy technologies. As a result, renewable energy markets are experiencing significant growth, and experts predict this trend will continue. As of 2004, 2 per cent of Canada's total electricity generation capacity was provided from emerging renewable technologies, excluding large scale hydro which represents 56 per cent of Canada's electricity generation capacity. The development of renewable energy sources in Canada is expected to contribute to Canada's economic prosperity by providing diversified energy supply to industrial buyers, generating direct economic advantages and employment to local communities, as well as direct benefits such as improved air quality and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Human Resources and Social Development Canada contracted the Delphi Group to provide information on the labour market for the renewable energy sector in Canada in order to identify the steps needed to help the sector in developing a human resource strategy. This report provided an overview of key characteristics defining the renewable energy subsectors in Canada along with anticipated changes in the near term. The study focused on the following technologies: wind turbines; photovoltaics; active solar thermal; geoexchange/earth energy; small scale hydropower; bioenergy; and, ocean energy. A reliable estimate of the labour demands in the subsectors over the next 5 to 10 year was presented along with a review of the human resource issues affecting the sector. This project was guided by an advisory committee of members from 4 sector councils; 3 government agencies including Environment Canada, Industry Canada and Natural Resources Canada; 4 industry associations representing bioenergy, geothermal energy, solar energy and wind energy; and other organizations including the Association of Canadian Community Colleges, the Canadian Council of Technicians and

  8. Environmental assessment and investment strategies of provincial industrial sector in China — Analysis based on DEA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Juan; Zhao, Tao; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2016-01-01

    As an energy-intensive industry, the industrial sector consumes 70% of energy consumption and causes serious environmental pollution in China. Also, the government emphasized the promotion of R&D investment in the industrial sector in China's National Plan on Climate Change (2014–2020). It is meaningful and contributes to assessing energy and environmental performance, as well as R&D and industrial pollution control (IPC) investment strategies of China's industrial sector. A non-radial DEA model, as with natural and managerial disposability, was adopted to evaluate this from provincial and regional perspectives during the 2008–2012 period. Energy and environmental performance was evaluated by unified efficiency under natural disposability (UEN), unified efficiency under managerial disposability (UEM), and unified efficiency under natural and managerial disposability (UENM). The empirical results indicated that Shandong and Hainan were efficient under natural and managerial disposability, while other provinces had the potential to improve their energy and environmental performance. The number of provinces that was fit for investments of R&D and IPC increased from 2008 to 2010, then decreased in 2011 and 2012. In spite of this, many provincial industrial sectors should make efforts to reduce pollution by investment on technology. Tianjin, Heilongjiang, Jiangxi and Henan were especially the best investment objects because investments of R&D and IPC turned to be effective for them during the whole study period. Moreover, western China had the highest average UENM, followed by eastern China and central China. Eastern China and central China were rewarding to expand investments. Coal consumption was the main factor to negatively affect unified efficiency whereas the increase in economic development level was primarily responsible for the improvement of unified efficiency. According to the results, differentiated suggestions to further improve energy and environmental

  9. Impact of inter-sectoral trade on national and global CO2 emissions: An empirical analysis of China and US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jie; Zou Lele; Wei Yiming

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to discuss the CO 2 emissions embodied in Sino-US international trade using a sector approach. Based on an input-output model established in this study, we quantify the impact of Sino-US international trade on national and global CO 2 emissions. Our initial findings reveal that: In 2005, the US reduced 190.13 Mt CO 2 emissions through the consumption of imported goods from China, while increasing global CO 2 emissions by about 515.25 Mt. Similarly, China reduced 178.62 Mt CO 2 emissions through the consumption of US goods, while reducing global CO 2 emissions by 129.93 Mt. Sino-US international trade increased global CO 2 emissions by 385.32 Mt as a whole, of which the Chemical, Fabricated Metal Products, Non-metallic Mineral Products and Transportation Equipment sectors contributed an 86.71% share. Therefore, we suggest that accelerating the adjustment of China's trade structure and export of US advanced technologies and experience related to clean production and energy efficiency to China as the way to reduce the negative impact of Sino-US trade on national and global CO 2 emissions. This behavior should take into account the processing and manufacturing industries as a priority, especially the Chemical, Fabricated Metal Products, Non-metallic Mineral Products and Transportation Equipment sectors.

