WorldWideScience

Sample records for sector aid coordination

  1. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i......) significant and positive in the tradable and the nontradable sectors, and (ii) equally strong in both sectors. The article thus provides no empirical support for the hypothesis that aid reduces external competitiveness in developing countries. A possible reason for this finding is the existence of large idle...

  2. Aid and Sectoral Labour Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth of labour productivity. A sectoral decomposition shows...

  3. The organized sector mobilizes against AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra-kerpelman, K

    1995-01-01

    Representatives of English speaking African countries attended the International Labor Organization Tripartite Workshop on the Role of the Organized Sector in Reproductive Health and the Prevention of AIDS held in Uganda. AIDS has robbed these countries of lawyers, physicians, teachers, managers, and other skilled professionals, all of whom are difficult to replace. HIV/AIDS mainly affects persons in their most productive years (20-40 years) and in the higher socioeconomic groups. Professionals with AIDS become ill and die at a faster rate than their replacements can be trained. The young, less experienced work force translates into an increase in breakdowns, accidents, delays, and misjudgments. International and national efforts to control HIV/AIDS have not stopped the spread of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). More than 8 million persons in SSA are HIV infected. 1.5 million in Uganda are HIV infected. As of October 1994, 30,000 persons in Zambia and 33,000 in Zimbabwe had AIDS. These numbers are just the tip of the iceberg due to underreporting. HIV/AIDS increases absenteeism among infected and healthy workers alike. It burdens the already existing scarce health care resources and equipment (e.g., in 1992, AIDS cases occupied 70% of hospital beds in Kigali, Rwanda). Unions, workers, and families must share knowledge about safer sex. The Zimbabwe Confederation of Trade Unions has had an HIV/AIDS education program since 1992. The Zambia Congress of Trade Unions strongly supports government efforts to sensitize the labor force and society to the effects of HIV/AIDS. The Federation of Uganda Employers has reached about 150,000 workers and more than 200 top executives through its AIDS prevention activities. Some company programs provide medical facilities for employees and their families. The Ubombo Ranches, Ltd. in Swaziland, a producer and processor of sugar cane, has a training-of-trainers program on HIV/AIDS and family planning for all village health workers and

  4. HIV / AIDS and the retail sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, K

    1999-01-01

    Employing approximately 1.5 million employees and comprised of 80,000 employers, the retail and wholesale sector accounted for 16.1% of South Africa's gross domestic product in 1996. HIV/AIDS threatens the retail sector, but it is unclear whether the pandemic threatens equally every sub-sector of the industry. The 4 main sub-sectors are fast-moving consumer goods; clothing, footwear, and textiles; vehicles; and furniture and major appliances. The nature of retail infrastructure and competitive and economic trends are described. Over the next decade, AIDS may reduce the size of consumer markets through increased mortality, and will certainly slow growth in spending. The pandemic may also divert spending away from retail merchandise to health care, and threaten businesses which extend credit and offer death benefits and funeral policies to clients. AIDS morbidity and mortality could also disrupt supply chains, especially for retailers who buy their products locally. The vulnerability of retail activities is discussed, with reference to the Living Standards Measure (LSM) developed by the South African Advertising Research Foundation.

  5. Aid Allocation across Sectors: Does aid fit well with recipients' development priorities?

    OpenAIRE

    KASUGA Hidefumi

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates whether aid flows to developing countries fit well with their development priorities. In particular, we examine aid allocation across sectors in a given recipient country by using sectoral data on aid and indicators that measure the recipient's need for aid in each sector. The data show that inter-recipient aid allocation reflects the recipient's need. However, we found no evidence that inter-sectoral allocation fits with national priorities except in high- and middle-...

  6. Informal sector shops and AIDS prevention An exploratory social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Informal sector shops and AIDS prevention An exploratory social marketing ... The existence of a variety of media and interpersonal information sources on the ... shops should be further investigated as avenues for AIDS prevention efforts.

  7. Health Sector Coordination in Disasters: Barriers & Facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadkarim Bahadori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coordination is a critical factor in successful organization and appropriate response to disasters. In this regard, a centralized coordination mechanism is the first step towards an effective, efficient, and sustainable response in order to be ensured of the short- and long-term recovery. Thus, this study aimed to identify and prioritize the barriers and facilitators of coordination in disasters. Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive and cross-sectional study, conducted in 2016. The participants comprised 22 experts in field of disaster. Data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire according to the analytical hierarchy process approach. For data analysis, we used Expert Choice software. Results: Based on the results, “dominance of organizational approach instead of national points of view when addressing the health management during disasters,” took the first priority rank, earning the score of 0.344 among the barriers. Furthermore, among the facilitators, “having a processive and organizational view in health management during disasters,” took the first priority rank, earning the score of 0.374. Conclusion: To increase the effective coordination in health area, we should develop infrastructure and structural measures, which include bolstering authorities’ belief about the health system’s role in the response to disasters, reinforcing the national approach rather than organizational approach in the field of health at disasters, implementing the coordination requirements, attending sufficiently and specifically to public participation, reducing the organizational friction in the health field for sharing resources and information, raising the level of readiness with a focus on people and training programs, and finally creating an evolutionary process in the health field at disasters.

  8. Informal sector shops and AIDS prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-20

    Apr 20, 1991 ... marketing goals go beyond information transfer and focus on behaviour .... thought their shop could do to help to inform the people in their area about AIDS. ..... history of residents of the shack area of Khayelitsha. Occasional ...

  9. Aid effectiveness in the Education Sector: A Dynamic Panel Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Michaelowa, Katharina; Weber, Anke

    2007-01-01

    Applying the general question of aid effectiveness to the sector of education, this paper provides some evidence for a positive effect of development assistance on primary enrolment and completion. However, even the most optimistic estimates clearly show that at any realistic rate of growth, aid will never be able to move the world markedly closer towards the internationally agreed objective of “Education For All”. Universal primary education requires increased efficiency of educational spend...

  10. The HIV/AIDS philanthropy sector: towards harmonization of resource tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.C.; Beekink, E.

    2008-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS philanthropic sector, which supports programmes in developing countries, is diverse. Grant making organizations include foundations, public charities and the corporate sector. Foundations include private, family and community foundations. The meaning of the term foundation varies

  11. Care co-ordination for older people in the third sector: scoping the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abendstern, Michele; Hughes, Jane; Jasper, Rowan; Sutcliffe, Caroline; Challis, David

    2018-05-01

    The third sector has played a significant role internationally in the delivery of adult social care services for many years. Its contribution to care co-ordination activities for older people, however, in England and elsewhere, is relatively unknown. A scoping review was therefore conducted to ascertain the character of the literature, the nature and extent of third sector care co-ordination activity, and to identify evidence gaps. It was undertaken between autumn 2013 and summer 2014 and updated with additional searches in 2016. Electronic and manual searches of international literature using distinct terms for different approaches to care co-ordination were undertaken. From a total of 835 papers, 26 met inclusion criteria. Data were organised in relation to care co-ordination approaches, types of third sector organisation and care recipients. Papers were predominantly from the UK and published this century. Key findings included that: a minority of literature focused specifically on older people and that those doing so described only one care co-ordination approach; third sector services tended to be associated with independence and person-centred practice; and working with the statutory sector, a prerequisite of care co-ordination, was challenging and required a range of features to be in place to support effective partnerships. Strengths and weaknesses of care co-ordination practice in the third sector according to key stakeholder groups were also highlighted. Areas for future research included the need for: a specific focus on older people's experiences; an investigation of workforce issues; detailed examination of third sector practices, outcomes and costs; interactions with the statutory sector; and an examination of quality assurance systems and their appropriateness to third sector practice. The main implication of the findings is a need to nurture variety within the third sector in order to provide older people and other adults with the range of service

  12. Coordination and health sector adaptation to climate change in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gilfillan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the impact of three coordination dimensions on health sector adaptation to climate change in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta: cross-scale, cross-sectoral, and cross-boundary. While tasks are divided up between government ministries and departments in Vietnam, there is little collaboration on issues that span mandates. Similarly, while water flows in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta take resource management and health concerns across provincial boundaries, formal mechanisms for interprovincial collaboration are lacking. While decentralization efforts have sought to devolve authority and decision making to lower levels, there is continued state-centered top-down policy making, and this limits collaborative coordination across scales. All three of these issues inhibit health sector adaptation to climate change in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta, and though these coordination issues are recognized by the Vietnamese government, to date there has been little success in addressing them. The authors hope to stimulate further debate and discussion of coordination problems, and conclude that despite some significant challenges, the South West Steering Committee could play a facilitating role coordinating climate change responses in health and other sectors across the Vietnamese Mekong Delta. As an analysis of governance, this research is applicable to other areas and sectors in Vietnam, as well as to other parts of South East Asia.

  13. Coordination Incentives, Performance Measurement and Resource Allocation in Public Sector Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrichson, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Why are coordination problems common when public sector organizations share responsibilities, and what can be done to mitigate such problems? This paper uses a multi-task principal-agent model to examine two related reasons: the incentives to coordinate resource allocation and the difficulties of measuring performance. The analysis shows that when targets are set individually for each organization, the resulting incentives normally induce inefficient resource allocations. If the principal imp...

  14. An Evolutionary Game Theoretic Approach to Multi-Sector Coordination and Self-Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando P. Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Coordination games provide ubiquitous interaction paradigms to frame human behavioral features, such as information transmission, conventions and languages as well as socio-economic processes and institutions. By using a dynamical approach, such as Evolutionary Game Theory (EGT, one is able to follow, in detail, the self-organization process by which a population of individuals coordinates into a given behavior. Real socio-economic scenarios, however, often involve the interaction between multiple co-evolving sectors, with specific options of their own, that call for generalized and more sophisticated mathematical frameworks. In this paper, we explore a general EGT approach to deal with coordination dynamics in which individuals from multiple sectors interact. Starting from a two-sector, consumer/producer scenario, we investigate the effects of including a third co-evolving sector that we call public. We explore the changes in the self-organization process of all sectors, given the feedback that this new sector imparts on the other two.

  15. Coordination Incentives, Performance Measurement and Resource Allocation in Public Sector Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens

    Why are coordination problems common when public sector organizations share responsibilities, and what can be done to mitigate such problems? This paper uses a multi-task principal-agent model to examine two related reasons: the incentives to coordinate resource allocation and the difficulties...... of measuring performance. The analysis shows that when targets are set individually for each organization, the resulting incentives normally induce inefficient resource allocations. If the principal impose shared targets, this may improve the incentives to coordinate but the success of this instrument depends...

  16. Enhancing Aid Effectiveness in Education through a Sector-Wide Approach in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Since 2001 the government of Cambodia has striven to advance policy-led education reform based on a sector-wide approach. This paper critically reviews the status and progress of Cambodia's education reform from the perspective of the aid's effectiveness. The paper looks at the performance of the sector reform in the three priority areas…

  17. Coordination in the upstream supply chain of the Dutch railway sector : a research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlicher, L.P.J.; Slikker, M.; van Houtum, G.J.J.A.N.; Pombo, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a research agenda which identifies three research directions for the upstream supply chain of the Dutch railway sector. The first research direction focusses on coordination of spare parts with criticality differences and related allocations of potential cost savings

  18. Institutional Design, Macroeconomic Policy Coordination and Implications for the Financial Sector in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Muhammad Ali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study has analysed the implications of institutional design of macroeconomic policy making institutions for the macroeconomic policy interaction and financial sector in the United Kingdom. Employing a Vector Error Correction (VEC model and using monthly data from January 1985 to August 2008 we found that the changes in institutional arrangement and design of policy making authorities appeared to be a major contributing factor in dynamics of association between policy coordination/combination and financial sector. It was also found that the independence of the Bank of England (BoE and withdrawal from the Exchange Rate Mechanism led to the increase in macroeconomic policy maker’s ability to coordinate and restore financial stability. The results imply that although institutional autonomy in the form of instrument independence (monetary policy decisions could bring financial stability, there is a strong necessity for coordination, even in Post-MPC (Monetary Policy Committee and the BoE independence.

  19. Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, E S; Watts-Perotti, J; Woods, D D

    1999-01-01

    Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.

  20. Co-location as a Driver for Cross-Sectoral Collaboration with General Practitioners as Coordinators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Christian Elling; Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    The issue of integrated care and inter-sectoral collaboration is on the health policy agenda in many countries. Yet, there is limited knowledge about the effects of the different policy instruments used to achieve this. This paper studies co-location as a driver for cross-sectoral collaboration...... with general practitioners (GPs) acting as coordinators in a municipal health centre. The purpose of the health centre, which is staffed by health professionals from municipal, regional and private sectors, is to provide primary health services to the citizens of the municipality. Co......-locating these professionals is supposed to benefit e.g., elder citizens and patients with chronic diseases who frequently require services from health professionals across administrative sectors. Methodologically, the analysis is based on qualitative data in the form of semi-structured interviews with the health...

  1. [Peculiarities and aims of first aid training in the road haulage sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, G L; Bruno, Santina; Feola, M; Zanelli, R; Corino, P

    2008-01-01

    Four years after the law concerning first aid in the workplace was passed in Italy (inter-ministerial decree 388/2003), which is a useful tool in improving safety at work, it is necessary to organize first aid courses specifically for those working in the road haulage sector which would also be effective in case of traffic accidents. In view of the characteristics of the working environment in this sector (the road) and of the working conditions (generally workers are isolated and far from the company's headquarters), it would be necessary to organize ad hoc first aid courses at the workplace for the category of professional drivers. The aim of this article is to discuss some possible organizational aspects of first aid in the road haulage sector, such as: number of workers responsible for first aid, how to train workers for specific risks of traffic accidents, the requirements for teachers responsible for first aid and course targets that must be achieved. A good level of training, achieved during the first aid course at the workplace, might therefore be useful to improve road safety and increase the quality of basic and advanced first aid in road traffic injuries.

  2. Aid Effectiveness, Transaction Costs and Conditionality in the Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Richard; Biswas, Shampa

    2010-01-01

    The reduction of transaction costs is a commonly mentioned yet rarely elaborated goal for aid effectiveness in educational development. The casual use of the concept of transaction costs conceals which costs may be reduced, which costs are required and, indeed, what transaction costs actually are. Examining issues related to harmonizing the…

  3. Foreign Aid to Nigeria and Domestic Obstacles: A Review of Anambra State Education Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma E.O Chukwuemeka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of foreign aid on the development of different sectors of the Nigerian economy. Particular emphasis was laid on the educational sector of Anambra State. Survey research method was adopted. Data collected were analyzed using Chi-square parametric statistics. Many factors were found to militate against the effectiveness of foreign aid in achieving development. Among the factors were corruption, poor policies and institutional framework as well as poor utilization of development fund. Based on the findings, recommendations were made. These include the need for the establishment of a sound institutional framework and infrastructural facilities; also there is the need for a reform of the educational sector of Anambra state as well as all sectors of the Nigerian economy.

  4. Cross-sectoral coordination for sustainable solutions in Croatia: The (meta) governance of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopoulos, Stamatios; Demir, Cansu; Kull, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the energy efficiency not only requires the improvement of current technologies, but also advancement of and more coherent institutional governance. This paper captures the major structural and organisational elements of institutional governance in place for promoting energy efficiency. Looking at Croatia – one of the most successful cases of energy efficiency programming of the past decade – the paper zooms in on governance coordination (metagovernance) between actors from different sectors and operating at multiple levels. By showcasing the positive implications of the programme, the authors contribute to the debate concerned with identifying better institutional frameworks to attain sustainable development. The programme showed effective governance through vertical and horizontal coordination among institutions and stakeholders resulting in simultaneous social and economic development and improved energy efficiency in public buildings. Through the case of Croatia, this study identifies how metagovernance has supported coordination among actors aiming to create sustainable development in general and how metagovernance functions in energy efficiency related projects, in particular. The paper also sheds light on communication frameworks of governance coordination and institutional constraints lying at the heart of the vagueness of sustainable development. It also discusses private sector involvement to achieve better institutional framework to attain sustainable development. - Highlights: • This study identified how metagovernance has supported coordination among actors. • State played a key role in the coordination by acting as a catalyst. • UNDP acted as a mediator between government and society for capacity building. • Public authorities are less likely to continue activities without external support. • Private sector’s knowledge and resources are crucial to support project objectives.

  5. The sanitary officer: first aid coordinator on EDF nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, A.

    2000-01-01

    The internal organisation for first aid to the injured in case of an accident on E.D.F. nuclear power plant calls for the immediate assistance of a first aid team, consisting of five workers, under the direction of a principal first aid officer; one of the first aid workers, the sanitary officer who instructs the first aid workers intervention awaiting the arrival of an external medical. When the 'Sanitary on-site Emergency Plan' was up' dated, twenty medical doctors and seventy members of staff from five different sites were questioned as to the function of the sanitary officer. The conclusions revealed a notable difference of training amongst the different sites, and concerning first aid organisation, difference of priority of actions, extent of their participation once the medical team arrives and their participation in case of decontamination treatment. The medical doctors and staff lay a particular stress on importance of defining on a national scale the limits of role and responsibilities of the sanitary officer and establish a more specific training in this field, consequently motivating commitment and professionalism involvement. There is a great difference between the training and coaching of the first aid assistance and fire protection teams. To conclude, we propose that the first aid officer be known as first aid coordinator and the qualification of 'Certificat de Formation aux Premiers Secours en Equipe' in compliance with the current legislation together with a specific nuclear module and they should undergo regular on-site drills. (author)

  6. Shifting the burden: the private sector's response to the AIDS epidemic in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon L.

    2003-01-01

    As the economic burden of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) increases in sub-Saharan Africa, allocation of the burden among levels and sectors of society is changing. The private sector has more scope to avoid the economic burden of AIDS than governments, households, or nongovernmental organizations, and the burden is being systematically shifted away from the private sector. Common practices that transfer the burden to households and government include pre-employment screening, reductions in employee benefits, restructured employment contracts, outsourcing of low skilled jobs, selective retrenchments, and changes in production technologies. Between 1997 and 1999 more than two-thirds of large South African employers reduced the level of health care benefits or increased employee contributions. Most firms also have replaced defined-benefit retirement funds, which expose the firm to large annual costs but provide long-term support for families, with defined-contribution funds, which eliminate risks to the firm but provide little for families of younger workers who die of AIDS. Contracting out previously permanent jobs is also shielding firms from benefit and turnover costs, effectively shifting the responsibility to care for affected workers and their families to households, nongovernmental organizations, and the government. Many of these changes are responses to globalization that would have occurred in the absence of AIDS, but they are devastating for the households of employees with HIV/AIDS. We argue that the shift in the economic burden of AIDS is a predictable response by business to which a deliberate public policy response is needed. Countries should make explicit decisions about each sector's responsibilities if a socially desirable allocation is to be achieved. PMID:12751421

  7. Shifting the burden: the private sector's response to the AIDS epidemic in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon L

    2003-01-01

    As the economic burden of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) increases in sub-Saharan Africa, allocation of the burden among levels and sectors of society is changing. The private sector has more scope to avoid the economic burden of AIDS than governments, households, or nongovernmental organizations, and the burden is being systematically shifted away from the private sector. Common practices that transfer the burden to households and government include pre-employment screening, reductions in employee benefits, restructured employment contracts, outsourcing of low skilled jobs, selective retrenchments, and changes in production technologies. Between 1997 and 1999 more than two-thirds of large South African employers reduced the level of health care benefits or increased employee contributions. Most firms also have replaced defined-benefit retirement funds, which expose the firm to large annual costs but provide long-term support for families, with defined-contribution funds, which eliminate risks to the firm but provide little for families of younger workers who die of AIDS. Contracting out previously permanent jobs is also shielding firms from benefit and turnover costs, effectively shifting the responsibility to care for affected workers and their families to households, nongovernmental organizations, and the government. Many of these changes are responses to globalization that would have occurred in the absence of AIDS, but they are devastating for the households of employees with HIV/AIDS. We argue that the shift in the economic burden of AIDS is a predictable response by business to which a deliberate public policy response is needed. Countries should make explicit decisions about each sector's responsibilities if a socially desirable allocation is to be achieved.

  8. The economic impact of HIV/AIDS on the education sector in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassly, Nicholas C; Desai, Kamal; Pegurri, Elisabetta; Sikazwe, Alfred; Malambo, Irene; Siamatowe, Clement; Bundy, Don

    2003-05-02

    To estimate and project the economic impact of HIV/AIDS on the supply of education in Zambia. An analysis of the financial implications of HIV/AIDS for the Ministry of Education (MoE) and donors funding education in Zambia. A mathematical model was used to project the number of primary school teachers and their HIV status under current plans for teacher training and recruitment. Cost data were compiled from the MoE, the Teacher Education Department, teacher training colleges and the donor consortium BESSIP (Basic Education Sub-Sector Investment Programme). Multivariate sensitivity analyses were performed. The impact of HIV/AIDS on the supply of primary education imply costs to the MoE and BESSIP estimated at US$1.3-3.1 million in 1999, and projected at $10.6-41.3 million over the period 1999-2010. These costs include salaries paid to teachers absent as a result of HIV-associated illness (71%), additional training of teachers to cope with AIDS-related attrition (22%) and funeral costs contractually met by the MoE (7%). They do not include the additional costs of an active care and prevention response by the MoE, or the burden of ensuring enrolment of AIDS orphans. The annual cost of HIV/AIDS is a relatively small fraction of the overall MoE budget (2.5% in 1999) but has substantial implications for resource allocation to some functions. Expenditure on teacher training will need to increase by 26% if Education for All targets are to be met in the face of AIDS. HIV/AIDS has significant implications for resource allocation in the education sector in Zambia.

  9. Ebola Preparedness in the Netherlands: The Need for Coordination Between the Public Health and the Curative Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaan, Corien M; Öry, Alexander V; Schol, Lianne G C; Jacobi, André; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Timen, Aura

    During the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2015, close cooperation between the curative sector and the public health sector in the Netherlands was necessary for timely identification, referral, and investigation of patients with suspected Ebola virus disease (EVD). In this study, we evaluated experiences in preparedness among stakeholders of both curative and public health sectors to formulate recommendations for optimizing preparedness protocols. Timeliness of referred patients with suspected EVD was used as indicator for preparedness. In focus group sessions and semistructured interviews, experiences of curative and public health stakeholders about the regional and national process of preparedness and response were listed. Timeliness recordings of all referred patients with suspected EVD (13) were collected from first date of illness until arrival in the referral academic hospital. Ebola preparedness was considered extensive compared with the risk of an actual patient, however necessary. Regional coordination varied between regions. More standardization of regional preparation and operational guidelines was requested, as well as nationally standardized contingency criteria, and the National Centre for Infectious Disease Control was expected to coordinate the development of these guidelines. For the timeliness of referred patients with suspected EVD, the median delay between first date of illness until triage was 2.0 days (range: 0-10 days), and between triage and arrival in the referral hospital, it was 5.0 hours (range: 2-7.5 hours). In none of these patients Ebola infection was confirmed. Coordination between the public health sector and the curative sector needs improvement to reduce delay in patient management in emerging infectious diseases. Standardization of preparedness and response practices, through guidelines for institutional preparedness and blueprints for regional and national coordination, is necessary, as preparedness for emerging infectious

  10. The use of fuzzy logic in coordinating investment projects in the public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Benčina

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Politics and the professions often have different standpoints on development planning and investment decisions in the public sector. Opposing views, lack of understanding and an inability to accept compromises in the planning and execution of investments frequently cause deviations which ultimately reveal themselves in negativeeconomic consequences. Effective and successful planning and execution of investments in the public sector is one of the key development tasks in a state or local community. For this reason we have undertaken a detailed investigation of the issue with the goal of devising a tool in the form of a model of a system for supportin decision making. In order to make it easier for appraisers and decision makers to express their opinions in a natural and individual manner, we have introduced an appraisal with linguistic values through the use of fuzzy logic. The purpose of this article is to present the characteristics and structure of the fuzzy model for coordinating opinions, and the progress and results of its use in the case of two Slovenian municipalities.

  11. National and subnational HIV/AIDS coordination: are global health initiatives closing the gap between intent and practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukhadze Natia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A coordinated response to HIV/AIDS remains one of the 'grand challenges' facing policymakers today. Global health initiatives (GHIs have the potential both to facilitate and exacerbate coordination at the national and subnational level. Evidence of the effects of GHIs on coordination is beginning to emerge but has hitherto been limited to single-country studies and broad-brush reviews. To date, no study has provided a focused synthesis of the effects of GHIs on national and subnational health systems across multiple countries. To address this deficit, we review primary data from seven country studies on the effects of three GHIs on coordination of HIV/AIDS programmes: the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR, and the World Bank's HIV/AIDS programmes including the Multi-country AIDS Programme (MAP. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted at national and subnational levels (179 and 218 respectively in seven countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and South America, between 2006 and 2008. Studies explored the development and functioning of national and subnational HIV coordination structures, and the extent to which coordination efforts around HIV/AIDS are aligned with and strengthen country health systems. Results Positive effects of GHIs included the creation of opportunities for multisectoral participation, greater political commitment and increased transparency among most partners. However, the quality of participation was often limited, and some GHIs bypassed coordination mechanisms, especially at the subnational level, weakening their effectiveness. Conclusions The paper identifies residual national and subnational obstacles to effective coordination and optimal use of funds by focal GHIs, which these GHIs, other donors and country partners need to collectively address.

  12. Foreign Aid and Security Sector Reform in Latin America: mapping donors and recipient countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maura Tomesani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: this article is part of a PhD thesis interested in confronting the demands of Latin American law enforcement institutions with programs in the security sector reform fostered by foreign agencies for international assistance on the continent. The guiding hypothesis of this study is that programs of international aid focused on the security sector reform in Latin America overlook law enforcement demands for institutional strengthening. I suggest that the international offering in this area follows a regional agenda, which is basically preventive and is very resistant to work with law enforcement organizations. Part of the work is mapping donor and recipient countries for analyzing programs implemented in Latin American countries. This article presents the literature review for this investigation and the first results of our empiric research.

  13. Is the Water Sector Lagging behind Education and Health on Aid Effectiveness? Lessons from Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Welle

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A study in three countries (Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Uganda assessed progress against the Paris Principles for Aid Effectiveness (AE in three sectors – water, health and education – to test the assumption that the water sector is lagging behind. The findings show that it is too simplistic to say that the water sector is lagging, although this may well be the case in some countries. The study found that wider governance issues are more important for AE than having in place sector-specific mechanics such as Sector-Wide Approaches alone. National political leadership and governance are central drivers of sector AE, while national financial and procurement systems and the behaviour of actors who have not signed up to the Paris Principles – at both national and global levels – have implications for progress that cut across sectors. Sectors and sub-sectors do nonetheless have distinct features that must be considered in attempting to improve sector-level AE. In light of these findings, using political economy approaches to better understand and address governance and strengthening sector-level monitoring is recommended as part of efforts to improve AE and development results in the water sector.

  14. A multi-criteria vertical coordination framework for a reliable aid distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regis-Hernández, Fabiola; Mora-Vargas, Jaime; Ruíz, Angel

    2017-01-01

    This study proposes a methodology that translates multiple humanitarian supply chain stakeholders’ preferences from qualitative to quantitative values, enabling these preferences to be integrated into optimization models to ensure their balanced and simultaneous implementation during the decision-making process. Design/methodology/approach: An extensive literature review is used to justify the importance of developing a strategy that minimizes the impact of a lack of coordination on humanitarian logistics decisions. A methodology for a multi-criteria framework is presented that allows humanitarian stakeholders’ interests to be integrated into the humanitarian decision-making process. Findings: The findings suggest that integrating stakeholders’ interests into the humanitarian decision-making process will improve its reliability. Research limitations/implications: To further validate the weights of each stakeholder’s interests obtained from the literature review requires interviews with the corresponding organizations. However, the literature review supports the statements in this paper. Practical implications: The cost of a lack of coordination between stakeholders in humanitarian logistics has been increasing during the last decade. These coordination costs can be minimized if humanitarian logistics’ decision-makers measure and simultaneously consider multiple stakeholders’ preferences. Social implications: When stakeholders’ goals are aligned, the humanitarian logistics response becomes more efficient, increasing the quality of delivered aid and providing timely assistance to the affected population in order to minimize their suffering. This study provides a methodology that translates humanitarian supply chain stakeholders’ interests into quantitative values, enabling them to be integrated into mathematical models to ensure relief distribution based on the stakeholders’ preferences

  15. A multi-criteria vertical coordination framework for a reliable aid distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regis-Hernández, Fabiola; Mora-Vargas, Jaime; Ruíz, Angel

    2017-07-01

    This study proposes a methodology that translates multiple humanitarian supply chain stakeholders’ preferences from qualitative to quantitative values, enabling these preferences to be integrated into optimization models to ensure their balanced and simultaneous implementation during the decision-making process. Design/methodology/approach: An extensive literature review is used to justify the importance of developing a strategy that minimizes the impact of a lack of coordination on humanitarian logistics decisions. A methodology for a multi-criteria framework is presented that allows humanitarian stakeholders’ interests to be integrated into the humanitarian decision-making process. Findings: The findings suggest that integrating stakeholders’ interests into the humanitarian decision-making process will improve its reliability. Research limitations/implications: To further validate the weights of each stakeholder’s interests obtained from the literature review requires interviews with the corresponding organizations. However, the literature review supports the statements in this paper. Practical implications: The cost of a lack of coordination between stakeholders in humanitarian logistics has been increasing during the last decade. These coordination costs can be minimized if humanitarian logistics’ decision-makers measure and simultaneously consider multiple stakeholders’ preferences. Social implications: When stakeholders’ goals are aligned, the humanitarian logistics response becomes more efficient, increasing the quality of delivered aid and providing timely assistance to the affected population in order to minimize their suffering. This study provides a methodology that translates humanitarian supply chain stakeholders’ interests into quantitative values, enabling them to be integrated into mathematical models to ensure relief distribution based on the stakeholders’ preferences.

  16. [Facing the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Mexico: the response of the health sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; López-Zaragoza, José Luis; Valencia-Mendoza, Atanacio; Pesqueira, Eduardo; Ponce-de-León, Samuel; Bertozzi, Stefano M

    2004-01-01

    To analyze the challenges and accomplishments of the Mexican health system as it faced the HIV/AIDS epidemic over the 20 years since discovery of the virus. A review of the relevant literature was done. The topics revised were: HIV/AIDS epidemiology, the early response of the health system and civil society, prevention and risk behaviors, care and treatment, and financing and resources allocation. In Mexico a rapid initial public response surely contributed to containing any early spread of the epidemic to select populations; whether that spread will continue to be contained is an open question. Sexual risk practices remain high not only among traditional risk populations but also among youth. Even though the epidemic remains concentrated in Mexico, principally among MSM and IDU, only 13% of public HIV prevention funds are directed to key populations at especially high risk of becoming infected or infecting others. In recent years antiretroviral coverage has increased rapidly with funding increasing from 30 to 367 million pesos from 2001 to 2003 and coverage now approaching 100%. Of all health spending on HIV/AIDS in the public sector, 82.4% is spent by the social security institutes and 17.6% by the Ministry of Health. The former provides medical care to about half of PLHA while the latter, in addition to caring for the other half, supports the large majority of prevention expenses. One of the challenges faced by the health system which has largely achieved universal antiretroviral coverage is how to provide quality care with appropriate monitoring, promotion of adherence and recognition and treatment of resistance and adverse effects--without dramatically increasing costs.

  17. South Africa’s private sector investment in training and its erosion as a result of HIV and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin George

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s economic prospects depend on the productivity of its labour, and productivity can only be maximised when the labour force possess the appropriate skills. Business is playing its part by offering training opportunities to employees. Collectively, they are spending more than the government’s mandated level on training. However, the HIV and AIDS epidemic is eroding this investment in southern Africa where the HIV epidemic is at its worst. While there has been empirical work that provides estimates on the cost of HIV and AIDS to business, there is very little data on the actual amounts large companies spend on training, and how much of this investment is eroded as a result of HIV and AIDS deaths. Using an estimate of the HIV and AIDS death rate in the private sector and survey data which identifies training expenditure by sector, the authors estimate the extent to which HIV and AIDS has potentially eroded this investment. The loss for all sectors was estimated at almost R10 million (R9,871,732 during the study year, which equates to USD1,183,661 per annum. This amount represented on average 0.73 per cent of the actual investment in training. The real costs of HIV and AIDS on business, which includes absenteeism, declining productivity and other costs are difficult to quantify, but they are likely to significantly exceed this lost training investment as a result of increasing morbidity and mortality rates due to HIV. It is therefore in a company’s best interest to: (1 ensure that a sound HIV and AIDS policy is in place; (2 invest in effective prevention programmes; and (3 provide the appropriate ARV treatment to infected employees if this treatment is not easily accessible through the public health sector.

  18. The comparison and coordination of national policies and programmes in the energy research and development sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Inventory of programmes and expenditures in the field of energy research and development, which are financed from the public sector funds of the Member States and of the European Communities (1974-1976)

  19. Impact of HIV/AIDS to the tourism sector human resources: Case of selected hotels in Harare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengeni, D.M.F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the impacts of HIV/AIDS on human resources in the tourism sector in Zimbabwe’s capital city, Harare. Harare Hotels were used as a case study establishing how HIV/AIDS affects the workforce in the tourism sector and the consequent effects on service delivery. Visitors’ inflows into Zimbabwe have declined since the year 2000. To understand the reasons and related aspects, data was collected by way of questionnaires which were administered to 9 human resources managers and 9 marketing managers from hotels in Harare during the period of 2008 and 2009. These questionnaires were individually distributed and collected which resulted in 100% return rate. Human resources managers were used because they are involved directly with the social welfare of employees and marketing managers were used because they work in customer care and analyse service delivery. The findings of the study were that HIV/AIDS impact negatively to the hotel sector through deaths of skilled members. This was said to consequently leading to the reduction in service delivery and inconsistence in service delivery. Besides losing skilled members through death it was also discovered that the hotels were now moving HIV/AIDS effected victims to the back of the house to minimise their contact with guests. It was also discovered that hotels were using lot of funds to implement mitigation measures.

  20. 75 FR 4409 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part D-Coordinated HIV Services and Access to Research for Women...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... HIV/AIDS Program Part D--Coordinated HIV Services and Access to Research for Women, Infants, Children... Orange County Health Department, Orlando, Florida, that will ensure continuity of Part D HIV/AIDS care and treatment services without disruption to HIV/ AIDS-infected women, infants and children in Orange...

  1. The "aid contract" and its compensation scheme: a case study of the performance of the Ugandan health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Cruz, Valeria; McPake, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Current literature on aid effectiveness describes increasing use of a more contractual approach to the relationship between donor and recipient government in which a system of rewards and penalties for good and bad performance operates. The purpose of this case study of the Ugandan health sector was to understand the extent to which this approach is influencing processes and effectiveness. This qualitative study used a conceptual framework based on agency theory and 'realistic evaluation'. Our results showed that the main official mechanism to assess and reward performance established through the Sector Wide Approach lacked objective criteria and was based on an unstructured system of discussions and agreements among donors. The achievement of a satisfactory performance rating was facilitated by the agreeing to undertakings that were under-demanding, vaguely formulated and lacking quantitative benchmarks against which progress could be measured. However, even when poor performance was readily observable, penalties failed to be applied by donors. This was always the case in relation to health sector performance and mostly so in relation to general governance and accountability. Funds continued to be disbursed despite the lack of progress made in achieving targets and undertakings and other evident performance problems (e.g. in the area of governance). A series of explanations of the failure to penalise were put forward by donor representatives in relation to this behaviour including the need to maintain long-term relationships based on trust and not to undermine health sector performance by withdrawing aid. Thus there are likely to be incentives to disburse funds and report success, irrespective of the realities of aid programmes in the context of large foreign aid volumes associated with increased political visibility of aid in donor countries.

