WorldWideScience

Sample records for sector demand module

  1. Model documentation report: Commercial Sector Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. The NEMS Commercial Sector Demand Module is a simulation tool based upon economic and engineering relationships that models commercial sector energy demands at the nine Census Division level of detail for eleven distinct categories of commercial buildings. Commercial equipment selections are performed for the major fuels of electricity, natural gas, and distillate fuel, for the major services of space heating, space cooling, water heating, ventilation, cooking, refrigeration, and lighting. The algorithm also models demand for the minor fuels of residual oil, liquefied petroleum gas, steam coal, motor gasoline, and kerosene, the renewable fuel sources of wood and municipal solid waste, and the minor services of office equipment. Section 2 of this report discusses the purpose of the model, detailing its objectives, primary input and output quantities, and the relationship of the Commercial Module to the other modules of the NEMS system. Section 3 of the report describes the rationale behind the model design, providing insights into further assumptions utilized in the model development process to this point. Section 3 also reviews alternative commercial sector modeling methodologies drawn from existing literature, providing a comparison to the chosen approach. Section 4 details the model structure, using graphics and text to illustrate model flows and key computations.

  2. Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects. The NEMS Industrial Demand Model is a dynamic accounting model, bringing together the disparate industries and uses of energy in those industries, and putting them together in an understandable and cohesive framework. The Industrial Model generates mid-term (up to the year 2015) forecasts of industrial sector energy demand as a component of the NEMS integrated forecasting system. From the NEMS system, the Industrial Model receives fuel prices, employment data, and the value of industrial output. Based on the values of these variables, the Industrial Model passes back to the NEMS system estimates of consumption by fuel types

  3. Sectoral energy demand data: Sources and Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ounali, A.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter of the publication is dealing with Sectoral Energy Demand Data giving details about the Sources and Issues. Some comments are presented on rural energy surveys. Guidelines for the Definition and Desegregation of Sectoral Energy Consumption is given and Data Necessary for Sectoral Energy Demand Analysis is discussed

  4. Modelling energy demand of Croatian industry sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medić, Zlatko Bačelić; Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2014-01-01

    Industry represents one of the most interesting sectors when analysing Croatian final energy demand. Croatian industry represents 20% of nation's GDP and employs 25% of total labour force making it a significant subject for the economy. Today, with around 60 PJ of final energy demand...... it is the third most energy intensive sector in Croatia after transport and households. Implementing mechanisms that would lead to improvements in energy efficiency in this sector seems relevant. Through this paper, long-term energy demand projections for Croatian industry will be shown. The central point...... for development of the model will be parameters influencing the industry in Croatia. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom-up approach model. IED model produces results which can be compared to Croatian National Energy Strategy. One of the conclusions shown in this paper is significant...

  5. Energy demand analysis in the industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillone, B.

    1991-01-01

    This Chapter of the publication is dealing with Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector.Different estimates of energy consumption in Industry taking Thailand as an example is given. Major energy consuming industrial sectors in selected Asian countries are given. Suggestion for the analysis of the energy consumption trends in industry, whether at the overall level or at the sub-sector level (e.g. food) using the conventional approach , through energy/output ratio is given. 4 refs, 7 figs, 13 tabs

  6. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa'ad, Suleiman

    2009-01-01

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment.

  7. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa' ad, Suleiman [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment. (author)

  8. Future demand scenarios of Bangladesh power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Md. Alam Hossain; Boie, Wulf; Denich, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Data on the future electricity demand is an essential requirement for planning the expansion of a power system. The purpose of this study is to provide a general overview of electricity consumption in Bangladesh, forecast sector-wise electricity demand up to 2035 considering the base year 2005, and compare the results with official projections. The Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model with three scenarios, namely low gross domestic product (GDP) growth, average GDP growth and high GDP growth, is applied in this study. In the low to high GDP growth scenarios, the extent of industrial restructuring and technical advancement is gradually increased. The findings have significant implications with respect to energy conservation and economic development. The study also compares the projected per capita electricity consumption in Bangladesh with the historical growth in several other developing countries. Such an evaluation can create awareness among the planners of power system expansion in Bangladesh to meet the high future demand.

  9. Marketing demand management in the commercial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has a marketing strategy for designing and implementing demand side management (DSM) programs, which marks a turnaround from previous years when marketing efforts were concentrated on selling electricity. Starting in the 1980s, marketing activities consisted, in effect, of coordinating relations between the customer, the market, and the utility. To achieve a better understanding of the needs of customers, the nature of the energy market, and the utilization of energy, the utility conducted research on the decision-making process associated with consumer choices of energy systems. To develop relations with its clientele in the commercial sector, the utility published an information bulletin and prepared an energy guide. Along with this initiative, the number of energy advisers to the commercial sector was increased in Ontario Hydro's regional offices. To improve understanding of each segment of the commercial market, the utility contacted organizations representing each segment as well as broader based organizations with the objective of creating opportunities to address this market, for example at conferences. Because of this philosophy of satisfying and understanding customer needs, Ontario Hydro has been in the process of commercializing demand-side management. Its high-efficiency lighting program is a good example in this regard. From a strategy which focused on a simple reduction in lighting in the 1970s, the utility has turned toward promoting efficient high-quality lighting which better responds to industry needs, to the point where industry itself has begun to promote the program. Such a strategy benefits industry, customers, and Ontario Hydro's demand-side management programs

  10. Utility Sector Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie

    2014-12-01

    This report presents a new approach to estimating the marginal utility sector impacts associated with electricity demand reductions. The method uses publicly available data and provides results in the form of time series of impact factors. The input data are taken from the Energy Information Agency's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) projections of how the electric system might evolve in the reference case, and in a number of side cases that incorporate different effciency and other policy assumptions. The data published with the AEO are used to define quantitative relationships between demand-side electricity reductions by end use and supply-side changes to capacity by plant type, generation by fuel type and emissions of CO2, Hg, NOx and SO2. The impact factors define the change in each of these quantities per unit reduction in site electricity demand. We find that the relative variation in these impacts by end use is small, but the time variation can be significant.

  11. The determining factors of natural gas demand in domestic sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadoret, I.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas plays an important role in domestic sector. For example, in France, Italy, Germany and United-Kingdom the natural gas share in energy demand of domestic sector is respectively 26%, 44%, 34% and 63%. A study of energy policies, natural gas industry structure and tarification system of this four countries indicates that gas development is linked to the government and petroleum companies policy. Econometric models estimation show by another way that when natural gas is introduced in domestic sector, the demand follows the distribution network. When the market is saturated, the demand changes with energy price and household income. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  12. Decomposition of electricity demand in China's industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenhof, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    In the past five years, China's demand for electricity has accelerated far beyond what central planners had forecasted, leading to supply constraints and costly brownouts throughout the country. This paper presents analysis of the effect of changes in the industrial sector on electricity demand, an important economic sector contributing to these above patterns as it consumes nearly 70% of the electricity generated in China. Using decomposition analysis, it is found that both increased industrial activity and fuel shifts helped increase industrial sector electricity demand between 1998 and 2002, the period of focus in this study, but significant increases in energy efficiency countered this

  13. China's rising hydropower demand challenges water sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Guan, Dabo

    2015-01-01

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China

  14. Effect of demand management on regulated and deregulated electricity sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahrioglu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Our society derives a quantifiable benefit from electric power. In particular, forced outages or blackouts have enormous consequences on society, one of which is loss of economic surplus. The society relies on having a continuous supply of electrical energy. Some customers may willingly risk this continuous supply and participate in demand management programs for electrical power. If the power system grid is in trouble, electric utilities need to have demand relief. Customers willing to reduce their demand to help the system can receive an incentive fee for helping the utilities. Demand relief can be system wide or location specific. Sometimes it can be more effective to fix the electrical demand vs. supply imbalance from the demand side. The value of demand management contracts is greatly affected by customer location. Inclusion of locational attributes into the contract design procedure increases the effectiveness of the contracts by helping a utility get more value from its demand management programs. Independent System Operators and regulators, among others, can also benefit from effective demand management. This paper will investigate how this type of demand management contracts can help the electricity sector both in regulated and deregulated environments. - Highlights: • Demand management can help prevent forced electricity outages. • Both electric utilities and ISOs can use demand management. • Regulated and deregulated electricity sectors can benefit from demand management. • Demand management contracts can be effectively used in power system grids.

  15. Energy demand analysis in the household, commercial and agriculture sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillonne, B.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter of the publication is dealing with Energy Demand Analysis in the Household, Commercial and Agricultural Sector. Per Capita total energy consumption in the residential and commercial sector is given and variation among countries are discussed. 12 figs, 1 tab

  16. Long term energy demand projections for croatian transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puksec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duic, Neven

    2011-01-01

    Transport sector in Croatia represents one of the largest consumers of energy today with a share of almost one third of final energy demand. That is why improving energy efficiency and implementing different mechanisms that would lead to energy savings in this sector would be relevant. Through th...

  17. China's rising hydropower demand challenges water sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Guan, Dabo

    2015-07-09

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9 × 10(9) m(3) (Gm(3)), or 22% of China's total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6 Gm(3) yr(-1) or 3.6 m(3) of water to produce a GJ (10(9) J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability.

  18. Dynamics of final sectoral energy demand and aggregate energy intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescaroux, Francois

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a regional and sectoral model of global final energy demand. For the main end-use sectors of consumption (industrial, commercial and public services, residential and road transportation), per-capita demand is expressed as an S-shaped function of per-capita income. Other variables intervene as well, like energy prices, temperatures and technological trends. This model is applied on a panel of 101 countries and 3 aggregates (covering the whole world) and it explains fairly well past variations in sectoral, final consumption since the beginning of the 2000s. Further, the model is used to analyze the dynamics of final energy demand, by sector and in total. The main conclusion concerns the pattern of change for aggregate energy intensity. The simulations performed show that there is no a priori reason for it to exhibit a bell-shape, as reported in the literature. Depending on initial conditions, the weight of basic needs in total consumption and the availability of modern commercial energy resources, various forms might emerge. - Research Highlights: → The residential sector accounts for most of final energy consumption at low income levels. → Its share drops at the benefit of the industrial, services and road transportation sectors in turn. → Sectoral shares' pattern is affected by changes in geographic, sociologic and economic factors. → Final energy intensity may show various shapes and does not exhibit necessarily a bell-shape.

  19. China expands refining sector to handle booming oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    China's refining sector is in the midst of a major expansion and reorganization in response to booming domestic demand for petroleum products. Plans call for hiking crude processing capacity to 3.9 million b/d in 1995 from the current 3.085 million b/d. Much of that 26% increase will come where the products demand growth is the strongest: China's coastal provinces, notably those in the southeast. Despite the demand surge, China's refineries operated at only 74% of capacity in 1991, and projections for 1992 weren't much better. Domestic crude supply is limited because of Beijing's insistence on maintaining crude export levels, a major source of hard currency foreign exchange. The paper discusses the superheated demand; exports and imports; the refining infrastructure; the Shenzhen refinery; Hong Kong demand; southeast coast demand; 1993 plans; and foreign investment

  20. Forecasting long-term energy demand of Croatian transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Krajačić, Goran; Lulić, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    predictions for the Croatian transport sector are presented. Special emphasis is given to different influencing mechanisms, both legal and financial. The energy demand predictions presented in this paper are based on an end-use simulation model developed and tested with Croatia as a case study. The model...

  1. Power without manpower: Forecasting labour demand for Estonian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meriküll, Jaanika; Eamets, Raul; Humal, Katrin; Espenberg, Kerly

    2012-01-01

    As energy demand and prices continue to grow, oil shale might help mitigate the energy crisis—it can widely be found all over the world but so far has not been widely used. Estonia is unique in the world for producing a large majority of energy out of oil shale and has been set as an example in numerous papers covering oil shale deposits, technology etc. This paper is the first to analyse oil shale energy related workforce and provides scenario forecasts of the labour demand for the Estonian energy sector in 2010–2020. The contribution of the paper is twofold. First, the paper provides a valuable insight into oil shale energy related workforce, enabling to take into consideration the educational needs in countries where oil shale industry might be set up. Second, methodology-wise, the paper relates labour demand and supply to different scenarios of energy production capacities. The results illustrate problems related to aging of the workforce in energy production. If the existing trends continue in educational attainment in Estonia, there will be a serious shortage of high-skilled engineering and manufacturing specialists. Our method provides a simple yet reliable enough way to check for such problems early enough. - Highlights: ► This paper analyses oil shale energy related workforce and provides scenario forecasts. ► This is the first study to investigate the workforce related to oil shale energy production. ► The main workforce-related problem in the sector is ageing of the workforce. ► Workers immigrating to the sector during the Soviet times are at the retirement age. ► There will be a serious shortage of engineers for energy sector in the near future.

  2. Modelling energy demand in the buildings sector within the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O Broin, Eoin

    2012-11-01

    In the on-going effort within the EU to tackle greenhouse gas emissions and secure future energy supplies, the buildings sector is often referred to as offering a large potential for energy savings. The aim of this thesis is to produce scenarios that highlight the parameters that affect the energy demands and thus potentials for savings of the building sector. Top-down and bottom-up approaches to modelling energy demand in EU buildings are applied in this thesis. The top-down approach uses econometrics to establish the historical contribution of various parameters to energy demands for space and water heating in the residential sectors of four EU countries. The bottom-up approach models the explicit impact of trends in energy efficiency improvement on total energy demand in the EU buildings stock. The two approaches are implemented independently, i.e., the results from the top-down studies do not feed into those from the bottom-up studies or vice versa. The explanatory variables used in the top-down approach are: energy prices; heating degree days, as a proxy for outdoor climate; a linear time trend, as a proxy for technology development; and the lag of energy demand, as a proxy for inertia in the system. In this case, inertia refers to the time it takes to replace space and water heating systems in reaction to price changes. The analysis gives long-term price elasticities of demand as follows: for France, -0.17; for Italy, -0.35; for Sweden, -0.27; and for the UK, -0.35. These results reveal that the price elasticity of demand for space and water heating is inelastic in each of these cases. Nonetheless, scenarios created for the period up to 2050 using these elasticities and an annual price increase of 3 % show that demand can be reduced by more than 1 % per year in France and Sweden and by less than 1 % per year in Italy and the UK. In the bottom-up modelling, varying rates for conversion efficiencies, heating standards for new buildings, end-use efficiency, and

  3. A Water Demand Management Strategy For The Namibian Tourism Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachtschneider, K.; Winter, K.

    The arid conditions of Namibia are forcing its decision-makers to resort to new wa- ter resource management approaches, including Water Demand Management (WDM). When Namibia achieved its independence from South Africa 1990, a new opportunity arose to rewrite certain restrictive laws and policies in order to bring about redress, development and transformation. The new Water Policy is one example in which the mindset is changed from a supply to a demand oriented water management ap- proach. Legal support for WDM within the new Water Act is a critical component that will support the implementation of WDM in all economic sectors, such as agri- culture, mining and tourism. It is argued that an appropriate WDM strategy should be designed specifically for each sector, once the typical water use patterns in a sec- tor are understood and key water resource managers at all levels are identified. The Namibian tourism sector is geographically dispersed and control over its operations is compounded by the fact that it is frequently located in extremely remote areas that are arid and ecologically sensitive. In general, WDM is rarely practised, because it is not yet supported by law and there are currently no institutional arrangements to con- trol water use in this geographically dispersed industrial sector through which WDM could be enforced either through metering and/or payments. Managers of tourist en- terprises undertake most of the water management themselves, and have been identi- fied as being crucial to the implementation of WDM strategies. A study of six tourist facilities determined the willingness and motivation of these managers to undertake various WDM initiatives. The study identified three factors which appear to influence the actions of managers, namely external controls, economics and company ethics. It is recommended that a tourism sector WDM strategy should focus on these three factors in order to transform the WDM aims and objectives on the policy level into

  4. Probabilistic Predictions of Traffic Demand for En Route Sectors Based on Individual Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Traffic Flow Management System (TFMS) predicts the demand for each sector, and traffic managers use these predictions to spot possible congestion and to take measures to prevent it. These predictions of sector demand, however, are currently made ...

  5. Neural network controller for Active Demand-Side Management with PV energy in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matallanas, E.; Castillo-Cagigal, M.; Gutiérrez, A.; Monasterio-Huelin, F.; Caamaño-Martín, E.; Masa, D.; Jiménez-Leube, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have developed a neural controller for Active Demand-Side Management. ► The controller consists of Multilayer Perceptrons evolved with a genetic algorithm. ► The architecture of the controller is distributed and modular. ► The simulations show that the electrical local behavior improves. ► Active Demand-Side Management helps users to control his energy behaviour. -- Abstract: In this paper, we describe the development of a control system for Demand-Side Management in the residential sector with Distributed Generation. The electrical system under study incorporates local PV energy generation, an electricity storage system, connection to the grid and a home automation system. The distributed control system is composed of two modules: a scheduler and a coordinator, both implemented with neural networks. The control system enhances the local energy performance, scheduling the tasks demanded by the user and maximizing the use of local generation.

  6. Agricultural sectoral demand and crop productivity response across the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Cassidy, E. S.; Foley, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    With an increasing and increasingly affluent population, humans will need to roughly double agricultural production by 2050. Continued yield growth forms the foundation of all future strategies aiming to increase agricultural production while slowing or eliminating cropland expansion. However, a recent analysis by one of our co-authors has shown that yield trends in many important maize, wheat and rice growing regions have begun stagnating or declining from the highs seen during the green revolution (Ray et al. 2013). Additional research by our group has shown that nearly 50% of new agricultural production since the 1960s has gone not to direct human consumption, but instead to animal feed and other industrial uses. Our analysis for GLP looks at the convergence of these two trends by examining time series utilization data for 16 of the biggest crops to determine how demand from different sectors has shaped our land-use and intensification strategies around the world. Before rushing headlong into the next agricultural doubling, it would be prudent to first consult our recent agricultural history to better understand what was driving past changes in production. Using newly developed time series dataset - a fusion of cropland maps with historic agricultural census data gathered from around the world - we can examine yield and harvested area trends over the last half century for 16 top crops. We combine this data with utilization rates from the FAO Food Balance Sheet to see how demand from different sectors - food, feed, and other - has influenced long-term growth trends from the green revolution forward. We will show how intensification trends over time and across regions have grown or contracted depending on what is driving the change in production capacity. Ray DK, Mueller ND, West PC, Foley JA (2013) Yield Trends Are Insufficient to Double Global Crop Production by 2050. PLoS ONE 8(6): e66428. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066428

  7. Demand-side management and demand response in the Ontario energy sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In June 2003, the Ontario Energy Board was asked by the Minister of Energy to identify and review options for the delivery of demand-side management (DSM) and demand response (DR) activities within the electricity sector, by consulting with stakeholders. The role of local distribution company (distributor) in such activities was also to be determined. The objective was to balance implementation costs with the benefits to consumers and the entire system. The preliminary research and ideas were presented in this discussion paper. Definitions of both DSM and DR were provided, followed by an overview of economic theory and competitive markets. The framework for discussion was presented, along with a list of issues and other considerations. A spectrum of potential approaches to a DSM and DR framework was included and jurisdictional examples provided. A brief overview of the concept of load aggregation was presented and the next steps for consultations were outlined. 30 refs., 7 tabs

  8. Demand-side management and demand response in the Ontario energy sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    A directive from the former Minister of Energy was received by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), directing the Board to consult with stakeholders on options for the delivery of demand-side management (DSM) and demand response (DR) activities within the electricity sector, including the role of local distribution companies in such activities. The implementation costs were to be balanced with the benefits to both consumers and the entire system. The scope of the review was expanded by the Board to include the role of gas distribution companies in DSM. A consultation process was implemented and stakeholders were invited to participate. A series of recommendations was made, including: (1) a hybrid framework utilizing market-based and public-policy approaches should deliver DSM and DR activities in Ontario's energy markets, (2) DSM and DR activities should come under the responsibility of a central agency, (3) DSM and DR activities should be coordinated through cooperation between the Ministry of Energy, the Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO) and the Ontario Energy Board, (4) regulatory mechanisms to induce gas distributors, electricity transmitters and electricity distributors to reduce distribution system losses should be put in place, (5) all electricity consumers should fund electricity DSM and some retail DR initiatives through a transparent, non-bypassable consumption charge, and (6) the Board should design, develop and deliver information to consumers regarding energy conservation, energy efficiency, load management, and cleaner sources of energy. refs., 4 figs

  9. Job Demands, Job Resources, Burnout, Work Engagement, and Their Relationships: An Analysis Across Sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Anja; Elst, Tinne Vander; Baillien, Elfi; Sercu, Maarten; Schouteden, Martijn; De Witte, Hans; Godderis, Lode

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight in the importance of job demands and resources and the validity of the Job Demands Resources Model across sectors. We used one-way analyses of variance to examine mean differences, and multi-group Structural Equation Modeling analyses to test the strength of the relationships among job demands, resources, burnout, and work engagement across the health care, industry, service, and public sector. The four sectors differed in the experience of job demands, resources, burnout, and work engagement, but they did not vary in how (strongly) job demands and resources associated with burnout and work engagement. More attention is needed to decrease burnout and increase work engagement, particularly in industry, service, and the public sector. The Job Demands-Resources model may be helpful in this regard, as it is valid across sectors.

  10. The Training Demand in Organizational Changes Processes in the Spanish Wine Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Alfonso J.; Garcia-Alcaraz, Jorge L.; Mataveli, Mara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the role of training demand in the organisational changes. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the demand of training courses in the Rioja wine sector in Spain and its relation with the changes in the sector carried out in recent years. Through a questionnaire, wineries' managers asked…

  11. Modelling the Demand for Bank Loans by Private Business Sector in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Faiza; Qayyum, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The importance of studying demand for bank loan by private business sector stems from the fact the money supply is ‘credit-driven’ and demand-determined and at the rate of interest determined by the central bank the money supply function is horizontal as illustrated by Moore and Threadgold (1985), Coghlan, (1981), Moore (1979, 1983). The analysis of the demand for bank loan by private business sector is important for understating the monetary transmission mechanism and formulation of the eff...

  12. Informal sector labour demand: Evidence from Zimbabwe's urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siphambe H (Prof)

    during the country's economic structural adjustment programme (ESAP) and the ... The study of informal labour demand is important for Zimbabwe which faces .... is assumed to be identically and independently distributed, that is, ..... The labour demand equation's low Chi-square statistic (1.91) and its probability value of.

  13. Assessment of demand for natural gas from the electricity sector in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash; Victor, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Electricity sector is among the key users of natural gas. The sustained electricity deficit and environment policies have added to an already rising demand for gas. This paper tries to understand gas demand in future from electricity sector. This paper models the future demand for gas in India from...... the electricity sector under alternative scenarios for the period 2005–2025, using bottom-up ANSWER MARKAL model. The scenarios are differentiated by alternate economic growth projections and policies related to coal reforms, infrastructure choices and local environment. The results across scenarios show that gas...... competes with coal as a base-load option if price difference is below US $ 4 per MBtu. At higher price difference gas penetrates only the peak power market. Gas demand is lower in the high economic growth scenario, since electricity sector is more flexible in substitution of primary energy. Gas demand...

  14. Evolution of industrial sector electricity demand in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Steven C.

    2005-01-01

    This note is a preliminary investigation into the relationship between the efficiency of electricity utilization in the Costa Rican industrial sector and the competitive pressures generated by the implementation of economic reforms, in particular, the progressive liberalization of international trade, in the years since the debt and economic crisis of the early 1980s. The steady, year-by-year, reduction in the rate of import tariff protection, with only temporary interruptions and reverses, has been the most consistently implemented component of the macroeconomic, trade, and financial sector reforms upon which this country has embarked over the past two decades. The note sheds some light on the nature of the general policy environment that is conductive to an efficient utilization of energy in the productive sectors and to the success of national energy efficiency promotion programs in this and other parts of the world. (Author)

  15. Natural gas demand in the European household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, Odd Bjarte; Asche, Frank; Tveteras, Ragnar

    2005-08-01

    This paper analyzes the residential natural gas demand per capita in 12 European countries using a dynamic log linear demand model, which allows for country-specific elasticity estimates in the short- and long-run. The explanatory variables included lagged demand per capita, heating degree days index, real prices of natural gas, light fuel oil, electricity, and real private income per capita. The short-run own-price and income elasticity tend to be very inelastic, but with greater long-run responsiveness. By splitting the data set in two time periods, an increase in the own-price elasticities were detected for the European residential natural gas demand market as a whole. We have provided support for employing a heterogeneous estimator such as the shrinkage estimator. But the empirical results also motivate a further scrutiny of its properties. (Author)

  16. Restructuring the industry sector - the impact on energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, M.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of the industrial sector is a factor of major importance in analyzing the evolution of energy intensity or in setting-up realistic development scenarios. A positive influence on the energy intensity value is expected for Romania from the process of restructuring the industry sector towards low energy consumption products. In order to reach this target though, suitable end comprehensive strategies have to become operational without delay, promoting energy efficiency and modern technologies at a nation-wide scale. The benefits of such strategies extend from improvement of the security of supply through environmental protection and reduction of unemployment. (Author)

  17. Demand response from the non-domestic sector: Early UK experiences and future opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grünewald, Philipp; Torriti, Jacopo

    2013-01-01

    Demand response is believed by some to become a major contributor towards system balancing in future electricity networks. Shifting or reducing demand at critical moments can reduce the need for generation capacity, help with the integration of renewables, support more efficient system operation and thereby potentially lead to cost and carbon reductions for the entire energy system. In this paper we review the nature of the response resource of consumers from different non-domestic sectors in the UK, based on extensive half hourly demand profiles and observed demand responses. We further explore the potential to increase the demand response capacity through changes in the regulatory and market environment. The analysis suggests that present demand response measures tend to stimulate stand-by generation capacity in preference to load shifting and we propose that extended response times may favour load based demand response, especially in sectors with significant thermal loads. - Highlights: • Empirical demand response data from non-domestic sector evaluated. • Load profiles suggest strong sector dependence on availability response at system peak. • Majority of aggregated demand response still stems from stand-by generation, not from demand turn down. • Scope for substantial increase in demand response capacity if response times were extended

  18. Flexible demand in the GB domestic electricity sector in 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drysdale, Brian; Wu, Jianzhong; Jenkins, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Annual domestic demand by category and daily flexible load profiles are shown to 2030. • Valuable flexible demand requires loads to be identifiable, accessible, and useful. • The extent of flexible demand varies significantly on a diurnal and seasonal basis. • Barriers to accessing domestic demand include multiple low value loads and apathy. • Existing market structure a barrier to fully rewarding individual load flexibility. - Abstract: In order to meet greenhouse gas emissions targets the Great Britain (GB) future electricity supply will include a higher fraction of non-dispatchable generation, increasing opportunities for demand side management to maintain a supply/demand balance. This paper examines the extent of flexible domestic demand (FDD) in GB, its usefulness in system balancing and appropriate incentives to encourage consumers to participate. FDD, classified as electric space and water heating (ESWH), and cold and wet appliances, amounts to 59 TW h in 2012 (113 TW h total domestic demand) and is calculated to increase to 67 TW h in 2030. Summer and winter daily load profiles for flexible loads show significant seasonal and diurnal variations in the total flexible load and between load categories. Low levels of reflective consumer engagement with electricity consumption and a resistance to automation present barriers to effective access to FDD. A value of £1.97/household/year has been calculated for cold appliance loads used for frequency response in 2030, using 2013 market rates. The introduction of smart meters in GB by 2020 will allow access to FDD for system balancing. The low commercial value of individual domestic loads increases the attractiveness of non-financial incentives to fully exploit FDD. It was shown that appliance loads have different characteristics which can contribute to an efficient power system in different ways

  19. Technical and economical analysis of an induced demand in the photovoltaic sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciorba, Umberto; Pauli, Francesco; Menna, Pietro

    2004-01-01

    We analyse the potential economic impact of a demand of photovoltaic (PV) devices in Morocco, in terms of induced production and job creation. In Morocco a high potential for PV installations exists as proved by the number of national and international deployment initiatives currently underway. In our study, we first describe the manufacturing process providing as final output the solar modules and associate the corresponding costs to each step of the process. These costs are needed to determine the technical coefficients of an ad hoc PV sector to be added to the Morocco Leontief matrix. Then, using the input-output methodology, we evaluate the economic impact of the production of 5 MW p modules a year under different hypotheses. A production of 5 MW p PV modules, which require an overall investment of euro 16.3 millions, increases production of euro 57.6 millions if cells are locally produced and of euro 22.3 millions when the cells are imported, creating 2570 and 489 jobs, respectively. These results outline the importance of availability of intermediate inputs in local economical context

  20. Sectoral energy demand studies: Application of the end-use approach to Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Events since August 1990 have shown that the world is still dependent on oil despite efforts to decrease that dependency since the oil crisis of 1973 and 1979. Thirteen countries participated in the REDP (UNDP-funded Regional Energy Development Programme) energy planning activities called ''Sectoral energy demand studies'' in which country teams benefited from training in energy data analysis, sectoral accounting of energy demand, and forecasting with the use of MEDEE-S model. This publication documents the training materials on sectoral energy demand series. It includes eight chapters which were indexed separately. Refs, figs, tabs

  1. Potentials for energy savings and long term energy demands for Croatian households sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duic, Neven

    2011-01-01

    demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which also leads to lesser greenhouse gas emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels....... relevant. In order to plan future energy systems it is important to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand for different sectors. Through this paper long term energy demand projections for Croatian households sector will be shown with a special emphasis on different mechanisms, both...... financial, legal but also technological that will influence future energy demand scenarios. It is important to see how these mechanisms influence, positive or negative, on future energy demand and which mechanism would be most influential. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom...

  2. Potentials for energy savings and long term energy demands for Croatian households sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duic, Neven

    2013-01-01

    demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which also leads to lesser greenhouse gas emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels....... relevant. In order to plan future energy systems it is important to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand for different sectors. Through this paper long term energy demand projections for Croatian households sector will be shown with a special emphasis on different mechanisms, both...... financial, legal but also technological that will influence future energy demand scenarios. It is important to see how these mechanisms influence, positive or negative, on future energy demand and which mechanism would be most influential. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom...

  3. Demand and supply of labour in the housing sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, C.P.; Doling, J.; Elsinga, M.; Horsewood, N.; Meijer, F.M.; Visscher, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The housing sector is large and significant in all aspects of human life, making the task of the policy-maker especially complex. Homes constitute the largest single land use in the ‘built environment’, they are generally the largest single item of expenditure in household budgets and the largest

  4. Commercial Opportunities and Market Demand for Nanotechnologies in Agribusiness Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Sabourin; Alpha Ayande

    2015-01-01

    Agribusiness is projected to be a $ 2.9 trillion USD industry in global investment by 2030 (World Bank 2013). Nanotechnology is poised to impact dramatically on all sectors of agribusiness industry in the next 10 years. Nanotechnology could be used to enhance the possibilities of developing conventional and stranded agribusiness resources. Nanotechnology can make the industry considerably greener and competitive, with its current growth rate of 25% (US$ 1.08billion) annually. The opportunity ...

  5. Commercial Opportunities and Market Demand for Nanotechnologies in Agribusiness Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Sabourin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Agribusiness is projected to be a $ 2.9 trillion USD industry in global investment by 2030 (World Bank 2013. Nanotechnology is poised to impact dramatically on all sectors of agribusiness industry in the next 10 years. Nanotechnology could be used to enhance the possibilities of developing conventional and stranded agribusiness resources. Nanotechnology can make the industry considerably greener and competitive, with its current growth rate of 25% (US$ 1.08billion annually. The opportunity for application of nanotechnology in agricul¬ture is prodigious. Nanotechnology, focusing on special properties of materials emerging from nanometric size has the potential to revolutionize the agricultural and food sectors, biomedicine, environmental engineering, safety and security, water resources, energy conversion, and numerous other areas. It is well recognized that adoption of new technology is crucial in accu-mulation of global wealth and market value which now stand at US$ 1.09 trillion in estimated value. Nanotechnology has emerged as a technological advancement that could develop and transform the entire agri-food sector, with the potential to increase agricultural productivity, food security and economic growth for industries by atleast 30% (Aver. US$0.9 trillion. This review set out to address the implications of nanotechnology for the agri-food industry by examining the potential benefits, risks and opportunities.

  6. Introducing a demand-based electricity distribution tariff in the residential sector: Demand response and customer perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartusch, Cajsa; Wallin, Fredrik; Odlare, Monica; Vassileva, Iana; Wester, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Increased demand response is essential to fully exploit the Swedish power system, which in turn is an absolute prerequisite for meeting political goals related to energy efficiency and climate change. Demand response programs are, nonetheless, still exceptional in the residential sector of the Swedish electricity market, one contributory factor being lack of knowledge about the extent of the potential gains. In light of these circumstances, this empirical study set out with the intention of estimating the scope of households' response to, and assessing customers' perception of, a demand-based time-of-use electricity distribution tariff. The results show that households as a whole have a fairly high opinion of the demand-based tariff and act on its intrinsic price signals by decreasing peak demand in peak periods and shifting electricity use from peak to off-peak periods. - Highlights: → Households are sympathetic to demand-based tariffs, seeing as they relate to environmental issues. → Households adjust their electricity use to the price signals of demand-based tariffs. → Demand-based tariffs lead to a shift in electricity use from peak to off-peak hours. → Demand-based tariffs lead to a decrease in maximum demand in peak periods. → Magnitude of these effects increases over time.

  7. Competences in Demand within the Spanish Agricultural Engineering Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigones, Alicia; Valera, Diego Luis; Moreda, Guillermo Pedro; García, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    The Rural Engineering Department (Technical University of Madrid) ran three competence surveys during the 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 academic years and evaluated: (1) the competences gained by agricultural engineer's degree and agricultural technical engineer's degree students (360 respondents); (2) the competences demanded by agricultural employers…

  8. The development of sectoral final and basic energy demand in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reents, H.

    1977-08-01

    The detailed knowledge of the demand structures and their determining factors is an important precondition for estimating the possible developments of future energy demand. In this report the past developments of the final and basic energy demand in the different demand categories private households, commercial sector, industry and transportation will be analyzed. The demonstrated relations are the basis for a final energy demand model. With the help of this model a scenario of the future development of the final energy demand in the different sectors will be built. It is the aim of this scenario to show, how alternative actions (insulation, gas-heat pump) influence the future development of the final energy demand. (orig.) [de

  9. Income and price elasticities of electricity demand: Aggregate and sector-wise analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, Faisal; Ahmad, Eatzaz

    2011-01-01

    Cointegration and vector error correction modeling approaches are widely used in electricity demand analysis. The study rigorously examines the determinants of electricity demand at aggregate and sectoral levels in Pakistan. In the backdrop of severe electricity shortages, our empirical findings give support to the existence of a stable long-run relationship among the variables and indicate that electricity demand is elastic in the long run to both income and price at aggregate level. At sectoral level, long-run income and price elasticity estimates follow this pattern except in agricultural sector, where electricity demand is found elastic to output but inelastic to electricity price. On the contrary, the coefficients for income and price are rather small and mostly insignificant in the short run. We employed temperature index, price of diesel oil and capital stock at aggregate and sectoral levels as exogenous variables. These variables account for most of the variations in electricity demand in the short run. It shows that mechanization of the economy significantly affect the electricity demand at macro level. Moreover, elastic electricity demand with respect to electricity price in most of the sectors implies that electricity price as a policy tool can be used for efficient use and conservation. - Highlights: → The study conducts analysis for aggregate and four sectors. → Sectoral analyses are for residential, commercial, manufacturing and agricultural sectors. → We obtained higher positive income and negative price elasticity in the long run. → The higher price elasticity implies that price can be used as a policy tool. → Capital stock and temperature variables explain most of the short-run demand fluctuations.

  10. Income and price elasticities of electricity demand: Aggregate and sector-wise analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Faisal, E-mail: fsljml@hotmail.com [School of Economics, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmad, Eatzaz, E-mail: eatzaz@qau.edu.pk [School of Economics, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-09-15

    Cointegration and vector error correction modeling approaches are widely used in electricity demand analysis. The study rigorously examines the determinants of electricity demand at aggregate and sectoral levels in Pakistan. In the backdrop of severe electricity shortages, our empirical findings give support to the existence of a stable long-run relationship among the variables and indicate that electricity demand is elastic in the long run to both income and price at aggregate level. At sectoral level, long-run income and price elasticity estimates follow this pattern except in agricultural sector, where electricity demand is found elastic to output but inelastic to electricity price. On the contrary, the coefficients for income and price are rather small and mostly insignificant in the short run. We employed temperature index, price of diesel oil and capital stock at aggregate and sectoral levels as exogenous variables. These variables account for most of the variations in electricity demand in the short run. It shows that mechanization of the economy significantly affect the electricity demand at macro level. Moreover, elastic electricity demand with respect to electricity price in most of the sectors implies that electricity price as a policy tool can be used for efficient use and conservation. - Highlights: > The study conducts analysis for aggregate and four sectors. > Sectoral analyses are for residential, commercial, manufacturing and agricultural sectors. > We obtained higher positive income and negative price elasticity in the long run. > The higher price elasticity implies that price can be used as a policy tool. > Capital stock and temperature variables explain most of the short-run demand fluctuations.

  11. Saving, efficiency and management of electric sector demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez de Tembleque, L. J.

    2007-01-01

    Spanish economic model of development is based on energy consumption, and its main source is imported fossil fuels, which have some environmental and scarcity consequences in the mid term, among others. These problems could be reduced in two ways: economic activity reduction or energy efficiency improvement. In the presence of these possibilities, It may be desirable to bet for saving and energy efficiency, to maintain the economic development. This assignment analyzes the main available regulatory and social mechanisms to promote saving and energy efficiency in the power sector, like systems to internalize social costs in the electricity price, efficiency standards, and encourage the new saving culture. (Author) 15 refs

  12. Energy Policy and Long Term Energy Demand in Croatian Households Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puksec, T.; Duic, N.

    2011-01-01

    Households sector in Croatia represents one of the largest consumers of energy today with around 75,75PJ, which is almost 29% of Croatia's final energy demand. Considering this consumption, implementing different mechanisms that would lead to improvements in energy efficiency in this sector seems relevant. In order to plan future energy systems it is important to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand for different sectors. Through this paper long term energy demand projections for Croatian households sector will be shown with a special emphasis on different mechanisms, both financial, legal but also technological that will influence future energy demand scenarios. It is important to see how these mechanisms influence, positive or negative, on future energy demand and which mechanism would be most influential. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom-up approach model which combines and process large number of input data. The Model will be compared to Croatian national Energy Strategy and certain difference will be presented. One of the major conclusions shown in this paper is significant possibilities for energy efficiency improvements and lower energy demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which also leads to lesser greenhouse gas emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels. (author)

  13. Modeling and analysis of long term energy demands in residential sector of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, T.; Sahir, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Residential sector is the core among the energy demand sectors in Pakistan. Currently, various techniques are being used worldwide to assess future energy demands including integrated system modeling (ISM). Therefore, the current study is focused on implementation of ISM approach for future energy demand analysis of Pakistan's residential sector in terms of increase in population, rapid urbanization, household size and type, and increase/decrease in GDP. A detailed business-as-usual (BAU) model is formulated in TIMES energy modeling framework using different factors like growth in future energy services, end-use technology characterization, and restricted fuel supplies. Additionally, the developed model is capable to compare the projected energy demand under different scenarios e.g. strong economy, weak economy and energy efficiency. The implementation of ISM proved a viable approach to predict the future energy demands of Pakistan's residential sector. Furthermore, the analysis shows that the energy consumption in the residential sector would be 46.5 Mtoe (Million Ton of Oil Equivalent) in 2040 compared to 23 Mtoe of the base year (2007) along with 600% increase in electricity demands. The study further maps the potential residential energy policies to congregate the future demands. (author)

  14. Potentials for energy savings and long term energy demand of Croatian households sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Vad Mathiesen, Brian; Duić, Neven

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Long term energy demand of Croatian households sector has been modelled. ► Developed model can describe the whole households sector. ► Main modes include heating, cooling, electrical appliances, cooking and hot water. ► Different scenarios regarding future energy demand are presented and discussed. -- Abstract: Households represent one of the most interesting sectors, when analyzing Croatia’s energy balance. It makes up one of the largest energy consumers with around 75 PJ per year, which is almost 29% of Croatia’s final energy demand. Considering this consumption, implementing various mechanisms, which would lead to improvements in energy efficiency of this sector, seems relevant. In order to plan future energy systems, important would be to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand of different sectors. Through this paper, long term energy demand projections of Croatian households sector will be shown. Focus of the paper will be on various mechanisms influencing future energy demand scenarios. Important would be to quantify this influence, whether positive or negative, and see which mechanisms would be the most significant. Energy demand projections in this paper are based upon bottom-up approach model which combines and processes a large number of input data. The model will be compared to Croatian National Energy Strategy and certain differences and conclusions will be presented. One of the major conclusions shown in this paper is significant possibilities for energy efficiency improvements and lower energy demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which leads to lower GHG emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels.

  15. China’s rising hydropower demand challenges water sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P. W.; Guan, Dabo

    2015-01-01

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9 × 109 m3 (Gm3), or 22% of China’s total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6 Gm3 yr−1 or 3.6 m3 of water to produce a GJ (109 J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability. PMID:26158871

  16. Analysis of Final Energy Demand by Sector in Malaysia using MAED Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.; Muhammed Zulfakar Mohd Zolkaffly; Alawiah Musa

    2011-01-01

    Energy supply security is important in ensuring a long term supply to fulfill the growing energy demand. This paper presents the use of IAEA energy planning tool, Model for Analysis of Energy Demand (MAED) to analyze, simulate and compare final energy demand by five different sectors in Malaysia under some assumptions, bounds and restrictions and the outcome can be used for planning of energy supply in future. (author)

  17. Sectoral demand articulation : The case of emerging sensor technologies in the drinking water sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Kulve, Haico; Konrad, Kornelia Elke

    Demand articulation plays a central role in innovation processes as it reduces uncertainties for innovating firms and offers guidance in innovation processes. Studies into demand articulation processes have mostly focused on users and user-producer interactions and paid less attention to the role of

  18. Short- and long-run elasticities of electricity demand in the Korean service sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Kyoung-Min; Lim, Seul-Ye; Yoo, Seung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine the electricity demand function in the Korean service sector using the annual data covering the period 1970–2011. The short- and long-run elasticities of electricity demand with respect to price and income are empirically estimated using a co-integration and error-correction model. The short- and long-run price elasticities are estimated to be −0.421 and −1.002, respectively. The short- and long-run income elasticities are computed to be 0.855 and 1.090, respectively. Electricity demand in the service sector is inelastic to changes in both price and income in the short-run, but elastic in the long-run. Therefore, it appears that a pricing policy is more effective than the direct regulation of reducing electricity demand in the long-run in order to stabilize the electricity demand in the service sector. Moreover, it is necessary to encourage a more efficient use of electricity to cope with increasing demand for electricity following economic growth because the electricity demand in the service sector is income-elastic in the long-run. - Highlights: • We examine the electricity demand function in the Korean service sector. • We use the annual data covering the period 1970–2011. • The demand function is estimated using a co-integration and error-correction model. • The short- and long-run price elasticities are −0.421 and −1.002, respectively. • The short- and long-run income elasticities are 0.855 and 1.090, respectively

  19. Electricity demand of manufacturing sector in Turkey. A translog cost approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeluek, Guelden; Koc, A. Ali

    2010-01-01

    This paper models factor demand for manufacturing sector in Turkey. We estimated a translog cost function with four factor consist of capital, labor, intermediate input and electricity over the 1980-2001. Our objective, taking in the consideration electricity as production input, was twofold: on the one hand, to estimate the price elasticity of electricity demand in manufacturing sector, and on the other hand to use cross-price and Morishima Elasticities of Substitution results for structural analysis regarding effects of electricity liberalization which initiated in 2001. Empirical result shows that electricity demand is relatively price sensitive (- 0.85). Our result in terms of electricity price is consistent with the previous studies. While electricity-labor and electricity-capital inputs are complementary, results indicate the existence of substitution possibilities between electricity and intermediate input. This means that changes in electricity prices have impact on labor demand and investment demand. These results have important implications for public policy. (author)

  20. Electricity demand of manufacturing sector in Turkey. A translog cost approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeluek, Guelden; Koc, A. Ali [Akdeniz University, Department of Economics, Antalya, 07058 (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    This paper models factor demand for manufacturing sector in Turkey. We estimated a translog cost function with four factor consist of capital, labor, intermediate input and electricity over the 1980-2001. Our objective, taking in the consideration electricity as production input, was twofold: on the one hand, to estimate the price elasticity of electricity demand in manufacturing sector, and on the other hand to use cross-price and Morishima Elasticities of Substitution results for structural analysis regarding effects of electricity liberalization which initiated in 2001. Empirical result shows that electricity demand is relatively price sensitive (- 0.85). Our result in terms of electricity price is consistent with the previous studies. While electricity-labor and electricity-capital inputs are complementary, results indicate the existence of substitution possibilities between electricity and intermediate input. This means that changes in electricity prices have impact on labor demand and investment demand. These results have important implications for public policy. (author)

  1. Demand reduction in the UK - with a focus on the non-domestic sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toke, D.

    2007-01-01

    A demand reduction strategy is considered in the context of the UK and in the light of the UK Government's 2006 Energy Review. This paper discusses how a mechanism - a Demand Reduction Obligation (DRO) - can be established to achieve radical energy demand reduction targets in electricity and gas use in the industrial, commercial and public administration sectors. A DRO would require energy suppliers to invest in energy-saving measures so as to reduce energy demand in these sectors. The investment for this activity would be funded by energy suppliers who would increase prices in order to cover the cost of achieving the carbon reductions. Public opinion surveys suggest that a large proportion of the public would prefer to support demand reduction measures compared to other energy options. It may be practical to deliver carbon emission reductions equivalent to around 30% of emissions from the UK electricity sector over a 15-year period through a broad-based demand reduction strategy. Demand reduction is considered in the context of an assessment of costs and resources available from other low carbon options including renewable energy and nuclear power. [Author

  2. Estimation on oil demand and oil saving potential of China's road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Xie, Chunping

    2013-01-01

    China is currently in the stage of industrialization and urbanization, which is characterized by rigid energy demand and rapid growth of energy consumption. Therefore, energy conservation will become a major strategy for China in a transition to low-carbon economy. China's transport industry is of high energy consumption. In 2010, oil consumption in transport industry takes up 38.2% of the country's total oil demand, of which 23.6% is taken up by road transport sector. As a result, oil saving in China's road transport sector is vital to the whole nation. The co-integration method is developed to find a long-run relationship between oil consumption and affecting factors such as GDP, road condition, labor productivity and oil price, to estimate oil demand and to predict future oil saving potential in China's transport sector under different oil-saving scenarios. Monte Carlo simulation is further used for risk analysis. Results show that under BAU condition, oil demand of China's road transport sector will reach 278.5 million ton of oil equivalents (MTOE) in 2020. Oil saving potential will be 86 MTOE and 131 MTOE under moderate oil-saving scenario and advanced oil-saving scenario, respectively. This paper provides a reference to establishing oil saving policy for China's road transport sector. - Highlights: • We adopt the co-integration model to estimate oil demand and oil saving potential of China's road transport sector. • Monte Carlo simulation is further used for risk analysis. • GDP, ratio of classified highway, labor productivity and oil price are main factors affecting oil consumption. • Scenario analysis approach is applied to calculate oil saving potential under different energy saving scenarios. • Future policy for oil conservation in China's road transport sector is suggested

  3. Frequency modulation of neural oscillations according to visual task demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutz, Andreas; Melcher, David; Samaha, Jason

    2018-02-06

    Temporal integration in visual perception is thought to occur within cycles of occipital alpha-band (8-12 Hz) oscillations. Successive stimuli may be integrated when they fall within the same alpha cycle and segregated for different alpha cycles. Consequently, the speed of alpha oscillations correlates with the temporal resolution of perception, such that lower alpha frequencies provide longer time windows for perceptual integration and higher alpha frequencies correspond to faster sampling and segregation. Can the brain's rhythmic activity be dynamically controlled to adjust its processing speed according to different visual task demands? We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) while participants switched between task instructions for temporal integration and segregation, holding stimuli and task difficulty constant. We found that the peak frequency of alpha oscillations decreased when visual task demands required temporal integration compared with segregation. Alpha frequency was strategically modulated immediately before and during stimulus processing, suggesting a preparatory top-down source of modulation. Its neural generators were located in occipital and inferotemporal cortex. The frequency modulation was specific to alpha oscillations and did not occur in the delta (1-3 Hz), theta (3-7 Hz), beta (15-30 Hz), or gamma (30-50 Hz) frequency range. These results show that alpha frequency is under top-down control to increase or decrease the temporal resolution of visual perception.