  10. Analysis of auditor`s reports and bankruptcy risk in banking sector in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Stanisic

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to point out the significance of external audit and auditor’s reports. The stability of banks and its operations are vital not only for efficient financial system functioning, but also for overall industry. The banking sector, both in developed and undeveloped countries, experienced financial crisis in the last few years. Considering these circumstances and the fact that demands of financial statements users grow in complexity, their control is essential. We provide the empirical evidence on the banking sector auditor’s reports in the Republic of Serbia, with particular reference to auditor’s opinions and audit agencies that had conducted banks audits. The review of the audit legislation and professional standards will be presented, as well as the notion of bankruptcy risk and its relevance for baking sector. Our research results indicate that special attention should be paid to banks which auditor’s report had some explanatory paragraphs or even qualification. In conclusion we highlight the red flags that may damage banks operations and emphasize the importance of keeping the high level of auditor’s independence with the intention to provide confidence to stakeholders who form their decisions based on their reports.

  11. Predictors of latent tuberculosis infection treatment completion in the US private sector: an analysis of administrative claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockbridge, Erica L; Miller, Thaddeus L; Carlson, Erin K; Ho, Christine

    2018-05-29

    Factors that affect latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) treatment completion in the US have not been well studied beyond public health settings. This gap was highlighted by recent health insurance-related regulatory changes that are likely to increase LTBI treatment by private sector healthcare providers. We analyzed LTBI treatment completion in the private healthcare setting to facilitate planning around this important opportunity for tuberculosis (TB) control in the US. We analyzed a national sample of commercial insurance medical and pharmacy claims data for people ages 0 to 64 years who initiated daily dose isoniazid treatment between July 2011 and March 2014 and who had complete data. All individuals resided in the US. Factors associated with treatment completion were examined using multivariable generalized ordered logit models and bivariate Kruskal-Wallis tests or Spearman correlations. We identified 1072 individuals with complete data who initiated isoniazid LTBI treatment. Treatment completion was significantly associated with less restrictive health insurance, age Private sector healthcare claims data provide insights into LTBI treatment completion patterns and patient/provider behaviors. Such information is critical to understanding the opportunities and limitations of private healthcare in the US to support treatment completion as this sector's role in protecting against and eliminating TB grows.

  12. Numerical Analysis of the Final Cooldown of a 3.3 km Sector of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, L; Tavian, L

    2006-01-01

    The final cool-down of a 107-m standard cell of LHC, which consists of the helium filling operation at 4.5 K and the further cool-down from 4.5 K to 1.9 K, has been previously simulated and analyzed numerically. To model and analyze the final cool-down process of a whole 3.3-km sector of the LHC, additional boundary conditions must be introduced. In this paper, the slope of the sector, the efficiency of the sub-cooling heat exchanger, the pressure drops and heat loads in different headers of the cryogenic distribution line as well as the fact that both the filling flow of the cold mass and the vaporized flow in the 1.8 K heat exchanger are concurrently supplied have been taken into account. The simulation results, such as the temperature evolution in the LHC magnet cold mass and the pressure profiles in cryogenic line headers during the filling and cool-down from 4.5 K to 1.9 K of a LHC sector are presented. Taking into account the required distribution of the total flow to each cell, all the cells can be fil...