  2. How the transport sector drives HIV / AIDS and how HIV/ AIDS drives transport. Economic impact: Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, A

    1998-04-01

    A close connection exists between mobility and the spread of HIV infection. Being away from home and traditional social networks and constraints makes people more likely to have sex partners other than their spouses or regular partners. The transport sector has an important role in facilitating the movement of people. Indeed, improving transport is a developmental goal worldwide, with an efficient transport system seen to be a necessary precondition to economic growth. The role of the transport sector in facilitating the spread of HIV needs to be considered. South Africa has the greatest length of roads, railways, and the most registered vehicles in southern Africa. In 1997, Johannesburg International Airport became Africa's most busy airport. South Africa also has a considerable maritime transport sector. In 1994, an estimated more than 500,000 people were employed in the country's transport sector. The following risk groups must be targeted in order to control the spread of HIV in South Africa: people working in building and maintaining infrastructure; people who work in the railways, roads, airlines, and shipping services; transport sector managers; and passengers.

  3. The Governance of American Manufacturing Sectors: The Logic of Coordination and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Hollingsworth, J.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years, scholars in a variety of disciplines have become interested in why there is variation in the institutional arrangements for coordination and control of economic activities in capitalist economies. Some have attempted to explain why transactions occur among actors within a market, a firm, or some form of network. Another body of scholarship has attempted to understand why there are collective forms of behavior among economic actors. This paper attempts to integrate these two t...

  4. The private sector role in HIV/AIDS in the context of an expanded global response: expenditure trends in five sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzbach, Sara; De, Susna; Wang, Wenjuan

    2011-07-01

    Global financing for the HIV response has reached unprecedented levels in recent years. Over US$10 billion were mobilized in 2007, an effort credited with saving the lives of millions of people living with HIV (PLHIV). A relatively unexamined aspect of the global HIV response is the role of the private sector in financing HIV/AIDS services. As the nature of the response evolves from emergency relief to long-term sustainability, understanding current and potential contributions from the private sector is critical. This paper examines trends in private sector financing, management and resource consumption related to HIV/AIDS in five sub-Saharan African countries, with a particular emphasis on the effects of recently scaled-up donor funding on private sector contributions. We analysed National Health Accounts HIV/AIDS subaccount data for Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia between 2002 and 2006. HIV subaccounts provide comparable data on the flow of HIV/AIDS funding from source to use. Findings indicate that private sector contributions decreased in all countries except Tanzania. With regards to managing HIV/AIDS funds, non-governmental organizations are increasingly controlling the largest share of resources relative to other stakeholders, whereas private for-profit entities are managing fewer HIV/AIDS resources since the donor influx. The majority of HIV/AIDS funds were spent in the public sector, although a considerable amount was spent at private facilities, largely fuelled by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. On the whole, OOP spending by PLHIV decreased over the 4-year period, with the exception of Malawi, demonstrating that PLHIV have increased access to free or subsidized HIV/AIDS services. Our findings suggest that the influx of donor funding has led to decreased private contributions for HIV/AIDS. The reduction in private sector investment and engagement raises concerns about the sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes over the long term, particularly in

  5. Community capacity to acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research evidence: a survey of Ontario's HIV/AIDS sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rourke Sean B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based organizations (CBOs are important stakeholders in health systems and are increasingly called upon to use research evidence to inform their advocacy, program planning, and service delivery. To better support CBOs to find and use research evidence, we sought to assess the capacity of CBOs in the HIV/AIDS sector to acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research evidence in their work. Methods We invited executive directors of HIV/AIDS CBOs in Ontario, Canada (n = 51 to complete the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation's "Is Research Working for You?" survey. Findings Based on responses from 25 organizations that collectively provide services to approximately 32,000 clients per year with 290 full-time equivalent staff, we found organizational capacity to acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research evidence to be low. CBO strengths include supporting a culture that rewards flexibility and quality improvement, exchanging information within their organization, and ensuring that their decision-making processes have a place for research. However, CBO Executive Directors indicated that they lacked the skills, time, resources, incentives, and links with experts to acquire research, assess its quality and reliability, and summarize it in a user-friendly way. Conclusion Given the limited capacity to find and use research evidence, we recommend a capacity-building strategy for HIV/AIDS CBOs that focuses on providing the tools, resources, and skills needed to more consistently acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research evidence. Such a strategy may be appropriate in other sectors and jurisdictions as well given that CBO Executive Directors in the HIV/AIDS sector in Ontario report low capacity despite being in the enviable position of having stable government infrastructure in place to support them, benefiting from long-standing investment in capacity building, and being part of an active provincial network. CBOs in other

  6. On the integration of computer aided design and analysis using the finite element absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanborn, Graham G.; Shabana, Ahmed A.

    2009-01-01

    For almost a decade, the finite element absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) has been used for both geometry and finite element representations. Because of the ANCF isoparametric property in the cases of beams, plates and shells, ANCF finite elements lend themselves easily to the geometric description of curves and surfaces, as demonstrated in the literature. The ANCF finite elements, therefore, are ideal for what is called isogeometric analysis that aims at the integration ofcomputer aided designandanalysis (ICADA), which involves the integration of what is now split into the separate fields of computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided analysis (CAA). The purpose of this investigation is to establish the relationship between the B-spline and NURBS, which are widely used in the geometric modeling, and the ANCF finite elements. It is shown in this study that by using the ANCF finite elements, one can in a straightforward manner obtain the control point representation required for the Bezier, B-spline and NURBS geometry. To this end, a coordinate transformation is used to write the ANCF gradient vectors in terms of control points. Unifying the CAD and CAA will require the use of such coordinate transformations and their inverses in order to transform control points to position vector gradients which are required for the formulation of the element transformations in the case of discontinuities as well as the formulation of the strain measures and the stress forces based on general continuum mechanics theory. In particular, fully parameterized ANCF finite elements can be very powerful in describing curve, surface, and volume geometry, and they can be effectively used to describe discontinuities while maintaining the many ANCF desirable features that include a constant mass matrix, zero Coriolis and centrifugal forces, no restriction on the amount of rotation or deformation within the finite element, ability for straightforward implementation of general

  7. AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  8. Analysis: AIDS and the private sector. Tolerance at work will soften epidemic's impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barese, P

    1995-06-01

    With a population of only 1.3 million, Botswana relies heavily upon imported skilled labor and management. Officially, all forms of discrimination based upon a citizen's HIV/AIDS status are illegal in Botswana. The government, however, screens all expatriates considered for contractual jobs with the state, and does not employ HIV-seropositive candidates. Recent government efforts to train local people to replace expatriates and diversify and expand the economy by supporting local business and encouraging foreign investment may, however, be seriously jeopardized by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The development and implementation of prevention and coping strategies, especially at the workplace, have been slow even though AIDS-in-the-Workplace program materials, including videos, posters, brochures, and condoms, are provided free of charge. The lack of a clear understanding by senior management of the legal and financial ramifications of the HIV/AIDS epidemic is one reason for the widespread nonuse by companies of the materials. AIDSCAP in Botswana recently reviewed the activities of four companies which had, however, developed model AIDS-in-the-Workplace programs. Three of the companies chose a peer education model, holding regular formal education sessions as well as informal small group sessions run by peer educators. The peer educators have as much time during their work day as they need to work upon HIV/AIDS activities. The other company has a health department which holds a formal prevention education session for all employees yearly, while clinics in the on-site employee housing complex provide continuous information on women's health, prenatal and infant care as it relates to HIV/AIDS, and negotiating safer sex. Management reports that employees seem to have responded well to the programs, but changing their attitudes toward infected colleagues is proving more difficult. The author notes that managers over time will also have to begin thinking about training

  9. How sustainable is Japan's foreign aid policy? An analysis of Japan's official development assistance and funding for energy sector projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hideka

    Japan has adopted a sustainable development strategy since the late 1980s in the effort to address social and environmental damages caused by past Japan-funded projects in partner nations. Even after about a decade and a half of the policy implementation, however, there are few reports which critically examine effects of the adoption of the idea of sustainable development. This dissertation evaluates Japan's foreign aid policy to determine the extent to which new revisions of aid policy have improved the environmental sustainability of the policy. This dissertation reviews the mainstream idea of sustainable development (also known as the sustainable development paradigm in this dissertation) to reveal the nature of the idea of sustainable development that Japan's foreign aid policy depends on. A literature review of two development discourses---modernization theory and ecological modernization theory---and three types of critiques against the sustainable development paradigm---focused on adverse impacts of modern science, globalization, and environmental overuse---reveals core logics of and problems with the sustainable development paradigm. Japan's foreign aid policy impacts on energy sector development in recipient countries is examined by means of a quantitative analysis and a qualitative analysis. Specifically, it examines the effect of Japan's ODA program over fifteen years that proposed to facilitate sustainable development in developing countries. Special emphasis is given to investigation of ODA disbursements in the energy sector and detailed case studies of several individual energy projects are performed. The dissertation discovers that the sustainable development paradigm guiding Japan's ODA has little capacity to accomplish its goals to bring about social and ecological improvement in developing countries. This dissertation finds three fundamental weaknesses in Japanese ODA policy on energy sector development as well as the sustainable development

  10. Effectiveness of Foreign Aid on the Growth of the Agricultural Sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contrary to expectation, the parameter estimate of foreign aid has a negative and insignificant relationship with agricultural output in the short and long run. On the contrary, savings and technological trend are significant and have positive relationship with agricultural output both in the short run and long run. A major policy ...

  11. Effectiveness of Foreign Aid on the Growth of the Agricultural Sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activity; it is also the single largest employer of labor forces (70 percent according to NBS, 2009) ... foreign aid has a significant positive effect on agricultural growth in Nigeria. However, the ... know the sign of the parameter . Noting that t t. LNY.

  12. Symbolic Uses of Evaluation in the International Aid Sector: Arguments for Critical Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James

    2012-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in recent years to improve the quality of the evaluation of international aid. Increasingly, this includes an interest in improving the way evaluations are used to improve policies and programmes. However, the prevalence of symbolic use--a phenomenon that is often mentioned but rarely studied--reflects an…

  13. The Role of Social Entrepreneurship in HIV/AIDS Management across the Education Sector in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiro, Laban P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The overall purpose of this study is to identify key entrepreneurial variables in the realm of social entrepreneurship that may contribute to enhancing impact mitigation of HIV/AIDS. In addition, the study seeks to establish which of the correlations between the entrepreneurial variables and management of response of impact mitigation of…

  14. SUPERCOMPUTERS FOR AIDING ECONOMIC PROCESSES WITH REFERENCE TO THE FINANCIAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Balicki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the use of supercomputers to support business processes with particular emphasis on the financial sector. A reference was made to the selected projects that support economic development. In particular, we propose the use of supercomputers to perform artificial intel-ligence methods in banking. The proposed methods combined with modern technology enables a significant increase in the competitiveness of enterprises and banks by adding new functionality.

  15. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Socio-Economic Development in Kenya's Cooperative Sector: An Empirical Analysis of Cooperatives in Nairobi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyongesa, D.J.W.; M'mboyi, F.

    2002-01-01

    A lot of stigma is attached to HIV/AIDS pandemic in Kenya. Many organizations have tried and continue trying to educate the public on this scourge. However, none of these organizations has thought of the cooperative sector. This research is unique because it examines the Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Socio-economic Development of Kenya's Cooperative sector. It is an empirical analysis of Cooperatives in Nairobi Province with special reference to the Savings and Credit Cooperatives (SACCOS). It was a joint research that examined HIV/AIDS from a multidisciplinary approach. The general objective was to identify and quantify the effects of HIV/AIDS on the performance of cooperative societies, particularly the impact of HIV/AIDS on savings, share capital, age groups and gender. Questionnaires were administered to a randomly selected sample of cooperative societies in the province. PCGIVE computer package was used to run regressions on simultaneous and recursive models. The findings clearly show that between 1991 and 2000 cooperatives in Nairobi province lost approximately USD 479 million due to HIV/AIDS pandemic. Besides, though savings, share capital and assets increased significantly, the scourge was negative the gains. Of the dead and the infected, females and ages between 18-48 were more affected by the epidemic. Policy specify recommendations vital for containment of HIV/AIDS in the cooperative sub sector of the Kenyan economy are made. These are with a view to classifying the appropriate roles of both public and private sectors in fighting the HIV/AIDS pandemic within the cooperative sector. Last but not least further areas of research are suggested

  16. The Relative Effects of Logistics, Coordination and Human Resource on Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief Mission Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Idris

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on humanitarian aid and disaster relief (HADR missions suggest that the quality of logistics, coordination and human resource management will affect their performance. However, studies in developing countries are mainly conceptual and lack the necessary empirical evidence to support these contentions. The current paper thereby aimed to fill this knowledge gap by sta- tistically examining the effects of the abovementioned factors on such missions. Focusing on the Malaysian army due to its extensive experience in HADR operations, the paper opted for a quantita- tive approach to allow for a more objective analysis of the issues. The results show that there are other potential determinants of mission success which deserve due attention in future studies. They also suggest that human resource is not easily measured as a construct, and that this limitation in methodology must be overcome to derive more accurate conclusions regarding its effect on HADR mission performance.

  17. Co-ordinated research programme on isotope-aided studies of the bioavailability of iron and zinc from human diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Nutritional deficiencies of essential micronutrients (particularly of iron, but also of zinc and selenium) are known to affect hundreds of millions of people throughout the world, mainly in developing countries. Such deficiencies can lead to significant deficits in mental development, growth, work performance, immune competence and other biological parameters. In many of the population groups that are affected, the deficiencies are thought to be due not to an absolute lack of the element in the diet but rather to is poor bioavailability. Much work has already been done on this subject, particularly in some developed countries and particularly with respect to iron. However, there is still appears to be a need for more research on factors affecting bioavailability and the means to improve it by simple dietary modification and fortification using food products of the kind that may be locally available in developing countries. Isotope techniques potentially have a large role to play in studies of the bioavailability of iron and other trace elements. To support work in this area, the IAEA initiated a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) at the end of 1990 on ''Isotope-Aided Studies of the Bioavailability of Iron and Zinc from Human Diets''. The first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) of participants in this CRP is the subject of the present report. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Multi-Sector Participation In The National Response To Prevent And Address The Hiv/Aids Epidemic In The Republic Of Cuba, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isora Ramos Valle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of a strong national response involving multiple sectors—including civil society—is an essential aspect of the social management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The goals of this response are to control the epidemic and improve the quality of life for people living with HIV/AIDS; this includes combating stigma and discrimination, as well as ensuring due compliance with the law. Cuba has a national program to prevent and control HIV/AIDS. Since 2003 Cuba’s national program has received material and financial support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Program evaluation is carried out by an independent team at ENSAP (National School of Public Health. This paper reports on results of one part of that evaluation: an assessment of the agencies and sectors who made up the organized social and national response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The evaluation primarily used qualitative analyses of the activities and tasks proposed by sectors in their 2006-2008 work plans. Visits were made to the provinces of Ciudad de la Habana, Matanzas, and Holguín. Qualitative techniques included in-depth interviews, semi-structured interviews, observation, and review of documentary evidence of all kinds (videos, reports, minutes, protocols, results of social research, and radio broadcast messages and varied depending on the particular features of each sector. We noted improvements in multi-sector participation in the prevention and response to the national HIV/AIDS epidemic. Conscious of their role, sectors generally carried out their programmed activities and had improved their organization, planning, and systematization; integration among the sectors was also better. These local initiatives provided evidence of a multi-sector response characterized by autonomy, emotional involvement, and an identification with the goals of the project; this went beyond simply meeting targets. Cross-sector work showed a marked increase and a

  19. Ebola Preparedness in the Netherlands: The Need for Coordination Between the Public Health and the Curative Sector.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaan, Corien M; Öry, Alexander V; Schol, Lianne G C; Jacobi, André; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Timen, Aura

    2018-01-01

    During the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2015, close cooperation between the curative sector and the public health sector in the Netherlands was necessary for timely identification, referral, and investigation of patients with suspected Ebola virus disease (EVD).

  20. Ebola Preparedness in the Netherlands: The Need for Coordination Between the Public Health and the Curative Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Swaan (Corien); Öry, A.V. (Alexander V.); Schol, L.G.C. (Lianne G. C.); A. Jacobi (Andre); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); A. Timen (Aura)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractContext: During the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2015, close cooperation between the curative sector and the public health sector in the Netherlands was necessary for timely identification, referral, and investigation of patients with suspected Ebola virus disease (EVD).

  1. Co-ordinated research programme on isotope-aided studies of the bioavailability of iron and zinc from human diets. Report of the second research co-ordination meeting, Hyderabad, India, 16-20 November 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Isotope-Aided Studies on the Bioavailability of Iron and Zinc from Human Diets'' was initiated by the IAEA in 1990, and presently encompasses participating institutes in 11 countries. A summary of the discussions that took place during thr second Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Hyderabad, India, between 16-20 November 1992, is given in this report together with 12 working papers (progress reports) presented by individual participants. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. [Consensus statement on assistance to women with human immunodeficiency virus infection in the health care sector. National AIDS Plan (PNS) and AIDS Study Group (GeSIDA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    To develop a consensus document on clinical recommendations for the health care of women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We assembled a panel of experts appointed by the Secretariat of the National AIDS Plan and GeSIDA that included internal medicine physicians with expertise in the field of HIV infection, gynecologists, pediatricians and psychologists, and two panel members acting as coordinators. Scientific information was reviewed in publications and conference reports up to October 2012. In keeping with the criteria of the Infectious Disease Society of America, two levels of evidence were applied to support the proposed recommendations: the strength of the recommendation according to expert opinion (A, B, C), and the level of empirical evidence (i, ii, iii), already used in previous documents from SPNS/GeSIDA. We provide multiple recommendations for the clinical management of women with HIV infection, considering both the diagnostic and possible therapeutic strategies. The consensus recommends gender mainstreaming in health care, and promoting training for healthcare professionals in order to avoid gender bias. With currently available data it seems that the effectiveness of the treatment is the same in both men and women, there being no limitation as to the use of any antiretroviral for this reason. Women have more treatments suspended for reasons other than virological failure, thus they require better monitoring. This document presents recommendations for addressing women with HIV infection. This must be multidisciplinary, taking into account the differences that can be found in the diagnosis, disease development, and treatment between men and women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Convergent and divergent country trends in coordinated wage-setting and collective bargaining in the public hospitals sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimshaw, D.; Jaehrling, K.; van der Meer, M.; Méhaut, P.; Shimron, N.

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on the findings of research in the public hospitals sector in five European countries1—France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway and the UK—this article assesses the character of change in wage setting and collective bargaining. It demonstrates the diversity of national arrangements by

  4. The impact of the new public management: Challenges for coordination and cohesion in European public sectors (review essay)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven); G. Hammerschmid (Gerhard)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractNew Public Management has been around for a quarter of a century in European public sectors, yet despite the movement’s emphasis on indicators and evidence, there have been surprisingly few encompassing evaluations. In this paper, we provide an overview of academic evaluation and

  5. The Greater Involvement of People Living with AIDS principle: theory versus practice in Ontario's HIV/AIDS community-based research sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, R; Wilson, M G; Flicker, S; Guta, A; Bereket, T; McKay, C; van der Meulen, A; Cleverly, S; Dickie, M; Globerman, J; Rourke, S B

    2008-07-01

    Drawing on the Greater Involvement of People with HIV/AIDS (GIPA) principle, the HIV/AIDS movement began to "democratize" research in Canada in the mid-1990s. To date, there is little evidence about the success of the community-based research (CBR) movement in relation to the implementation of GIPA. We draw on findings from a larger study examining barriers and facilitating factors in relation to HIV-related CBR in Ontario, Canada. An online survey was completed by 39 senior managers in Ontario AIDS service organizations (ASOs). Twenty-five in-depth, semi-structured interviews were then conducted to further explore the survey findings. Survey respondents reported that, compared to researchers and frontline service providers, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) tended to be the least involved in all stages (input, process and outcome) of CBR projects. AIDS service organizations with a mandate that included serving rural and urban communities reported even lower levels of PLWHA involvement in CBR. Qualitative data reveal complex barriers that make meaningful PLWHA engagement in CBR difficult, including: HIV-related stigma; health-related challenges; "credentialism"; lack of capacity to engage in research; other issues taking priority; and mistrust of researchers. Facilitating factors included valuing lived experience; training and mentoring opportunities; financial compensation; trust building; and accommodating PLWHA's needs. While there is strong support for the GIPA principles in theory, practice lags far behind.

  6. Towards a Carbon-Neutral Energy Sector: Opportunities and Challenges of Coordinated Bioenergy Supply Chains-A PSE Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Puigjaner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The electricity generation sector needs to reduce its environmental impact and dependence on fossil fuel, mainly from coal. Biomass is one of the most promising future options to produce electricity, given its potential contribution to climate change mitigation. Even though biomass is an old source of energy, it is not yet a well-established commodity. The use of biomass in large centralised systems requires the establishment of delivery channels to provide the desired feedstock with the necessary attributes, at the right time and place. In terms of time to deployment and cost of the solution, co-combustion/co-gasification of biomass and coal are presented as transition and short-medium term alternatives towards a carbon-neutral energy sector. Hence, there is a need to assess an effective introduction of co-combustion/co-gasification projects in the current electricity production share. The purpose of this work is to review recent steps in Process Systems Engineering towards bringing into reality individualised and ad-hoc solutions, by building a common but adjustable design platform to tailored approaches of biomass-based supply chains. Current solutions and the latest developments are presented and future needs under study are also identified.

  7. Regional health workforce monitoring as governance innovation: a German model to coordinate sectoral demand, skill mix and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, E; Lauxen, O; Larsen, C

    2016-11-28

    As health workforce policy is gaining momentum, data sources and monitoring systems have significantly improved in the European Union and internationally. Yet data remain poorly connected to policy-making and implementation and often do not adequately support integrated approaches. This brings the importance of governance and the need for innovation into play. The present case study introduces a regional health workforce monitor in the German Federal State of Rhineland-Palatinate and seeks to explore the capacity of monitoring to innovate health workforce governance. The monitor applies an approach from the European Network on Regional Labour Market Monitoring to the health workforce. The novel aspect of this model is an integrated, procedural approach that promotes a 'learning system' of governance based on three interconnected pillars: mixed methods and bottom-up data collection, strong stakeholder involvement with complex communication tools and shared decision- and policy-making. Selected empirical examples illustrate the approach and the tools focusing on two aspects: the connection between sectoral, occupational and mobility data to analyse skill/qualification mixes and the supply-demand matches and the connection between monitoring and stakeholder-driven policy. Regional health workforce monitoring can promote effective governance in high-income countries like Germany with overall high density of health workers but maldistribution of staff and skills. The regional stakeholder networks are cost-effective and easily accessible and might therefore be appealing also to low- and middle-income countries.

  8. Research within the coordinated programme on isotope-aided micronutrient studies in rice production with special reference to zinc deficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales, C.M.

    1980-07-01

    An extensive survey identified 500,000 ha of soil in the Philippines as being potentially Zn-deficient for rice production. Isotope-aided laboratory, greenhouse, and field experiments were conducted to identify the most efficient methods of supplying fertilizer Zn to flooded rice. The application of 5 kg Zn/ha as ZnSO 4 effectively corrected a Zn deficiency and increased rice yield and Zn uptake for three successive growing seasons. No further increases were noted with higher rates of Zn application. Fertilizer ZnSO 4 was equally effective when mixed with the soil, combined with urea fertilizers, or surface-applied at or two weeks after transplanting the rice. Mine tailings were also shown to be an effective source of Zn. Mixing organic compost with the ZnSO 4 decreased the percent Zn derived from the fertilizer and the rice yield. 65 Zn-labelled ZnSO 4 was used

  9. Arm-eye coordination test to objectively quantify motor performance and muscles activation in persons after stroke undergoing robot-aided rehabilitation training: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-Yu; Hu, Xiaoling; Li, Le; Sun, Rui

    2013-09-01

    This study designed an arm-eye coordination test to investigate the effectiveness of the robot-aided rehabilitation for persons after stroke. Six chronic poststroke subjects were recruited to attend a 20-session robot-aided rehabilitation training of elbow joint. Before and after the training program, subjects were asked to perform voluntary movements of elbow flection and extension by following sinusoidal trajectories at different velocities with visual feedback on their joint positions. The elbow angle and the electromyographic signal of biceps and triceps as well as clinical scores were evaluated together with the parameters. Performance was objectively quantified by root mean square error (RMSE), root mean square jerk (RMSJ), range of motion (ROM), and co-contraction index (CI). After 20 sessions, RMSE and ROM improved significantly in both the affected and the unaffected side based on two-way ANOVA (P quantitative parameters and clinical scales could enable the exploration of effects of different types of treatment and design progress-based training method to accelerate the processes of recovery.

  10. Work within the coordinated programme on isotope-aided micronutrient studies in rice production with special reference to zinc deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, L.

    1980-04-01

    A series of pot and field experiments with flooded rice were carried out on contrasting soil types of Bangladesh to study the zinc status of soils, evaluate chemical methods for extracting zinc from soils in terms of ability to identify zinc deficiency, 65 Zn-aided experiments including the residual effect of zinc fertilizers to evaluate the efficiency of zinc sources and methods of zinc application to rice. The results show that (1) the available zinc extracted successively with 0.1 N HCl showed a significant, positive correlation between available soil zinc and plant zinc content; (2) among rice soils of Bangladesh the zinc content from critical limits to adequate levels in the south and south-eastern part of the country was determined. In the northern part of the country, deficiency problems were clearly seen; (3) the rates and methods of zinc application under experimental conditions influences the yield parameters differently and may show an apparent or significant change; (4) 5-7 kg Zn/ha as zinc sulfate were introduced as optimal rates for the soils under experiments; (5) significant yield increases due to the residual effect of zinc fertilizer were obtained on the experiments under dry season conditions but not under wet conditions

  11. 'Coordination in the top sectors. Planned Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation and their challenges; Coordinatie in de topsectoren. De geplande TKI's en hun uitdagingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Toren, J.P.; Hessels, L.; Eveleens, C.; Van der Meulen, B.

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of this report is to contribute to effective implementation of the top sector policy in the Netherlands through a comparative analysis of the top sectors and their TKIs in the making. The research question is: how do different sectors to the possibilities offered by the TKI (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) tool to coordinate public and private research? [Dutch] Het doel van dit rapport is bij te dragen aan effectieve implementatie van het topsectorenbeleid door middel van een vergelijkende analyse van de topsectoren en de bijbehorende TKI's in wording. De onderzoeksvraag luidt: hoe gaan verschillende sectoren om met de mogelijkheden die het TKI-instrument (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) biedt om publiek en privaat onderzoek te coordineren?.

  12. June Solstice Equatorial Spread F in the American Sector: A Numerical Assessment of Linear Stability Aided by Incoherent Scatter Radar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Weijia; S. Rodrigues, Fabiano

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that weakening downward plasma drifts can produce favorable conditions for the ionospheric Generalized Rayleigh-Taylor (GRT) instability and explain the occurrence of postmidnight equatorial spread F (ESF). We evaluated this hypothesis using numerical simulations aided by measurements and attempted to explain ESF events observed in the American sector during June solstice, low solar flux conditions. We analyzed plasma drifts and ESF measurements made by the incoherent scatter radar of the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (11.95° S, 76.87° W, ˜1° dip). We found adequate measurements during a prototypical, quiet time event on 4-5 June 2008 when the downward drifts weakened and a fully developed ESF appeared. The measured drifts were used as input for the SAMI2 model. SAMI2 reproduced an "apparent" uplift of the ionosphere based on h'F measurements that was consistent with expectations and observations. SAMI2 also provided parameters for estimation of the flux tube linear growth rates of GRT instability associated with the weakening drift event. We found that the weakening drifts did produce unstable conditions with positive growth rates. The growth rates, however, were slower than those obtained for typical, premidnight ESF events and those obtained for similar drift conditions in other longitude sectors. We show, however, that departures in the wind pattern, from climatological model predictions, can produce favorable conditions for instability development. Following the hypothesis of Huba and Krall (2013) and using SAMI2 simulations, we show that equatorward winds, when combined with weakening drifts, could have contributed to the unstable conditions responsible for the postmidnight ESF events.

  13. Coordinated ground-based, low altitude satellite and Cluster observations on global and local scales during a transient post-noon sector excursion of the magnetospheric cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Opgenoorth

    Full Text Available On 14 January 2001, the four Cluster spacecraft passed through the northern magnetospheric mantle in close conjunction to the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR and approached the post-noon dayside magnetopause over Green-land between 13:00 and 14:00 UT. During that interval, a sudden reorganisation of the high-latitude dayside convection pattern occurred after 13:20 UT, most likely caused by a direction change of the Solar wind magnetic field. The result was an eastward and poleward directed flow-channel, as monitored by the SuperDARN radar network and also by arrays of ground-based magnetometers in Canada, Greenland and Scandinavia. After an initial eastward and later poleward expansion of the flow-channel between 13:20 and 13:40 UT, the four Cluster spacecraft, and the field line footprints covered by the eastward looking scan cycle of the Söndre Strömfjord incoherent scatter radar were engulfed by cusp-like precipitation with transient magnetic and electric field signatures. In addition, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar detected strong transient effects of the convection reorganisation, a poleward moving precipitation, and a fast ion flow-channel in association with the auroral structures that suddenly formed to the west and north of the radar. From a detailed analysis of the coordinated Cluster and ground-based data, it was found that this extraordinary transient convection pattern, indeed, had moved the cusp precipitation from its former pre-noon position into the late post-noon sector, allowing for the first and quite unexpected encounter of the cusp by the Cluster spacecraft. Our findings illustrate the large amplitude of cusp dynamics even in response to moderate solar wind forcing. The global ground-based data proves to be an invaluable tool to monitor the dynamics and width of the affected magnetospheric regions.

    Key words. Magnetospheric cusp, ionosphere, reconnection, convection flow-channel, Cluster, ground-based observations

  14. Executive summary of the consensus statement on assistance to women with HIV infection in the health care sector. National AIDS Plan (PNS) and AIDS Study Group (GeSIDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to develop a consensus on clinical recommendations for health care assistance for women with HIV infection. To this end, a panel of experts, appointed by the Secretariat of the National AIDS Plan and GeSIDA was assembled, that included internal medicine physicians with expertise in the field of HIV infection, gynecologists, pediatricians and psychologists, with two members of the panel acting as coordinators. Scientific information was reviewed in publications and conference reports up to October 2012. In keeping with the criteria of the Infectious Disease Society of America, two levels of evidence were applied to support the proposed recommendations: the strength of the recommendation according to expert opinion (A, B, C) and the level of empirical evidence (I, II, III), already used in previous documents from SPNS/GESIDA. Multiple recommendations are provided for the clinical management of women with HIV infection, considering both the diagnostic and possible therapeutic strategies. This document presents recommendations for the treatment of women with HIV infection. This must be multidisciplinary, taking into account the differences that can be found in the diagnosis, development of disease and treatment between men and women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. "We talk of AIDS because we love life": a stakeholder assessment of HIV/AIDS organizations in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Alicen B; Brieger, William R

    This stakeholder assessment of HIV/AIDS service providing institutions in Argentina offers insights into the HIV/AIDS crisis in Spanish-speaking Latin America from an institutional level and makes recommendations for strengthening the work and functioning of these institutions. This stakeholder assessment was conducted to determine how HIV/AIDS prevention and management in Argentina affects and is affected by relevant HIV/AIDS institutions. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 key leaders of organizations working in HIV/AIDS prevention in Buenos Aires including non-governmental, governmental, and academic institutions. Analyses of interviewee comments are presented according to four major themes: network connections, program resources, perceptions of success, and challenges. Key findings include the need for strengthening formal networks, increasing the involvement of other non-AIDS related social institutions in promoting HIV prevention, finding more sustainable funding options, working more effectively with the public sector to create policies and regulations favorable to the HIV/AIDS field, and addressing the lack of perceived susceptibility to HIV/AIDS in Argentine culture. From leaders' comments, recommendations are made for strengthening the HIV/AIDS network among key institutions including adapting the UNAIDS "Three Ones" principal to create one crosssector office responsible for coordinating HIV/AIDS work, formalizing agreements with institutions outside of Buenos Aires, increasing the role of schools in HIV/AIDS awareness, and designing programs that address lack of perceived susceptibility to HIV/AIDS among Argentines.

  16. Coordinating Demand-Side Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification Among Western States: Options for Documenting Energy and Non-Energy Impacts for the Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Demand-side energy efficiency (efficiency) represents a low-cost opportunity to reduce electricity consumption and demand and provide a wide range of non-energy benefits, including avoiding air pollution. Efficiency-related energy and non-energy impacts are determined and documented by implementing evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) systems. This technical brief describes efficiency EM&V coordination strategies that Western states can consider taking on together, outlines EM&V-related products that might be appropriate for multistate coordination, and identifies some implications of coordination. Coordinating efficiency EM&V activities can save both time and costs for state agencies and stakeholders engaged in efficiency activities and can be particularly beneficial for multiple states served by the same utility. First, the brief summarizes basic information on efficiency, its myriad potential benefits and EM&V for assessing those benefits. Second, the brief introduces the concept of multistate EM&V coordination in the context of assessing such benefits, including achievement of state and federal goals to reduce air pollutants.1 Next, the brief presents three coordination strategy options for efficiency EM&V: information clearinghouse/exchange, EM&V product development, and a regional energy efficiency tracking system platform. The brief then describes five regional EM&V products that could be developed on a multistate basis: EM&V reporting formats, database of consistent deemed electricity savings values, glossary of definitions and concepts, efficiency EM&V methodologies, and EM&V professional standards or accreditation processes. Finally, the brief discusses options for next steps that Western states can take to consider multistate coordination on efficiency EM&V. Appendices provide background information on efficiency and EM&V, as well as definitions and suggested resources on the covered topics. This brief is intended to inform state public

  17. Rehabilitating health services in Cambodia: the challenge of coordination in chronic political emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjouw, S; Macrae, J; Zwi, A B

    1999-09-01

    The end of the Cold War brought with it opportunities to resolve a number of conflicts around the world, including those in Angola, Cambodia, El Salvador and Mozambique. International political efforts to negotiate peace in these countries were accompanied by significant aid programmes ostensibly designed to redress the worst effects of conflict and to contribute to the consolidation of peace. Such periods of political transition, and associated aid inflows, constitute an opportunity to improve health services in countries whose health indicators have been among the worst in the world and where access to basic health services is significantly diminished by war. This paper analyzes the particular constraints to effective coordination of health sector aid in situations of 'post'-conflict transition. These include: the uncertain legitimacy and competence of state structures; donor choice of implementing channels; and actions by national and international political actors which served to undermine coordination mechanisms in order to further their respective agendas. These obstacles hindered efforts by health professionals to establish an effective coordination regime, for example, through NGO mapping and the establishment of aid coordinating committees at national and provincial levels. These technical measures were unable to address the basic constitutional question of who had the authority to determine the distribution of scarce resources during a period of transition in political authority. The peculiar difficulties of establishing effective coordination mechanisms are important to address if the long-term effectiveness of rehabilitation aid is to be enhanced.