  4. Public-private sector interactions and the demand for supplementary health insurance in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíró, Anikó; Hellowell, Mark

    2016-07-01

    We examine the demand for private health insurance (PHI) in the United Kingdom and relate this to changes in the supply of public and private healthcare. Using a novel collection of administrative, private sector and survey data, we re-assess the relationships between the quality and availability of public and private sector inpatient care, and the demand for PHI. We find that PHI coverage in the United Kingdom is positively related to the median of the region- and year-specific public sector waiting times. We find that PHI prevalence ceteris paribus increases with being self-employed and employed, while it decreases with having financial difficulties. In addition, we highlight the complexities of inter-sectoral relations and their impact on PHI demand. Within a region, we find that an increase in private healthcare supply is associated with a decrease in public sector waiting times, implying lower PHI demand. This may be explained by the usage of private facilities by NHS commissioners. These results have important implications for policymakers interested in the role of private healthcare supply in enhancing the availability of and equitable access to acute inpatient care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The energy markets to 1995 - sector demand forecasts and summary. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, J

    1983-01-01

    Energy demand forecasts are often based on assumptions which are uncertain and dependent upon both political and economic factors. However, there is a need for long-term energy forecasting for the benefit of industry and commerce. CIRS (Cambridge Information and Research Services Limited) have tried to fulfill this need, based on forecasts of useful heat demand sector by sector which are then converted to heat energy supply and primary requirements. The first such forecast was produced in 1975. This 1983 updated projection examines coal, oil and gas supplies in the UK to the year 1995.

  6. Reduction potentials of energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaoyu; Crookes, Roy J.

    2009-01-01

    Rapid growth of road vehicles, private vehicles in particular, has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand and imports, which has been widely accepted as a major factor effecting future oil availability and prices, and a major contributor to China's GHG emission increase. This paper is intended to analyze the future trends of energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector and to assess the effectiveness of possible reduction measures. A detailed model has been developed to derive a reliable historical trend of energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector between 2000 and 2005 and to project future trends. Two scenarios have been designed to describe the future strategies relating to the development of China's road transport sector. The 'Business as Usual' scenario is used as a baseline reference scenario, in which the government is assumed to do nothing to influence the long-term trends of road transport energy demand. The 'Best Case' scenario is considered to be the most optimized case where a series of available reduction measures such as private vehicle control, fuel economy regulation, promoting diesel and gas vehicles, fuel tax and biofuel promotion, are assumed to be implemented. Energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector up to 2030 are estimated in these two scenarios. The total reduction potentials in the 'Best Case' scenario and the relative reduction potentials of each measure have been estimated

  7. Price elasticity of natural gas demand in the power generation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArdle, P.F.

    1990-01-01

    Today, the demand for energy by the electric generation sector is highly competitive and price-responsive. Previous estimates of the price elasticity of natural gas demand in this sector have focused primarily on data from the 1960s and 1970s. Such estimates fail to take full account of economic, regulatory, and legislative developments that have altered the structure of the electric generation market during the 1980s. Structural changes include an increased ability of utilities to choose among generating options, the increase in non-utility generators, the amending of the Fuel Use Act, and a more competitive market for electricity. An accurate estimate of price elasticity requires a refocusing on data from the post-1983 period. The purpose of this paper is to answer two questions: how price responsive (elastic) is natural gas demand in this market; and what changes in natural gas demand elasticity have occurred over time

  8. Demand Response in Europe's Electricity Sector: Market barriers and outstanding issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, Cherrelle

    2015-01-01

    In October 2014, Europe's drive for sustainability has been further continued with the set objectives for 2030, aiming for 40% emission reduction compared to 1990 levels and at least a 27% share of renewable energy sources. For the longer term, the European Commission (EC) targets a zero CO_2 emitting electricity sector in 2050. Those objectives for the electricity sector have a large impact on the expected development of electricity generation, but also on the evolution of demand. To meet those objectives, a larger share of electricity supply will come from intermittent sources like wind turbines and solar panels. In an electric system that is largely based on renewable electricity sources, it is desired to have higher electricity consumption in moments when more renewable electricity is being produced, and a lower consumption in times of lower renewable production. Demand response is related to the adaptability of the electricity demand to the availability of supply. The development of demand response is rooted in the need for carbon emission reductions and for efficient use of installed generation capacities with the growth of power consumption. In addition to providing flexibility to the electric system, demand response could be a direct source of revenue to households and businesses. In 2013, in the United States, businesses and homeowners earned over $2.2 billion in revenues from demand response together with other avoided investment in grid infrastructure and power plants. This source of direct revenue could also be made available in Europe and would release financial benefits to local economies (SEDC, 2014). The reliability improvements as well as the economic and sustainability potential coming from a more responsive electricity demand are fully acknowledged. However, demand response is still immaturely developed in Europe. If Europe wants to make a step forward to a more sustainable electricity sector, the development of demand response is an inevitable

  9. Sectoral shift in industrial natural gas demand: A comparison with other energy types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, G.; Fisher, R.; Hanson, D.; Ross, M.

    1989-01-01

    It has been recognized in a variety of studies that energy demand by industry has been effected not only by the changing energy intensity of the various sectors of industry, but also by the composition of industrial sector. A previous study group of the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF-8) found that sectoral shift, i.e., the relative decline in the energy intensive sectors of industry, has contributed at least one third of the decline in aggregate manufacturing energy intensity since the early 1970s. The specific types of energy use may also be important, however. For example, the effect of shifts in production by electricity intensive sectors has been shown to be somewhat different than that for fossil fuel

  10. Electricity demand by the commercial sector in Kuwait: an econometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltony, M.N.; Hajeeh, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper models and estimates electricity demand by the Kuwaiti commercial sector, using an error correction model. It also simulates the estimated model under three scenarios and presents an analysis of the results. The empirical results indicate that short- and long-run electricity consumption and the level of economic activity are interrelated. The forecasts show that electricity consumption varies directly with economic growth. They also suggest that an increase of 100 per cent in nominal electricity prices will lead to a reduction in commercial sector electricity demand of 45 per cent by the year 2010. The simulation of the model under the different scenarios demonstrates that the potential for energy conservation exists in the commercial sector

  11. Microeconomic principles in the health sector: The demand for health services in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stošić Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Health has become a dominant economic and political issue over the past years, where many nations experience rapid rises in health care spending. The main reason why the health care sector does not operate entirely in accordance with economic market principles is the fact that inequalities in health and access to health care are understood as the lack of humanity and justice. Health care demands might seem as quite inelastic, but because of the health insurance, it shows a certain degree of price, income, cross - price and time elasticity. The subject of this study was the demand for health services in the Republic of Serbia in order to assess the ability of the public sector to meet the demand for providing these services. The underlying assumption was that public health can not adequately meet the needs of citizens due to insufficient investment in the sector and inefficient allocation of resources. To confirm this assumption, basic characteristics of health care market and the factors affecting the supply and demand for health services were discussed. Based on the analysis of investment in the health sector, the existing capacity and organization of health services, our research has shown that the public health system in the Republic of Serbia is not able to adequately meet the demand for health services. In the current economic situation in the Republic of Serbia, which already spends a significant portion of its GDP on health, there is no realistic possibility of increased spending on public health care system, although it can be expected that there will be increasing demand for health services and increase of costs. The health sector is not, and does not have the ability to be a perfectly competitive market, and the questions of its financing, rational and efficient organization is extremely delicate. However, health care economists and experts in health economics should give a significantly higher contribution in organizing health sector

  12. Lumbar spinal fusion patients' demands to the primary health sector: evaluation of three rehabilitation protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, Rikke; Christensen, Finn B; Lauerberg, Ida

    2006-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated the effects or costs of rehabilitation regimens following lumbar spinal fusion. The effectiveness of in-hospital rehabilitation regimens has substantial impact on patients' demands in the primary health care sector. The aim of this study was to investigate patie...... service utilization in the primary health care sector as compared to the usual regimen and a training exercise regimen. The results stress the importance of a cognitive element of coping in a rehabilitation program.......Very few studies have investigated the effects or costs of rehabilitation regimens following lumbar spinal fusion. The effectiveness of in-hospital rehabilitation regimens has substantial impact on patients' demands in the primary health care sector. The aim of this study was to investigate patient......-articulated demands to the primary health care sector following lumbar spinal fusion and three different in-hospital rehabilitation regimens in a prospective, randomized study with a 2-year follow-up. Ninety patients were randomized 3 months post lumbar spinal fusion to either a 'video' group (one-time oral...

  13. Analytical optimization of demand management strategies across all urban water use sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Kenneth; Heaney, James P.; Morales, Miguel; Palenchar, John

    2014-07-01

    An effective urban water demand management program can greatly influence both peak and average demand and therefore long-term water supply and infrastructure planning. Although a theoretical framework for evaluating residential indoor demand management has been well established, little has been done to evaluate other water use sectors such as residential irrigation in a compatible manner for integrating these results into an overall solution. This paper presents a systematic procedure to evaluate the optimal blend of single family residential irrigation demand management strategies to achieve a specified goal based on performance functions derived from parcel level tax assessor's data linked to customer level monthly water billing data. This framework is then generalized to apply to any urban water sector, as exponential functions can be fit to all resulting cumulative water savings functions. Two alternative formulations are presented: maximize net benefits, or minimize total costs subject to satisfying a target water savings. Explicit analytical solutions are presented for both formulations based on appropriate exponential best fits of performance functions. A direct result of this solution is the dual variable which represents the marginal cost of water saved at a specified target water savings goal. A case study of 16,303 single family irrigators in Gainesville Regional Utilities utilizing high quality tax assessor and monthly billing data along with parcel level GIS data provide an illustrative example of these techniques. Spatial clustering of targeted homes can be easily performed in GIS to identify priority demand management areas.

  14. Baking of SST-1 vacuum vessel modules and sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, Firozkhan S; Khan, Ziauddin; Yuvakiran, Paravastu; George, Siju; Ramesh, Gattu; Manthena, Himabindu; Shah, Virendrakumar; Raval, Dilip C; Thankey, Prashant L; Dhanani, Kalpesh R; Pradhan, Subrata

    2012-01-01

    SST-1 Tokamak is a steady state super-conducting tokamak for plasma discharge of 1000 sec duration. The plasma discharge of such long time duration can be obtained by reducing the impurities level, which will be possible only when SST-1 vacuum chamber is pumped to ultra high vacuum. In order to achieve UHV inside the chamber, the baking of complete vacuum chamber has to be carried out during pumping. For this purpose the C-channels are welded inside the vacuum vessel. During baking of vacuum vessel, these welded channels should be helium leak tight. Further, these U-channels will be in accessible under operational condition of SST-1. So, it will not possible to repair if any leak is developed during experiment. To avoid such circumstances, a dedicated high vacuum chamber is used for baking of the individual vacuum modules and sectors before assembly so that any fault during welding of the channels will be obtained and repaired. This paper represents the baking of vacuum vessel modules and sectors and their temperature distribution along the entire surface before assembly.

  15. The energy demand in the British and German industrial sectors. Heterogeneity and common factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnolucci, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates energy demands for the German and British industrial sectors over the 1978-2004 and the 1991-2004 samples. From time series models we can conclude that there is a considerable variation in the value of the coefficients across sectors, even though energy demands with sensible parameters can rarely be estimated. When using a panel approach, the ability of some estimators to allow for diversity across subsectors was an important factor in explaining the estimates for price elasticity. On the other hand, correlation across panel members or common factors did not markedly influence our results. With regard to the estimated parameters, our preferred choice for elasticity of economic activity and price in the longer sample is 0.52 and - 0.64. Similar values are found in the case of the shorter samples. Bearing in mind the high price elasticity, energy taxes can be considered an effective strategy for reducing energy consumption. (author)

  16. Introduction to the Buildings Sector Module of SEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeForest, Nicholas; Bonnet, Florence; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris

    2010-12-31

    SEDS is a stochastic engineering-economics model that forecasts economy-wide energy consumption in the U.S. to 2050. It is the product of multi-laboratory collaboration among the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and Lumina Decision Systems. Among national energy models, SEDS is unique, as it is the only model written to explicitly incorporate uncertainty in its inputs and outputs. The primary purpose of SEDS is to estimate the impact of various US Department of Energy (DOE)R&D and policy programs on the performance and subsequent adoption rates of technologies relating to every energy consuming sector of the economy (shown below). It has previously been used to assist DOE in complying with the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA). The focus of LBNL research has been exclusively on develop the buildings model (SBEAM), which is capable of running as a stand-alone forecasting model, or as a part of SEDS as a whole. The full version of SEDS, containing all sectors and interaction is also called the 'integrated' version and is managed by NREL. Forecasts from SEDS are often compared to those coming from National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The intention of this document is to present new users and developers with a general description of the purpose, functionality and structure of the buildings module within the Stochastic Energy Deployment System (SEDS). The Buildings module, which is capable of running as a standalone model, is also called the Stochastic Buildings Energy and Adoption Model (SBEAM). This document will focus exclusively on SBEAM and its interaction with other major sector modules present within SEDS. The methodologies and major assumptions employed in SBEAM will also be discussed. The organization of this report will parallel the organization of the model itself, being divided into major

  17. Private dentists assess treatment required as more extensive, demanding and costly, than public sector dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Risto; Eriksson, Anna-Leena; Vahlberg, Tero

    2012-08-01

    The aim was to evaluate whether contracted private practitioners assess required treatment more extensive, demanding and economically more rewarding than mainly salaried public sector dentists and to estimate the cost consequences of using these alternative providers. All dental services included in comprehensive treatments funded by the city of Turku and provided to adult patients during the year 2009 were recorded. Patients were distributed randomly without any determination of treatment needs before appointing them to different dentists. Treatment courses for 7432 patients in public clinics included 63 906 procedures and for 2932 patients assigned to treatment by contracted private practitioners included 21 194 procedures. Public sector dentists were mainly salaried with production incentives, and private practitioners worked purely on a fee-for-service basis. The cost estimates were based on the distributions of competence classifications recorded by the providers, which also formed the basis for reimbursement. For each studied treatment category with more than one competence classification, private contractors were less likely than their public sector counterparts to give an assessment of simple or less demanding: 8% versus 29% of examinations, 46% versus 69% of periodontal treatments, 63% versus 85% of extractions, 31% versus 46% of fillings, 18% versus 35% of root canals. The excess cost to society varied from 7.0% for root canal treatments to 21.3% for extractions, causing on average 14.4% higher cost level from use of private practitioners compared with public sector dentists. Private practitioners systematically classified the treatment procedures they provided as more demanding, and therefore more economically rewarding, than their public sector counterparts. The findings indicate that the costs of publicly funded dental care may be increased by the use of private dental contractors. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Relationship between Parafiscal Contributions and Labor Demand in the Manufacturing Sector in Colombia (2001-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Fabio Ríos Hernández

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the behavior of labor demand in the manufacturing sector, in relation to parafiscal contributions and labor costs in the period between 2001 and 2010. To meet this objective, output and labor cost elasticity of employment are calculated for skilled and unskilled workers, through panel data fixed effects methodology, using the Annual Manufacturing Survey; the correction of errors was performed by feasible generalized least squares (FGLS and panel-corrected standard errors (PCSE method.

  19. Demand in the context of trafficking in human beings in the domestic work sector in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    CAMARGO MAGALHÃES, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Belgian anti-THB policy is often pointed as exemplary given its broad definition of the crime of trafficking for labour exploitation, as being the work or service carried out in conditions contrary to human dignity, in which the coercion element is not compulsory. However, hardly any policy initiatives in Belgium tackle specifically demand-side aspects in labour exploitation and THB in the domestic work sector. Recent policy changes in the domain of domestic work at diplomatic households and ...

  20. Economic analysis of the water demand in the hotels and restaurants sector: Shadow prices and elasticities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Ana; Atwi, Majed; Barberán, Ramón; Mur, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Despite the growing economic importance of tourism, and its impact on relative water shortage, little is known about the role that water plays in the productive process of hotels and restaurants and, therefore, the possible implications of water demand management policy for this sector. This study aims to fill this gap. It is based on the microdata of 676 firms in the sector, operating in the city of Zaragoza (Spain) for a 12 year period. Based on the Translog cost function, we estimate the shadow price of water in the short run and, from a long-run perspective, its direct price elasticity, its cross elasticities relative to labor, capital, and supplies, and its elasticity with respect to the level of output. The results obtained show that water provides sector firms returns that are on average higher than its price, although in the case of hotels the margin is really narrow. This situation provides policy makers with a margin for applying price increases without affecting the sector's viability, with some caution in the case of hotels. Water demand elasticity equals -0.38 in the case of hotels, but it is not significant in the case of restaurants and bar-cafes; hence, only in hotels is there potential for influencing water use patterns, encouraging the resource's conservation through pricing policy. Moreover, capital is a substitutive factor of water, and the elasticity of water with respect to output is 0.40, all of which should also be considered by policy makers in water resource management.

  1. Demand-side management (DSM) in the context of China's on-going power sector reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sufang; Jiao, Yiqian; Chen, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    As an approach to manage power demand-side resources, DSM plays an important role in electric power system. Though DSM was introduced into China in the early 1990s, its benefits have been underutilized. Using literature study, interview methods and three data sources, this paper examines the likely impacts of China's on-going power sector reform on its DSM. It finds that the major constraints to DSM in China are the insufficient and improper market-based DSM mechanism, grid companies’ low motivations for DSM due to their traditional business model, the underdeveloped energy service industry, and electricity end-users’ low motivation for DSM. China's on-going power sector reform will change power transmission and distribution pricing and grid companies’ business model and introduce competition into retail-side. Drawing on these findings, it is concluded that the likely impacts of the new reform on DSM are: governments may attach more importance to DSM; grid companies may have more motivations for DSM investment; electricity end-users’ motivations for DSM may be both enhanced and dampened; electricity retailers’ motivations for DSM may be dampened; demand response application may be enhanced, and more DSM business models may be developed. Finally, policy implications are provided. - Highlights: • Mechanism of and constraints to DSM in China are examined. • China’s on-going power sector reform is overviewed. • DSM is likely to be enhanced under China's on-going power sector reform. • Policy implications are provided.

  2. Estimating the price elasticity for demand for electricity by sector in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roula Inglesi-Lotz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses electricity consumption patterns in South Africa in an attempt to understand and identify the roots of the current electricity crisis. This is done by investigating various economic sectors’ responses to price changes using panel data for the period 1993–2004. Positive and statistically significant price elasticities over this period were found for the transport (rail and commercial sectors while there are positive, but small and statistically insignificant responses to price changes in the agriculture and mining sectors. Only the industrial sector responded to changes in electricity prices according to theory, namely illustrating negative demand elasticities. This sector, however, dominates electricity consumption resulting in aggregate demand elasticities that are negative. These results explain, in part, the current electricity crisis. Given the historic low level of electricity prices in conjunction with, on the whole, a real price decline, i.e. price increases lower than the inflation rate; there was no major incentive to reduce electricity consumption and/or to be efficient. This result supports the notion that prices do have an important signalling effect in the economy. Hence, the electricity prices should be considered not only from an economic growth or social vantage point, but also from a supply and technocratic perspective, which includes environmental factors such as CO2-emissions. Prices should not be determined without considering the system-wide implications thereof.

  3. Estimating Price Elasticity of Demand for Motor Fuel in the Transport Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vasilyevna Mazurova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of long-term forecasts of prices and demand on regional energy markets requires accounting for the future changes in the interactions between the greater economy and its energy sector, along with the possible emergence of new factors and specific regional features determining those interactions. The proposed approach allows the study of a correlation between demand and prices for motor fuel, taking into account the competition of energy carriers, the dynamics of energy prices, resource constraints, the use of new technologies and the uncertainty of input data. The main feature of the proposed approach is the combined estimation of the price elasticity of demand for motor fuel with optimization of fuel supply in the region. Thus the author determined elasticity of demand based on the comparison of economic efficiency of the use of different fuels. The study includes results of experimental calculations and forecasted price according to demand for motor fuel in freight transportation for the expected development conditions of the Far Eastern federal district

  4. Diurnal modulation signal from dissipative hidden sector dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Foot

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider a simple generic dissipative dark matter model: a hidden sector featuring two dark matter particles charged under an unbroken U(1′ interaction. Previous work has shown that such a model has the potential to explain dark matter phenomena on both large and small scales. In this framework, the dark matter halo in spiral galaxies features nontrivial dynamics, with the halo energy loss due to dissipative interactions balanced by a heat source. Ordinary supernovae can potentially supply this heat provided kinetic mixing interaction exists with strength ϵ∼10−9. This type of kinetically mixed dark matter can be probed in direct detection experiments. Importantly, this self-interacting dark matter can be captured within the Earth and shield a dark matter detector from the halo wind, giving rise to a diurnal modulation effect. We estimate the size of this effect for detectors located in the Southern hemisphere, and find that the modulation is large (≳10% for a wide range of parameters.

  5. Study the Effect of Value-Added of Services Sector on Forecasting of Electricity Demand in Services Sector due to Price Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mahdi Mostafavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy is as one of the important effective factors on economic growth and development. In recent decades, numerous studies in different countries to estimate and forecast electricity demand in different parts of the economy have been made. In this paper, using the method ARDL, estimation and forecasting of electricity demand in the services sector of Iran are determined for the time period from 1983 to 2012. Estimated equations show that the added value of the services sector and a significant positive impact on the demand for electricity in this sector. The price elasticity for services sector is smaller than 1 due to low electricity prices and subsidized electricity. Hence, electricity prices have little impact on the demand for electricity. The results of the estimate represents a long-term relationship between the variables in the services sector. In this paper, based on amendments to the law on subsidies and estimated values, anticipated electricity demand until the end of the fifth development plan was carried out. The results indicate an increase in power consumption in the services sector.

  6. Coverage of private sector community midwife services in rural Punjab, Pakistan: development and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Zubia; Levay, Adrienne V; Jhangri, Gian S; Bhatti, Afshan

    2015-11-25

    In 2007, the Government of Pakistan introduced a new cadre of community midwives (CMWs) to address low skilled birth attendance rates in rural areas; this workforce is located in the private-sector. There are concerns about the effectiveness of the programme for increasing skilled birth attendance as previous experience from private-sector programmes has been sub-optimal. Indonesia first promoted private sector midwifery care, but the initiative failed to provide universal coverage and reduce maternal mortality rates. A clustered, stratified survey was conducted in the districts of Jhelum and Layyah, Punjab. A total of 1,457 women who gave birth in the 2 years prior to the survey were interviewed. χ(2) analyses were performed to assess variation in coverage of maternal health services between the two districts. Logistic regression models were developed to explore whether differentials in coverage between the two districts could be explained by differential levels of development and demand for skilled birth attendance. Mean cost of childbirth care by type of provider was also calculated. Overall, 7.9% of women surveyed reported a CMW-attended birth. Women in Jhelum were six times more likely to report a CMW-attended birth than women in Layyah. The mean cost of a CMW-attended birth compared favourably with a dai-attended birth. The CMWs were, however, having difficulty garnering community trust. The majority of women, when asked why they had not sought care from their neighbourhood CMW, cited a lack of trust in CMWs' competency and that they wanted a different provider. The CMWs have yet to emerge as a significant maternity care provider in rural Punjab. Levels of overall community development determined uptake and hence coverage of CMW care. The CMWs were able to insert themselves into the maternal health marketplace in Jhelum because of an existing demand. A lower demand in Layyah meant there was less 'space' for the CMWs to enter the market. To ensure universal

  7. The Mediterranean Diet and the Increasing Demand of the Olive Oil Sector: Shifts and Environmental Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Neves

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean countries play a crucial role as olive oil producers and consumers compared to other world regions. This work focusses on the development of the world production, trade and consumption where the Mediterranean region stands out from the rest of the world, in particular, the Northern Mediterranean countries. Aspects such as how communication emphasizes the benefits of the Mediterranean diet - which is a distinctive characteristic of the Mediterranean culture and identity - the Slow Food Movement, the International Olive Council campaigns, and the successive Common Agricultural Policies, that have triggered production, trade and consumption around the world, are here discussed. Such increases and stimuli brought and is still bringing changes to the olive oil sector such as a shifting tendency in production modes as well as modernization of the sector, responding to the increasing demand. These shifts and demand are changing landscapes and are being referred as environmentally harmful to the ecosystems as the production of olive oil is shifting to more intensive production systems and monoculture plantations. These issues are here debated and illustrated with case study examples, referring to the Mediterranean countries, particularly, referring to the Iberian Peninsula.

  8. Development and Demonstration of the Open Automated Demand Response Standard for the Residential Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, Karen; Rasin, Josh; Perry, Tim

    2009-11-30

    The goal of this study was to demonstrate a demand response system that can signal nearly every customer in all sectors through the integration of two widely available and non- proprietary communications technologies--Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) over lnternet protocol and Utility Messaging Channel (UMC) over FM radio. The outcomes of this project were as follows: (1) a software bridge to allow translation of pricing signals from OpenADR to UMC; and (2) a portable demonstration unit with an lnternet-connected notebook computer, a portfolio of DR-enabling technologies, and a model home. The demonstration unit provides visitors the opportunity to send electricity-pricing information over the lnternet (through OpenADR and UMC) and then watch as the model appliances and lighting respond to the signals. The integration of OpenADR and UMC completed and demonstrated in this study enables utilities to send hourly or sub-hourly electricity pricing information simultaneously to the residential, commercial and industrial sectors.

  9. Underlying energy demand trends in South Korean and Indonesian aggregate whole economy and residential sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa' ad, Suleiman [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    This paper used annual time series data over the period 1973-2008 to estimate energy demand functions for South Korea and Indonesian aggregated whole economy and Residential sectors. Furthermore, the underlying energy demand trend (UEDT), which may be non-linear and reflects not only technical progress, which usually produces greater energy efficiency, but also other factors such as changes in consumer tastes and the economic structure that may be working in the opposite direction, is also examined in the paper. In estimating the price and income elasticities, the study applies Harvey's structural time series approach where a stochastic trend is used as a proxy for UEDT. Empirical evidence from this study reveals that the estimated long-run income and price elasticities range from 0.58 to 1.15 and from -0.09 to -066, respectively. Furthermore the stochastic form for the UEDT is preferred for both countries and sectors, suggesting a wide variation in the exogenous effects of energy saving technical progress in addition to other pertinent exogenous factors such as economic structure, consumer preferences, and socio-economic influences. (author)

  10. Underlying energy demand trends in South Korean and Indonesian aggregate whole economy and residential sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa' ad, Suleiman, E-mail: suleimansaad@gmail.co [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    This paper used annual time series data over the period 1973-2008 to estimate energy demand functions for South Korea and Indonesian aggregated whole economy and Residential sectors. Furthermore, the underlying energy demand trend (UEDT), which may be non-linear and reflects not only technical progress, which usually produces greater energy efficiency, but also other factors such as changes in consumer tastes and the economic structure that may be working in the opposite direction, is also examined in the paper. In estimating the price and income elasticities, the study applies Harvey's structural time series approach where a stochastic trend is used as a proxy for UEDT. Empirical evidence from this study reveals that the estimated long-run income and price elasticities range from 0.58 to 1.15 and from -0.09 to -066, respectively. Furthermore the stochastic form for the UEDT is preferred for both countries and sectors, suggesting a wide variation in the exogenous effects of energy saving technical progress in addition to other pertinent exogenous factors such as economic structure, consumer preferences, and socio-economic influences.

  11. Underlying energy demand trends in South Korean and Indonesian aggregate whole economy and residential sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa'ad, Suleiman

    2011-01-01

    This paper used annual time series data over the period 1973-2008 to estimate energy demand functions for South Korea and Indonesian aggregated whole economy and Residential sectors. Furthermore, the underlying energy demand trend (UEDT), which may be non-linear and reflects not only technical progress, which usually produces greater energy efficiency, but also other factors such as changes in consumer tastes and the economic structure that may be working in the opposite direction, is also examined in the paper. In estimating the price and income elasticities, the study applies Harvey's structural time series approach where a stochastic trend is used as a proxy for UEDT. Empirical evidence from this study reveals that the estimated long-run income and price elasticities range from 0.58 to 1.15 and from -0.09 to -066, respectively. Furthermore the stochastic form for the UEDT is preferred for both countries and sectors, suggesting a wide variation in the exogenous effects of energy saving technical progress in addition to other pertinent exogenous factors such as economic structure, consumer preferences, and socio-economic influences. (author)

  12. Uruguay Energy Supply Options Study: a Detailed Multi-Sector Integrated Energy Supply and Demand Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conzelmann, G.; Veselka, T.

    1997-01-01

    Uruguay is in the middle of making critical decisions affecting the design of its future energy supply system.Momentum for change is expected to come from several directions including recent and foreseeable upgrades and modifications to energy conversion facilities, the importation of natural gas from Argentina, the possibility for a stronger interconnection of regional electricity systems, the country s membership in MERCOSUR, and the potential for energy sector reforms by the Government of Uruguay.The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of several fuel diversification strategies on Uruguay s energy supply system.The analysis pays special attention to fuel substitution trends due to potential imports of natural gas via a gas pipeline from Argentina and increasing electricity ties with neighboring countries.The Government of Uruguay contracted Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study several energy development scenario ns with the support of several Uruguayan Institutions.Specifically, ANL was asked to conduct a detailed energy supply and demand analysis, develop energy demand projections based on an analysis of past energy demand patterns with support from local institutions, evaluate the effects of potential natural gas imports and electricity exchanges, and determine the market penetration of natural gas under various scenarios

  13. Technical and economical tools to assess customer demand response in the commercial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Bel, Carlos; Ortega, Manuel Alcazar; Escriva, Guillermo Escriva [Institute for Energy Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, edificio 8E, escalera F, 5a planta. 46022 Valencia (Spain); Gabaldon Marin, Antonio [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Campus de la Muralla al Mar. 30202 Cartagena (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    The authors present a methodology to evaluate and quantify the economic parameters (costs and benefits) attached to customer electricity consumption by analyzing the service provided by the different ''pieces'' of absorbed electricity. The first step of this methodology is to perform a process oriented market segmentation to identify segments according to their flexibility potential. After that, a procedure based on comprehensive simulations to identify and quantify the actual demand that can be managed in the short term is presented and, finally, the required economic analysis is performed. The methodology, which is demonstrated with some applications to the commercial sector, not only helps the customers to integrate in flexible distribution systems but also offers the necessary economical parameters for them to integrate in electricity markets. (author)

  14. Technical and economical tools to assess customer demand response in the commercial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Bel, Carlos; Ortega, Manuel Alcazar; Escriva, Guillermo Escriva; Gabaldon Marin, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The authors present a methodology to evaluate and quantify the economic parameters (costs and benefits) attached to customer electricity consumption by analyzing the service provided by the different ''pieces'' of absorbed electricity. The first step of this methodology is to perform a process oriented market segmentation to identify segments according to their flexibility potential. After that, a procedure based on comprehensive simulations to identify and quantify the actual demand that can be managed in the short term is presented and, finally, the required economic analysis is performed. The methodology, which is demonstrated with some applications to the commercial sector, not only helps the customers to integrate in flexible distribution systems but also offers the necessary economical parameters for them to integrate in electricity markets. (author)

  15. Long term energy demand projection and potential for energy savings of Croatian tourism–catering trade sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irsag, Bojan; Pukšec, Tomislav; Duić, Neven

    2012-01-01

    Today, tourism represents one of the backbones of Croatian economy and one of the main factors of its growth. Combined with catering trade sector, tourism represents a significant energy consumer that has the tendencies of future growth. Since services sector, which tourism–catering trade sector is a part of, is not yet well described regarding future energy balances it would be very interesting to see how could possible future growth in tourism influence energy consumption of the services sector in Croatia. Through this paper long term energy demand projections of tourism–catering trade sector were studied with special emphasis on future growth of tourism in Croatia as well as different mechanisms that might lead to certain energy savings. Bottom-up approach was chosen as the most suitable one since it allows better quantification of different measures, technological or legal, that would influence future energy demand. Downside of this approach is extensive input data that is required to analyse and model future energy demand which is roughly divided into heating/cooling section and all other consumption. Results show that additional energy savings in the tourism–catering trade sector are possible if careful and rational demand side planning is in place. -- Highlights: ► Future energy demand of Croatian touristm–catering trade sector has been modelled. ► Model is roughly divided into two basic modes (heating/cooling and all other consumption). ► Different factors influencing future energy demand were implemented into the model. ► Possibilities for energy efficiency improvements have been presented.

  16. Universal Industrial Solution and Industrial Sectors Module for Pulp and Paper Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased concerns over air pollution and its detrimental effects on health have called for more stringent emission reduction strategies in the industrial sector. However, stringent regulatory policies can potentially adversely affect domestic and international trade. Therefore E...

  17. Demand-side mitigation options of the agricultural sector: potential, barriers and ways forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunelle Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the potential and barriers of demand-side mitigation options in the agricultural sector based on the recent academic literature and on a survey conducted on a sample of 788 respondents living in France. The mitigation potential of such measures as reducing losses in the food supply chain and shifting diets toward less animal products is estimated to be particularly high, higher, in particular, than supply-side mitigation options. However, to ensure that these measures do not entail a reduction in protein intake, these estimations should consider both caloric and protein units, and take into account the digestibility differentials between protein sources. Our survey shows that people are relatively reluctant to eat more sustainably, preferring to reduce their emissions in other areas such as housing or equipment. This relative reluctance is mainly due to individual perceptions linked to health concerns, taste or habits. Some obstacles could easily be overcome through well-designed policies aiming to, for example, advertise a lower consumption of red meat for health benefits. National governments are, however, rather inactive on this topic, leaving the initiative to the civil society.

  18. Assessing the influence of manufacturing sectors on electricity demand. A cross-country input-output approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarancon, Miguel Angel; Callejas Albinana, Fernando [Faculty of Law and Social Sciences, Universidad de Castilla - La Mancha, Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Del Rio, Pablo [Institute for Public Policies and Goods (IPP), Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, C/Albasanz 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    The production and consumption of electricity is a major source of CO{sub 2} emissions in Europe and elsewhere. In turn, the manufacturing sectors are significant end-users of electricity. In contrast to most papers in the literature, which focus on the supply-side, this study tackles the demand-side of electricity. An input-output approach combined with a sensitivity analysis has been developed to analyse the direct and indirect consumptions of electricity by eighteen manufacturing sectors in fifteen European countries, with indirect electricity demand related to the purchase of industrial products from other sectors which, in turn, require the consumption of electricity in their manufacturing processes. We identify the industrial transactions and sectors, which account for a greater share of electricity demand. In addition, the impact of an electricity price increase on the costs and prices of manufacturing products is simulated through a price model, allowing us to identify those sectors whose manufacturing costs are most sensitive to an increase in the electricity price. (author)

  19. Assessing the influence of manufacturing sectors on electricity demand. A cross-country input-output approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarancon, Miguel Angel; Callejas Albinana, Fernando; Del Rio, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    The production and consumption of electricity is a major source of CO 2 emissions in Europe and elsewhere. In turn, the manufacturing sectors are significant end-users of electricity. In contrast to most papers in the literature, which focus on the supply-side, this study tackles the demand-side of electricity. An input-output approach combined with a sensitivity analysis has been developed to analyse the direct and indirect consumptions of electricity by eighteen manufacturing sectors in fifteen European countries, with indirect electricity demand related to the purchase of industrial products from other sectors which, in turn, require the consumption of electricity in their manufacturing processes. We identify the industrial transactions and sectors, which account for a greater share of electricity demand. In addition, the impact of an electricity price increase on the costs and prices of manufacturing products is simulated through a price model, allowing us to identify those sectors whose manufacturing costs are most sensitive to an increase in the electricity price. (author)

  20. Cognitive task demands modulate the sensitivity of the human cochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Smith

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies lead to the conclusion that focused attention, through the activity of corticofugal and medial olivocochlear efferent pathways, modulates activity at the most peripheral aspects of the auditory system within the cochlea. In two experiments we investigated the effects of different intermodal attention manipulations on the response of outer hair cells (OHCs, and the control exerted by the medial olivocochlear (MOC efferent system. The effect of the MOCs on OHC activity was characterized by measuring the amplitude and rapid adaptation time course of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs. In the first, DPOAE recordings were compared while participants were reading a book and counting the occurrence of the letter a (auditory ignoring and while counting the either short- or long-duration eliciting tones (auditory attending. In the second, DPOAEs were recorded while subjects watched muted movies with subtitles (auditory ignoring/visual distraction and were compared with DPOAEs recorded while subjects counted the same tones (auditory attending as in experiment 1. In both experiments 1 and 2, the absolute level of the averaged DPOAEs recorded during the auditory-ignoring condition was statistically higher than that recorded in the auditory-attending condition. Efferent-induced rapid adaptation was evident in all DPOAE contours, under all attention conditions, suggesting that two medial efferent processes act independently to determine rapid adaptation, which is unaffected by attention, and the overall DPOAE level, which is significantly affected by changes in the focus of attention.

  1. Human behaviour and energy demand : How behavioural science can be used to reduceenergy demand in the residential sector

    OpenAIRE

    Kaczmarek, Haiko

    2015-01-01

    The threat of human induced climate change is imminent. The reason is an everyincreasing demand for energy and products, producing more and more greenhousegas emissions. Everybody needs to take responsibility now. The estimations are thatwith 2% annual energy savings from residential households 12TWh and 3.3 billionmetric tonnes of CO2 can be saved per year. Greenely, a startup from KIC InnoEnergy,wants to engage residential households to change their energy behaviour athome. They combine a s...

  2. Supply- and demand-side effects of power sector planning with demand-side management options and SO2 emission constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, R.M.; Marpaung, C.O.P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of SO 2 emission mitigation constraints in the power sector planning in Indonesia--a developing country--during 2003-2017 from a long term integrated resource planning perspective. A decomposition model is developed to assess the contributions of supply- and demand-side effects to the total changes in CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions from the power sector due to constraints on SO 2 emissions. The results of the study show that both the supply- and demand-side effects would act towards the reduction of CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions. However, the supply-side effect would play the dominant role in emission mitigations from the power sector in Indonesia. The average incremental SO 2 abatement cost would increase from US$ 970 to US$ 1271 per ton of SO 2 , while electricity price would increase by 2-18% if the annual SO 2 emission reduction target is increased from 10% to 25%

  3. Public sector reform and demand for human resources for health (HRH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lethbridge Jane

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article considers some of the effects of health sector reform on human resources for health (HRH in developing countries and countries in transition by examining the effect of fiscal reform and the introduction of decentralisation and market mechanisms to the health sector. Fiscal reform results in pressure to measure the staff outputs of the health sector. Financial decentralisation often leads to hospitals becoming "corporatised" institutions, operating with business principles but remaining in the public sector. The introduction of market mechanisms often involves the formation of an internal market within the health sector and market testing of different functions with the private sector. This has immediate implications for the employment of health workers in the public sector, because the public sector may reduce its workforce if services are purchased from other sectors or may introduce more short-term and temporary employment contracts. Decentralisation of budgets and administrative functions can affect the health sector, often in negative ways, by reducing resources available and confusing lines of accountability for health workers. Governance and regulation of health care, when delivered by both public and private providers, require new systems of regulation. The increase in private sector provision has led health workers to move to the private sector. For those remaining in the public sector, there are often worsening working conditions, a lack of employment security and dismantling of collective bargaining agreements. Human resource development is gradually being recognised as crucial to future reforms and the formulation of health policy. New information systems at local and regional level will be needed to collect data on human resources. New employment arrangements, strengthening organisational culture, training and continuing education will also be needed.

  4. Impedance is modulated to meet accuracy demands during goal-directed arm movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selen, L.P.J.; Beek, P.J.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The neuromuscular system is inherently noisy and joint impedance may serve to filter this noise. In the present experiment, we investigated whether individuals modulate joint impedance to meet spatial accuracy demands. Twelve subjects were instructed to make rapid, time constrained, elbow extensions

  5. The dynamics of sectoral electricity demand for a panel of US states: New evidence on the consumption–growth nexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunoris, James W.; Sheridan, Brandon J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use a panel of the 48 contiguous US states over the period 1970–2009 to examine the dynamics of electricity demand in addressing the four hypotheses set forth in the literature: growth, conservation, neutrality, and feedback. In doing so we provide both short-run and long-run elasticity estimates for electricity demand. Recent developments in nonstationary panel estimation techniques allow for heterogeneity in the coefficients while examining the direction of causality among electricity consumption, electricity prices, and income growth. In addition to the full sample, we also disaggregate the sample into three sectors: commercial, industrial, and residential. The short-run results provide evidence in favor of the growth hypothesis for the aggregate sample, as well as for the industrial sector. For the residential and commercial sectors, the conservation hypothesis is supported. Long-run results favor the conservation hypothesis. To ascertain differences in electricity demand relating to electricity intensity we also examine states based on their efficiency in electricity consumption. Overall, the results yield in favor of the growth hypothesis for low intensity states and conservation hypothesis for high intensity states. - Highlights: • We use dynamic panel techniques to model electricity demand by sector for US states. • The conservation hypothesis is supported in the long run; short-run results are mixed. • The conservation hypothesis is supported in the high-electricity-intensity subsample. • The growth hypothesis is supported in the low-electricity-intensity subsample. • Policies aimed at energy conservation should be long-run in nature

  6. Decomposition of toxicity emission changes on the demand and supply sides: empirical study of the US industrial sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Kagawa, Shigemi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the changes in the toxicity of chemical emissions from the US industrial sector over the 1998-2009 period. Specifically, we employed a multiregional input-output analysis framework and integrated a supply-side index decomposition analysis (IDA) with a demand-side structural decomposition analysis (SDA) to clarify the main drivers of changes in the toxicity of production- and consumption-based chemical emissions. The results showed that toxic emissions from the US industrial sector decreased by 83% over the studied period because of pollution abatement efforts adopted by US industries. A variety of pollution abatement efforts were used by different industries, and cleaner production in the mining sector and the use of alternative materials in the manufacture of transportation equipment represented the most important efforts.

  7. Development of the Manpower Demand Forecast Model of Nuclear Industry Using the System Dynamics Method - Operation Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Suk; Ahn, Nam Sung

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the resource management of nuclear engineering manpower has become an important issue in Korean nuclear industry. The government's plan for increasing the number of domestic nuclear power plants and the recent success of nuclear power plant export to UAE (United Arab Emirates) will increase demand for nuclear engineers in Korea. Accordingly, the Korean government decided to supplement 2,246 engineers in the public sector of nuclear industry in the year 2010 to resolve the manpower shortage problem in the short term. However, the experienced engineers which are essentially important in the nuclear industry cannot be supplied in the short term. Therefore, development of the long term manpower demand forecast model of nuclear industry is needed. The system dynamics (SD) is useful method for forecasting nuclear manpower demand. It is because the time-delays which is important in constructing plants and in recruiting and training of engineers, and the feedback effect including the qualitative factor can be effectively considered in the SD method. Especially, the qualitative factor like 'Productivity' is very important concept in Human Resource Management (HRM) but it cannot be easily considered in the other methods. In this paper, the concepts of the nuclear manpower demand forecast model using the SD method are presented and the some simulation results are being discussed especially for the 'Operation Sector'

  8. Development of the Manpower Demand Forecast Model of Nuclear Industry Using the System Dynamics Method - Operation Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Suk [Future and Challenges Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Nam Sung [SolBridge International School of Business, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Recently, the resource management of nuclear engineering manpower has become an important issue in Korean nuclear industry. The government's plan for increasing the number of domestic nuclear power plants and the recent success of nuclear power plant export to UAE (United Arab Emirates) will increase demand for nuclear engineers in Korea. Accordingly, the Korean government decided to supplement 2,246 engineers in the public sector of nuclear industry in the year 2010 to resolve the manpower shortage problem in the short term. However, the experienced engineers which are essentially important in the nuclear industry cannot be supplied in the short term. Therefore, development of the long term manpower demand forecast model of nuclear industry is needed. The system dynamics (SD) is useful method for forecasting nuclear manpower demand. It is because the time-delays which is important in constructing plants and in recruiting and training of engineers, and the feedback effect including the qualitative factor can be effectively considered in the SD method. Especially, the qualitative factor like 'Productivity' is very important concept in Human Resource Management (HRM) but it cannot be easily considered in the other methods. In this paper, the concepts of the nuclear manpower demand forecast model using the SD method are presented and the some simulation results are being discussed especially for the 'Operation Sector'

  9. Energy efficiency improvement potentials and a low energy demand scenario for the global industrial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kermeli, Katerina; Graus, Wina H J; Worrell, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of energy efficiency measures can significantly reduce industrial energy use. This study estimates the future industrial energy consumption under two energy demand scenarios: (1) a reference scenario that follows business as usual trends and (2) a low energy demand scenario that takes

  10. Consumer demand and quality assurance: segmentation basis and implications for chain governance in the pork sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunert, K.G.; Wognum, P.M.; Trienekens, J.H.; Wever, M.; Scholderer, J.; Veflen Olsen, N.

    2011-01-01

    Consumers differ in their demands, and this may have implications for the type of supply chain governance that is most suitable for serving them. We present a segmentation of pork consumers in the EU based on their food-related lifestyles and demands for different pork products. We then present an

  11. Demand forecasting for automotive sector in Malaysia by system dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkepli, Jafri; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Fong, Chan Hwa

    2015-01-01

    In general, Proton as an automotive company needs to forecast future demand of the car to assist in decision making related to capacity expansion planning. One of the forecasting approaches that based on judgemental or subjective factors is normally used to forecast the demand. As a result, demand could be overstock that eventually will increase the operation cost; or the company will face understock, which resulted losing their customers. Due to automotive industry is very challenging process because of high level of complexity and uncertainty involved in the system, an accurate tool to forecast the future of automotive demand from the modelling perspective is required. Hence, the main objective of this paper is to forecast the demand of automotive Proton car industry in Malaysia using system dynamics approach. Two types of intervention namely optimistic and pessimistic experiments scenarios have been tested to determine the capacity expansion that can prevent the company from overstocking. Finding from this study highlighted that the management needs to expand their production for optimistic scenario, whilst pessimistic give results that would otherwise. Finally, this study could help Proton Edar Sdn. Bhd (PESB) to manage the long-term capacity planning in order to meet the future demand of the Proton cars

  12. Demand forecasting for automotive sector in Malaysia by system dynamics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulkepli, Jafri, E-mail: zhjafri@uum.edu.my; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal, E-mail: nhaslinda@uum.edu.my [School of Quantitative Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah (Malaysia); Fong, Chan Hwa, E-mail: hfchan7623@yahoo.com [SWM Environment Sdn. Bhd.Level 17, Menara LGB, Taman Tun Dr. Ismail Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-12-11

    In general, Proton as an automotive company needs to forecast future demand of the car to assist in decision making related to capacity expansion planning. One of the forecasting approaches that based on judgemental or subjective factors is normally used to forecast the demand. As a result, demand could be overstock that eventually will increase the operation cost; or the company will face understock, which resulted losing their customers. Due to automotive industry is very challenging process because of high level of complexity and uncertainty involved in the system, an accurate tool to forecast the future of automotive demand from the modelling perspective is required. Hence, the main objective of this paper is to forecast the demand of automotive Proton car industry in Malaysia using system dynamics approach. Two types of intervention namely optimistic and pessimistic experiments scenarios have been tested to determine the capacity expansion that can prevent the company from overstocking. Finding from this study highlighted that the management needs to expand their production for optimistic scenario, whilst pessimistic give results that would otherwise. Finally, this study could help Proton Edar Sdn. Bhd (PESB) to manage the long-term capacity planning in order to meet the future demand of the Proton cars.

  13. Determinants of energy demand in the French service sector: A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mairet, Nicolas; Decellas, Fabrice

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the changes in the energy consumption of the service sector in France over the period 1995-2006, using the logarithmic mean Divisia index I (LMDI I) decomposition method. The analysis is carried out at various disaggregation levels to highlight the specifics of each sub-sector and end-use according to their respective determinants. The results show that in this period the economic growth of the service sector was the main factor that led to the increase in total energy consumption. Structure, productivity, substitution and intensity effects restricted this growth, but with limited effect. By analyzing each end-use, this paper enables a more precise understanding of the impact of these factors. The activity effect was the main determinant of the increase in energy consumption for all end-uses except for air conditioning, for which the equipment rate effect was the main factor. Structural changes in the service sector primarily impacted energy consumption for space heating and cooking. Improvements in productivity limited the growth of energy consumption for all end-uses except for cooking. Finally, energy efficiency improvements mainly affected space-heating energy use.

  14. The evolution of the energy demand in France in the industrial, residential and transportation sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides information, from 1970 to 2005, on the evolution of the energy intensity (ratio between the primary energy consumption and the gross domestic product in volume) and the actions of energy control for the industrial, residential and transportation sectors. (A.L.B.)