  13. Analysis of policies to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse-gas emissions from the US transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross Morrow, W.; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Collantes, Gustavo; Lee, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Even as the US debates an economy-wide CO 2 cap-and-trade policy the transportation sector remains a significant oil security and climate change concern. Transportation alone consumes the majority of the US's imported oil and produces a third of total US Greenhouse-Gas (GHG) emissions. This study examines different sector-specific policy scenarios for reducing GHG emissions and oil consumption in the US transportation sector under economy-wide CO 2 prices. The 2009 version of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), a general equilibrium model of US energy markets, enables quantitative estimates of the impact of economy-wide CO 2 prices and various transportation-specific policy options. We analyze fuel taxes, continued increases in fuel economy standards, and purchase tax credits for new vehicle purchases, as well as the impacts of combining these policies. All policy scenarios modeled fail to meet the Obama administration's goal of reducing GHG emissions 14% below 2005 levels by 2020. Purchase tax credits are expensive and ineffective at reducing emissions, while the largest reductions in GHG emissions result from increasing the cost of driving, thereby damping growth in vehicle miles traveled. (author)

  14. Analysis of the scenarios with the participation of nuclear energy in the Mexican electric sector using the Decades program; Analisis de escenarios con la participacion de la energia nuclear en el sector electrico mexicano utilizando el programa DECADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa P, E.; Trejo G, M.G.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Francois L, J.L. [FI-UNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)] e-mail: edithsosa@hotmail.com

    2003-07-01

    At the moment the energetic planning demands a technical, economic and environmental analysis of the different options of electric generation to be able to find the best solution of supply and energy readiness, already that it is indispensable for the development of the productive activities and to assure the competitiveness of the economy of a country. The expansion analyses of the Mexican Electric Sector its are carried out daily in the Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE) with some programs, among them Decades. However, up to where we have information only there is been considering a type of reactor like candidate being that exist several options that show promising characteristics for what its should be considered in the analyses. With this work its got rich the Decades database of the nuclear power stations that can be used as candidates to consider in the variable system of the expansion studies. Its have been carried out some comparative analysis between two types of nuclear centrals that at the moment offer in the market, specifically the AP600 type PWR reactor of 600 M We and the one BWR with capacity of 1300 M We. Later on it is sought to analyze two or three scenarios of the system of electric generation in Mexico to a term of twenty or twenty-five years. (Author)

  15. Reconstruction of global gridded monthly sectoral water withdrawals for 1971–2010 and analysis of their spatiotemporal patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Human water withdrawal has increasingly altered the global water cycle in past decades, yet our understanding of its driving forces and patterns is limited. Reported historical estimates of sectoral water withdrawals are often sparse and incomplete, mainly restricted to water withdrawal estimates available at annual and country scales, due to a lack of observations at seasonal and local scales. In this study, through collecting and consolidating various sources of reported data and developing spatial and temporal statistical downscaling algorithms, we reconstruct a global monthly gridded (0.5° sectoral water withdrawal dataset for the period 1971–2010, which distinguishes six water use sectors, i.e., irrigation, domestic, electricity generation (cooling of thermal power plants, livestock, mining, and manufacturing. Based on the reconstructed dataset, the spatial and temporal patterns of historical water withdrawal are analyzed. Results show that total global water withdrawal has increased significantly during 1971–2010, mainly driven by the increase in irrigation water withdrawal. Regions with high water withdrawal are those densely populated or with large irrigated cropland production, e.g., the United States (US, eastern China, India, and Europe. Seasonally, irrigation water withdrawal in summer for the major crops contributes a large percentage of total annual irrigation water withdrawal in mid- and high-latitude regions, and the dominant season of irrigation water withdrawal is also different across regions. Domestic water withdrawal is mostly characterized by a summer peak, while water withdrawal for electricity generation has a winter peak in high-latitude regions and a summer peak in low-latitude regions. Despite the overall increasing trend, irrigation in the western US and domestic water withdrawal in western Europe exhibit a decreasing trend. Our results highlight the distinct spatial pattern of human water use by sectors at