  18. Target and peripheral dose from radiation sector motions accompanying couch repositioning of patient coordinates with the Gamma Knife® Perfexion™

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Tuan-Anh; Wu, Vincent; Malhotra, Harish; Steinman, James P.; Prasad, Dheerendra; Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    2011-01-01

    The GammaPlan ™ treatment planning system (TPS) does not fully account for shutter dose when multiple shots are required to deliver a patient’s treatment. The unaccounted exposures to the target site and its periphery are measured in this study. The collected data are compared to a similar effect from the Gamma Knife ® model 4C. A stereotactic head frame was attached to a Leksell ® 16 cm diameter spherical phantom; using a fiducial-box, CT images of the phantom were acquired and registered in the TPS. Measurements give the relationship of measured dose to the number of repositions with the patient positioning system (PPS) and to the collimator size. An absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the 50% isodose line was prescribed to the target site and all measurements were acquired with an ionization chamber. Measured dose increases with frequency of repositioning and with collimator size. As the radiation sectors transition between the beam on and beam off states, the target receives more shutter dose than the periphery. Shutter doses of 3.53±0.04 and 1.59±0.04 cGy/reposition to the target site are observed for the 16 and 8 mm collimators, respectively. The target periphery receives additional dose that varies depending on its position relative to the target. The radiation sector motions for the Gamma Knife ® Perfexion ™ result in an additional dose due to the shutter effect. The magnitude of this exposure is comparable to that measured for the model 4C

  19. Business leaders form alliance to fight AIDS. Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-11

    It is estimated that 33% of deaths among the working population in Thailand by the year 2000 will result from AIDS. AIDS mortality will bring decreased productivity, increased healthcare costs, a decline in tourism, reduced labor exports, and labor shortages. The AIDS epidemic in the country therefore has a direct impact upon companies' productivity and resulting profitability. Acknowledging this reality and the need for action, the Managing Director of Northwest Airlines for Thailand, Indochina, and West Asia, James P. Reinnoldt, and the General Manager of Bangkok's Regent Hotel, Bill Black, started the nonprofit Thailand Business Coalition on AIDS (TBCA) to combat AIDS. The TBCA will provide leadership, coordination, education, and resources to help companies and the business sector get a positive response to the AIDS dilemma. The organization was established to lead through and beyond the AIDS epidemic in the interest of business by promoting coherent HIV/AIDS policies and workplace education with help from nongovernmental organizations. The TBCA will be supported by membership dues, private contributions, and grants. Member companies will receive a manual and a quarterly newsletter and be allowed to join a training course on managing AIDS in the workplace. The organization's target of enlisting 250 member companies within the next 12 months means that help will be rendered in the training of 50,000 Thai workers.

  20. Evidence Aid approach to gap analysis and priority setting of questions for systematic reviews in disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayabu, Bonnix

    2015-02-01

    This article is based on a presentation at the Evidence Aid Symposium, on 20 September 2014, at Hyderabad, India. Ten years after the Indian Ocean Tsunami, Evidence Aid and it parters and other humanitarian stakeholders met to update about Evidence Aid work and discussed it future. The Evidence Aid approach to fill in the gap on the production and use of evidence in disater sector and other humanitarian health emergencies was widely discussed. Iterative approach to prioritise evidence reinforced Evidence Aid principle of independacy and a coordinated international orgasisation. The generation of 30 research questions during the prioritisation process contitute the first big step for Evidence Aid to become a one stop shop for the seach evidence on the effectiveness of interventions in disasters. © 2015 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Public Sector Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Leixnering, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    New public management-inspired reforms created numerous autonomous units with many different faces and labels. This variety of organizations and organizational forms precludes a straightforward definition of what constitutes a public sector organization and blurs the boundaries between the public...... and private sectors as well as the boundaries of single organizations. In addition, the complexity of the interlocking arrangements and relationships in this public organizational landscape has resulted in considerable governance problems with serious implications for coordination and policy coherence....

  2. Vertical funding, non-governmental organizations, and health system strengthening: perspectives of public sector health workers in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa, Abdul H; Pfeiffer, James; Gloyd, Stephen S; Sherr, Kenneth

    2013-06-14

    In the rapid scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment, many donors have chosen to channel their funds to non-governmental organizations and other private partners rather than public sector systems. This approach has reinforced a private sector, vertical approach to addressing the HIV epidemic. As progress on stemming the epidemic has stalled in some areas, there is a growing recognition that overall health system strengthening, including health workforce development, will be essential to meet AIDS treatment goals. Mozambique has experienced an especially dramatic increase in disease-specific support over the last eight years. We explored the perspectives and experiences of key Mozambican public sector health managers who coordinate, implement, and manage the myriad donor-driven projects and agencies. Over a four-month period, we conducted 41 individual qualitative interviews with key Ministry workers at three levels in the Mozambique national health system, using open-ended semi-structured interview guides. We also reviewed planning documents. All respondents emphasized the value and importance of international aid and vertical funding to the health sector and each highlighted program successes that were made possible by recent increased aid flows. However, three serious concerns emerged: 1) difficulties coordinating external resources and challenges to local control over the use of resources channeled to international private organizations; 2) inequalities created within the health system produced by vertical funds channeled to specific services while other sectors remain under-resourced; and 3) the exodus of health workers from the public sector health system provoked by large disparities in salaries and work. The Ministry of Health attempted to coordinate aid by implementing a "sector-wide approach" to bring the partners together in setting priorities, harmonizing planning, and coordinating

  3. Isotope aided studies of pesticide residues during food processing. Report of a final research co-ordination meeting held in Bangkok, Thailand, 31 January - 4 February 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The use of agrochemicals in general and pesticides in particular has greatly aided crop production, protected man from diseases, decreased losses of stored grains and has generally improved man's welfare. One of the steps in ensuring safety of pesticides is adequate monitoring programmes for residue levels in food products and the agricultural environment. Oil-bearing plants often receive heavy pesticide treatment and known to accumulate high concentration of pesticide residues. Technical documents included in this volume report effect of refining or processing of various oil crops like soybean, olive oil, coconut, rapeseed, sunflower cottonseed corn, peanut oil on 14 C-compound pesticide residues. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Isotope aided studies of pesticide residues during food processing. Report of a final research co-ordination meeting held in Bangkok, Thailand, 31 January - 4 February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The use of agrochemicals in general and pesticides in particular has greatly aided crop production, protected man from diseases, decreased losses of stored grains and has generally improved man`s welfare. One of the steps in ensuring safety of pesticides is adequate monitoring programmes for residue levels in food products and the agricultural environment. Oil-bearing plants often receive heavy pesticide treatment and known to accumulate high concentration of pesticide residues. Technical documents included in this volume report effect of refining or processing of various oil crops like soybean, olive oil, coconut, rapeseed, sunflower cottonseed corn, peanut oil on {sup 14}C-compound pesticide residues.

  5. Facilitators and barriers to implementation of the AIDES initiative, a social innovation for participative assessment of children in need and for coordination of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Sarah; Lessard, Danielle; Chamberland, Claire

    2014-12-01

    As part of an implementation evaluation, this study aims to identify the conditions of practice that facilitated or hindered implementation of the AIDES initiative, a social innovation to support collaboration between partners involved with vulnerable children. Evaluators conducted qualitative telephone interviews with 36 respondents (19 practitioners and 17 managers) who participated in the AIDES initiative trial. Respondents were chosen to include all participating organisations (child protection services, prevention social services). Participants' comments were submitted to descriptive content analysis. Conditions facilitating or hindering implementation of the initiative included the following dimensions: (1) implementation quality; (2) organisational elements (organisational functioning, cooperation between organisations); (3) socio-political issues; and (4) personal and professional characteristics. The study highlights critical elements to consider in implementing and maintaining significant changes in practice in organisations providing assistance to vulnerable children and their families. Social innovations that do not consider such elements are likely to compromise their implementation and sustainability. We must prevent promising social changes from being considered unrealistic or inappropriate due to contextual barriers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. From pricing regulations of the feed-in scheme (EEG) through to financial security under the Atomic Energy Act (AtG): the German legal system for the energy sector in the context of EC legislation on state aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehling, J.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution is a comprehensive analysis of EC law on state aid and resulting possible impacts on the German legal system for the energy sector. The analysis reveals that, depending on the legal interpretation of Art. 87 of the EC Treaty, further non-compliance issues such as that currently under debate in connection with German legislation supporting market penetration of electricity from renewable energy sources, may arise in the future. Further examples referred to are the German system of liability reserves for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, and the system of third party liability for nuclear power plant operators. The author addresses various problem areas and uses characteristic examples in explaining conceivable matters of conflict. (orig./CB) [de

  7. The Capacity and Institution Building (CIB Working Group of United Cities and Local Governments: Towards Improving Aid Effectiveness in the Local Government Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kehoe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG Capacity and Institution Building (CIB Working Group gather together professional practitioners of local government associations (LGAs and individual local governments active in international cooperation, with the overall objective to improve the quality, coordination and alignment of their development cooperation interventions. The Working Group is the successor of the CIB Platform, which existed for many years within the former International Union of Local Authorities (IULA as an informal gathering of staff members of local government associations (LGAs involved in the field of municipal international cooperation (MIC and association capacity building (ACB. In addition to information exchange, the CIB Platform undertook specific initiatives such as a World Bank-funded program supporting ACB in several countries. In May 2004, the CIB was integrated into the structures of the newly-founded UCLG organisation, and its membership was expanded to also include staff members of international departments of cities active in international cooperation.

  8. Soil micronutrients and its uptake by rice plant. Part of a coordinated programme on isotope-aided micronutrient studies in rice production with special reference to zinc deficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.S.

    1980-02-01

    A series of field and greenhouse experiments with flooded rice was carried out on contrasting soil types of Korea to study the zinc status of soils, evaluate the chemical methods for extracting zinc from soils in terms of ability to identify zinc deficiency, perform 65 Zn-aided experiments including the residual effects of zinc fertilizers to evaluate the efficiency of zinc sources and methods of zinc application to rice, and associated studies on factors affecting zinc nutrition in rice such as effect of organic matter and chelates. The results show that i) 0.05 N HCl solution for extracting available zinc in soil was effective to separating the soils which require zinc fertilizer application. The proposed zinc value to identify is 2.4 ppm. Among rice soils surveyed, the red-yellow podsolic soil derived from basalt, the reddish-brown lateritic soil of calcareous material and newly reclaimed saline soils were shown to be below this limit; ii) 5 kg Zn/ha as zinc sulphate introduced the highest response in terms of % Zndff, total zinc yield in rice plant, and the fertilizer zinc use efficiency. Applying higher zinc amounts, in case of 20 kg Zn/ha, retarded nitrogen uptake by the plant and as a result the rice grain yield was decreased; iii) Significant yields increases due to the residual effects of zinc fertilizers were obtained on the second and third crops; iv) On the zinc-deficient calcareous soil the use of chelated zinc sources is recommended

  9. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, E

    2007-04-01

    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  10. Agriculture Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  11. The role of major donors in health aid to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haewon; Ahn, Deborah Y; Choi, Soyoung; Kim, Youngchan; Choi, Hyunju; Park, Sang Min

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the major trends in health aid financing in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) by identifying the primary donor organizations and examining several data sources to track overall health aid trends. We collected gross disbursements from bilateral donor countries and international organizations toward the DPRK according to specific health sectors by using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development creditor reporting system database and the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs financial tracking service database. We analyzed sources of health aid to the DPRK from the Republic of Korea (ROK) using the official records from the ROK's Ministry of Unification. We identified the ROK, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) as the major donor entities not only according to their level of health aid expenditures but also their growing roles within the health sector of the DPRK. We found that health aid from the ROK is comprised of funding from the Inter-Korean Cooperation Fund, private organizations, local governments, and South Korean branches of international organizations such as WHO and UNICEF. We also distinguished medical equipment aid from developmental aid to show that the majority of health aid from the ROK was developmental aid. This study highlights the valuable role of the ROK in the flow of health aid to the DPRK, especially in light of the DPRK's precarious international status. Although global health aid from many international organizations has decreased, organizations such as GFATM and UNFPA continue to maintain their focus on reproductive health and infectious diseases.

  12. EIA and green procurement: Opportunities for strengthening their coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uttam, Kedar; Faith-Ell, Charlotta; Balfors, Berit

    2012-01-01

    EIA plays an important role in enhancing the environmental performance of the construction sector. In recent years, the construction sector has been developing green procurement practices. Green procurement is a process that involves the incorporation of environmental requirements during the procurement of services and products. However, discussion on green procurement is rarely seen during the EIA phase. This paper addresses possible opportunities for improving the coordination between EIA and green procurement within the construction sector. The linking of EIA and green procurement has been postulated in the paper as an aid to strengthen the coordination between project planning and implementation. The paper is based on a literature review and is an outcome of an on-going research project concerning EIA and green procurement. This study indicated that it would be appropriate to introduce green procurement during the pre-decision phase of an EIA. In the present study, the opportunities for integrating green procurement at the stage of EIA are associated with the integration of project planning and EIA. Future research should investigate the mechanism through which the link can be established. - Highlights: ► This paper identifies opportunities to link EIA and green procurement. ► Pre-decision phase of EIA could be appropriate for planning green procurement. ► Future research should investigate the mechanism for establishing the link.

  13. EIA and green procurement: Opportunities for strengthening their coordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uttam, Kedar, E-mail: kedar@kth.se [Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Faith-Ell, Charlotta, E-mail: charlotta.faith-ell@WSPGroup.se [WSP Sweden (Sweden); Balfors, Berit, E-mail: balfors@kth.se [Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-02-15

    EIA plays an important role in enhancing the environmental performance of the construction sector. In recent years, the construction sector has been developing green procurement practices. Green procurement is a process that involves the incorporation of environmental requirements during the procurement of services and products. However, discussion on green procurement is rarely seen during the EIA phase. This paper addresses possible opportunities for improving the coordination between EIA and green procurement within the construction sector. The linking of EIA and green procurement has been postulated in the paper as an aid to strengthen the coordination between project planning and implementation. The paper is based on a literature review and is an outcome of an on-going research project concerning EIA and green procurement. This study indicated that it would be appropriate to introduce green procurement during the pre-decision phase of an EIA. In the present study, the opportunities for integrating green procurement at the stage of EIA are associated with the integration of project planning and EIA. Future research should investigate the mechanism through which the link can be established. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper identifies opportunities to link EIA and green procurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pre-decision phase of EIA could be appropriate for planning green procurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Future research should investigate the mechanism for establishing the link.

  14. A moment in time: AIDS and business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, D E; Rosenfield, A

    2000-09-01

    Business has transformed the planet. But this gives it new responsibilities. People now expect business leaders to lead--and not just respond when things go wrong. HIV/AIDS is a global problem, with over 16.3 million people now thought to have died of the disease (Global Summary of HIV/AIDS Epidemic, UNAIDS, December 1999). Without action now, the pandemic will worsen, health services will come under relentless pressure and the number of people dying will increase exponentially. So why should business sit up and take notice? First: money. AIDS is slowly strangling many businesses and economies--and in a global market, everyone eventually suffers. Without profit, there is no business--so the business community needs to act to protect its bottom line. Second: people. Over 80% of those dying are in their 20s, 30s, and 40s. Businesses are losing workers and customers, and human networks that have taken decades to build. Third: imagination. Business is inventive, creative and fast-moving. It has the opportunity to use these strengths for the benefit of the wider community. It's time to pit business ideas (and some money, too) against the threat of AIDS. The course of the AIDS epidemic is not inevitable. The world's businesses have the skills and intensity to make a measurable difference, especially if they find public sector and NGO partners with whom they share a vision. A focused, coordinated, results-driven effort will hit AIDS hard. The HIV virus moves fast (and is mutating all the time). Business has the opportunity to make a difference. It must grasp this opportunity. And grasp if fast.

  15. Modeling Coordination Problems in a Music Ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimodt-Møller, Søren R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers in general terms, how musicians are able to coordinate through rational choices in a situation of (temporary) doubt in an ensemble performance. A fictitious example involving a 5-bar development in an unknown piece of music is analyzed in terms of epistemic logic, more...... to coordinate. Such coordination can be described in terms of Michael Bacharach's theory of variable frames as an aid to solve game theoretic coordination problems....

  16. An analysis of FDA-approved drugs for infectious disease: HIV/AIDS drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinch, Michael S; Patridge, Eric

    2014-10-01

    HIV/AIDS is one of the worst pandemics in history. According to the World Health Organization, 26 million people have died since 1981 - 1.6 million in 2012 alone. The dramatic rise in HIV/AIDS mobilized a swift and impressive coordination among governmental, academic and private sector organizations to identify the virus and develop new treatments. Herein, we assess the arsenal of 28 new molecular entities (NMEs) targeting HIV/AIDS. These data demonstrate that the first approval of zidovudine presaged an expansion of the antiviral repertoire over the following years. Whereas the rate of HIV/AIDS NMEs is rapidly declining, so is the number of organizations developing NMEs. We speculate that decisions to abandon further research reflect, in part, growing costs and time required for development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Poisson Coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Ying; Hu, Shi-Min

    2013-02-01

    Harmonic functions are the critical points of a Dirichlet energy functional, the linear projections of conformal maps. They play an important role in computer graphics, particularly for gradient-domain image processing and shape-preserving geometric computation. We propose Poisson coordinates, a novel transfinite interpolation scheme based on the Poisson integral formula, as a rapid way to estimate a harmonic function on a certain domain with desired boundary values. Poisson coordinates are an extension of the Mean Value coordinates (MVCs) which inherit their linear precision, smoothness, and kernel positivity. We give explicit formulas for Poisson coordinates in both continuous and 2D discrete forms. Superior to MVCs, Poisson coordinates are proved to be pseudoharmonic (i.e., they reproduce harmonic functions on n-dimensional balls). Our experimental results show that Poisson coordinates have lower Dirichlet energies than MVCs on a number of typical 2D domains (particularly convex domains). As well as presenting a formula, our approach provides useful insights for further studies on coordinates-based interpolation and fast estimation of harmonic functions.

  18. Coordinating International Response to Emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bice, S. D.

    2007-01-01

    Pandemic disease, natural disasters and terrorism can affect thousands of people in a relatively short period of time anywhere in the world. Our recent international experience with hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis and infectious diseases (AIDS, TB and highly pathogenic avian influenza) show us that we must respond with a coordinated approach or we will fail the very people we intend to help. Nations from around the world are often eager to send assistance to the site of a disaster, but coordinating the incoming aid is more often flawed and imprecise than it must be in order to save lives and mitigate suffering. How can any one country, suffering from a horrendous calamity coordinate the incoming aid from around the world? Can any one agency hope to coordinate the myriad nation's response let alone that of the hundreds of non-governmental organizations? Currently, the answer is sadly, no. The purpose of this presentation is not to recommend one over the many international bodies which claim to oversee humanitarian assistance; the purpose of this presentation is to discuss the elements of only one aspect of the overall response effort: public health and medical response coordination. Public health response is of course different than a purely medical response. Traditionally, in a natural disaster, immediate public health concerns center around water, sewerage/waste disposal, potential for disease outbreaks, etc, whereas medical response concentrates on triage, saving those who can be saved, patching up the injured, and to a lesser extent, primary care to the survivors. In order to avoid political controversy, this presentation will use the example of Hurricane Iniki in Hawaii, September 1992, to illustrate key concepts. The State of Hawaii is no stranger to natural disasters. Their emergency response mechanisms are well honed, exercised and quite capable. However, the local community leaders on Kauai Island went thru each of the following phases before they

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Treatment for HIV/AIDS at South Africa's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the public sector of HIV/AIDS care and to reserve more 'slots' in the national AIDS ... largest private-sector companies in South Africa have access to HIV/AIDS care ..... treatment goals is less than the limited media coverage might lead us to ...

  20. Politics of coordination in environmental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper; Kjærgård, Bente; Jelsøe, Erling

    2015-01-01

    on environmental policy integration, for studying the efforts and paradoxes in sector co-ordination, in order to reflect on the pro et cons of integrative approaches to environment and public health. We will give an overview of the various approaches to coordinative efforts from an international to a national...

  1. 78 FR 57128 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... agencies and the private sector, to effectively address the national priorities for non-industrial private... Coordinating Committee Web site at http://www.fs.fed.us/spf/coop/frcc/ . Visitors are encouraged to call ahead... Resource Coordinating Committee can be found by visiting the Committee's Web site at: http://www.fs.fed.us...

  2. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    -, č. 274 (2005), s. 1-26 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp274.pdf

  3. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2008), s. 308-327 ISSN 0899-8256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : global games * coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2008

  4. Private Sector Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    New and independent donors are adding their own twist to the experiences of receiving ODA and their examples are already inspiring the DAC, UN, and other multiple- and bilateral aid relationships. Rather than competition among development paradigms, I see negotiations of ideas of development and ...... and a co-existence of a multiplicity of approaches. I will argue that a trend of new and old actors inspiring each other will continue and the explicit focus on private sector development is just a first outcome....

  5. Aid Policy and the Macroeconomic Management of Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to the UNU-WIDER special issue of World Development on aid policy and the macroeconomic management of aid. We provide an overview of the 10 studies, grouping them under three sub-themes: the aid–growth relationship; the supply-side of aid (including its level, volatility......, and coordination of donors); and the macroeconomic framework around aid. The studies in the special issue demonstrate the centrality of research methodology, the importance of disaggregation, and the need to account for country-specific situations and problems. This introduction concludes that the sometimes “over...

  6. Educational aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkeit, S.

    1989-01-01

    Educational aids include printed matter, aural media, visual media, audiovisual media and objects. A distinction is made between learning aids, which include blackboards, overhead projectors, flipcharts, wallcharts and pinboards, and learning aids, which include textbooks, worksheets, documentation and experimental equipment. The various aids are described and their use explained. The aids available at the School for Nuclear Technology of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre are described

  7. Industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The industrial sector is categorized as related to among others, the provision of technical and engineering services, supply of products, testing and troubleshooting of parts, systems and industrial plants, quality control and assurance as well as manufacturing and processing. A total of 161 entities comprising 47 public agencies and 114 private companies were selected for the study in this sector. The majority of the public agencies, 87 %, operate in Peninsular Malaysia. The remainders were located in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study on both public agencies and private companies are presented in subsequent sections of this chapter. (author)

  8. Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)

  9. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    Overview From a technical perspective, CMS has been in “beam operation” state since 6th November. The detector is fully closed with all components operational and the magnetic field is normally at the nominal 3.8T. The UXC cavern is normally closed with the radiation veto set. Access to UXC is now only possible during downtimes of LHC. Such accesses must be carefully planned, documented and carried out in agreement with CMS Technical Coordination, Experimental Area Management, LHC programme coordination and the CCC. Material flow in and out of UXC is now strictly controlled. Access to USC remains possible at any time, although, for safety reasons, it is necessary to register with the shift crew in the control room before going down.It is obligatory for all material leaving UXC to pass through the underground buffer zone for RP scanning, database entry and appropriate labeling for traceability. Technical coordination (notably Stephane Bally and Christoph Schaefer), the shift crew and run ...

  10. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    of the main relationships; (ii) estimating the impact of aid on a range of final and intermediate outcomes; and (iii) quantifying a simplied representation of the full structural form, where aid impacts on growth through key intermediate outcomes. A coherent picture emerges: aid stimulates growth and reduces......Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model...... poverty through physical capital investment and improvements in health....

  11. Coordinating controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-07-15

    While physics Laboratories are having to absorb cuts in resources, the machines they rely on are becoming more and more complex, requiring increasingly sophisticated systems. Rather than being a resourceful engineer or physicist able to timber together solutions in his 'backyard', the modern controls specialist has become a professional in his own right. Because of possible conflicts between increasing sophistication on one hand and scarcer resources on the other, there was felt a need for more contacts among controls specialists to exchange experiences, coordinate development and discuss 'family problems', away from meetings where the main interest is on experimental physics.

  12. Coordinated unbundling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram; Zabala-Iturriagagoitia, Jon Mikel

    2013-01-01

    Public procurement for innovation is a matter of using public demand to trigger innovation. Empirical studies have demonstrated that demand-based policy instruments can be considered to be a powerful tool in stimulating innovative processes among existing firms; however, the existing literature has...... not focused on the role this policy instrument can play in the promotion of (knowledge-intensive) entrepreneurship. This paper investigates this link in more detail and introduces the concept of coordinated unbundling as a strategy that can facilitate this purpose. We also present a framework on how...

  13. Coordinating controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    While physics Laboratories are having to absorb cuts in resources, the machines they rely on are becoming more and more complex, requiring increasingly sophisticated systems. Rather than being a resourceful engineer or physicist able to timber together solutions in his 'backyard', the modern controls specialist has become a professional in his own right. Because of possible conflicts between increasing sophistication on one hand and scarcer resources on the other, there was felt a need for more contacts among controls specialists to exchange experiences, coordinate development and discuss 'family problems', away from meetings where the main interest is on experimental physics

  14. AIDS (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  15. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...... and institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  16. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    2010-01-01

    Operational Experience At the end of the first full-year running period of LHC, CMS is established as a reliable, robust and mature experiment. In particular common systems and infrastructure faults accounted for <0.6 % CMS downtime during LHC pp physics. Technical operation throughout the entire year was rather smooth, the main faults requiring UXC access being sub-detector power systems and rack-cooling turbines. All such problems were corrected during scheduled technical stops, in the shadow of tunnel access needed by the LHC, or in negotiated accesses or access extensions. Nevertheless, the number of necessary accesses to the UXC averaged more than one per week and the technical stops were inevitably packed with work packages, typically 30 being executed within a few days, placing a high load on the coordination and area management teams. It is an appropriate moment for CMS Technical Coordination to thank all those in many CERN departments and in the Collaboration, who were involved in CMS techni...

  17. Traditional healers, HIV/AIDS and company programmes in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional healers' diverse and fluid beliefs about HIV and AIDS are ... healing practices could be promoted in workplace responses to HIV/AIDS. ... as help coordinate a wider and more effective response to the HIV epidemic in South Africa.

  18. Energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Within the framework of assessing the state of the environment in Lebanon, this chapter describes primary energy demand, the electricity generating sector and environmental impacts arising from the energy sector.Apart from hydropower and traditional energy sources, which together represent 1.7% of energy consumption, all energy in Lebanon derives from imported petroleum products and some coal.Tables present the imports of different petroleum products (Gasoil, Kerosene, fuel oil, coal etc...), their use, the energy balance and demand.Energy pricing and pricing policies, formal and informal electricity generations in Lebanon are described emphasized by tables. The main environmental impacts are briefly summarized. Thermal power stations give rise to emissions of Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), particulates, oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) and CO/CO 2 from combustion of primary fuel informally generated power from both industry and domestic consumption produce particulate materials and emissions of NO x and SO 2 projected emissions of SO 2 from the power sector with the present generating capacity and with the new combined cycle power plants in operation are shown. Other environmental impacts are described. Recommendations for supply and environment policy are presented

  19. Elements of a Knowledge Management Guide for Public Sector Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mark Cameron

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the factors that are critical to the success of public (government) sector knowledge management initiatives and the lessons from private sector knowledge management and organizational learning that apply in the public sector. The goal was to create a concise guide, based on research-validated success factors, to aid government…

  20. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2013-01-01

    The focus of Run Coordination during LS1 is to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities, to smooth interactions between subsystems and to ensure that all are ready in time to resume operations in 2015 with a fully calibrated and understood detector. After electricity and cooling were restored to all equipment, at about the time of the last CMS week, recommissioning activities were resumed for all subsystems. On 7 October, DCS shifts began 24/7 to allow subsystems to remain on to facilitate operations. That culminated with the Global Run in November (GriN), which   took place as scheduled during the week of 4 November. The GriN has been the first centrally managed operation since the beginning of LS1, and involved all subdetectors but the Pixel Tracker presently in a lab upstairs. All nights were therefore dedicated to long stable runs with as many subdetectors as possible. Among the many achievements in that week, three items may be highlighted. First, the Strip...

  1. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2013-01-01

    Since the LHC ceased operations in February, a lot has been going on at Point 5, and Run Coordination continues to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities. In the last months, the Pixel detector was extracted and is now stored in the pixel lab in SX5; the beam pipe has been removed and ME1/1 removal has started. We regained access to the vactank and some work on the RBX of HB has started. Since mid-June, electricity and cooling are back in S1 and S2, allowing us to turn equipment back on, at least during the day. 24/7 shifts are not foreseen in the next weeks, and safety tours are mandatory to keep equipment on overnight, but re-commissioning activities are slowly being resumed. Given the (slight) delays accumulated in LS1, it was decided to merge the two global runs initially foreseen into a single exercise during the week of 4 November 2013. The aim of the global run is to check that we can run (parts of) CMS after several months switched off, with the new VME PCs installed, th...

  2. Sectoral assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J M; Fenhann, J; Gorham, R; Makundi, W; Sathaye, J

    1999-09-01

    This publication contains five papers that were written as a part of the GEF project, The Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations. The main goal of the project was to assess the greenhouse gas reductions and incremental costs of mitigation option sin Ecuador, Argentina, Senegal, Mauritius, Vietnam, Indonesia, Estonia and Hungary. In addition, regional studies were conducted for the Andean Pact nations and Southern Africa to assess various aspects of regional co-operation in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The GEF study also involved the development of a methodological framework for climate change assessment, with a special emphasis on developing countries. These guidelines have been published in a separate document, Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations: Methodological Guidelines. The papers in this publication focus on various methodological and policy aspects of greenhouse gas mitigation at the sectoral level, and are outgrowth of work performed on other parts of the GEF project. (au)

  3. IGO-NGO relations and HIV / AIDS: innovation or stalemate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, C; Soderholm, P

    1995-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the emergence of transnational cooperative structures in response to AIDS. Of chief concern are efforts to create and maintain links among and between intergovernmental organizations (IGO) in the UN system and the many heterogenous organizations usually included under the nongovernmental organization (NGO) label. After discussing the nature of the AIDS issue, the authors focus upon the various ways of framing the AIDS issue and the effort by the Global Program on AIDS to coordinate IGO and NGO activities. In closing, they identify lessons and insights of broader applicability emanating from the AIDS case. The paper discusses the nature of AIDS, AIDS as a medical problem, AIDS as a human rights problem, AIDS as a socioeconomic problem, forging IGO-NGO links, an international NGO forum, informal networking, NGOs and AIDS-related foreign assistance, representation, formal versus informal coordination, costs of network building, degree of organization, and expertise.

  4. Shared Rights--Shared Responsibilities. European Consultation on Collaboration between Government Sectors, Nongovernmental Organizations and Ethnic Minority Organizations in AIDS Prevention, Support and Care (London, United Kingdom, October 5-9, 1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz Foundation, London (England).

    A consultation was sponsored by the European Commission, the World Health Organization's Global Programme on AIDS, and the United Kingdom Department of Health to explore the specific needs of ethnic minority communities in European countries for culturally and linguistically appropriate Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune…

  5. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  6. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  7. 15 CFR 1160.5 - Coordination/cooperation with other Federal agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion of Private Sector Industrial Technology Partnerships § 1160.5 Coordination/cooperation...

  8. Civil-Military Engagement: An Empirical Account of Humanitarian Perceptions of Civil-Military Coordination During the Response to Typhoon Haiyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollettino, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to identify how humanitarian actors in natural disasters coordinate (or communicate) with the military to identify the needs of disaster-affected populations, identify how coordination should be undertaken for the delivery of relief goods, perceive the effectiveness of such coordination, perceive the role that training played in preparation for coordinating with the military and the effectiveness of this training, and view the overall civil-military engagement and its implications for the independence of the humanitarian sector. A survey instrument focused on participant perceptions of the civil-military engagement in response to Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines was sent to country directors and agency leads who played a role in the response. Although the data supported anecdotal accounts that the coordination between civilian and military actors during the disaster relief efforts in Typhoon Haiyan worked well, they also revealed that fewer than half of the respondents were familiar with the Guidelines on the Use of Foreign Military and Civil Defence Assets in Disaster Relief (the "Oslo Guidelines") and only 12% of respondents thought that the Oslo Guidelines were used to develop organizational policy on humanitarian aid agency engagement with military actors. Humanitarians felt that international militaries and the Philippines Armed Forces played an important role in ensuring that aid reached people in need, particularly in the early days of the response. However, less than half of the respondents were familiar with the Oslo Guidelines.

  9. ATHENA AIDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, R.K.; Callow, R.A.; Larson, T.K.; Ransom, V.H.

    1987-01-01

    An expert system called the ATHENA AIDE that assists in the preparation of input models for the ATHENA thermal-hydraulics code has been developed by researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The ATHENA AIDE uses a menu driven graphics interface and rule-based and object-oriented programming techniques to assist users of the ATHENA code in performing the tasks involved in preparing the card image input files required to run ATHENA calculations. The ATENA AIDE was developed and currently runs on single-user Xerox artificial intelligence workstations. Experience has shown that the intelligent modeling environment provided by the ATHENA AIDE expert system helps ease the modeling task by relieving the analyst of many mundane, repetitive, and error prone procedures involved in the construction of an input model. This reduces errors in the resulting models, helps promote standardized modeling practices, and allows models to be constructed more quickly than was previously possible

  10. HIV / AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relations Cyber Infrastructure Computational Biology Equal Employment Opportunity Ethics Global Research Office of Mission Integration and Financial Management Strategic Planning Workforce Effectiveness Workplace Solutions Technology Transfer Intellectual Property Division of AIDS ...

  11. Competition for export markets and the allocation of foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthel, Fabian; Neumayer, Eric; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    and services to a specific recipient country at both stages of their allocation of aid for economic infrastructure and production sectors. By contrast, evidence for export competition driving aid allocation is lacking for more altruistic donors and for aid in social infrastructure....

  12. Sector 7-8 powered up

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    1. Frédéric Gicquel from the Cryogenics for Accelerators Group (AT/ACR) and Anupama Kulkarni from the Magnets and Electrical Systems Group (AT/MEL) at the CERN Control Centre during the powering-up of Sector 7-8. 2. Frédérick Bordry, leader of the Power Converter Group (AB/PO), and Roberto Saban, responsible for coordinating the LHC commissioning (TS/HDO), celebrate the end of the first powering-up of an entire LHC sector: Sector 7-8.

  13. AIDS guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, R

    1986-04-30

    The Sun article, "Employers finding that AIDS in the workplace is a managerial nightmare" (April 3), did not accurately portray the status of AIDS in the workplace. The AIDS virus, HTLV III, is transmitted by body fluids, primarily semen and blood, and there is no known risk of transmitting the virus by casual contact in the workplace. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) released guidelines for child care workers last August. Guidelines on preventing transmission of AIDS in the workplace were issued by CDC in November 1985. These guidelines specifically discussed health care, personal service, and food service workers. The recommendations were against routine screening. Furthermore, employment should not be restricted on the basis of a positive HTLV III antibody test. A person with HTLV III infection should be exempt from the workplace only if there are circumstances interfering with job performance. In Maryland, the Governor's Task Force on AIDS has gone on record as endorsing CDC guidelines related to employment. Furthermore, the task force condemns discrimination based on the disease AIDS, AIDS Related Complex (ARC), or HTLV III infection. Increasingly AIDS patients are being considered legally disabled and therefore are protected by federal and state laws prohibiting discrimination on the basis of a handicap. Marylanders who are subjected to mandatory HTLV III screening in the workplace, or if discriminated against on the basis of HTLV III inefction, should contact the Maryland Commission on Human Relations, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, or the Health Education Resource Organization (HERO). All 3 of these resources guarantee confidentiality. It is only by employees reporting incidents that a nightmare in the workplace can be avoided in Maryland. full text

  14. 77 FR 260 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... USDA and the broader forestry sector, with specific focus on owners of non-industrial private... Coordinator, by phone at (202) 205-1376 or by email at [email protected]us or Ted Beauvais, FRCC Designted Federal Officer, by phone (202) 205-1190 or by email at [email protected]us . Individuals who use...