  15. Universal industrial sectors integrated solutions module for the pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash; Jozewicz, Wojciech

    2017-09-01

    The U.S. is the world's second-leading producer of pulp and paper products after China. Boilers, recovery furnaces, and lime kilns are the dominant sources of emissions from pulp and paper mills, collectively accounting for more than 99 % of the SO 2 , almost 96 % of the NO X , and more than 85 % of the particulate matter (PM) emitted to the air from this sector in the U.S. The process of developing industrial strategies for managing emissions can be made efficient, and the resulting strategies more cost-effective, through the application of modeling that accounts for relevant technical, environmental and economic factors. Accordingly, the United States Environmental Protection Agency is developing the Universal Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions module for the Pulp and Paper Industry (UISIS-PNP). It can be applied to evaluate emissions and economic performance of pulp and paper mills separately under user-defined pollution control strategies. In this paper, we discuss the UISIS-PNP module, the pulp and paper market and associated air emissions from the pulp and paper sector. After illustrating the sector-based multi-product modeling structure, a hypothetical example is presented to show the engineering and economic considerations involved in the emission-reduction modeling of the pulp and paper sector in the U.S.

  16. An analysis of a demand charge electricity grid tariff in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokke, A. V.; Doorman, G.L.; Ericson, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the demand response from residential electricity consumers to a demand charge grid tariff. The tariff charges the maximum hourly peak consumption in each of the winter months Dec, Jan, and Feb, thus giving incentives to reduce peak consumption. We use hourly electricity consumption data from 443 households, as well as data on their grid and power prices, the local temperature, wind speed, and hours of daylight. The panel data set is analyzed with a fixed effects regression model. The estimates indicate average demand reductions up to 0.37 kWh/h per household in response to the tariff. This is on average a 5% reduction, with a maximum reduction of 12% in hour 8 in Dec. The consumers did not receive any information on their continuous consumption or any reminders when the tariff was in effect. It is likely that the consumption reductions would have been even higher with more information to the consumers.

  17. Analyzing the impacts of final demand changes on total output using input-output approach: The case of Japanese ICT sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts of final demand changes on total output of Japanese Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sectors in future time. This study employs one of analysis tool in Input-Output (IO) analysis, demand-pull IO quantity model, in achieving the purpose. There are three final demand changes used in this study, namely (1) export, (2) import, and (3) outside households consumption changes. This study focuses on "pure change" condition, the condition that final demand changes only appear in analyzed sectors. The results show that export and outside households consumption modifications give positive impact while opposite impact could be seen in import change.

  18. New energy efficiency technologies associated with increased natural gas demand in delivery and consumption sectors of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghalandis, Saeid Mansouri

    2010-09-15

    Increasing population and economic growth in developing countries has changed their energy consumption patterns. So, the conventional systems of energy supply have become inadequate to deal with rising energy demand. Iran has great reservoirs of natural gas and its natural gas usage is far more than average international standard. Dominance of natural gas share in energy basket in Iran, make it necessary to consider energy efficient technologies and solutions for this domain. In this study new technologies for increasing energy efficiency (EE) in natural gas delivery and consumption sub sectors are discussed and evaluated according to available infrastructures in Iran.

  19. LPG consumption in the long term: supply, pricing demand with particular reference to the petrochemical sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shammas, P.

    1996-01-01

    Supply of LPG is forecast to grow over the next decade from the present level of 180 million t/y to about 185-190 million t/y, depending on demand in Asia which is rising rapidly and on new LPG export projects. Most of the increase in supply will come from new gas and crude oil production, from new LPG ventures, and from refineries reducing the n-butane content of motor gasoline. Pricing will remain volatile as a result of crude oil price volatility, variations in the winter weather in the Northern Hemisphere, and as result of competition between ethane, PPG, naphtha and condensate as ethylene cracker feedstocks. Demand for LPG in OECD countries will continue to show steady growth. The increase in demand will be more rapid in the relatively less developed OECD countries, as the trend in Spain has shown in recent years. Provided that the LPG price is competitive, demand in China, South-East Asia and the Indian sub-continent could grow beyond current projections. Consumption in these countries will depend on the installation of distribution facilities and the rate at which LPG can substitute for traditional fuels and kerosene as well as compete for limited disposable incomes. (author)

  20. The Role of Public-Sector Family Planning Programs in Meeting the Demand for Contraception in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongaarts, John; Hardee, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Commonly used indicators of contraceptive behavior in a population-modern contraceptive prevalence (mCPR), unmet need for contraception, demand for contraception and demand satisfied-are not well-suited for evaluating the progress made by government family planning programs in helping women and men achieve their reproductive goals. Trends in these measures in 26 Sub-Saharan African countries between 1990 and 2014 were examined. Trends in a proposed new indicator, the public-sector family planning program impact score (PFPI), and its relationship to mCPR and the family planning effort score were also assessed. Case studies were used to review public family planning program development and implementation in four countries (Nigeria, Ethiopia, Rwanda and Kenya). The four commonly used indicators capture the extent to which women use family planning and to which demand is satisfied, but shed no direct light on the role of family planning programs. PFPI provides evidence that can be used to hold governments accountable for meeting the demand for family planning, and was closely related to policy developments in the four case-study countries. PFPI provides a useful addition to the indicators currently used to assess progress in reproductive health and family planning programs.

  1. Psychosocial safety climate, emotional demands, burnout, and depression: a longitudinal multilevel study in the Malaysian private sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Mohd Awang; Dollard, Maureen F; Yulita

    2014-07-01

    This multilevel longitudinal study investigates a newly identified climate construct, psychosocial safety climate (PSC), as a precursor to job characteristics (e.g., emotional demands), and psychological outcomes (i.e., emotional exhaustion and depression). We argued that PSC, as an organizational climate construct, has cross-level effects on individually perceived job design and psychological outcomes. We hypothesized a mediation process between PSC and emotional exhaustion particularly through emotional demands. In sequence, we predicted that emotional exhaustion would predict depression. At Time 1, data were collected from employees in 36 Malaysian private sector organizations (80% responses rate), n = 253 (56%), and at Time 2 from 27 organizations (60%) and n = 117 (46%). Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), we found that there were cross-level effects of PSC Time 1 on emotional demands Time 2 and emotional exhaustion Time 2, but not on depression Time 2, across a 3-month time lag. We found evidence for a lagged mediated effect; emotional demands mediated the relationship between PSC and emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion did not predict depression. Finally, our results suggest that PSC is an important organizational climate construct, and acts to reduce employee psychological problems in the workplace, via working conditions.

  2. Estimating elasticities of demand for natural gas in the European household sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, Odd Bjarte; Asche, Frank; Tveteras, Ragnar

    2005-12-15

    This paper analyzes the residential natural gas demand in 12 European countries using a dynamic loglinear demand model, which allows for country-specific elasticity estimates in the short-run and long run. The explanatory variables include a heating degree days index, real prices of natural gas, light fuel oil, electricity, and real private income per capita. Our data set is a country panel with annual observations from 1978 to 2002. Short panel data sets like this represents a challenge for econometric estimation, as standard estimators often provide implausible estimates of elasticities. The demand model is estimated using both homogeneous and heterogeneous estimators, with a particular focus on the shrinkage estimator (an empirical Bayes estimator). The shrinkage short-run own-price and income elasticity tend to be very inelastic, but with greater long-run responsiveness. We provide support for employing a heterogeneous estimator such as the shrinkage estimator. But the empirical results also motivate a further scrutiny of its properties. We also consider the problem of reporting t-statistics of shrinkage estimators in the empirical Bayes (EB) framework and the problem of using the delta method to approximate the elasticities. The delta method biases upward the t-statistics of the shrinkage elasticities. An alternative approach, the bootstrap sampling methods obtained more reliable confidence intervals. We call into question - is the traditional way of constructing confidence intervals or t-statistics of the shrinkage estimator to naive. (Author)

  3. Regional electric power demand elasticities of Japan's industrial and commercial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoe, Nobuhiro; Akiyama, Shu-ichi

    2009-01-01

    In the assessment and review of regulatory reforms in the electric power market, price elasticity is one of the most important parameters that characterize the market. However, price elasticity has seldom been estimated in Japan; instead, it has been assumed to be as small as 0.1 or 0 without proper examination of the empirical validity of such a priori assumptions. We estimated the regional power demand functions for nine regions, in order to quantify the elasticity, and found the short-run price elasticity to be 0.09-0.30 and the long-run price elasticity to be 0.12-0.56. Inter-regional comparison of our estimation results suggests that price elasticity in rural regions is larger than that in urban regions. Popular assumptions of small elasticity of 0.1, for example, could be suitable for examining Japan's aggregate power demand but not power demand functions that focus on respective regions. Furthermore, assumptions about smaller elasticity values such as 0.01 and 0 could not be supported statistically by this study.

  4. Regional electric power demand elasticities of Japan's industrial and commercial sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoe, Nobuhiro [National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, 7-22-1 Roppongi, Minato, Tokyo 106-8677 (Japan); Akiyama, Shu-ichi [Kushiro Public University of Economics, 4-1-1 Ashino, Kushiro, Hokkaido 085-8585 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    In the assessment and review of regulatory reforms in the electric power market, price elasticity is one of the most important parameters that characterize the market. However, price elasticity has seldom been estimated in Japan; instead, it has been assumed to be as small as 0.1 or 0 without proper examination of the empirical validity of such a priori assumptions. We estimated the regional power demand functions for nine regions, in order to quantify the elasticity, and found the short-run price elasticity to be 0.09-0.30 and the long-run price elasticity to be 0.12-0.56. Inter-regional comparison of our estimation results suggests that price elasticity in rural regions is larger than that in urban regions. Popular assumptions of small elasticity of 0.1, for example, could be suitable for examining Japan's aggregate power demand but not power demand functions that focus on respective regions. Furthermore, assumptions about smaller elasticity values such as 0.01 and 0 could not be supported statistically by this study. (author)

  5. Energy supply options for Lithuania: A detailed multi-sector integrated energy demand, supply and environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    The Technical Co-operation (TC) project Energy Supply Options for Lithuania: A Detailed Multi-Sector Integrated Energy Demand, Supply and Environmental Analysis (LIT/0/004) was implemented 2001-2002 by a national team with support from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The principal objective of the project was to conduct a comprehensive assessment of Lithuania's future energy supply options taking into consideration the early closure of the Ignalina nuclear power plant (Ignalina NPP). Lithuania, a country in transition to full membership of the European Union, has to comply with the energy acquis (Chapter 14). The 'acquis communautaire' (the body of common rights and obligations which bind all the Member States together) must be adopted by all applicant countries. Implementing the acquis requires not only adequate legislation, well functioning institutions (e.g. a regulatory body as required in the electricity and gas directives) or schedules for restructuring the energy sector but also measures to enhance energy supply security, improvement of energy networks, efficiency improvements throughout the energy system and compliance with European environmental standards. Within the overall context of the transition to EU membership, this study focuses on the future development of the electricity sector and the impacts on energy supply security and environmental performance of a closure of Ignalina NPP by 2009, a pre-condition for accession stipulated by the European Union. The project coincided with the preparation of the new National Energy Strategy for Lithuania and therefore was set up to support the strategy formulation process

  6. Biofuel demand estimation in the rural domestic energy sector of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, C.S.; Joshi, V.

    1993-01-01

    The major efforts and their limitations to formulate rural domestic energy requirements in India are discussed. Results of some of the recent efforts for quantifying biofuel consumption in rural areas are presented thereafter. Emphasis in this paper is on the recent efforts to collate and analyze results of energy consumption survey of 638 villages covering over 39,000 households. These are used to estimate biofuel use for different agro-climatic regions in India by estimating consumption at the district level in the rural domestic sector. The results are aggregated at the state level and they are compared with other estimates for India. The range of consumption aggregated at the national level is found to vary widely (93-252 million tonnes/y of firewood, 54-107 million tonnes/y of animal waste and 36-99 million tonnes/y of agricultural residues). Reasons for the wide disparity in the results is briefly discussed. (author)

  7. Biofuel demand estimation in the rural domestic energy sector of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, C.S.; Joshi, Veena

    1994-01-01

    The major efforts and their limitations to formulate rural domestic energy requirements in India are discussed. Results of some of the recent efforts for quantifying biofuel consumption in rural areas are presented. Emphasis is on the recent efforts to collate and analyze results of energy consumption survey of 638 villages covering over 39,000 households. These are used to estimate biofuel use for different agro-climatic regions in India by estimating consumption at the district level in the rural domestic sector. The results are aggregated at the state level and they are compared with other estimates for India. The range of consumption aggregated at the national level is found to vary widely (93-252 million tonnes/yr of firewood, 54-107 million tonnes/yr of animal waste and 36-99 million tonnes/yr of agricultural residues). Reasons for the wide disparity in the results is briefly discussed. (author)

  8. Multicriteria evaluation of demand side management (DSM) implementation strategies in the Indian power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vashishtha, Sanjay [Centre for Renewable Energy and Environmental Development (CREED), BITS, Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India); Ramachandran, M. [BITS Pilani Dubai Centre, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2006-09-15

    In recent years, demand side management (DSM) has emerged as an efficient utility planning strategy for reducing capacity shortages and improving system load factors. The Indian government is adopting various policies to implement DSM programs. DSM implementation involves a variety of interests with conflicting objectives, and a range of possible implementation strategies with varying implications for effectiveness, cost, feasibility, efficiency and stakeholder acceptance. This necessitates a critical comparison of the strategies to determine a preferred strategy or combination of strategies from each specific stakeholder's point of view. The present study evaluates DSM implementation strategies from a multiobjective perspective using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Eight strategies and six criteria were considered. Forty utility, regulator, and consumer stakeholders were surveyed. The most highly ranked strategies involved creating dedicated funds and providing technical support to end users for effective implementation of DSM. (author)

  9. Warm homes: Drivers of the demand for heating in the residential sector in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Viggers, Helen; Chapman, Ralph; O'Dea, Des; Free, Sarah; O'Sullivan, Kimberley

    2009-01-01

    New Zealand houses are large, often poorly constructed and heated, by OECD standards, and consequently are colder and damper indoors than recommended by the World Health Organisation. This affects both the energy consumption and the health of households. The traditional New Zealand household pattern of only heating one room of the house has been unchanged for decades, although there has been substantial market penetration of unflued gas heaters and more recently heat pumps. This paper describes the residential sector and the results of two community-based trials of housing and heating interventions that have been designed to measure the impact of (1) retrofitting insulation and (2) replacing unflued gas heaters and electric resistance heaters with heat pumps, wood pellet burners and flued gas heaters. The paper describes findings on the rebound effect or 'take-back'-the extent to which households take the gains from insulation and heating improvements as comfort (higher temperatures) rather than energy savings, and compares energy-saving patterns with those suggested by an earlier study. Findings on these aspects of household space heating are discussed in the context of the New Zealand government's policy drive for a more sustainable energy system, and the implications for climate change policy.

  10. Current Demands for Food-Approved Liposome Nanoparticles in Food and Safety Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Shukla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Safety of food is a noteworthy issue for consumers and the food industry. A number of complex challenges associated with food engineering and food industries, including quality food production and safety of the food through effective and feasible means can be explained by nanotechnology. However, nanoparticles have unique physicochemical properties compared to normal macroparticles of the same composition and thus could interact with living system in surprising ways to induce toxicity. Further, few toxicological/safety assessments have been performed on nanoparticles, thereby necessitating further research on oral exposure risk prior to their application to food. Liposome nanoparticles are viewed as attractive novel materials by the food and medical industries. For example, nanoencapsulation of bioactive food compounds is an emerging application of nanotechnology. In several food industrial practices, liposome nanoparticles have been utilized to improve flavoring and nutritional properties of food, and they have been examined for their capacity to encapsulate natural metabolites that may help to protect the food from spoilage and degradation. This review focuses on ongoing advancements in the application of liposomes for food and pharma sector.

  11. The Boom of Electricity Demand in the Residential Sector in the Developing World and the Potential for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.

    2008-05-13

    With the emergence of China as the world's largest energy consumer, the awareness of developing country energy consumption has risen. According to common economic scenarios, the rest of the developing world will probably see an economic expansion as well. With this growth will surely come continued rapid growth in energy demand. This paper explores the dynamics of that demand growth for electricity in the residential sector and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. In 2000, only 66% of developing world households had access to electricity. Appliance ownership rates remain low, but with better access to electricity and a higher income one can expect that households will see their electricity consumption rise significantly. This paper forecasts developing country appliance growth using econometric modeling. Products considered explicitly - refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting, washing machines, fans, televisions, stand-by power, water heating and space heating - represent the bulk of household electricity consumption in developing countries. The resulting diffusion model determines the trend and dynamics of demand growth at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, the paper presents scenarios for reducing residential consumption through cost-effective and/or best practice efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, which allows for a realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities at the national or regional level. The past decades have seen some of the developing world moving towards a standard of living previously reserved for industrialized countries. Rapid economic development, combined with large populations has led to first China and now India to emerging as &apos

  12. Controlling the demand for electricity: strategies and challenges in the residential sector of the OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebot, B.

    2003-01-01

    By reinforcing policies to improve the energy efficiency of household appliances (particularly by rating the efficiency of each appliance as a minimum of its overall cost from 2005 onwards), the member countries of the IEA are in a position to reduce their annual CO 2 emissions by approximately 322 million tonnes (Mt) by 2010, compared to what they would have obtained using current policies. In 2030, this same policy will make it possible to achieve an annual saving of 1 110 TWh in the consumption of electricity, (572 Mt of CO 2 each year). This measure alone will meet 30% of the objectives of the member countries of the IEA under the Kyoto agreements concerning climatic change. These reductions can be obtained at a negative cost for society as the additional cost generated by improvements in energy efficiency is offset by savings made in operating costs during the life of the appliance. Thus, in the United States, each tonne of CO 2 saved in this way in 2020 will generate $65 for society. In Europe, every tonne of CO 2 saved will generate a gain of euros 169 (the difference being accounted for by the higher cost of electricity and by lower energy efficiency standards currently existing in Europe). It is possible to make major savings in all regions of the OECD, despite the vast diversity of the various situations of the countries. In the member countries of the IEA, the policies in place have already demonstrated their economic effectiveness in reducing demand for energy and greenhouse gas emissions. Up to 2000, they made it possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by approximately 46 Mt of CO 2 each year. These policies will contribute to reducing emissions by 126 Mt of CO 2 each year up to 2010. International co-operation offers real advantages in the deployment of policies for controlling the demand for energy by households. Manufacturers, consumers and governments all benefit from greater transparency in the marketplace, improved comparisons of test methods

  13. INFLUENCE OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND FACTORS AT THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIBLE HOUSING AND UTILITIES SECTOR IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia B. Safronova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Empirical marketing regional research on supply and demand factors of housing and communal services (HCS revealed determinants of customer loyalty and satisfaction with the service level and factors influencing on willingness to purchase additional services. Specific features of housing and utilities sector (HUS as a social significant industry determine requirements to models reflecting reciprocal influence of indices of satisfaction, loyalty and economic indices of operation. The article presents definition of requirements along with development of techniques for modeling influence of satisfaction and loyalty on consumer behaviour of clients. The authors demonstrate trustworthy statistical results of correlative interrelationship of different factors. There have been designed regression models for taking management solutions by executives of management company housing and communal services at the development environmental responsibility. The causes that lead and hamper development of socially oriented services in different regions of the Russian Federation have been identified.

  14. Modulation strategies of integrated HVAC systems used in residential buildings for demand-side management at different scales

    OpenAIRE

    Georges, Emeline

    2017-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy sources in the electricity production mix has an important impact on the management of the electricity grid, due to their intermittency. In particular, to ensure grid balancing, there is a rising need for flexibility, both on the supply and demand sides. A possible solution to help achieve grid balancing is the smart modulation of the electrical load in a "demand following supply" scheme through demand-side management. In this context, the objective of...

  15. Extension of the COSYMA-ECONOMICS module - cost calculations based on different economic sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faude, D.

    1994-12-01

    The COSYMA program system for evaluating the off-site consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material to the atmosphere includes an ECONOMICS module for assessing economic consequences. The aim of this module is to convert various consequences (radiation-induced health effects and impacts resulting from countermeasures) caused by an accident into the common framework of economic costs; this allows different effects to be expressed in the same terms and thus to make these effects comparable. With respect to the countermeasure 'movement of people', the dominant cost categories are 'loss-of-income costs' and 'costs of lost capital services'. In the original version of the ECONOMICS module these costs are calculated on the basis of the total number of people moved. In order to take into account also regional or local economic peculiarities of a nuclear site, the ECONOMICS module has been extended: Calculation of the above mentioned cost categories is now based on the number of employees in different economic sectors in the affected area. This extension of the COSYMA ECONOMICS module is described in more detail. (orig.)

  16. The effect of China exportations to the United States of America in the job demand of the manufacturing sector of Mexico 2004-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Mendoza Cota

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently the manufacturing sector of Mexico has experienced a reduced rate of growth. This study estimates the impact of the industrial activity of the U.S. and China on the demand for labor in the manufacturing sector of the northern border states of Mexico. With data on industrial activity, Chinese exports, wages and the peso-dollar exchange rate, a time series co-integration model is developed. The results show that exports from China to the Usa and manufacturing wages have affected labor demand negatively, while factors such as, the U.S. industrial production and the exchange rate tend to encourage manufacturing activity.

  17. PETRA. The Travel Demand Module - Estimation and Validation. PETRA working paper no. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The Travel Demand Module (TDM) is one of the more significant elements within the PETRA system. The TDM consists of a number of discrete sub-models that attempt to represent individual and household behaviour in a number of areas, including licence holding, an cohort effects, changes in the extent and composition of the car fleet, and mode and destination choice. The Chain Choice model uses the measure of accessibility, the logsum, derived from the mode and destination choice models, in addition to socio-demographic variables to explain chain choice. This model is an extension of the idea underlying the traditional frequency model, and has been inspired, in part, by the developments in activity based modelling. (EG) EFP-94. 20 refs.

  18. Analyzing the impacts of final demand changes on total output using input-output approach: The case of Japanese ICT sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts of final demand changes on total output of Japanese Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sectors in future time. This study employs one of analysis tool in Input-Output (IO) analysis, demand-pull IO quantity model, in achieving the purpose. There are three final demand changes used in this study, namely (1) export, (2) import, and (3) outside households consumption changes. This study focuses on ''pure change'' condition, the condition that final demand changes only appear in analyzed sectors. The results show that export and outside households consumption modifications give positive impact while opposite impact could be seen in import change

  19. How to Align the University Curricula with the Market Demands by Developing Employability Skills in the Civil Engineering Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Anastasiu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to discover which employability skills may be developed by students from technical universities in order to meet market demands. Since graduates from technical universities face unemployment or over qualification for vacant jobs, we presumed that there is a misalignment between employers’ expectations concerning graduates’ skills and what they really get from school. Therefore, we conceived a questionnaire to see the demands of the business environment regarding graduates’ technical and professional skills. After analyzing the data, we proposed an interdisciplinary module system, where the mentors coming from the companies involved in the study teach voluntary or optional courses and applications in the domains where they have expertise. We used the employability skills model to find that mix of competencies that may help graduates find jobs in their field of knowledge. This innovative method serves universities, students and companies as well: the prestige of a university is quantified by the experts delivered into the labor market; companies will have well prepared employees in their specific area, with less costs; students will find jobs which will match their expectations, giving them motivation to perform. The limitation of the present research is that the study refers only to the Civil Engineering specialization of the Technical University Cluj-Napoca Romania.

  20. Clinical Realization of Sector Beam Intensity Modulation for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery: A Pilot Treatment Planning Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Lijun; Mason, Erica; Sneed, Penny K.; McDermott, Michael; Polishchuk, Alexei; Larson, David A.; Sahgal, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the clinical feasibility and potential benefits of sector beam intensity modulation (SBIM) specific to Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS). Methods and Materials: SBIM is based on modulating the confocal beam intensities from individual sectors surrounding an isocenter in a nearly 2π geometry. This is in contrast to conventional GKSRS delivery, in which the beam intensities from each sector are restricted to be either 0% or 100% and must be identical for any given isocenter. We developed a SBIM solution based on available clinical planning tools, and we tested it on a cohort of 12 clinical cases as a proof of concept study. The SBIM treatment plans were compared with the original clinically delivered treatment plans to determine dosimetric differences. The goal was to investigate whether SBIM would improve the dose conformity for these treatment plans without prohibitively lengthening the treatment time. Results: A SBIM technique was developed. On average, SBIM improved the Paddick conformity index (PCI) versus the clinically delivered plans (clinical plan PCI = 0.68 ± 0.11 vs SBIM plan PCI = 0.74 ± 0.10, P=.002; 2-tailed paired t test). The SBIM plans also resulted in nearly identical target volume coverage (mean, 97 ± 2%), total beam-on times (clinical plan 58.4 ± 38.9 minutes vs SBIM 63.5 ± 44.7 minutes, P=.057), and gradient indices (clinical plan 3.03 ± 0.27 vs SBIM 3.06 ± 0.29, P=.44) versus the original clinical plans. Conclusion: The SBIM method is clinically feasible with potential dosimetric gains when compared with conventional GKSRS

  1. Regional health workforce monitoring as governance innovation: a German model to coordinate sectoral demand, skill mix and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, E; Lauxen, O; Larsen, C

    2016-11-28

    As health workforce policy is gaining momentum, data sources and monitoring systems have significantly improved in the European Union and internationally. Yet data remain poorly connected to policy-making and implementation and often do not adequately support integrated approaches. This brings the importance of governance and the need for innovation into play. The present case study introduces a regional health workforce monitor in the German Federal State of Rhineland-Palatinate and seeks to explore the capacity of monitoring to innovate health workforce governance. The monitor applies an approach from the European Network on Regional Labour Market Monitoring to the health workforce. The novel aspect of this model is an integrated, procedural approach that promotes a 'learning system' of governance based on three interconnected pillars: mixed methods and bottom-up data collection, strong stakeholder involvement with complex communication tools and shared decision- and policy-making. Selected empirical examples illustrate the approach and the tools focusing on two aspects: the connection between sectoral, occupational and mobility data to analyse skill/qualification mixes and the supply-demand matches and the connection between monitoring and stakeholder-driven policy. Regional health workforce monitoring can promote effective governance in high-income countries like Germany with overall high density of health workers but maldistribution of staff and skills. The regional stakeholder networks are cost-effective and easily accessible and might therefore be appealing also to low- and middle-income countries.

  2. Heterogeneity of demand responses in modelling the distributional consequences of tradable carbon permits in the road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadud, Zia; Noland, Robert B.; Graham, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Personal road transport sector is one of the largest and fastest growing sources of CO 2 emissions. This paper investigates a tradable permit policy for mitigating carbon emissions from personal road transport and discusses various issues of permit allocation. As tradable permits will effectively raise the price of fuel, the policy has important distributional implications. The distribution of burden depends on permit allocation strategies and on the consumer response to an increase in price. The behavioural response may vary among different segments of the population depending on their travel needs, which in turn are contingent upon their income, location of residence and other factors. Consumer Expenditure Survey micro dataset from 1997 to 2002 has been used to econometrically model the possible variation of price elasticity for different socio-economic groups in the USA. Results indicate that the response of gasoline demand to a change in price does depend on income level or location of the household. Distributional impacts of the tradable permit policy are then evaluated using the micro dataset for year 2002. In this regard, different permit allocation schemes are considered in the analysis. Impacts on households owning a vehicle and households with no vehicles have been evaluated as well

  3. Managing Demand and Capacity Using Multi-Sector Planning and Flexible Airspace: Human-in-the-Loop Evaluation of NextGen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul U.; Smith, Nancy M.; Prevot, Thomas; Homola, Jeffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    When demand for an airspace sector exceeds capacity, the balance can be re-established by reducing the demand, increasing the capacity, or both. The Multi-Sector Planner (MSP) concept has been proposed to better manage traffic demand by modifying trajectories across multiple sectors. A complementary approach to MSP, called Flexible Airspace Management (FAM), reconfigures the airspace such that capacity can be reallocated dynamically to balance the traffic demand across multiple sectors, resulting in fewer traffic management initiatives. The two concepts have been evaluated with a series of human-in-the-loop simulations at the Airspace Operations Laboratory to examine and refine the roles of the human operators in these concepts, as well as their tools and procedural requirements. So far MSP and FAM functions have been evaluated individually but the integration of the two functions is desirable since there are significant overlaps in their goals, geographic/temporal scope of the problem space, and the implementation timeframe. Ongoing research is planned to refine the humans roles in the integrated concept.

  4. New method for probabilistic traffic demand predictions for en route sectors based on uncertain predictions of individual flight events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    This paper presents a novel analytical approach to and techniques for translating characteristics of uncertainty in predicting sector entry times and times in sector for individual flights into characteristics of uncertainty in predicting one-minute ...

  5. Diurnal modulation due to self-interacting mirror and hidden sector dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foot, R.

    2012-01-01

    Mirror and more generic hidden sector dark matter models can simultaneously explain the DAMA, CoGeNT and CRESST-II dark matter signals consistently with the null results of the other experiments. This type of dark matter can be captured by the Earth and shield detectors because it is self-interacting. This effect will lead to a diurnal modulation in dark matter detectors. We estimate the size of this effect for dark matter detectors in various locations. For a detector located in the northern hemisphere, this effect is expected to peak in April and can be detected for optimistic parameter choices. The diurnal variation is expected to be much larger for detectors located in the southern hemisphere. In particular, if the CoGeNT detector were moved to e.g. Sierra Grande, Argentina then a 5σ dark matter discovery would be possible in around 30 days of operation

  6. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 3. Appendix on service and fuel demands. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    This book is the third volume of the ISTUM report. The first volume of the report describes the primary model logic and the model's data inputs. The second volume lists and evaluates the results of one model run. This and the fourth volume give supplementary information in two sets of model data - the energy consumption base and technology descriptions. Chapter III of Vol. I, Book 1 describes the ISTUM demand base and explains how that demand base was developed. This volume serves as a set of appendices to that chapter. The chapter on demands in Vol. I describes the assumptions and methodology used in constructing the ISTUM demand base; this volume simply lists tables of data from that demand base. This book divides the demand tables into two appendices. Appendix III-1 contains detailed tables on ISTUM fuel-consumption estimates, service-demand forecasts, and size and load-factor distributions. Appendix III-2 contains tables detailing ISTUM allocations of each industry's fuel consumption to service sectors. The tables show how the ECDB was used to develop the ISTUM demand base.

  7. Agent-based model for electricity consumption and storage to evaluate economic viability of tariff arbitrage for residential sector demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Menglian; Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Storage-based demand response (loadshifting) is underutilized in residential sector. • Economics (arbitrage savings versus equipment cost) are not well understood. • Stochastic demand models and real-life tariffs can illuminate economic viability. • A range of available storage options provide economically viable DR. • Daily/seasonal stochastic demand variations crucial to understanding optimum capacity. - Abstract: Demand response (DR) is one of many approaches to address temporal mismatches in demand and supply of grid electricity. More common in the commercial sector, DR usually refers to reducing consumption at certain hours or seasons, thus reducing peak demand from the grid. In the residential sector, where sophisticated appliance-level controls such as automatic dimming of lights or on-demand lowering of air conditioning are less common, building-based electricity storage to shift grid consumption from peak to off-peak times could provide DR without requiring consumers to operate their appliances on shifted or reduced schedules: Storage would be dispatched to appliances as needed while still shaving peaks on the grid. Technologically, storage and two-way-inverters are readily available to enable such residential DR. Economically, however, the situation is less clear. Specifically, are time-varying electricity tariffs available such that electricity cost reduction via arbitrage could offset manufacturing, financing, and installation costs of the required storage? To address this question we (i) devise an agent-based appliance-level stochastic model to simulate the electricity demand of an average U.S. household; (ii) loadshift the demand via simple dispatch strategies; and (iii) determine potential profits to the building owner, i.e. reduced electricity cost of the modified demand with realistic tariffs (Con Edison, NY) minus storage cost. We determine the economic viability for a range of traditional and advanced storage technologies

  8. Brazilian residential sector demand administration programs: opportunities, costs and barriers; Programas de administracao da demanda para o setor residencial brasileiro: oportunidades, custos e barreiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Santos, Vanice Ferreira dos; Ugaya, Cassia Maria Lie; Madureira, Ronaldo Goncalves; Salcedo, Marco Vinicio Yanez [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This work aims to present some results and discussions concerning the implementation of demand side management projects for the Brazilian residential sector. The economic advantages of these programs for the electric power utilities is presented as well as the barriers and problems. The opportunities for the application of such programs in a national level are presented and the expected difficulties discussed. A case study is presented 3 tabs., 3 refs.

  9. Peak electricity demand and social practice theories: Reframing the role of change agents in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strengers, Yolande

    2012-01-01

    Demand managers currently draw on a limited range of psychology and economic theories in order to shift and shed peak electricity demand. These theories place individual consumers and their attitudes, behaviours and choices at the centre of the problem. This paper reframes the issue of peak electricity demand using theories of social practices, contending that the ‘problem’ is one of transforming, technologically-mediated social practices. It reflects on how this body of theory repositions and refocuses the roles and practices of professions charged with the responsibility and agency for affecting and managing energy demand. The paper identifies three areas where demand managers could refocus their attention: (i) enabling co-management relationships with consumers; (ii) working beyond their siloed roles with a broader range of human and non-human actors; and (iii) promoting new practice ‘needs’ and expectations. It concludes by critically reflecting on the limited agency attributed to ‘change agents’ such as demand managers in dominant understandings of change. Instead, the paper proposes the need to identify and establish a new group of change agents who are actively but often unwittingly involved in reconfiguring the elements of problematic peaky practices. - Highlights: ► I reframe peak electricity demand as a problem of changing social practices. ► Micro-grids, and dynamic pricing reorient household routines and enable co-management. ► Infrastructures inside and outside the home configure peaky practices. ► Demand managers are encouraged to promote and challenge consumer ‘needs’. ► I identify a new group of change agents implicated in peaky practices.

  10. Modeling global residential sector energy demand for heating and air conditioning in the context of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac, Morna; Vuuren, Detlef P. van

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we assess the potential development of energy use for future residential heating and air conditioning in the context of climate change. In a reference scenario, global energy demand for heating is projected to increase until 2030 and then stabilize. In contrast, energy demand for air conditioning is projected to increase rapidly over the whole 2000-2100 period, mostly driven by income growth. The associated CO 2 emissions for both heating and cooling increase from 0.8 Gt C in 2000 to 2.2 Gt C in 2100, i.e. about 12% of total CO 2 emissions from energy use (the strongest increase occurs in Asia). The net effect of climate change on global energy use and emissions is relatively small as decreases in heating are compensated for by increases in cooling. However, impacts on heating and cooling individually are considerable in this scenario, with heating energy demand decreased by 34% worldwide by 2100 as a result of climate change, and air-conditioning energy demand increased by 72%. At the regional scale considerable impacts can be seen, particularly in South Asia, where energy demand for residential air conditioning could increase by around 50% due to climate change, compared with the situation without climate change

  11. Safety integrity under demanding conditions: A study on Permit-to-Work (PTW) systems in the Marine-Subsea sector

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakumar, Shambu

    2015-01-01

    Master's thesis in Risk management Last few years has seen evaluation of the oil and gas industry into innovative subsea solution and technological leap leading to the subsea factory. Taking this into perspective the marine subsea industry is one of the most developing sectors involving many stakeholders with a wide range of background to perform various operations. These operations bring together marine operators, ship owners, subsea asset owners/asset operators, subsea equipment manufact...

  12. Uruguaian rural area: energy demand and sources supply; Sector rural uruguayo: demanda de energia y sus posibles fuentes de suministro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reolon, R [Ministerio de Industria Energia y Mineria, Direccion Nacional de Energia, Montevideo(Uruguay)

    1994-07-01

    The present work is about the energy demand in rural areas and its electrification like one of the factors of its residents maintenance, in the means that they are essential for the development but intensive of agrarian intensity, nevertheless we will try to determine their quantity and the character one of them.

  13. Reward-driven modulation of adaptive control: How prospective monetary gains interact with unpredictable control demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marien, Hans; Aarts, Henk; Custers, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    Shifting attention is an effortful control process and incurs a cost on the cognitive system. Previous research suggests that rewards, such as monetary gains, will selectively enhance the ability to shift attention when this demand for control is explicitly cued. Here, we hypothesized that

  14. Modulation of Task Demands Suggests That Semantic Processing Interferes with the Formation of Episodic Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nicole M.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Although episodic and semantic memory share overlapping neural mechanisms, it remains unclear how our pre-existing semantic associations modulate the formation of new, episodic associations. When freely recalling recently studied words, people rely on both episodic and semantic associations, shown through temporal and semantic clustering of…

  15. Demand curves of electric energy in domestic sector in two regions of Mexico; Curvas de demanda de energia electrica en sector domestico de dos regiones de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqueda Zamora, Martin Roberto; Sanchez Viveros, Luis Agustin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    In this work, is presented the analysis of residential consumption, regarding the temperature of two areas and types of electrical appliances. A shape characteristic of the load of the electrical energy is obtained for two geographical areas in Mexico. The consumption information was obtained from measurements in residential consumers and from the Mexican Utility. It is also shown the demand profile of the main residential appliances, obtained from smart metering equipment to separate the residential users' load profiles. It is shown the effect of the different variables analyzed on the electrical power consumption, mainly the type of equipment, the geographical localization, the weather (temperature, humidity and vegetation type). With the results attained, the definition of effective energy-saving programs and its effectiveness can be obtained. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el analisis del consumo residencial considerando la temperatura de las dos areas y tipos de aparatos electricos. Se obtiene una forma caracteristica de la carga de energia electrica de dos areas geograficas de Mexico. La informacion sobre el consumo se obtuvo de mediciones en consumidores residenciales y de una empresa electrica mexicana. Tambien se muestra el perfil de demanda de los principales aparatos residenciales, derivado de equipos de medicion inteligentes para separar los perfiles de carga de usuarios residenciales. Se muestra el efecto de diferentes variables analizadas en el consumo de energia electrica, principalmente el tipo de equipo, la localizacion geografica, el clima (temperatura, humedad y tipo de vegetacion). Con los resultados alcanzados pueden definirse programas de ahorro de energia efectivos y lograr implantarlos.

  16. Estimation of optimal capacity of the module through the demand analysis of refinery hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Young-Seek; Kim, Ho-Jin; Kim, Il-Su [SK energy Institution of Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2006-02-15

    Hydrogen is focused as energy carrier, not an energy source on the rising of problems such as exhaustion of fossil fuel and environment pollution. Thermochemical hydrogen production by nuclear energy has potential to efficiently produce large quantities of hydrogen without producing greenhouse gases. The oil refiners and petro-chemical plant are very large, centralized producers and users of industrial hydrogen, and they a high-potential early market for hydrogen produced by nuclear energy. Therefore, hydrogen market of petro-chemical industry as demand site for nuclear hydrogen was investigated and worked for demand forecast of hydrogen in 2020. Also we suggested possible supply plans of nuclear hydrogen considered regional characteristics. The hydrogen production cost was analyzed and estimated for nuclear hydrogen as well as conventional hydrogen production such as natural gas reforming and coal gasification in various range.

  17. Estimation of optimal capacity of the module through the demand analysis of refinery hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young-Seek; Kim, Ho-Jin; Kim, Il-Su

    2006-02-01

    Hydrogen is focused as energy carrier, not an energy source on the rising of problems such as exhaustion of fossil fuel and environment pollution. Thermochemical hydrogen production by nuclear energy has potential to efficiently produce large quantities of hydrogen without producing greenhouse gases. The oil refiners and petro-chemical plant are very large, centralized producers and users of industrial hydrogen, and they a high-potential early market for hydrogen produced by nuclear energy. Therefore, hydrogen market of petro-chemical industry as demand site for nuclear hydrogen was investigated and worked for demand forecast of hydrogen in 2020. Also we suggested possible supply plans of nuclear hydrogen considered regional characteristics. The hydrogen production cost was analyzed and estimated for nuclear hydrogen as well as conventional hydrogen production such as natural gas reforming and coal gasification in various range

  18. Web-based nephropathology teaching modules and user satisfaction: the nephrology on-demand experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Tejas; Talento, Romualdo; Christiano, Cynthia; Ferris, Maria; Hewan-Lowe, Karlene

    2011-01-01

    Nephropathology is an integral component of nephrology education. Online teaching sites provide valuable educational materials to learners, but learner satisfaction has not been measured. We developed a nephropathology website and measured learners' satisfaction. The Nephrology On-Demand Histopathology website (http://blog.ecu.edu/sites/nephrologyondemand/?page_id=4502) provided nephropathologic specimens with explanations. Users were asked to complete a Likert-based survey (1-strongly agree . . . 5-strongly disagree) regarding four key areas of content quality: accuracy, currency, objectivity, and usefulness. Learners of all training levels perceived the content quality favorably. The mean (±SD) for accuracy was 1.70 (0.89), currency 1.62 (0.90), objectivity 1.80 (1.01), and usefulness 1.72 (0.95). Nephrology On-Demand Histopathology is a well-received teaching tool to learners of all training levels. Educators may consider using it, as well as other online nephropathology sites, as adjunctive teaching tools.

  19. An electric vehicle dispatch module for demand-side energy participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Bowen; Yao, Feng; Littler, Tim; Zhang, Huaguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Real-time measurement and assessment to calculate EV initial state-of-charge (SOC). • Flexible EV charging allocation using measured available time duration (ATD). • Owner participation using mobile phone apps and a new EV dispatch module. • Online algorithm for real-time calculation of maximum and minimum adjustable limits. • Business-trading models with data security, trending and commercial impacts of EV. - Abstract: The penetration of the electric vehicle (EV) has increased rapidly in recent years mainly as a consequence of advances in transport technology and power electronics and in response to global pressure to reduce carbon emissions and limit fossil fuel consumption. It is widely acknowledged that inappropriate provision and dispatch of EV charging can lead to negative impacts on power system infrastructure. This paper considers EV requirements and proposes a module which uses owner participation, through mobile phone apps and on-board diagnostics II (OBD-II), for scheduled vehicle charging. A multi-EV reference and single-EV real-time response (MRS2R) online algorithm is proposed to calculate the maximum and minimum adjustable limits of necessary capacity, which forms part of decision-making support in power system dispatch. The proposed EV dispatch module is evaluated in a case study and the influence of the mobile app, EV dispatch trending and commercial impact is explored.

  20. Attributes and circumstances that induce inappropriate health services demand: a study of the health sector in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Djalma S; Soares, Eduardo J O; Júnior, Gileno Ferraz; Medeiros, Denise D

    2015-02-18

    The current economic and social context has required health systems to provide top quality services and to be efficient in controlling costs. An obstacle to achieve these goals is the inappropriate health services demand. This study aims to present these inappropriate health service demand determinants from data on telephone calls made to a medical advice call centre. This study used a Brazilian medical advice call centre data sample in the period of November and December 2012 (n = 19690), which supplied data on the user's initial request, the physician's recommendation, information on the patient and circumstances (the day and time of the day of the telephone call). The convergence between user intent and medical recommendation consists in adequate demand; otherwise the divergence consists in an inadequate one. In this way, using a logistic regression model, the critical factors that determine inappropriate health services request could be estimated. In general, the user's initial intent is the most critical for the inappropriate health system demand occurrence: the greater the complexity of the patient's initial intent, the greater the chance the intent is wrong: (OR: 1.160; 95% CI: 1.113-1.210). With regard to the social characteristics, men are more likely to make inappropriate requests (OR: 1.102; 95% CI: 1038-1169); as well as youngsters are more likely to use the system incorrectly (OR = .993; 95% CI: .992 - .994). Regarding the circumstances (day and time of the call), requests in the final hours of the day and on days close to the weekend are more likely to be the inappropriate ones (OR: 1.082 for each six hour increase; 95% CI: 1.049-1.116) and weekday (OR: 1.017 for each day increase; 95% CI: 1.002-1.032). The critical profile for the inappropriate use occurrence consists of males and youngsters, who use the health service in the final hours of the day and at weekends, and mainly want to use more complex services. A practical implication of this

  1. Expanding health insurance scheme in the informal sector in Nigeria: awareness as a potential demand-side tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, David Ayobami; Akanbi, Saidat Abisola; Osungbade, Kayode Omoniyi; Bello, Segun

    2017-01-01

    The implementation and expansion of a health insurance scheme in the informal sector, particularly in developing countries, is a challenge. With the aid of an innovative Information-Education and Communication model, titled 'Understanding the concept of health insurance: An innovative social marketing tool', an assessment of the awareness and perception of the scheme among market women was carried out. This is a cross-sectional descriptive survey, carried out among market women in Ibadan, Nigeria. In a multi-stage sampling technique, a total of 351 women were interviewed using an interviewer-administered, semi-structured questionnaire. The data was analysed using SPSS version 16. Chi-square test was used to test associations between selected variables of interest. Logistic regression model was used to determine predictors of awareness of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). A model controlling for participants' enrolment status was built and Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) reported. Level of statistical significance was set at p market women aged 18 years and above participated in the study, a response rate of 98.0%. Respondents' educational status was the only predictor significantly associated with awareness of the NHIS. Respondents with post-primary education had 10 times the odds of being aware of the NHIS than respondents with no education or only primary education (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 10.3; 95% CI = 4.1-26.0). Innovative models to enable potential beneficiaries, especially among the informal sector, to better comprehend and accept the concept of prepayment methods of financing healthcare costs is important in efforts to implement and expand a social health insurance scheme.

  2. A mathematical programming framework for energy planning in services' sector buildings under uncertainty in load demand: The case of a hospital in Athens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrotas, George; Diakoulaki, Danae; Florios, Kostas; Georgiou, Paraskevas

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an integrated modeling and optimization framework for energy planning in large consumers of the services' sector based on mathematical programming. The power demand is vaguely known and the underlying uncertainty is modeled using elements from fuzzy set theory. The defined fuzzy programming model is subsequently transformed to an equivalent multi-objective problem, where the minimization of cost and the maximization of demand satisfaction are the objective functions. The Pareto optimal solutions of this problem are obtained using a novel version of the ε-constraint method and represent the possibly optimal solutions of the original problem under uncertainty. In the present case, in order to select the most preferred Pareto optimal solution, the minimax regret criterion is properly used to indicate the preferred configuration of the system (i.e. the size of the installed units) given the load uncertainty. Furthermore, the paper proposes a model reduction technique that can be used in similar cases and further examines its effect in the final results. The above methodology is applied to the energy rehabilitation of a hospital in the Athens area. The technologies under consideration include a combined heat and power unit for providing power and heat, an absorption unit and/or a compression unit for providing cooling load. The obtained results demonstrate that, increasing the degree of demand satisfaction, the total annual cost increases almost linearly. Although data compression allows obtaining realistic results, the size of the proposed units might be slightly changed

  3. Modulation of the electrophysiological correlates of retrieval cue processing by the specificity of task demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey D; Rugg, Michael D

    2006-02-03

    Retrieval orientation refers to the differential processing of retrieval cues according to the type of information sought from memory (e.g., words vs. pictures). In the present study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were employed to investigate whether the neural correlates of differential retrieval orientations are sensitive to the specificity of the retrieval demands of the test task. In separate study-test phases, subjects encoded lists of intermixed words and pictures, and then undertook one of two retrieval tests, in both of which the retrieval cues were exclusively words. In the recognition test, subjects performed 'old/new' discriminations on the test items, and old items corresponded to only one class of studied material (words or pictures). In the exclusion test, old items corresponded to both classes of study material, and subjects were required to respond 'old' only to test items corresponding to a designated class of material. Thus, demands for retrieval specificity were greater in the exclusion test than during recognition. ERPs elicited by correctly classified new items in the two types of test were contrasted according to whether words or pictures were the sought-for material. Material-dependent ERP effects were evident in both tests, but the effects onset earlier and offset later in the exclusion test. The findings suggest that differential processing of retrieval cues, and hence the adoption of differential retrieval orientations, varies according to the specificity of the retrieval goal.