  16. Decarbonizing the European electricity sector. Modeling and policy analysis for electricity and CO{sub 2} infrastructure networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, Pao-Yu Charly Robin

    2016-03-03

    This dissertation uses three models to analyze different decarbonization strategies for combating global climate change: The cost minimizing mixed-integer model CCTS-Mod examines the economics of Carbon Capture, Transport, and Storage (CCTS) for the electricity and industry sector; the welfare maximizing quadratically constrained model ELMOD focuses on different trajectories for renewable energy sources (RES) and transmission grid expansions; and the equilibrium model ELCO combines the insights of the individual sectors to a combined CCTS and electricity investment and dispatch model. Modeling results show that an investment in CCTS is beneficial for the iron and steel sector once the CO{sub 2} certificate price exceeds 50 Euros/t CO{sub 2}. The threshold is 75 Euros/t CO{sub 2} for the cement industry and 100 Euros/t CO{sub 2} for the electricity sector. Additional revenues from using CO{sub 2} for enhanced oil recovery (CO{sub 2}-EOR) lead to an earlier adoption of CCTS in the North Sea region. The lack of economies of scale results in increasing CO{sub 2} storage costs of more than 30%, while transport costs even double. Research from the last years, however, indicates that CCTS is unlikely to play an important role in decarbonizing the electricity sector. The identified reasons for this are incumbents' resistance to structural change, wrong technology choices, over-optimistic cost estimates, a premature focus on energy projects instead of industry, and the underestimation of transport and storage issues. Keeping global temperature rise below 2 C therefore implies the phase-out of fossilfueled power plants and, in particular, of CO{sub 2}-intensive coal power plants. The low CO{sub 2} price established by the European Emissions Trading Scheme is insufficient to induce a fuel switch in the medium term. Therefore, supplementary national measures are necessary to reduce coal-based power generation; i.a. feed-in tariffs for RES, minimum CO{sub 2} prices, or

  17. Role of Sectoral Transformation in Evolution of Water Management in Agricultural Catchments: A Socio-hydrologic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roobavannan, Mahendran; Kandasamy, Jaya; Pande, Saket; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable development in society depends on an understanding of how communities interact with the natural system and how they co-evolve in time. Increasingly the livelihood and future viability of agricultural communities are being threatened by competition for water between food production and the environment. This study focused on this water-agriculture-environment nexus as it played out in the Murrumbidgee River Basin, Australia, and how co-evolution of society and water management occurred. Over 100 years of agricultural development the Murrumbidgee Basin has experienced a "pendulum swing" in terms of water allocation entirely to agriculture production at the expense of the environment, and eventually to the reallocation of water back to the environment. This pendulum swing has been attributed to a combination of increased national wealth, reduced share of agriculture in the national GDP, and to increased environment awareness of environmental degradation. Environment awareness depends on the structure of the economy, education, and socio-politic structure. As the basin economy develops accompanied by sectoral transformation, basin production becomes increasingly dependent on the industry sector. A loss of economic dependence on agriculture leads to a lower emphasis on the need to allocate water to agriculture. Society's value and preference turns around and is motivated towards the protection of the ecosystem. We hypothesize that in the competition of water use between economic livelihood and environment well being of society, economic diversification pushed the balance in towards the environment. In order to test this hypothesis, we developed a coupled socio-hydrologic model, which explicitly considers bi-directional feedbacks between human and water systems to explore how the competition for water played out in the Murrumbidgee. We demonstrate this by linking the dynamics of the economy of the whole (agriculture and industry) to community sentiment for the

  18. Exploration, analysis and explanation of 'employee satisfaction' as an organization development and general improvement tool for the it sector of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, A.; Kiani, H.S.; Khurshid, O.