  15. 78 FR 6806 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    .... Department of Agriculture, and coordination with State agencies and the private sector, to effectively address the national priorities for non- industrial private forest land. The purpose of the meeting is... [email protected]us . All comments, including names and addresses when provided, are placed in the record...

  16. Standardization of tests of quality control with the aid of quality tools used in management systems of processes at the Sector of Nuclear Medicine of the University Hospital of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Cas, E.V.; Weis, G.L.; Bahunhardt, T.; Shuch, L.A.; Lopes, L.F.D.

    2009-01-01

    This work tries to standardize the tests of quality control at the Sector of Nuclear Medicine at the University Hospital of Santa Maria, using tools of the quality used in systems of management of processes such as, PDCA, brainstorming, diagram of cause and effect (Ishikawa), 5W2H, verifying list and fluxogram. The tests of quality control refer to the scintillation camera (center of rotation, intrinsic uniformity, intrinsic spatial resolution and linearity, energy resolution for each radionuclide), to the dose calibrator (accuracy, reproducibility and linearity), to the Geiger-Mueller detector (reproducibility of the detector). (author)

  17. AIDS: there's hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    In 1993, 10 years after realizing that AIDS posed a threat to the future of mankind, social mobilization will improve the odds against AIDS. The objective is to create awareness about the virus, and to affect positive behavioral change through advocacy, communication, and grass-roots actions. The first goal is to change the societal attitude about the status of youth and women in order to understand that gender inequality fuels the pandemic. They are the most vulnerable groups, therefore their economic and social power must be improved. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women constitute a platform for broader action by governmental, nongovernmental, and religious institutions. In addition, these organizations need strong allies in society: 1) the media, which can communicate the importance of youth, women, and attitudes in the epidemic; 2) religious leaders, who can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes as well as support and care for AIDS-affected individuals and families; 3) policy makers, who can be crucial in changing existing policies and altering the allocation of government resources to youth and women; 4) human rights organizations, which play an important role in promoting the concept of health as a human right and for enhancing the understanding of AIDS in the context of discrimination and poverty; 5) the private sector, including commerce and industry, which can promote changes in attitude within the work force and AIDS prevention initiatives; and 6) parent-teacher groups and models for youth, who can educate them about socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior and can empower them to make responsible behavior choices.

  18. HEALTH SECTOR ACTIONS TO IMPROVE NUTRITION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reducing malnutrition-related maternal and childhood morbidity and mortality in Africa requires a systematic and coordinated strategy. This paper discusses a health sector strategy which includes: i) advocating for action in nutrition at all levels; ii) integration of the essential nutrition actions into six key contact points ...

  19. CASE in CERN's accelerator sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.; Cabas-Alonso, A.; Chevrier, F.

    1992-01-01

    As in the software industry where computer aided software engineering (CASE) methodologies and tools are commonly used, CERN endeavours to introduce this technology to improve the efficiency of designing, producing and maintaining software. A large project is currently under development in the administrative area whereas a dedicated group had been set up to evaluate state of the art techniques for software development relating to physics experiments. A similar activity, though on a smaller scale, has been initiated in the accelerator sector also in view of the large amount of software that will be required by the LEP200 and the LHC projects. This paper briefly describes this technology and gives an account of current experience with the use of CASE methods and tools for technical projects in the accelerator sector at CERN. (author)

  20. AIDS wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several evidences were presented during the meeting in London entitled "Origins of AIDS and the HIV epidemic," debating the idea that AIDS was an accidental result of a polio vaccination campaign conducted by a virologist, Hilary Koprowski, and colleagues in the late 1950s among thousands of people in the Belgian Congo. The meeting carefully examined the CHAT theory presented by a writer, Edward Hooper, in his book "The River" and has raised questions on the correlation between vaccination sites and early records of HIV-1, and on the estimated amount of HIV particles that would get through each stage of the process of creating CHAT. Overall, the meeting agreed to reject the CHAT theory of AIDS for it has no basis, since Koprowski and colleagues denied the use of chimpanzee kidneys, which Hooper openly suggests in his book. The meeting noted that the disease's origins remain a mystery.

  1. Competition for Export Markets and the Allocation of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthel, Fabian; Neumeyer, Erich; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    We account for the competition for export markets among the donor countries of foreign aid by analyzing spatial dependence in aid allocation. We employ sector-specific aid data, distinguishing between first and second stage decisions on the selection of recipient countries and the amount of aid...... allocated to selected recipients. We find that the five largest donors react to aid giving by other donors with whom they compete in terms of exporting goods and services to a specific recipient country at both stages of their allocation of aid for economic infrastructure and productive sectors. By contrast......, evidence for export competition driving aid allocation is lacking for more altruistic donors and for aid in social infrastructure....

  2. Mobilizing the private sector. Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz-tabor, L

    1993-12-01

    The national diarrheal disease control program has made progress against diarrheal illness in Indonesia, but diarrhea still accounts for 130,000 deaths of under-5 year olds annually. The potential of the private sector had been virtually untapped until the PRITECH Project designed and implemented a private sector based program to complement government efforts to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality related to diarrhea. PRITECH wanted to motivate commercial firms to invest the capital necessary to commercialize oral rehydration salts (ORS) so that program self-sufficiency would be maximized over the long term without depending upon donor support. Sections describe the lack of commercial sector ORS promotion, supply and demand factors, raising interest in ORS, conditions for change, the potential market for ORS, demand, production capacity, previous collaborative efforts, areas for improvement, PRITECH's role as catalyst, coordination with commercial companies, marketing workshops, collaboration with the Indonesian Medical Association, the handwashing campaign, and program impact. Although the program has been in place for just 1 year, sales of ORS have increased along with the degree of sustainable collaboration among local institutions. The author stresses that for the model to be successfully replicated elsewhere, the government, medical and pediatric associations, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, groups which can promote oral rehydration therapy, and opinion leaders in the medical community must be involved. Finally, note is made that the image of ORS must be improved and that the work of the public and commercial sectors can be complementary.

  3. Non-traditional Oxidants in Preparative Coordination Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukushkin, Vadim Yu; Kukushkin, Yurii N.

    1986-10-01

    The application of nitrosonium and arenediazonium salts, carbenium, silver(I), and mercury(II) ions, protic acids, and amine oxides as oxidants in preparative coordination chemistry is examined. Specific examples illustrate which problems in the field of the synthesis and reactions of coordination compounds can be solved with the aid of these oxidants. The bibliography includes 158 references.

  4. 50 CFR 82.7 - Coordination with States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Application for Grants § 82.7 Coordination with States... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coordination with States. 82.7 Section 82.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  5. Making the connections: AIDS and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Anna-Marie

    2006-01-01

    Acknowledging AIDS as a crosscutting development issue, a Zambian rural water supply project that provides safe accessible water to rural communities embarked on a new initiative to mainstream AIDS into the water sector. The work of providing safe water takes the predominantly male workforce away from their spouses and families, into the rural villages of Zambia's Eastern Province, for long periods of time. With an HIV prevalence rate of 16.1%, the risk of HIV exposure exists for both employees and rural villagers. AIDS mainstreaming activities were designed to target both groups. An AIDS mainstreaming strategy was developed by identifying components that could be influenced in the external domain (the organization's usual work) and the internal domain (the workplace). Basic questions were addressed such as: how does AIDS affect the organization, how might the usual work aggravate susceptibility to HIV infection, and where is the comparative advantage? A workplace program including peer education, employee health education (including condoms) and a workplace policy was established for employees. For the target population, a series of five messages connecting safe water and AIDS was developed and disseminated through educational drama, community meetings and trainings, and integrated into the regular water, sanitation and hygiene activities. As an efficient utilization of resources that makes a broad impact, AIDS mainstreaming does not change the sector's mandate but takes advantage of the extensive geographic coverage and natural distribution system of water projects to disseminate AIDS information and make linkages with AIDS partners.

  6. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences...

  7. Radiotracer study of the fate and persistence of organic fungicides used as seed dressing on grain. Part of a coordinated programme of isotopic tracer aided studies of foreign chemical residues in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghu, K.

    1976-12-01

    Radiotracer-aided studies were made of the fate and persistence of Thiram, used as a seed dresser and Ziram used as a foliar spray and their effects on soil fertility and plant growth. Thiram applied as a seed dresser had no inhibitory effect on (a) seedling height and rhizosphere microflora of barley, (b) soil microflora, (c) nodulation of cowpea plants. The uptake of 35 S radioactivity at 20-day stage was 0.3% of the total applied as 35 S thiram. Thiram as such was not present in barley or maize plants at any of the growth stages up to grain formulation but was converted into DDC-glucoside, DDC-alamine, fungicide X and TTCA. The quantity of these decreased in barley and maize with time and were in negligible amounts at grain stage. The sulphur from thiram found its way into sulphur-containing metabolites like protein, amino acids, sulfolipids, etc. Ziram, a foliar spray fungicide was also converted into DDC-conjugates and the amounts of residue were negligible at harvest time both in rice and groundnut. Thiram degraded more rapidly in unsterilized soils than in sterilized soil, thus indicating biodegradation. The fungicide is more persistent in sandy than in laterite and alluvial soils. Microbial degradation of thiram was shown by comparing persistence of 35 S thiram in sterilized and unsterilized soils. A Pseudomonas sp. isolated from soil was capable of degrading thiram and ziram and DDC-aminobutyric acid was the major polar metabolite. The appearance of similar degradation products with these dialkyl dithiocarbamates indicated that they have some common metabolic pathway

  8. Governance Strategies and Welfare Effects: Vertical Integration and Contracts in the Catfish Sector in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Using an original dataset from the Vietnamese catfish sector, we study the impact of vertical coordination options on household welfare and the implications of different stages of vertical coordination for the success of the whole sector. The welfare gain from contract farming and employment on p...

  9. Isotope Tracer-Aided Studies of Agrochemical-Biota Interactions in Soil and Water. Short Communications and Report of the Second Combined Meeting of Participants in Two Co-ordinated Research Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    The importance of soil and water quality to agriculture and fisheries is self-evident. Soil and water ecosystems have a certain capacity to accept and degrade agrochemical residues. It is generally the microflora which determines this capacity. The residues can affect critical microbial processes such as heterotrophic activity, algal primary production, nitrification, and nitrogen fixation. Many methods have been developed to measure the fate and effects of these chemicals in the systems. Isotopic labelling is an essential tool in this measuring. Tracers are used not only to estimate the fate and conversion of the chemicals but also to measure by labelled substrate techniques their impact on the biota. The present document illustrates these different aspects. Pew measuring techniques have, however, found general acceptance. The great variety in methods hampers obtaining comparable data. The report stresses the need to seek more uniformity in methodology for estimating agrochemical residue - biota interactions in soil and aquatic ecosystems.This is a progress report containing short communications or abstracts of the papers presented at the second meeting of the Joint FAO/IAEA Coordinated research programmes on agrochemical residue - biota interactions in soil and aquatic ecosystems which was held 23-27 October 1978 in Burnaby, B.C., Canada. The importance of soil and water quality to agriculture and fisheries is self-evident. Soil and water ecosystems have a certain capacity to accept and degrade agrochemical residues. It is generally the microflora which determines this capacity. The residues can affect critical microbial processes such as heterotrophic activity, algal primary production, nitrification, and nitrogen fixation. Many methods have been developed to measure the fate and effects of these chemicals in the systems. Isotopic labelling is an essential tool in this measuring. Tracers are used not only to estimate the fate and conversion of the chemicals but

  10. Tactile Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaramossadat Homayuni

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Tactile aids, which translate sound waves into vibrations that can be felt by the skin, have been used for decades by people with severe/profound hearing loss to enhance speech/language development and improve speechreading.The development of tactile aids dates from the efforts of Goults and his co-workers in the 1920s; Although The power supply was too voluminous and it was difficult to carry specially by children, it was too huge and heavy to be carried outside the laboratories and its application was restricted to the experimental usage. Nowadays great advances have been performed in producing this instrument and its numerous models is available in markets around the world.

  11. JPRS Report, Epidemiology, AIDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    Partial Contents: AIDS in Burundi, Rwanda AIDS Situation in Country Examined, Estimated Over 750,000 HIV Positive, In 3 Years 4 Million May Be AIDS Carriers, Events at National AIDS Convention Analyzed, Senior Army...

  12. Sector Information Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fishing sectors were established in the Greater Atlantic region in 2010 under catch share management initiatives. Sector data kept at GARFO is mostly a collection of...

  13. Certified standards and vertical coordination in aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the interaction between food standards and vertical coordination in the Vietnamese pangasius sector. For farmers and processors alike, the adoption of standards is motivated by a desire to improve market access by ensuring high quality supply. Instead of encouraging the applic......This paper explores the interaction between food standards and vertical coordination in the Vietnamese pangasius sector. For farmers and processors alike, the adoption of standards is motivated by a desire to improve market access by ensuring high quality supply. Instead of encouraging...... the application of standards and contract farming, processing companies prefer to vertically integrate primary production largely due to concerns over the stable supply of pangasius with satisfactory quality and safety attributes. These tendencies increase the market dominance of industrial farming and worsen...

  14. Public Sector Expatriate Managers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenner, Charles, R., Jr.; Selmer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Although public sector expatriates are becoming increasingly common, research on them is very limited. There is reason to believe that the situation for expatriates from the public sector may be different than for those from the private sector. This study investigated U.S. Department of Defense a...

  15. Recruitment and retention strategies for public sector optometrists in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasidh Ramson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, there is a paucity of optometrists serving the needs of the larger public sector. KwaZulu-Natal is one of the most densely populated provinces and home to several of the poorest districts. Despite an optometry school in the province, and with a lack of compulsory community service for new graduates, more optometrists are needed to serve the public sector. While studies on the recruitment and retention of medical and allied health professionals have been conducted, limited evidence exists on work trends of public sector optometrists. Methods: A cross-sectional study design using both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was used. All public sector optometrists and local district health co-ordinators in the province were contacted, with an 80% (41 out of 51 and 75% (9 out of 12 response rate, respectively. Questionnaires containing demographic, recruitment, retention and open-ended questions were distributed by post, fax and email and via an online survey to both groups. Telephonic interviews were also conducted using semi-structured techniques. Frequency distributions, Fisher’s exact test and odds ratios were used to statistically describe the demographic data, while qualitative responses were recorded and analysed for commonly occurring themes. Results: The present public sector optometry workforce comprises mainly young (73%, black (70%, women (66%. They chose to work in the public sector to ‘make a difference’ and were attracted by ‘good working hours’ and ‘job security’. Fifty-three percent of optometrists work in the public sector due to a study bursary, for which there was a statistically significant association for race (p = 0.01, gender (p = 0.05 and background origin (p = 0.05. To aid their retention in public service, improved salaries, career progression, recognition, improved management relations and improved instrumentation were ranked highest by these optometrists

  16. AIDS and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantola, D; Mann, J

    1995-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a health problem that is inseparable from individual and collective behavior and social forces, particularly linked with societal respect for human rights and dignity. In its second decade, the HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to thrive. Where organized communities have access to adequate information, education, and services, the incidence of infection has begun to decline. Elsewhere, HIV continues to reach new populations and new geographic areas. Lessons learned in more than a decade of prevention work point to new directions for expanding national responses, at a time when the UNAIDS program, to be launched in January 1996, offers opportunities for innovative, broad-based, coordinated, and expanded global action. Prevention activities have shown that the spread of HIV can be effectively reduced. Public health interventions, including providing information and applying prevention methods, reduce the probability of infection, the risk of transmission, and the chances of not accessing appropriate care or support once infection has set in. These are proximal interventions that yield the short-term benefits of the decline of incidence and improved quality and duration of life for those infected. Societal vulnerability translates today into the focus the pandemic has on individuals, communities, and nations that are disadvantaged, marginalized, or discriminated against for reasons of gender, age, race, sexual orientation, economic status, or cultural, religious, or political affiliation. A fully expanded response to HIV/AIDS requires a combination of risk-reduction (proximal) and contextual interventions--those directed at reducing vulnerability through social change to enable people to exert control over their own health. Contextual actions can be implemented in the short term (changing laws, policies, practices that discriminate, promoting human rights, developing the most vulnerable communities) and in the long term (cultural changes, gender equality in

  17. AIDS: Administrative Decisions and Constitutional Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlaw, Paul S.; Kohl, John P.

    1993-01-01

    Review of case law in educational administration, hospitals, correctional institutions, and the military shows that, when risk of AIDS transmission is high, courts will support public sector administrators' decisions. Low risk means such decisions as mandatory blood testing will usually be struck down. (SK)

  18. Telling Successes of Japanese Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Stakeholders of two success story events negotiated an idea of development as individual entrepreneurship. The sixty-five-year-old Japanese Foreign Aid history includes stories of successes told by professionals from developing countries throughout the world. Their stories reflect the cultural...... sector training programs partly financed by Japanese Official development Assistance (ODA)....

  19. Explicitly computing geodetic coordinates from Cartesian coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huaien

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a new form of quartic equation based on Lagrange's extremum law and a Groebner basis under the constraint that the geodetic height is the shortest distance between a given point and the reference ellipsoid. A very explicit and concise formulae of the quartic equation by Ferrari's line is found, which avoids the need of a good starting guess for iterative methods. A new explicit algorithm is then proposed to compute geodetic coordinates from Cartesian coordinates. The convergence region of the algorithm is investigated and the corresponding correct solution is given. Lastly, the algorithm is validated with numerical experiments.

  20. Sectoral Innovation Watch Biotechnology Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enzing, C.

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology has evolved from a single set of technologies in the mid 1970s into a full grown technological field that is the driving force in innovation processes in many industrial sectors (pharmaceutical, medical, agriculture, food, chemical, environment, instruments). Nowadays, biotechnology is

  1. Sectoral Innovation Watch Food and Drinks Sector. Final Sector Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leis, M.; Gijsbers, G.; Zee, F. van der

    2011-01-01

    The food and drinks manufacturing industry is a diverse and complex sector. There are ample possibilities for performance improvement and innovation in the food and drinks industry as well as a variety of challenges ranging from a lack of financial and human resources, fragmented consumer interests

  2. Second sector cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of July, cool-down is starting in the second LHC sector, sector 4-5. The cool down of sector 4-5 may occasionally generate mist at Point 4, like that produced last January (photo) during the cool-down of sector 7-8.Things are getting colder in the LHC. Sector 7-8 has been kept at 1.9 K for three weeks with excellent stability (see Bulletin No. 16-17 of 16 April 2007). The electrical tests in this sector have got opt to a successful start. At the beginning of July the cryogenic teams started to cool a second sector, sector 4-5. At Point 4 in Echenevex, where one of the LHC’s cryogenic plants is located, preparations for the first phase of the cool-down are underway. During this phase, the sector will first be cooled to 80 K (-193°C), the temperature of liquid nitrogen. As for the first sector, 1200 tonnes of liquid nitrogen will be used for the cool-down. In fact, the nitrogen circulates only at the surface in the ...

  3. Isotope tracer-aided studies on the date and significance of insecticides used for the control of rice pests under conditions of Indian agriculture. Coordinate programme on isotopic-tracer-aided studies on the origin and fate of foreign chemical residues in the agricultural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethunathan, N.

    1976-01-01

    Radiotracer-aided studies were made of the fate of insecticides: parathion, benzenehexachloride (BHC) and endrin in rice soils under flooded conditions and the effect of a fungicide benomyl on heterotrophic nitrification. BHC, known for its stability in non-flooded soils and other aerobic environments, decomposed rapidly in microbially-active flooded soils, capable of obtaining Eh of -40 to -100 mV. Moreover the addition of rice straw (a common cultural practice) further accelerated the Eh drop due to enhanced microbial activity and, thereby, BHC degradation. Substantial loss of gamma-BHC also occurred by volatilization from the standing water of flooded soils. The fate of endrin was studied in 8 rice-flooded soils. Endrin decomposed rapidly in most soils, except in a sandy one. Endrin was converted to 6 metabolites in non-sterile samples of laterite, alluvial and pokkali soils as compared to 3 compounds in sterile samples indicating microbial participation. In sandy soils also only 3 compounds were detected and in kari soil 4. The degradation of parathion in flooded soils proceeds by nitrogroup reduction to amino-parathion and by hydrolysis of the P-O-C linkage to P-nitrophenol and diethylthiophosphoric acid. Microorganisms, Penicillium waksmani Zoleski, Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. are involved in both reactions. Organic sources inhibited the parathion hydrolysis but it is unlikely to cause any residue hazards since at the same time nitrogroup reduction is enhanced. Applications of benomyl to the simulated oxidized zone of flooded soils favoured heterotrophic nitrification due to stimulating the proliferation of heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria. This may pose an indirect environmental pollution hazard in addition to the direct toxicity of the fungicide

  4. The politics of public sector change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Peter

    2003-05-01

    As the changes underpinning the Coordinated Care Trials in South Australia have become more apparent, similarities have emerged between the rationalisation of public schooling in the mid 1980s and the transformation of public health in the 1990s. This article aims to discuss the evolution of health services in South Australia and help us answer the question of how best to manage our public and private health infrastructure in a changing economic and social context. Both strategies in education and health share common elements of cost cutting, attempts at improving efficiencies, a flirting with the private sector and the attendant risk of reduced quality of services to the public. This situation in both sectors is indicative of a shift in public policy and a growth in the belief that private management of public sector infrastructure can help resolve the funding crises around our education and health systems.

  5. Animal Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Animal bites: First aid Animal bites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff These guidelines can help you care for a minor animal bite, such ... 26, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-animal-bites/basics/ART-20056591 . Mayo ...

  6. Chest Pain: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Chest pain: First aid Chest pain: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Causes of chest pain can vary from minor problems, such as indigestion ... 26, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-chest-pain/basics/ART-20056705 . Mayo ...

  7. Head Trauma: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Head trauma: First aid Head trauma: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most head trauma involves injuries that are minor and don't require ... 21, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-head-trauma/basics/ART-20056626 . Mayo ...

  8. HIV/AIDS - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - HIV/AIDS ... information on AIDS : AIDS.gov -- www.aids.gov AIDS Info -- aidsinfo.nih.gov The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation -- www.kff.org/hivaids US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/hiv

  9. The emerging fourth sector

    OpenAIRE

    Friis, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth Sector is a new phenomenon related to dual social and financial value creation, until now not clearly defined with crisp sectoral boundaries and an operationalized definition. The phenomenon is getting increased attention in media, conferences, business schools and by organizations all over the world, and this study intends to explain the macroenvironmental changes that led to the rise of the fourth sector, describe new trends of social value creation in the private ...

  10. The curvature coordinate system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes a concept for a curvature coordinate system on regular curved surfaces from which faceted surfaces with plane quadrangular facets can be designed. The lines of curvature are used as parametric lines for the curvature coordinate system on the surface. A new conjugate set of lin...

  11. Increase coverage of HIV and AIDS services in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bühler Markus

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myanmar is experiencing an HIV epidemic documented since the late 1980s. The National AIDS Programme national surveillance ante-natal clinics had already estimated in 1993 that 1.4% of pregnant women were HIV positive, and UNAIDS estimates that at end 2005 1.3% (range 0.7–2.0% of the adult population was living with HIV. While a HIV surveillance system has been in place since 1992, the programmatic response to the epidemic has been slower to emerge although short- and medium-terms plans have been formulated since 1990. These early plans focused on the health sector, omitted key population groups at risk of HIV transmission and have not been adequately funded. The public health system more generally is severely under-funded. By the beginning of the new decade, a number of organisations had begun working on HIV and AIDS, though not yet in a formally coordinated manner. The Joint Programme on AIDS in Myanmar 2003–2005 was an attempt to deliver HIV services through a planned and agreed strategic framework. Donors established the Fund for HIV/AIDS in Myanmar (FHAM, providing a pooled mechanism for funding and significantly increasing the resources available in Myanmar. By 2006 substantial advances had been made in terms of scope and diversity of service delivery, including outreach to most at risk populations to HIV. More organisations provided more services to an increased number of people. Services ranged from the provision of HIV prevention messages via mass media and through peers from high-risk groups, to the provision of care, treatment and support for people living with HIV. However, the data also show that this scaling up has not been sufficient to reach the vast majority of people in need of HIV and AIDS services. The operating environment constrains activities, but does not, in general, prohibit them. The slow rate of service expansion can be attributed to the burdens imposed by administrative measures, broader constraints on

  12. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceabilit...... and uncertainty during coordinate measurements, 3) Digitalisation and Reverse Engineering. This document contains a short description of each step in the exercise and schemes with room for taking notes of the results.......This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceability...

  13. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  14. HIV/AIDS Coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS Coinfection HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...

  15. Gastroenteritis: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of your stomach and intestines. Common causes are: Viruses. Food or water contaminated by ...

  16. Snakebites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Snakebites: First aid Snakebites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most North American snakes aren't dangerous to humans. Some exceptions include the rattlesnake, coral snake, water moccasin ...

  17. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español HIV and AIDS KidsHealth / For Kids / HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  18. Buying a Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the aids? Start using your hearing aids in quiet surroundings, gradually building up to noisier environments. Then eventually work up to wearing your hearing aids all waking hours. Keep a diary to help you remember your ...

  19. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  20. Aid and AIDS: a delicate cocktail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Reuser, M.

    2008-01-01

    Development assistance targeting health overwhelmingly concentrates on HIV/AIDS. This column argues that that focus neglects critical demographic issues and degrades health infrastructure, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The prime rule for AIDS aid should be “First, do no harm”.

  1. Approaches to state regulation of the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shervashidze, N.; Stojchev, D.

    1995-01-01

    Theory and practice of economical regulation by repaying coefficient and by partial co-ordinated expenses are discussed. The example of England, Ireland, Wales and US are pointed out as showing the features of both approaches being quite interesting for Bulgarian energy sector, facing the introduction of modern economical regulation. The specific character of Bulgarian energy sector is described and some conclusions are drawn concerning appropriate regulating methods. 6 refs. (orig.)

  2. ERP System Implementation: An Oil and Gas Exploration Sector Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alok; Mishra, Deepti

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems provide integration and optimization of various business processes which leads to improved planning and decision quality, smoother coordination between business units resulting in higher efficiency, and quicker response time to customer demands and inquiries. This paper reports challenges, opportunities and outcome of ERP implementation in Oil & Gas exploration sector. This study will facilitate in understanding transition, constraints and implementation of ERP in this sector and also provide guidelines from lessons learned in this regard.

  3. Informal sector shops and AIDS prevention An exploratory social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · FAQ's · News · AJOL jobs · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Contact AJOL · Terms and Conditions of Use.

  4. Chemical and Petrochemical Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This publication is a background document on the global chemical and petrochemical sector for the IEA publication Energy Technology Transitions in Industry (IEA, 2009). It provides further, more detailed information on the methodology and data issues for energy efficiency indicators for the sector. The indicators discussed offer insight regarding the energy efficiency improvement potential in the short- to medium-term (by proven technologies).

  5. Energy sector alliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuade, Owen

    1998-09-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: A changing energy sector; Rationale for the joint venture, merger or acquisition; Mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures by sector; The joint venture process; Key factors for success; Financing the venture; Case studies; The future outlook. (Author)

  6. Competitive intelligence practice in the South African property sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshilidzi E. Nenzhelele

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The South African property sector contributes highly to creating jobs, skills development, poverty reduction and economic growth. Although South Africa dropped in the global competitiveness ranking, the property sector of South Africa remains very competitive. To survive in a competitive sector, firms around the world practice competitive intelligence(CI. Although the use of CI has been examined in other sectors in South Africa, no study on CI practice has been conducted in the property sector. Objectives: The objective of this research was to establish the extent to which the property sector of South Africa practices CI. Method: This research was quantitative in nature and a web-based questionnaire was used to collect data from estate agencies in the South African property sector. Results: The results indicate that the South African property sector is very competitive and estate agencies practice CI to gain competitive advantage and make quality decisions.Moreover, the results reveal that the property sector practice CI legally and ethically. The results indicate that the majority of estate agencies are very small employing at most five employees and make at most 5 million Rands annual turnover. Conclusion: The South African property sector ethically and legally practices CI to gain competitive advantage and to aid in making quality decisions.

  7. Developing countries participation in climate policies - Application to the electric and to the transport sectors in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathy, S.

    2004-03-01

    This PhD thesis is based on the observation that developing countries will not participate in climate policies as long as they perceive them as another constraint on their development. We demonstrate that emission reduction projects realised in DCs under the Kyoto Protocol may have a leverage effect on development by removal of barriers to development. They may also favour the implementation of domestic policies that will attract foreign private investors in projects responding to development priorities of the host country. We show the limits of the Kyoto Protocol concerning the implementation of emission reductions in high inertia sectors (transportation) and the necessity to coordinate climate policies with official development aid flows for the financing of infrastructures in an emerging context of public-private partnership. (author)

  8. Practices and consequences of using humanitarian technologies in volatile aid settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, J.P.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the results of an exploratory study into aid agencies’ use of technologies for security purposes. Since there appears to be a consensus in the aid sector that areas of operations are increasingly dangerous, aid agencies are upgrading their security strategies by adopting

  9. Knowledge management initiatives benefits for the Slovenian public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Colnar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the importance of knowledge management in Slovenian public sector organizations. Knowledge management has received a lot of attention in the past two decades, however in the public sector it is still under-researched. The global financial and economic crisis revealed some important organizational weaknesses in the Republic of Slovenia, some particularly due to the ineffectiveness of the Slovenian public sector, which ranks amongst the worst in the Euro zone. Authors argue that a stronger commitment to knowledge management, which is currently unused in the Slovenian public sector, represents an opportunity to coordinate and exploit public sector organizational knowledge resources. After analysing existing literature, authors have identified examples of good practices from foreign countries that could be partially transferred and adapted into the Slovenian environment. Since the efficient use of knowledge is linked to the performance of public sector organizations, the paper suggests that successful implementation of knowledge management initiatives should result in a more efficient public sector and, indirectly, in improved international public sector competitiveness rankings. This paper is also considered to be important for public sector practitioners and managers, as it proposes implementation of a knowledge management pilot project in Slovenian public sector.

  10. Regional transit coordination guidebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Constant growth in rural areas and extensive suburban development have contributed to increasingly more people needing seamless and adequate public transportation into and from nearby cities. Coordinating existing services or determining the need for...

  11. Supercritical Airfoil Coordinates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rectangular Supercritical Wing (Ricketts) - design and measured locations are provided in an Excel file RSW_airfoil_coordinates_ricketts.xls . One sheet is with Non...

  12. Developmental coordination disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental coordination disorder can lead to: Learning problems Low self-esteem resulting from poor ability at sports and teasing by other children Repeated injuries Weight gain as a result of not wanting to participate ...

  13. Environmental Compliance Issue Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    An order to establish the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for coordination of significant environmental compliance issues to ensure timely development and consistent application of Departmental environmental policy and guidance

  14. Data Management Coordinators (DMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Regional Data Management Coordinators (DMCs) were identified to serve as the primary contact for each region for all Water Quality Framework activities. They will facilitate and communicate information to the necessary individuals at the region and tra

  15. Coordinating Work with Groupware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Jens Kaaber; Simonsen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    One important goal of employing groupware is to make possible complex collaboration between geographically distributed groups. This requires a dual transformation of both technology and work practice. The challenge is to re­duce the complexity of the coordination work by successfully inte....... Using the CSCW frame­work of coordination mechanisms, we have elicited six general factors influencing the integration of the groupware application in two situations....

  16. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, L.; Evans, O.R.; Foxman, B.M.; Lin, W.

    1999-12-13

    One-dimensional lanthanide coordination polymers with the formula Ln(isonicotinate){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (Ln = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb; 1a-f) were synthesized by treating nitrate or perchlorate salts of Ln(III) with 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions. Single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction studies indicate that these lanthanide coordination polymers adopt two different structures. While Ce(III), Pr(III), and Nd(III) complexes adopt a chain structure with alternating Ln-(carboxylate){sub 2}-Ln and Ln-(carboxylate){sub 4}-Ln linkages, Sm(III), Eu(III), and Tb(III) complexes have a doubly carboxylate-bridged infinite-chain structure with one chelating carboxylate group on each metal center. In both structures, the lanthanide centers also bind to two water molecules to yield an eight-coordinate, square antiprismatic geometry. The pyridine nitrogen atoms of the isonicotinate groups do not coordinate to the metal centers in these lanthanide(III) complexes; instead, they direct the formation of Ln(III) coordination polymers via hydrogen bonding with coordinated water molecules. Photoluminescence measurements show that Tb(isonicotinate){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} is highly emissive at room temperature with a quantum yield of {approximately}90%. These results indicate that highly luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers can be assembled using a combination of coordination and hydrogen bonds. Crystal data for 1a: monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/c, a = 9.712(2) {angstrom}, b = 19.833(4) {angstrom}, c = 11.616(2) {angstrom}, {beta} = 111.89(3){degree}, Z = 4. Crystal data for 1f: monoclinic space group C2/c, a = 20.253(4) {angstrom}, b = 11.584(2) {angstrom}, c = 9.839(2) {angstrom}, {beta} = 115.64(3){degree}, Z = 8.

  17. Coordinate-invariant regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    A general phase-space framework for coordinate-invariant regularization is given. The development is geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt Superstructures on field deformations. Parallel development of invariant coordinate-space regularization is obtained by regularized functional integration of the momenta. As representative examples of the general formulation, the regularized general non-linear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity are discussed. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  18. Project Management in Development Aid Industry – Public vs. Private

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simović Dragana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between the type of a development aid implementing organisation (public or private and the quality of project management in development aid. The author begins with main public administration considerations - how public aid administration is different from private and furthermore, how particular sectoral characteristics of organisations influence the quality of the management process. The article combines empirical findings on the differences between the public and private sector with a complex setting of development aid and main success factors in development aid activity, in order to determine whether for-profit or public companies are more likely to achieve better project management processes. The article identifies some indices that favorise private companies, and outlines further necessary steps that should be taken in order to broaden the argumentation and confirm or reject this assertion

  19. Magnetic Coordinate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundal, K. M.; Richmond, A. D.

    2017-03-01

    Geospace phenomena such as the aurora, plasma motion, ionospheric currents and associated magnetic field disturbances are highly organized by Earth's main magnetic field. This is due to the fact that the charged particles that comprise space plasma can move almost freely along magnetic field lines, but not across them. For this reason it is sensible to present such phenomena relative to Earth's magnetic field. A large variety of magnetic coordinate systems exist, designed for different purposes and regions, ranging from the magnetopause to the ionosphere. In this paper we review the most common magnetic coordinate systems and describe how they are defined, where they are used, and how to convert between them. The definitions are presented based on the spherical harmonic expansion coefficients of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and, in some of the coordinate systems, the position of the Sun which we show how to calculate from the time and date. The most detailed coordinate systems take the full IGRF into account and define magnetic latitude and longitude such that they are constant along field lines. These coordinate systems, which are useful at ionospheric altitudes, are non-orthogonal. We show how to handle vectors and vector calculus in such coordinates, and discuss how systematic errors may appear if this is not done correctly.