  4. Provider-Induced Demand in the Treatment of Carotid Artery Stenosis: Variation in Treatment Decisions Between Private Sector Fee-for-Service vs Salary-Based Military Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Louis L; Smith, Ann D; Scully, Rebecca E; Jiang, Wei; Learn, Peter A; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Weissman, Joel S; Helmchen, Lorens A; Koehlmoos, Tracey; Hoburg, Andrew; Kimsey, Linda G

    2017-06-01

    Although many factors influence the management of carotid artery stenosis, it is not well understood whether a preference toward procedural management exists when procedural volume and physician compensation are linked in the fee-for-service environment. To explore evidence for provider-induced demand in the management of carotid artery stenosis. The Department of Defense Military Health System Data Repository was queried for individuals diagnosed with carotid artery stenosis between October 1, 2006, and September 30, 2010. A hierarchical multivariable model evaluated the association of the treatment system (fee-for-service physicians in the private sector vs salary-based military physicians) with the odds of procedural intervention (carotid endarterectomy or carotid artery stenting) compared with medical management. Subanalysis was performed by symptom status at the time of presentation. The association of treatment system and of management strategy with clinical outcomes, including stroke and death, was also evaluated. Data analysis was conducted from August 15, 2015, to August 2, 2016. The odds of procedural intervention based on treatment system was the primary outcome used to indicate the presence and effect of provider-induced demand. Of 10 579 individuals with a diagnosis of carotid artery stenosis (4615 women and 5964 men; mean [SD] age, 65.6 [11.4] years), 1307 (12.4%) underwent at least 1 procedure. After adjusting for demographic and clinical factors, the odds of undergoing procedural management were significantly higher for patients in the fee-for-service system compared with those in the salary-based setting (odds ratio, 1.629; 95% CI, 1.285-2.063; P fee-for-service system were significantly more likely to undergo procedural management for carotid stenosis compared with those in the salary-based setting. These findings remained consistent for individuals with and without symptomatic disease.

  5. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion

  6. Projection of energy demand of the agricultural sector of Mato Grosso using the model of structural decomposition; Projecao da demanda energetica do setor agropecuario de Mato Grosso utilizando o modelo de decomposicao estrutural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorileo, Ivo Leandro [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (NIEPE/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento Energetico; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico

    2006-07-01

    Agriculture in Mato Grosso is, currently, the main responsible for the high economic growth of the state's economy, sustaining population in rural areas and pushing industrialization. Around 30% of the state's GDP is provided by this sector. A retrospective analysis of the evolution of the economic and energy consumption related parameters involved in the structural decomposition forecasting model precedes, in this paper, a prospective analysis, up to the year 2012, using this model, of energy consumption in this sector in the State. The energy demand forecasts follow a structure of macro economic scenarios which correspond to several possibilities of the local GDP growth. (author)

  7. Electricity demand in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atakhanova, Zauresh; Howie, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Properties of electricity demand in transition economies have not been sufficiently well researched mostly due to data limitations. However, information on the properties of electricity demand is necessary for policy makers to evaluate effects of price changes on different consumers and obtain demand forecasts for capacity planning. This study estimates Kazakhstan's aggregate demand for electricity as well as electricity demand in the industrial, service, and residential sectors using regional data. Firstly, our results show that price elasticity of demand in all sectors is low. This fact suggests that there is considerable room for price increases necessary to finance generation and distribution system upgrading. Secondly, we find that income elasticity of demand in the aggregate and all sectoral models is less than unity. Of the three sectors, electricity demand in the residential sector has the lowest income elasticity. This result indicates that policy initiatives to secure affordability of electricity consumption to lower income residential consumers may be required. Finally, our forecast shows that electricity demand may grow at either 3% or 5% per year depending on rates of economic growth and government policy regarding price increases and promotion of efficiency. We find that planned supply increases would be sufficient to cover growing demand only if real electricity prices start to increase toward long-run cost-recovery levels and policy measures are implemented to maintain the current high growth of electricity efficiency

  8. Method for predicting water demand for crop uses in New Jersey in 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020, and for estimating water use for livestock and selected sectors of the food-processing industry in New Jersey in 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawges, R.M.; Titus, E.O.

    1993-01-01

    A method was developed to predict water demand for crop uses in New Jersey. A separate method was developed to estimate water use for livestock and selected sectors of the food-processing industry in 1987. Predictions of water demand for field- grown crops in New Jersey were made for 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020 under three climatological scenarios: (1) wet year, (2) average year, and (3) drought year. These estimates ranged from 4.10 times 10 to the 9th power to 16.82 times 10 to the 9th power gal (gallons). Irrigation amounts calculated for the three climatological scenarios by using a daily water-balance model were multiplied by predicted numbers of irrigated acreage. Irrigated acreage was predicted from historical crop-irrigation data and from predictions of harvested acreage produced by using a statistical model relating population to harvested acreage. Predictions of water demand for cranberries and container-grown nursery crops also were made for 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020. Predictions of water demand under the three climatological scenarios were made for container- grown nursery crops, but not for cranberries, because water demand for cranberries varies little in response to climatological factors. Water demand for cranberries was predicted to remain constant at 4.43 times 10 to the 9th power gal through the year 2020. Predictions of water demand for container-grown nursery crops ranged from 1.89 times 10 to the 9th power to 3.63 times 10 to the 9th power gal. Water-use for livestock in 1987 was estimated to be 0.78 times 10 to the 9th power gal, and water use for selected sectors of the food-processing industry was estimated to be 3.75 times 10 to the 9th power gal.

  9. Sector Tests of a Low-NO(sub x), Lean, Direct- Injection, Multipoint Integrated Module Combustor Concept Conducted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, Robert R.; Wey, Chang-Lie; Laing, Peter; Mansour, Adel

    2002-01-01

    The low-emissions combustor development described is directed toward advanced high pressure aircraft gas-turbine applications. The emphasis of this research is to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) at high-power conditions and to maintain carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons at their current low levels at low power conditions. Low-NOx combustors can be classified into rich-burn and lean-burn concepts. Lean-burn combustors can be further classified into lean-premixed-prevaporized (LPP) and lean direct injection (LDI) concepts. In both concepts, all the combustor air, except for liner cooling flow, enters through the combustor dome so that the combustion occurs at the lowest possible flame temperature. The LPP concept has been shown to have the lowest NOx emissions, but for advanced high-pressure-ratio engines, the possibility of autoignition or flashback precludes its use. LDI differs from LPP in that the fuel is injected directly into the flame zone, and thus, it does not have the potential for autoignition or flashback and should have greater stability. However, since it is not premixed and prevaporized, good atomization is necessary and the fuel must be mixed quickly and uniformly so that flame temperatures are low and NOx formation levels are comparable to those of LPP. The LDI concept described is a multipoint fuel injection/multiburning zone concept. Each of the multiple fuel injectors has an air swirler associated with it to provide quick mixing and a small recirculation zone for burning. The multipoint fuel injection provides quick, uniform mixing and the small multiburning zones provide for reduced burning residence time, resulting in low NOx formation. An integrated-module approach was used for the construction where chemically etched laminates, diffusion bonded together, combine the fuel injectors, air swirlers, and fuel manifold into a single element. The multipoint concept combustor was demonstrated in a 15 sector test. The configuration tested had 36

  10. The evolution of the energy demand in France in the industrial, residential and transportation sectors; L'evolution de la demande energetique en France dans les secteurs industriel, residentiel, et des transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document provides information, from 1970 to 2005, on the evolution of the energy intensity (ratio between the primary energy consumption and the gross domestic product in volume) and the actions of energy control for the industrial, residential and transportation sectors. (A.L.B.)

  11. Energy, water and fish: biodiversity impacts of energy-sector water demand in the United States depend on efficiency and policy measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert I; Olden, Julian D; Opperman, Jeffrey J; Miller, William M; Fargione, Joseph; Revenga, Carmen; Higgins, Jonathan V; Powell, Jimmie

    2012-01-01

    Rising energy consumption in coming decades, combined with a changing energy mix, have the potential to increase the impact of energy sector water use on freshwater biodiversity. We forecast changes in future water use based on various energy scenarios and examine implications for freshwater ecosystems. Annual water withdrawn/manipulated would increase by 18-24%, going from 1,993,000-2,628,000 Mm(3) in 2010 to 2,359,000-3,271,000 Mm(3) in 2035 under the Reference Case of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Water consumption would more rapidly increase by 26% due to increased biofuel production, going from 16,700-46,400 Mm(3) consumption in 2010 to 21,000-58,400 Mm(3) consumption in 2035. Regionally, water use in the Southwest and Southeast may increase, with anticipated decreases in water use in some areas of the Midwest and Northeast. Policies that promote energy efficiency or conservation in the electric sector would reduce water withdrawn/manipulated by 27-36 m(3)GJ(-1) (0.1-0.5 m(3)GJ(-1) consumption), while such policies in the liquid fuel sector would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 0.4-0.7 m(3)GJ(-1) (0.2-0.3 m(3)GJ(-1) consumption). The greatest energy sector withdrawal/manipulation are for hydropower and thermoelectric cooling, although potential new EPA rules that would require recirculating cooling for thermoelectric plants would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 441,000 Mm(3) (20,300 Mm(3) consumption). The greatest consumptive energy sector use is evaporation from hydroelectric reservoirs, followed by irrigation water for biofuel feedstocks and water used for electricity generation from coal. Historical water use by the energy sector is related to patterns of fish species endangerment, where water resource regions with a greater fraction of available surface water withdrawn by hydropower or consumed by the energy sector correlated with higher probabilities of imperilment. Since future increases in energy-sector surface water use will occur

  12. Energy, water and fish: biodiversity impacts of energy-sector water demand in the United States depend on efficiency and policy measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I McDonald

    Full Text Available Rising energy consumption in coming decades, combined with a changing energy mix, have the potential to increase the impact of energy sector water use on freshwater biodiversity. We forecast changes in future water use based on various energy scenarios and examine implications for freshwater ecosystems. Annual water withdrawn/manipulated would increase by 18-24%, going from 1,993,000-2,628,000 Mm(3 in 2010 to 2,359,000-3,271,000 Mm(3 in 2035 under the Reference Case of the Energy Information Administration (EIA. Water consumption would more rapidly increase by 26% due to increased biofuel production, going from 16,700-46,400 Mm(3 consumption in 2010 to 21,000-58,400 Mm(3 consumption in 2035. Regionally, water use in the Southwest and Southeast may increase, with anticipated decreases in water use in some areas of the Midwest and Northeast. Policies that promote energy efficiency or conservation in the electric sector would reduce water withdrawn/manipulated by 27-36 m(3GJ(-1 (0.1-0.5 m(3GJ(-1 consumption, while such policies in the liquid fuel sector would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 0.4-0.7 m(3GJ(-1 (0.2-0.3 m(3GJ(-1 consumption. The greatest energy sector withdrawal/manipulation are for hydropower and thermoelectric cooling, although potential new EPA rules that would require recirculating cooling for thermoelectric plants would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 441,000 Mm(3 (20,300 Mm(3 consumption. The greatest consumptive energy sector use is evaporation from hydroelectric reservoirs, followed by irrigation water for biofuel feedstocks and water used for electricity generation from coal. Historical water use by the energy sector is related to patterns of fish species endangerment, where water resource regions with a greater fraction of available surface water withdrawn by hydropower or consumed by the energy sector correlated with higher probabilities of imperilment. Since future increases in energy-sector surface water use will occur

  13. Modulation of the conflict monitoring intensity: the role of aversive reinforcement, cognitive demand, and trait-BIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Lange, Sebastian; Beauducel, André

    2012-06-01

    According to Botvinick's (2007) integrative account, conflict monitoring is aversive because individuals anticipate cognitive demand, whereas the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (rRST) predicts that conflict processing is aversive because individuals anticipate aversive reinforcement of erroneous responses. Because these accounts give different reasons for the aversive aspects of conflict, we manipulated cognitive demand and the aversive reinforcement as a consequence of wrong choices in a go/no-go task. Thereby, we also aimed to investigate whether individual differences in conflict sensitivity (i.e., in trait anxiety, linked to high sensitivity of the behavioral inhibition system [trait-BIS]) represent the effects of aversive reinforcement and cognitive demand in conflict tasks. We expected that these manipulations would have effects on the frontal N2 component representing activity of the anterior cingulate cortex. Moreover, higher-trait-BIS individuals should be more sensitive than lower-trait-BIS individuals to aversive effects in conflict situations, resulting in a more negative frontal N2 for higher-trait-BIS individuals. In Study 1, with N = 104 students, and Study 2, with N = 47 students, aversive reinforcement was manipulated in three levels (within-subjects factor) and cognitive demand in two levels (between-subjects factor). The behavioral findings from the go/no-go task with noncounterbalanced reinforcement levels (Study 1) could be widely replicated in a task with counterbalanced reinforcement levels (Study 2). The frontal mean no-go N2 amplitude and the frontal no-go N2 dipole captured predicted reinforcement-related variations of conflict monitoring, indicating that the anticipation of aversive reinforcement induces variations in conflict monitoring intensity in frontal brain areas. The aversive nature of conflict was underlined by the more pronounced conflict monitoring in higher- than in lower-trait-BIS individuals.

  14. The Predictive Value of Job Demands and Resources on the Meaning of Work and Organisational Commitment across Different Age Groups in the Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthun, Kirsti Sarheim; Innstrand, Siw Tone

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the predictive value of job demands and resources on the meaning of work and organisational commitment across three age groups; young workers (age group of workers (30-49 years) and older workers (>50 years). Data were collected from a survey conducted among university employees (N = 3,066).…

  15. World Bank Development Sector Adjustment Operation Life Line to Nigerian Universities: Impact on Information Demand and Supply in the University of Agriculture, Makurdi Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozowa, Vincent Nnamdi

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of the rationale behind the World Bank credit line to Nigerian universities and examines the impact of the credit facility on the information demand and supply in the University of Agriculture, Makurdi Library (Nigeria). Discusses problems, such as poor quantity and quality of books and journals, lack of equipment, and lack of…

  16. Brain signal variability is modulated as a function of internal and external demand in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Cheryl L; Garrett, Douglas D

    2018-04-01

    Variability in the Blood Oxygen-Level Dependent (BOLD) signal from fMRI is often associated with better cognitive performance and younger age. It has been proposed that neural variability enables flexible responding to uncertainty in a changing environment. However, signal variability reflecting environmental uncertainty may reduce to the extent that a task depends on internally-directed attention and is supported by neural "solutions" that are schematic and relatively stable within each individual. Accordingly, we examined the hypothesis that BOLD variability will be low at rest, higher during internally-directed tasks, and higher still during externally-directed tasks, and that this effect will be reduced with aging. Modulation of BOLD variability across conditions was consistent with these hypotheses, and was associated with faster and more stable behavioral performance in both young and older adults. These data support the idea that brain signal variability may modulate in response to environmental uncertainty, which is presumed to be greater in the external environment than in the internal milieu. Reduced flexibility of signal variability with age may indicate less ability to switch between internal and external brain states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Within the framework of assessing the state of the environment in Lebanon, this chapter describes primary energy demand, the electricity generating sector and environmental impacts arising from the energy sector.Apart from hydropower and traditional energy sources, which together represent 1.7% of energy consumption, all energy in Lebanon derives from imported petroleum products and some coal.Tables present the imports of different petroleum products (Gasoil, Kerosene, fuel oil, coal etc...), their use, the energy balance and demand.Energy pricing and pricing policies, formal and informal electricity generations in Lebanon are described emphasized by tables. The main environmental impacts are briefly summarized. Thermal power stations give rise to emissions of Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), particulates, oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) and CO/CO 2 from combustion of primary fuel informally generated power from both industry and domestic consumption produce particulate materials and emissions of NO x and SO 2 projected emissions of SO 2 from the power sector with the present generating capacity and with the new combined cycle power plants in operation are shown. Other environmental impacts are described. Recommendations for supply and environment policy are presented

  18. Task demands modulate decision and eye movement responses in the chimeric face test: examining the right hemisphere processing account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason eCoronel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large and growing body of work, conducted in both brain-intact and brain-damaged populations, has used the free viewing chimeric face test as a measure of hemispheric dominance for the extraction of emotional information from faces. These studies generally show that normal right-handed individuals tend to perceive chimeric faces as more emotional if the emotional expression is presented on the half of the face to the viewer’s left (left hemiface. However, the mechanisms underlying this lateralized bias remain unclear. Here, we examine the extent to which this bias is driven by right hemisphere processing advantages versus default scanning biases in a unique way -- by changing task demands. In particular, we compare the original task with one in which right-hemisphere-biased processing cannot provide a decision advantage. Our behavioral and eye-movement data are inconsistent with the predictions of a default scanning bias account and support the idea that the left hemiface bias found in the chimeric face test is largely due to strategic use of right hemisphere processing mechanisms.

  19. The association between price, competition, and demand factors on private sector anti-malarial stocking and sales in western Kenya: considerations for the AMFm subsidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Households in sub-Saharan Africa are highly reliant on the retail sector for obtaining treatment for malaria fevers and other illnesses. As donors and governments seek to promote the use of artemisinin combination therapy in malaria-endemic areas through subsidized anti-malarials offered in the retail sector, understanding the stocking and pricing decisions of retail outlets is vital. Methods A survey of all medicine retailers serving Bungoma East District in western Kenya was conducted three months after the launch of the AMFm subsidy in Kenya. The survey obtained information on each anti-malarial in stock: brand name, price, sales volume, outlet characteristics and GPS co-ordinates. These data were matched to household-level data from the Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance System, from which population density and fever prevalence near each shop were determined. Regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with retailers’ likelihood of stocking subsidized artemether lumefantrine (AL) and the association between price and sales for AL, quinine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). Results Ninety-seven retail outlets in the study area were surveyed; 11% of outlets stocked subsidized AL. Size of the outlet and having a pharmacist on staff were associated with greater likelihood of stocking subsidized AL. In the multivariable model, total volume of anti-malarial sales was associated with greater likelihood of stocking subsidized AL and competition was important; likelihood of stocking subsidized AL was considerably higher if the nearest neighbour stocked subsidized AL. Price was a significant predictor of sales volume for all three types of anti-malarials but the relationship varied, with the largest price sensitivity found for SP drugs. Conclusion The results suggest that helping small outlets overcome the constraints to stocking subsidized AL should be a priority. Competition between retailers and prices can play an important

  20. Importance of periodic revision of contracted demand in public sector organizations; Importancia da revisao periodica da demanda contratada em organizacoes do setor publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Marcio Zamboti; Gomes, Felipe Da Silva; Tavares, Geraldo Martins; Sodre, Waldemir Carvalho [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Nowadays, is extremely important monitoring the energy consumption in the several of different organizations. In general, this measure is done in order to control the inputs expenses used. But in some cases, such as electricity, this control becomes difficult due to lack of professional training in energy efficiency studies. Specifically, in the public sector, this lack of studies and monitoring of consumption becomes more critical, because in most cases, due to company main activity, their staffs does not covers a professional trained for this purpose. As an example, when considering the energy consumption of a general hospital, these studies and monitoring are presented as necessary actions, since the processes of expansion, relocation or reforms are constant and logically consumption of the unit vary, causing distorting when compared with the contracted energy values. This paper presents a specific study that demonstrates the importance of periodic review of the energy contract power supply by comparing an organization that has this specific professional, monitoring the consumption variation periodically with a case in which this monitoring does not exist. (author)

  1. Hawaii demand-side management resource assessment. Final report, Reference Volume 3 -- Residential and commercial sector DSM analyses: Detailed results from the DBEDT DSM assessment model; Part 1, Technical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Hawaii Demand-Side Management Resource Assessment was the fourth of seven projects in the Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES) program. HES was designed by the Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism (DBEDT) to produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. The purpose of Project 4 was to develop a comprehensive assessment of Hawaii`s demand-side management (DSM) resources. To meet this objective, the project was divided into two phases. The first phase included development of a DSM technology database and the identification of Hawaii commercial building characteristics through on-site audits. These Phase 1 products were then used in Phase 2 to identify expected energy impacts from DSM measures in typical residential and commercial buildings in Hawaii. The building energy simulation model DOE-2.1E was utilized to identify the DSM energy impacts. More detailed information on the typical buildings and the DOE-2.1E modeling effort is available in Reference Volume 1, ``Building Prototype Analysis``. In addition to the DOE-2.1E analysis, estimates of residential and commercial sector gas and electric DSM potential for the four counties of Honolulu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai through 2014 were forecasted by the new DBEDT DSM Assessment Model. Results from DBEDTs energy forecasting model, ENERGY 2020, were linked with results from DOE-2.1E building energy simulation runs and estimates of DSM measure impacts, costs, lifetime, and anticipated market penetration rates in the DBEDT DSM Model. Through its algorithms, estimates of DSM potential for each forecast year were developed. Using the load shape information from the DOE-2.1E simulation runs, estimates of electric peak demand impacts were developed. Numerous tables and figures illustrating the technical potential for demand-side management are included.

  2. Coordinating Demand-Side Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification Among Western States: Options for Documenting Energy and Non-Energy Impacts for the Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Demand-side energy efficiency (efficiency) represents a low-cost opportunity to reduce electricity consumption and demand and provide a wide range of non-energy benefits, including avoiding air pollution. Efficiency-related energy and non-energy impacts are determined and documented by implementing evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) systems. This technical brief describes efficiency EM&V coordination strategies that Western states can consider taking on together, outlines EM&V-related products that might be appropriate for multistate coordination, and identifies some implications of coordination. Coordinating efficiency EM&V activities can save both time and costs for state agencies and stakeholders engaged in efficiency activities and can be particularly beneficial for multiple states served by the same utility. First, the brief summarizes basic information on efficiency, its myriad potential benefits and EM&V for assessing those benefits. Second, the brief introduces the concept of multistate EM&V coordination in the context of assessing such benefits, including achievement of state and federal goals to reduce air pollutants.1 Next, the brief presents three coordination strategy options for efficiency EM&V: information clearinghouse/exchange, EM&V product development, and a regional energy efficiency tracking system platform. The brief then describes five regional EM&V products that could be developed on a multistate basis: EM&V reporting formats, database of consistent deemed electricity savings values, glossary of definitions and concepts, efficiency EM&V methodologies, and EM&V professional standards or accreditation processes. Finally, the brief discusses options for next steps that Western states can take to consider multistate coordination on efficiency EM&V. Appendices provide background information on efficiency and EM&V, as well as definitions and suggested resources on the covered topics. This brief is intended to inform state public

  3. RESEARCH ABOUT THE USERS´ PERCEPTION OF ACCOUNTING AND TAX BOOKKEEPING MODULES OF AN ERP SYSTEM FOR THE CARGO AND PASSENGERS ROAD TRANSPORTATION SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivam Ricardo Peleias

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the users´perception of accounting and tax bookkeeping modules of an ERP – Enterprise Resources Planning System for the cargo and passengers road transportation sector. It´s a survey research, which combined empiric investigation, bibliographical review, as well as field research. It was applied a questionnaire containing 20 questions to characterize the sample and 30 assertive ones, answered by 37 users of the system. The collected data were treated by Qualitative Analysis, Descriptive Statistics, Cluster Analysis and Comparative Analysis among the clusters. The results demonstrate how these users perceive the importance and the facilities with the use of the system, as well as grouped such users in 3 opinion clusters (optimistic, realists and pessimistic and indicated points that can be improved in the system.

  4. Detailed Modelling of the Deep Decarbonisation Scenarios with Demand Response Technologies in the Heating and Cooling Sector: A Case Study for Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Calise

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy policies accompanying the transition towards a sustainable development process must be supported by technical analyses in which future energy scenarios are modeled and evaluated. This paper analyzes possible decarbonization scenarios in Italy for the year 2050. They envisage high electrification of transports and residential buildings, high use of renewable energies, and a modal shift towards public transport. The energy scenarios are evaluated using a software program, EnergyPLAN, starting from a reference model developed for the year 2014. Special attention has been given to the modeling of data that are unavailable in the literature, such as the time profile of heating and cooling demands, obtained with the degree-days method and validated by elaborating the results of the modeling of the residential building stock, this latter was dynamically simulated in TRNSYS. The results show that to obtain a significant decrease of greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel consumption, it is necessary not only to promote a deeper penetration of renewable sources, but also their integration with other technologies (cogeneration, trigeneration, power-to-heat systems, thermal storage, vehicle-to-grid operations. In fact, renewables technologies alone can raise some critical issues, such as excess and/or shortage of electricity production and non-sustainable exploitation of biomass.

  5. Sector Economic Outlook. Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The energy sector is a key driver of the economic pillar of Vision 2030. As the economy grows, urbanization intensifies and incomes increase, corporate and household demand for energy also rises. To meet this growth in demand for energy, the sector needs to increase investments and diversify into more sources of energy such as geothermal and wind power. It is therefore critical that focus is directed towards development and sustainability of the energy sector to ensure delivery of least cost power that will improve Kenya's competitiveness and achieve the Vision 2030 objective of 10% average annual economic growth.

  6. A qualitative study on the experiences and perspectives of public sector patients in Cape Town in managing the workload of demands of HIV and type 2 diabetes multimorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matima, Rangarirai; Murphy, Katherine; Levitt, Naomi S; BeLue, Rhonda; Oni, Tolu

    2018-01-01

    Current South African health policy for chronic disease management proposes integration of chronic services for better outcomes for chronic conditions; that is based on the Integrated Chronic Disease Model (ICDM). However, scant data exist on how patients with chronic multimorbidities currently experience the (re)-organisation of health services and what their perceived needs are in order to enhance the management of their conditions. A qualitative study was conducted in a community health centre treating both HIV and diabetes patients in Cape Town. The study was grounded in the Shippee's Cumulative Complexity Model (CCM) and explored "patient workload" and "patient capacity" to manage chronic conditions. Individual interviews were conducted with 10 adult patient-participants with HIV and type two diabetes (T2D) multimorbidity and 6 healthcare workers who provided health services to these patient-participants. Patient-participants in this study experienced clinic-related workload such as: two separate clinics for HIV and T2D and perceived and experienced power mismatch between patients and healthcare workers. Self-care related workloads were largely around nutritional requirements, pill burden, and stigma. Burden of these demands varied in difficulty among patient-participants due to capacity factors such as: positive attitudes, optimal health literacy, social support and availability of economic resources. Strategies mentioned by participants for improved continuity of care and self-management of multi-morbidities included integration of chronic services, consolidated guidelines for healthcare workers, educational materials for patients, improved information systems and income for patients. Using the CCM to explore multimorbidity captured most of the themes around "patient workload" and "patient capacity", and was thus a suitable framework to explore multimorbidity in this high HIV/T2D burden setting. Integration of chronic services and addressing social

  7. Guidelines for forecasting energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonino, T.

    1976-11-01

    Four methodologies for forecasting energy demand are reviewed here after considering the role of energy in the economy and the analysis of energy use in different economic sectors. The special case of Israel is considered throughout, and some forecasts for energy demands in the year 2000 are presented. An energy supply mix that may be considered feasible is proposed. (author)

  8. Residential energy demand in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arouca, M.; Gomes, F.M.; Rosa, L.P.

    1981-01-01

    The energy demand in Brazilian residential sector is studied, discussing the methodology for analyzing this demand from some ideas suggested, for developing an adequate method to brazilian characteristics. The residential energy consumption of several fuels in Brazil is also presented, including a comparative evaluation with the United States and France. (author)

  9. Return on Investment in the Public Sector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bigham, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    .... This demand has created a trend in the public sector, not only in the United States, but worldwide as well, towards the importation of private sector business practices to improve accountability-oriented analysis...

  10. Demand Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of uncertainty resolution found in productivity heterogeneity models....... This retooling addresses several shortcomings. First, the imperfect correlation of demands reconciles the sales variation observed in and across destinations. Second, since demands for the firm's output are correlated across destinations, a firm can use previously realized demands to forecast unknown demands...... in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit. This prediction reconciles...

  11. Energy demand: Facts and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chateau, B; Lapillonne, B

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between economic development and energy demand is investigated in this book. It gives a detailed analysis of the energy demand dynamics in industrialized countries and compares the past evolution of the driving factors behind energy demand by sector and by end-uses for the main OECD countries: residential sector (space heating, water heating, cooking...), tertiary sector, passenger and goods transport by mode, and industry (with particular emphasis on the steel and cement industry). This analysis leads to a more precise understanding of the long-term trends of energy demand; highlighting the influence on these trends of energy prices, especially after the oil price shocks, and of the type of economic development pattern.

  12. DemandStat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    DemandStat is an accurate and up-to-date international statistics database dedicated to energy demand, with an unrivaled level of details for powerful market analysis. It provides detailed consumption statistics (30 sectors) on all energies, detailed 2003 data and historical annual data since 1970, frequent data revision and update (2 updates options), 150 data sources gathered and expertized, all data on a single database Consistent and homogeneous statistics, in line with all major data providers (IEA, Eurostat, ADB, OLADE, etc), no ruptures in time-series with easy request building and data analysis and reactive support from data experts. (A.L.B.)

  13. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babusiaux, D

    2004-07-01

    Following the military intervention in Iraq, it is taking longer than expected for Iraqi exports to make a comeback on the market. Demand is sustained by economic growth in China and in the United States. OPEC is modulating production to prevent inventory build-up. Prices have stayed high despite increased production by non-OPEC countries, especially Russia. (author)

  14. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, D.

    2004-01-01

    Following the military intervention in Iraq, it is taking longer than expected for Iraqi exports to make a comeback on the market. Demand is sustained by economic growth in China and in the United States. OPEC is modulating production to prevent inventory build-up. Prices have stayed high despite increased production by non-OPEC countries, especially Russia. (author)

  15. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  16. Supply and demand perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trienekens, Pieter

    1999-01-01

    The outlook for the European gas market is one of steady growth. This growth will manifest itself in all regions and in all sectors of the market, but most strongly in the power generating sector. To meet future demand, it is necessary to bring gas to Western Europe from remote sources in Russia, North Africa and Norway. These new gas supplies require heavy investments in production and transportation, which can only be undertaken on the basis of long-term take-or-pay contracts. Famous examples of such contracts are the development of the Troll field, the Yamal-Europe pipeline connection, and the bringing on stream of Nigerian LNG for Europe. Tensions are likely to arise between the nature of these long-term gas contracts and the dynamic nature of demand in the gas market, and more specifically in the main growth market, the power sector. The presentation further elaborates on the tensions underlying supply and demand in the years to come

  17. Scenarios of the long term evolution of the energy sector. Energy needs, choices and possibilities: Shell's scenarios for 2050. The long-term evolution of the energy sector. A vision of the 2020-2050 energy mix. Phase dynamics analysis of energy demand scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, B.; Appert, O; Bauquis, P.R.; Alba, P.

    2002-01-01

    This dossier comprises 4 articles dealing with energy scenarios. The first article presents the prospective studies carried out by the Shell group which lead to the construction of two scenarios entitled: 'dynamics as usual' and 'the spirit of the coming age'. Both scenarios foresee an explosion of the primary energy demand for the coming next 50 years (multiplied by a factor of 2 to 2.8 with respect to 2000) with a decline of hydrocarbons for the benefit of gas and renewable energies (including bio-fuels), while nuclear and coal will still represent a quarter of our needs. However, the main uncertainty remains the demographic expansion during the next 50 years. The second article presents the energy models and projections of the IEA for the long-term evolution of the energy sector (petroleum, gas, coal, renewable energy and uranium resources) and the main uncertainties of these projections (economic growth, environmental policies, technological evolutions). The third article presents the agreements and divergences of the author's forecasts for 2050 with Shell's scenarios, while the last article makes a comparison between the IEA, IIASA-CME and Shell scenarios using a phase dynamics analysis. (J.S.)

  18. Agriculture Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  19. Monetary Policy with Sectoral Trade-offs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrella, Ivan; Rossi, Raffaele; Santoro, Emiliano

    2017-01-01

    properties of simple rules that react to alternative measures of final goods price inflation. Due to factor demand linkages, the cost of production in one sector is influenced by price-setting in the other sector. Therefore, measures of aggregate inflation weighing sectoral prices based on their relative...

  20. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  1. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  2. Criteria for demand response systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampropoulos, I.; Kling, W.L.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Ribeiro, P.F.; Berg, van den J.

    2013-01-01

    The topic of demand side management is currently becoming more important than ever, in parallel with the further deregulation of the electricity sector, and the increasing integration of renewable energy sources. A historical review of automation integration in power system control assists in

  3. Energy demand patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, L; Schipper, L; Meyers, S; Sathaye, J; Hara, Y

    1984-05-01

    This report brings together three papers on energy demand presented at the Energy Research Priorities Seminar held in Ottawa on 8-10 August 1983. The first paper suggests a framework in which energy demand studies may be organized if they are to be useful in policy-making. Disaggregation and the analysis of the chain of energy transformations are possible paths toward more stable and reliable parameters. The second paper points to another factor that leads to instability in sectoral parameters, namely a changeover from one technology to another; insofar as technologies producing a product (or service) vary in their energy intensity, a technological shift will also change the energy intensity of the product. Rapid technological change is characteristic of some sectors in developing countries, and may well account for the high aggregate GDP-elasticities of energy consumption observed. The third paper begins with estimates of these elasticities, which were greater than one for all the member countries of the Asian Development Bank in 1961-78. The high elasticities, together with extreme oil dependence, made them vulnerable to the drastic rise in the oil price after 1973. The author distinguishes three diverging patterns of national experience. The oil-surplus countries naturally gained from the rise in the oil price. Among oil-deficit countries, the newly industrialized countries expanded their exports so rapidly that the oil crisis no longer worried them. For the rest, balance of payments adjustments became a prime concern of policy. Whether they dealt with the oil bill by borrowing, by import substitution, or by demand restraint, the impact of energy on their growth was unmistakable. The paper also shows why energy-demand studies, and energy studies in general, deserve to be taken seriously. 16 refs., 4 figs., 18 tabs.

  4. Unionism Comes to the Public Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Richard B. Freeman

    1984-01-01

    This paper argues that public sector labor relations is best understood in a framework that focuses on unions' ability to shift demand curves rather than to raise wages, as is the case in the private sector. It reviews the public sector labor relations literature and finds that: (i) public sector unionism has flourished as a result of changes in laws; (2) the effects of public sector unions on wages are likely to have been underestimated; (3) public sector unions have a somewhat different eff...

  5. Climate change and energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hengeveld, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    Climate and weather events affect energy demand in most economic sectors. Linear relationships exist between consumption and heating degree days, and peak electricity demand increases significantly during heat waves. The relative magnitudes of demand changes for a two times carbon dioxide concentration scenario are tabulated, illustrating heating degree days and cooling degree days for 5 Prairie locations. Irrigation, water management, crop seeding and harvesting and weed control are examples of climate-dependent agricultural activities involving significant energy use. The variability of summer season liquid fuel use in the agricultural sector in the Prairie provinces from 1984-1989 shows a relationship between agricultural energy use and regional climate fluctuations. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Modelling of Sudan’s Energy Supply, Transformation, and Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Rabah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to develop energy flow diagram (Sankey diagram of Sudan for the base year 2014. The developed Sankey diagram is the first of its kind in Sudan. The available energy balance for the base year 2012 is a simple line draw and did not count the energy supply by private and mixed sectors such as sugar and oil industries and marine and civil aviation. The private and mixed sectors account for about 7% of the national grid electric power. Four energy modules are developed: resources, transformation, demand, and export and import modules. The data are obtained from relevant Sudanese ministries and directorates and Sudan Central Bank. “e!Sankey 4 pro” software is used to develop the Sankey diagram. The main primary types of energy in Sudan are oil, hydro, biomass, and renewable energy. Sudan has a surplus of gasoline, petroleum coke, and biomass and deficit in electric power, gasoil, jet oil, and LPG. The surplus of gasoline is exported; however, the petroleum coke is kept as reserve. The deficit is covered by import. The overall useful energy is 76% and the loss is 24%. The useful energy is distributed among residential (38%, transportation (33%, industry (12%, services (16%, and agriculture (1% sectors.

  7. Demand for electrical energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergougnoux, J.; Fouquet, D.

    1983-01-01

    The different utilizations of electric energy are reviewed in the residential and tertiary sectors, in the industry. The competitive position of electricity in regard to other fuels has been strengthned by the sudden rise in the price of oil in 1973-1974 and 1979-1980. The evolution of electricity prices depended on the steps taken to adjust the electricity generation system. The substitution of electricity applications for hydro-carbons is an essential point of energy policy. The adjustment at all times, at least cost and most reliability, of the supply of electricity to the demand for it is a major problem in the design and operation of electric systems. National demand for power at a given moment is extremely diversified. Electricity consumption presents daily and seasonal variations, and variations according to the different sectors. Forecasting power requirements is for any decision on operation or investment relating to an electrical system. Load management is desirable (prices according to the customers, optional tariffs for ''peak-day withdrawal''). To conclude, prospects for increased electricity consumption are discussed [fr

  8. In demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, B. [Bridgestone Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    The paper explains how good relationships can help alleviate potential tyre shortages. Demand for large dump truck tyres (largely for China) has increased by 50% within 12 months. Bridgestone's manufacturing plants are operating at maximum capacity. The company supplies tyres to all vehicles at Scottish Coal's opencast coal mines. Its Tyre Management System (TMS) supplied free of charge to customers helps maximise tyre life and minimise downtime from data on pressure, tread and general conditions fed into the hand-held TMS computer. 3 photos.

  9. Relation of Market Where Gold Supply And Demand is Intensive With Finance Sector and Analyze Of Present Market Structure in Terms Of Socio-Economic: A Study Based On Survey in Şanlıurfa and in the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Cihangir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the provinces where gold is purchased and sold mostly is Şanlıurfa. Especially trading of gold mostly in some special days following İstanbul and Ankara has made necessary that jewelry sector in this province where gold is purchased and sold is put under the scope and thereby examination of the contribution of gold to region economy as well as its other aspects. Within this scope a detailed questionnaire study to search gold and jewelry sector in Şanlıurfa in point of social, cultural and economical effects have been carried out and it has been aimed to explain these effectsdirectly from explanations of parties of incident. Considering the inevitability of emergence of some problems in a region where such extensive sale and purchase is made, the problems seen mostly have been determined and proposals regarding the solution of these have been made. In addition it has also been aimed to observe perception manner of gold and its contribution to region economy as a investment vehicle in the region. Especially the damage of misleading of credit card in sector has been tried to determine and made solution recommendations to the problem. It has been pointed out on the benefits in case the gold called mattress and considered its effect to economy is little is gained to Şanlıurfa economy.

  10. Industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The industrial sector is categorized as related to among others, the provision of technical and engineering services, supply of products, testing and troubleshooting of parts, systems and industrial plants, quality control and assurance as well as manufacturing and processing. A total of 161 entities comprising 47 public agencies and 114 private companies were selected for the study in this sector. The majority of the public agencies, 87 %, operate in Peninsular Malaysia. The remainders were located in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study on both public agencies and private companies are presented in subsequent sections of this chapter. (author)

  11. Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)

  12. Market potential for solar thermal energy supply systems in the United States industrial and commercial sectors: 1990--2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This report revises and extends previous work sponsored by the US DOE on the potential industrial market in the United States for solar thermal energy systems and presents a new analysis of the commercial sector market potential. Current and future industrial process heat demand and commercial water heating, space heating and space cooling end-use demands are estimated. The PC Industrial Model (PCIM) and the commercial modules of the Building Energy End-Use Model (BEEM) used by the DOE's Energy Information Administration (EIA) to support the recent National Energy Strategy (NES) analysis are used to forecast industrial and commercial end-use energy demand respectively. Energy demand is disaggregated by US Census region to account for geographic variation in solar insolation and regional variation in cost of alternative natural gas-fired energy sources. The industrial sector analysis also disaggregates demand by heat medium and temperature range to facilitate process end-use matching with appropriate solar thermal energy supply technologies. The commercial sector analysis disaggregates energy demand by three end uses: water heating, space heating, and space cooling. Generic conceptual designs are created for both industrial and commercial applications. Levelized energy costs (LEC) are calculated for industrial sector applications employing low temperature flat plate collectors for process water preheat; parabolic troughs for intermediate temperature process steam and direct heat industrial application; and parabolic dish technologies for high temperature, direct heat industrial applications. LEC are calculated for commercial sector applications employing parabolic trough technologies for low temperature water and space heating. Cost comparisons are made with natural gas-fired sources for both the industrial market and the commercial market assuming fuel price escalation consistent with NES reference case scenarios for industrial and commercial sector gas markets

  13. Energy-economy interactions revisited within a comprehensive sectoral model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D. A.; Laitner, J. A.

    2000-07-24

    This paper describes a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model with considerable sector and technology detail, the ``All Modular Industry Growth Assessment'' Model (AMIGA). It is argued that a detailed model is important to capture and understand the several rolls that energy plays within the economy. Fundamental consumer and industrial demands are for the services from energy; hence, energy demand is a derived demand based on the need for heating, cooling mechanical, electrical, and transportation services. Technologies that provide energy-services more efficiently (on a life cycle basis), when adopted, result in increased future output of the economy and higher paths of household consumption. The AMIGA model can examine the effects on energy use and economic output of increases in energy prices (e.g., a carbon charge) and other incentive-based policies or energy-efficiency programs. Energy sectors and sub-sector activities included in the model involve energy extraction conversion and transportation. There are business opportunities to produce energy-efficient goods (i.e., appliances, control systems, buildings, automobiles, clean electricity). These activities are represented in the model by characterizing their likely production processes (e.g., lighter weight motor vehicles). Also, multiple industrial processes can produce the same output but with different technologies and inputs. Secondary recovery, i.e., recycling processes, are examples of these multiple processes. Combined heat and power (CHP) is also represented for energy-intensive industries. Other modules represent residential and commercial building technologies to supply energy services. All sectors of the economy command real resources (capital services and labor).

  14. Forecasting Croatian inbound tourism demand

    OpenAIRE

    Tica, Josip; Kožić, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a forecasting model for the overnight stays of foreign tourists in Croatia. Tourism is one of the most important parts of the Croatian economy. It is particularly important in the context of the services sector. Regular and significant surpluses and the consumption of foreign guests are an important element of budget revenues, especially VAT. The ability to forecast the development of inbound tourism demand in a timely manner is crucial for both business...

  15. The Estimation of Water Demand Function of Household Sector According to Non Liner Pricing Through Discrete – continues Choice Model (The Case Study of Tehran City During 2002 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Khoshbakht

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of water is the result of the recent successive drought in most country's districts. The increase of demand due to the increase of population and also inappropriate growth of supply according to the high cost of production process and therefore distribution, arise a big concern for the water and wastewater companies. Therefore the provision of water supply for consumers emphasizes on the urge of the management policies more than ever. Knowing the consumer behavior, in this regard, is the first and the most important step. In this study, to reach this objective, the function of household water demand in structure of block pricing in Tehran was estimated by using  household budget data , through discrete – continues choice model and maximum likelihood approach . The results show that price and income parameters have expected sign. The calculated unconditional elasticties show that consumers’ sensitiveness for price fluctuations in the structure of block pricing are against zero. Therefore, the policy of price reform in the structure of block pricing can be used as an effective tool in the management of consumption.

  16. Energy consumption in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plouchart, G.

    2004-01-01

    During the 20. century, transport sector demand in the OECD countries boomed. The main drivers for growth were road transport and, more recently, air transport. As emerging countries continue to develop and the world faces the threat of climate change, this sector represents a major long-term challenge

  17. Philippines' downstream sector poised for growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Philippines' downstream sector is poised for sharp growth. Despite a slip in refined products demand in recent years, Philippines products demand will rebound sharply by 2000, East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu, predicts. Philippines planned refinery expansions are expected to meet that added demand, EWC Director Fereidun Fesharaki says. Like the rest of the Asia-Pacific region, product specifications are changing, but major refiners in the area expect to meet the changes without major case outlays. At the same time, Fesharaki says, push toward deregulation will further bolster the outlook for the Philippines downstream sector

  18. A new method for determining a sector alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-29

    The Traffic Flow Management System (TFMS) currently declares an alert for any 15-minute interval in which the predicted demand exceeds the Monitor/Alert Parameter (MAP) for any airport, sector, or fix. For a sector, TFMS predicts the demand for each ...

  19. Energy demand futures by global models : Projections of a complex system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelenbosch, O.Y.

    2018-01-01

    The energy demand sectors industry, transport and buildings are together directly responsible for around 51 % of the global energy-related CO2 emissions and indirectly drive the emissions in the energy supply sectors. The demand sectors are characterized by many subsectors, technologies,

  20. Natural gas consumption trends and demand projections for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uqaili, M.A.; Harijan, K.; Memon, H.U.R.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan is an energy deficient country and heavily depends on imported energy. Natural gas is a dominating source of commercial energy in the country. This paper presents the natural gas consumption trends and future demand projections for Pakistan. The paper also investigates the potential utilization options of natural gas in the country. The study indicates that the natural gas consumption in the country increased rapidly at an average growth rate of about 6.8% per annum during the last three decades. Currently, natural gas contributes about 44.2% of the primary commercial energy supply in the country. Power, Fertilizer, General industry and Domestic sectors are the major consumers of gas in the country. The paper concludes the natural gas demand in the country is projected to increase to about 34-64 MTOE (Million Tonnes of Oil Equivalent) by the year 2018. Enhancement in the indigenous exploration and modulation of gas and import of gas from central Asian Sates is essential for meeting the growing gas demand, protecting the environment and increasing the economic independence in the country. (author)

  1. Sectoral assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J M; Fenhann, J; Gorham, R; Makundi, W; Sathaye, J

    1999-09-01

    This publication contains five papers that were written as a part of the GEF project, The Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations. The main goal of the project was to assess the greenhouse gas reductions and incremental costs of mitigation option sin Ecuador, Argentina, Senegal, Mauritius, Vietnam, Indonesia, Estonia and Hungary. In addition, regional studies were conducted for the Andean Pact nations and Southern Africa to assess various aspects of regional co-operation in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The GEF study also involved the development of a methodological framework for climate change assessment, with a special emphasis on developing countries. These guidelines have been published in a separate document, Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations: Methodological Guidelines. The papers in this publication focus on various methodological and policy aspects of greenhouse gas mitigation at the sectoral level, and are outgrowth of work performed on other parts of the GEF project. (au)

  2. Meeting increased demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    of people affected by arthritis will increase by nearly 50%. A huge increase in numbers affected with musculoskeletal conditions will require significant increases in health care resources, including hospital beds and facilities, orthopaedic surgeons and other health care professionals. New Zealand has been slow to acknowledge and plan for the increased demand for health services which is looming. Growing New Zealand's economy will help, but alone will not be enough. It is more than just finding the financial resources to better meet the demand. The enormous demands on the availability of treatment resources including hospital facilities and trained health care professionals must be addressed. There are major workforce issues to be faced. The change in population distribution between young and old will have an impact and it will be necessary to ensure that there are sufficient numbers of properly trained health care professionals available at all levels. It is hoped that improvements in preventative care programmes and new technologies and treatment techniques may reduce the rate of demand. As the health of our population is improved through targeted programmes dealing with obesity, diabetes, smoking and accident prevention, it may be possible to reallocate or change the focus of resources within the health and hospital sectors. Many countries are developing national strategies for their aging population. Clearly the New Zealand Government needs to move swiftly to develop a plan to manage the increased burden that is developing as a result of the aging population. That plan must create an environment which facilitates, encourages and supports greater private investment in healthcare facilities and healthcare delivery. Incentives must be created to motivate individuals to take greater responsibility for their healthcare needs and the funding of it. The development of a long term strategy to meet the challenges of the aging population is a priority.

  3. Integration of the heat and refrigeration sector into the electricity market model PowerFlex for the analysis of sector encompasing effects on the climate protection goals and EE integration. Scientific final report - actualized version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Matthias; Hesse, Tilman; Kenkmann, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    The report covers the following issues: (i) Detailed description of the heat sector and its coupling to the electricity sector within the electricity market model PowerFlex: provate heat demand, derivation of heat load profiles, development of a technology and energy carrier mix, data inputs for the electricity market regulation. (ii) Creation of an empirically based data basis for the air conditioning of building, its coupling to the electricity system and derivation of recommendations: preparation of a representative empirical determination of the status quo and the factors that provoke private households to install air conditions, effective parameters for the development of energy demand for air conditioning of residential homes, preparation of a data input for the electricity market model - methodology and results. (iii) Preparation of generic renewable energy supply time series with different levels of fluctuation: Methodology of the renewable energy profile calculation, calculation of the supply profile for photovoltaics, calculation of the supply profile for onshore wind and offshore wind. (iv) Extension of the electricity market model PowerFlex to PowerFlex-heat and cold for the sector encompassing scenario analysis: extension of the module to cogeneration power plants, power-to-heat and power-to-gas for the detailed description of the heat sector, extension of the module for load management, scenarios and interpretation of the results.

  4. Modeling and forecasting natural gas demand in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadud, Zia; Dey, Himadri S.; Kabir, Md. Ashfanoor; Khan, Shahidul I.