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan's IT industry is currently one of the top performers as compared to other industrial sectors within Pakistan. As per the findings of Ahsan (2008), despite the fact that Pakistan's IT industry is competitive (with respect to other industries within Pakistan), its true potential is yet to be unfolded. Ahsan (2008); states that Pakistan's so called competitive IT industry has to be in lined with the international performers (Particularly South Asian economies). A simple proof of this statement can be obtained from the fact that Pakistan's general economy is 1/5 of Indian economy. This must be true for IT sector of both the economies, which, unfortunately is not the case because Pakistan's IT sector is currently 1/27 of the Indian IT Sector. Ahsan (2008) believes that partial reason of this unwanted difference may be revenue models, business practices and political situations of the two countries. Other than these reasons Ahsan (2008) believes that several soft issues are also responsible for this industrial difference. Out of these soft issues 'motivation' is one such important factor. The role of motivation as an imperative soft issue for revitalizing workforce can also be reproduced for the discussion concerning the role of 'basic employee satisfaction' as an organisation's productivity and quality enhancement tool. Employees, being an integral asset of the organizations, impact organizations in accomplishment of their objectives. The impact of employee satisfaction in software industry of Pakistan is relatively less known but plays significant role. This paper analyzes the major causes of employee satisfaction and the impact of employee satisfaction on quality and productivity dimensions (particularly) in the IT organizations in Pakistan. This research presents analysis of 'Employee Satisfaction' for IT sector of Pakistan. The study not only explores but also presents detailed explanation and analysis of the subject area for the IT industry of Pakistan by

  19. A gap analysis of the United States death care sector to determine training and education needs pertaining to highly infectious disease mitigation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Aurora B; Witter, Lesley; Herstein, Jocelyn J; Jelden, Katelyn C; Beam, Elizabeth L; Gibbs, Shawn G; Lowe, John J

    2017-09-01

    A United States industry-specific gap analysis survey of the death care sector-which comprises organizations and businesses affiliated with the funeral industry and the handling of human remains- was developed, the results analyzed, and training and education needs in relation to highly infectious disease mitigation and management were explored in an effort to identify where occupational health and safety can be enhanced in this worker population. Collaborating national death care organizations distributed the 47-question electronic survey. N = 424 surveys were initiated and results recorded. The survey collected death care sector-specific information pertaining to the comfortability and willingness to handle highly infectious remains; perceptions of readiness, current policies and procedures in place to address highly infectious diseases; current highly infectious disease training levels, available resources, and personal protective equipment. One-third of respondents have been trained on how to manage highly infectious remains. There was a discrepancy between Supervisor/Management and Employee/Worker perceptions on employees' willingness and comfortability to manage potentially highly infectious remains. More than 40% of respondents did not know the correct routes of transmission for viral hemorrhagic fevers. Results suggest death care workers could benefit from increasing up-to-date industry-specific training and education on highly infectious disease risk mitigation and management. Professional death care sector organizations are positioned to disseminate information, training, and best practices.

  20. IMPROVEMENT OF KEY PROCESSES THROUGH THE ANALYSIS OF VALUE ADDED IN TECHNOLOGY- BASED COMPANIES A SINGLE PROJECT PRODUCTIONS OF THE WATER SECTOR IN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reina Maylín, Hernández Oro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the main results of research designed to improve key business processes, using a procedure designed for this purpose, and which includes among its main stages, the analysis of value added by activity, adapting to technology based companies’ productions by one of the water sector project in Cuba. The procedure consistently combines different techniques such as multi-criteria decision analysis for selection of the key processes and analysis of value added by activity to identify key processes to improve and identify opportunities for improvement. The main results are able to identify, classify and relate the processes taking place in the organization, and represent them in a process map, and then determine the key processes for improvement, based on the analysis of value added at each process of each of the activities in it. Derived from the results obtained are proposed and implemented a set of organizational improvements had a positive economic impact for the company under study, allowing a positive conclusion on the feasibility of implementation, flexibility and robustness of the procedure developed in technology-based companies single project productions of the water sector in Cuba to support their business management.