  20. Pioneering efforts to control AIDS. Review: IHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, A; Sehgal, K

    1995-01-01

    The Indian Health Organisation (IHO) is a nongovernmental organization based in Bombay with more than 12 years experience in HIV/AIDS prevention and control efforts. It has attacked ignorance and prejudice via communication efforts. IHO has created a bond with some hospital systems of Bombay. IHO disseminated information about HIV/AIDS in Bombay's red light districts and has bridged the gap between the city's medical establishment and the community most in need. IHO's aggressive street-level fighting in a sector replete with sensitive issues has somewhat isolated it from mainstream national NGOs involved in HIV/AIDS education and control as well as from the medical establishment and potential partners. IHO funds have been reduced, forcing IHO to reduce intervention programs and responses to field demands. It suffers from a high rate of turnover among middle management staff. IHO's chief advantage is its confidence gained over the past 12 years. IHO has clearly delineated the direction it wants to go: care and support programs for persons affected by HIV/AIDS and for commercial sex workers to allow them to quit prostitution, orphan care, and development of training institutions for the education and motivation of medical personnel on HIV/AIDS care and prevention. It plans to build a hospice for AIDS patients and orphans and a training center. Training activities will vary from one-week orientation programs to three-month certificate courses for medical workers, NGOs, and managers from the commercial sector. IHO is prepared to share its experiences in combating HIV/AIDS in Bombay in a team effort. As official and bilateral funding has been decreasing, IHO has targeted industry for funding. Industry has responded, which enables IHO to sustain its core programs and approaches. IHO observations show a decrease in the number of men visiting red-light districts. IHO enjoys a positive relationship with Bombay's media reporting on AIDS.

  1. Perceptions of government knowledge and control over contributions of aid organizations and INGOs to health in Nepal: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Aditi; Khatiwada, Prashant; Shrestha, Bikram; Chettri, Radheshyam Khatri

    2013-01-18

    Almost 50% of the Nepali health budget is made up of international aid. International Non-Governmental Organizations working in the field of health are able to channel their funds directly to grass root level. During a 2010 conference, the Secretary of Population stated that the government has full knowledge and control over all funds and projects coming to Nepal. However, there are no documents to support this. The study aims to assess government and partner perceptions on whether Government of Nepal currently has full knowledge of contributions of international aid organizations and International Non-Governmental Organizations to health in Nepal and to assess if the government is able to control all foreign contributions to fit the objectives of Second Long Term Health Plan (1997-2017). A qualitative study was performed along with available literature review. Judgmental and snowball sampling led to 26 in depth interviews with key informants from the government, External Development Partners and International Non-Governmental Organizations. Results were triangulated based on source of data. Representatives of the Department of Health Services declined to be interviewed. Data collection was done until researchers felt data saturation had been reached with each group of key informants. While Ministry of Health and Population leads the sector wide approach that aims to integrate all donor and International Non-Governmental Organization contributions to health and direct them to the government's priority areas, questions were raised around its capacity to do so. Similarly, informants questioned the extent to which Social Welfare Council was able to control all International Non-Governmental Organizations contributions. Political tumult, corruption in the government, lack of human resources in the government, lack of coordination between government bodies, convoluted bureaucracy, and unreliability of donor and International Non-Governmental Organization contributions

  2. Torus sector handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    A remote handling system is proposed for moving a torus sector of the accelerator from under the cryostat to a point where it can be handled by a crane and for the reverse process for a new sector. Equipment recommendations are presented, as well as possible alignment schemes. Some general comments about future remote-handling methods and the present capabilities of existing systems will also be included. The specific task to be addressed is the removal and replacement of a 425 to 450 ton torus sector. This requires a horizontal movement of approx. 10 m from a normal operating position to a point where its further transport can be accomplished by more conventional means (crane or floor transporter). The same horizontal movement is required for reinstallation, but a positional tolerance of 2 cm is required to allow reasonable fit-up for the vacuum seal from the radial frames to the torus sector. Since the sectors are not only heavy but rather tall and narrow, the transport system must provide a safe, stable, and repeatable method fo sector movement. This limited study indicates that the LAMPF-based method of transporting torus sectors offers a proven method of moving heavy items. In addition, the present state of the art in remote equipment is adequate for FED maintenance

  3. 77 FR 60128 - Noncompetitive Supplements to Nursing Assistant and Home Health Aide Program Grantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... Noncompetitive Supplements to Nursing Assistant and Home Health Aide Program Grantees AGENCY: Health Resources... expansion supplements of $100,000 to 10 Nursing Assistant and Home Health Aide (NAHHA) Program grantees to... Management; Care Coordination and Follow Up; and Behavioral Health and Social Support for Home Health Aides...

  4. Enhancing private sector engagement: Louisiana's business emergency operations centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jamison M; Strother, Shannon; Kolluru, Ramesh; Booth, Joseph; Rawls, Jason; Calderon, Andres

    2010-07-01

    Public sector emergency management is more effective when it coordinates its efforts with private sector companies that can provide useful capabilities faster, cheaper and better than government agencies. A business emergency operations centre (EOC) provides a space for private sector and non-governmental organisations to gather together in support of government efforts. This paper reviews business-related EOC practices in multiple US states and details the development of a new business EOC by the State of Louisiana, including lessons learned in response to the May 2010 oil spill.

  5. 5 CFR 2641.207 - One-year restriction on any former private sector assignee under the Information Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... private sector assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling... CONFLICT OF INTEREST RESTRICTIONS Prohibitions § 2641.207 One-year restriction on any former private sector... one year after the termination of his assignment from a private sector organization to an agency under...

  6. Sector Economic Outlook. Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The energy sector is a key driver of the economic pillar of Vision 2030. As the economy grows, urbanization intensifies and incomes increase, corporate and household demand for energy also rises. To meet this growth in demand for energy, the sector needs to increase investments and diversify into more sources of energy such as geothermal and wind power. It is therefore critical that focus is directed towards development and sustainability of the energy sector to ensure delivery of least cost power that will improve Kenya's competitiveness and achieve the Vision 2030 objective of 10% average annual economic growth.

  7. Canada's hydrogen energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    Canada produces the most hydrogen per capita of any Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country. The majority of this hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming for industrial use (predominantly oil upgrading and fertilizer production). Canada also has a world leading hydrogen and fuel cell sector. This sector is seeking new methods for making hydrogen for its future energy needs. The paper will discuss Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell sector in the context of its capabilities, its demonstration and commercialization activities and its stature on the world stage. (author)

  8. International Monetary Fund and aid displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Several recent papers find evidence that global health aid is being diverted to reserves, education, military, or other sectors, and is displacing government spending. This is suggested to occur because ministers of finance have competing, possibly corrupt, priorities and deprive the health sector of resources. Studies have found that development assistance for health routed to governments has a negative impact on health spending and that similar assistance routed to private nongovernmental organizations has a positive impact. An alternative hypothesis is that World Bank and IMF macro-economic policies, which specifically advise governments to divert aid to reserves to cope with aid volatility and keep government spending low, could be causing the displacement of health aid. This article evaluates whether aid displacement was greater when countries undertook a new borrowing program from the IMF between 1996 and 2006. As found in existing studies, for each $1 of development assistance for health, about $0.37 is added to the health system. However, evaluating IMF-borrowing versus non-IMF-borrowing countries reveals that non-borrowers add about $0.45 whereas borrowers add less than $0.01 to the health system. On average, health system spending grew at about half the speed when countries were exposed to the IMF than when they were not. It is important to take account of the political economy of global health finance when interpreting data on financial flows.

  9. Insulation coordination workstation for AC and DC substations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, R.R.; Hileman, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Insulation Coordination Workstation was designed to aid the substation design engineer in the insulation coordination process. The workstation utilizes state of the art computer technology to present a set of tools necessary for substation insulation coordination, and to support the decision making process for all aspects of insulation coordination. The workstation is currently being developed for personal computers supporting OS/2 Presentation Manager. Modern Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) technology was utilized to create an easily expandable framework which currently consists of four modules, each accessing a central application database. The heart of the workstation is a library of user-friendly application programs for the calculation of important voltage stresses used for the evaluation of insulation coordination. The Oneline Diagram is a graphic interface for data entry into the EPRI distributed EMTP program, which allows the creation of complex systems on the CRT screen using simple mouse clicks and keyboard entries. Station shielding is graphically represented in the Geographic Viewport using a three-dimensional substation model, and the interactive plotting package allows plotting of EPRI EMTP output results on the CRT screen, printer, or pen plotter. The Insulation Coordination Workstation was designed by Advanced Systems Technology (AST), a division of ABB Power Systems, Inc., and sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute under RP 2323-5, AC/DC Insulation Coordination Workstation

  10. El sector productivo The productive sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarna Santolaria

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento del sector servicios en detrimento del sector primario, la flexibilidad del mercado laboral y la progresiva incorporación de la mujer a dicho mercado son los cambios más destacados del sector productivo español en los últimos 25 años. Las mujeres en España presentan tasas de desempleo, trabajo temporal y a tiempo parcial mucho mayores que los hombres. Además, las condiciones de acceso al mercado de trabajo y las condiciones en las que éste se desempeña están también muy relacionadas con la clase social. Las mujeres cubren la escasez de servicios públicos destinados al cuidado de las criaturas pequeñas y de las personas mayores o dependientes, y realizan una labor de cuidadoras informales sin reconocimiento social, lo cual les impide el acceso a un puesto de trabajo o su mantenimiento y limita de forma decisiva las posibilidades de desarrollo y progreso profesional. Todo ello indica una clara diferencia con respecto a los hombres en cuanto a la frecuencia de contratos temporales y de tiempo parcial, así como en la segregación laboral, tanto horizontal como vertical. Estos aspectos de segregación son más evidentes en las mujeres de clases sociales menos privilegiadas, en las que se concentran las peores condiciones de acceso al mercado laboral y de trabajo. En España es imprescindible llevar a cabo políticas que ofrezcan servicios que permitan compatibilizar la vida laboral y familiar en condiciones de mayor equidad, tanto en razón de género como de clase social.In the last 25 years, the production sector in Spain has undergone important changes. Among these changes, the important growth of the services sector at the expense of the primary sector, the increasing flexibility of the labour market, and the rise in the female workforce could be considered as the most relevant ones. Spanish women have higher rates of unemployment, temporary jobs and part time contracts than Spanish men. Moreover, job access and work

  11. The Master Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  12. Sectoral Innovation Watch electrical and Optical Equipment Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T. van den; Giessen, A.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The electrical and optical equipment sector is a high-tech manufacturing sector. It is one of the most innovative sectors in Europe with investments and advances in fundamental research, applied R&D and innovation in the actual use of equipment. This sector is also one of the most global sectors

  13. Technical Review Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessments in the Tourism, Energy and Mining Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA coordinated a regional collaborative process with Central America and Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) partners to develop Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Technical Review Guidelines for three sectors.

  14. Improving cross-sector policy integration and co-operation in support of freshwater conservation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, DJ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available agricultural resources), and integrated development planning (MacKay & Ashton 2004). Of special importance is the coordination between land-related and water-related sectors because freshwater ecosystems are affected by activities that happen throughout...

  15. Coordination in the midst of chaos: the refugee crisis in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Porter

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the coordination of the aid effort, the role of NATO and, finally, whether the response to the Kosovo crisis hasstrengthened or undermined the principles of universality that govern the global provision of humanitarian assistance.

  16. The Italian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The energy sector in Italy, as in Europe and in many other areas of the world, is undergoing rapid and profound changes. The 1986 ratification of the European Single Act was intended to create a European internal market, where circulation of people, capital, goods, and services would reach the highest possible liberalization. In 1988, in the document The Energy Internal Market, the European Union (EU) commission stressed the need for creation of an internal energy market--free of obstacles--to increase security of supply, to reduce costs, and to strengthen the competitiveness of the European economic system. In 1990, the Community Council adopted directives to implement the EU energy sector. This article describes Italy's role as part of the EU energy sector. It covers the following topics: the Italian energy sector; electricity vs gas transportation; project finance; recent developments advance Italian power industry; specifying powerplant components -- Italian stype; buyers' guide to Italian equipment, services

  17. Cross-sector Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz Jessen, Søren; Linnet, Andreas; Tscherning, Rasmus Wiinstedt

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this handbook is to help improve your opportunities for getting started on innovative and business development projects that reach beyond your own sector, commonly known as ’Cross-sector innovation’, or ’Cross innovation’ for short. We believe that there is a need for an easily read...... innovation handbook that can reach out to all sectors and potential partners whose point of departure, language use and understanding of customers is often very different to that of businesses. These differences constitute a resource for business development. If exploited they can lead to new ways of doing...... things and help us breakaway from the lull of the modes of expression and methods ‘customarily’ employed in business development. The handbook focuses on the interaction of “traditional’ businesses and sectors that belong to those known as the creative and the experience industries, i.e. designers...

  18. and the Energy Sector

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's harsh economic situation in 2016 has led major industries to look inwards to resolve supply deficits occasioned ... In the electricity sector, however, the influx of imported electrical .... Engineering Infrastructure in a 2014 address.

  19. Construction Sector (NAICS 23)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory information for the construction sector, including the construction of buildings or engineering projects. This includes RCRA information for hazardous waste, refrigeration compliance, asbestos, effluent guidelines & lead laws

  20. Risk analysis. HIV / AIDS country profile: Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Since the first acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) case was confirmed in 1986, Senegal has conducted an aggressive prevention campaign. Senegal's National AIDS Committee has noted the contributions of poverty and migration to the spread of AIDS. By June 1994, 1297 AIDS cases had been reported and an estimated 500,000 people (1.4% of the population) were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and 2. The highest rate of HIV infection (14%) exists among commercial sex workers. At present, HIV/AIDS cases are concentrated in Dakar, Kaolack, the Matam region, and Ziguinchor; however, the growing importance of inter-regional trading is expected to spread HIV to the smaller towns and rural areas. Also salient is the recent devaluation by 50% of the CFA franc, which has reduced the public sector workforce and led many poor urban residents into commercial sex work. CFA devaluation has made Senegal attractive to tourists and business visitors--another factor responsible for growth of the legalized commercial sex industry. Although sex workers are instructed in condom use and tested annually for HIV, only 850 of the 2000 registered sex workers have reported for check-ups, and the majority of prostitutes are unregistered. Senegal's AIDS Plan for 1994-98 focuses on care of AIDS patients, pressures placed on family structures by HIV, and AIDS-related erosions in the status of women. Each health service region has its own local plan for AIDS/HIV and sexually transmitted diseases, supervised by a regional committee. Public education has involved outreach to religious leaders, promotion of affordable condoms, and distribution of over 75,000 leaflets to key target populations. About US $16 million of the $25,688,875-budget HIV/AIDS program for 1994-98 was pledged by external donors.

  1. India's Downstream Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This study provides a holistic examination of pricing and investment dynamics in India's downstream petroleum sector. It analyses the current pricing practices, highlights the tremendous fiscal cost of current pricing and regulatory arrangements, and examines the sectoral investment dynamics. It also looks at potential paths towards market-based reform along which the Indian government may move, while at the same time protecting energy market access for India's large poor population.

  2. [Binocular coordination during reading].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassou, L; Granié, M; Pugh, A K; Morucci, J P

    1992-01-01

    Is there an effect on binocular coordination during reading of oculomotor imbalance (heterophoria, strabismus and inadequate convergence) and of functional lateral characteristics (eye preference and perceptually privileged visual laterality)? Recordings of the binocular eye-movements of ten-year-old children show that oculomotor imbalances occur most often among children whose left visual perceptual channel is privileged, and that these subjects can present optomotor dissociation and manifest lack of motor coordination. Close binocular motor coordination is far from being the norm in reading. The faster reader displays saccades of differing spatial amplitude and the slower reader an oculomotor hyperactivity, especially during fixations. The recording of binocular movements in reading appears to be an excellent means of diagnosing difficulties related to visual laterality and to problems associated with oculomotor imbalance.

  3. State Sector Strategies: The New Workforce Development in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Neoliberal governments consider global business competitiveness to be thwarted by costly bureaucratic regulation and programme duplication. In an effort to downsize the costs of operating a state, the governors now streamline job training functions via a coordinated workforce and economic development effort known as sector strategies, with…

  4. Changing Housing for Elderly People and Co-ordination Issues in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, P.P.J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The inter-sectoral policy systems of housing for elderly people in the EU-countries change with the implementation of ageing in place and by general processes of modernisation of society and welfare state. For implementation of the innovations the relevance of co-ordination between the sector

  5. Does foreign aid in education foster gender equality in developing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Maiga, Eugenie W. H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of foreign aid on gender equality in education outcomes in developing countries. Heterogeneity effects by type of aid received and by type of recipients are investigated using system GMM methods. The results indicate that aggregate aid disbursements to the education sector negatively affect gender parity in enrolment at the secondary and tertiary education levels and have no impact on gender parity in primary education. No impact of subsector specific aid was fo...

  6. Task shifting of HIV/AIDS case management to Community Health Service Centers in urban China: a qualitative policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fuchang; Lv, Fan; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Dapeng; Meng, Sining; Ju, Lahong; Jiang, Huihui; Ma, Liping; Sun, Jiangping; Wu, Zunyou

    2015-07-02

    The growing number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in China points to an increased need for case management services of HIV/AIDS. This study sought to explore the challenges and enablers in shifting the HIV/AIDS case management services from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs) to Community Health Service Centers (CHSCs) in urban China. A qualitative method based on the Health Policy Triangle (HPT) framework was employed to gain in-depth insights into four elements of the task shifting strategy. This included a review on published literature and health policy documents, 15 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 30 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with four types of key actors from three cities in China. A total of 78 studies and 17 policy files at the national, municipal and local levels were obtained and reviewed comprehensively. Three semi-structured interview guides were used to explore key actors' views on shifting the HIV/AIDS case management services to CHSCs. It is necessary and feasible for CHSCs to engage in case management services for PLWHA in local communities. The increasing number of PLWHA and shortage of qualified health professionals in CDCs made shifting case management services downwards to CHSCs an urgent agenda. CHSCs' wide distribution, technical capacity, accessibility and current practice enabled them to carry out case management services for PLWHA. However our findings indicated several challenges in this task shifting process. Those challenges included lack of specific policy and stable financial support for CHSCs, inadequate manpower, relatively low capacity for health service delivery, lack of coordination among sectors, PLWHA's fear for discrimination and privacy disclosure in local communities, which may compromise the effectiveness and sustainability of those services. Shifting the HIV/AIDS case management services from CDCs to CHSCs is a new approach to cope with the rising number of PLWHA in China, but it should be

  7. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    task (Bahrami et al 2010, Fusaroli et al. 2012) we extend to linguistic coordination dynamical measures of recurrence employed in the analysis of sensorimotor coordination (such as heart-rate (Konvalinka et al 2011), postural sway (Shockley 2005) and eye-movements (Dale, Richardson and Kirkham 2012......). We employ nominal recurrence analysis (Orsucci et al 2005, Dale et al 2011) on the decision-making conversations between the participants. We report strong correlations between various indexes of recurrence and collective performance. We argue this method allows us to quantify the qualities...

  8. How to improve collaboration between the public health sector and other policy sectors to reduce health inequalities? - A study in sixteen municipalities in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Ilse; den Hertog, Frank; van Oers, Hans; Schuit, Albertine J

    2016-06-22

    The causes of health inequalities are complex. For the reduction of health inequalities, intersectoral collaboration between the public health sector and both social policy sectors (e.g. youth affairs, education) and physical policy sectors (e.g. housing, spatial planning) is essential, but in local practice difficult to realize. The aim of this study was to examine the collaboration between the sectors in question more closely and to identify opportunities for improvement. A qualitative descriptive analysis of five aspects of collaboration within sixteen Dutch municipalities was performed to examine the collaboration between the public health sector and other policy sectors: 1) involvement of the sectors in the public health policy network, 2) harmonisation of objectives, 3) use of policies by the relevant sectors, 4) formalised collaboration, and 5) previous experience. Empirical data on these collaboration aspects were collected based on document analysis, questionnaires and interviews. The study found that the policy workers of social sectors were more involved in the public health network and more frequently supported the objectives in the field of health inequality reduction. Both social policy sectors and physical policy sectors used policies and activities to reduce health inequalities. More is done to influence the determinants of health inequality through policies aimed at lifestyle and social setting than through policies aimed at socioeconomic factors and the physical environment. Where the physical policy sectors are involved in the public health network, the collaboration follows a very similar pattern as with the social policy sectors. All sectors recognise the importance of good relationships, positive experiences, a common interest in working together and coordinated mechanisms. This study shows that there is scope for improving collaboration in the field of health inequality reduction between the public health sector and both social policy sectors

  9. Economic and Social Role of the ICT Private Sector in West and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Today, no part of economic and social life is without its informal sector. It is the same with the ICT sector, which has advanced in recent years aided by the liberalization of telecommunications, the arrival of the Internet and, more recently, the expansion of mobile telephone service to the farthest ... Date de début. 9 mars 2008 ...

  10. Dimensions of Organizational Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Aldewereld, Huib; Dignum, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    be supported to include organizational objectives and constraints into their reasoning processes by considering two alternatives: agent reasoning and middleware regulation. We show how agents can use an organizational specification to achieve organizational objectives by delegating and coordinating...... their activities with other agents in the society, using the GOAL agent programming language and the OperA organizational model....

  11. Reusability of coordination programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Arbab (Farhad); C.L. Blom (Kees); F.J. Burger (Freek); C.T.H. Everaars (Kees)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIsolating computation and communication concerns into separate pure computation and pure coordination modules enhances modularity, understandability, and reusability of parallel and/or distributed software. This can be achieved by moving communication primitives (such as SendMessage and

  12. [Civilian-military coordination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montravel, G

    2002-01-01

    Current humanitarian emergencies create complex, mutidimensional situations that stimulate simultaneous responses from a wide variety of sources including governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO), United Nations agencies, and private individuals. As a result, it has become essential to establish a coherent framework in which each actor can contribute promptly and effectively to the overall effort. This is the role of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Regardless of the circumstances and level of coordination, cooperation and collaboration between humanitarian and military personnel, it is necessary to bear in mind their objectives. The purpose of humanitarian action is to reduce human suffering. The purpose of military intervention is to stop warfare. The author of this article will discuss the three major obstacles to civilian-military coordination (strategic, tactical, and operational). Operations cannot be conducted smoothly and differences cannot be ironed out without mutual respect between the two parties, an explicit definition of their respective duties and responsibilities, a clear understanding of their cultural differences, and the presence of an organization and facilities for coordination and arbitrage by a neutral referee.

  13. Coordination of hand shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

    2011-03-09

    The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor, and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked to use the left hand to report the perceived shape of the right hand. In the first experiment, six commonly grasped items were arranged on the table in front of the subject: bottle, doorknob, egg, notebook, carton, and pan. With eyes closed, subjects used the right hand to lightly touch, forcefully support, or imagine holding each object, while 15 joint angles were measured in each hand with a pair of wired gloves. The forces introduced by supporting or twisting did not influence the perceptual report of hand shape, but for most objects, the report was distorted in a consistent manner by differences in forearm orientation. Subjects appeared to adjust the intrinsic joint angles of the left hand, as well as the left wrist posture, so as to maintain the imagined object in its proper spatial orientation. In a second experiment, this result was largely replicated with unfamiliar objects. Thus, somatosensory and motor information appear to be coordinated in an object-based, spatial-coordinate system, sensitive to orientation relative to gravitational forces, but invariant to grasp forcefulness.

  14. Block coordination copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J; Benin, Annabelle I; Willis, Richard R

    2012-11-13

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  15. Private sector community forestry partnerships in the Eastern Cape – Lambazi case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sisitka, L

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available research project referred to as ‘Instruments for Sustainable Private Sector Forestry in South Africa.’ This national investigation is co-ordinated by the CSIR, in collaboration with DFID and IIED. Its aim is to understand how the private sector is involved...

  16. Coordination failure caused by sunspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beugnot, Julie; Gürgüç, Zeynep; Øvlisen, Frederik Roose

    2012-01-01

    on the efficient equilibrium, we consider sunspots as a potential reason for coordination failure. We conduct an experiment with a three player 2x2x2 game in which coordination on the efficient equilibrium is easy and should normally occur. In the control session, we find almost perfect coordination on the payoff......-dominant equilibrium, but in the sunspot treatment, dis-coordination is frequent. Sunspots lead to significant inefficiency, and we conclude that sunspots can indeed cause coordination failure....

  17. Focus group discussion with private sector doctors in the eThekwini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) is essential in the treatment of HIV/AIDS; however, a holistic approach to HIV/AIDS management is important. This study was done to confirm the findings of two studies done previously in the eThekwini Metro of KwaZulu-Natal on private sector doctors' ...

  18. Waste management. Sector 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The waste management section of this report deals with two sectors: land disposal of solid waste and wastewater treatment. It provides background information on the type of emissions that contribute to the greenhouse gases from these two sectors, presents both sector current status in Lebanon, describes the methodology followed to estimate the corresponding emissions, and presents the results obtained regarding greenhouse emissions. The total methane emissions from solid waste disposal on land are 42.804 Gg approximately. There are no emissions from wastewater and industrial handling systems because, for the target year 1994, there was no treatment facilities in Lebanon. The wastewater (municipal, commercial and industrial) was directly discharged into the sea, rivers, ravines or septic tanks which indicate that methane or nitrous oxide emissions are significant if not nonexistent. Note that this situation will change in the future as treatment plants are being constructed around the country and are expected to come into operation by the year 2000

  19. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  20. First aid kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001958.htm First aid kit To use the sharing features on this ... ahead, you can create a well-stocked home first aid kit. Keep all of your supplies in one ...

  1. First Aid and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español First Aid & Safety Keeping your child safe is your top ... do in an emergency, how to stock a first-aid kit, where to call for help, and more. ...

  2. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... burns Stupor Unconsciousness (coma) Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing ...

  3. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  4. HIV/AIDS Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Partner Spotlight Awareness Days Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  5. Shock: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et al., eds. American Medical Association Handbook of First Aid and Emergency Care. New York: Random House; 2009. Accessed July 21, 2017. Piazza GM, et al. First Aid Manual. 3rd ed. London, England; New York, N. ...

  6. Types of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aids : Most parts are contained in a small plastic case that rests behind the ear; the case ... certain situations (for example, background noise and whistle reduction). They also have greater flexibility in hearing aid ...

  7. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth / For Parents / First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  8. [Is there risk of AIDS among adolescents?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Cartes, R

    1988-01-01

    No data are as yet available on the information and attitudes of the adolescent population of Chile regarding AIDS. A survey of 800 adolescents aged 16-19 in Massachusetts, US, indicated that 29% had no knowledge of AIDS, 70% were sexually active, and 15% would not change their sex habits to avoid AIDS. A study in Santiago, Chile, showed that young people with the least information on sex and reproduction had the earliest initiation of sexual activity and the most frequent relations. Surveys throughout Latin America have indicated that a significant proportion of adolescents have active sex lives, leaving them potentially vulnerable to risk of sexually transmitted diseases. The risk is increased by frequent changes of partners among couples not yet strongly committed to each other. The World Health Organization considers prevention of sexually transmitted diseases to be one of the main objectives of family planning programs for adolescents. Studies in various countries found that proportion of sexually active adolescents who routinely used condoms was low. The evidence thus indicates that adolescents are at substantial risk of AIDS through their lack of information about AIDS, their significant sexual activity, and their failure to use condoms. Measures to combat or minimize the threat of AIDS among adolescents should begin with educational programs beginning with teachers and families. Efforts should be made to reach young people in the informal sector who are at greatest risk through community based programs.

  9. Trade and Sectoral Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Fadinger, Harald; Fleiss, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Even though differences in sectoral total factor productivity are at the heart of Ricardian trade theory and many models of growth and development, very little is known about their size and their form. In this paper we try to fill this gap by using a Hybrid-Ricardo-Heckscher-Ohlin trade model and bilateral sectoral trade data to overcome the data problem that has limited previous studies, which have used input and output data to back out productivities, to a small number of OECD economies. We...

  10. Sectoral Market Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper first reviews proposals for the design of sectoral and related market mechanisms currently debated, both in the UNFCCC negotiations, and in different domestic legislative contexts. Secondly, it addresses the possible principles and technical requirements that Parties may wish to consider as the foundations for further elaboration of the mechanisms. The third issue explored herein is domestic implementation of sectoral market mechanisms by host countries, incentives to move to new market mechanisms, as well as how the transition between current and future mechanisms could be managed.

  11. The impact of cuts in legal aid funding on charities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Debra; Barr, Warren

    2013-03-01

    This article focusses on the specific impact of the cuts in legal aid funding on the charitable sector. The sector plays a significant role in advice giving. Some charities have the provision of legal advice as their sole purpose, whilst the work of other charities includes the giving of legal advice. Funding comes via a number of sources including legal aid, local authorities and charitable trusts. Whilst this volume highlights the legal aid reforms that will lead to significant cuts in funding, this article notes that charitable providers of legal advice have also suffered major cuts from their other traditional funding sources. Against this background, the article considers the serious and often unforeseen consequences for charities of the legal aid reforms, which go far beyond the impact on the high street law firm and access to justice for claimants.

  12. AID as Gift: an initial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristiane da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes that some of the key practices in the area of international cooperation for development can be better understood in terms of a gift regime. To this end, it compares ethnographic data relating to the modus operandi of the aid sector in East Timor with the legacies of Marcel Mauss and the recent production of M.A.U.S.S. International aid policies are shown to be important means for establishing hegemony in glocal negotiation spaces in which different actors construct identities and relations of alliance, honor and precedence. In this debate, it is argued that East Timor's biggest counter-gift to the international community has been to function as an instrument through which values cherished by aid donors, expressed in Western myths of good society, can once again be cultivated in the process of building a new national state.

  13. National poverty reduction strategies and HIV/AIDS governance in Malawi: a preliminary study of shared health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachira, Catherine; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2011-06-01

    The public health and development communities understand clearly the need to integrate anti-poverty efforts with HIV/AIDS programs. This article reports findings about the impact of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) process on Malawi's National HIV/AIDS Strategic Framework (NSF). In this article we ask, how does the PRSP process support NSF accountability, participation, access to information, funding, resource planning and allocation, monitoring, and evaluation? In 2007, we developed and conducted a survey of Malawian government ministries, United Nations agencies, members of the Country Coordination Mechanism, the Malawi National AIDS Commission (NAC), and NAC grantees (N = 125, 90% response rate), seeking survey respondents' retrospective perceptions of NSF resource levels, participation, inclusion, and governance before, during, and after Malawi's PRSP process (2000-2004). We also assessed principle health sector and economic indicators and budget allocations for HIV/AIDS. These indicators are part of a new conceptual framework called shared health governance (SHG), which seeks congruence among the values and goals of different groups and actors to reflect a common purpose. Under this framework, global health policy should encompass: (i) consensus among global, national, and sub-national actors on goals and measurable outcomes; (ii) mutual collective accountability; and (iii) enhancement of individual and group health agency. Indicators to assess these elements included: (i) goal alignment; (ii) adequate resource levels; (iii) agreement on key outcomes and indicators for evaluating those outcomes; (iv) meaningful inclusion and participation of groups and institutions; (v) special efforts to ensure participation of vulnerable groups; and (vi) effectiveness and efficiency measures. Results suggest that the PRSP process supported accountability for NSF resources. However, the process may have marginalized key stakeholders, potentially undercutting the

  14. AIDS, haemophiliacs and, Haitians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    19 Feb 1983 ... deal with immunological changes in haemophiliacs similar to those in AIDS and indicate that a number of these patients may be at special risk, a finding supported by a report> of 3 ca es of AIDS identified in heterosexual haemophiliacs. An even more baffling finding is that AIDS is more prevalent in ...

  15. Severe Bleeding: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 12, 2017. Jevon P, et al. Part 5 — First-aid treatment for severe bleeding. Nursing Times. 2008;104:26. Oct. 19, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-severe-bleeding/basics/ART-20056661 . Mayo ...

  16. Puncture Wounds: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin problems. In: American Medical Association Handbook of First Aid and Emergency Care. New York, N.Y.: Random House; 2009. Jan. 12, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-puncture-wounds/basics/ART-20056665 . Mayo ...