    2011-01-01

    Natural gas is the major indigenous source of energy in Bangladesh and accounts for almost one-half of all primary energy used in the country. Per capita and total energy use in Bangladesh is still very small, and it is important to understand how energy, and natural gas demand will evolve in the future. We develop a dynamic econometric model to understand the natural gas demand in Bangladesh, both in the national level, and also for a few sub-sectors. Our demand model shows large long run income elasticity - around 1.5 - for aggregate demand for natural gas. Forecasts into the future also show a larger demand in the future than predicted by various national and multilateral organizations. Even then, it is possible that our forecasts could still be at the lower end of the future energy demand. Price response was statistically not different from zero, indicating that prices are possibly too low and that there is a large suppressed demand for natural gas in the country. - Highlights: → Natural gas demand is modeled using dynamic econometric methods, first of its kind in Bangladesh. → Income elasticity for aggregate natural gas demand in Bangladesh is large-around 1.5. → Demand is price insensitive, indicating too low prices and/or presence of large suppressed demand. → Demand forecasts reveal large divergence from previous estimates, which is important for planning. → Attempts to model demand for end-use sectors were successful only for the industrial sector.

  5. Modeling and forecasting natural gas demand in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadud, Zia, E-mail: ziawadud@yahoo.com [Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh); Dey, Himadri S. [University of Notre Dame (United States); Kabir, Md. Ashfanoor; Khan, Shahidul I. [Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh)

    2011-11-15

    Natural gas is the major indigenous source of energy in Bangladesh and accounts for almost one-half of all primary energy used in the country. Per capita and total energy use in Bangladesh is still very small, and it is important to understand how energy, and natural gas demand will evolve in the future. We develop a dynamic econometric model to understand the natural gas demand in Bangladesh, both in the national level, and also for a few sub-sectors. Our demand model shows large long run income elasticity - around 1.5 - for aggregate demand for natural gas. Forecasts into the future also show a larger demand in the future than predicted by various national and multilateral organizations. Even then, it is possible that our forecasts could still be at the lower end of the future energy demand. Price response was statistically not different from zero, indicating that prices are possibly too low and that there is a large suppressed demand for natural gas in the country. - Highlights: > Natural gas demand is modeled using dynamic econometric methods, first of its kind in Bangladesh. > Income elasticity for aggregate natural gas demand in Bangladesh is large-around 1.5. > Demand is price insensitive, indicating too low prices and/or presence of large suppressed demand. > Demand forecasts reveal large divergence from previous estimates, which is important for planning. > Attempts to model demand for end-use sectors were successful only for the industrial sector.

  6. Regulation of the power sector

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of the Power Sector is a unified, consistent and comprehensive treatment of the theories and practicalities of regulation in modern power-supply systems. The need for generation to occur at the time of use occasioned by the impracticality of large-scale electricity storage coupled with constant and often unpredictable changes in demand make electricity-supply systems large, dynamic and complex and their regulation a daunting task. Conceptually arranged in four parts, this book addresses both traditional regulatory frameworks and also liberalized and re-regulated environments. First, an introduction gives a full characterization of power supply including engineering, economic and regulatory viewpoints. The second part presents the fundamentals of regulation and the third looks at the regulation of particular components of the power sector in detail. Advanced topics and subjects still open or subject to dispute form the content of the fourth part. In a sector where regulatory design is the key driver...

  7. Private Sector Credit and Inflation Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Katusiime

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of inflation volatility on private sector credit growth. The results indicate that private sector credit growth is positively linked to the one period lagged inflation volatility. Given that past monetary policy actions continue to affect the targeted variables due to the substantial lags in the transmission mechanism, the positive response of private sector credit growth to past inflation volatility suggests a credible monetary policy regime in Uganda, which has led to a reduction in the level of macroeconomic uncertainty and the restoration of favorable economic conditions and prospects, thus increasing the demand for credit. Further, the study finds that the lagged private sector credit growth, nominal exchange rate, and inflation have a statistically significant effect on private sector credit growth while financial innovation, interest rates, and GDP growth appear not to be important determinants of private sector credit growth. The robustness of our findings is confirmed by sensitivity checks.

  8. Modeling workforce demand in North Dakota: a System Dynamics approach

    OpenAIRE

    Muminova, Adiba

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the dynamics behind the workforce demand and attempts to predict the potential effects of future changes in oil prices on workforce demand in North Dakota. The study attempts to join System Dynamics and Input-Output models in order to overcome shortcomings in both of the approaches and gain a more complete understanding of the issue of workforce demand. A system dynamics simulation of workforce demand within different economic sector...

  9. Mobilizing the private sector. Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz-tabor, L

    1993-12-01

    The national diarrheal disease control program has made progress against diarrheal illness in Indonesia, but diarrhea still accounts for 130,000 deaths of under-5 year olds annually. The potential of the private sector had been virtually untapped until the PRITECH Project designed and implemented a private sector based program to complement government efforts to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality related to diarrhea. PRITECH wanted to motivate commercial firms to invest the capital necessary to commercialize oral rehydration salts (ORS) so that program self-sufficiency would be maximized over the long term without depending upon donor support. Sections describe the lack of commercial sector ORS promotion, supply and demand factors, raising interest in ORS, conditions for change, the potential market for ORS, demand, production capacity, previous collaborative efforts, areas for improvement, PRITECH's role as catalyst, coordination with commercial companies, marketing workshops, collaboration with the Indonesian Medical Association, the handwashing campaign, and program impact. Although the program has been in place for just 1 year, sales of ORS have increased along with the degree of sustainable collaboration among local institutions. The author stresses that for the model to be successfully replicated elsewhere, the government, medical and pediatric associations, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, groups which can promote oral rehydration therapy, and opinion leaders in the medical community must be involved. Finally, note is made that the image of ORS must be improved and that the work of the public and commercial sectors can be complementary.

  10. Market demands to Danish pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    2001-01-01

    position on its markets. It is expected that results of the analysis will be part of superior strategic decisions for the Danish pork sector as regards future Danish pork export markets. The market demands to be identified will therefore be evaluated in relation to resources and competences within the line...... of business. The study takes its starting point in a value chain perspective. The value chain covers the product- and distribution stages a product passes through before reaching the consumers. The value chain perspective presumes that added value is accumulated when a product passes through the stages...

  11. Energy in China: Coping with increasing demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandklef, Kristina

    2004-11-01

    Sustaining the increasing energy consumption is crucial to future economic growth in China. This report focuses on the current and future situation of energy production and consumption in China and how China is coping with its increasing domestic energy demand. Today, coal is the most important energy resource, followed by oil and hydropower. Most energy resources are located in the inland, whereas the main demand for energy is in the coastal areas, which makes transportation and transmission of energy vital. The industrial sector is the main driver of the energy consumption in China, but the transport sector and the residential sector will increase their share of consumption in China, but the transport sector and the residential sector will increase their share of consumption by 2020. China's energy intensity decreased during the 1990s, but it is still high in a global comparison. China is projected to increase its energy consumption at least two times between 2000 and 2025. The government has an equal focus on energy conservation and to develop the current energy resources. Coal will continue to be the most important fuel, but the demand for oil, hydropower, natural gas and nuclear power will also increase. The main future challenges are transportation of energy resources within China and securing oil supply, both domestic and imports

  12. Demand and Supply in Information Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Lizzie; Cronin, Blaise

    1988-01-01

    Describes the reduced employment opportunities for library and information science professionals in the United Kingdom as a result of financial constraints and restructuring in the public and private sectors. The need to train students in skills required by employers to meet employment demands is discussed. (40 references) (CLB)

  13. Projecting Electricity Demand in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, David B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of end-use electricity projections and load curves that were developed for the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study (hereafter RE Futures), which explored the prospect of higher percentages (30% - 90%) of total electricity generation that could be supplied by renewable sources in the United States. As input to RE Futures, two projections of electricity demand were produced representing reasonable upper and lower bounds of electricity demand out to 2050. The electric sector models used in RE Futures required underlying load profiles, so RE Futures also produced load profile data in two formats: 8760 hourly data for the year 2050 for the GridView model, and in 2-year increments for 17 time slices as input to the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. The process for developing demand projections and load profiles involved three steps: discussion regarding the scenario approach and general assumptions, literature reviews to determine readily available data, and development of the demand curves and load profiles.

  14. Indonesia’s Electricity Demand Dynamic Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistio, J.; Wirabhuana, A.; Wiratama, M. G.

    2017-06-01

    Electricity Systems modelling is one of the emerging area in the Global Energy policy studies recently. System Dynamics approach and Computer Simulation has become one the common methods used in energy systems planning and evaluation in many conditions. On the other hand, Indonesia experiencing several major issues in Electricity system such as fossil fuel domination, demand - supply imbalances, distribution inefficiency, and bio-devastation. This paper aims to explain the development of System Dynamics modelling approaches and computer simulation techniques in representing and predicting electricity demand in Indonesia. In addition, this paper also described the typical characteristics and relationship of commercial business sector, industrial sector, and family / domestic sector as electricity subsystems in Indonesia. Moreover, it will be also present direct structure, behavioural, and statistical test as model validation approach and ended by conclusions.

  15. The SEEC United Kingdom energy demand forecast (1993-2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, R; Hawdon, D; Pearson, P; Robinson, C; Stevens, P

    1993-12-16

    The aims of this paper are to present the underlying determinants of fuel consumption, such as economic activity and prices, develop a series of simple yet reliable sectoral models of energy demand, which incorporate recent modelling developments; provide forecasts of energy demand and its environmental consequences; examine the effects of VAT on domestic fuel and increased competition in the electricity sector; and aid the present debate on energy markets. The paper analyses world oil prices, with a particular focus on Iraq's role, reviews energy policy in the UK and discusses SEEC's expectations about UK fuel prices in coming years and how they vary among sectors. It forecasts final user demand in the domestic, iron and steel, other industry, transport, agricultural, public administration and defence and miscellaneous sectors. The paper also examines the major changes that are underway in electricity generators' demand for fuel, and primary energy consumption and its environmental implications.

  16. A novel approach for examining future US domestic water demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costs of repairing and expanding aging infrastructure and competing demands for water from other sectors such as industry and agriculture are stretching policy makers’ abilities to meet essential domestic drinking water needs for future generations. Using Bayesian statistic...

  17. Impact of private sector credit on the real sector of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Mamman, Ph.D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The real sector is a strategic component of an economy because it produces and distributes tangible goods and services required to satisfy aggregate demand in the economy. For this reason, there is the need for adequate credit flow from the banking industry to the real sector, which in the Nigerian case, the credit flow has been grossly inadequate. This study is carried out to examine the impact of credit to private sector (CPS on the real sector of Nigeria with a view to assess the significant contribution of CPS to real sector growth in Nigeria. The study used aggregate time series data from 1986 to 2010, which was drawn from central bank of Nigeria (CBN statistical bulletin and CBN annual report and statement of accounts. The data was analysed using multiple regression and based on the coefficient of determination (R square, the study reveals a 96.1% variation between the CPS and real sector growth in Nigeria. The study cocludes that there is a statistically significant impact of credit to private sector on the real sector of Nigeria. This, suggest that the performance of the real sector is greatly influence by credit to private sector. The study recommends that the federal government of Nigeria through the central bank of Nigeria (CBN should enhance the financing of the real sector as well as improve credit flow to the sector because of its strategic importance in creating and generating growth of the economy.

  18. Development of Agrotouristical Sector in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Elena CHIRTOC; Gabriela BUSAN

    2016-01-01

    The agrotouristical sector allows demand to space by engaging in recreational activities, sports and cultural entertainment, respond to the urban population growing interest towards the natural heritage and rural culture, having important implications in terms of economic and socio-political life of the Romanian village. The paper provides a brief analysis of the sector of agro-tourism in our country during 2000-2015, using the statistics presented by the National Institute of Statistics, to ...

  19. Buildings sector demand-side efficiency technology summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koomey, J.G.; Johnson, F.X.; Schuman, J. [and others

    1994-03-01

    This report provides descriptions of the following energy efficiency technologies: energy management systems; electronic fluorescent ballasts; compact fluorescent lamps; lighting controls; room air conditioners; high albedo materials, coatings and paints; solar domestic water heaters; heat pump water heaters; energy-efficient motors; adjustable-speed drives; energy-efficient refrigerators; daylight control glazing; insulating glazing; solar control glazing; switchable glazing; tree planting; and advanced insulation. For each technology, the report provides a description of performance characteristics, consumer utility, development status, technology standards, equipment cost, installation, maintenance, conservation programs, and environmental impacts.

  20. Social demands of the education sector to the UPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Raza Calderón

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La inteligencia, la creatividad, la formación en valores, los talentos y capacidades...pueden ser desarrollados en todos los niños y niñas ecuatorianos través de un proceso educativo de calidad. Partiendo de esta premisa, el propósito central de esta investigación es conocer si la gestión del docente de educación básica, es efectiva, pertinente y en qué medida contribuye a mejorar la calidad educativa de este nivel.

  1. Latin American electric power developments and hydrocarbon demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Sierra, G.

    1995-01-01

    Latin American countries must address issues such as financing, management (business, technical, environmental) and low-income sectors to promote the structural changes required in energy supply and demand to optimise efficient use. Private sector participation is not only a matter of ownership but raising the level of efficiency. The state's role will be to ensure stability, confidence and environmental safeguards. (author)

  2. Empirical studies on the labor market and on consumer demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, X.

    2001-01-01

    The thesis covers three topics on the labour market and on consumer demand. Chapters two and three focus on the labour market mobility and wage differentials between the formal sector and the informal sector in urban Mexico. Dynamic random effects panel data models are used in the analysis. Chapters

  3. Transport Sector Energy 2010; Transportsektorns energianvaendning 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-15

    Today, transport accounts for a quarter of Sweden's energy consumption which consists almost exclusively of fossil fuels. But with the increasing demands for reduced emissions of greenhouse gases, the sector's conversion to other fuels or energy sources will have a major impact the next years. This situation is expected to expand the requirements for statistics of energy consumption of the transport sector. The publication is divided into two parts. Chapter 2 describes the official energy statistics for the transport sector and Chapter 3 presents a breakdown of energy use in passenger and freight services for the respective modes.

  4. Conservation programs impact in the industrial energetic demand of the Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Walter, A.C. da; Bajay, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation methodology of the impacts of conservation and substitution programs on the industrial energy demand in the State of Sao Paulo. The main industrial sectors are investigated. An econometric energy demand forecasting model is used to project the demand in the planning period. After an analysis of the conservation and substitution possibilities in each industrial sector, a correction in the projected demand is made through adoption of assumptions oriented by these studies. (author)

  5. Embodied energy use in China's industrial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhu; Geng Yong; Lindner, Soeren; Zhao Hongyan; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Guan Dabo

    2012-01-01

    As the world’s top energy consumer, China is facing a great challenge to solve its energy supply issue. In this paper energy use from all industrial sectors in China’s economy of 2007 was explored by conducting an extended environmental input–output analysis. We compare the energy consumption embodied in the final demand for goods and services from 29 sectors with the energy demand required for the actual production process in each sector. Two different viewpoints for sectoral energy use have been presented: energy use is directly allocated to the producer entity, and energy use is reallocated to sector’s supply chain from consumption perspective. Our results show that considerable amount of energy use is embodied in the supply chain, especially for “Construction” and “Other Service Activities” sectors, which is not detected if energy use is allocated on a production basis. When further dividing embodied energy consumption into direct energy consumption and indirect energy consumption, total indirect energy consumption is much higher than that of total direct energy consumption, accounting for 80.6% of total embodied energy consumption in 2007. Our results provide a more holistic picture on sectoral energy consumption and therefore can help decision-makers make more appropriate policies. - Highlights: ► A hybrid IO-LCA model was employed to analyze China’s energy use at sectoral level. ► A case study on China’s sectoral energy consumption is done. ► Construction and service sectors are actually energy intensive from the supply chain perspectives. ► Upstream and downstream ectoral collaboration along the whole supply chain is necessary. ► Energy conservation policies should be based upon a comprehensive analysis on sectoral energy use.

  6. On-Demand Telemetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AFRC has previously investigated the use of Network Based Telemetry. We will be building on that research to enable On-Demand Telemetry. On-Demand Telemetry is a way...

  7. Money Demand in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivars Tillers

    2004-01-01

    The econometric analysis of the demand for broad money in Latvia suggests a stable relationship of money demand. The analysis of parameter exogeneity indicates that the equilibrium adjustment is driven solely by the changes in the amount of money. The demand for money in Latvia is characterised by relatively high income elasticity typical for the economy in a monetary expansion phase. Due to stability, close fit of the money demand function and rapid equilibrium adjustment, broad money aggreg...

  8. Communication in third sector organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Durán-Bravo, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Third sector organisations favour the social development due to their capacity to produce human and social capital in society (Putman, 2001. In order to achieve social welfare third sector organisations need to produce a positive change in the relations among individuals, groups and institutions in a society. The expectations about the third sector organisations’ transparency and capacity to tackle social problems are increasing worldwide. In Mexico, this problematic is more complex because there is a low level of professionalism, transparency, accountability and participation culture in the organized civil society (ITAM, 2010. The development of the organized civil society in Mexico will depend to a great extent on its capacity to communicate its values to society and achieve a cultural and social change. Therefore, the third sector organisations must adopt strategic initiatives to reinforce their credibility and reputation, because the public and private donors are increasingly more demanding in their criteria to grant resources to social projects; and because the Mexican society has a low participation level and faces increasingly more complex social problems.

  9. Worktime demands and work-family interference: Does worktime control buffer the adverse effects of high demands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, S.A.E.; Beckers, D.G.J.; Taris, T.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Smulders, P.G.W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether worktime control buffered the impact of worktime demands on work-family interference (WFI), using data from 2,377 workers from various sectors of industry in The Netherlands. We distinguished among three types of worktime demands: time spent on work according to one's

  10. Electricity sector human resources review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facette, J. [Canadian Association of Technicians and Technologists (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The electricity industry is expanding, with new supply and infrastructure development equivalent to 35 per cent of existing capacity over the next 20 years. This paper examines the preliminary results of a human resources sector review providing industry specific labor force data. The key objectives of the review were to develop detailed industry profiles, identify root causes of human resources issues, identify industry best practices and develop a human resources strategy for the Canadian electricity sector. Estimates of current employment were provided, with age of employees, retirement projections, regional projections and estimated supply/demand gaps. Current shortages were identified, including wind energy technicians. The paper also identified a declining Canadian born labor force and a concurrent dependence on immigrants. A project research methodology was provided with a list of participating major employers. tabs., figs.

  11. Electricity demand forecasting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanalingam, K.

    1994-01-01

    Electricity demand forecasting plays an important role in power generation. The two areas of data that have to be forecasted in a power system are peak demand which determines the capacity (MW) of the plant required and annual energy demand (GWH). Methods used in electricity demand forecasting include time trend analysis and econometric methods. In forecasting, identification of manpower demand, identification of key planning factors, decision on planning horizon, differentiation between prediction and projection (i.e. development of different scenarios) and choosing from different forecasting techniques are important

  12. Solar + Storage Synergies for Managing Commercial-Customer Demand Charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Pieter J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Govindarajan, Anand [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-10-24

    We study the synergies between behind-the-meter solar and storage in reducing commercial-customer demand charges. This follows two previous studies that examined demand charge savings for stand-alone solar in both the residential and commercial sectors. In this study we show that solar and storage show consistent synergies for demand charge management, that the magnitude of reductions are highly customer-specific, and that the magnitude of savings is influenced by the design of the electricity tariff.

  13. A Microfounded Sectoral Model for Open Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plasmans, J.E.J.; Fornero, J.; Michalak, T.

    2007-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the two-country sectoral model are provided for a relatively large number of structural shocks as domestic and foreign productivity shocks in final tradables and non-tradables, money demand shocks and a shock in the exchange rate. Such a model is well suited for monetary

  14. Demand for healthcare in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh C. Purohit

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In a developing country like India, allocation of scarce fiscal resources has to be based on a clear understanding of how investments in the heath sector are going to affect demand. Three aspects like overall healthcare demand, consumer decisions to use public and/or private care and role of price/quality influencing poor/rich consumer’s decisions are critical to assessing the equity implications of alternative policies. Our paper addresses these aspects through examining the pattern of healthcare demand in India. Data from the National Family Health Survey are used to model the healthcare choices that individuals make. We consider what these behavioral characteristics imply for public policy. This analysis aims to study disparities between rural and urban areas from all throughout India to five Indian states representing three levels of per capita incomes (all-India average, rich and poor. Results evidence that healthcare demand both in rural and urban areas is a commodity emerging as an essential need. Choices between public or private provider are guided by income and quality variables mainly with regard to public healthcare denoting thus a situation of very limited alternatives in terms of availing private providers. These results emphasize that existing public healthcare facilities do not serve the objective of providing care to the poor in a satisfactory manner in rural areas. Thus, any financing strategy to improve health system and reduce disparities across rich-poor states and rural-urban areas should also take into account not only overcoming inadequacy but also inefficiency in allocation and utilization of healthcare inputs.

  15. Energy supply and demand in Canada and export demand for Canadian energy, 1966--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1969-01-01

    This report presents the results of a National Energy Board staff study of energy supply and demand in Canada to 1990. The study covers all forms of energy in Canada, and probable sources of supply for serving both indigenous and export demand for Canadian energy. Energy demand by market sector (residential and commercial, industrial, and transportation) is discussed in Chapters III, IV and V, respectively. Chapters VI, VII, VIII, and IX deal with supply prospects for Canadian petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity serving indigenous and export markets. A summary of the report is contained in Chapter II. Appendix A reviews general assumptions including those relating to population and household growth. Appendix B summarizes the methodology used for estimating residential energy demand, automobile transportation energy demand, and electricity supply. Appendix C includes a number of tables which provide detailed information. A list of definitions and abbreviations follows the Table of Contents.

  16. Open Source Tools for Assessment of Global Water Availability, Demands, and Scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Vernon, C. R.; Hejazi, M. I.; Link, R. P.; Liu, Y.; Feng, L.; Huang, Z.; Liu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Water availability and water demands are essential factors for estimating water scarcity conditions. To reproduce historical observations and to quantify future changes in water availability and water demand, two open source tools have been developed by the JGCRI (Joint Global Change Research Institute): Xanthos and GCAM-STWD. Xanthos is a gridded global hydrologic model, designed to quantify and analyze water availability in 235 river basins. Xanthos uses a runoff generation and a river routing modules to simulate both historical and future estimates of total runoff and streamflows on a monthly time step at a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees. GCAM-STWD is a spatiotemporal water disaggregation model used with the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) to spatially downscale global water demands for six major enduse sectors (irrigation, domestic, electricity generation, mining, and manufacturing) from the region scale to the scale of 0.5 degrees. GCAM-STWD then temporally downscales the gridded annual global water demands to monthly results. These two tools, written in Python, can be integrated to assess global, regional or basin-scale water scarcity or water stress. Both of the tools are extensible to ensure flexibility and promote contribution from researchers that utilize GCAM and study global water use and supply.

  17. The art of investing in the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keuzenkamp, H.; De Nooij, M.; Van Geffen, S.

    2003-10-01

    After an introduction on the electricity market attention is paid to fundamental characteristics of supply and demand of electricity, and several aspects with respect to investment in the electricity sector. Next, some answers are given on questions on societal, economical and political damage of too low or too high investments in the electricity sector, focusing on public, commercial and conflicting interests [nl

  18. Public sector cost management practices in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, Frank H.m.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this research project is to validate the claim that recent developments in the public sector have increased the demand for and use of cost management information in public sector organizations. Design/methodology/approach – The approach taken is a survey of financial

  19. Innovation and Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2007-01-01

    the demand-side of markets in the simplest possible way. This strategy has allowed a gradual increase in the sophistication of supply-side aspects of economic evolution, but the one-sided focus on supply is facing diminishing returns. Therefore, demand-side aspects of economic evolution have in recent years...... received increased attention. The present paper argues that the new emphasis on demand-side factors is quite crucial for a deepened understanding of economic evolution. The major reasons are the following: First, demand represents the core force of selection that gives direction to the evolutionary process....... Second, firms' innovative activities relate, directly or indirectly, to the structure of expected and actual demand. Third, the demand side represents the most obvious way of turning to the much-needed analysis of macro-evolutionary change of the economic system....

  20. Estimating Employment Dynamics across Occupations and Sectors of Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cörvers, Frank; Dupuy, Arnaud

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate the demand for workers by sector and occupation using system dynamic OLS techniques to account for the employment dynamics dependence across occupations and sectors of industry. The short run dynamics are decomposed into intra and intersectoral dynamics. We find that employment by occupation and sector is significantly affected by the short run intersectoral dynamics, using Dutch data for the period 1988-2003. On average, these intersectoral dynamics account for 20%...

  1. Sector Information Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fishing sectors were established in the Greater Atlantic region in 2010 under catch share management initiatives. Sector data kept at GARFO is mostly a collection of...

  2. PERFECT DEMAND ILLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yu. Sulimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to technique «Perfect demand illusion», which allows to strengthen the competitive advantageof retailers. Also in the paper spells out the golden rules of visual merchandising.The definition of the method «Demand illusion», formulated the conditions of its functioning, and is determined by the mainhypothesis of the existence of this method.Furthermore, given the definition of the «Perfect demand illusion», and describes its additional conditions. Also spells out the advantages of the «Perfect demandillusion», before the «Demand illusion».

  3. Divers of Passenger Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    -Overview drivers of passenger demand -Driver 1: Economic growth in developing countries -Driver 2: International business travel in developed countries -Driver 3: International leisure travel in developed countries

  4. An energy supply and demand model for South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberberg, R.B.

    1981-08-01

    The topic of this thesis is the development of a model of energy supply and demand in South Africa to project energy flows up to the year 2005 and also to assess the implications of policy actions. In this thesis, a method of determining energy flows taking generally accepted economic and technological factors into account is developed. Also, various situations are tested, in order to determine the following: 1) Likely energy flows up to 2005, as well as possible upper and lower bounds. 2) Significant final demand sectors, in terms of energy requirements. 3) The effects of changes in supply and demand sector technology. 4) The implications of policy options such as enengy independence. Owing to the different characteristics of the energy supply and demand sectors, the following techniques were used: 1) Energy demand sectors. 2) Energy supply sectors. 3) Supply/demand equilibration 4) Output. Through successive runs of the model, the policy-maker is able to indentify likely values of energy flows, as well as upper and lower boundaries given the described set of assumptions. The following statements are made as conclusions: 1) The growth rate of domectic coal demand is likely to be 5,5 % per annum up to 2005. 2) The Iron and Steel industry and the Mining industry have the greatest potential effect on coal demand. 3) The coal growth rate stated above implies certain improvements in coal to liquid fuel and electricity conversion. 4) The coal demands of oil energy independence are listed, highlighting the fact that major coal exports and energy independence may be mutually exclusive. Other conclusions regarding capital requirements, oil imports and coking coal utilization are described. The model permits a consistent and inteqrated forecast of national energy flows to be made, providing the policymaker with projections that include the effects of uncertainty with regard to future technologies and economic output. This feature is crucial for policy formulation

  5. Integration of the heat and refrigeration sector into the electricity market model PowerFlex for the analysis of sector encompasing effects on the climate protection goals and EE integration. Scientific final report - actualized version; Einbindung des Waerme- und Kaeltesektors in das Strommarktmodell PowerFlex zur Analyse sektoruebergreifender Effekte auf Klimaschutzziele und EE-Integration. Wissenschaftlicher Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Matthias; Hesse, Tilman; Kenkmann, Tanja [Oeko-Institut e.V., Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Freiburg (Germany); and others

    2017-06-21

    The report covers the following issues: (i) Detailed description of the heat sector and its coupling to the electricity sector within the electricity market model PowerFlex: provate heat demand, derivation of heat load profiles, development of a technology and energy carrier mix, data inputs for the electricity market regulation. (ii) Creation of an empirically based data basis for the air conditioning of building, its coupling to the electricity system and derivation of recommendations: preparation of a representative empirical determination of the status quo and the factors that provoke private households to install air conditions, effective parameters for the development of energy demand for air conditioning of residential homes, preparation of a data input for the electricity market model - methodology and results. (iii) Preparation of generic renewable energy supply time series with different levels of fluctuation: Methodology of the renewable energy profile calculation, calculation of the supply profile for photovoltaics, calculation of the supply profile for onshore wind and offshore wind. (iv) Extension of the electricity market model PowerFlex to PowerFlex-heat and cold for the sector encompassing scenario analysis: extension of the module to cogeneration power plants, power-to-heat and power-to-gas for the detailed description of the heat sector, extension of the module for load management, scenarios and interpretation of the results.

  6. Uranium resources and supply - demand to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, R.

    2010-01-01

    Recent fluctuations in the market price for uranium have resulted in more activity in this sector over the past few years than in the preceding 20 years. Amidst this background, uranium demand is increasing. Construction of nuclear reactors is proceeding in some countries, ambitious expansion plans have been announced in others and the development of nuclear power programs to meet electricity demand and minimize greenhouse emissions in a cost effective manner is under consideration in many others. This paper reviews projections of nuclear growth and uranium demand and assesses the challenges faced by the uranium mining sector in meeting rising demand. Since the mid-1960 s, an international expert committee (the 'Uranium Group') formed by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency has published biennially comprehensive updates on global uranium resources, production and demand (the 'Red Book'). The most recent in this series, based on 2007 data and published in June 2008, includes a supply/demand projection to 2030. However, much has changed since the data were collected for this projection and an assessment of these changes and their impact on uranium production is included in this presentation. It is concluded that world identified uranium resources (5.45 million t U recoverable at costs up to US$130/kg U, or US$50/lb U 3 O 8 ) are adequate to meet projected future high case nuclear power requirements. However, recent financial market turmoil and lower uranium prices, the opaque nature of the uranium market itself, increased regulatory requirements, a scarcity of the required specialized labour and the fluctuating costs of raw materials makes the process of turning uranium resources in the ground into yellowcake in the can increasingly more challenging, particularly for new entrants. Considerable investment and expertise will be required to bring about the substantial increase in mine production required to meet future demand

  7. Public Sector Expatriate Managers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenner, Charles, R., Jr.; Selmer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Although public sector expatriates are becoming increasingly common, research on them is very limited. There is reason to believe that the situation for expatriates from the public sector may be different than for those from the private sector. This study investigated U.S. Department of Defense a...

  8. A Study of Job Demands and Curriculum Development in Agricultural Training Related to the Muskegon County Wastewater Management System. Final Report. Volume III. Student Terminal Performance Objectives and Instructional Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Harold S.; And Others

    This is the third volume of a four-volume report of a research project designed to (1) identify job needs for agricultural occupations which will result from the Muskegon County Wastewater Management System and perform a task analysis on each occupation, (2) develop instructional modules and determine their place in either high school or 2-year…

  9. Uranium supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spriggs, M J

    1976-01-01

    Papers were presented on the pattern of uranium production in South Africa; Australian uranium--will it ever become available; North American uranium resources, policies, prospects, and pricing; economic and political environment of the uranium mining industry; alternative sources of uranium supply; whither North American demand for uranium; and uranium demand and security of supply--a consumer's point of view. (LK)

  10. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  11. Influence of India’s transformation on residential energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The middle income group emerges as the dominant segment by 2030. • Commercial residential energy demand increases 3–4 folds compared to 2010. • Electricity and LPG demand grows above 6% per year in the reference scenario. • India faces the potential of displacing the domination of biomass by 2030. - Abstract: India’s recent macro-economic and structural changes are transforming the economy and bringing significant changes to energy demand behaviour. Life-style and consumption behaviour are evolving rapidly due to accelerated economic growth in recent times. The population structure is changing, thereby offering the country with the potential to reap the population dividend. The country is also urbanising rapidly, and the fast-growing middle class segment of the population is fuelling consumerism by mimicking international life-styles. These changes are likely to have significant implications for energy demand in the future, particularly in the residential sector. Using the end-use approach of demand analysis, this paper analyses how residential energy demand is likely to evolve as a consequence of India’s transformation and finds that by 2030, India’s commercial energy demand in the residential sector can quadruple in the high scenario compared to the demand in 2010. Demand for modern fuels like electricity and liquefied petroleum gas is likely to grow at a faster rate. However, there is a window of opportunity to better manage the evolution of residential demand in India through energy efficiency improvement

  12. Decomposing energy demand across BRIIC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adetutu, Morakinyo O.; Glass, Anthony J.; Weyman-Jones, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Energy plays an important role within the production technology of fast emerging economies, such that firms' reaction to changes in energy prices provides useful information on factor productivity and factor intensity, as well as the likely outcome of energy policy initiatives, among other things. Drawing on duality theory, this paper decomposes changes in energy demand into substitution and output effects using annual sector-level production data for Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia and China (BRIIC) for the period 1995–2009. Unlike previous studies, this study analyzed the economic properties of the underlying production technology. Results indicate that changes in energy demand are strongly dominated by substitution effects. More importantly, an intriguing finding that emerges from our analysis is the role of economies of scale and factor accumulation, as opposed to technical progress, in giving rise to the growth performance of sampled economies. - Highlights: • The analysis examines the structure and channels of changes in energy demand across productive sectors in BRIIC countries during 1995–2009. • We evaluate substitution and output effects as well as the nature of firm productivity across these countries. • Changes in energy demand arising from changes in (relative) price of energy is strongly dominated by substitution effects. • The main drivers of economic performance and energy use over the sample period are economies of scale and factor accumulation.

  13. Uranium 2011 resources, production and demand

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, questions are being raised about the future of the uranium market, including as regards the number of reactors expected to be built in the coming years, the amount of uranium required to meet forward demand, the adequacy of identified uranium resources to meet that demand and the ability of the sector to meet reactor requirements in a challenging investment climate. This 24th edition of the “Red Book”, a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 42 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It offers a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It also provides substantive new information on established uranium production centres around the world and in countri...

  14. General overview of the Mexican energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Jacome, D.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of Mexico's energy sector was presented, with particular focus on the natural gas and electricity sectors. Mexico ranks fifth in oil production, eighth in proven oil reserves, and fourteenth in natural gas reserves. In 1998, the energy sector generated 3.3 per cent of Mexico's gross domestic product (GDP), and oil accounted for 7.5 per cent of total exports. National production of natural gas has been forecasted to grow at a rate of 5.2 per cent annually over the next 10 years. This will be largely due to the increased demand for natural gas to produce electricity. The Mexican government has also taken initiatives to restructure the Mexican energy sector with particular focus on increasing the competitiveness of the electric power industry. Electricity demand is also expected to grow at a rate of 6 per cent annually over the next six years. The objectives of energy reform are to promote more investment from all sectors in order to strengthen the development of the electric power industry and to provide a reliable, high quality service at competitive prices. 9 figs

  15. Sectoral Innovation Watch Biotechnology Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enzing, C.

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology has evolved from a single set of technologies in the mid 1970s into a full grown technological field that is the driving force in innovation processes in many industrial sectors (pharmaceutical, medical, agriculture, food, chemical, environment, instruments). Nowadays, biotechnology is

  16. Sectoral Innovation Watch Food and Drinks Sector. Final Sector Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leis, M.; Gijsbers, G.; Zee, F. van der

    2011-01-01

    The food and drinks manufacturing industry is a diverse and complex sector. There are ample possibilities for performance improvement and innovation in the food and drinks industry as well as a variety of challenges ranging from a lack of financial and human resources, fragmented consumer interests

  17. Uranium supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This report covers the period 1983 to 1995. It draws together the industry's latest views on future trends in supply and demand, and sets them in their historical context. It devotes less discussion than its predecessors to the technical influences underpinning the Institute's supply and demand forecasts, and more to the factors which influence the market behaviour of the industry's various participants. As the last decade has clearly shown, these latter influences can easily be overlooked when undue attention is given to physical imbalances between supply and demand. (author)

  18. On energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1977-01-01

    Since the energy crisis, a number of energy plans have been proposed, and almost all of these envisage some kind of energy demand adaptations or conservation measures, hoping thus to escape the anticipated problems of energy supply. However, there seems to be no clear explanation of the basis on which our foreseeable future energy problems could be eased. And in fact, a first attempt at a more exact definition of energy demand and its interaction with other objectives, such as economic ones, shows that it is a highly complex concept which we still hardly understand. The article explains in some detail why it is so difficult to understand energy demand

  19. Second sector cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of July, cool-down is starting in the second LHC sector, sector 4-5. The cool down of sector 4-5 may occasionally generate mist at Point 4, like that produced last January (photo) during the cool-down of sector 7-8.Things are getting colder in the LHC. Sector 7-8 has been kept at 1.9 K for three weeks with excellent stability (see Bulletin No. 16-17 of 16 April 2007). The electrical tests in this sector have got opt to a successful start. At the beginning of July the cryogenic teams started to cool a second sector, sector 4-5. At Point 4 in Echenevex, where one of the LHC’s cryogenic plants is located, preparations for the first phase of the cool-down are underway. During this phase, the sector will first be cooled to 80 K (-193°C), the temperature of liquid nitrogen. As for the first sector, 1200 tonnes of liquid nitrogen will be used for the cool-down. In fact, the nitrogen circulates only at the surface in the ...

  20. Development of Agrotouristical Sector in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Elena CHIRTOC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The agrotouristical sector allows demand to space by engaging in recreational activities, sports and cultural entertainment, respond to the urban population growing interest towards the natural heritage and rural culture, having important implications in terms of economic and socio-political life of the Romanian village. The paper provides a brief analysis of the sector of agro-tourism in our country during 2000-2015, using the statistics presented by the National Institute of Statistics, to the eight regions level, namely: North West, Central, North East, South East, South-Muntenia, Bucharest-Ilfov, South West and West Oltenia.

  1. Sizewell: UK power demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Sizewell Inquiry was about whether the next power stations to be built in the UK should be nuclear or coal and, if nuclear, PWRs or AGRs. During the period of the Inquiry forecasts of demand for electricity were low. Now, however, it seems that the forecast demand is much increased. This uncertainty in demand and the wide regional variations are examined in some detail. Facts and figures on electricity sales (area by area) are presented. Also the minutes of supply lost per consumer per year. These show that security of supply is also a problem. It is also shown that the way electricity is used has changed. Whilst electricity generation has been changing to large-scale, centralised power stations the demand patterns may make smaller scale, quickly-constructed units more sensible. The questions considered at the Sizewell Inquiry may, indeed, no longer be the right ones. (UK)

  2. Private sector joins family planning effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from

  3. State-level electricity demand forecasting model. [For 1980, 1985, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, H. D.

    1978-01-01

    This note briefly describes the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) state-level electricity demand (SLED) forecasting model developed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Specifically, the note presents (1) the special features of the model, (2) the methodology used to forecast electricity demand, and (3) forecasts of electricity demand and average price by sector for 15 states for 1980, 1985, 1990.

  4. Electricity supply and demand analysis in electric system of Uruguay 2000-2007 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This article is about the following topics: energy analysis, production and use, supply and demand, energy consumption evolution, energy sources, energy demand by economic sector between years 2000-2007, energy range, energy growing rate, demanding maximum power, growing maximum rate, exported and imported energy.

  5. A demanding market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M.

    1997-01-01

    The article relates to the oil and natural gas market, and it gives a survey of proved reserves at the end of 1996 worldwide. The long term trend of increasing world energy demand has seen a major rise during 1996 when global consumption grew by 3%. But worldwide demand, excluding the Former Soviet Union, shows this figure increasing further to 3.7% for the whole of last year according to statistics. 3 figs

  6. Maximum power demand cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1998-01-01

    The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it

  7. The emerging fourth sector

    OpenAIRE

    Friis, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth Sector is a new phenomenon related to dual social and financial value creation, until now not clearly defined with crisp sectoral boundaries and an operationalized definition. The phenomenon is getting increased attention in media, conferences, business schools and by organizations all over the world, and this study intends to explain the macroenvironmental changes that led to the rise of the fourth sector, describe new trends of social value creation in the private ...

  8. Demand, supply and fuel prices forecast to the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes the Western European energy situation, and deals with specific aspects under the headings: European oil prices fall until 1987; prospects for oil recovery; transport sector holds oil demand up as oil demand loses favour in other sectors; upstream uncertainties; continued slackness of European natural gas market poses threat to oil; problems for European coal industry; dramatic growth in nuclear power; breeder reactors to play minimal role; PWRs will remain dominant. The situation in individual countries - Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Germany, United Kingdom, Italy and Spain - is analysed. (U.K.)

  9. Estimation of European Union residential sector space cooling potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubcionis, Mindaugas; Carlsson, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Data on European residential space cooling demands are scarce and often of poor quality. This can be concluded from a review of the Comprehensive Assessments on the energy efficiency potential in the heating and cooling sector performed by European Union Member States under Art. 14 of the Energy Efficiency Directive. This article estimates the potential space cooling demands in the residential sector of the EU and the resulting impact on electricity generation and supply systems using the United States as a proxy. A georeferenced approach was used to establish the potential residential space cooling demand in NUTS-3 regions of EU. The total potential space cooling demand of the EU was estimated to be 292 TW h for the residential sector in an average year. The additional electrical capacity needed was estimated to 79 GW. With proper energy system development strategies, e.g. matching capacity of solar PV with cooling demand, or introduction of district cooling, the stresses on electricity system from increasing cooling demand can be mitigated. The estimated potential of space cooling demand, identified in this paper for all EU Members States, could be used while preparing the next iteration of EU MS Comprehensive Assessments or other energy related studies. - Highlights: • An estimation of EU space cooling demand potential in residential sector is presented. • An estimate of space cooling demand potential is based on using USA data as a proxy. • Significant cooling demand increase can be expected. • Cooling demand increase would lead to increased stress in energy supply systems. • Proper policies and strategies might measurably decrease the impact on energy systems.

  10. Enhancing collaborative innovation in the public sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    demand for public innovation, and demonstrates how it can be enhanced through multiactor collaboration. The case for collaborative innovation is supported by insights from three different social science theories. The theoretical discussion leads to the formulation of an analytical model that can be used......Encouraged by the proliferation of governance networks and the growing demands for public innovation, this article aims to advance “collaborative innovation” as a cross-disciplinary approach to studying and enhancing public innovation. The article explains the special conditions and the growing...... in future studies of collaborative innovation in the public sector....

  11. Chemical and Petrochemical Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This publication is a background document on the global chemical and petrochemical sector for the IEA publication Energy Technology Transitions in Industry (IEA, 2009). It provides further, more detailed information on the methodology and data issues for energy efficiency indicators for the sector. The indicators discussed offer insight regarding the energy efficiency improvement potential in the short- to medium-term (by proven technologies).

  12. Energy sector alliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuade, Owen

    1998-09-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: A changing energy sector; Rationale for the joint venture, merger or acquisition; Mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures by sector; The joint venture process; Key factors for success; Financing the venture; Case studies; The future outlook. (Author)

  13. UK Nuclear Workforce Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    2017-01-01

    UK Nuclear Sites: DECOMMISSIONING - 26 Magnox Reactors, 2 Fast Reactors; OPERATIONAL - 14 AGRs, 1 PWR; 9.6 GWe Total Capacity. Nuclear Workforce Demand • Total workforce demand is expected to grow from ~88,000 in 2017 to ~101,000 in 2021 • Average “inflow” is ~7,000 FTEs per annum • 22% of the workforce is female (28% in civil, 12% in defence) • 81% generic skills, 18% nuclear skills, 1% subject matter experts • 3300 trainees total in SLCs and Defence Enterprise (16% graduate trainees) • At peak demand on Civils Construction, over 4,000 workers will be required on each nuclear new build site • Manufacturing workforce is expected to rise from around 4,000 in 2014 to 8,500 at the peak of onsite activity in 2025

  14. Demand Modelling in Telecommunications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chvalina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the existing possibilities for using Standard Statistical Methods and Artificial Intelligence Methods for a short-term forecast and simulation of demand in the field of telecommunications. The most widespread methods are based on Time Series Analysis. Nowadays, approaches based on Artificial Intelligence Methods, including Neural Networks, are booming. Separate approaches will be used in the study of Demand Modelling in Telecommunications, and the results of these models will be compared with actual guaranteed values. Then we will examine the quality of Neural Network models. 

  15. Education on Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Lis; Hende, Merete

    2015-01-01

    Dette notat beskriver nogle af resultaterne fra programmet "Education on Demand' i projektet Det erhvervsrettede Uddannelseslaboratorium. Programmet har haft fokus på udfordringer og forandringsbehov i uddannelsesinstitutioner og -systemet. Herunder har det beskæftiget sig særligt med de to temat......Dette notat beskriver nogle af resultaterne fra programmet "Education on Demand' i projektet Det erhvervsrettede Uddannelseslaboratorium. Programmet har haft fokus på udfordringer og forandringsbehov i uddannelsesinstitutioner og -systemet. Herunder har det beskæftiget sig særligt med de...

  16. Refrigerated Warehouse Demand Response Strategy Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Doug [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Castillo, Rafael [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Larson, Kyle [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Dobbs, Brian [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This guide summarizes demand response measures that can be implemented in refrigerated warehouses. In an appendix, it also addresses related energy efficiency opportunities. Reducing overall grid demand during peak periods and energy consumption has benefits for facility operators, grid operators, utility companies, and society. State wide demand response potential for the refrigerated warehouse sector in California is estimated to be over 22.1 Megawatts. Two categories of demand response strategies are described in this guide: load shifting and load shedding. Load shifting can be accomplished via pre-cooling, capacity limiting, and battery charger load management. Load shedding can be achieved by lighting reduction, demand defrost and defrost termination, infiltration reduction, and shutting down miscellaneous equipment. Estimation of the costs and benefits of demand response participation yields simple payback periods of 2-4 years. To improve demand response performance, it’s suggested to install air curtains and another form of infiltration barrier, such as a rollup door, for the passageways. Further modifications to increase efficiency of the refrigeration unit are also analyzed. A larger condenser can maintain the minimum saturated condensing temperature (SCT) for more hours of the day. Lowering the SCT reduces the compressor lift, which results in an overall increase in refrigeration system capacity and energy efficiency. Another way of saving energy in refrigerated warehouses is eliminating the use of under-floor resistance heaters. A more energy efficient alternative to resistance heaters is to utilize the heat that is being rejected from the condenser through a heat exchanger. These energy efficiency measures improve efficiency either by reducing the required electric energy input for the refrigeration system, by helping to curtail the refrigeration load on the system, or by reducing both the load and required energy input.

  17. Cut-off of electric consumption in France. Assessment of the cut-off potential by process modulation in industrial and tertiary sectors in metropolitan France. Final report + Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertholon, Marion; Streiff, Frederic; Marchal, David; Bouchet, Alexandre; Foucher, Julie-Anne; Hoffer, Alexandre; Millet, Bruno; Sorlier, Pierre; Peron, Nicolas; Creon, Nicolas; Lenet, Sylvain; Guillet, Frederic; Mounier, Cyril; Charton, Franck; Duclos, Herve; Lenain, Yves; MADEC, Marc; Lepretre, Pascale; Vasseur, Olivier; Rigard-Cerison, Aude; Guedou, Benjamin; Houvenagel, Olivier; Epelbaum, David; Briant, Marie-Helene; Osmont, Robin; Elasri, Sofia; Barreyre, Gildas; Adam, Julien

    2017-09-01

    This study mainly aims at characterising and assessing the cut-off potential in the French industrial and tertiary sectors by providing qualitative as well as quantitative elements, and by highlighting the different mechanisms of valorisation of existing and currently developed cut-off. It also proposes a comparison of the French context with that of some foreign countries (notably United Kingdom, Japan, and some regions of the USA). Thus, it comprises an identification and analysis of cut-off mechanisms and practices, an assessment of technical and technical-economic cut-off sources in France, and a discussion of economic and organisational brakes and obstacles to cut-off developments

  18. An overview of the energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavergne, R.

    2009-01-01

    According to IEA the world demand for energy is likely to grow by 45% from now to 2030 if today's tendency is extrapolated and coal would represent the third of this energy increase. The world CO 2 releases might have grown by 55% in 2030 compared to today's releases. Today at the world scale, the sector that generates most greenhouse effect gases is the energy production (26%) followed by industry (19%). France's strategy concerning climate change and energy policy is recalled and fits with European Union's action plan. This action plan in the energy sector follows 6 axes: -) the setting of an European market of energy, -) +20% in energy efficiency by 2020, -) 20% of renewable energies in the energy mix by 2020, -) the development of a European technology for a low carbon future, -) the development of nuclear energy, and -) The setting of a European foreign energy policy. (A.C.)