  17. Determinants of State Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiren, K.; Brouwer, E.

    2010-01-01

    From economic theory we derive a set of hypotheses on the determination of state aid. Econometric analysis on EU state aid panel data is carried out to test whether the determinants we expect on the basis of theory, correspond to the occurrence of state aid in practice in the EU. We find that

  18. Assessing development assistance for child survival between 2000 and 2014: A multi-sectoral perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunling; Chu, Annie; Li, Zhihui; Shen, Jian; Subramanian, S V; Hill, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of Countdown countries did not reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4) on reducing child mortality, despite the fact that donor funding to the health sector has drastically increased. When tracking aid invested in child survival, previous studies have exclusively focused on aid targeting reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH). We take a multi-sectoral approach and extend the estimation to the four sectors that determine child survival: health (RMNCH and non-RMNCH), education, water and sanitation, and food and humanitarian assistance (Food/HA). Using donor reported data, obtained mainly from the OECD Creditor Reporting System and Development Assistance Committee, we tracked the level and trends of aid (in grants or loans) disbursed to each of the four sectors at the global, regional, and country levels. We performed detailed analyses on missing data and conducted imputation with various methods. To identify aid projects for RMNCH, we developed an identification strategy that combined keyword searches and manual coding. To quantify aid for RMNCH in projects with multiple purposes, we adopted an integrated approach and produced the lower and upper bounds of estimates for RMNCH, so as to avoid making assumptions or using weak evidence for allocation. We checked the sensitivity of trends to the estimation methods and compared our estimates to that produced by other studies. Our study yielded time-series and recipient-specific annual estimates of aid disbursed to each sector, as well as their lower- and upper-bounds in 134 countries between 2000 and 2014, with a specific focus on Countdown countries. We found that the upper-bound estimates of total aid disbursed to the four sectors in 134 countries rose from US$ 22.62 billion in 2000 to US$ 59.29 billion in 2014, with the increase occurring in all income groups and regions with sub-Saharan Africa receiving the largest sum. Aid to RMNCH has experienced the fastest growth (12

  19. Assessing development assistance for child survival between 2000 and 2014: A multi-sectoral perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunling Lu

    Full Text Available The majority of Countdown countries did not reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4 on reducing child mortality, despite the fact that donor funding to the health sector has drastically increased. When tracking aid invested in child survival, previous studies have exclusively focused on aid targeting reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH. We take a multi-sectoral approach and extend the estimation to the four sectors that determine child survival: health (RMNCH and non-RMNCH, education, water and sanitation, and food and humanitarian assistance (Food/HA.Using donor reported data, obtained mainly from the OECD Creditor Reporting System and Development Assistance Committee, we tracked the level and trends of aid (in grants or loans disbursed to each of the four sectors at the global, regional, and country levels. We performed detailed analyses on missing data and conducted imputation with various methods. To identify aid projects for RMNCH, we developed an identification strategy that combined keyword searches and manual coding. To quantify aid for RMNCH in projects with multiple purposes, we adopted an integrated approach and produced the lower and upper bounds of estimates for RMNCH, so as to avoid making assumptions or using weak evidence for allocation. We checked the sensitivity of trends to the estimation methods and compared our estimates to that produced by other studies. Our study yielded time-series and recipient-specific annual estimates of aid disbursed to each sector, as well as their lower- and upper-bounds in 134 countries between 2000 and 2014, with a specific focus on Countdown countries. We found that the upper-bound estimates of total aid disbursed to the four sectors in 134 countries rose from US$ 22.62 billion in 2000 to US$ 59.29 billion in 2014, with the increase occurring in all income groups and regions with sub-Saharan Africa receiving the largest sum. Aid to RMNCH has experienced the

  20. The coordination dynamics of social neuromarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognoli, Emmanuelle; Kelso, J. A. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Social behavior is a complex integrative function that entails many aspects of the brain’s sensory, cognitive, emotional and movement capacities. Its neural processes are seldom simultaneous but occur according to precise spatiotemporal choreographies, manifested by the coordination of their oscillations within and between brains. Methods with good temporal resolution can help to identify so-called “neuromarkers” of social function and aid in disentangling the dynamical architecture of social brains. In our ongoing research, we have used dual-electroencephalography (EEG) to study neuromarker dynamics during synchronic interactions in which pairs of subjects coordinate behavior spontaneously and intentionally (social coordination) and during diachronic transactions that require subjects to perceive or behave in turn (action observation, delayed imitation). In this paper, after outlining our dynamical approach to the neurophysiological basis of social behavior, we examine commonalities and differences in the neuromarkers that are recruited for both kinds of tasks. We find the neuromarker landscape to be task-specific: synchronic paradigms of social coordination reveal medial mu, alpha and the phi complex as contributing neuromarkers. Diachronic tasks recruit alpha as well, in addition to lateral mu rhythms and the newly discovered nu and kappa rhythms whose functional significance is still unclear. Social coordination, observation, and delayed imitation share commonality of context: in each of our experiments, subjects exchanged information through visual perception and moved in similar ways. Nonetheless, there was little overlap between their neuromarkers, a result that hints strongly of task-specific neural mechanisms for social behavior. The only neuromarker that transcended both synchronic and diachronic social behaviors was the ubiquitous alpha rhythm, which appears to be a key signature of visually-mediated social behaviors. The present paper is both an

  1. The coordination dynamics of social neuromarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle eTognoli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Social behavior is a complex integrative function that entails many aspects of the brain's sensory, cognitive, emotional and motor capacities. Its neural processes are seldom simultaneous but occur according to precise spatiotemporal choreographies, manifested by the coordination of their oscillations within and between brains. Methods with good temporal resolution can help to identify so-called neuromarkers of social function and aid in disentangling the dynamical architecture of social brains. In our ongoing research, we have used dual-EEG to study neuromarker dynamics during synchronic interactions in which pairs of subjects coordinate behavior spontaneously and intentionally (social coordination and during diachronic transactions that require subjects to perceive or behave in turn (action observation, delayed imitation. In this paper, after outlining our dynamical approach to the neurophysiological basis of social behavior, we examine commonalities and differences in the neuromarkers that are recruited for both kinds of tasks. We find the neuromarker landscape to be task-specific: synchronic paradigms of social coordination reveal medial mu, alpha and the phi complex as contributing neuromarkers. Diachronic tasks recruit alpha as well, in addition to lateral mu rhythms and the newly discovered nu and kappa rhythms whose functional significance is still unclear. Social coordination, observation, and delayed imitation share commonality of context: in each of our experiments, subjects exchanged information through visual perception and moved in similar ways. Nonetheless, there was little overlap between their neuromarkers, a result that hints strongly of task-specific neural mechanisms for social behavior. The only neuromarker that transcended both synchronic and diachronic social behaviors was the ubiquitous alpha rhythm, which appears to be a key signature of visually-mediated social behaviors. The present paper is both an entry point and a

  2. The coordination dynamics of social neuromarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognoli, Emmanuelle; Kelso, J A Scott

    2015-01-01

    Social behavior is a complex integrative function that entails many aspects of the brain's sensory, cognitive, emotional and movement capacities. Its neural processes are seldom simultaneous but occur according to precise spatiotemporal choreographies, manifested by the coordination of their oscillations within and between brains. Methods with good temporal resolution can help to identify so-called "neuromarkers" of social function and aid in disentangling the dynamical architecture of social brains. In our ongoing research, we have used dual-electroencephalography (EEG) to study neuromarker dynamics during synchronic interactions in which pairs of subjects coordinate behavior spontaneously and intentionally (social coordination) and during diachronic transactions that require subjects to perceive or behave in turn (action observation, delayed imitation). In this paper, after outlining our dynamical approach to the neurophysiological basis of social behavior, we examine commonalities and differences in the neuromarkers that are recruited for both kinds of tasks. We find the neuromarker landscape to be task-specific: synchronic paradigms of social coordination reveal medial mu, alpha and the phi complex as contributing neuromarkers. Diachronic tasks recruit alpha as well, in addition to lateral mu rhythms and the newly discovered nu and kappa rhythms whose functional significance is still unclear. Social coordination, observation, and delayed imitation share commonality of context: in each of our experiments, subjects exchanged information through visual perception and moved in similar ways. Nonetheless, there was little overlap between their neuromarkers, a result that hints strongly of task-specific neural mechanisms for social behavior. The only neuromarker that transcended both synchronic and diachronic social behaviors was the ubiquitous alpha rhythm, which appears to be a key signature of visually-mediated social behaviors. The present paper is both an entry

  3. Financing the response to AIDS: some fiscal and macroeconomic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker, Markus

    2008-07-01

    This article examines the international response to AIDS from a fiscal perspective: first the financing of the international response to AIDS, especially the role of external financing, and second, a more comprehensive perspective on the costs of the national response to AIDS relevant for fiscal policy. The second half of the article focuses on the effectiveness of the response to AIDS. We find that there is little basis for concerns about macroeconomic constraints to scaling up, in light of the moderate scale of AIDS-related aid flows relative to overall aid. Regarding sectoral constraints, the picture is more differentiated. Many countries with high prevalence rates have also achieved high rates of access to treatment, but most of these are middle-income countries. Our econometric analysis credits external aid as a key factor that has enabled higher-prevalence countries to cope with the additional demands for health services. At the same time, gross domestic product per capita and health sector capacities are important determinants of access to treatment.

  4. AIDS in the workplace: current practices and possible implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykodym, N; Miners, I A; Simonetti, J L; Patel, N S

    1989-01-01

    The testing of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) remains a political factor. Questions are being raised as to an individual's right to privacy and the public's concern for safety. Despite the controversy, the law protects contagious disease sufferers from employment discrimination. Along with AIDS testing, drug testing remains a controversial issue. Mandatory drug testing remains in both the public and private sectors. Legislative activity in California continues to the present.

  5. Sector ring accelerator ''RESATRON''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwabe, E.

    1980-01-01

    Project of sector ring accelerator RESATRON is described. The curiosity of this accelerator is the second cycle of acceleration of the beam after stripping it on the foil. In such an accelerator heavy ions with a different ratio Z to A can be accelerated. (S.B.)

  6. [The productive sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria, Encarna; Fernández, Alberto; Daponte, Antonio; Aguilera, I

    2004-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the production sector in Spain has undergone important changes. Among these changes, the important growth of the services sector at the expense of the primary sector, the increasing flexibility of the labour market, and the rise in the female workforce could be considered as the most relevant ones. Spanish women have higher rates of unemployment, temporary jobs and part time contracts than Spanish men. Moreover, job access and work conditions are highly related to gender and social class. Because women are forced to compensate for the scarcity of social services for caring for young children and for dependent elderly, they become informal and socially unrecognised caregivers, preventing them from getting or holding a job, and significantly limiting their opportunities for professional development. These social conditions are closely related with the fact that work conditions for women involve higher temporality rates and shorter contracts than those of men, given the sectors and jobs in which they tend to work (due to segregation). Similarly, workers of the less privileged social classes have poorer work conditions. Thus, women of the lower income class are mainly suffering the worst job contracts and the poorest work conditions. More social services are needed to make it possible to attend to family needs and still be able to access and maintain a job contract. Policies tending to conciliate labour and family life are indispensable and should incorporate measures to equally distribute the house keeping activities between women and men.

  7. Ingerop - Nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    As regards the nuclear sector, Ingerop has acquired along the decades extensive experience in designing and calculating complex structures for nuclear facilities. Since 2002, Ingerop focused on more system- and process-oriented projects in this field. Nowadays, Ingerop offers integrated services based on its sound know-how, top-notch expertise and insight into the management of nuclear projects, for both revamping and new build activities. Ingerop has made the development of the energy sector one of its top priorities in particular for the nuclear sector along with NucAdvisor, the first French engineering practice specialising in civil nuclear power. NucAdvisor's main mission is to assist governments or their representatives in developing their nuclear programs offering expertise and consulting services on specific topics like siting, licensing and operation of nuclear power plants, as well as decommissioning and dismantling and radioactive waste management. In January 2016, a new subsidiary has been created - INGEROP Contracting - which provides a global EPC/turnkey offer covering all fields of energy and industry. Its goal is to deliver projects from the design up to the commissioning, while taking a clear commitment on the overall cost and schedule. This brochure presents the Ingerop Company, its offer of services and main fields of intervention, its IT tools for 3D modeling and design, its activities and main references in the nuclear sector

  8. Energy. Sector 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this article is to report the results of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventory for the year 1994. The following GHG are of interest in the energy sector: Carbon dioxide CO 2 , methane CH 4 , nitrous oxide N 2 O, oxides of nitrogen NO x , carbon monoxide CO, sulphur dioxide SO 2 and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). The inventory has focused on the following GHG related sources: -Electricity generation through the electric utility. -Private generation of electricity -Manufacturing industries and construction -Transport: road, domestic aviation and national navigation -Energy use in the residential sector -Energy use in the commercial/institutional sector -Energy use in the agriculture/forestry/fishing sector The fuel types taken into consideration are:Gasoline, jet Kerosene, Kerosene for household use, gas oil, diesel oil, fuel oil, LPG, lubricating oil, coal, wood and charcoal (solid biomass). Care has been taken to eliminate the fuel used by international marine and aviation bunkers from the national inventory. The amount of GHG released to the atmosphere has been estimated using the IPCC methodology and emission factors .Where national emission factors differed from those of IPCC, the factors are discussed. Complete documentation of compiled information and data sources are attached to this article.Finally both the reference approach and analysis by source categories have been carried out and are reported in this inventory

  9. Financial Sector Assessment : Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This Financial Sector Assessment (FSA) provides a summary of the policy priorities, and main findings intended to assist the Moroccan authorities in evaluating the country's financial system. It reviews the uneasy trade-off between concerns for stability, and development, suggesting Morocco's macroeconomic policies and practices as a whole tend to err more on the side of the concerns of pr...

  10. Financial Sector Assessment : Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Monetary Fund

    2017-01-01

    A joint International Monetary Fund (IMF)-World Bank mission visited Rabat and Casablanca in 2015, to assess the soundness and resilience of the banking system, the state of play in financial inclusion and infrastructure, the oversight frameworks for banking, capital markets and financial market infrastructures, crisis preparedness, and update the findings of the Financial Sector Assessme...

  11. Financial Sector Assessment : Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    A joint International Monetary Fund-World Bank team conducted an assessment of Turkey's financial system in connection with the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) through missions in April, August-September 2006 and March, 2007. This report provides a summary of the main findings of the assessment and the policy priorities identified. The main objective of the FSAP is to assist the...

  12. Improving Project Manufacturing Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpivaara Ville

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to develop firms’ project manufacturing coordination. The development will be made by centralizing the manufacturing information flows in one system. To be able to centralize information, a deep user need assessment is required. After user needs have been identified, the existing system will be developed to match these needs. The theoretical background is achieved through exploring the literature of project manufacturing, development project success factors and different frameworks and tools for development project execution. The focus of this research is rather in customer need assessment than in system’s technical expertise. To ensure the deep understanding of customer needs this study is executed by action research method. As a result of this research the information system for project manufacturing coordination was developed to respond revealed needs of the stakeholders. The new system improves the quality of the manufacturing information, eliminates waste in manufacturing coordination processes and offers a better visibility to the project manufacturing. Hence it provides a solid base for the further development of project manufacturing.

  13. Universal mechatronics coordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Patrick F.

    1999-11-01

    Mechatronic systems incorporate multiple actuators and sensor which must be properly coordinated to achieve the desired system functionality. Many mechatronic systems are designed as one-of-a-kind custom projects without consideration for facilitating future system or alterations and extensions to the current syste. Thus, subsequent changes to the system are slow, different, and costly. It has become apparent that manufacturing processes, and thus the mechatronics which embody them, need to be agile in order to more quickly and easily respond to changing customer demands or market pressures. To achieve agility, both the hardware and software of the system need to be designed such that the creation of new system and the alteration and extension of current system is fast and easy. This paper describes the design of a Universal Mechatronics Coordinator (UMC) which facilitates agile setup and changeover of coordination software for mechatronic systems. The UMC is capable of sequencing continuous and discrete actions that are programmed as stimulus-response pairs, as state machines, or a combination of the two. It facilitates the modular, reusable programing of continuous actions such as servo control algorithms, data collection code, and safety checking routines; and discrete actions such as reporting achieved states, and turning on/off binary devices. The UMC has been applied to the control of a z- theta assembly robot for the Minifactory project and is applicable to a spectrum of widely differing mechatronic systems.

  14. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda for aid...

  15. India's growing clinical research sector: opportunity for global companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varawalla, Nermeen

    2007-06-01

    Backed by a compelling foundation of essential requirements necessary for effective clinical trial conduct, and aided by initiatives that address concerns of data quality, regulatory timelines and IP protection, the clinical development sector in India has experienced annual revenue growth rates of 25% in the past two to three years, and is poised to participate substantially in global drug development. As both clinical trial sponsors and CROs increase their research capabilities in India, the clinical development sector is facing challenges with staff resourcing and facilities. Existing initiatives in the clinical sector must continue, and further investment must be made by stakeholders to overcome the current limitations in sector growth. Furthermore, global organizations seeking to derive long-term sustainable revenue growth and competitive advantage in the global marketplace from their business units in India must establish an appropriate organizational culture and an effective intra-organizational and industry interface for their operations.

  16. Aid is dead. Long live aid!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Severino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts, targets, tools, institutions and modes of operation of official development assistance have been overtaken by the pace of change in a world marked by the combined momentum of demography, technology and economic growth.Aid can however recover, as social consequences of the globalization call for new forms of regulation. It will then be necessary to modify and diversify our target-setting processes, to update operating procedures, and to find better ways of measuring policy implementation. Aid volumes will certainly continue to grow, and we must transform the way aid is financed. Public and private aid stakeholders must recognize the importance of these transformations and be ready to support them, by questioning the methods as well as the objectives of the policies they are implementing. Otherwise, they will severely impede the emergence of the policies we need if we are to build a better world.

  17. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....

  18. Promoting coordination in Norwegian health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor I. Romøren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: The Norwegian health care system is well organized within its two main sectors - primary health and long term care on the one hand, and hospitals and specialist services on the other. However, the relation between them lacks mediating structures.Policy practice: Enhancing coordination between primary and secondary health care has been central in Norwegian health care policy the last decade. In 2003 a committee was appointed to identify coordination problems and proposed a lot of practical and organisational recommendations. It relied on an approach challenging primary and secondary health care in shared geographical regions to take action. However, these proposals were not implemented. In 2008 a new Minister of Health and Care worked out plans under the key term "Coordination Reform". These reform plans superseded and expanded the previous policy initiatives concerning cooperation, but represented also a shift in focus to a regulative and centralised strategy, including new health legislation, structural reforms and use of economic incentives that are now about to be implemented.Discussion: The article analyses the perspectives and proposals of the previous and the recent reform initiatives in Norway and discusses them in relation to integrated care measures implemented in Denmark and Sweden.

  19. Fractures (Broken Bones): First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Fractures (broken bones) Fractures (broken bones): First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fracture is a ... 10, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-fractures/basics/ART-20056641 . Mayo Clinic ...

  20. Sector profile: Petroleum sector in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    The Cuban oil industry started in 1860 when an oil well was drilled in Matanzas province. About 200 wells were drilled up until 1959. In the past 30 years, the oil industry has become a priority sector; in 1985-1990, about US$500 million were invested in the industry, with increases in exploration and well drilling activity. Recently completed works include pipelines and a supertanker terminal. About 10 million tons of oil are imported annually and local production averages about 800,000 metric tons per year. Most of the oil found in Cuba so far is of the heavy type, as found in western Canada. There are about 10 small and medium-sized oil deposits, mainly located in the north. The most promising oil field is at Varadero, whose characteristics are similar to the Cold Lake field in Alberta. Cuban oil refining capacity is over 7.6 million metric tons per year, and additional capacity is being constructed. All imports of oil industry equipment are conducted via state trading agencies. Export opportunities of interest to Canadian companies are outlined, along with monetary constraints affecting imports to Cuba, financing and export insurance programs available to Canadian companies, and recommendations to Canadian exporters. A list of industry/government contacts is included

  1. Coordinator, Translation Services | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Coordinator, Translation Services coordinates the overall operations of the ... services in IDRC by acting as the main resource person for internal clients ... all operational issues in order to ensure good quality products delivered on time.

  2. Public sector innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the value dimension of public innovation in the light of practitioners’ values and asks why there seems to be a clash between innovation imperatives and workplace practices in the public sector. The paper contributes to the research on public innovation from a practice...... perspective by providing evidence from an ethnographic field study on innovation in social and health care studies in Denmark. These studies are part of the vocational education and training (VET) system, which combines coursework at a college and internship in the elder care sector. The study is thus cross...... initiate innovations grounded in their values. The main point put forward is that the value dimension of public innovation must be understood not only in terms of value creation (economic or non-economic), which frontline practitioners are required to contribute to, but also as value-based practices...

  3. Private Sector Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitonáková Renáta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of household savings are in the form of bank deposits. It is therefore of interest for credit institutions to tailor their deposit policy for getting finances from non-banking entities and to provide the private sector with the loans that are necessary for investment activities and consumption. This paper deals with the determinants of the saving rate of the private sector of Slovakia. Economic, financial and demographic variables influence savings. Growth of income per capita, private disposable income, elderly dependency ratio, real interest rate and inflation have a positive impact on savings, while increases in public savings indicate a crowding out effect. The inflation rate implies precautionary savings, and dependency ratio savings for bequest. There are also implications for governing institutions deciding on the implementation of appropriate fiscal and monetary operations.

  4. Sector retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Woerkom, Craig; Ferrucci, Steven

    2005-05-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is one of the most common hereditary retinal dystrophies and causes of visual impairment affecting all age groups. The reported incidence varies, but is considered to be between 1 in 3,000 to 1 in 7,000. Sector retinitis pigmentosa is an atypical form of RP that is characterized by regionalized areas of bone spicule pigmentation, usually in the inferior quadrants of the retina. A 57-year-old Hispanic man with a history of previously diagnosed retinitis pigmentosa came to the clinic with a longstanding symptom of decreased vision at night. Bone spicule pigmentation was found in the nasal and inferior quadrants in each eye. He demonstrated superior and temporal visual-field loss corresponding to the areas of the affected retina. Clinical measurements of visual-field loss, best-corrected visual acuity, and ophthalmoscopic appearance have remained stable during the five years the patient has been followed. Sector retinitis pigmentosa is an atypical form of RP that is characterized by bilateral pigmentary retinopathy, usually isolated to the inferior quadrants. The remainder of the retina appears clinically normal, although studies have found functional abnormalities in these areas as well. Sector RP is generally considered a stationary to slowly progressive disease, with subnormal electro-retinogram findings and visual-field defects corresponding to the involved retinal sectors. Management of RP is very difficult because there are no proven methods of treatment. Studies have shown 15,000 IU of vitamin A palmitate per day may slow the progression, though this result is controversial. Low vision rehabilitation, long wavelength pass filters, and pedigree counseling remain the mainstay of management.

  5. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  6. Coupling of Hidden Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Królikowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    A hypothetic Hidden Sector of the Universe, consisting of sterile fer\\-mions (``sterinos'') and sterile mediating bosons (``sterons'') of mass dimension 1 (not 2!) --- the last described by an antisymmetric tensor field --- requires to exist also a scalar isovector and scalar isoscalar in order to be able to construct electroweak invariant coupling (before spontaneously breaking its symmetry). The introduced scalar isoscalar might be a resonant source for the diphoton excess of 750 GeV, sugge...

  7. Single sector supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luty, Markus A.; Terning, John

    1999-01-01

    We review recent work on realistic models that break supersymmetry dynamically and give rise to composite quarks and leptons, all in a single sector. These models have a completely natural suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents, and the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings is explained by the dimensionality of composite states. The generic signatures are unification of scalar masses with different quantum numbers at the compositeness scale, and lighter gaugino, Higgsino, and third-generation sfermion masses

  8. Recursive Advice for Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terepeta, Michal Tomasz; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Aspect-oriented programming is a programming paradigm that is often praised for the ability to create modular software and separate cross-cutting concerns. Recently aspects have been also considered in the context of coordination languages, offering similar advantages. However, introducing aspects...... challenging. This is important since ensuring that a system does not contain errors is often equivalent to proving that some states are not reachable. In this paper we show how to solve these challenges by applying a successful technique from the area of software model checking, namely communicating pushdown...

  9. Composite Dark Sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona, Adrian

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a new paradigm in Composite Dark Sectors, where the full Standard Model (including the Higgs boson) is extended with a strongly-interacting composite sector with global symmetry group G spontaneously broken to H is contained in G. We show that, under well-motivated conditions, the lightest neutral pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons are natural dark matter candidates for they are protected by a parity symmetry not even broken in the electroweak phase. These models are characterized by only two free parameters, namely the typical coupling g D and the scale f D of the composite sector, and are therefore very predictive. We consider in detail two minimal scenarios, SU(3)/[SU(2) x U(1)] and [SU(2) 2 x U(1)]/[SU(2) x U(1)], which provide a dynamical realization of the Inert Doublet and Triplet models, respectively. We show that the radiatively-induced potential can be computed in a five-dimensional description with modified boundary conditions with respect to Composite Higgs models. Finally, the dark matter candidates are shown to be compatible, in a large region of the parameter space, with current bounds from dark matter searches as well as electroweak and collider constraints on new resonances.

  10. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    , are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has......The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  11. Representing AIDS in Comics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiec, M K

    2018-02-01

    Matthew P. McAllister wrote: "Comic books can and have contributed positively to the discourse about AIDS: images that encourage true education, understanding and compassion can help cope with a biomedical condition which has more than a biomedical relevance" [1]. With this in mind, I combined a 23-narrator oral history and my personal memoir about an inpatient Chicago AIDS hospital unit in my book, Taking Turns: Stories from HIV/AIDS Care Unit 371. In doing so, I built upon the existing rich history of HIV/AIDS in comics, which this article will briefly describe. Although not a comprehensive review of the intersection of AIDS and comics, the book is a tour through influences that proved useful to me. In addition, in making my book, I faced a distinct ethical issue with regard to representing patient experiences with HIV/AIDS, and I describe here how I addressed it. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Private sector participation in power sector in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, V.

    1992-01-01

    The Indian Government is currently thinking of allowing private sector to participate in power sector inviting private sector to generate electricity mainly from coal. The main motivation is resource mobilization from private sector, since the Plan funds are diverted to rural development away from power sector; and yet the massive expansion has to be financed. The paper analyzes the inherent difficulties and contradictions in the Government's proposal, such as co-existence of high cost private power and low cost public power, the potential goal-conflicts of private and public utilities and the constraints in raising finance. It suggests a different model in order to make the privatization proposition feasible. 12 refs

  13. Radiographic imaging of aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Mohammed Bashir

    2002-07-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists

  14. AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  15. Higgs Portal into Hidden Sectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Several attractive theoretical ideas suggest the existence of one or more 'hidden sectors' consisting of standard model singlet fields, some of which may not be too heavy. There is a profound reason to think that the Higgs sector might provide the first access to these hidden sectors. This scenario could affect Higgs phenomenology in drastic ways.

  16. Perceptions of the Third Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Brink Lund, A.

    2014-01-01

    How do citizens in Europe view third sector organizations? How can differences in perceptions of the third sector among citizens in Europe be explained? And how is the third sector assessed therein with regard to its contribution to social innovation? Based on the limited scope of the evidence

  17. Nuclear 101, a course on the nuclear sector for workers in the nuclear sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donev, J.M.K.C., E-mail: jason.donev@ucalgary.ca [Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Boreham, D.; Day, S., E-mail: boreham@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: dayse@mcmaster.ca [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Dranga, R.; Krasznai, J.; Matthews, R.; Whitlock, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    People who work in the nuclear science and technology community are often called upon in social situations to answer questions about the nuclear industry outside their area of direct expertise. In 2012 the Canadian Nuclear Society created 'Nuclear 101', a two-day general-level course to provide more information on the nuclear sector to people who are part of the nuclear science and technology community. This paper will discuss how Nuclear 101 aids public outreach discussions and the lessons learned after two years of operation, and will look at future directions for the course. (author)

  18. Nuclear 101, a course on the nuclear sector for workers in the nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donev, J.M.K.C.; Boreham, D.; Day, S.; Dranga, R.; Krasznai, J.; Matthews, R.; Whitlock, J.

    2014-01-01

    People who work in the nuclear science and technology community are often called upon in social situations to answer questions about the nuclear industry outside their area of direct expertise. In 2012 the Canadian Nuclear Society created 'Nuclear 101', a two-day general-level course to provide more information on the nuclear sector to people who are part of the nuclear science and technology community. This paper will discuss how Nuclear 101 aids public outreach discussions and the lessons learned after two years of operation, and will look at future directions for the course. (author)

  19. Aid, growth, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro- and meso-levels, recent literature doubts the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses the aid-growth literature and, taking inspiration from the program...... evaluation literature, we re-examine key hypotheses. In our findings, aid has a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run, with confidence intervals conforming to levels suggested by growth theory. Aid remains a key tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor...

  20. Music and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Music and Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. K. Madsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  2. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...... contribution both enabling and supporting rapid growth since 1992. At the same time, the proliferation of donors and aid-supported interventions has burdened local administration and there is a distinct need to develop government accountability to its own citizens rather than donor agencies. In ensuring...

  3. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, which I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda...

  4. Macroeconomic Impact of HIV and AIDS on the Zimbabwean Economy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-10-07

    Oct 7, 2008 ... and incapacitates the existing pool of skilled labour through death, absenteeism, increased ... multi-sectoral interactions and their adjustment process. The human .... complicated matrix for different progression rates is whereby probabilities of ..... Figure 2: distribution of output lost due to HIV/AIDS by Areas.

  5. African Journal of AIDS Research - Vol 7, No 3 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bridging the gap between VCT and HIV/AIDS treatment uptake: perspectives from a mining-sector workplace in South Africa · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Anil Bhagwanjee, Inge Petersen, Olagoke Akintola, Gavin George, 271-279.

  6. South-South Cooperation, North-South Aid and the Prospect of International Aid Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meibo Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available South-South Cooperation (SSC and North-South Aid (NSA arise from different historical conditions and there are great differences between their philosophies, principles and paradigms. Against the background of a changing global environment, developed countries realized that the original development aid architecture must be reformed on one hand, and that developing countries are increasingly important in the aid architecture on the other. Hence, Western donors began to rethink their aid principles and methods, and accepted the concept of development effectiveness gradually, an attempt to establish global development forum and global partnership including emerging donors, beneficiary countries, civil society and the private sector. Nevertheless, being developing countries themselves, emerging donors are faced with unsolved domestic poverty issues and imperfect aid management institutions, which means that the emerging donors are unable to take a dominant position in the current aid architecture. Hence, the future dialogue and cooperation between traditional and emerging donors should feature the principle that the responsibilities taken by each party are collective but not identical, with developing countries bearing the main responsibilities in promoting poverty reduction and economic development in developing countries. They should be mutually tolerant about the different philosophies and share useful experiences. Moreover, emerging donors should promote development capacity building in recipient countries through win-win cooperation and solve their domestic development issues at the same time.

  7. Private pharmacies in an integrated approach to HIV/AIDS services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African National AIDS Council emphasises that success in tackling HIV/AIDS depends on leadership at every level of society, as well as mobilisation and co-operation in all sectors including government, health care workers and civil society (SANAC, 2006). This may be an acknowledgement that South Africa's ...

  8. Network Coordinator Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himwich, Ed; Strand, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This report includes an assessment of the network performance in terms of lost observing time for the 2012 calendar year. Overall, the observing time loss was about 12.3%, which is in-line with previous years. A table of relative incidence of problems with various subsystems is presented. The most significant identified causes of loss were electronics rack problems (accounting for about 21.8% of losses), antenna reliability (18.1%), RFI (11.8%), and receiver problems (11.7%). About 14.2% of the losses occurred for unknown reasons. New antennas are under development in the USA, Germany, and Spain. There are plans for new telescopes in Norway and Sweden. Other activities of the Network Coordinator are summarized.

  9. Medios y sectores populares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blasco Fernando Checa Montúfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El CIESPAL desarrolló un estudio sobre los usos y preferencias de los medios de información y de los mensajes en algunos sectores populares del Ecuador. La mayoría de los campesinos escuchan la radio pero aman la televisión. El Comercio de Quito y el Universo de Guayaquil son los diarios preferidos. En Quito se leen menos periódicos que en Guayaquil y las redes comunitarias funcionan muy bien en la costa del país.

  10. The Informal Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Áureo de Paula; José A. Scheinkman

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of informal economic activity. We present two equilibrium models of informality and test their implications using a survey of 48,000+ small firms in Brazil. We define informality as tax avoidance; firms in the informal sector avoid tax payments but suffer other limitations. In the first model there is a single industry and informal firms face a higher cost of capital and a limitation on size. As a result informal firms are smaller and have a lower capi...

  11. The Wave Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    This Handbook for Ocean Wave Energy aims at providing a guide into the field of ocean wave energy utilization. The handbook offers a concise yet comprehensive overview of the main aspects and disciplines involved in the development of wave energy converters (WECs). The idea for the book has been...... shaped by the development, research, and teaching that we have carried out at the Wave Energy Research Group at Aalborg University over the past decades. It is our belief and experience that it would be useful writing and compiling such a handbook in order to enhance the understanding of the sector...

  12. [Materials for construction sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchia, C

    2012-01-01

    The construction sector is characterized by high complexity due to several factors. There are a lot of processes within the building sites and they need the use of different materials with the help of appropriate technologies. Traditional materials have evolved and diversified, meanwhile new products and materials appeared and still appear, offering services which meet user needs, but that often involve risks to the health of workers. Research in the field of materials, promoted and carried out at various levels, has led to interesting results, encoded in the form of rules and laws.

  13. Coordinating Group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In December 1992, western governors and four federal agencies established a Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-site Innovative Technologies for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (the DOIT Committee). The purpose of the Committee is to advise the federal government on ways to improve waste cleanup technology development and the cleanup of federal sites in the West. The Committee directed in January 1993 that information be collected from a wide range of potential stakeholders and that innovative technology candidate projects be identified, organized, set in motion, and evaluated to test new partnerships, regulatory approaches, and technologies which will lead to improve site cleanup. Five working groups were organized, one to develop broad project selection and evaluation criteria and four to focus on specific contaminant problems. A Coordinating Group comprised of working group spokesmen and federal and state representatives, was set up to plan and organize the routine functioning of these working groups. The working groups were charged with defining particular contaminant problems; identifying shortcomings in technology development, stakeholder involvement, regulatory review, and commercialization which impede the resolution of these problems; and identifying candidate sites or technologies which could serve as regional innovative demonstration projects to test new approaches to overcome the shortcomings. This report from the Coordinating Group to the DOIT Committee highlights the key findings and opportunities uncovered by these fact-finding working groups. It provides a basis from which recommendations from the DOIT Committee to the federal government can be made. It also includes observations from two public roundtables, one on commercialization and another on regulatory and institutional barriers impeding technology development and cleanup

  14. "Saber de SIDA" y cuidado sexual en mujeres jóvenes de sectores populares del cordón sur de la ciudad de Buenos Aires. Apuntes para la definición de políticas de prevención "Knowing about AIDS" and sexual precautions among low-income women from the southern area of Buenos Aires. Notes for defining prevention policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Grimberg

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es parte de la Línea Género y Prevención de un Programa de Investigación sobre Construcción Social del VIH-SIDA. Sintetizamos en este artículo resultados del estudio etnográfico en mujeres de 15 a 35 años de sectores populares, residentes en el cordón sur de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, área de mayor incremento de casos de VIH-SIDA, mayor pobreza, degradación y violencia urbana. Los resultados destacan que entre "saber" y "actuar" median complejos procesos que entrelazan representaciones estigmatizantes y generizadas del VIH-SIDA como "problema de otros" y modalidades de relación social y sexual, atravezadas por estereotipos y roles de género. Desde ahí sostenemos que las propuestas de prevención deben: partir del conjunto de la práctica social y, especificamente, de las relaciones de género; articular estrategias relacionales entre mujeres y varones; y promover en ellos la reflexión crítica en torno de núcleos clave de su vida cotidiana y su participación activa en la construcción de relaciones y prácticas sociales de reciprocidad y equidad. Más aún cuando la creciente precarización de la vida social intensifica la histórica vulnerabilidad de las mujeres de sectores populares, a la vez que supone crecientes contextos de interacción social que apelan y dependen del papel socioeconómico y simbólico de las mismas.This study is part of a line of research on gender and prevention in a research program on the social construction of HIV/AIDS. We present the results of an ethnographic study among low-income women 15-35 years old in the southern area of Buenos Aires. The area has the highest number of HIV/AIDS cases and high poverty levels, extensive social degradation, and urban violence. According to our results, in the interface between "knowing about" and "behaving" there are complex processes involving stigmatized and gender-biased representations of HIV/AIDS as "other people's problem" and social and sexual

  15. AIDS Epidemiological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  16. The Macroeconomics of Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Morrissey, Oliver; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This Special Issue explores macroeconomic effects of aid from various perspectives through a blend of studies, both conceptual and empirical in nature. The overall aim is to enhance the understanding of the macroeconomic dimensions of aid in the policy and research communities, and to inspire...

  17. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  18. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    2015-01-01

    of data spanning nearly 50 years, this paper uses panel cointegration techniques to consider these issues. The analysis provides clear evidence for heterogeneity both between donors and over time, bandwagon effects, and a growing influence of security considerations in aid provision. Domestic...... macroeconomic shocks have a moderate but delayed effect on aid disbursements....

  19. Marketing Financial Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Thomas, Jr.; Batty, Burt F.

    1978-01-01

    Student financial assistance services are becoming a major part of the institutional marketing plan as traditional college-age students decline in numbers and price competition among institutions increases. The effect of financial aid on enrollment and admissions processes is discussed along with the role of the financial aid officer. (Author/LBH)

  20. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  1. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is c...

  2. First Aid: Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... last rabies vaccination, if known any recent unusual behavior by the animal the animal's location, if known if the animal ... Scratches First Aid: Cuts First Aid: Skin Infections Cat Scratch ... Safe Around Animals Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions Rabies Cuts, Scratches, and ...

  3. New indicators of innovation in the health sector

    OpenAIRE

    Sivertsen, Gunnar; Kværner, Kari J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a new model for the measurement and stimulation of service innovation and commercialization in the health sector which has been developed for the Norwegian Ministry of Health and will be piloted in 2016. Data for the indicators are recorded from a new shared national innovation management and information system in which the primary function (independent of measurement) is to aid the phase-to-phase efficiency and valuation work in daily innovation processes, and to create...