  19. Nuclear Knowledge - Demand or Pride?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeca, S.C.; Valeca, M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Nowadays, the increasing energy demand and the decreasing 'classical' resources is a reality. In this context, sustainable development and economical growth is mandatory for each country. Nuclear energy becomes more and more attractive in order to solve those problems. During last years, nuclear knowledge management became an interesting topic in dedicated debates, due to the uniqueness of nuclear Industry. With five decades of operational experience in commercial power production, the nuclear power industry is mature and represents the first high technology enterprise of the twentieth century. There is a constant expectation that fission reactor technologies of today will 'soon' be superseded by more advanced designs, new concepts like Generation IV, fusion reactors, etc. Nuclear industry is highly regulated and politicized and strong anti-nuclear lobbies led to stagnation. The presentation underlines the key activity areas of the nuclear knowledge: - providing guidance for policy formulation and implementation of nuclear knowledge management; - strengthening the contribution of nuclear knowledge in solving development problems; - facilitating knowledge creation and utilization; - implementing effective knowledge management systems; - preserving and maintaining nuclear knowledge; - securing sustainable human resources for the nuclear sector; - enhancing nuclear education and training. Knowledge management in nuclear life cycle should cover all stages involved, namely: - design and engineering; - procurement; - manufacturing; - construction and commissioning; - operation and maintenance- refurbishment and decommissioning. In this context, Romania must change the Nuclear Educational System in order to face the requirements raised by Bologna Process and nuclear development. Possible solutions to attain this goal are illustrated in this presentation. (authors)

  20. Assessment of Future Skills Requirements in the Hospitality Sector in Ireland, 2015-2020

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The hospitality sector is one of the most important employment services sectors in the Irish economy, and there is significant potential for future expansion. The objective of this study is to assess the skills demand needs arising within the Hospitality sector in Ireland – hotels, restaurants, bars, canteens and catering – over the period to 2020. The aim is to ensure that there will be the right supply of skills to help drive domestic hospitality sector business and employment growth.

  1. Causality in demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Jensen, Frank; Setälä, Jari

    2011-01-01

    to fish demand. On the German market for farmed trout and substitutes, it is found that supply sources, i.e. aquaculture and fishery, are not the only determinant of causality. Storing, tightness of management and aggregation level of integrated markets might also be important. The methodological...

  2. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2006-07-01

    The year 2004 saw a change in the oil market paradigm that was confirmed in 2005. Despite a calmer geopolitical context, prices continued to rise vigorously. Driven by world demand, they remain high as a result of the saturation of production and refining capacity. The market is still seeking its new equilibrium. (author)

  3. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.

    2006-01-01

    The year 2004 saw a change in the oil market paradigm that was confirmed in 2005. Despite a calmer geopolitical context, prices continued to rise vigorously. Driven by world demand, they remain high as a result of the saturation of production and refining capacity. The market is still seeking its new equilibrium. (author)

  4. The demand for euros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Roelands, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the demand for euros using panel data for 10 euro area countries covering the period from 1999 to 2008. Monetary aggregates are constructed to ensure that money is a national concept by excluding deposits owned by non-residents and including external deposits owned by

  5. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.

    2004-01-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  6. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  7. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  8. Torus sector handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    A remote handling system is proposed for moving a torus sector of the accelerator from under the cryostat to a point where it can be handled by a crane and for the reverse process for a new sector. Equipment recommendations are presented, as well as possible alignment schemes. Some general comments about future remote-handling methods and the present capabilities of existing systems will also be included. The specific task to be addressed is the removal and replacement of a 425 to 450 ton torus sector. This requires a horizontal movement of approx. 10 m from a normal operating position to a point where its further transport can be accomplished by more conventional means (crane or floor transporter). The same horizontal movement is required for reinstallation, but a positional tolerance of 2 cm is required to allow reasonable fit-up for the vacuum seal from the radial frames to the torus sector. Since the sectors are not only heavy but rather tall and narrow, the transport system must provide a safe, stable, and repeatable method fo sector movement. This limited study indicates that the LAMPF-based method of transporting torus sectors offers a proven method of moving heavy items. In addition, the present state of the art in remote equipment is adequate for FED maintenance

  9. Electricity demand in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gam, Imen; Ben Rejeb, Jaleleddine

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the global electricity demand in Tunisia as a function of gross domestic product in constant price, the degree of urbanization, the average annual temperature, and the real electricity price per Kwh. This demand will be examined employing annual data over a period spanning almost thirty one years from 1976 to 2006. A long run relationship between the variables under consideration is determined using the Vector Autoregressive Regression. The empirical results suggest that the electricity demand in Tunisia is sensitive to its past value, any changes in gross domestic product and electricity price. The electricity price effects have a negative impact on long-run electricity consumption. However, the gross domestic product and the past value of electricity consumption have a positive effect. Moreover, the causality test reveals a unidirectional relationship between price and electricity consumption. Our empirical findings are effective to policy makers to maintain the electricity consumption in Tunisia by using the appropriate strategy. - Highlights: ► This paper examined the electricity demand in Tunisia in the long-run. ► The empirical analysis revealed that in the long-run the electricity demand is affected by changes in its past value, GDP in constant price and real electricity price. ► There is a unidirectional relationship between price and electricity consumption, that is to say, that the electricity price causes the consumption. ► Those results suggest that a pricing policy can be an effective instrument to rationalize the electricity consumption in Tunisia in the long-run.

  10. The energy demand in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffers, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Based on three scenarios for the global and economic developments the CPB (Dutch Central Planning Bureau) made projections of the Dutch energy demand to the year 2015. Factors of interest are the development of the energy prices, sectoral analysis of the economic growth and the government policy. The scenarios are Balanced Growth, characterized by a strong economic growth, sustainable economic development, and a dynamic technological development, the Global Shift scenario, characterized by a very dynamic technological development, and the European Renaissance scenario with a less dynamic development. 2 ills., 5 tabs., 2 refs

  11. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i......) significant and positive in the tradable and the nontradable sectors, and (ii) equally strong in both sectors. The article thus provides no empirical support for the hypothesis that aid reduces external competitiveness in developing countries. A possible reason for this finding is the existence of large idle...

  12. Canada's hydrogen energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    Canada produces the most hydrogen per capita of any Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country. The majority of this hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming for industrial use (predominantly oil upgrading and fertilizer production). Canada also has a world leading hydrogen and fuel cell sector. This sector is seeking new methods for making hydrogen for its future energy needs. The paper will discuss Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell sector in the context of its capabilities, its demonstration and commercialization activities and its stature on the world stage. (author)

  13. Modelling UK energy demand to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    A recent long-term demand forecast for the UK was made by Cheshire and Surrey. (SPRU Occasional Paper Series No.5, Science Policy Research Unit, Univ. Of Sussex, 1978.) Although they adopted a sectoral approach their study leaves some questions unanswered. Do they succeed in their aim of making all their assumptions fully explicit. How sensitive are their estimates to changes in assumptions and policies. Are important problems and 'turning points' fully identified in the period up to and immediately beyond their time horizon of 2000. The author addresses these questions by using a computer model based on the study by Cheshire and Surrey. This article is a shortened version of the report, S.D. Thomas, 'Modelling UK Energy Demand to 2000', Operational Research, Univ. of Sussex, Brighton, UK, 1979, in which full details of the author's model are given. Copies are available from the author. (author)

  14. Modelling UK energy demand to 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S D [Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK)

    1980-03-01

    A recent long-term demand forecast for the UK was made by Cheshire and Surrey. (SPRU Occasional Paper Series No.5, Science Policy Research Unit, Univ. Of Sussex, 1978.) Although they adopted a sectoral approach their study leaves some questions unanswered. Do they succeed in their aim of making all their assumptions fully explicit. How sensitive are their estimates to changes in assumptions and policies. Are important problems and 'turning points' fully identified in the period up to and immediately beyond their time horizon of 2000. The author addresses these questions by using a computer model based on the study by Cheshire and Surrey. This article is a shortened version of the report, S.D. Thomas, 'Modelling UK Energy Demand to 2000', Operational Research, Univ. of Sussex, Brighton, UK, 1979, in which full details of the author's model are given. Copies are available from the author.

  15. TECHNOLOGICAL SCENARIOS TO THE DEMAND FOR SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Franco Paes Leme Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available From the first decade of the 2000s, it is clear that there is an increase in discussions involving sustainability, including the bioenergy issue, to which Brazil has drawn the attention due to advances in the ethanol industry. Advances in engine technology reflected new opportunities for this industry and, according to the Ten-Year Energy Plan for 2019 developed by the Ministry of Mines and Energy, there is an expected increase in demand for ethanol of 90% by 2019 (Brazil, 2010. However, new technologies for the conversion and use of sugarcane and the complex context of this industry add uncertainties to this sector. Aiming to discuss and include the uncertainties on the agenda of this industry, this study proposes to elaborate and discuss prospective scenarios to the demand for sugarcane. Four scenarios with different perspectives of technological advance and market development were elaborated and discussed in the conclusion.

  16. The rebound effect in the aviation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Antony; Schäfer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The rebound effect, i.e., the (partial) offset of the energy efficiency improvement potential due to a reduction in marginal usage costs and the associated increase in consumer demand, has been extensively studied for residential energy demand and automobile travel. This study presents a quantitative estimate of the rebound effect for an air traffic network including the 22 busiest airports, which serve 14 of the highest O–D cities within the domestic U.S. aviation sector. To satisfy this objective, passenger flows, aircraft operations, flight delays and the resulting energy use are simulated. Our model results indicate that the average rebound effect in this network is about 19%, for the range of aircraft fuel burn reductions considered. This is the net impact of an increase in air transportation supply to satisfy the rising passenger demand, airline operational effects that further increase supply, and the mitigating effects of an increase in flight delays. Although the magnitude of the rebound effect is small, it can be significant for a sector that has comparatively few options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. - Highlights: ► We estimate the rebound effect for an air traffic network of 22 airports in the US. ► Passenger flows, aircraft operations, flight delays and energy use are simulated. ► Our model results indicate that the rebound effect in this network is about 19%. ► This is primarily due to an increase in flights to satisfy rising passenger demand

  17. R&D and Price Elasticity of Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucke, D.; Schröder, Philipp; D., Schumacher,

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the price elasticity of demand and the R&D intensity of the product. We introduce the concept of R&D intensity into a standard Dixit-Stiglitz/Krugman-type setting. R&D activity is treated as a fixed cost of production. Within this framework, sectors...... with a higher R&D intensity show a lower price elasticity of demand. This proposition is confirmed by an empirical investigation of export demand for manufactured goods from major industrialised countries. Consequently, real exchange rate changes have an impact on the commodity structure of exports....

  18. The structure of residential energy demand in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapanos, Vassilis T.; Polemis, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to shed light on the determinants of residential energy demand in Greece, and to compare it with some other OECD countries. From the estimates of the short-run and long-run elasticities of energy demand for the period 1965-1999, we find that residential energy demand appears to be price inelastic. Also, we do not find evidence of a structural change probably because of the low efficiency of the energy sector. We find, however, that the magnitude of the income elasticity varies substantially between Greece and other OECD countries

  19. A Study on strengthening demand management of energy price

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jung Hwan [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-02-01

    Until 1980s, energy sector had been operated as a monopoly of public enterprises in most countries. Price regulation of government had an influence on energy supply and demand by not fully giving information on market situation (supply and demand). Recently, as energy related technology and information technology have developed, the developed countries including UK and some developing countries could raise efficiency of industry through competitive market by recognizing the limit of government regulation and opening up many sectors of energy industry to the private sector. Korea is also implementing a measure for introducing competition through the participation of private sector into electricity and natural gas industries step by step. If the private sector is participated and competition is introduced, energy price cannot be a policy instrument setting up by the government, so demand management through price regulation is meaningless. Under such circumstances, a policy function should be converted to the direction of promoting competition and increasing market efficiency. In this study, it examines how the government regulation and industry has been changed through the transition of natural gas and electricity industries in UK, USA, and France and then it tries to derive suggestions to Korea. (author). 49 refs., 58 figs., 32 tabs.

  20. El sector productivo The productive sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarna Santolaria

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento del sector servicios en detrimento del sector primario, la flexibilidad del mercado laboral y la progresiva incorporación de la mujer a dicho mercado son los cambios más destacados del sector productivo español en los últimos 25 años. Las mujeres en España presentan tasas de desempleo, trabajo temporal y a tiempo parcial mucho mayores que los hombres. Además, las condiciones de acceso al mercado de trabajo y las condiciones en las que éste se desempeña están también muy relacionadas con la clase social. Las mujeres cubren la escasez de servicios públicos destinados al cuidado de las criaturas pequeñas y de las personas mayores o dependientes, y realizan una labor de cuidadoras informales sin reconocimiento social, lo cual les impide el acceso a un puesto de trabajo o su mantenimiento y limita de forma decisiva las posibilidades de desarrollo y progreso profesional. Todo ello indica una clara diferencia con respecto a los hombres en cuanto a la frecuencia de contratos temporales y de tiempo parcial, así como en la segregación laboral, tanto horizontal como vertical. Estos aspectos de segregación son más evidentes en las mujeres de clases sociales menos privilegiadas, en las que se concentran las peores condiciones de acceso al mercado laboral y de trabajo. En España es imprescindible llevar a cabo políticas que ofrezcan servicios que permitan compatibilizar la vida laboral y familiar en condiciones de mayor equidad, tanto en razón de género como de clase social.In the last 25 years, the production sector in Spain has undergone important changes. Among these changes, the important growth of the services sector at the expense of the primary sector, the increasing flexibility of the labour market, and the rise in the female workforce could be considered as the most relevant ones. Spanish women have higher rates of unemployment, temporary jobs and part time contracts than Spanish men. Moreover, job access and work

  1. Forecasting Tourist Arrivals and Supply and Demand Gap Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to forecast the long term behavior of tourist arrivals and analyze the gap between supply and demand for the hotel/accommodation sector of the city of Addis Ababa. It also intends to provide vital information in regards to the sparse knowledge in the subject of forecasting tourist arrivals in Ethiopia.

  2. Petroleum labour market information supply demand analysis 2009-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Since 2006, the petroleum industry has been interested in collaboration to determine labour demand and supply/demand gaps for the upstream petroleum industry. In 2006, the petroleum industry experienced strong employment growth and was having difficulty finding workers. Comprehensive, up-to-date labour market information and analysis are the key foundation for addressing labour supply/demand issues. This document presented labour market information on the petroleum industry in order to inform company retention and recruitment offices; government departments involved in development of labour market policies and programs; education and training institutions; guidance counsellors, employment centres and organizations that work with youth and labour supply pools; and job seekers. Specific topics that were discussed included two industry scenarios (growth and base case) in determining the petroleum industry's medium-and long-term employment needs; labour supply/demand considerations for the industry as a whole and an industry-wide cost management; and an analysis of exploration and production, oil sands, services, and pipeline sectors to 2020. It was concluded that while new employment is not expected to lead to labour shortages within the pipeline sector, attrition due to requirements almost certainly would. In the growth scenario, it is likely the pipeline sector will be challenged by competition from the other petroleum industry sectors. tabs., figs., appendices.

  3. Petroleum labour market information supply demand analysis 2009-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    Since 2006, the petroleum industry has been interested in collaboration to determine labour demand and supply/demand gaps for the upstream petroleum industry. In 2006, the petroleum industry experienced strong employment growth and was having difficulty finding workers. Comprehensive, up-to-date labour market information and analysis are the key foundation for addressing labour supply/demand issues. This document presented labour market information on the petroleum industry in order to inform company retention and recruitment offices; government departments involved in development of labour market policies and programs; education and training institutions; guidance counsellors, employment centres and organizations that work with youth and labour supply pools; and job seekers. Specific topics that were discussed included two industry scenarios (growth and base case) in determining the petroleum industry's medium-and long-term employment needs; labour supply/demand considerations for the industry as a whole and an industry-wide cost management; and an analysis of exploration and production, oil sands, services, and pipeline sectors to 2020. It was concluded that while new employment is not expected to lead to labour shortages within the pipeline sector, attrition due to requirements almost certainly would. In the growth scenario, it is likely the pipeline sector will be challenged by competition from the other petroleum industry sectors. tabs., figs., appendices.

  4. Sectoral Innovation Watch electrical and Optical Equipment Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T. van den; Giessen, A.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The electrical and optical equipment sector is a high-tech manufacturing sector. It is one of the most innovative sectors in Europe with investments and advances in fundamental research, applied R&D and innovation in the actual use of equipment. This sector is also one of the most global sectors

  5. The Italian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The energy sector in Italy, as in Europe and in many other areas of the world, is undergoing rapid and profound changes. The 1986 ratification of the European Single Act was intended to create a European internal market, where circulation of people, capital, goods, and services would reach the highest possible liberalization. In 1988, in the document The Energy Internal Market, the European Union (EU) commission stressed the need for creation of an internal energy market--free of obstacles--to increase security of supply, to reduce costs, and to strengthen the competitiveness of the European economic system. In 1990, the Community Council adopted directives to implement the EU energy sector. This article describes Italy's role as part of the EU energy sector. It covers the following topics: the Italian energy sector; electricity vs gas transportation; project finance; recent developments advance Italian power industry; specifying powerplant components -- Italian stype; buyers' guide to Italian equipment, services

  6. Cross-sector Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz Jessen, Søren; Linnet, Andreas; Tscherning, Rasmus Wiinstedt

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this handbook is to help improve your opportunities for getting started on innovative and business development projects that reach beyond your own sector, commonly known as ’Cross-sector innovation’, or ’Cross innovation’ for short. We believe that there is a need for an easily read...... innovation handbook that can reach out to all sectors and potential partners whose point of departure, language use and understanding of customers is often very different to that of businesses. These differences constitute a resource for business development. If exploited they can lead to new ways of doing...... things and help us breakaway from the lull of the modes of expression and methods ‘customarily’ employed in business development. The handbook focuses on the interaction of “traditional’ businesses and sectors that belong to those known as the creative and the experience industries, i.e. designers...

  7. and the Energy Sector

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's harsh economic situation in 2016 has led major industries to look inwards to resolve supply deficits occasioned ... In the electricity sector, however, the influx of imported electrical .... Engineering Infrastructure in a 2014 address.

  8. Construction Sector (NAICS 23)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory information for the construction sector, including the construction of buildings or engineering projects. This includes RCRA information for hazardous waste, refrigeration compliance, asbestos, effluent guidelines & lead laws

  9. Aggregated Demand Modelling Including Distributed Generation, Storage and Demand Response

    OpenAIRE

    Marzooghi, Hesamoddin; Hill, David J.; Verbic, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    It is anticipated that penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in power systems will increase further in the next decades mainly due to environmental issues. In the long term of several decades, which we refer to in terms of the future grid (FG), balancing between supply and demand will become dependent on demand actions including demand response (DR) and energy storage. So far, FG feasibility studies have not considered these new demand-side developments for modelling future demand. I...

  10. Uranium 2011: Resources, Production and Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, questions are being raised about the future of the uranium market, including as regards the number of reactors expected to be built in the coming years, the amount of uranium required to meet forward demand, the adequacy of identified uranium resources to meet that demand and the ability of the sector to meet reactor requirements in a challenging investment climate. This 24. edition of the 'Red Book', a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 42 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It offers a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It also provides substantive new information on established uranium production centres around the world and in countries developing production centres for the first time. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2035, incorporating policy changes following the Fukushima accident, are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues

  11. Public Sector Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Leixnering, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    New public management-inspired reforms created numerous autonomous units with many different faces and labels. This variety of organizations and organizational forms precludes a straightforward definition of what constitutes a public sector organization and blurs the boundaries between the public...... and private sectors as well as the boundaries of single organizations. In addition, the complexity of the interlocking arrangements and relationships in this public organizational landscape has resulted in considerable governance problems with serious implications for coordination and policy coherence....

  12. India's Downstream Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This study provides a holistic examination of pricing and investment dynamics in India's downstream petroleum sector. It analyses the current pricing practices, highlights the tremendous fiscal cost of current pricing and regulatory arrangements, and examines the sectoral investment dynamics. It also looks at potential paths towards market-based reform along which the Indian government may move, while at the same time protecting energy market access for India's large poor population.

  13. Scenarios of energy demand and efficiency potential for Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzvetanov, P.; Ruicheva, M.; Denisiev, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents aggregated results on macroeconomic and final energy demand scenarios developed within the Bulgarian Country Study on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation, supported by US Country Studies Program. The studies in this area cover 5 main stages: (1) {open_quotes}Baseline{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Energy Efficiency{close_quotes} socioeconomic and energy policy philosophy; (2) Modeling of macroeconomic and sectoral development till 2020; (3) Expert assessments on the technological options for energy efficiency increase and GHG mitigation in the Production, Transport and Households and Services Sectors; (4) Bottom-up modeling of final energy demand; and (5) Sectoral and overall energy efficiency potential and policy. Within the Bulgarian Country Study, the presented results have served as a basis for the final integration stage {open_quotes}Assessment of the Mitigation Policy and Measures in the Energy System of Bulgaria{close_quotes}.

  14. Sulphur demand growing. [Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-20

    Sulfur markets look better going into 1975 than they have for several years, as North American demand growth is being filled largely by elemental sulfur producers and overseas. Demand is rising as fast as the capacity of Canadian transportation and handling facilities. It will take a long time to make much of a dent in the total Alberta stockpile of 14 million long tons at the end of 1974, with involuntary production from sour gas plants exceeding sales volume since 1972. However, there is some encouragement in the approaching peakout of production combined with a substantial increase in price since the low point of the cycle at the beginning of 1973, and a predicted rise of at least 20% in domestic (North American) sales this year over 1974.

  15. ERP System Implementation: An Oil and Gas Exploration Sector Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alok; Mishra, Deepti

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems provide integration and optimization of various business processes which leads to improved planning and decision quality, smoother coordination between business units resulting in higher efficiency, and quicker response time to customer demands and inquiries. This paper reports challenges, opportunities and outcome of ERP implementation in Oil & Gas exploration sector. This study will facilitate in understanding transition, constraints and implementation of ERP in this sector and also provide guidelines from lessons learned in this regard.

  16. Indian power industry: role of private sector in future progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dua, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    This document discusses about the current scenario of power sectors in the country. It deals with the present power policy to encourage the private sector investment. Recommendations of the long-term pricing policy are laid down to meet the financial resources and energy demands. In general the reforms should be guided by the objective of introducing competition wherever possible, so as to minimise the cost to the consumer and improve the quality and services

  17. Ontario demand response scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.

    2005-09-01

    Strategies for demand management in Ontario were examined via 2 scenarios for a commercial/institutional building with a normal summertime peak load of 300 kW between 14:00 and 18:00 during a period of high electricity demand and high electricity prices. The first scenario involved the deployment of a 150 kW on-site generator fuelled by either diesel or natural gas. The second scenario involved curtailing load by 60 kW during the same periods. Costs and benefits of both scenarios were evaluated for 3 groups: consumers, system operators and society. Benefits included electricity cost savings, deferred transmission capacity development, lower system prices for electricity, as well as environmental changes, economic development, and a greater sense of corporate social responsibility. It was noted that while significant benefits were observed for all 3 groups, they were not substantial enough to encourage action, as the savings arising from deferred generation capacity development do not accrue to individual players. The largest potential benefit was identified as lower prices, spread across all users of electricity in Ontario. It was recommended that representative bodies cooperate so that the system-wide benefits can be reaped. It was noted that if 10 municipal utilities were able to have 250 commercial or institutional customers engaged in distributed response, then a total peak demand reduction of 375 MW could be achieved, representing more than 25 per cent of Ontario's target for energy conservation. It was concluded that demand response often involves the investment of capital and new on-site procedures, which may affect reactions to various incentives. 78 refs., 10 tabs., 5 figs

  18. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, .......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  19. Migration and Tourism Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study considers the relationship between immigration and Portuguese tourism demand for the period 1995-2008, using a dynamic panel data approach. The findings indicate that Portuguese tourism increased significantly during the period in accordance with the values expected for a developed country. The regression results show that income, shock of immigration, population, and geographical distance between Portugal and countries of origin are the main determinants of Portuguese tourism.

  20. Demand scenarios, worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development and the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Existing methods are inadequate for developing aggregate (regional and global) and long-term (several decades) passenger transport demand scenarios, since they are mainly based on simple extensions of current patterns rather than causal relationships that account for the competition among transport modes (aircraft, automobiles, buses and trains) to provide transport services. The demand scenario presented in this paper is based on two empirically proven invariances of human behavior. First, transport accounts for 10 to 15 percent of household total expenditures for those owning an automobile, and around 5 percent for non-motorized households on average (travel money budget). Second, the mean time spent traveling is approximately one hour per capita per day (travel time budget). These two budgets constraints determine the dynamics of the scenario: rising income increases per capita expenditure on travel which, in turn, increase demand for mobility. Limited travel time constraints travelers to shift to faster transport systems. The scenario is initiated with the first integrated historical data set on traffic volume in 11 world regions and the globe from 1960 to 1990 for all major modes of motorized transport. World average per capita traffic volume, which was 1,800 kilometers in 1960 and 4,2090 in 1990, is estimated to rise to 7,900 kilometers in 2020 - given a modest average increase in Gross World Product of 1.9% per year. Higher economic growth rates in Asian regions result in an increase in regional per capita traffic volume up to a factor of 5.3 from 1990 levels. Modal splits continue shifting to more flexible and faster modes of transport. At one point, passenger cars can no longer satisfy the increasing demand for speed (i.e. rising mobility within a fixed time budget). In North America it is estimated that the absolute traffic volume of automobiles will gradually decline starting in the 2010s. (author) 13 figs., 6 tabs., 35 refs.

  1. Including Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Policies in Electricity Demand Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find more information on how state and local air agencies can identify on-the-books EE/RE policies, develop a methodology for projecting a jurisdiction's energy demand, and estimate the change in power sector emissions.

  2. Planning for community resilience to future United States domestic water demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costs of repairing and expanding aging infrastructure and competing demands for water from other sectors such as industry and agriculture are stretching water managers’ abilities to meet essential domestic drinking water needs for future generations. Using Bayesian statistical mo...

  3. A Smart Power Electronic Multiconverter for the Residential Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel Angel; Milanes-Montero, Maria Isabel; Barrero-Gonzalez, Fermin; Miñambres-Marcos, Victor Manuel; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Gonzalez-Romera, Eva

    2017-05-26

    The future of the grid includes distributed generation and smart grid technologies. Demand Side Management (DSM) systems will also be essential to achieve a high level of reliability and robustness in power systems. To do that, expanding the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and Energy Management Systems (EMS) are necessary. The trend direction is towards the creation of energy resource hubs, such as the smart community concept. This paper presents a smart multiconverter system for residential/housing sector with a Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) consisting of supercapacitor and battery, and with local photovoltaic (PV) energy source integration. The device works as a distributed energy unit located in each house of the community, receiving active power set-points provided by a smart community EMS. This central EMS is responsible for managing the active energy flows between the electricity grid, renewable energy sources, storage equipment and loads existing in the community. The proposed multiconverter is responsible for complying with the reference active power set-points with proper power quality; guaranteeing that the local PV modules operate with a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm; and extending the lifetime of the battery thanks to a cooperative operation of the HESS. A simulation model has been developed in order to show the detailed operation of the system. Finally, a prototype of the multiconverter platform has been implemented and some experimental tests have been carried out to validate it.

  4. Modelling transport energy demand: A socio-technical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anable, Jillian; Brand, Christian; Tran, Martino; Eyre, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Despite an emerging consensus that societal energy consumption and related emissions are not only influenced by technical efficiency but also by lifestyles and socio-cultural factors, few attempts have been made to operationalise these insights in models of energy demand. This paper addresses that gap by presenting a scenario exercise using an integrated suite of sectoral and whole systems models to explore potential energy pathways in the UK transport sector. Techno-economic driven scenarios are contrasted with one in which social change is strongly influenced by concerns about energy use, the environment and well-being. The ‘what if’ Lifestyle scenario reveals a future in which distance travelled by car is reduced by 74% by 2050 and final energy demand from transport is halved compared to the reference case. Despite the more rapid uptake of electric vehicles and the larger share of electricity in final energy demand, it shows a future where electricity decarbonisation could be delayed. The paper illustrates the key trade-off between the more aggressive pursuit of purely technological fixes and demand reduction in the transport sector and concludes there are strong arguments for pursuing both demand and supply side solutions in the pursuit of emissions reduction and energy security.

  5. Industrial companies' demand for electricity. Evidence from a micropanel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerner, T.B.; Togeby, M.; Jensen, H.H.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a micro-econometric analysis of industrial companies' demand for electricity. Previous studies on electricity consumption in the industrial sector have relied on aggregate data or cross-section observations. Here we present an econometric study on electricity demand based on a panel of 2949 Danish companies followed from 1983 to 1996. It is found that estimators of electricity demand that take account of the panel structure (fixed effect models) yield considerably lower price and production elasticities compared to estimators that do not (like cross-section models). It is also investigated how various company characteristics like size, type of industrial sub-sector and electricity intensity in production influence price and production elasticities. It appears that companies with a high electricity intensity also have a high own-price elasticity

  6. Sources of Labor Growth in Malaysian Manufacturing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poo Bee Tin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing sector plays an important role in Malaysianindustrial development. High growth rates and technology expan-sion in the manufacturing sector resulted in a substantial increasein demand for labor. This process of rapid growth and changes in thedemand for labor were also accompanied by changes in laborstructure and skills. At the same time, the range of activities andproducts became more diversified and, correspondingly the compo-sition of manpower sub sectors changed significantly. This studyemployed the input-output Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA.The analysis computed the compositional manpower change as aresult of decomposition. The result of this study indicates thatsources of labor growth in the manufacturing sector were favored bychanges in the final demand structure. Within the changes in thefinal demand structure, changes in domestic demand structure werethe dominant source of employment growth between 1978 and 1991and the overall period 1978-2000. However, from 1991 to 2000,employment change was due mainly to changes in export structure.Changes in the structure of domestic demand had a relatively strongand increasing effect on service workers, production and relatedworkers, transport equipment operators, laborers, and clerical andrelated workers during the 1978-1991 period. Changes in the exportstructure were the main factor that had an increasing effect on the employment of high skill workers and sales workers. However,during the second sub period of 1991-2000, manpower growth wasexports structure driven. Keywords: input-output; labor; manufacturing; structural decomposition analysis

  7. Demanda Variável e Lucratividade em Empresas Prestadoras de Serviços: um estudo de caso no setor de tecnologia da informaçãoVariable Demand and Profitability in Service Companies: a case study in the information technology sectorDemanda Variable y Rentabilidad en Empresas Prestadoras de Servicios: un estudio de caso en el sector de tecnología de la información

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIBEIRO, Rodolfo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOAdministrar um cenário de demanda variável é particularmente desafiador em uma empresa de serviços, pois geralmente essas empresas possuem uma maior parcela de custos fixos. O artigo estuda como uma empresa prestadora de serviços administra sua variabilidade de demanda e a relação com a lucratividade da organização. Além disso, buscou-se levantar quais alternativas são utilizadas para minimizar o impacto de uma demanda variável na rentabilidade da empresa. Para isso, foi realizado um estudo de caso único, com uma empresa brasileira prestadora de serviços de tecnologia da informação. O estudo sugere que alternativas como a subcontratação de terceiros para cobrir picos de demanda pode ter benefícios apenas no curto prazo, derrubando a lucratividade da empresa em períodos mais longos. Algumas opções são levantadas, como a internacionalização de funcionários e o investimento na formação de mão-de-obra própria.ABSTRACTManaging a variable demand scenario is particularly challenging on services organizations because services companies usually have a major part of fixed costs. The article studies how a services organization manages its demand variability and its relation with the organization´s profitability. Moreover, the study searched for alternatives used to reduce the demand variability’s impact on the profitability of the company. The research was based on a case study with a Brazilian services provider on information technology business. The study suggests that alternatives like using outsourced employees to cover demand peaks may bring benefits only on short term, reducing the profitability of the company on long term. Some options are revealed, like the internationalization of employees and the investment on developing its own workforce.RESUMENAdministrar un contexto de demanda variable es especialmente desafiador en una empresa de servicios, pues generalmente ellas tienen muchos costos fijos. El art

  8. Psychopathology and tobacco demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Zvolensky, Michael J; Abrantes, Ana M; Metrik, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Behavioral economic measurement of the relative value of tobacco (Cigarette Purchase Task; CPT) is used to examine individual differences in motivation for tobacco under certain contexts. Smokers with psychopathology, relative to those without, may demonstrate stronger demand for tobacco following a period of smoking deprivation, which could account for disparate rates of smoking and cessation among this subgroup. Participants (n=111) were community-recruited adult daily smokers who completed the CPT after a deprivation period of approximately 60min. Presence of psychopathology was assessed via clinical interview; 40.5% (n=45) of the sample met criteria for past-year psychological diagnosis. Specifically, 31.5% (n=35) had an emotional disorder (anxiety/depressive disorder), 17.1% (n=19) had a substance use disorder, and 19.1% of the sample had more than one disorder. Smokers with any psychopathology showed significantly higher intensity (demand at unrestricted cost; $0) and O max (peak expenditure for a drug) relative to smokers with no psychopathology. Intensity was significantly higher among smokers with an emotional disorder compared to those without. Smokers with a substance use disorder showed significantly higher intensity and O max , and lower elasticity, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Having≥2 disorders was associated with higher intensity relative to having 1 or no disorders. Findings suggest that presence of psychopathology may be associated with greater and more persistent motivation to smoke. Future work is needed to explore the mechanism linking psychopathology to tobacco demand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Forecasting of the incorporated energy in the final demand of the brazilian economy in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Marcelo Pereira da; Pereira, Jose Tomaz Vieira

    2008-01-01

    This work presents the application of a methodology for evaluation of the primary energy incorporated by the productive sectors of a economy at the final demand - using of a income-product mode. A methodology is applied in the evaluation of the energy incorporated to 25 sectors of the brazilian economy, by using the the data available in the national counts (IBGE - 2007), and the National Energy Balance for the year 2005 (EPE - 2007). For each sector, the results are presented in terms of the primary energy incorporated (in petroleum equivalent tons per R$ 1,000), of the participation of renewable energy, and the total primary energy distribution for the offered products by the 25 sectors to be consumption by the final demand. Among some interesting results in terms of final demand, it is highlighted the presence of 96.5% of renewable primary energy for the sector of alcohol, and 5.3% for the sector of petroleum refining products sector. In terms of the total energy distribution,the petroleum refining and coke sector were the most significant contribution to the incorporation of primary energy, presenting 16.1% of the total ahead of foods and beverages which presents 12.1%. Related to the final demand components, families consumption was responsible by the 57.7% of the total, the exports with 25.3%, the gross capital formation (investments and stock variations) with 11.3%, and the govern consumption wit 5.7%

  10. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Ia Rue du Can, Stephane; Price, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Integrated assessment models have been used to project both baseline and mitigation greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Results of these scenarios are typically presented for a number of world regions and end-use sectors, such as industry, transport, and buildings. Analysts interested in particular technologies and policies, however, require more detailed information to understand specific mitigation options in relation to business-as-usual trends. This paper presents sectoral trend for two of the scenarios produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon dioxide emissions over the past 30 years are examined and contrasted with projections over the next 30 years. Macro-activity indicators are analyzed as well as trends in sectoral energy and carbon demand. This paper also describes a methodology to calculate primary energy and carbon dioxide emissions at the sector level, accounting for the full energy and emissions due to sectoral activities. (author)

  11. Ethane supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamerson, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Estimates are given for ethane production, chiefly from the Gulf Coast area. Increase in interregional transfers are predicted. Comparisons from 1992 through 1995 are made. The author concludes the following: ethane will be supply limited over the decade of the 90's; values will be over competing feedstocks; minimum practical demands will be close to available supply; regional relationships will reflect pipeline tariffs; purity ethane/EP spreads may narrow with new Mt. Belvieu fractionation capacity; new domestic supplies will back out imports; and Ethane's share of ethylene production may drop over the period

  12. Globalisation squeezes the public sector - is it so obvious?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan

    It is widely perceived that globalization squeezes public sector activities by making taxation more costly. This is attributed to increased factor mobility and to a more elastic labour demand due to improved scope for relocation of production and thus employment across countries. We argue...... that this consensus view overlooks that gains from trade unambiguously work to lower the marginal costs of public funds, and moreover that globalization via increased trade in intermediaries may actually lower the labour demand elasticity....

  13. Attractiveness of employment sectors for physical therapists in Ontario, Canada (1999-2007: implication for the long term care sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landry Michel D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruiting and retaining health professions remains a high priority for health system planners. Different employment sectors may vary in their appeal to providers. We used the concepts of inflow and stickiness to assess the relative attractiveness of sectors for physical therapists (PTs in Ontario, Canada. Inflow was defined as the percentage of PTs working in a sector who were not there the previous year. Stickiness was defined as the transition probability that a physical therapist will remain in a given employment sector year-to-year. Methods A longitudinal dataset of registered PTs in Ontario (1999-2007 was created, and primary employment sector was categorized as ‘hospital’, ‘community’, ‘long term care’ (LTC or ‘other.’ Inflow and stickiness values were then calculated for each sector, and trends were analyzed. Results There were 5003 PTs in 1999, which grew to 6064 by 2007, representing a 21.2% absolute growth. Inflow grew across all sectors, but the LTC sector had the highest inflow of 32.0%. PTs practicing in hospitals had the highest stickiness, with 87.4% of those who worked in this sector remaining year-to-year. The community and other employment sectors had stickiness values of 78.2% and 86.8% respectively, while the LTC sector had the lowest stickiness of 73.4%. Conclusion Among all employment sectors, LTC had highest inflow but lowest stickiness. Given expected increases in demand for services, understanding provider transitional probabilities and employment preferences may provide a useful policy and planning tool in developing a sustainable health human resource base across all employment sectors.

  14. Attractiveness of employment sectors for physical therapists in Ontario, Canada (1999-2007): implication for the long term care sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Recruiting and retaining health professions remains a high priority for health system planners. Different employment sectors may vary in their appeal to providers. We used the concepts of inflow and stickiness to assess the relative attractiveness of sectors for physical therapists (PTs) in Ontario, Canada. Inflow was defined as the percentage of PTs working in a sector who were not there the previous year. Stickiness was defined as the transition probability that a physical therapist will remain in a given employment sector year-to-year. Methods A longitudinal dataset of registered PTs in Ontario (1999-2007) was created, and primary employment sector was categorized as ‘hospital’, ‘community’, ‘long term care’ (LTC) or ‘other.’ Inflow and stickiness values were then calculated for each sector, and trends were analyzed. Results There were 5003 PTs in 1999, which grew to 6064 by 2007, representing a 21.2% absolute growth. Inflow grew across all sectors, but the LTC sector had the highest inflow of 32.0%. PTs practicing in hospitals had the highest stickiness, with 87.4% of those who worked in this sector remaining year-to-year. The community and other employment sectors had stickiness values of 78.2% and 86.8% respectively, while the LTC sector had the lowest stickiness of 73.4%. Conclusion Among all employment sectors, LTC had highest inflow but lowest stickiness. Given expected increases in demand for services, understanding provider transitional probabilities and employment preferences may provide a useful policy and planning tool in developing a sustainable health human resource base across all employment sectors. PMID:22643111

  15. Road infrastructure and demand induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Lahrmann, Harry

    2006-01-01

    a long screenline is used to measure the development in aggregate demand in selected corridors. The paper analyses demand induction by establishing time series of aggregate demand that is compared with the national traffic index. Significant trend breaks in the association between aggregate demand...... in the corridors and the national index, following the opening of motorways or bridges, indicates demand induction by infrastructure expansion in a number of instances. Lack of significant trend breaks following opening year is found in peripheral areas where major population centres are missing. This indicates...... the necessity of some latent demand within suitable travel range for new infrastructure elements to produce significant amounts of induced demand. Estimates of demand induction as a percentage of the realised demand five years after opening are between 10% and 67% for new motorway sections depending...

  16. Demand response in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte, K.; Birk Mortensen, J.

    2004-11-01

    Improving the ability of energy demand to respond to wholesale prices during critical periods of the spot market can reduce the total costs of reliably meeting demand, and the level and volatility of the prices. This fact has lead to a growing interest in the short-run demand response. There has especially been a growing interest in the electricity market where peak-load periods with high spot prices and occasional local blackouts have recently been seen. Market concentration at the supply side can result in even higher peak-load prices. Demand response by shifting demand from peak to base-load periods can counteract the market power in the peak-load. However, demand response has so far been modest since the current short-term price elasticity seems to be small. This is also the case for related markets, for example, green certificates where the demand is determined as a percentage of the power demand, or for heat and natural gas markets. This raises a number of interesting research issues: 1) Demand response in different energy markets, 2) Estimation of price elasticity and flexibility, 3) Stimulation of demand response, 4) Regulation, policy and modelling aspects, 5) Demand response and market power at the supply side, 6) Energy security of supply, 7) Demand response in forward, spot, ancillary service, balance and capacity markets, 8) Demand response in deviated markets, e.g., emission, futures, and green certificate markets, 9) Value of increased demand response, 10) Flexible households. (BA)

  17. The gas market and sector in France. Situation and predictions 2018 - Sector and competitive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Through a detailed analysis of market determining factors, of evolutions of supply and demand, and of major events in firms life, this set of two reports proposes an analysis of the recent situation of the gas sector and of the evolutions of the competitive game. The first report on situation and predictions which is updated three times a year, proposes a synthesis on the consequences of the evolution of the economic environment, on major trends noticed for the sector, and on predictable evolutions. It proposes the most recent predictions regarding natural gas consumption in France and the turnover of the gas sector. It highlights recent events for companies of the sector: takeovers, investments, restructuring, introduction of new products, and so on. It proposes a sector-based dashboard which contains all the critical figures useful to analyse the sector situation (activity determining factors, key figures for the sector and its environment). The second report (the annual one) proposes an overview of trends and competition within the gas sector. It gives an overview of some basic aspects of the activity (sector organisation, gas categories, main customer markets, gas consumption in industry), and of its determining factors, analyses the sector environment (sites connected to the natural gas network, evolution of average temperatures in France, production by chemical industry, by the food industry, and by metallurgy and oil refining, thermal production of electricity, regulatory evolution regarding supports to energy efficiency, and new opportunities). The evolution of the sector activity is analysed through its trends and indicators (turnovers, gas consumption, butane-propane deliveries, wholesale prices, regulated tariffs). The economic structure is also analysed: aspects related to the upstream part (extraction, injection of biogas, natural gas main input and output points, transport and storage, natural gas distribution), and aspects related to gas provision

  18. Waste management. Sector 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The waste management section of this report deals with two sectors: land disposal of solid waste and wastewater treatment. It provides background information on the type of emissions that contribute to the greenhouse gases from these two sectors, presents both sector current status in Lebanon, describes the methodology followed to estimate the corresponding emissions, and presents the results obtained regarding greenhouse emissions. The total methane emissions from solid waste disposal on land are 42.804 Gg approximately. There are no emissions from wastewater and industrial handling systems because, for the target year 1994, there was no treatment facilities in Lebanon. The wastewater (municipal, commercial and industrial) was directly discharged into the sea, rivers, ravines or septic tanks which indicate that methane or nitrous oxide emissions are significant if not nonexistent. Note that this situation will change in the future as treatment plants are being constructed around the country and are expected to come into operation by the year 2000

  19. Modelling and forecasting Turkish residential electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilaver, Zafer; Hunt, Lester C

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship between Turkish residential electricity consumption, household total final consumption expenditure and residential electricity prices by applying the structural time series model to annual data over the period from 1960 to 2008. Household total final consumption expenditure, real energy prices and an underlying energy demand trend are found to be important drivers of Turkish residential electricity demand with the estimated short run and the long run total final consumption expenditure elasticities being 0.38 and 1.57, respectively, and the estimated short run and long run price elasticities being -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. Moreover, the estimated underlying energy demand trend, (which, as far as is known, has not been investigated before for the Turkish residential sector) should be of some benefit to Turkish decision makers in terms of energy planning. It provides information about the impact of past policies, the influence of technical progress, the impacts of changes in consumer behaviour and the effects of changes in economic structure. Furthermore, based on the estimated equation, and different forecast assumptions, it is predicted that Turkish residential electricity demand will be somewhere between 48 and 80 TWh by 2020 compared to 40 TWh in 2008. - Research highlights: → Estimated short run and long run expenditure elasticities of 0.38 and 1.57, respectively. → Estimated short run and long run price elasticities of -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. → Estimated UEDT has increasing (i.e. energy using) and decreasing (i.e. energy saving) periods. → Predicted Turkish residential electricity demand between 48 and 80 TWh in 2020.

  20. Smart grids and the transformation of the electricity sector: ICT firms as potential catalysts for sectoral change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlinghagen, Sabine; Markard, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    The sustainability challenges associated with increasing demand and generation of electricity require a far-reaching transformation of the energy system. Smart grid technologies are expected to play a major role in such sectoral transformation. While a growing body of literature is concerned with the dynamics and particularities of sectoral transformation, most contributions have focused on exogenous shocks or new technological developments as drivers of change. This paper complements the existing perspectives by exploring the role of actors as catalysts for transformation. Within the field of smart grid, we study the transformative influence of ICT firms on the energy sector in Europe. More specifically, we analyze actor participation in 450 European smart grid projects between 2000 and 2011 as well as acquisitions in the field. We find that incumbent firms from the ICT sector have gained influence and drive transformation through the creation of variety, in terms of technology, business models and value chains. As a strategic reaction, electricity sector incumbents have recently acquired many start-ups specialized in ICT technology and thus expanded their competence base. We conclude that entrants from another sector can be important catalysts for sectoral transformation and should be analyzed more systematically in transition studies. - Highlight: ► Entrants from adjacent sectors are important catalysts for sectoral transformation. ► We provide a socio-technical systems perspective on smart grid. ► We analyze actor participation in smart grid projects in Europe 2000–2011. ► ICT firms drive transformation towards a smarter grid.

  1. The awakening of the Chinese electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derdevet, M.

    2004-01-01

    For several years now, China has enjoyed an economic expansion the likes of which history has rarely seen. The down-side of this growth has been an explosion in the demand for energy, and particularly electricity. Indeed, the Chinese are increasingly gaining access to day-to-day capital goods and the secondary sector; which is still very important in China, is a major consumer of electricity. In order to face up to this demand, China needs to substantially increase its electricity production. Currently, three-quarters of production is achieved using traditional thermal means (particularly coal), with hydraulic production accounting or approximately a quarter of the total and the nuclear sector barely 2 %. However, both the country's leaders and the Chinese people are paying increasing attention to the problems of pollution and the environment, which explains why, in the years to come, a priority will be the development of hydroelectric projects, such as the construction of.the Three Gorge Dam. China is also keen to build new nuclear production units. This expansion policy initiated by Beijing offers a real opportunity for French and European companies. Demand is so high that the Chinese are very open to co-operation with foreign states, all the more so since the Chinese market has been extensively reorganized and is now based around a combination of central planning and market economics, resembling the situation in Europe. (author)

  2. Private sector development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Small businesses can be an important vehicle for .... Small and medium enterprises make up most of private businesses in the. Middle East ... Small businesses can drive more equi- table growth. ... patterns affect job creation and the demand ...

  3. Trade and Sectoral Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Fadinger, Harald; Fleiss, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Even though differences in sectoral total factor productivity are at the heart of Ricardian trade theory and many models of growth and development, very little is known about their size and their form. In this paper we try to fill this gap by using a Hybrid-Ricardo-Heckscher-Ohlin trade model and bilateral sectoral trade data to overcome the data problem that has limited previous studies, which have used input and output data to back out productivities, to a small number of OECD economies. We...

  4. Sectoral Market Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper first reviews proposals for the design of sectoral and related market mechanisms currently debated, both in the UNFCCC negotiations, and in different domestic legislative contexts. Secondly, it addresses the possible principles and technical requirements that Parties may wish to consider as the foundations for further elaboration of the mechanisms. The third issue explored herein is domestic implementation of sectoral market mechanisms by host countries, incentives to move to new market mechanisms, as well as how the transition between current and future mechanisms could be managed.

  5. The crucial role of the private sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, M; Paxman, J M

    1986-12-01

    Private support for the development of family planning programs continues to grow and now includes industries that provide family planning services, commercial outlets that distribute contraceptives, community groups that help to build demand, private medical practitioners who include contraception as a part of health care, organizations that provide technical and financial assistance to developing country programs, pharmaceutical firms, and foundations that underwrite contraceptive research. Although the mix of private and public programs differs from country to country, these 2 family planning programs complement each other and often work in close partnership. The private sector has the advantages of being able to pioneer innovative programs the public sector is unwilling or unable to pursue, to bring foreign financial and technical assistance to developing countries without political implications, and to achieve financially self-sustaining family planning efforts that are linked to other development efforts. In many countries, the private sector has been instrumental in developing a national family planning program and in eliminating barriers to family planning in countries with restrictive laws and policies. The private sector has been especially important in pioneering grassroots programs that improve the status of women through education, health care, training, and economic opportunity.

  6. The effectiveness of energy service demand reduction: A scenario analysis of global climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, S.; Kainuma, M.; Masui, T.; Hasegawa, T.; Dai, H.

    2014-01-01

    A reduction of energy service demand is a climate mitigation option, but its effectiveness has never been quantified. We quantify the effectiveness of energy service demand reduction in the building, transport, and industry sectors using the Asia-Pacific Integrated Assessment/Computable General Equilibrium (AIM/CGE) model for the period 2015–2050 under various scenarios. There were two major findings. First, a 25% energy service demand reduction in the building, transport, and basic material industry sectors would reduce the GDP loss induced by climate mitigation from 4.0% to 3.0% and from 1.2% to 0.7% in 2050 under the 450 ppm and 550 ppm CO 2 equivalent concentration stabilization scenarios, respectively. Second, the effectiveness of a reduction in the building sector's energy service demand would be higher than those of the other sectors at the same rate of the energy service demand reduction. Furthermore, we also conducted a sensitivity analysis of different socioeconomic conditions, and the climate mitigation target was found to be a key determinant of the effectiveness of energy service demand reduction measures. Therefore, more certain climate mitigation targets would be useful for the decision makers who design energy service demand reduction measures. - Highlights: • The effectiveness of a reduction in energy service demand is quantified. • A 25% reduction in energy service demand would be equivalent to 1% of GDP in 2050. • Stringent mitigation increases the effectiveness of energy service demand reduction. • Effectiveness of a reduction in energy demand service is higher in the building sector

  7. Demand for male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Emily; Bishai, David

    2012-10-01

    The biological basis for male contraception was established decades ago, but despite promising breakthroughs and the financial burden men increasingly bear due to better enforcement of child support policies, no viable alternative to the condom has been brought to market. Men who wish to control their fertility must rely on female compliance with contraceptives, barrier methods, vasectomy or abstinence. Over the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has abandoned most of its investment in the field, leaving only nonprofit organisations and public entities pursuing male contraception. Leading explanations are uncertain forecasts of market demand pitted against the need for critical investments to demonstrate the safety of existing candidate products. This paper explores the developments and challenges in male contraception research. We produce preliminary estimates of potential market size for a safe and effective male contraceptive based on available data to estimate the potential market for a novel male method.

  8. Animating the Ethical Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... by an empirical study of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in a Triple Helix constellation. Using a three-week long innovation workshop, U- CrAc, involving 16 Danish companies and organisations and 142 students as empirical data, we discuss how animation-based sketching can explore not yet existing user...... dispositions, as well as create an incentive for ethical conduct in development and innovation processes. The ethical fulcrum evolves around Løgstrup’s Ethical Demand and his notion of spontaneous life manifestations. From this, three ethical stances are developed; apathy, sympathy and empathy. By exploring...

  9. Rewarding yet demanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkedal, S T B; Torsting, A M B; Møller, T

    2016-01-01

    in a logbook. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure was used to initiate and guide the intervention and the Canadian Model of Client-Centred Enablement for the client-therapist relationship. RESULTS: Participants described the intervention, which presupposed a certain level of patient readiness...... design comprising an eight-week client-centred occupational therapy intervention with semi-structured interviews with five of the six clients out of 10 who completed the intervention. Braun and Clark's thematic analysis was applied to the transcripts. Adherence rate and dropouts were recorded......, as demanding. Participants valued engaging in real-life occupations while anchoring new strategies but also the occupational therapist's role in dealing with failure. Participants felt the intervention assisted in their recovery process and enabled them to engage in meaningful occupations. CONCLUSION...

  10. PROOF on Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malzacher, Peter; Manafov, Anar

    2010-01-01

    PROOF on Demand (PoD) is a set of utilities, which allows starting a PROOF cluster at user request, on any resource management system. It provides a plug-in based system, which allows to use different job submission frontends, such as LSF or gLite WMS. Main components of PoD are the PROOFAgent and the PAConsole. PROOFAgent provides the communication layer between the PROOF master on the local machine and the PROOF workers on the remote resources, possibly behind a firewall. PAConsole provides a user-friendly GUI, which is used to setup, manage, and shutdown the dynamic PROOF cluster. Installation is simple and doesn't require administrator privileges, and all the processes run in user space. PoD gives users, who don't have a centrally-administrated static PROOF cluster at their institute, the possibility to enjoy the full power of interactive analysis with PROOF.

  11. Policy packages to achieve demand reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Brenda

    2005-01-01

    In many sectors and many countries, energy demand is still increasing, despite decades of policies to reduce demand. Controlling climate change is becoming more urgent, so there is a need to devise policies that will, virtually, guarantee demand reduction. This has to come from policy, at least in the UK, as the conditions do not exist, yet, when the consumers will 'pull' the market for energy efficiency or the manufacturers will use technological development to 'push' it. That virtuous circle has to be created by a mixture of consumer education and restrictions on manufacturers (for instance, permission to manufacture). The wider policy options include higher prices for energy and stronger product policies. An assessment of the effectiveness of different policy packages indicates some guiding principles, for instance that improved product policy must precede higher prices, otherwise consumers are unable to react effectively to price rises. The evidence will be assessed about the ways in which national and EU policies can either reinforce, duplicate or undermine each other. Another area of examination will be timescales: what is the time lag between the implementation of a policy (whether prices or product based) and the level of maximum reductions. In addition, the emphasis given to factors such as equity, raising investment funds and speed of delivery also influence policy design and the extent to which absolute carbon reductions can be expected

  12. Enabling technologies for industrial energy demand management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, Caroline H.; Hammond, Geoffrey P.; Jones, Craig I.; McKenna, Russell C.

    2008-01-01

    This state-of-science review sets out to provide an indicative assessment of enabling technologies for reducing UK industrial energy demand and carbon emissions to 2050. In the short term, i.e. the period that will rely on current or existing technologies, the road map and priorities are clear. A variety of available technologies will lead to energy demand reduction in industrial processes, boiler operation, compressed air usage, electric motor efficiency, heating and lighting, and ancillary uses such as transport. The prospects for the commercial exploitation of innovative technologies by the middle of the 21st century are more speculative. Emphasis is therefore placed on the range of technology assessment methods that are likely to provide policy makers with a guide to progress in the development of high-temperature processes, improved materials, process integration and intensification, and improved industrial process control and monitoring. Key among the appraisal methods applicable to the energy sector is thermodynamic analysis, making use of energy, exergy and 'exergoeconomic' techniques. Technical and economic barriers will limit the improvement potential to perhaps a 30% cut in industrial energy use, which would make a significant contribution to reducing energy demand and carbon emissions in UK industry. Non-technological drivers for, and barriers to, the take-up of innovative, low-carbon energy technologies for industry are also outlined

  13. Electricity demand and supply to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will attempt to make projections of energy and electricity demand, and the possible share of nuclear generation in global supply, up to 2020. This horizon has been chosen because the long lead times prevailing in the energy sector imply long-term planning, even though the degree of uncertainty is quite large when looking several decades ahead. Electricity demand, as well as primary energy consumption, depends on many technical and economic factors, obviously including demography. Using statistical data for past decades, it is possible to quantify by econometric methods and the links between energy and electricity consumption and economic parameters. The models defined may then be used to make projections of future electricity consumption. The share of nuclear electricity in primary energy supply can be estimated by taking into account the various constraints and lead times limiting the deployment of nuclear generating capacity, and the shares of other energy sources in electricity generation in each country or region. It should be emphasized that the scenarios presented below are illustrative, and are not forecasts of future energy and electricity demand. Because of the method adopted and the assumptions made, the scenarios reflect a 'conventional wisdom'. However, they do incorporate concerns for environmental protection and improvements regarding energy efficiency. (author)

  14. Forecast electricity demand in Quebec: Development plan 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Demographic, economic, and energy prospects are the determining factors in estimating demand for electricity in Quebec. In average scenarios developed for 1992-2010, the Quebec population will grow 0.5%/y and the gross domestic product will increase 2.6%/y. Firm electricity sales by Hydro-Quebec will grow to 197.9 TWh by 2010, or 2.2%/y. Sales in the residential and farm sectors should grow 1.3%/y and sales in the general and institutional sectors should rise by 2.2%/y. Electricity demand in the industrial sector, rising at an estimated 2.9%/y in 1992-2010, is chiefly responsible for the anticipated growth in Hydro-Quebec's overall sales. The nonferrous smelting, refining, chemicals, and paper industries will account for ca 60% of this growth. In the municipal services and public transportation sectors, demand should grow 3.3%/y, and over half the growth forecast in this sector can be attributed to the impact that new uses of electricity are expected to have after 2005. High- and low-growth scenarios offer alternative visions of demand growth based on different but equally valid assumptions about demographic and economic growth. In terms of firm electricity sales, the high- and low-growth scenarios differ by 50 TWh in 2010. Hydro-Quebec has retained two strategic orientations that will influence growth in electricity sales: the development of industrial markets and extension of the energy-savings objective of 9.3 TWh forecast to the year 2000. Taking these two orientations into account, the growth rate for electricity sales in the average scenario would be 1.8%/y rather than 2.2%/y. 25 figs., 81 tabs

  15. The role of psychological flexibility in the demands-exhaustion-performance chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onwezen, M.; Biron, M.; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Employees in the service sector deal with a variety of emotional job demands due to interactions with clients. Emotional job demands often result in heightened levels of emotional exhaustion and decreased levels of performance. The current study aims to explore whether the adaptive behavioural

  16. The role of psychological flexibility in the demands-exhaustion-performance relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onwezen, M.C.; Veldhoven, van M.J.P.M.; Biron, M.

    2014-01-01

    Employees in the service sector deal with a variety of emotional job demands due to interactions with clients. Emotional job demands often result in heightened levels of emotional exhaustion and decreased levels of performance. The current study aims to explore whether the adaptive behavioural

  17. Outdoor recreation in American life: a national assessment of demand and supply trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ken Cordell; Carter Betz; J. Michael Bowker; Donald B.K. English; Shela H. Mou; John C. Bergstrom; R. Jeff Teasley; Michael A. Tarrant; John Loomis

    1999-01-01

    Outdoor Recreation in American Life is the United States' only ongoing, comprehensive assessment of the trends, current situation, and likely future of outdoor recreation demand and supply. New and different aspects of national demand, resemblances to the past, and trends in the supply of outdoor recreation opportunities, both from the private and public sectors,...

  18. The Dynamics of Supply and Demand Chain of English-Medium Schools in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousumi, Manjuma Akhtar; Kusakabe, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    This research concerns English-medium schools (EMSs), which are emerging as a popular new educational sector in Bangladesh. Because these schools have gained immense popularity, we seek to identify how these schools respond to parental demand and retain their clientele. In addition to English language demand, our findings reveal a symmetrical…

  19. Time Series Modelling of Tourism Demand from the USA, Japan and Malaysia to Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Chaovanapoonphol (Yaovarate); C. Lim (Christine); M.J. McAleer (Michael); A. Wiboonpongse (Aree)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractEven though tourism has been recognized as one of the key sectors for the Thai economy, international tourism demand, or tourist arrivals, to Thailand have recently experienced dramatic fluctuations. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the relationship between the demand for

  20. Analysis of the Structure of Labour Supply and Demand in Four ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Analysis of the Structure of Labour Supply and Demand in Four Target Sectors in Saint-Louis and Louga (Sénégal) ... The project identified four areas in which semi-skilled labour was in high demand - agriculture (market gardening, cereals), fishing, textiles and cattle-raising - not only in the study area but also in the country ...

  1. Worktime demands and work-family interference: Does worktime control play a buffering role

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, S.A.E.; Beckers, D.G.J.; Taris, T.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Smulders, P.G.W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether worktime control buffered the impact of worktime demands on work–family interference (WFI), using data from 2,377 workers from various sectors of industry in The Netherlands. We distinguished among three types of worktime demands: time spent on work according to one’s

  2. Sector ring accelerator ''RESATRON''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwabe, E.

    1980-01-01

    Project of sector ring accelerator RESATRON is described. The curiosity of this accelerator is the second cycle of acceleration of the beam after stripping it on the foil. In such an accelerator heavy ions with a different ratio Z to A can be accelerated. (S.B.)

  3. [The productive sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria, Encarna; Fernández, Alberto; Daponte, Antonio; Aguilera, I

    2004-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the production sector in Spain has undergone important changes. Among these changes, the important growth of the services sector at the expense of the primary sector, the increasing flexibility of the labour market, and the rise in the female workforce could be considered as the most relevant ones. Spanish women have higher rates of unemployment, temporary jobs and part time contracts than Spanish men. Moreover, job access and work conditions are highly related to gender and social class. Because women are forced to compensate for the scarcity of social services for caring for young children and for dependent elderly, they become informal and socially unrecognised caregivers, preventing them from getting or holding a job, and significantly limiting their opportunities for professional development. These social conditions are closely related with the fact that work conditions for women involve higher temporality rates and shorter contracts than those of men, given the sectors and jobs in which they tend to work (due to segregation). Similarly, workers of the less privileged social classes have poorer work conditions. Thus, women of the lower income class are mainly suffering the worst job contracts and the poorest work conditions. More social services are needed to make it possible to attend to family needs and still be able to access and maintain a job contract. Policies tending to conciliate labour and family life are indispensable and should incorporate measures to equally distribute the house keeping activities between women and men.

  4. Ingerop - Nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    As regards the nuclear sector, Ingerop has acquired along the decades extensive experience in designing and calculating complex structures for nuclear facilities. Since 2002, Ingerop focused on more system- and process-oriented projects in this field. Nowadays, Ingerop offers integrated services based on its sound know-how, top-notch expertise and insight into the management of nuclear projects, for both revamping and new build activities. Ingerop has made the development of the energy sector one of its top priorities in particular for the nuclear sector along with NucAdvisor, the first French engineering practice specialising in civil nuclear power. NucAdvisor's main mission is to assist governments or their representatives in developing their nuclear programs offering expertise and consulting services on specific topics like siting, licensing and operation of nuclear power plants, as well as decommissioning and dismantling and radioactive waste management. In January 2016, a new subsidiary has been created - INGEROP Contracting - which provides a global EPC/turnkey offer covering all fields of energy and industry. Its goal is to deliver projects from the design up to the commissioning, while taking a clear commitment on the overall cost and schedule. This brochure presents the Ingerop Company, its offer of services and main fields of intervention, its IT tools for 3D modeling and design, its activities and main references in the nuclear sector

  5. Energy. Sector 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this article is to report the results of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventory for the year 1994. The following GHG are of interest in the energy sector: Carbon dioxide CO 2 , methane CH 4 , nitrous oxide N 2 O, oxides of nitrogen NO x , carbon monoxide CO, sulphur dioxide SO 2 and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). The inventory has focused on the following GHG related sources: -Electricity generation through the electric utility. -Private generation of electricity -Manufacturing industries and construction -Transport: road, domestic aviation and national navigation -Energy use in the residential sector -Energy use in the commercial/institutional sector -Energy use in the agriculture/forestry/fishing sector The fuel types taken into consideration are:Gasoline, jet Kerosene, Kerosene for household use, gas oil, diesel oil, fuel oil, LPG, lubricating oil, coal, wood and charcoal (solid biomass). Care has been taken to eliminate the fuel used by international marine and aviation bunkers from the national inventory. The amount of GHG released to the atmosphere has been estimated using the IPCC methodology and emission factors .Where national emission factors differed from those of IPCC, the factors are discussed. Complete documentation of compiled information and data sources are attached to this article.Finally both the reference approach and analysis by source categories have been carried out and are reported in this inventory

  6. Financial Sector Assessment : Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This Financial Sector Assessment (FSA) provides a summary of the policy priorities, and main findings intended to assist the Moroccan authorities in evaluating the country's financial system. It reviews the uneasy trade-off between concerns for stability, and development, suggesting Morocco's macroeconomic policies and practices as a whole tend to err more on the side of the concerns of pr...

  7. Financial Sector Assessment : Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Monetary Fund

    2017-01-01

    A joint International Monetary Fund (IMF)-World Bank mission visited Rabat and Casablanca in 2015, to assess the soundness and resilience of the banking system, the state of play in financial inclusion and infrastructure, the oversight frameworks for banking, capital markets and financial market infrastructures, crisis preparedness, and update the findings of the Financial Sector Assessme...

  8. Financial Sector Assessment : Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    A joint International Monetary Fund-World Bank team conducted an assessment of Turkey's financial system in connection with the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) through missions in April, August-September 2006 and March, 2007. This report provides a summary of the main findings of the assessment and the policy priorities identified. The main objective of the FSAP is to assist the...

  9. Leadership and innovation in the public sector: studying the organizational, team and individual level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Dorsman (Stephan)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractPublic sector organizations throughout the world are facing unprecedented challenges. Given these challenges and demands, fostering innovation could obviously be a very useful strategy for public organizations. As proposed by scholars, increased innovativeness is of key importance

  10. Electrification Opportunities in the Transportation Sector and Impact of Residential Charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-04

    This presentation provides an overview of electrification opportunities in the transportation sector and present results of a study assessing the impact of residential charging on residential power demand and electric power distribution infrastructure.

  11. Accounting for asymmetric price responses and underlying energy demand trends in OECD industrial energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeyemi, Olutomi I.; Hunt, Lester C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the way technical progress and improvements in energy efficiency are captured when modelling OECD industrial energy demand. The industrial sectors of the developed world involve a number of different practices and processes utilising a range of different technologies. Consequently, given the derived demand nature of energy, it is vital when modelling industrial energy demand that the impact of technical progress is appropriately captured. However, the energy economics literature does not give a clear guide on how this can be achieved; one strand suggests that technical progress is ‘endogenous’ via asymmetric price responses whereas another strand suggests that it is ‘exogenous’. More recently, it has been suggested that potentially there is a role for both ‘endogenous’ technical progress and ‘exogenous’ technical progress and consequently the general model should be specified accordingly. This paper therefore attempts to model OECD industrial energy demand using annual time series data over the period 1962–2010 for 15 OECD countries. Using the Structural Time Series Model framework, the general specifications allow for both asymmetric price responses (for technical progress to impact endogenously) and an underlying energy demand trend (for technical progress and other factors to impact exogenously, but in a non-linear way). The results show that almost all of the preferred models for OECD industrial energy demand incorporate both a stochastic underlying energy demand trend and asymmetric price responses. This gives estimated long-run income elasticities in the range of 0.34 to 0.96; estimated long-run price-maximum elasticities in the range of − 0.06 to − 1.22; estimated long-run price-recovery elasticities in the range of 0.00 to − 0.27; and estimated long-run price-cut elasticities in the range of 0.00 to − 0.18. Furthermore, the analysis suggests that when modelling industrial energy demand there is a place for

  12. A strategic review of the petroleum refinery industry sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    The report studies the environmental performance of the U.K. petroleum refinery industry sector with reference to world-wide best practice and describes the five most practical strategic options for emission reduction in the context of projected technology, cost, demand, capacity and legislation. (author)

  13. Oil Prices and the Renewable Energy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Kyritsis, Evangelos; Serletis, Apostolos

    2017-01-01

    Energy security, climate change, and growing energy demand issues are moving up on the global political agenda, and contribute to the rapid growth of the renewable energy sector. In this paper we investigate the effects of oil price shocks, and also of uncertainty about oil prices, on the stock returns of clean energy and technology companies. In doing so, we use monthly data that span the period from May 1983 to December 2016, and a bivariate structural VAR model that is modified to accommod...

  14. Forecasting urban water demand: A meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebri, Maamar

    2016-12-01

    Water managers and planners require accurate water demand forecasts over the short-, medium- and long-term for many purposes. These range from assessing water supply needs over spatial and temporal patterns to optimizing future investments and planning future allocations across competing sectors. This study surveys the empirical literature on the urban water demand forecasting using the meta-analytical approach. Specifically, using more than 600 estimates, a meta-regression analysis is conducted to identify explanations of cross-studies variation in accuracy of urban water demand forecasting. Our study finds that accuracy depends significantly on study characteristics, including demand periodicity, modeling method, forecasting horizon, model specification and sample size. The meta-regression results remain robust to different estimators employed as well as to a series of sensitivity checks performed. The importance of these findings lies in the conclusions and implications drawn out for regulators and policymakers and for academics alike. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Sector profile: Petroleum sector in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    The Cuban oil industry started in 1860 when an oil well was drilled in Matanzas province. About 200 wells were drilled up until 1959. In the past 30 years, the oil industry has become a priority sector; in 1985-1990, about US$500 million were invested in the industry, with increases in exploration and well drilling activity. Recently completed works include pipelines and a supertanker terminal. About 10 million tons of oil are imported annually and local production averages about 800,000 metric tons per year. Most of the oil found in Cuba so far is of the heavy type, as found in western Canada. There are about 10 small and medium-sized oil deposits, mainly located in the north. The most promising oil field is at Varadero, whose characteristics are similar to the Cold Lake field in Alberta. Cuban oil refining capacity is over 7.6 million metric tons per year, and additional capacity is being constructed. All imports of oil industry equipment are conducted via state trading agencies. Export opportunities of interest to Canadian companies are outlined, along with monetary constraints affecting imports to Cuba, financing and export insurance programs available to Canadian companies, and recommendations to Canadian exporters. A list of industry/government contacts is included

  16. The energy sector in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This article first outlines that Argentina produces an important part of its hydrocarbon consumption and comment various aspects of this production: hydrocarbons are at the heart of the Argentinian energetic model; conventional hydrocarbon reserves are however decreasing; the public operator remains the main actor even though the market is opened to multinational companies. The article then describes the crisis faced by this energetic model: the energy balance is now a burden; the increasing unbalance between production and consumption can be explained by supply-related as well as demand-related factors; authorities must intervene on hydrocarbon prices and subsidize the oil price on the domestic market. It appears that the future for hydrocarbons in Argentina relies on non-conventional hydrocarbons. Bio-fuels, a key sector of the Argentinian economy, are a matter of trade dispute with the EU and the USA. Apart from hydroelectricity (some new projects are planned), renewable energies are very few developed in Argentina. Appendices propose a graph of the distribution of energy consumption among the different sources, a map indicating locations of the main exploited hydrocarbon deposits, a presentation of mechanisms implemented to subsidize hydrocarbon production

  17. Optimization in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the energy transition and the developments in the national and international Energy markets constantly require sound analysis and new answers. The symposium ''optimization in the energy sector'' gives an overview of methods and models that can be practically used for decision support. Storage and electromobility as demand flexibility are important factors for the long-term design of the German and European energy system. But methodological aspects such as the consideration of uncertainties at the conference an important place is given. A key issue is also the short and medium term further development of the electricity market design. Not only broadly but also in detail e.g. the standard benefit and intraday markets there is considerable potential for optimization, which will be discussed in the context of technical presentations. And in view of challenging market environment is also new approaches to portfolio management a great importance for the practice. Therefore we are convinced that the Conference and its results for energy companies, public services and new entrants in the energy industry as well are of interest as for consultants, authorities, associations and energy economic research institutes. [de

  18. Latin American electric power developments and hydrocarbon demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    Energy sectors in Latin American countries are undergoing a series of far-reaching changes in institutional arrangements and roles. These changes will have a decisive influence on energy sector evolution in coming decades. The results of two decades of mismanagement in the region's energy sector are outlined, showing stagnation in the electric power and petroleum industries caused by such factors as bureaucratic management, preferential treatment given to public enterprises, the adoption of objectives other than economic profitability, insufficient self-generation of resources due to tariffs not reflecting economic costs, and heavy debt burdens. If forecasts of future energy demand in Latin America are correct, the region's hydrocarbon sector will have to invest ca US$20 billion/y and the electric power sector nearly the same amount. This is considered beyond the capacity of the region's industries. Private sector participation is expected to raise the efficiency level of the hydrocarbon and power industries through such initiatives as privatization (complete or partial), joint government-private ventures, subcontracting, direct investment, and opening of monopolies such as power distribution to third-party competition. The state role in this process will be to create a suitable environment for private enterprise including clear and stable rules and regulatory frameworks. Financing options are discussed along with ways to reduce investment requirements. It is especially possible to reduce such requirements in the power sector through such means as retrofitting of plants with more modern equipment, reducing power losses, improved metering and billing, energy substitution, demand-side management, and energy conservation programs

  19. Recycling of modules: the industry meets the demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houot, G.

    2011-01-01

    In a few years the number of photovoltaic plants to be decommissioned will begin to grow dramatically which will generate a huge need for the collect and recycling of old solar panels. A European association PV-Cycle proposes to set up a dedicated waste processing industry that will be able to recycle up to 85% of the wastes from old solar panels. 23 spots for recovering solar panels have been installed throughout Europe, the recovery of about 1000 to 1500 tons of equipment is expected for 2011. The German Sunicon enterprise has set up an automated process that combines thermal, mechanical and chemical processes in order to allow an almost complete recycling of glass and silicon into the solar panel industry. In a near future the capacity of Sunicon will pass from 800 tons to 20.000 tons a year. The American company First Solar organizes itself the recovery and recycling of the CdTe solar panels it manufactured. (A.C.)

  20. Agricultural sector impacts of making ethanol from grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzmark, D.; Ray, D.; Parvin, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the results of a model of the effects on the agricultural sector of producing ethanol from corn in the United States between 1979 and 1983. The model is aggregated at the national level, and results are given for all of the major food and feed crops, ethanol joint products, farm income, government payment, and agricultural exports. A stochastic simulation was performed to ascertain the impacts of yield and demand variations on aggregate performance figures. Results indicate minimal impacts on the agricultural sector for production levels of less than 1 billion gallons of ethanol per year. For higher production levels, corn prices will rise sharply, the agricultural sector will be more vulnerable to variations in yields and demands, and joint-product values will fall. Possibilities for ameliorating such effects are discussed, and such concepts as net energy and the biomass refinery are explored.

  1. WORK BASED HIGHER LEARNING FOR THE DANISH TOURISM SECTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Klaus; Voergård-Olesen, Rikke Karen

    2012-01-01

    programs for tourism. This is the basis for reflexive analysis of how demand and supply for higher education can be aligned for the sector. The research focuses on the role of WBL as a way to meet the needs for flexible competence building. Special emphasis is put on innovation and environmental management......The paper reports on an investigation of the business needs for work based higher learning in the Danish tourism sector and the match with the supply of higher education, emphasizing opportunities and barriers for work based learning (WBL) in the Danish University System. The Danish tourism sector...... need for development through further and higher education of employees is widely recognized, while Danish higher education is challenged to develop a more demand-led approach. The research done consists of completed empirical studies and literature review on Danish tourism and Danish higher education...

  2. Development of a short-term model to predict natural gas demand, March 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lihn, M.L.

    1989-03-01

    Project management decisions for the Gas Research Institute (GRI) R and D program require an appreciation of the short-term outlook for gas consumption. This paper provides a detailed discussion of the methodology used to develop short-term models for the residential, commercial, industrial, and electric utility sectors. The relative success of the models in projecting gas demand, compared with actual gas demand, is reviewed for each major gas-consuming sector. The comparison of actual to projected gas demand has pointed out several problems with the model, and possible solutions to these problems are discussed

  3. Assessment of demand for and supply of qualified manpower for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morelle, J.

    1993-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency recently published a study which presents the results of a pioneering survey of the demand for and the supply of qualified manpower in various sectors of the nuclear industry (including medicine), and in the related areas of regulation and education in 12 OECD countries. The current manpower situation is presented and the future demand is reviewed. Present and future activities of OECD countries to ensure a balance between supply and demand of qualified manpower are discussed

  4. Environment-quality demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfini, M.G.; Leenhouts, H.P.

    1988-12-01

    In the framework of the Environment Quality Requirements (MKE) project a model has been designed in which environment-quality demands have been defined and quantified, and a measuring strategy has been developed. In the model it is required for the quality of the environment that the radionuclide concentration in the various environment compartiments remains limited in order to keep the effective dose equivalence for the 'reference man' under a certain reference level. In order to be able to determine the maximum nuclide concentration it is necessary to quantify the relation between the concentration in the environment and the dose for the people. The quantitative relation between concentration and dose has been established on the base of parameters (Derived Activity Limits (DAL's) which have to be calculated for each environment compartiment, each nuclide and each exposure pathway. This model has been described and, as example, the DAL's have been calculated for the compartiment air (for which the two exposure pathways inhalation and direct radiation were considered). For the other environment compartiments a similar elaboration is needed. The feasibility of application of the MKE-model in the actual practice of measurements in the environment and examination of dose for the population depends upon the possibility for performing nuclide specific measurements in all environment compartiments, the level of the dose resulting from the contamination of the environment and the related accurateness of the measurements

  5. Mining residential water and electricity demand data in Southern California to inform demand management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominola, A.; Spang, E. S.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Loge, F. J.; Lund, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Demand side management strategies are key to meet future water and energy demands in urban contexts, promote water and energy efficiency in the residential sector, provide customized services and communications to consumers, and reduce utilities' costs. Smart metering technologies allow gathering high temporal and spatial resolution water and energy consumption data and support the development of data-driven models of consumers' behavior. Modelling and predicting resource consumption behavior is essential to inform demand management. Yet, analyzing big, smart metered, databases requires proper data mining and modelling techniques, in order to extract useful information supporting decision makers to spot end uses towards which water and energy efficiency or conservation efforts should be prioritized. In this study, we consider the following research questions: (i) how is it possible to extract representative consumers' personalities out of big smart metered water and energy data? (ii) are residential water and energy consumption profiles interconnected? (iii) Can we design customized water and energy demand management strategies based on the knowledge of water- energy demand profiles and other user-specific psychographic information? To address the above research questions, we contribute a data-driven approach to identify and model routines in water and energy consumers' behavior. We propose a novel customer segmentation procedure based on data-mining techniques. Our procedure consists of three steps: (i) extraction of typical water-energy consumption profiles for each household, (ii) profiles clustering based on their similarity, and (iii) evaluation of the influence of candidate explanatory variables on the identified clusters. The approach is tested onto a dataset of smart metered water and energy consumption data from over 1000 households in South California. Our methodology allows identifying heterogeneous groups of consumers from the studied sample, as well as

  6. Optimal Monetary Policy with Durable Consumption Goods and Factor Demand Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrella, Ivan; Santoro, Emiliano

    of production in both sectors, according to an input-output matrix calibrated on the US economy. As shown in a number of recent contributions, this roundabout technology allows us to reconcile standard two-sector New Keynesian models with the empirical evidence showing co-movement between durable and non......-durable spending in response to a monetary policy shock. A main result of our monetary policy analysis is that strategic complementarities generated by factor demand linkages amplify social welfare loss. As the degree of interconnection between sectors increases, the cost of misperceiving the correct production......This paper deals with the implications of factor demand linkages for monetary policy design. We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model with two sectors that produce durable and non-durable goods, respectively. Part of the output produced in each sector is used as an intermediate input...

  7. Public sector innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the value dimension of public innovation in the light of practitioners’ values and asks why there seems to be a clash between innovation imperatives and workplace practices in the public sector. The paper contributes to the research on public innovation from a practice...... perspective by providing evidence from an ethnographic field study on innovation in social and health care studies in Denmark. These studies are part of the vocational education and training (VET) system, which combines coursework at a college and internship in the elder care sector. The study is thus cross...... initiate innovations grounded in their values. The main point put forward is that the value dimension of public innovation must be understood not only in terms of value creation (economic or non-economic), which frontline practitioners are required to contribute to, but also as value-based practices...

  8. Private Sector Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitonáková Renáta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of household savings are in the form of bank deposits. It is therefore of interest for credit institutions to tailor their deposit policy for getting finances from non-banking entities and to provide the private sector with the loans that are necessary for investment activities and consumption. This paper deals with the determinants of the saving rate of the private sector of Slovakia. Economic, financial and demographic variables influence savings. Growth of income per capita, private disposable income, elderly dependency ratio, real interest rate and inflation have a positive impact on savings, while increases in public savings indicate a crowding out effect. The inflation rate implies precautionary savings, and dependency ratio savings for bequest. There are also implications for governing institutions deciding on the implementation of appropriate fiscal and monetary operations.

  9. Determinants of import demand for non-renewable energy (petroleum) products: Empirical evidence from Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adewuyi, Adeolu O.

    2016-01-01

    This study estimated determinants of import demand for refined petroleum products in Nigeria for the period 1984–2013. It employed the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds test cointegration method and analysed both long-run and short-run determinants of import demand for total and specific petroleum products. In the long-run, aggregate and sectoral incomes are significant determinants of import of refined kerosene. Further, real effective exchange rate (REER), aggregate income (GDP), manufacturing sector's income, domestic energy production (DEP) and population growth rate (PGR) are drivers of import of refined motor spirit Moreover, REER, DEP and manufacturing sector's income are propellers of import of refined distillate fuel. Also, REER and total output of petroleum products are major drivers of total import of refined petroleum products. Short-run results show that previous period GDP, PGR and manufacturing and service sectors' incomes are determinants of import demand for refined kerosene. Moreover, REER, GDP, previous PGR and manufacturing sector's income exert significant effects on the import of refined motor spirit. Further, significant effects of REER, DEP, previous PGR, domestic output of the product and manufacturing and service sectors' incomes on the import demand for distillate fuel were found. Policy implications of the foregoing are articulated in the paper. - Highlights: •Long-run and short-run drivers of import demand for petroleum products were estimated. •kerosene import is income elastic, gasoline import is income and relative price inelastic. •Exchange rate policies may have diverse effects on import of various petroleum product. •Expanding market size has implication for import demand for petroleum product varieties. •Import demand for petroleum products responds differently to various sectoral incomes.

  10. Sector retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Woerkom, Craig; Ferrucci, Steven

    2005-05-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is one of the most common hereditary retinal dystrophies and causes of visual impairment affecting all age groups. The reported incidence varies, but is considered to be between 1 in 3,000 to 1 in 7,000. Sector retinitis pigmentosa is an atypical form of RP that is characterized by regionalized areas of bone spicule pigmentation, usually in the inferior quadrants of the retina. A 57-year-old Hispanic man with a history of previously diagnosed retinitis pigmentosa came to the clinic with a longstanding symptom of decreased vision at night. Bone spicule pigmentation was found in the nasal and inferior quadrants in each eye. He demonstrated superior and temporal visual-field loss corresponding to the areas of the affected retina. Clinical measurements of visual-field loss, best-corrected visual acuity, and ophthalmoscopic appearance have remained stable during the five years the patient has been followed. Sector retinitis pigmentosa is an atypical form of RP that is characterized by bilateral pigmentary retinopathy, usually isolated to the inferior quadrants. The remainder of the retina appears clinically normal, although studies have found functional abnormalities in these areas as well. Sector RP is generally considered a stationary to slowly progressive disease, with subnormal electro-retinogram findings and visual-field defects corresponding to the involved retinal sectors. Management of RP is very difficult because there are no proven methods of treatment. Studies have shown 15,000 IU of vitamin A palmitate per day may slow the progression, though this result is controversial. Low vision rehabilitation, long wavelength pass filters, and pedigree counseling remain the mainstay of management.

  11. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  12. Coupling of Hidden Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Królikowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    A hypothetic Hidden Sector of the Universe, consisting of sterile fer\\-mions (``sterinos'') and sterile mediating bosons (``sterons'') of mass dimension 1 (not 2!) --- the last described by an antisymmetric tensor field --- requires to exist also a scalar isovector and scalar isoscalar in order to be able to construct electroweak invariant coupling (before spontaneously breaking its symmetry). The introduced scalar isoscalar might be a resonant source for the diphoton excess of 750 GeV, sugge...

  13. Single sector supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luty, Markus A.; Terning, John

    1999-01-01

    We review recent work on realistic models that break supersymmetry dynamically and give rise to composite quarks and leptons, all in a single sector. These models have a completely natural suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents, and the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings is explained by the dimensionality of composite states. The generic signatures are unification of scalar masses with different quantum numbers at the compositeness scale, and lighter gaugino, Higgsino, and third-generation sfermion masses

  14. Composite Dark Sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona, Adrian

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a new paradigm in Composite Dark Sectors, where the full Standard Model (including the Higgs boson) is extended with a strongly-interacting composite sector with global symmetry group G spontaneously broken to H is contained in G. We show that, under well-motivated conditions, the lightest neutral pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons are natural dark matter candidates for they are protected by a parity symmetry not even broken in the electroweak phase. These models are characterized by only two free parameters, namely the typical coupling g D and the scale f D of the composite sector, and are therefore very predictive. We consider in detail two minimal scenarios, SU(3)/[SU(2) x U(1)] and [SU(2) 2 x U(1)]/[SU(2) x U(1)], which provide a dynamical realization of the Inert Doublet and Triplet models, respectively. We show that the radiatively-induced potential can be computed in a five-dimensional description with modified boundary conditions with respect to Composite Higgs models. Finally, the dark matter candidates are shown to be compatible, in a large region of the parameter space, with current bounds from dark matter searches as well as electroweak and collider constraints on new resonances.

  15. Modelling Commodity Demands and Labour Supply with m-Demands

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, Martin

    1999-01-01

    In the empirical modelling of demands and labour supply we often lack data on a full set of goods. The usual response is to invoke separability assumptions. Here we present an alternative based on modelling demands as a function of prices and the quantity of a reference good rather than total expenditure. We term such demands m-demands. The advantage of this approach is that we make maximum use of the data to hand without invoking implausible separability assumptions. In the theory section qu...

  16. Natural gas supply and demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    The outlook for U.S. natural gas supply and demand in the residential, commercial, industrial/cogeneration, electricity and transportation sectors for 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 was presented. A summary of gas well completions from 1990 to 1997 was also provided. The Canadian natural gas resource was estimated at 184 trillion cubic feet. In 1996, Canada produced 5.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, half of which was exported to the U.S. New pipeline projects have been proposed to transport natural gas from eastern offshore areas and the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. A table representing U.S. and Canada gas trade from 1990 to 1997 and a map of proposed Canadian and U.S. natural gas pipeline routes were also included. Looking into the future, this speaker predicted continued volatility in natural gas prices. 9 tabs., 9 figs

  17. Demand and supply of hydrogen as chemical feedstock in USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. J.; Tang, K.; Kelley, J. H.; Berger, B. J.

    1979-01-01

    Projections are made for the demand and supply of hydrogen as chemical feedstock in USA. Industrial sectors considered are petroleum refining, ammonia synthesis, methanol production, isocyanate manufacture, edible oil processing, coal liquefaction, fuel cell electricity generation, and direct iron reduction. Presently, almost all the hydrogen required is produced by reforming of natural gas or petroleum fractions. Specific needs and emphases are recommended for future research and development to produce hydrogen from other sources to meet the requirements of these industrial sectors. The data and the recommendations summarized in this paper are based on the Workshop 'Supply and Demand of Hydrogen as Chemical Feedstock' held at the University of Houston on December 12-14, 1977.

  18. Private sector participation in power sector in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, V.

    1992-01-01

    The Indian Government is currently thinking of allowing private sector to participate in power sector inviting private sector to generate electricity mainly from coal. The main motivation is resource mobilization from private sector, since the Plan funds are diverted to rural development away from power sector; and yet the massive expansion has to be financed. The paper analyzes the inherent difficulties and contradictions in the Government's proposal, such as co-existence of high cost private power and low cost public power, the potential goal-conflicts of private and public utilities and the constraints in raising finance. It suggests a different model in order to make the privatization proposition feasible. 12 refs

  19. Liberalisation of the Venezuelan power sector: what is stalling it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, P. Ventura [Av. Sanz, calle Convento II, edif. E, apto. 8D, El Marques Caracas (Venezuela)

    2005-07-01

    For the past eight years, Venezuelan power sector has been attempting to be liberalised. The first step was made in 1996 through the 'Decree 1558'. The second step in 1999 was legally stronger and better received by players of the different sectors; however, it did not show any sign of progress after five years. At the same time, the need for investments is increasing and the expectation of demand's growth is also rising. Hence, the intention of this research paper is to identify the factors that are constraining the liberalisation in the Venezuelan power sector. This paper concludes that the lack of consensus of the government about the nature of the reform, the popular fear of losses, the lack of regulation and the lack of autonomy in its formal structure, and the nonliberalisation of the gas market are just some of the most significant reasons that are constraining the liberalisation in the Venezuelan power sector. (Author)

  20. Higgs Portal into Hidden Sectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Several attractive theoretical ideas suggest the existence of one or more 'hidden sectors' consisting of standard model singlet fields, some of which may not be too heavy. There is a profound reason to think that the Higgs sector might provide the first access to these hidden sectors. This scenario could affect Higgs phenomenology in drastic ways.

  1. Perceptions of the Third Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Brink Lund, A.

    2014-01-01

    How do citizens in Europe view third sector organizations? How can differences in perceptions of the third sector among citizens in Europe be explained? And how is the third sector assessed therein with regard to its contribution to social innovation? Based on the limited scope of the evidence

  2. Elasticities of electricity demand in urban Indian households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Pachauri, Shonali

    2004-01-01

    In the past, several electricity demand studies have been published for India based on aggregate macro data at the country or sub-national/state level. Since the underlying theory of consumer demand is based on the behaviour of individual agents, the use of micro data, which reflects individual and household behaviour, more closely, can shed greater light on the nature of consumer responses. In this paper, seasonal price and income elasticities of electricity demand in the residential sector of all urban areas of India are estimated for the first time using disaggregate level survey data for about 30,000 households. Three electricity demand functions have been econometrically estimated using monthly data for the winter, monsoon and summer season in order to understand the extent to which factors like income, prices, household size and other household specific characteristics, influence variations observed in individual households' electricity demand. The results show electricity demand is income and price inelastic in all three seasons, and that household, demographic and geographical variables are significant in determining electricity demand

  3. Industrial electricity demand for Turkey: A structural time series analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilaver, Zafer; Hunt, Lester C.

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship between Turkish industrial electricity consumption, industrial value added and electricity prices in order to forecast future Turkish industrial electricity demand. To achieve this, an industrial electricity demand function for Turkey is estimated by applying the structural time series technique to annual data over the period 1960 to 2008. In addition to identifying the size and significance of the price and industrial value added (output) elasticities, this technique also uncovers the electricity Underlying Energy Demand Trend (UEDT) for the Turkish industrial sector and is, as far as is known, the first attempt to do this. The results suggest that output and real electricity prices and a UEDT all have an important role to play in driving Turkish industrial electricity demand. Consequently, they should all be incorporated when modelling Turkish industrial electricity demand and the estimated UEDT should arguably be considered in future energy policy decisions concerning the Turkish electricity industry. The output and price elasticities are estimated to be 0.15 and - 0.16 respectively, with an increasing (but at a decreasing rate) UEDT and based on the estimated equation, and different forecast assumptions, it is predicted that Turkish industrial electricity demand will be somewhere between 97 and 148 TWh by 2020. -- Research Highlights: → Estimated output and price elasticities of 0.15 and -0.16 respectively. → Estimated upward sloping UEDT (i.e. energy using) but at a decreasing rate. → Predicted Turkish industrial electricity demand between 97 and 148 TWh in 2020.

  4. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Ma, Ookie [United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013-11-01

    Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

  5. Production in Italian industry: Electric power demand indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajello, V.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the recession in Italy were first evidenced during the period spanning 1990-1992 with a sharp drop in the international competitiveness of Italian products. This phase was then followed by a significant drop in internal demand, the devaluation of the Italian Lira and subsequent market uncertainty. This paper presents graphs of national and regional electric power production and consumption figures which reflect the downturn in the viability of the Italian economy, especially in the industrial sector

  6. Report on energy supply and demand in Canada : 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dion, M.; Lacroix, J.; Smalldridge, G.; Svab, J.; Cromey, N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of energy use in Canada. The year 1990 was used as a starting point because that is the base year for energy inventories for the Kyoto Protocol. Data was derived from monthly and quarterly surveys. The report describes data quality and methodology as well as energy conversion factors. It includes individual tables on primary and secondary energy for: coal, crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, primary electricity, steam, coke, secondary electricity, refined petroleum products, non-energy refined petroleum products, solid wood waste, and spent liquor. The most recent data on energy demand and supply indicates that Canadians consumed energy for transportation twice as fast as the nation's industries did in the past 12 years. From 1990 to 2002, energy consumption in the transportation sector increased 22.7 per cent while demand in the industrial sector rose by 11.7 per cent. Canada's energy consumption increased 17.6 per cent from 1990 to 2002. In 2002, the transportation and industrial sectors each accounted for 30 per cent of total energy consumption. Consumption of natural gas, refined petroleum and coal increased 18.1 per cent, with the greatest increased being in natural gas. In 2002, electricity produced by water, nuclear power, wind and tidal action accounted for 25 per cent of energy consumption. Secondary electricity generation from fossil fuels increased steadily. The general increase in domestic demand for energy in 2002 was due to an increase in energy consumption by the industrial sector and by growing residential sales. In 2002, the rate of increase in energy consumption in Alberta was higher than in any other province due to a booming economy and rising population. Ontario consumed the most energy in 2002, accounting for 34 per cent of the country's energy demand

  7. Challenges of meeting China's exploding power demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, Peter; Sagodi, Attila

    2010-09-15

    International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates China will need to invest USD 2,765 billon into the industry by 2030 to cope with demand - an estimated one quarter of the total global energy sector investment within that period. Such expansion naturally brings many challenges, not least of which are concerns over the environment, both locally and on a global scale. How will such a gigantic sum be spent, and what opportunities will it offer investors and suppliers?.

  8. Organizational Structure and Firms' Demand for HRM Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Tor; Ortega, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    A question largely left unanswered in previous studies of firms’ use of HRM practices, and the consequences thereof, is why some firms adopt these practices while others do not. We examine empirically the determinants of firms’ demand for HRM pay, work and training practices with a special focus on the role of differences in the organizational structure of firms. For this purpose we merge data from a detailed questionnaire study of Danish private sector firms’ use of HRM practices with workfo...

  9. Demand powers ahead [Gas in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, N.

    1994-01-01

    Natural gas demand in Europe has been growing steadily for many years and is likely to go on increasing in the domestic sector, the industrial sector and in power generation. In this review a number of features of the market supply situation are reported. Potential new markets for Norwegian gas in eastern and central Europe are being evaluated. Other exporting countries are also keen to obtain a greater share in the expanding European market. Among them are Russia, Algeria and Nigeria, but political uncertainties in each of these countries are a cause for concern. Algeria has new pipelines to supply Italy, Spain and Portugal. The Russian company, Gazprom, has launched the construction of a pipeline to link new gas fields in northern Siberia with western Europe and has set up contracts with German companies which are facilitating the sale of Russian gas in Europe. Supply potential also exists in some of the other countries of the former Soviet Union, such as Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. A group of leading European gas utilities are exploring the feasibility of imports from Iran either via a pipeline link or as liquefied natural gas. The United Kingdom hopes to export North Sea gas into Europe through the proposed Interconnector pipeline from Bacton to Zeebrugge, in th long-term, though, the pipeline may be used for imports into the UK. A controversial proposal to introduce third-party access to European pipelines could alter the whole structure of the market. (UK)

  10. Global energy demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    Perhaps the most compelling issue the world will face in the next century is the quality of life of the increasing populations of the poorer regions of the world. Energy is the key to generating wealth and protecting the environment. Today, most of the energy generated comes from fossil fuels and there should be enough for an increase in consumption over the next half century. However, this is likely to be impacted by the Kyoto Protocol on carbon dioxide emissions. Various authoritative studies lead to a global energy demand projection of between 850 to 1070 EJ per year in the mid-21 st century, which is nearly three times as much as the world uses today. The studies further indicate that, unless there is a major thrust by governments to create incentives and/or to levy heavy taxes, the use of fossil fuels will continue to increase and there will be a major increase in carbon dioxide emissions globally. Most of the increase will come from the newly industrializing countries which do not have the technology or financial resources to install non-carbon energy sources such as nuclear power, and the new renewable energy technologies. The real issue for the nuclear industry is investment cost. Developing countries, in particular will have difficulty in raising capital for energy projects with a high installed cost and will have difficulties in raising large blocks of capital. A reduction in investment costs of the order of 50% with a short construction schedule is in order if nuclear power is to compete and contribute significantly to energy supply and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. Current nuclear power plants and methods are simply not suited to the production of plants that will compete in this situation. Mass production designs are needed to get the benefits of cost reduction. Water cooled reactors are well demonstrated and positioned to achieve the cost reduction necessary but only via some radical thinking on the part of the designers. The reactors of

  11. Promotion and Fast Food Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Richards; Luis Padilla

    2009-01-01

    Many believe that fast food promotion is a significant cause of the obesity epidemic in North America. Industry members argue that promotion only reallocates brand shares and does not increase overall demand. We study the effect of fast food promotion on market share and total demand by estimating a discrete / continuous model of fast food restaurant choice and food expenditure that explicitly accounts for both spatial and temporal determinants of demand. Estimates are obtained using a unique...

  12. Intercity Travel Demand Analysis Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Lu; Hai Zhu; Xia Luo; Lei Lei

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that intercity travel is an important component of travel demand which belongs to short distance corridor travel. The conventional four-step method is no longer suitable for short distance corridor travel demand analysis for the time spent on urban traffic has a great impact on traveler's main mode choice. To solve this problem, the author studied the existing intercity travel demand analysis model, then improved it based on the study, and finally established a combined model...