  4. Mandela calls for greater commitment and leadership in fighting AIDS. The World Economic Forum -- Policy and business in a world of HIV / AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinnis R

    1997-01-01

    The 27th annual meeting of the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, on February 3, 1997, was attended by 2000 political and financial leaders of countries and businesses around the world. The forum is the world's largest annual gathering of economic and political dignitaries. In his address to the forum, Nelson Mandela, president of South Africa, called for a global effort against AIDS and a strengthening of the world's political and business leaders' commitment against HIV/AIDS. The disease is creating global economic problems by affecting people in their prime productive and reproductive years. Mandela criticized political leaders for their limited actions in addressing the AIDS pandemic and called upon the world's business community to support government AIDS programs and help people affected by AIDS. All sectors and all spheres of society must be involved as equal partners in the war against HIV/AIDS, for neither the health sector nor government can meet the challenge on its own. If current HIV/AIDS trends continue in South Africa, AIDS will cost the country 1% of its domestic gross product by the year 2005, and up to 75% of the country's budget will be consumed by direct health costs related to HIV/AIDS. At a panel discussion preceding President Mandela's address, Dr. Peter Piot, executive director of UNAIDS, argued that the AIDS pandemic could have a devastating effect upon the global economy and urged business leaders to take strong action against the disease.

  5. Implementing AIDS Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace C. Huerta

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The world has been challenged by the AIDS epidemic for 15 years. In 1985, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, allocated funds to all state departments of education to assist schools in the development of AIDS education policies and programs. Yet, these policies do not ensure that all students receive effective AIDS education. On September 21, 1991, the Arizona Legislature passed Senate Bill 1396, which requires public schools to annually provide AIDS education in grades K-12. The bill was rescinded in 1995. With prohibitive curriculum guidelines, limited teacher training opportunities and tremendous instructional demands, this educational policy was implemented in disparate forms. By examining the perspectives of the Arizona educators (representing three school districts, this qualitative study reveals how teachers ultimately controlled the delivery and nature of AIDS instruction based upon personal values, views of teacher roles, and their interpretation of the mandate itself.

  6. TurbinAID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradian, M.A.; Chow, M.P.; Osborne, R.L.; Jenkins, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Westinghouse Turbine Artificial Intelligence Diagnostics system or TurbinAID, can diagnose both thermodynamic and mechanical component anomalies within the turbine, and around the turbine cycle. any monitoring system can detect that a variable is in an abnormal state, but TurbinAID can also indicate the cause, and provide recommended corrective action(s). The TurbinAID Expert Systems utilize multiple sensor and variable inputs, and their interdependencies in the generation of a diagnosis. The system performs sensor validation as part of the data acquisition scheme. The TurbinAID system has been in operation for several years. This paper describes the monitoring and diagnostic functions provided by TurbinAID, and how the utility industry both nuclear and fossil, can utilize the system to enhance unit operation

  7. GLOBALIZATION IN TOURISM SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana LUPAN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper points to recent developments in the tourism sector and highlights the leading factors of the internationalization of tourists travel and of tourism services, including information technologies, as well as the internationalization of hotel and tourism enterprises. Without neglecting the huge subsector of small and medium-sized enterprises, it describes typical features related to the composition of the labour force and to working conditions. It raises questions concerning the difficulties faced by the sector in attracting and retaining skilled workers in enhancing the skills of newcomers to the labour market in order to stabilize the sector’s labour force, while increasing the productivity of enterprises and the quality of services. Particular emphasis is put on new forms of management entailing new skills requirements, with a general tendency towards increased worker responsibility in an environment of flat hierarchies, multiskilling and teamwork.

  8. Renewing and Developing the Partnership: Federal/State/Campus Cooperation in Student Financial Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert H., Ed.; Clark, Patricia L., Ed.

    The proceedings of the conference are summarized, including a symposium discussion following the formal conference. Contents include: two views of the present advisory structure for student aid (The Case for Maintaining and Expanding the Coalition for the Coordination of Student Financial Aid, by Robert H. Atwell, and The Need for Developing a…

  9. Financing the energy sector in developing countries: context and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkerley, Joy.

    1995-01-01

    Traditional 'business as usual' financing methods will no longer be adequate to meet the unprecedented demands for capital to finance energy sector expansion in the developing countries. In recognition, many countries are opening up their power sectors to private investment, initially through the establishment of independent power projects, but in some cases through sector privatization. Project financing has many advantages, but further sectoral reorganization, including tariff reform, will be needed to attract resources on the scale required, especially from domestic investors. In oil and gas, in contrast to power, private capital from the international oil companies has always played a major role in the developing countries. However, sharply increasing investment requirements require a growing role for external finance. There should, in principle, be no shortage of investible funds to finance energy sector expansion in developing countries so long as host countries establish conditions which are attractive to private investors. The augmented role of private finance requires a continuing, if different, role for the public sector in both host countries and official aid agencies. (author)

  10. Coordinates in relativistic Hamiltonian mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The physical (covariant and measurable) coordinates of free particles and covariant coordinates of the center of inertia are found for three main forms of relativistic dynamics. In the point form of dynamics, the covariant coordinates of two directly interacting particles are found, and the equations of motion are brought to the explicitly covariant form. These equations are generalized to the case of interaction with an external electromagnetic field

  11. Coordinating the Uncoordinated: The EU Forest Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Aggestam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The second European Union (EU Forest Strategy responds to new challenges facing both forests and the forest-based sector which highlights the EU’s need for a policy framework ensuring coordination and coherence of forest-related policies. The objective of the present article is to analyse whether the new Strategy contributes towards horizontal policy coherence of EU forest-related policies, given its shared and exclusive competences. This is achieved by comparing European Commission and forest industry policy priorities as articulated in the Strategy and through research carried out for the recent Cumulative Cost Assessment (CCA of forest-based industries. Results from the comparative analysis demonstrate that the Strategy does not address many EU policies and policy instruments that affect the whole forest value chain and that it clearly omits existing EU policy instrument objectives that entail significant costs for the forest-based industry. It is therefore argued that without coordinating collective EU goals and gathering strong political support, it is at best extremely difficult or at worst impossible, to achieve coherence for EU forest-related policies across the whole forest value chain. Improving coherence of Union forest-related policies will require the Strategy to address more policy areas and instruments, including clearly defined parameters of what constitutes an EU forest-related policy. These pressing needs reach beyond what the Strategy presently sets out to achieve.

  12. Third sector: the construction of an solidarity economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Coutinho Ramos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The third sector is increasing in Brazil and it occupies a political, economic and social space, showing a diversity of formal entities or informal movements, defender of the most variety causes – street boys, AIDS, environment, professional qualification, woman, small producers, among so many other which represent the social fights in Brazil. In this context, this article aims to raise topics for discussion concerning the importance of the third sector in the country as an alternative of society organization in relation with its reality and necessities, besides stressing the economic importance of this segment in the GDP, work market and capital investment. Firstly, it shows a brief historic view of the third sector; secondly, it performs a debate about this concept; thirdly, it is shown the economic aspects and the perspectives that, in Brazil, are presented to it.

  13. Solidarity and AIDS: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, N

    1991-01-01

    Perhaps more than any other disease in recent history, AIDS has taught a cruel and crucial lesson: the constraints on our response to this epidemic are as deep as our denial, as entrenched as the inequities that permeate our society, as circumscribed as our knowledge, and as unlimited as our compassion and our commitment to human rights. Elaborating on these themes, the final three articles in this Special Section on AIDS consider three widely divergent yet intimately connected topics: AIDS in Cuba, AIDS in Brazil, and global AIDS prevention in the 1990s. Together, they caution that if we persist in treating AIDS as a problem only of "others," no country will be spared the social and economic devastation that promises to be the cost of our contempt and our folly. Solidarity is not an option; it is a necessity. Without conscious recognition of the worldwide relationship between health, human rights, and social inequalities, our attempts to abate the spread of AIDS--and to ease the suffering that follows in its wake--most surely will fall short of our goals. Finally, as we mourn our dead, we must take to heart the words of Mother Jones, and "fight like hell for living." This is the politics of survival.

  14. AIDS radio triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, A M

    1991-07-01

    In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers.

  15. Vibration Analysis of Annular Sector Plates under Different Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyan Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical framework is developed for the vibration analysis of annular sector plates with general elastic restraints along each edge of plates. Regardless of boundary conditions, the displacement solution is invariably expressed as a new form of trigonometric expansion with accelerated convergence. The expansion coefficients are treated as the generalized coordinates and determined using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. This work allows a capability of modeling annular sector plates under a variety of boundary conditions and changing the boundary conditions as easily as modifying the material properties or dimensions of the plates. Of equal importance, the proposed approach is universally applicable to annular sector plates of any inclusion angles up to 2π. The reliability and accuracy of the current method are adequately validated through numerical examples.

  16. Volunteering and mutual aid in health and social care in the Czech Republic as an example of active citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krízová, Eva

    2012-06-01

    This article informs about recent research findings on voluntary and mutual aid in the Czech Republic with a special attention paid to formal volunteering in health and social care. The data suggest that public involvement is comparable to middle-frequency experienced in European countries. In this respect, volunteering is higher in the Czech Republic than in other former Eastern European countries and is an evidence of a successful and rapid restoration of the civic sector. New patterns of volunteering featured by planning, coordination, and contracting have spread out being strongly supported by national and EU policy measures. Managerial patterns of volunteering are dominating in health and social care institutions. Volunteering in health and social care is firmly motivated by emotional altruism; however, reciprocal (instrumental) and normative motivations are also present, though to a lesser extent compared to other sectors of volunteer activities. In the managerial pattern of volunteering altruism is balanced with personal gains and benefits for those who volunteer. Volunteering is deeply embedded in a civic, humanitarian paradigm instead of a religious faith and duty.

  17. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  18. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The U.S. CDC reported that in 2015, 39, ...

  19. Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic Published: Nov 29, 2017 Facebook Twitter ... 2001-FY 2018 Request The Global Response to HIV/AIDS International efforts to combat HIV began in ...

  20. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  1. How to Get Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if desired. What questions should I ask before buying hearing aids? Before you buy a hearing aid, ... the period of warranty? Does the warranty cover future maintenance and repairs? Will loaner aids be provided ...

  2. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  3. SECTORAL SHARES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Naveed, Amjad; Naz, Amber

    2013-01-01

    believe that structural change is an unimportant side effect of the economic development. On the contrary, economists associated with the World Bank and some others posit that growth is brought about by the changes in sectoral composition. The objective of this study is to empirically test...... the relationship between sectoral shares and economic growth by using the panel data for 20 developed countries. The results of the granger causality suggest that both services and agriculture sectors do granger cause economic growth, whereas industrial sector does not granger cause growth. Reverse causality does...... not hold for any of the three sectors. The results of Barro and Non-Barro regressions along with the set of control variables have suggested that services sector is negatively affecting growth, whereas both industrial and agriculture shares are positively affect economic growth....

  4. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  5. Assessing Inter-Sectoral Climate Change Risks: The Role of ISIMIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Arnell, Nigel W.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Raes, Frank; Rapley, Chris; Smith, Mark Stafford; Cramer, Wolfgang; Frieler, Katja; Reyer, Christopher P. O.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) are to provide a framework for the intercomparison of global and regional-scale risk models within and across multiple sectors and to enable coordinated multi-sectoral assessments of different risks and their aggregated effects. The overarching goal is to use the knowledge gained to support adaptation and mitigation decisions that require regional or global perspectives within the context of facilitating transformations to enable sustainable development, despite inevitable climate shifts and disruptions. ISIMIP uses community-agreed sets of scenarios with standardized climate variables and socioeconomic projections as inputs for projecting future risks and associated uncertainties, within and across sectors. The results are consistent multi-model assessments of sectoral risks and opportunities that enable studies that integrate across sectors, providing support for implementation of the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  6. Hearing Aid and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamileh Fatahi

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop oral communication, hearing impaired infants and young children must be able to hear speech comfortably and consistently. To day children with all degrees of hearing loss may be condidates for some kinds of amlification. As children differ from adults, many Factors should be consider in hearing aid selection, evaluation and fitting. For example the child age when he or she is candidate for custom instruments? Do we consider programmable Hearing aid? Are multi memory instruments appropriate for them? What about directional microphones? What style of hearing aid do we select? In this paper such questions are Answered.

  7. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh

    2013-01-01

    Recent litterature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This article assesses what meta-analysis has to contribute to the litterature on the effectiveness...... of foreign aid in terms of growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  8. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms...... of the growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  9. Cross-sectoral Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lene Ekholm

    2016-01-01

    that the market is mainly composed of public institutions and consumers. Even though it is the citizen, patient or welfare worker that will use the device it is the institution that is the customer in terms of financing the welfare technology. Firms producing healthcare and welfare products mainly deliver to...... and Duguid, 2001 and Ellström, 2008) along with authors from evolutionary economic geography (Amin and Cohendet, 2009, Cooke et al., 2007, Creviosier and Jeannerat, 2009 and David and Foray, 2002). The paper will unpack the question of how cluster development can be seen taking an ANT approach when knowledge....... In Denmark the economic system or the nation’s type of capitalism would fall under the category of coordinated market economy (Hall and Soskice, 2001) contrary to a liberal market economy as is found in Britain. This means that public institutions and organizations play a central role in the economy. Hansen...

  10. Working in the Public Sector. Introduction to the Thematic Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Kamp

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Work in the public sector has been changing dramatically in recent decades. Reforms aimed at increasing the efficiency of public services have been extensive in the Nordic countries and elsewhere since the 1980s. The reforms and changes have to a large extent been associated with so-called New Public Management (NPM principles, emphasizing the market as a central coordination mechanism. Consequently, public institutions have been restructured, their services are standardized and commodified, and market-like relationships between them have been created. In order to create markets and transform citizens into customers on a market, outsourcing and privatization have been stimulated (Blomqvist & Rothstein 2000, Busch et al 2005, Christensen & Lægreid 2007, Greve 2003. At the same time, traditional Weberian bureaucratic principles are still viable and even enhanced within the sector, for instance, as a consequence of the use of contracts as a means of managing public organizations (Greve 2008. Lately, large reforms aimed at centralized coordination of different service providers, such as the integration of the Norwegian welfare administration, have been labeled post-NPM reforms by some researchers. The implication of all these parallel tendencies is that the institutional and organizational landscape surrounding the work situations of employees in the public sector have become increasingly complex, some call them hybrid,  putting a variety of conflicting pressures on the performance of work within the sector (Christensen & Lægreid 2011, Hasselbladh et al. 2008. In this special issue, we explore some of the consequences of these structural and normative changes on the work of public sector employees in different sectors and contexts (...

  11. Coordination of Conditional Poisson Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grafström Anton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sample coordination seeks to maximize or to minimize the overlap of two or more samples. The former is known as positive coordination, and the latter as negative coordination. Positive coordination is mainly used for estimation purposes and to reduce data collection costs. Negative coordination is mainly performed to diminish the response burden of the sampled units. Poisson sampling design with permanent random numbers provides an optimum coordination degree of two or more samples. The size of a Poisson sample is, however, random. Conditional Poisson (CP sampling is a modification of the classical Poisson sampling that produces a fixed-size πps sample. We introduce two methods to coordinate Conditional Poisson samples over time or simultaneously. The first one uses permanent random numbers and the list-sequential implementation of CP sampling. The second method uses a CP sample in the first selection and provides an approximate one in the second selection because the prescribed inclusion probabilities are not respected exactly. The methods are evaluated using the size of the expected sample overlap, and are compared with their competitors using Monte Carlo simulation. The new methods provide a good coordination degree of two samples, close to the performance of Poisson sampling with permanent random numbers.

  12. Coordination in continuously repeated games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeren, A.J.T.M.; Schumacher, J.M.; Engwerda, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model to describe the effectiveness of coordination in a continuously repeated two-player game. We study how the choice of a decision rule by a coordinator affects the strategic behavior of the players, resulting in more or less cooperation. Our model requires the analysis

  13. Coordinated Transportation: Problems and Promise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickes, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Examines the legal, administrative, and logistical barriers that have prevented the wide acceptance of coordinating community and school transportation services and why these barriers may be breaking down. Two examples of successful implementation of coordinated transportation are examined: employing a single system to serve all transportation…

  14. Bare coordination: the semantic shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Swart, Henriette; Le Bruyn, Bert

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops an analysis of the syntax-semantics interface of two types of split coordination structures. In the first type, two bare singular count nouns appear as arguments in a coordinated structure, as in bride and groom were happy. We call this the N&N construction. In the second type,

  15. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  16. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first signs of HIV infection Diarrhea Weight loss Oral yeast infection (thrush) Shingles (herpes zoster) Progression to AIDS Thanks ... eyes, digestive tract, lungs or other organs. Candidiasis. Candidiasis ... tongue, esophagus or vagina. Cryptococcal meningitis. Meningitis is ...

  17. Nurses and Aides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, John

    1976-01-01

    Gerontological nursing (the care of the elderly) as a specialization for registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and nursing aides is discussed with respect to training and qualifications, employment outlook, and earnings for each group. (JT)

  18. Aids and Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2004-12-02

    Dec 2, 2004 ... The correlation between HIV infection and surgery began to be highlighted only two ... expect greater clinical exposure to patients with. HIV/AIDS. .... fractures in HIV patient, although too little is known about the relationship ...

  19. Buying a Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in price according to style, features, and local market prices. Price can range from hundreds of dollars to more than $2,500 for a programmable, digital hearing aid. Purchase price should not be the ...

  20. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  1. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy....... investment. We conclude by stressing the need for more theoretical work before this kind of cross-country regressions are used for policy purposes.......This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy...

  2. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...

  3. Aids and Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2004-12-02

    Dec 2, 2004 ... HIV/AIDS patients require surgery sometimes during their illness. The objective of the ... risks to surgical equipes and analysing preventive strategies to HIV ... of Atlanta, and after an assessment of the performance status and ...

  4. Foreign Aid Explorer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Foreign Aid Explorer shows the multi-dimensional picture of U.S. foreign assistance through a highly visual and interactive website. The website makes it easy...

  5. HIV/AIDS Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relations Cyber Infrastructure Computational Biology Equal Employment Opportunity Ethics Global Research Office of Mission Integration and Financial Management Strategic Planning Workforce Effectiveness Workplace Solutions Technology Transfer Intellectual Property Division of AIDS ...

  6. First Aid: Rashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... avoid sunburn . If your child tends to get eczema flare-ups, avoid harsh soaps. Reviewed by: Steven ...

  7. AidData

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — AidData is a research and innovation lab making information on development finance more accessible and actionable. Tracking more than $6 trillion dollars from 90+...

  8. Multipole structure and coordinate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burko, Lior M

    2007-01-01

    Multipole expansions depend on the coordinate system, so that coefficients of multipole moments can be set equal to zero by an appropriate choice of coordinates. Therefore, it is meaningless to say that a physical system has a nonvanishing quadrupole moment, say, without specifying which coordinate system is used. (Except if this moment is the lowest non-vanishing one.) This result is demonstrated for the case of two equal like electric charges. Specifically, an adapted coordinate system in which the potential is given by a monopole term only is explicitly found, the coefficients of all higher multipoles vanish identically. It is suggested that this result can be generalized to other potential problems, by making equal coordinate surfaces adapt to the potential problem's equipotential surfaces

  9. Hearing aid adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Matthews, Ben; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2012-01-01

    to the interaction during hearing aid fitting. This report of a Danish pilot study describes two such problems. The first problem arises from the requirement that the audiologist needs to ‘translate’ the patient’s subjective hearing description for making technological decisions. The second problem is the way...... in which the hearing aid user’s implicit and often unrealistic expectations are handled. This kind of research has potential application for developing a model of best practices....

  10. AIDS in Mexican prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, J M; Roberts, J B

    1995-01-01

    The human rights organization Americas Watch, which toured Mexican prisons, reported in 1991 that all prisoners with HIV infection in the Mexico City area were housed in a single AIDS ward in Santa Marta Prison. In 1991, the 16-bed facility had 15 patients; in 1993, this number had increased by 5. In Mexico City, with 3 prisons holding over 2000 male adults each, there were only 20 known infected prisoners in the AIDS ward at Santa Marta. In 1991, authorities at Matamoros, in the state of Tamaulipas, insisted that none of their inmates had ever been diagnosed as infected with HIV. The prison physician at Reynosa indicated that only 2 inmates since 1985 had ever been diagnosed as infected. In 1992, the prison in Saltillo, in the state of Coahuila, reported that here had yet to be a single positive test for HIV. The prison at Reynosa held 1500 people and only 2 inmates were diagnosed as having AIDS between 1985 and 1991. Prisons at Matamoros and Saltillo held similar numbers but had no experience of infected inmates. A survey of 2 prisons in the state of Tamaulipas indicates that around 12% of the population may use IV drugs, and 9% indicate sharing needles. It is possible for prisoners to die of diseases like pneumonia, associated with AIDS, without the connection to AIDS being diagnosed. Each state, and possibly each prison in Mexico, has its own particular AIDS policies. Santa Marta was the single facility in Mexico City used to house AIDS-infected prisoners, who were segregated. Finally, the prison at Saltillo required all women entering the facility to have a medical examination, including a test for HIV. High-level prison personnel have demonstrated ignorance and fear of AIDS and intolerance of infected prisoners. Mexico must reassess the need to provide adequate medical care to offenders who are sick and dying behind bars.

  11. THE AIDS HANDBOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection and AIDS is increasingly becoming a major public health problem in our country. Currently, the reported cases represent only the 'tip of the iceberg' of the problem. In view of the fact that no cure or vaccine for the disease has yet been found, spreading knowledge and removing misconceptions is about the only way that AIDS can be effectively tackled.This handbook, developed by Prof. Shankar Chowdhury and associates, seeks to address all levels of medical and non-medical AIDS workers, as well as the layman. It deals with topics ranging from biology of the virus, symptoms and transmission of disease, to prevention, counselling for infected persons and action plan for AIDS education.The biology of the virus and the immune system is described in simple terms, as well as methods of testing for HIV, and what these test results mean. The progression of disease in adults and children, development of symptoms, diagnostic criteria for AIDS, treatment and outcome of disease is dealt with. How AIDS spreads between people, and the health risk for health workers and families is examined. The various ways in which transmission of HIV can be prevented is looked at in detail, including public health measures, national and internatonal action, and ethical and human rights issues involved.

  12. Equality of sexes would help AIDS fight. Funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Women in many countries have no control over their sexual and reproductive lives. As such, they are at great risk of exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection and AIDS. AIDS experts who met before the UN's World Population Day on July 11, 1996, called for a broad-based campaign to fight the disease, and argued that greater effort should be made to change imbalances between the sexes and to persuade the corporate sector to become more involved. AIDS rates are highest in sub-Saharan Africa where prostitution is widespread and women are traditionally seen as husbands' property. Since a medical cure for AIDS remains some way off, women in developing countries need to have more power to control their own lives. Improving women's status will require education among and employment for women, as well as education and a change in attitude in the general public.

  13. EU environmental state aid policy: wide implications, narrow participation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaam, Karoline

    2008-11-15

    This article investigates the 2008 reform of the EU's environmental state aid guidelines, with an eye to determining the degree of external pressure and lobbyism towards environmental state aid policies. What is found is a strikingly low level of external pressure on the policy-field, not least on the part of the private sector. In fact, EU environmental state aid policy is largely the making of a few Commission officials, without much external 'interference'. The article discusses possible reasons for this, and asks whether state aid policy-making might be marked less by clear and established interests and utility maximising, and more by actors constrained by complexity and bounded rationality. (author). refs.,tab

  14. HIV/AIDS issues in the workplace of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnaar, A

    2005-08-01

    HIV/AIDS is a global problem with an estimated 40 million infected people. In less than two years, this figure will leap to 100 million according to the World Health Organisation (WHO). By 2005, 65 million people will be infected. Half of the number of people in this group will be under 25 years old, and will die before they reach the age of 35. In a South African study done by the Human Science Research Council and published in 2003, regarding the impact of HIV/AIDS on the health sector, the findings were that 15% of health workers in public and private hospitals tested positive for HIV antibodies. Together with these facts above it was found that 46.2 percent of patients served in medical and paediatric wards tested positive for HIV. These factors have major implication for staffing in the future and the role of the nurse manager in South Africa. To explore the management of HIV/AIDS in the workplace of nurses in selected health services in KwaZulu-Natal. This research was part of a greater study on the exploration of the presence of caring as part of nursing management. THE METHODOLOGY: The qualitative research approach was used with a phenomenological design, which ensured that the richness and the complexities are reflected in the study. The data was collected by means of an open-ended question to nurse managers during an interview. The first question posed was; How do you or your services care for nurses in this hospital? Secondly nurse managers were asked, To explain their role in caring for HIV/AIDS positive nurses on their staff establishment. A qualitative analysis of the interviews with nurse managers indicated that they rate HIV/AIDS issues as an important part of their management task. Four main themes were identified, namely HIV/AIDS, counselling, dying of AIDS and funerals. Rich descriptions of these themes are given in this paper. Nurse managers in the health services are managing HIV/AIDS affected nurses, but are doing so without any formal policy

  15. First aid facilities in the school settings: Are schools able to manage adequately?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Farhan Muhammad; Khalid, Nadia; Nigah-E-Mumtaz, Seema; Assad, Tahira; Noreen, Khola

    2018-01-01

    Children spend most of their time in schools and are vulnerable to injuries and mild ailments, hence requiring first-aid care. School teacher can provide immediate first-aid care in the absence of any health professional. This study assesses first-aid facilities within school premises and assessment of teachers on first aid training. A cross sectional study was conducted from July-December 2017, participants were full time school teachers of both public and private sectors at both primary and secondary levels, having a minimum of one year experience. Questionnaire was filled on one to one basis by taking oral interview. Out of 209 teachers, 72.7% were from private sector. Stomachache was the most common medical incident (82.29%) requiring first-aid care in schools. First aid box was available in all schools but its contents were not satisfactory. Sick bay was not found in any school. 68.42% of teachers were not trained in first-aid management because of lack of opportunity, however 56% were willing to enroll in any first aid training and majority (91.38%) considered it essential for their professional life. First aid facilities at various schools of Karachi and availability of trained teachers who can provide first aid care is unsatisfactory.

  16. ACCRUAL ACCOUNTING, FOUNDATION FOR THE FINANCIAL REPORTING INTO THE PUBLIC SECTOR ENTITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelia Stefanescu; Eugeniu Turlea

    2011-01-01

    The development of the accounting system of the public sector entities atmondial level has focused on taking up the accrual accounting as foundation for the financialreporting and totally or partially giving up the cash accounting. Within this context, by thisresearch, we define the coordinates of the accrual accounting, we analyse the adoption of itas a financial reporting basis into the public sector at international level and also theimplications of completing the cash accounting with the ...

  17. L-025: EPR-First Responders: Resource Coordinator and National Center for Emergency Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This conference cover the importance of resource coordinator and the national Center for Emergency Operations which provides a stable environment installation and a valuable aid in the radiological emergency situation.The resources coordinator maintains the registers and resources located in general as well as the National Center for Emergency Operations is the ideal place for the public information Center. Both roles provide support and encourage the efforts to respond to the incident Command

  18. [Harassment in the public sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The French Labour Code, which provides full protection against moral and sexual harassment, is not applicable to public sector workers. The public hospital is however not exempt from such behaviour, which could go unpunished. Public sector workers are therefore protected by the French General Civil Service Regulations and the penal code.

  19. Private Sector and Enterprise Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training ..... and ..structures that offer services to private sector enterprises and represent .... investment climate reform and the adoption of good governance practices. ..... Over two-thirds of the labour force in Jordan, the West Bank & Gaza, Iraq and Syria is in the service sector.

  20. Two-sector disequilibrium growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles); J.B.L.M. Verbeek (Jos)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the effects of (i) profit distribution to either laborers or capital-owners, (ii) sector-specific or efficient rationing schemes, and (iii) government consumption in a two-sector disequilibrium growth model with sluggish real wage rate adjustment (which affects capital

  1. The Danish Social Housing Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard; Haagerup, Christian Deichmann

    2017-01-01

    With Denmark faring reasonably well through the global financial crisis, the policy changes to the social housing sector caused by the crisis have been limited. Nevertheless, changes have taken place nonetheless both in terms of policy and in the residential composition of the sector which polici...

  2. Sectoral profiles of working conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Andries, F.; Berg, R. van den; Dhondt, S.

    2002-01-01

    This report looks at trends in working conditions across different sectors Over the period 1995-2000. Basing its findings on the Third European Survey on Working Conditions (2000) in the 15 EU Member States and Norway, it examines the quality of working life in eighteen different sectors. It

  3. EDI in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    1998-01-01

    Introduction of EDI in the public administration is apriority for the Danish Government. EDI is both seen as a catlyst for development towards an information society ans as a means for more efficient use of scarce resources. EDI in the banking sector and the retail sector is reviewed, drivers...

  4. Benin - Transport Sector Investment Program

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this project (1997-2001) using $40 million of IDA funds were to: (i) safeguard the competitiveness of Benin's transport sector and of its transit corridor through open modal competition; (ii) improve government's capacity for planning, programming and managing transport sector investments; (iii) boost the allocation of resources to infrastructure maintenance; (iv) boost t...

  5. Cross-Sector Partnership Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Stöteler (Ismaela); S. Reeder (Sabine); R.J.M. van Tulder (Rob)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractA cross-sector partnership is a collaborative effort in which parties from different societal sectors pool resources to provide solutions to (perceived) common problems. These partnerships are often rather complex because of a number of reasons: (1) they address complex issues, (2) they

  6. Keep Meaning in Conversational Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Clare Cuffari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coordination is a widely employed term across recent quantitative and qualitative approaches to intersubjectivity, particularly approaches that give embodiment and enaction central explanatory roles. With a focus on linguistic and bodily coordination in conversational contexts, I review the operational meaning of coordination in recent empirical research and related theorizing of embodied intersubjectivity. This discussion articulates what must be involved in treating linguistic meaning as dynamic processes of coordination. The coordination approach presents languaging as a set of dynamic self-organizing processes and actions on multiple timescales and across multiple modalities that come about and work in certain domains (those jointly constructed in social, interactive, high-order sense-making. These processes go beyond meaning at the level that is available to first-person experience. I take one crucial consequence of this to be the ubiquitously moral nature of languaging with others. Languaging coordinates experience, among other levels of behavior and event. Ethical effort is called for by the automatic autonomy-influencing forces of languaging as coordination.

  7. Coordinating distributed work : Exploring situated coordination with gaming-simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laere, J.

    2003-01-01

    Organizational work has become more and more distributed nowadays. Information and communication technologies (ICT) provide opportunities to improve coordination of distributed work, but in practice many organizations struggle with integrating new organizational structures, new work practices and

  8. Internal audit function: a comparison between private and public sector in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madawaki Abdulkadir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the internal audit functions between private and the public sector. Features examined include hierarchical rank of internal audit function, internal audit transfer, outsourcing of internal audit services and working relationship of internal audit with external auditor. The study is based on a survey of internal audit managers and chief internal auditors in private and public sector entities in Nigeria. The results revealed that there is no much difference in hierarchical rank of internal audit function in both sectors. While the results showed that differences exist in the reporting status between internal audit in the two sectors with private sector internal audit reporting to audit committee and chief executive officer and public sector internal audit reporting to chief executive officer and chief financial officer. Almost a similar amount of work is outsourced, and private sector entities are more likely to outsource than those in public sector. There is slight difference between internal audit activities and interaction with external auditor in the two sectors with private sector more likely to coordinate in the area of access to audit working papers.

  9. Multi Sector Planning Tools for Trajectory-Based Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mainini, Matthew; Brasil, Connie

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses a suite of multi sector planning tools for trajectory-based operations that were developed and evaluated in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center. The toolset included tools for traffic load and complexity assessment as well as trajectory planning and coordination. The situation assessment tools included an integrated suite of interactive traffic displays, load tables, load graphs, and dynamic aircraft filters. The planning toolset allowed for single and multi aircraft trajectory planning and data communication-based coordination of trajectories between operators. Also newly introduced was a real-time computation of sector complexity into the toolset that operators could use in lieu of aircraft count to better estimate and manage sector workload, especially in situations with convective weather. The tools were used during a joint NASA/FAA multi sector planner simulation in the AOL in 2009 that had multiple objectives with the assessment of the effectiveness of the tools being one of them. Current air traffic control operators who were experienced as area supervisors and traffic management coordinators used the tools throughout the simulation and provided their usefulness and usability ratings in post simulation questionnaires. This paper presents these subjective assessments as well as the actual usage data that was collected during the simulation. The toolset was rated very useful and usable overall. Many elements received high scores by the operators and were used frequently and successfully. Other functions were not used at all, but various requests for new functions and capabilities were received that could be added to the toolset.

  10. HIV/AIDS and Croatian migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Brouillard, Pamela; Nikolić, Nebojga; Greiner, Nina

    2006-12-01

    avert the potential for an increase in new HIV/AIDS cases. A coordinated, systematic campaign for HIV/AIDS prevention among Croatian migrant workers should focus on increasing peer communication about HIV/AIDS, especially among younger migrant workers, and on reducing the frequency of sexual risk taking.

  11. Mommy, Daddy--What's AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates and Practitioners, Cherry Hill, NJ.

    This brochure is designed to help parents answer the questions that their children may ask them about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS. It provides basic information about AIDS and HIV, as well as sources for further information, such as the National AIDS Hotline. It…

  12. The First Aid Training Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ian

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of first aid training provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to the outdoor industry, what to look for in a first aid training provider, an experiential model of first aid training, and the current National Governing Body requirements for first aid training for various types of coaches and instructors. (TD)

  13. The coordinate transforming in geography information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiang; Chen Gang

    2003-01-01

    The coordinate transforming of geography information system includes two kinds of transforming, map projection and coordinate-transforming. This paper proposed a arithmetic of coordinate-transforming, it implement the transforming between the longitude-latitude coordinate and the screen coordinate and apply it in the GIS. The preferable effect was made. (authors)

  14. An elective seminar to teach first-year students the social and medical aspects of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, J D

    1987-07-01

    First-year students at a midwestern medical school are introduced to a comprehensive approach to the biological, psychological, and social aspects of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In a seven-week elective seminar (approximately 12 hours in length), the students view a television movie and a documentary film about persons with AIDS and their families and friends, and they participate in roundtable discussions with AIDS patients, volunteers who coordinate support and advocacy for persons with AIDS, and health care professionals involved in the care of AIDS patients. They receive reading materials and lectures on the pathology, epidemiology, and history of AIDS, and they monitor and discuss radio and television reporting on AIDS. In wrap-up sessions and evaluation questionnaires, the students have reported the seminar to be valuable in helping them overcome their fear of the disease, develop empathy for patients with catastrophic diseases, and understand a comprehensive approach to a complex disease.