  13. Job demands-resources model

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Arnold; Demerouti, Eva

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001) and is inspired by job design and job stress theories. JD-R theory explains how job demands and resources have unique and multiplicative e...

  14. North American oil demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC's pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  15. Trading the Economic Value of Unsatisfied Municipal Water Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Telfah

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Modelling and optimization techniques for water resources allocation are proposed to identify the economic value of the unsatisfied municipal water demand against demands emerging from other sectors. While this is always an important step in integrated water resource management perspective, it became crucial for water scarce Countries. In fact, since the competition for the resource is high, they are in crucial need to trade values which will help them in satisfying their policies and needs. In this framework, hydro-economic, social equity and environmental constraints need to be satisfied. In the present study, a hydro-economic decision model based on optimization schemes has been developed for water resources allocation, that enable the evaluation of the economic cost of a deficiency in fulfilling the municipal demand. Moreover, the model enables efficient water resources management, satisfying the demand and proposing additional water resources options. The formulated model is designed to maximize the demand satisfaction and minimize water production cost subject to system priorities, preferences and constraints. The demand priorities are defined based on the effect of demand dissatisfaction, while hydrogeological and physical characteristics of the resources are embedded as constraints in the optimization problem. The application to the City of Amman is presented. Amman is the Capital City of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, a Country located in the south-eastern area of the Mediterranean, on the East Bank of the Jordan River. The main challenge for Jordan, that threat the development and prosperity of all sectors, is the extreme water scarcity. In fact, Jordan is classified as semi-arid to arid region with limited financial resources and unprecedented population growth. While the easy solution directly goes to the simple but expensive approach to cover the demand, case study results show that the proposed model plays a major role in

  16. Trading the Economic Value of Unsatisfied Municipal Water Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfah, Dua'a. B.; Minciardi, Riccardo; Roth, Giorgio

    2018-06-01

    Modelling and optimization techniques for water resources allocation are proposed to identify the economic value of the unsatisfied municipal water demand against demands emerging from other sectors. While this is always an important step in integrated water resource management perspective, it became crucial for water scarce Countries. In fact, since the competition for the resource is high, they are in crucial need to trade values which will help them in satisfying their policies and needs. In this framework, hydro-economic, social equity and environmental constraints need to be satisfied. In the present study, a hydro-economic decision model based on optimization schemes has been developed for water resources allocation, that enable the evaluation of the economic cost of a deficiency in fulfilling the municipal demand. Moreover, the model enables efficient water resources management, satisfying the demand and proposing additional water resources options. The formulated model is designed to maximize the demand satisfaction and minimize water production cost subject to system priorities, preferences and constraints. The demand priorities are defined based on the effect of demand dissatisfaction, while hydrogeological and physical characteristics of the resources are embedded as constraints in the optimization problem. The application to the City of Amman is presented. Amman is the Capital City of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, a Country located in the south-eastern area of the Mediterranean, on the East Bank of the Jordan River. The main challenge for Jordan, that threat the development and prosperity of all sectors, is the extreme water scarcity. In fact, Jordan is classified as semi-arid to arid region with limited financial resources and unprecedented population growth. While the easy solution directly goes to the simple but expensive approach to cover the demand, case study results show that the proposed model plays a major role in providing directions to

  17. Energy demand in Mexico, a vision to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel E, J.; Xolocostli M, J. V.

    2017-09-01

    The energy planning allows to know the current and future energy needs of the country, with the objective of efficiently guaranteeing the supply of energy demand through the diversity of the sources used, promoting the use of clean energies such as nuclear energy. Mexico, by participating in the ARCAL project -Support for the preparation of national energy plans in order to meet energy needs in the countries of the region, making effective use of resources in the medium and long term- has developed the study of energy demand for the period 2015-2050, where, given the socio-economic and technological conditions of the country in 2012, four scenarios are proposed: Decrement al, with decreases in the GDP growth rate and in the production of the manufacturing sector; Incremental, which shows an increase in the GDP growth rate and in the manufacturing sector; Incremental Dual, scenario similar to the Incremental plus an incentive in the service sector and finally, the Tendencial scenario, which corresponds to a typical scenario-business as usual-. The study that concerns this work was developed with the MAED tool and the results that are presented correspond to the energy requirements in each scenario, for the agriculture, construction, mining, manufacturing and transport sectors. (Author)

  18. Power sector reform in India: current issues and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anoop

    2006-01-01

    Power sector reforms in India were initiated at a juncture when the sector was plagued with commercial losses and burgeoning subsidy burden. Investment in the sector was not able to keep pace with growing demand for electricity. This paper takes stock of pre-reform situation in Indian power sector and identifies key concerns that led to initiation of the process of reform. The paper discusses major policy and regulatory changes undertaken since the early 1990s. The paper also illustrates changes in the market structure as we move along the reform process. We also discuss some of the major provisions of the recently enacted Electricity Act 2003 that aims to replace the prevailing acts which govern the functioning of the power sector in the country. In this context, we discuss two issues arising out of it, namely open access and multi-year tariff that we think would have a significant bearing on the performance of the sector in the near future. The paper also evaluates the reform process in the light of some of the regulatory changes undertaken. Finally, the paper briefly discusses the issues involved in introduction of competition in the power sector primarily through development of a market for bulk power

  19. Assessing the Impact of Trade Policy and Technology Changes in the U.S. Forestry Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan Wu; Janaki Alavalapati; Douglas Carter; David N. Wear; Gouranga Das

    2002-01-01

    Increased trade liberalization and globalization of financial markets are influencing both the demand for and supply of forest products in the U.S. Meanwhile, more innovations are introduced into the U.S. forestry sectors to meet the growing demands for forest products. Since the U.S. is the largest producer and consumer of forest products in the world, these changes...

  20. Employment and income trends and projections for forest-based sectors in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Abt

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsThe southern logging sector is expected to experience small increases in both industry output (3 percent) and jobs (2 percent) from 2008 to 2018. Increased demand from bioenergy is expected to counteract increasing trends toward mechanization and reduced demand from some traditional wood-using industries.Southern...

  1. CO2 Emission Reduction in Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bole, A.; Sustersic, A.; Voncina, R.

    2013-01-01

    Due to human activities, concentrations of the greenhouse gases increase in the atmosphere much quicker than they naturally would. Today it is clear that climate change is the result of human activities. With the purpose of preventing, reducing and mitigating of climate change, the EU, whose member is also Slovenia, set ambitious goals. In order to keep rise of the global atmosphere temperature below 2 degrees of C, the European Council set an objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 - 95 % by 2050 compared to 1990. It is important that every single individual is included in achieving of these goals. Certainly, the most important role is assumed by individual sectors especially Public Electricity and Heat Production sector as one of the greatest emitters of the greenhouse gases. As a possible solution of radical reduction of the greenhouse gases emission from mentioned sector Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology is implemented. In the article the range of CO 2 reduction possibilities, technology demands and environmental side effects of CCS technology are described. Evaluation of CCS implementation possibilities in Slovenia is also included.(author)

  2. Gas sector developments in Trinidad and Tobago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, G.

    1997-01-01

    The outlook for the natural gas industry in Trinidad and Tobago was discussed. The country's proven reserves, as of January 1997, were estimated at 16.1 trillion cubic feet. The National Gas Company (NGC) is key to expansion of the country's gas business. In 1996 NGC sold 683 million cubic feet of natural gas. The petrochemical sector accounted for 57.6 per cent of sales, power generation 22.4 per cent and metal and other heavy industry 19 per cent. Amoco, Enron and British Gas are the principal suppliers. Natural gas demand in Trinidad and Tobago is predicted to surpass the 1.5 billion cubic feet per day threshold by the year 2001, rising to 2.1 billion cubic feet per day by 2006. During the 1997-2001 period, gas sales to the petrochemical sector will increase by a compounded average of 24 per cent per year due to new plant expansions in the methanol and ammonia sectors. Trinidad expects to be firmly established as the world's leading exporter of methanol and ammonia by the year 2001. Increased gas sales will also be stimulated by the proposed establishment of an aluminium smelter in Trinidad. 1 tab., 1 fig

  3. Natural gas in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ask, T Oe; Einang, P M; Stenersen, D [MARINTEK (Norway)

    1996-12-01

    The transportation sector is responsible for more than 50% of all oil products consumed, and it is the fastest growing oil demand sector and the fastest growing source of emissions. During the last 10 years there have been a considerable and growing effort in developing internal combustion gas engines. This effort has resulted in gas engines with efficiencies comparable to the diesel engines and with emissions considerably lower than engines burning conventional fuels. This development offers us opportunities to use natural gas very efficiently also in the transportation sector, resulting in reduced emissions. However, to utilize all the built in abilities natural gas has as engine fuel, the natural gas composition must be kept within relatively narrow limits. This is the case with both diesel and gasoline today. A further development require therefore specified natural gas compositions, and the direct use of pipeline natural gas as today would only in limited areas be acceptable. An interesting possibility for producing a specified natural gas composition is by LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) production. (EG)

  4. Modelling energy demand in the Norwegian building stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, Igor

    2008-07-15

    Energy demand in the building stock in Norway represents about 40% of the final energy consumption, of which 22% goes to the residential sector and 18% to the service sector. In Norway there is a strong dependency on electricity for heating purposes, with electricity covering about 80% of the energy demand in buildings. The building sector can play an important role in the achievement of a more sustainable energy system. The work performed in the articles presented in this thesis investigates various aspects related to the energy demand in the building sector, both in singular cases and in the stock as a whole. The work performed in the first part of this thesis on development and survey of case studies provided background knowledge that was then used in the second part, on modelling the entire stock. In the first part, a literature survey of case studies showed that, in a life cycle perspective, the energy used in the operating phase of buildings is the single most important factor. Design of low-energy buildings is then beneficial and should be pursued, even though it implies a somewhat higher embodied energy. A case study was performed on a school building. First, a methodology using a Monte Carlo method in the calibration process was explored. Then, the calibrated model of the school was used to investigate measures for the achievement of high energy efficiency standard through renovation work. In the second part, a model was developed to study the energy demand in a scenario analysis. The results showed the robustness of policies that included conservation measures against the conflicting effects of the other policies. Adopting conservation measures on a large scale showed the potential to reduce both electricity and total energy demand from present day levels while the building stock keeps growing. The results also highlighted the inertia to change of the building stock, due to low activity levels compared to the stock size. It also became clear that a deeper

  5. Medios y sectores populares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blasco Fernando Checa Montúfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El CIESPAL desarrolló un estudio sobre los usos y preferencias de los medios de información y de los mensajes en algunos sectores populares del Ecuador. La mayoría de los campesinos escuchan la radio pero aman la televisión. El Comercio de Quito y el Universo de Guayaquil son los diarios preferidos. En Quito se leen menos periódicos que en Guayaquil y las redes comunitarias funcionan muy bien en la costa del país.

  6. The Informal Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Áureo de Paula; José A. Scheinkman

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of informal economic activity. We present two equilibrium models of informality and test their implications using a survey of 48,000+ small firms in Brazil. We define informality as tax avoidance; firms in the informal sector avoid tax payments but suffer other limitations. In the first model there is a single industry and informal firms face a higher cost of capital and a limitation on size. As a result informal firms are smaller and have a lower capi...

  7. Private Sector Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    New and independent donors are adding their own twist to the experiences of receiving ODA and their examples are already inspiring the DAC, UN, and other multiple- and bilateral aid relationships. Rather than competition among development paradigms, I see negotiations of ideas of development and ...... and a co-existence of a multiplicity of approaches. I will argue that a trend of new and old actors inspiring each other will continue and the explicit focus on private sector development is just a first outcome....

  8. The Wave Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    This Handbook for Ocean Wave Energy aims at providing a guide into the field of ocean wave energy utilization. The handbook offers a concise yet comprehensive overview of the main aspects and disciplines involved in the development of wave energy converters (WECs). The idea for the book has been...... shaped by the development, research, and teaching that we have carried out at the Wave Energy Research Group at Aalborg University over the past decades. It is our belief and experience that it would be useful writing and compiling such a handbook in order to enhance the understanding of the sector...

  9. [Materials for construction sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchia, C

    2012-01-01

    The construction sector is characterized by high complexity due to several factors. There are a lot of processes within the building sites and they need the use of different materials with the help of appropriate technologies. Traditional materials have evolved and diversified, meanwhile new products and materials appeared and still appear, offering services which meet user needs, but that often involve risks to the health of workers. Research in the field of materials, promoted and carried out at various levels, has led to interesting results, encoded in the form of rules and laws.

  10. Microeconomics and the demand for space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, D.J.

    1977-12-01

    The techniques of economic utility theory are combined with the technical equations for heat loss from a dwelling to give insight into the variation of consumer demand for space heating. A theoretical relationship is established between the performance of the occupied dwelling as the external temperature falls and the short-run income elasticity of energy demand. The analysis is applied to studies of UK heating practice in the 1950s and the implied indifference map for thermal comfort deduced. This indifference map is found to show a considerable economic propensity to absorb some of the potential savings from energy conservation measurements in higher internal temperatures. The effect found is sufficiently large to have consequences for future energy planning if it were still present in the UK domestic sector. The analysis highlights a number of points that should aid the interpretation of field experiments on domestic energy consumption. In particular, it is shown that unless great care is taken to separate out the technical and economic origins of internal temperature variation, the results of field studies on the effectiveness of conservation techniques may only be of shortlived value.

  11. Demand side management. Benefits and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strbac, Goran

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the major benefits and challenges of electricity demand side management (DSM) are discussed in the context of the UK electricity system. The relatively low utilisation of generation and networks (of about 50%) means that there is significant scope for DSM to contribute to increasing the efficiency of the system investment. The importance of the diversity of electricity load is discussed and the negative effects of DSM on load diversity illustrated. Ageing assets, the growth in renewable and other low-carbon generation technologies and advances in information and communication technologies are identified as major additional drivers that could lead to wider applications of DSM in the medium term. Potential benefits of DSM are discussed in the context of generation and of transmission and distribution networks. The provision of back-up capacity by generation may not be efficient as it will be needed relatively infrequently, and DSM may be better placed to support security. We also present an analysis of the value of DSM in balancing generation and demand in a future UK electricity system with significant variable renewable generation. We give a number of reasons for the relatively slow uptake of DSM, particularly in the residential, commercial and small business sectors. They include a lack of metering, information and communication infrastructure, lack of understanding of the benefits of DSM, problems with the competitiveness of DSM when compared with traditional approaches, an increase in the complexity of system operation and inappropriate market incentives. (author)

  12. Future demand of petroleum products in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sajal

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the long-run equilibrium relationship between total petroleum products consumption and economic growth in India for the period 1970-1971 to 2001-2002 using cointegration and error-correction modeling approach. Augmented Dickey-Fuller tests reveal that both the series, after logarithmic transformation, are non-stationary and individually integrated of order one. The empirical results suggest that the series are cointegrated. The 'long-term demand elasticity for petroleum products' has been estimated. Furthermore, as a special case, similar sort of exercise between the consumption of middle-distillates and economic growth in India using annual data for the time span 1974-1975 to 2001-2002 has been carried out, which also confirms the existence of cointegration. In-sample forecasts fitted well against actual numbers. Finally, the paper forecasts total petroleum products and middle-distillates demands till 2011-2012 and provide an idea about the investment required in refinery sector in India till 2011-2012

  13. Assessment of utility side financial benefits of demand side management considering environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeygunawardane, Saranga Kumudu

    2018-02-01

    Any electrical utility prefers to implement demand side management and change the shape of the demand curve in a beneficial manner. This paper aims to assess the financial gains (or losses) to the generating sector through the implementation of demand side management programs. An optimization algorithm is developed to find the optimal generation mix that minimizes the daily total generating cost. This daily total generating cost includes the daily generating cost as well as the environmental damage cost. The proposed optimization algorithm is used to find the daily total generating cost for the base case and for several demand side management programs using the data obtained from the Sri Lankan power system. Results obtained for DSM programs are compared with the results obtained for the base case to assess the financial benefits of demand side management to the generating sector.

  14. Determination of consumption biogenic solid fuels in the commercial sector, trade, services (tertiary sector). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viehmann, Cornelia; Westerkamp, Tanja; Schwenker, Andre; Schenker, Marian; Thraen, Daniela; Lenz, Volker; Ebert, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The policy has both national and European level ambitious program aimed at expansion of renewable energy and related to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In the national action plan for renewable energy of the Federal Republic of Germany these goals are defined by 2020. The share of renewable energy in the provision of heat and cold should therefore rise from 6.6% to 15.5% of gross final energy consumption. According to the increasing importance of solar-thermal, near-surface and geothermal heat, the relative share of biomass is decreasing. However biomass makes with those listed in the national action plan with 79% an essential amount in regenerative heat market [BMU 2010]. For the pursuit of goals and reviews, the support measures and packages of measures which are initiated in this context, a regular and timely reporting on the development of the above objectives is mandatory. The diverse and growing reporting requirements such as in the EU directive on the promotion of renewable energy, require, however well-founded knowledge of the sector-specific energy consumption from renewable sources. While the data available for use of biogenic solid fuels in the sectors household and industry has improved significantly in recent years, for the sector commercial sector, trade, services (tertiary sector) reliable figures are still lacking. Against this background, the objective is to present study, in close cooperation with the Federal Environment Agency (UBA), the determination of the final energy consumption biogenic solid fuels in the tertiary sector in Germany for the year 2008. The basis is, in addition to the development of the current knowledge of the energy and heat consumption, the delimitation and characterization of the sector and the development of an extrapolation tools. The demand for this tool is its expandability and update possibility. From the industry-nonspecific and industry-specific input data can be derived, collecting for the extrapolation

  15. Modelling a sector undergoing structural change: The case of Danish energy supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    for the demand of the produced goods. Environmental priorities and targets for emission reductions are important for defining energy policy in Denmark. As the energy supply sector at present is a major contributor to emissions of CO2 and SO2, knowledge of this sector is vital for reducing these emissions......This paper examines structural change in the power and heat producing sector (energy supply) and its implications for the economy. An integrated approach is used to describe the interactions between this sector and the rest of the economy. Thus, a very detailed model of the sector for Denmark has...... been linked to a macroeconometric model of the Danish economy. It is argued that analysing sectors that undergo radical changes, for example, the energy supply sector should be undertaken by using a model that describes the technological and organisational changes in production along with implications...

  16. The development of the tertiary sector in the economy and the reduction in CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morvan, R.; Hubert, M.; Gregoire, P.; Lowezanin, Ch.

    2004-09-01

    The development of the tertiary sector appears to support sustainable development since it now accounts for almost two thirds of the national economy and is responsible for low CO 2 emission levels. Between 1980 and 1997, CO 2 emissions from the tertiary sector increased by 20 % compared with a 48 % rise in the sector value added. In terms of production, CO 2 levels in the tertiary sector are low, compared with 55 % for the secondary sector (industry). However, when trade between economic activities is taken into account, there is cause to qualify the assessment. This makes it possible to ascertain emissions from the point of view of satisfying final demand for products, and to identify direct and indirect emissions in each branch of activity. Thus, when emissions from certain industrial and agricultural activities are redistributed specifically to branches of activity in the tertiary sector, CO 2 emissions in this sector account for almost one-third of total emissions. (A.L.B.)

  17. Forecasting the Romanian sectoral economy using the input-output method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DUGULEANĂ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to forecast the sectoral output in 2013 based on the input-output structure of Romanian economy in 2010. Considering that the economic linkage mechanisms do not easily change during certain time periods, the forecasting is possible, even if not in the sequence of the time passing. Using the technical matrix of the sectoral structure described for year 2010 and some known indicators of the economic sectors, as the value added for each sector in 2013, the sectoral output is projected for 2013. The Romanian GDP in 2013 is estimated based on the input-output model. From a managerial perspective, this study is useful to forecast the sectoral output and to understand the sectoral behaviour, based on the input-output analysis of the value added, the compensation for employees and the final demand, which were considered here.

  18. Sectoral linkage analysis of three main air pollutants in China's industry: Comparing 2010 with 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weiwei; Wang, Yuan; Zuo, Jian; Luo, Yincheng

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the driving forces of air pollution in China, the changes in linkages amongst inter-industrial air pollutant emissions were analyzed by hypothetical extraction method under the input-output framework. Results showed that the emissions of SO 2 , soot and dust from industrial sources increased by 56.46%, 36.95% and 11.69% respectively in 2010, compared with 2002. As major contributors to emissions, the power and gas sectors were responsible for the growing SO 2 emissions, the nonmetal products sector for soot emissions, and the metals mining, smelting and pressing sectors for dust emissions. The increasing volume of emissions was mainly driven by the growing demand in the transport equipment and electrical equipment sectors. In addition, the expansion in the metals mining, smelting and pressing sectors could result in even more severe air pollution. Therefore, potential effective strategies to control air pollution in China are: (1) reducing the demand of major import sectors in the equipment manufacturing industry; (2) promoting R&D in low-emissions-production technologies to the power and gas sectors, the metals mining, smelting and pressing sectors, and the nonmetal products sector, and (3) auditing the considerable industrial scale expansion in the metals mining, smelting and pressing sectors and optimizing the industrial structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Harnessing the power of demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffrin, Anjali; Yoshimura, Henry; LaPlante, David; Neenan, Bernard

    2008-03-15

    Demand response can provide a series of economic services to the market and also provide ''insurance value'' under low-likelihood, but high-impact circumstances in which grid reliablity is enhanced. Here is how ISOs and RTOs are fostering demand response within wholesale electricity markets. (author)

  20. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  1. Uranium resources, demand and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipanicic, P.N.

    1985-05-01

    Estimations of the demand and production of principal uranium resource categories are presented. The estimations based on data analysis made by a joint 'NEA/IAEA Working Party on Uranium Resources' and the corresponding results are published by the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) in the 'Uranium Resources, Production and Demand' Known as 'Red Book'. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. Demand differentiation in inventory systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    This book deals with inventory systems where customer demand is categorised into different classes. Most inventory systems do not take into account individual customer preferences for a given product, and therefore handle all demand in a similar way. Nowadays, market segmentation has become a

  3. Demand Response in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob; Knudsen, Jesper Viese; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, moves toward higher integration of Renewable Energy Resources have called for fundamental changes in both the planning and operation of the overall power grid. One such change is the incorporation of Demand Response (DR), the process by which consumers can adjust their demand...

  4. Credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byiers, Bruce; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses two industrial firm surveys to identify the key determinants of credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing. We construct five different measures of being credit constrained and estimate desired debt demand. Besides firm size and ownership structure, we find evidence that general...

  5. Job demands-resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bakker (Arnold); E. Demerouti (Eva)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker &

  6. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...

  7. Electricity demand and conservation potential in the Chinese nonmetallic mineral products industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Ouyang, Xiaoling

    2014-01-01

    As the high energy-consuming manufacturing industry, electricity consumption of nonmetallic mineral products in China accounted for 7.93% of industrial, 5.84% of national and 1.33% of global electricity consumption in 2010. This study attempts to specify the determinants of sectoral electricity demand, forecast future electricity consumption by creating a model using the Johansen cointegration methodology and estimate the sectoral electricity conservation potential. Results indicate that GDP per capita is the leading force explaining the sectoral electricity consumption increase, while value-added per worker, R and D intensity and electricity price are the main factors contributing to the sectoral electricity consumption decrease. Results demonstrate that sectoral electricity consumption in 2020 will be 369.79–464.83 billion kWh under the low-growth scenario and 530.14–666.39 billion kWh under the high-growth scenario. Moreover, under the low-growth scenario, the sectoral electricity conservation potential in 2020 will be 33.72–95.03 billion kWh, accounting for 0.45–1.26% of China's total electricity demand in 2020; under the high-growth scenario, the sectoral electricity conservation potential in 2020 will be 48.34–136.24 billion kWh, accounting for 0.26–0.74% of world's total electricity consumption in 2010 respectively. Finally, we provide some policy recommendations for encouraging energy conservation in China's nonmetallic mineral products industry. - Highlights: • A long-term relationship of electricity demand in nonmetallic minerals industry is established. • Determinants of the sectoral electricity consumption are specified. • The sectoral electricity demand and saving potential are analyzed using scenarios analysis. • Electricity saving potential will be 48.34–136.24 billion kWh under the high-growth scenario

  8. GLOBALIZATION IN TOURISM SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana LUPAN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper points to recent developments in the tourism sector and highlights the leading factors of the internationalization of tourists travel and of tourism services, including information technologies, as well as the internationalization of hotel and tourism enterprises. Without neglecting the huge subsector of small and medium-sized enterprises, it describes typical features related to the composition of the labour force and to working conditions. It raises questions concerning the difficulties faced by the sector in attracting and retaining skilled workers in enhancing the skills of newcomers to the labour market in order to stabilize the sector’s labour force, while increasing the productivity of enterprises and the quality of services. Particular emphasis is put on new forms of management entailing new skills requirements, with a general tendency towards increased worker responsibility in an environment of flat hierarchies, multiskilling and teamwork.

  9. Decision making in the electricity sector using performance indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, Nuno [ISEL-ADESPA, Lisbon (Portugal); FCT-UNL, Caparica (Portugal); Neves-Silva, Rui; Melo, Joao Joanaz de [FCT-UNL, Caparica (Portugal)

    2017-02-15

    The studies on the electricity sector are usually focused on the supply side, considering consumers as price-takers, i.e. assuming no demand elasticity. The present paper highlights the role of consumers on the electricity sector, assuming that consumers react to electricity prices and make decisions. Many studies focused on the demand side disaggregate consumers by activities, leading to a highly complex analyse. In the present paper, consumers are divided by three main types. In the present paper, the Government makes decisions on the measures to implement to influence the production and the consumption. To study the impact of the Government decisions, the present paper studies and implements a tool: a decision support system. This tool is based on a conceptual model and assists the task of test and analyse the electricity sector using scenarios to obtain a set of performance indicators that would allow to make quantitative balance and to eliminate unfeasible measures. The performance indicators quantify the technical, environmental, social and economical aspects of the electricity sector and help to understand the effect of consumer practices, production technology and Government measures on the electricity sector. Based on the scenarios produced, it is possible to conclude that the price signal is important for consumers and it is a way to guide their behaviour. It is also possible to conclude that is preferable to apply incentives on supporting energy-efficiency measures implementation than on reduce the price of electricity sold to consumers. (orig.)

  10. Decision making in the electricity sector using performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingues, Nuno; Neves-Silva, Rui; Melo, Joao Joanaz de

    2017-01-01

    The studies on the electricity sector are usually focused on the supply side, considering consumers as price-takers, i.e. assuming no demand elasticity. The present paper highlights the role of consumers on the electricity sector, assuming that consumers react to electricity prices and make decisions. Many studies focused on the demand side disaggregate consumers by activities, leading to a highly complex analyse. In the present paper, consumers are divided by three main types. In the present paper, the Government makes decisions on the measures to implement to influence the production and the consumption. To study the impact of the Government decisions, the present paper studies and implements a tool: a decision support system. This tool is based on a conceptual model and assists the task of test and analyse the electricity sector using scenarios to obtain a set of performance indicators that would allow to make quantitative balance and to eliminate unfeasible measures. The performance indicators quantify the technical, environmental, social and economical aspects of the electricity sector and help to understand the effect of consumer practices, production technology and Government measures on the electricity sector. Based on the scenarios produced, it is possible to conclude that the price signal is important for consumers and it is a way to guide their behaviour. It is also possible to conclude that is preferable to apply incentives on supporting energy-efficiency measures implementation than on reduce the price of electricity sold to consumers. (orig.)

  11. Application of combined heat and power in Malaysia Industrial Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaredah Hashim; Faridah Mohd Taha

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia is still working on continuing its economic growth especially in the industrial sector in order to achieve vision 2020. The rapid industrialization process has caused increment in the energy demand, which simultaneously increases carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Energy efficient technologies are strongly needed for reducing the energy requirement and to avoid the depleting of energy resources. This project focused on the application of integrated resource planning (IRP) in industrial sector using Combined Heat and Power (CHP), as a strategy for Demand Side Management (DSM). This approach is another way for meeting near and future energy requirement in Malaysia's industrial sector. Two scenarios which are Business As Usual (BAU) and CHP were developed using End Use Model EUM), to forecast the energy demand and CO 2 emission in Malaysia's industries. The effectiveness of the proposed method is then simulated using Long Range Energy Alternative Planning System (LEAP) software and Comparative Model for Projects of Engineering Economics and Energy Environmental Development (COMPEED) analysis. Evaluations were based on the potential of energy saving and CO 2 reduction. Scope of research was limited to pulp and paper industrial sub sector. The research data were extracted from Energy Audit Reports conducted by Malaysia Energy Center (PTM). An engineering calculation was demonstrated. Two designs of CHP applications for the pulp and paper industrial sector are according to heating and electricity sizing. It was found that the most energy efficient and CO 2 reduction for Malaysia's industrial sector is the CHP based on heating requirement. The method was found to be able of save fuel and GHG emission compared to the reference case. (author)

  12. On-Demand Dark Soliton Train Manipulation in a Spinor Polariton Condensate

    KAUST Repository

    Pinsker, F.; Flayac, H.

    2014-01-01

    or electrically to provide a stable and efficient output signal modulation. Taking the polarization of the condensate into account, we elucidate the possibility of forming on-demand half-soliton trains. © 2014 American Physical Society.

  13. Home Network Technologies and Automating Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McParland, Charles

    2009-12-01

    Over the past several years, interest in large-scale control of peak energy demand and total consumption has increased. While motivated by a number of factors, this interest has primarily been spurred on the demand side by the increasing cost of energy and, on the supply side by the limited ability of utilities to build sufficient electricity generation capacity to meet unrestrained future demand. To address peak electricity use Demand Response (DR) systems are being proposed to motivate reductions in electricity use through the use of price incentives. DR systems are also be design to shift or curtail energy demand at critical times when the generation, transmission, and distribution systems (i.e. the 'grid') are threatened with instabilities. To be effectively deployed on a large-scale, these proposed DR systems need to be automated. Automation will require robust and efficient data communications infrastructures across geographically dispersed markets. The present availability of widespread Internet connectivity and inexpensive, reliable computing hardware combined with the growing confidence in the capabilities of distributed, application-level communications protocols suggests that now is the time for designing and deploying practical systems. Centralized computer systems that are capable of providing continuous signals to automate customers reduction of power demand, are known as Demand Response Automation Servers (DRAS). The deployment of prototype DRAS systems has already begun - with most initial deployments targeting large commercial and industrial (C & I) customers. An examination of the current overall energy consumption by economic sector shows that the C & I market is responsible for roughly half of all energy consumption in the US. On a per customer basis, large C & I customers clearly have the most to offer - and to gain - by participating in DR programs to reduce peak demand. And, by concentrating on a small number of relatively

  14. Are demand forecasting techniques applicable to libraries?

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, M. S.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the nature and limitations of demand forecasting, discuses plausible methods of forecasting demand for information, suggests some useful hints for demand forecasting and concludes by emphasizing unified approach to demand forecasting.

  15. Multicarrier Modulation Techniques for 5G Communications

    OpenAIRE

    QIANYU JIN

    2018-01-01

    This thesis focuses on multicarrier modulation techniques for 5G wireless communications. We study different properties of current multicarrier modulation techniques and propose methodologies to improve them in order to meet the demands of 5G wireless, e.g., low out-of-band radiation, low latency, relaxed synchronization, and stable performance against phase noise with low complexity over a wireless channel.

  16. Analysis of risks and investments’ opportunities in water sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fjona Zeneli

    2016-01-01

    These opportunities result from the difference between water supply and water demand; an increasingly difference that requires capital investments in production and water treatment technologies. Investments need to be combined with the knowledge on the legislation, regulatory framework and technological developments. This article may serve to clarify type of investments in drinking water sector, known by literature, to identify opportunities of investment in this sector, indicating the theoretical framework of beta and alpha risk ratio coefficient calculation and to suggest how these types of investments can be allocated to the investment portfolios.

  17. Gas and coal competition in the EU power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    According to a new report by CEDIGAZ, the International Centre for Natural Gas Information, gas has lost its attractiveness against coal in the EU power sector. Its demand by the sector decreased by one third during the past three years and its prospects are very weak in this decade. The Association warns that un-profitability of combined cycle gas turbines (CCGTs) and the retirement of old coal plants due to stringent air regulation may lead to the closure of one third of the current fleet and poses a serious security of supply issue that has to be addressed urgently

  18. Residential green power demand in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagher, Leila; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the demand determinants of green power in the U.S. residential sector. The data employed were collected by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and consist of a cross-section of seven utilities observed over 13 years. A series of tests are performed that resulted in estimating a demand equation using the one-way cross-section random effects model. As expected, we find that demand is highly price inelastic. More interestingly though, is that elasticity with respect to number of customers is 0.52 leading to the conclusion that new subscribers tend to purchase less green power on average than the existing customers. Another compelling finding is that obtaining accreditation will have a 28.5% positive impact on consumption. Knowing that gaining green accreditation is important to the success of programs, utilities may want to seek certification and highlight it in their advertising campaigns.

  19. Evaluation of climate change impacts on energy demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taseska, Verica; Markovska, Natasa; Callaway, John M.

    2012-01-01

    change and the energy demand in Macedonia. The analyses are conducted using the MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation)-Macedonia model, with a focus on energy demand in commercial and residential sectors (mainly for heating and cooling). Three different cases are developed: 1) Base Case, which gives the optimal...... electricity production mix, taking into account country’s development plans (without climate change); 2) Climate Change Damage Case, which introduces the climate changes by adjusting the heating and cooling degree days inputs, consistent with the existing national climate scenarios; and 3) Climate Change...... Adaptation Case, in which the optimal electricity generation mix is determined by allowing for endogenous capacity adjustments in the model. This modeling exercise will identify the changes in the energy demand and in electricity generation mix in the Adaptation Case, as well as climate change damages...

  20. Embedded generation for industrial demand response in renewable energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leanez, Frank J.; Drayton, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty in the electrical energy market is expected to increase with growth in the percentage of generation using renewable resources. Demand response can play a key role in giving stability to system operation. This paper discusses the embedded generation for industrial demand response in renewable energy markets. The methodology of the demand response is explained. It consists of long-term optimization and stochastic optimization. Wind energy, among all the renewable resources, is becoming increasingly popular. Volatility in the wind energy sector is high and this is explained using examples. Uncertainty in the wind market is shown using stochastic optimization. Alternative techniques for generation of wind energy were seen to be needed. Embedded generation techniques include co-generation (CHP) and pump storage among others. These techniques are analyzed and the results are presented. From these results, it is seen that investment in renewables is immediately required and that innovative generation technologies are also required over the long-term.

  1. Macroeconomic surroundings of transport and logistics sector in Poland during the global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last quarter of 2009, Poland has entered a phase of economic growth. Presently, despite the emerging financial problems in the EU zone, positive market sig-nals can still be observed in Poland, for example increase in domestic and external de-mand, incoming orders in the industry sector and production capacity in companies. The-se changes enhance growth of production in the industry and construction sectors, which are perceived as key sectors for generating demand for transport services. Therefore the lack of market signals that indicate economic slowdown means that the conditions for transport and logistics sector development in Poland are not expected to deteriorate. The key threat to the stability of economic growth in Poland, and in consequence to transport and logistics companies, is the excess debt of public finance sector.

  2. Simulation of demand (or consumption) of fuel and lubricating oils in countries of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuzelbaev, B.I.; Khisarov, B.D.

    1997-01-01

    Demand on fuel and lubricating oils mixtures is estimated in transport sector of the Asia countries. Model of demand is constructed with help of co-integration structures and error correction model for definition of fuel and lubricating oils mixtures elasticity. Researches have been conducted with use of program complex in operational medium of the Windows-95. Co-integrating vectors for demand on gasoline were defined by all of considered countries (beside Thailand), for demand on diesel fuel - for Indonesia and South Korea

  3. Policy implications of the GRI baseline projection of US energy supply and demand to 2010, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The paper summarizes the 1993 edition of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, and presents the implications of the projection that are important for GRI research and development planning and the gas industry. The survey of supply and demand considerations is followed by a breakdown of energy demand by type of fuel, by consumption sector, and by service application. Gas supply and prices are analyzed in terms of two scenarios: a constrained energy demand scenario, and an optimistic scenario. Tables and charts accompany the summary

  4. NEMS integrating module documentation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-14

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer modeling system that produces a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand in the US energy markets. The model achieves a supply and demand balance in the end-use demand regions, defined as the nine Census Divisions, by solving for the prices of each energy type such that the quantities producers are willing to supply equal the quantities consumers wish to consume. The system reflects market economics, industry structure, and energy policies and regulations that influence market behavior. The NEMS Integrating Module is the central integrating component of a complex modeling system. As such, a thorough understanding of its role in the modeling process can only be achieved by placing it in the proper context with respect to the other modules. To that end, this document provides an overview of the complete NEMS model, and includes brief descriptions of the modules with which the Integrating Module interacts. The emphasis and focus, however, is on the structure and function of the Integrating Module of NEMS.

  5. Model documentation, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System`s (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 1998 (AEO98). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM`s two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS). CMM provides annual forecasts of prices, production, and consumption of coal for NEMS. In general, the CDS integrates the supply inputs from the CPS to satisfy demands for coal from exogenous demand models. The international area of the CDS forecasts annual world coal trade flows from major supply to major demand regions and provides annual forecasts of US coal exports for input to NEMS. Specifically, the CDS receives minemouth prices produced by the CPS, demand and other exogenous inputs from other NEMS components, and provides delivered coal prices and quantities to the NEMS economic sectors and regions.

  6. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  7. SECTORAL SHARES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Naveed, Amjad; Naz, Amber

    2013-01-01

    believe that structural change is an unimportant side effect of the economic development. On the contrary, economists associated with the World Bank and some others posit that growth is brought about by the changes in sectoral composition. The objective of this study is to empirically test...... the relationship between sectoral shares and economic growth by using the panel data for 20 developed countries. The results of the granger causality suggest that both services and agriculture sectors do granger cause economic growth, whereas industrial sector does not granger cause growth. Reverse causality does...... not hold for any of the three sectors. The results of Barro and Non-Barro regressions along with the set of control variables have suggested that services sector is negatively affecting growth, whereas both industrial and agriculture shares are positively affect economic growth....

  8. Evolution of residential electricity demand by end-use in Quebec 1979-1989: A conditional demand analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafrance, G.; Perron, D.

    1994-01-01

    Some of the main conclusions are presented from a temporal analysis of three large-scale electricity demand surveys (1979, 1984, and 1989) for the Quebec residential sector. A regression method called conditional demand analysis was used. The study allows a number of conclusions about certain electricity consumption trends by end-uses from 1979 to 1989 by household type and by vintage category. For example, the results indicate that decreasing electricity consumption between 1979 and 1984 for a typical dwelling equipped with electric space heating was mainly related to a large decline in net heating consumption. Overall, the results suggest that some permanent energy savings have been realized by a typical household equipped with an electric heating system due to improvements in standards and changes in customer behavior. These energy savings were partly offset by increased electricity consumption from the purchase of new appliances and an increase in the demand for hot water. 7 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  9. Russian Сonsumer Sector: Methodology of Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavriil Aleksandrovich Agarkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the methodology for estimating the Russia’s consumer sector and the effect of its application. The monitoring procedure of the Russian consumer sector groups indicators into two units: the unit of the estimation of consumer goods and the services market estimation unit. The estimation unit of consumer goods is composed of two modules: food products and non-food products. This module offers two components that provide an estimation of the consumer sector: marketing (estimates the accessibility of retail trade and services for end users and production (estimates the domestic manufacture. The results of the estimation show general improvements in the consumer sector in the period of 2000–2014, but overall development is evaluated as low. The analysis revealed that the financing is growing faster than the quality indices of development. As an example, the financing of agriculture has increased by 1.5 times over 15 years (against comparable prices from 2000, while agricultural production has not changed. Another most pressing challenge is the weak differentiation of the Russian economy, as evidenced by the low rates of non-food production (availability of non-foods of own production remains at a low level and averages 20 %. The results of the estimation suggest the need to reform the regulation of the sector primarily concerning priorities for its development and improvement of financial and economic mechanisms to achieve them.

  10. Energy saving or privatization? The case of the electric residential sector of Mexico; Ahorro de energia o privatizacion? El caso del sector electrico residencial de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, Rafael [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The validity of the premise that proposes the privatization of the electric sector as a solution to the problem of obtaining enough investment capital for the continuous expansion of the electric sector is examined. It is shown that the growth of the demand foreseen for the residential sector for year 2000, can be totally reduced by introducing technologies economically feasible to increase the efficiency and end uses of the residential electricity. With the efficient use of the electricity, the economical development is allowed for the residential sector, without large increments of the residential electricity demand. [Espanol] Se examina la validez de la premisa que propone la privatizacion del sector electrico como una solucion al problema de conseguir suficientes capitales de inversion para la continua expansion del sector. Se muestra que se puede reducir casi totalmente el crecimiento en la demanda prevista del sector residencial al ano 2000, introduciendo tecnologias economicamente factibles para aumentar la eficiencia en los usos finales de electricidad residencial. Con el uso eficiente de la electricidad, se permite el desarrollo economico del sector residencial sin grandes incrementos en la demanda residencial de electricidad.

  11. Energy saving or privatization? The case of the electric residential sector of Mexico; Ahorro de energia o privatizacion? El caso del sector electrico residencial de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, Rafael [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The validity of the premise that proposes the privatization of the electric sector as a solution to the problem of obtaining enough investment capital for the continuous expansion of the electric sector is examined. It is shown that the growth of the demand foreseen for the residential sector for year 2000, can be totally reduced by introducing technologies economically feasible to increase the efficiency and end uses of the residential electricity. With the efficient use of the electricity, the economical development is allowed for the residential sector, without large increments of the residential electricity demand. [Espanol] Se examina la validez de la premisa que propone la privatizacion del sector electrico como una solucion al problema de conseguir suficientes capitales de inversion para la continua expansion del sector. Se muestra que se puede reducir casi totalmente el crecimiento en la demanda prevista del sector residencial al ano 2000, introduciendo tecnologias economicamente factibles para aumentar la eficiencia en los usos finales de electricidad residencial. Con el uso eficiente de la electricidad, se permite el desarrollo economico del sector residencial sin grandes incrementos en la demanda residencial de electricidad.

  12. Voltage Controlled Dynamic Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Future power system is expected to be characterized by increased penetration of intermittent sources. Random and rapid fluctuations in demands together with intermittency in generation impose new challenges for power balancing in the existing system. Conventional techniques of balancing by large...... central or dispersed generations might not be sufficient for future scenario. One of the effective methods to cope with this scenario is to enable demand response. This paper proposes a dynamic voltage regulation based demand response technique to be applied in low voltage (LV) distribution feeders....... An adaptive dynamic model has been developed to determine composite voltage dependency of an aggregated load on feeder level. Following the demand dispatch or control signal, optimum voltage setting at the LV substation is determined based on the voltage dependency of the load. Furthermore, a new technique...

  13. Temperature Effect on Energy Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Duk [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    We provide various estimates of temperature effect for accommodating seasonality in energy demand, particularly natural gas demand. We exploit temperature response and monthly temperature distribution to estimate the temperature effect on natural gas demand. Both local and global smoothed temperature responses are estimated from empirical relationship between hourly temperature and hourly energy consumption data during the sample period (1990 - 1996). Monthly temperature distribution estimates are obtained by kernel density estimation from temperature dispersion within a month. We integrate temperature response and monthly temperature density over all the temperatures in the sample period to estimate temperature effect on energy demand. Then, estimates of temperature effect are compared between global and local smoothing methods. (author). 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Demand of natural gas; methodology for their projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidad de Planeacion Minero Energetica, UPME

    1999-01-01

    The objective of integrated energetic planning process, is to propose political that assure the full supply of energy in the country, at competitive costs and with a rational use of the resources. Of there that it requires the periodic analysis of the information on the sectors of energy supplies and demand and on their interrelation with the economic, social and environmental environment. Among the variables that should stay upgraded during the planning process, it stands out the energy demand. The fact of to evaluate and to project demands goes to predict the consumer's of energy low uncertain conditions future behavior that it can affect the prospective results, so much in the short term as in the long term. One of the alternatives to face the uncertainty has more than enough future events it consists on building scenarios in those that values different from the variables that are considered with more incidences in the projected results participate. In the case of the energy, the variables that, generally, they are considered determinant, are the economic growth, the prices variation, the technological developments, the substitution among energy, the change of patterns of the population's consumption and the rational use of the energy. The application of the methodology of scenarios allows to settle down, for this case, bands of projection of the energy demand, in global form or for each energy type, specify in each sector and for each use. Once it is had the projection band, it is possible to determine the half growth of long term. The energy planning should respond in immediate form to the scenario changes, through the revision of the state projections. A frequent error, typical of the old sub-sector planning, consists on maintaining, in an irrational way, established growth percentages, when they intend new scenarios of economic growth

  15. Water Use in the US Electric Power Sector: Energy Systems ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation reviews the water demands of long-range electricity scenarios. It addresses questions such as: What are the aggregate water requirements of the U.S. electric power sector? How could water requirements evolve under different long-range regional generation mixes? It also looks at research addressing the electricity generation water demand from a life cycle perspective, such as water use for the fuel cycle (natural gas, coal, uranium, etc.) and water use for the materials/equipment/manufacturing of new power plants. The presentation is part of panel session on the Water-Energy Nexus at the World Energy Engineering Congress

  16. The world energy demand in 2007: How high oil prices impact the global energy demand? June 9, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    How high oil prices impact the global energy demand? The growth of energy demand continued to accelerate in 2007 despite soaring prices, to reach 2,8 % (+ 0,3 point compared to 2006). This evolution results from two diverging trends: a shrink in energy consumption in most of OECD countries, except North America, and a strong increase in emerging countries. Within the OECD, two contrasting trends can be reported, that compensate each other partially: the reduction of energy consumption in Japan (-0.8%) and in Europe (-1.2%), particularly significant in the EU-15 (-1.9%); the increase of energy consumption in North America (+2%). Globally, the OECD overall consumption continued to increase slightly (+0.5%), while electricity increased faster (2,1%) and fuels remained stable. Elsewhere, the strong energy demand growth remained very dynamic (+5% for the total demand, 8% for electricity only), driven by China (+7.3%). The world oil demand increased by 1% only, but the demand has focused even more on captive end usages, transports and petrochemistry. The world gasoline and diesel demand increased by around 5,7% in 2007, and represents 53% of the total oil products demand in 2007 (51% in 2006). If gasoline and diesel consumption remained quasi-stable within OECD countries, the growth has been extremely strong in the emerging countries, despite booming oil prices. There are mainly two factors explaining this evolution where both oil demand and oil prices increased: Weak elasticity-prices to the demand in transport and petrochemistry sectors Disconnection of domestic fuel prices in major emerging countries (China, India, Latin America) compared to world oil market prices Another striking point is that world crude oil and condensate production remained almost stable in 2007, hence the entire demand growth was supported by destocking. During the same period, the OPEC production decreased by 1%, mainly due to the production decrease in Saudi Arabia, that is probably more

  17. Financing the energy sector in developing countries: context and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkerley, Joy.

    1995-01-01

    Traditional 'business as usual' financing methods will no longer be adequate to meet the unprecedented demands for capital to finance energy sector expansion in the developing countries. In recognition, many countries are opening up their power sectors to private investment, initially through the establishment of independent power projects, but in some cases through sector privatization. Project financing has many advantages, but further sectoral reorganization, including tariff reform, will be needed to attract resources on the scale required, especially from domestic investors. In oil and gas, in contrast to power, private capital from the international oil companies has always played a major role in the developing countries. However, sharply increasing investment requirements require a growing role for external finance. There should, in principle, be no shortage of investible funds to finance energy sector expansion in developing countries so long as host countries establish conditions which are attractive to private investors. The augmented role of private finance requires a continuing, if different, role for the public sector in both host countries and official aid agencies. (author)

  18. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  19. Television Advertising and Soda Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Rigoberto A.; Liu, Yizao; Zhu, Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of television advertising on consumer demand for carbonated soft drinks using a random coefficients logit model (BLP) with household and advertising data from seven U.S. cities over a three year period. We find that advertising decreases the price elasticity of demand, indicating that advertising plays predominantly a persuasive, therefore anti-competitive role in this market. Further results show that brand spillover effects are significant and that measuring ...

  20. Balancing supply and demand resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, J.; Saleeby, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    This article deals with using demand-side management (DSM) resources as an effective means of balancing supply and demand as a part of least-cost planning. The authors present a more sophisticated application of the load forecast adjustment method that reduces the number of DSM programs that need to be evaluated and provides blocks large enough to eliminate resolution problems in production costing models