  15. [AIDS: "We will win"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrier, H

    1989-11-13

    An international colloquium on AIDS held near Paris from October 26-28, 1989, unlike the World Conference on AIDS in Montreal the year before, was able to find reasons for optimism. Significant progress was reported in immunotherapy and in chemotherapy. Successful experiments in vaccinating monkeys against the AIDS virus were reported from the US, France, and Zaire. Time is needed to prove the efficacy of the vaccines because of the slow development in AIDS. A vaccine is being tested by Jonas Salk and collaborators in 75 seropositive volunteers who do not yet show full blown disease but who have very low levels of T4 lymphocytes. Plans are underway for a larger test on 500 seropositive patients at different stages of infection. According to Salk, the new chemical and logical approach toward AIDS will allow combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to destroy the virus. R. Gallo of France listed as accomplishments of the past year a better understanding of the virus, improved case management techniques, increased ability to control Kaposi's sarcoma, considerable progress in the search for a vaccine, and detection of immune proteins that affect the virus. New biological markers permit establishment of correlations between cellular modifications and the progress of the disease as well as the precise effects of treatment. The new immune system drugs immuthiol and DDI are expected to reach the market soon. Patients very soon will be able to receive less toxic alternative treatments, which can be combined for greater efficacy once their toxic interactions are understood.

  16. AIDS in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhobo, D

    1989-03-01

    Numerous cultural practices and attitudes in Africa represent formidable obstacles to the prevention of the further spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Polygamy and concubinage are still widely practiced throughout Africa. In fact, sexual promiscuity on the part of males is traditionally viewed as positive--a reflection of male supremacy and male sexual prowess. The disintegration of the rural African family, brought about by urbanization, the migrant labor system, and poverty, has resulted in widespread premarital promiscuity. Contraceptive practices are perceived by many as a white conspiracy aimed at limiting the growth of the black population and thereby diminishing its political power. Condom use is particularly in disfavor. Thus, AIDS prevention campaigns urging Africans to restrict the number of sexual partners and to use condoms are unlikely to be successful. Another problem is that most Africans cannot believe that AIDS is sexually linked in that the disease does not affect the sex organs as is the case with other sexually transmitted diseases. The degree to which African governments are able to allocate resources to AIDS education will determine whether the epidemic can be controlled. Even with a massive outpouring of resources, it may be difficult to arouse public alarm about AIDS since Africans are so acclimated to living with calamities of every kind.

  17. Women and AIDS: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, N; Margo, G

    1991-01-01

    Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.

  18. The role of the American Hospital Association in combating AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, C

    1988-01-01

    The American Hospital Association (AHA) has taken a leadership role in assisting health care providers in dealing effectively with the challenges of AIDS. Early work focused on preventing infection in the health care setting with the use of the Centers for Disease Control's recommended precautions concerning blood and body fluids. Supporting this effort were a number of live teleconferences, videotapes, and publications that addressed the use of precautions with AIDS patients, community issues associated with the disease, and the development of employee policies. In July 1987, a Special Committee on AIDS/HIV Infection Policy was formed by the AHA Board of Trustees and charged with developing recommendations on the issues that needed to be addressed if hospitals were to continue to meet the challenge of AIDS effectively. The committee's first set of recommendations, approved in November 1987, reaffirmed the use of universal precautions, provided guidance on the appropriate uses and application of HIV testing, and stated that the delivery of care should not be conditioned on the willingness of a patient to undergo testing. The second set of recommendations, which were approved in January 1988, focused on the need to distribute the responsibility for AIDS care among a wide variety of health care providers, to seek creative financing approaches that involve both the private and public sectors, and called on hospitals to provide leadership in ensuring that a continuum of services is available to AIDS patients. Continuing efforts to assist hospitals in the care delivery issues associated with AIDS are described.

  19. Who matters in coordination problems?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sákovics, J.; Steiner, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 7 (2012), s. 3439-3461 ISSN 0002-8282 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : coordination problem s * heterogeneous agents Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2012

  20. Coordination Processes in International Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The EU is not a member of the International Labour Organisation (ILO), but relatively elaborate EU coordination takes place anyway. This paper addresses two research questions: 1) How is it possible to evaluate the coordination of the EU in its specific observable configuration in the ILO?, and 2......-à-vis their principals, the Member States. The Commission is the leading agent in the phase leading up to the Conference; the Presidency then takes over. On the one hand, due to the Treaty obligations and their interpretations by the Court of Justice, both the Presidency and the Commission are kept within tight limits...... by the principals. On the other hand, both before and during the Conference, the Member States accept the so-called discursive coordination of the Commission, which seems to be of great (but often neglected) importance. Owing to the organisational set-up in which coordination takes place, the EU is able...

  1. Hall effect in noncommutative coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayi, Oemer F.; Jellal, Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    We consider electrons in uniform external magnetic and electric fields which move on a plane whose coordinates are noncommuting. Spectrum and eigenfunctions of the related Hamiltonian are obtained. We derive the electric current whose expectation value gives the Hall effect in terms of an effective magnetic field. We present a receipt to find the action which can be utilized in path integrals for noncommuting coordinates. In terms of this action we calculate the related Aharonov-Bohm phase and show that it also yields the same effective magnetic field. When magnetic field is strong enough this phase becomes independent of magnetic field. Measurement of it may give some hints on spatial noncommutativity. The noncommutativity parameter θ can be tuned such that electrons moving in noncommutative coordinates are interpreted as either leading to the fractional quantum Hall effect or composite fermions in the usual coordinates

  2. Future in actinoids coordination chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Takafumi

    2006-01-01

    Actinoids coordination chemistry is concerned with spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, specifically with solid-state chemistry of nuclear fuels, separation process with radioactive substances, and geological disposal of high-level radioactive substances. In the 21st century, accumulation of minor actinides, Np, Am, Cm, and others will be realized according with the present program of nuclear energy development. The present article briefly introduces general properties of actinide elements, followed by their coordination chemistry compared with rare earths coordination chemistry. Special facility needed to treat actinoids as well as their chemistry is briefly explained, together with the specific experimental apparatus such as X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectrometry (TRLFS) with synchrotron radiation facilities. The effect of coordination with actinoids in the environment chemistry is important in underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. For theoretical analysis of the results with actinoids chemistry, relativistic calculation is needed. (S. Ohno)

  3. Sectoral use of climate information in Europe: A synoptic overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bruno Soares

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Society can benefit from usable climate information to better prepare and adapt to the risks and opportunities posed by climate variability and change. An adequate and effective provision of climate information – from historical observations through to seasonal forecasts, and multi-decadal climate change projections – is critical to inform planning and decision-making in climate-sensitive sectors. Central to this are the end-users of climate information and a growing emphasis on tailored climate information and services shaped by user needs. However, knowledge about the use of climate information across European economic sectors is limited. This paper identifies the spectrum of sectoral information requirements across a number of sectors including agriculture, forestry, energy, water, tourism, insurance, health, emergency services and transport sectors, drawing from an online survey (n = 462 and interviews with (potential users of climate information (n = 80. This analysis reveals shared opportunities across sectors including the potential application of decadal climate predictions. In addition, common barriers and enablers to the uptake of climate information were also noted including the format of the information provided, the need for compatibility with existing in-house systems, and the perceived credibility and trust of information providers. This analysis also points towards a perceived increasing fragmentation of available information and the desire amongst end-users for a European body able to centralise and coordinate climate data. We highlight some of the current factors that still need to be adequately addressed in order to enhance the uptake and application of climate information in decision-making across European economic sectors. Keywords: User needs, Climate information, Decision-making, Climate services, Europe

  4. The tourism sector in Asom - a critical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmasree Karamala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tourism Sector has become a part or an appendage of the international trade and exchange system. The State of Asom in India is one of the most beautiful and attractive regions of India. There is hardly any other state which offers what Asom has. Asom has greater variety and colors in its natural scenery and in the cultural treasures of the people that inhabit it. Asom is blessed with an abundance of scenic grandeur. In view of the growing importance of the tourism sector all over the world in general, and in the State of Asom in particular, the tourism sector has become a part or an appendage of the international trade and exchange system. The present study intends to study the position of the Asom tourism sector. It was found that Asom has occupied the lionsshare in the North East Region, with almost 68 percent of this share, while in India it has only 0.005per cent, 0.0035per cent of the Asia Pacific region and accounts for 0.00044 per cent of the world tourist arrivals from 2011-2012. Although it is suffering from different threats and challenges, it has a number of key attributes to attract domestic and foreign tourists into the state. This has enormous potential for the future development of the tourism sector in the state, hence government should encourage the private sector to be involved in the tourism field and try to attract private investment. Consequently, a well co-ordinated tourism plan and a policy of publicprivate partnership is required so as to develop the tourism sector in the state in the long run.

  5. World AIDS day 1991 observances urge sharing the challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Region of the Americas took part in World AIDS DAy 1991, whose theme, "Sharing the Challenge," urged all sectors of society to support AIDS-related education, services, and advocacy. The day of observance was intended to encourage the participation of public, private, nongovernmental, and religious leaders in promoting AIDS-related activities. Although World AIDS Day took place on December 1, activities in the Region of the Americans began from the last week of November and into the first week of December. Most of these activities were designed to educate the public on how to avoid infection, as well as inform and sensitize audiences on the health and social needs of those infected. These activities took the form of press conferences, exhibitions, lectures, public concerts, television adds, etc. One such activity, sponsored by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and held at its headquarters in Washington, D.C., focused on the AIDS crisis and the need for educational activities. The program opened with a speech by Dr. Carlyle Guerra de Macedo, PAHO's director, who warned against complacency in confronting the disease. US Surgeon General Antonia Novello also spoke at the occasion, addressing the growing threat of AIDS among women. Already, 12% of AIDS victims in the US are women, and heterosexual transmissions of AIDS will likely continued to increase. Pointing out that a vaccine is not expected in the short term, PAHO's Dr. David Brandling-Bennet stressed that the fight against AIDS depends on disseminating information. The PAHO meeting also featured a panel discussion composed of educators and health professionals, who discussed the educational responsibility of television in transmitting the AIDS-prevention message to the public.

  6. Coordination theory and collaboration technology

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, Gary M; Smith, John B

    2001-01-01

    The National Science Foundation funded the first Coordination Theory and Collaboration Technology initiative to look at systems that support collaborations in business and elsewhere. This book explores the global revolution in human interconnectedness. It will discuss the various collaborative workgroups and their use in technology. The initiative focuses on processes of coordination and cooperation among autonomous units in human systems, in computer and communication systems, and in hybrid organizations of both systems. This initiative is motivated by three scientific issues which have been

  7. Path integrals in curvilinear coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhorov, L.V.

    1984-01-01

    Integration limits are studied for presenting the path integral curvilinear coordinates. For spherical (and topoloqically equivalent) coordinates it is shown that in formulas involving classical action in the exponent integration over all variables should be carried out within infinite limits. Another peculiarity is associated with appearance of the operator q which provides a complete definition of the wave functions out of the physical region. arguments are given upporting the validity of the cited statament in the general case

  8. Early AIDS dementia complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountz, J.M.; Speed, N.M.; Adams, K.; Schwartz, J.A.; Gross, M.D.; Ostrow, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    A frequent complication of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is AIDS dementia complex (ADC). The authors evaluated seven patients with AIDS (aged 28-55 years, all male) for ADC by psychiatric evaluation, neuropsychological testing, CT scanning, and IMP-SPECT. Six of seven patients exhibited cognitive or behavioral abnormalities. Neuropsychological testing showed general deficits but no cases of explicit dementia. SPECT showed marked abnormalities in two cases: posterior temporal-parietal diminution of tracer uptake in one case (posterior/anterior=0.81) and marked right/left subcortical asymmetry (1.17) in the other. In three additional cases there was asymmetric tracer uptake in the subcortical and parietal regions. CT findings were normal in all seven cases. The authors conclude that functional imaging with the use of IMP-SPECT may be a useful method to follow ADC progression and response to therapy

  9. STATE AID EVOLUTION OVERVIEW IN EUROPEAN UNION CONTEXT DURING THE PERIOD 2007-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca D.B., DODESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the European Union point of view, the fundamental principle of state aid is to ensure that inside the single market, competition is not distorted. In this context, by exception state aid can be justified when they contribute to achieving EU's social and economic goals. This may take place when market forces obstruct the achieving of the proposed objectives or permit their achieving on unacceptable long terms and costs. This article is structured in four parts, focusing on European Union's vision regarding state aid measures. The first part of the article refers to the general context of state aid in EU. The second part of the article tries to define this concept according to European Commission point of view and also studies the state aid information provided by the EU, through its benchmarking instrument regarding state aid expenditure called State Aid Scoreboard. The third part of the article mainly presents the EU state aid evolution during the period 2007 - 2012 and establishes a methodological point of view in order to classify and divide state aid in two main categories: non-crisis state aid and crisis state aid, with the purpose of avoiding the distortion trends regarding state aid expenditure granted for the financial sector. This part of the article also presents different types of state aid at EU27 level and granted by the selected member states (Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria and Germany between 2007 and 2012 and also analysis horizontal aid, sectorial aid and state aid during the economic crisis 2008 - 2012, referring to recapitalization and asset relief measures and guarantees and liquidity measures. The last part of the article presents the conclusions and also states certain recommendations regarding EU state aid practices, based on the results obtained.

  10. A constitution for AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, L M

    1996-01-15

    The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns

  11. Indicadores : El sector financiero colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Giraldo Rendón

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza datos estadísticos que pueden revelar la situación actual -2002- del sector financiero en Colombia. Luego de mostrar algunas series temporales como los depósitos en cuenta corriente y las utilidades del sector se llega a la conclusión de que el sector se ha recuperado pero aún existen preocupaciones por causa de la evolución de la cartera hipotecaria y la difícil situación económica internacional que no permite una recuperación sostenible.

  12. General Assembly pledges support for war against AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    At a special meeting held in October 1987, the World Health Organization called for a concerted, international response to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Announced was the creation of a WHO Global Commission on AIDS comprised of experts in health, social, economic, legal, ethical, and biomedical fields who will advise WHO officials of developments in various aspects of the disease. Member States were united in terms of the need for open communication and support of WHO efforts to combat AIDS. By December 1987, 129 countries had reported 73,747 AIDS cases to WHO and another 3 million new cases are likely to develop by 1982. The WHO strategy is based on several concepts: 1) even in the absence of a vaccine, AIDS is controllable through widespread education; 2) longterm commitment to eradication is necessary; 3) AIDS prevention and control must be integrated into national health systems; and 4) international cooperation, coordination, and leadership is vital. National AIDS committees have been established in over 100 countries.

  13. Can donor aid for health be effective in a poor country? Assessment of prerequisites for aid effectiveness in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliet, Nabyonga Orem; Freddie, Ssengooba; Okuonzi, Sam

    2009-10-22

    Inadequate funding for health is a challenge to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals. Significant increase in health funding was recommended by the Commission for Macroeconomics and Health. Indeed Official Development Assistance has increased significantly in Uganda. However, the effectiveness of donor aid has come under greater scrutiny. This paper scrutinizes the prerequisites for aid effectiveness. The objective of the study was to assess the prerequisites for effectiveness of donor aid, specifically, its proportion to overall health funding, predictability, comprehensiveness, alignment to country priorities, and channeling mechanisms. Secondary data obtained from various official reports and surveys were analyzed against the variables mentioned under objectives. This was augmented by observations and participation in discussions with all stakeholders to discuss sector performance including health financing. Between 2004-2007, the level of aid increased from US$6 per capita to US$11. Aid was found to be unpredictable with expenditure varying between 174-8722;360 percent from budgets. More than 50% of aid was found to be off budget and unavailable for comprehensive planning. There was disproportionate funding for some items such as drugs. Key health system elements such as human resources and infrastructure have not been given due attention in investment. The government's health funding from domestic sources grew only modestly which did not guarantee fiscal sustainability. Although donor aid is significant there is need to invest in the prerequisites that would guarantee its effective use.

  14. Can donor aid for health be effective in a poor country? Assessment of prerequisites for aid effectiveness in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssengooba Freddie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inadequate funding for health is a challenge to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals. Significant increase in health funding was recommended by the Commission for Macroeconomics and Health. Indeed Official Development Assistance has increased significantly in Uganda. However, the effectiveness of donor aid has come under greater scrutiny. This paper scrutinizes the prerequisites for aid effectiveness. The objective of the study was to assess the prerequisites for effectiveness of donor aid, specifically, its proportion to overall health funding, predictability, comprehensiveness, alignment to country priorities, and channeling mechanisms. Methods:Secondary data obtained from various official reports and surveys were analyzed against the variables mentioned under objectives. This was augmented by observations and participation in discussions with all stakeholders to discuss sector performance including health financing. Results:Between 2004−2007, the level of aid increased from US$6 per capita to US$11. Aid was found to be unpredictable with expenditure varying between 174−360 percent from budgets. More than 50% of aid was found to be off budget and unavailable for comprehensive planning. There was disproportionate funding for some items such as drugs. Key health system elements such as human resources and infrastructure have not been given due attention in investment. The government’s health funding from domestic sources grew only modestly which did not guarantee fiscal sustainability. Conclusion: Although donor aid is significant there is need to invest in the prerequisites that would guarantee its effective use.

  15. Premature emphysema in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, J.E.; Fishman, E.K.; Zerhouni, E.A.; Knowles, M.

    1988-01-01

    The CT scans of 55 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were reviewed for evidence of pulmonary emphysema. While the average age of patients in this series was 38 years, 25 of the 55 patients, or 45%, demonstrated CT evidence of emphysema. CT findings suggestive of emphysema included areas of low-attenuation, blebs and/or vascular disruption. The authors conclude there is an increased incidence of CT-detectable pulmonary emphysema that is premature for age in patients with AIDS. Destruction of pulmonary parenchyma may represent the response of the lung to repeated pulmonary infections or may be a direct result of the human immunodeficiency virus

  16. Pulmonary manifestation of AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, U.; Dinkel, E.; Laaff, H.; Wuertemberger, G.; Senn, H.; Vaith, P.; Kroepelin, T.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.

    1989-01-01

    We reviewed retrospectively the clinical records of 28 patients with AIDS staged group IV according to CDC-criteria. Among these, 19 had pulmonary disease: most of them (n=17) had pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (Pcp). 12/17 patients with proven Pcp displayed typical X-ray findings with diffuse perihilar interstitial infiltration sparing lung periphery. 3/17 had atypical features and 2 normal chest x-ray findings. These data are important to identify patients with pulmonary complications of AIDS. (orig.) [de

  17. Acute abdomen in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, J.E.; Fishman, E.K.

    1989-01-01

    The CT scans of 80 patients with both AIDS and acute abdominal pain were reviewed. CT identifiable causes of pain included perforation (four); colitides (15); septic infarctions (six); abscesses (10); bowel obstruction due to tumor (four); ascending cholangitis (two); enterovesical fistula (one); and sacral osteomyelitis (one). CT affected management in 40% of patients by narrowing diagnostic possibilities, triaging between surgical versus nonsurgical emergencies, and directing diagnostic procedures. CT was an expeditious triage modality for evaluating the critically ill patient with AIDS and acute abdominal pain

  18. Computerized operator decision aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    This article explores the potential benefits associated with the use of computers in nuclear plants by the operating crew as an aid in making decisions. Pertinent findings are presented from recently completed projects to establish the context in which operating decisions have to be made. Key factors influencing the decision-making process itself are also identified. Safety parameter display systems, which are being implemented in various forms by the nuclear industry, are described within the context of decision making. In addition, relevant worldwide research and development activities are examined as potential enhancements to computerized operator decision aids to further improve plant safety and availability

  19. Hearing Aid Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob; Jensen, Bjørn Sand

    2013-01-01

    Modern digital hearing aids require and offer a great level of personalization. Today, this personalization is not performed based directly on what the user actually perceives, but on a hearing-care professional’s interpretation of what the user explains about what is perceived. In this paper......, an interactive personalization system based on Gaussian process regression and active learning is proposed, which personalize the hearing aids based directly on what the user perceives. Preliminary results demonstrate a significant difference between a truly personalized setting obtained with the proposed system...

  20. Three coordination compounds based on benzene tetracarboxylate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YUNLONG WU

    nescence, considerable attention has been focused on the construction of coordination .... measurements were performed on ground powder samples at .... Figure 2. (a) Coordination environment of Co1 ion in compound 2. (b) Coordination.

  1. Managing interteam coordination within and between organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Thomas Arend

    2015-01-01

    To accomplish complex tasks and effectively respond to environmental contingencies, teams must coordinate task-related issues with other teams (i.e., interteam coordination). Regrettably, interteam coordination is often complicated by misunderstandings that can arise from differences in teams’

  2. Motor coordination uses external spatial coordinates independent of developmental vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heed, Tobias; Röder, Brigitte

    2014-07-01

    The constraints that guide bimanual movement coordination are informative about the processing principles underlying movement planning in humans. For example, symmetry relative to the body midline benefits finger and hand movements independent of hand posture. This symmetry constraint has been interpreted to indicate that movement coordination is guided by a perceptual code. Although it has been assumed implicitly that the perceptual system at the heart of this constraint is vision, this relationship has not been tested. Here, congenitally blind and sighted participants made symmetrical and non-symmetrical (that is, parallel) bimanual tapping and finger oscillation movements. For both groups, symmetrical movements were executed more correctly than parallel movements, independent of anatomical constraints like finger homology and hand posture. For the blind, the reliance on external spatial factors in movement coordination stands in stark contrast to their use of an anatomical reference frame in perceptual processing. Thus, the externally coded symmetry constraint evident in bimanual coordination can develop in the absence of the visual system, suggesting that the visual system is not critical for the establishment of an external-spatial reference frame in movement coordination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. AIDS: the frightening facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M

    1986-01-01

    Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has succeeded in creating an unprecedented wave of panic among the Western public and some sections of the medical profession. Research clearly shows that the AIDS virus is transmissible in a number of ways: from man to woman and vice versa during sexual intercourse, through semen and possibly vaginal fluids; from mothers to their children through breast milk; through exchange of saliva (but not through just a casual kiss); and through blood and blood products. Far from being exclusive to homosexuals, studies in Europe have shown that female virus carriers can transmit AIDS to healthy men through sexual intercourse--the predominant means by which transmission appears to occur in Central Africa. Although cases of AIDS began being diagnosed in a few Central African countries at the beginning of the 1980s, at the same time as they were first being observed in Europe and North America, many commentators assumed that the virus originated in Africa. Yet, it is safe to say that the nature of the virus, let alone its origins, remains controversial among scientists and virologists. 1 supporter of the theory that the AIDS virus has African origins is Robert Gall of the US National Institute of Health (NIH). He is one of the co-discoverers of the virus, which he named HTLV3 (Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus 3). The virus also was discovered at France's Pasteur Institute by Luc Montaigner, who called it LAV (Lymphadenpathy Associated Virus). Gallo named the virus as he did because he believes it to be related to a pair of other viruses, HTLV1 and HTLV2, which like the AIDS virus attack the body's immunity system. Unlike AIDS, these 2 viruses, do not destroy the T-cells but cause them to replicate into cancer tumors. In Gallo's view, HTLV1 has long been endemic to some parts of Africa, from where he believes it spread via the slave trade to other parts of the world. Montaigner does not agree. He denies that the AIDS virus is related to

  4. Etic and Emic Perspectives on HIV/AIDS Impacts on Rural Livelihoods and Agricultural Practice in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, A.; Price, L.L.

    2008-01-01

    Using an HIV/AIDS lens in looking at developments in rural livelihoods and agricultural practice reveals a diversity of critical impacts of the epidemic. Still, in most of the countries hardest-hit by HIV/ AIDS the agricultural sector lacks adequate policies and programmes to deal with the crisis.

  5. DTN and international cooperation of the Spanish Nuclear Sector in nuclear technology development processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acero, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Spanish electrical utilities with interests in the Nuclear Sector-IBERDROLA, ENDESA,FUERZAS ELECTRICAS DE CATALU=A5A (FECSA), UNION ELECTRICA FENOSA S.A., COMPA=A5IA SEVILLANA DE ELECTRICIDAD S.A., AND HIDROELECTRICA DEL CANTABRICO S.A.-created on September 26, 1994 the ''Agrupacion Electrica para el Desarrollo Tecnologico Nuclear, A.I.E. (DTN)'' (Electrical Society for Nuclear technology Development A.I.E.) for the purpose of promoting and managing Nuclear Nechnology Development, and integrating and coordinating the efforts of the Nuclear Electrical Sector with industrial companies and other related institutions in spain and abroad. This mission is primarily accomplished by establinhing a common strategy for the Nuclear Electrical Sector in the different areas of responsibility of DTN, centralizing actions by implementing a clear and coherent policy, and ensuring the presence of the entire Electrical Sector in all those fora deemed to be strategic to the Nuclear Sector

  6. Safety in the Transport Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    In EU the transport sector has an incident rate of accidents at work at 40 pr 1000 employees. The Danish insurance company CODAN has insured a big part of this sector concerning transport of gods on shore. The purpose of the project is to document the safety problems in the sector and to develop...... a strategy for a preventive intervention in transport enterprises. The results will in the end be included in a new strategy for the insurance company and the transport sectores organization towards a better safety performance. The safety problems for the employees are the activities carried out by loading......, unloading or work with transport equipment carried out at many different work places. The main safety problems are falls, heavy lifting, poor ergonomic working conditions, hits or collisions with gods, equipments or falling objects, the traffic risk situations, work with animals and finally the risk...

  7. Key economic sectors and services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arent, Douglas J.; Tol, Richard S.J.; Faust, Eberhard; Hella, Joseph P.; Kumar, Surender; Strzepek, Kenneth M.; Tóth, Ferenc L.; Yan, Denghua; Abdulla, Amjad; Kheshgi, Haroon; Xu, He; Ngeh, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Context This chapter discusses the implications of climate change on key economic sectors and services, for example, economic activity. Other chapters discuss impacts from a physical, chemical, biological, or social perspective. Economic impacts cannot be isolated; therefore, there

  8. Wood and Paper Manufacturing Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find EPA regulatory information for the wood product and paper manufacturing sectors, including paper, pulp and lumber. Information includes NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for pulp and paper rulemaking, and compliance guidelines

  9. Cabo Verde - Private Sector Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The objective of the Private Sector Development Project activities of the 2005-2010 Cabo Verde Compact was to support Cabo Verde's long-term economic transformation...

  10. Non-uniformly sampled grids in double pole coordinate system for freeform reflector construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Donglin; Pacheco, Shaun; Feng, Zexin; Liang, Rongguang

    2015-08-01

    We propose a new method to design freeform reflectors by nonuniformly sampling the source intensity distribution in double pole coordinate system. In double pole coordinate system, there is no pole for the whole hemisphere because both poles of the spherical coordinate system are moved to southernmost point of the sphere and overlapped together. With symmetric definition of both angular coordinates in the modified double pole coordinate system, a better match between the source intensity distribution and target irradiance distribution can be achieved for reflectors with large acceptance solid angle, leading to higher light efficiency and better uniformity on the target surface. With non-uniform sampling of the source intensity, we can design circular freeform reflector to obtain uniform rectangular illumination pattern. Aided by the feedback optimization, the freeform reflector can achieve the collection efficiency for ideal point source over 0.7 and relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 0.1.

  11. Myanmar Transport Sector Initial Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is preparing sector assessments to help align future ADB support with the needs and strategies of developing member countries and other development partners. The assessment is a working document that helps inform the development of country partnership strategies. This transport sector assessment highlights development issues, needs, and strategic assistance priorities of the Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and ADB, with a focus on rail, road...

  12. Security Sector Reform in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Abazi, Enika; Bumci, Aldo; Hide, Enri; Rakipi, Albert

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper analyses security sector reform (SSR) in Albania. In all its enterprises in reforming the security sector,Albania is assisted by different initiatives and projects that provide expertise and financial support. To assesswhether reforms improved the overall security environment (national and human) of the country, it is necessaryto measure the effectiveness of the various initiatives and projects. This is gauged by how well the initiatives andprojects achieved...

  13. Work-Life Balance Practices in Nigeria: A Comparison of Three Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojo Ibiyinka Stella

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the concept of work-life balance (WLB policies and practices in three sectors of the Nigerian Economy namely the Banking, Educational and Power Sector. The types of WLB initiatives available in the three sectors were explored and the barriers to implementation of the WLB initiatives were identified. This research implored quantitative methods to investigate the work-life balance practices in three sectors of the Nigerian Economy. This was achieved using an in-depth case study analysis of these sectors. The data set comprised of responses from both managers and employees in the Banking sector with five hundred and eighty six copies of the questionnaire retrieved. The Educational sector comprised of both managers and employees with five hundred and thirty one copies of the questionnaire retrieved; while five hundred and seven copies retrieved from the Power Sector. The findings reveal that there is diversity in terms of how respondents perceive the concept of Work-Life Balance. There is a wide gap between corporate WLB practices and employees’ understanding of the concept; the paper suggests some policy implications which would aid the implementation of WLB policies in the studied sectors. This study also suggests direction for future research.

  14. More than First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoessler, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…

  15. First Aid Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  16. The origins of AIDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pepin, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    ... urbanisation, prostitution and large-scale colonial medical campaigns intended to eradicate tropical diseases combined to disastrous effect to fuel the spread of the virus from its origins in Léopoldville to the rest of Africa, the Caribbean and ultimately worldwide. This is an essential new perspective on HIV/ AIDS and on the lessons that must be learned if we are to avoi...

  17. Hearing Aids Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Globally, hearing loss is the second most frequent disability. About 80% of the persons affected by hearing loss do not use hearing aids. The goal of this edited volume is to present a theoretically founded, interdisciplinary approach geared at understanding and improving social interaction...

  18. CitizenAID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-25

    CitizenAID is an easy-to-use app that informs users how to provide care in mass casualty situations, including shootings, knife attacks and bomb incidents. The authors are well known and respected specialists in trauma care and disaster management.

  19. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  20. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between...

  1. Computer aided safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The document reproduces 20 selected papers from the 38 papers presented at the Technical Committee/Workshop on Computer Aided Safety Analysis organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the Institute of Atomic Energy in Otwock-Swierk, Poland on 25-29 May 1987. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 20 technical papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Computer aided design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barache, J.M.; Beltranda, G.; Blanc, P.

    1987-01-01

    In order to ensure that the data transmitted to the managment system is of the required quality and consistent with the general control command protocols, computer aided design (CAD) was employed for level N4. One describes the use of CAD for the control system of N4 [fr

  3. Enteric parasites and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Cimerman

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on the importance of intestinal parasites in patients with AIDS, showing relevant data in the medical literature, with special emphasis on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of enteroparasitosis, especially cryptosporidiasis, isosporiasis, microsporidiasis and strongyloidiasis. DESIGN: Narrative review.

  4. The origins of AIDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pepin, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    ... of tropical diseases interconnected to fuel the communication of HIV-1 in the 1960s, as the country struggled to adapt to its newfound independence. With a unique synthesis of historical, political and medical elements, this book adds a coherent and necessary historical perspective to recent molecular studies of the chronology of the HIV/AIDS pandemic"--Provided by publisher.

  5. ANCRE - Stage report 2011, coordination of research on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, Bernard; Fuchs, Alain; Ouabdesselam, Farid; Appert, Olivier; Freyssinet, Philippe; Moisan, Francois

    2011-11-01

    This document aims at proposing an assessment of works performed by ANCRE (the French National Alliance of Coordination of Research on Energy) after its first two years of existence. The main objective is to prepare the energy transition by boosting the French research in the field of energy. The report presents the ANCRE's organization as an efficient one, based on strong relationships with the industry sector. It indicates the various thematic work-groups (five 'energy sources' groups and three 'usages' groups), and the different objectives. It comments the contribution to the European research. These works and activities are commented by some high representatives of the alliance. A second part proposes an overview of the current status for the different energy sources group (biomass, fossil and geothermal, nuclear, solar, sea, hydraulic and wind) and usages groups (transports, buildings, industries and agriculture). It also presents the different actions related to coordination, programmatic synergies and prospective

  6. Biosociabilidad y demandas por derechos en el activismo de personas de sectores populares afectadas por VIH-SIDA Biosociabilidade e reclamações por direitos no ativismo de pessoas de camadas populares vivendo com HIV-Aids Biosociability and claims for rights in less privileged neighborhoods of Buenos Aires people living with HIV activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Gregoric

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo despliega resultados de una etnografía sobre el activismo de personas afectadas por el VIH-SIDA de barrios populares del Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires. Analizo aspectos de la conformación de grupos y asociaciones de activistas, la construcción de espacios de contención y sociabilidad y las demandas generadas para garantizar el acceso a tratamientos antirretrovirales gratuitos y mejorar la asistencia que reciben desde el Estado. Intento mostrar que, para una parte de la población afectada, el VIH-SIDA devino un eje político para organizarse legítimamente, crear reivindicaciones expresadas en términos del derecho a la salud y la vida y a partir de allí también reclamar un mayor acceso a derechos sociales.O artigo apresenta alguns resultados de uma etnografia sobre o ativismo de pessoas vivendo com o HIV-Aids em bairros populares da Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires . . O artigo analisa a conformação de grupos y associações de ativistas, a construção de espacos de contenção e sociabilidade e as demandas criadas com o objetivo de garantir acesso as drogas antiretrovirais e melhorar a assistência. Procuro mostrar que para essas pessoas o HIV-Aids tornou-se um eixo político para se organizar legitimamente, criar reivindicações expressadas em lutas por aceso ao direito a saúde e a vida e para reclamar maior aceso a direitos sociais.This article shows some of the results of an ethnographic research about the activism of people living with HIV-Aids in the less privileged neighborhoods of Buenos Aires. I analyze aspects of the structure of activist groups and associations, the building up of spaces for contention and sociability and the demands generated to guarantee free access to antiretroviral treatments and improve the assistance they get from the State. I intend to show that for a part of the afflicted population HIV gave rise to social and political action and vindications expressed in terms of the right

  7. [Will AIDS overtake them?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhari, S

    UNICEF estimates that the streets are now the home of some 5 million African children aged 7-15 who are victims of rapid population growth and urbanization as well as the disintegration of traditional family structure. These children, deprived of a home and of all parental control, are potentially very vulnerable to the threat of AIDS. Prostitution, which is almost institutionalized in the most impoverished urban areas, represents for young girls the most immediate means of survival and occasionally even of helping their families. Male prostitution is highly tabu and marginal in sub-Saharan Africa, and is only slightly developed around the tourist hotels. Homeless children are somewhat protected against contamination through the blood by their lack of access to health care. Intravenous drugs are rare in Africa, and drug use is at most an indirect risk factor for AIDS to the extent that in increases the need for money and weakens the immune system. The frequency of sexually transmitted diseases, deplorable hygienic conditions, and poor general health of homeless children increase their risk of contracting the virus. Many homeless children do not even know of the existence of condoms and in any event condoms are usually inaccessible or too costly for them. Homeless children, like the general population, have false ideas about AIDS that discourage self-protective behaviors. In addition they are cut off from the activities of existing prevention programs. In a context of permanent daily insecurity, AIDS appears as just 1 more menace among others. According to an anthropologist working with the UNESCO program to help homeless children, the only way of making such children aware of the threat of AIDS in the large African cities will be to increase the number of prevention programs targeted at them. At the same time, the children need to be educated and taught an income-generating skill; in short, they need to be given a reason to believe in the future.

  8. Increased coordination in public transport – which mechanisms are available?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Longva, Frode

    2011-01-01

    After several years of New Public Management reforms within public transport, coordination seems to receive increased attention. With examples of actual as well as suggested changes taken from Denmark, Sweden and the UK the aim of the article is to analyse and classify the mechanisms utilized...... mechanism has its strengths and failures. The article also debates to what extent the mechanisms conflict with three core characteristics of New Public Management: Unbundling of the public sector into corporatized units; more contract-based competitive provision; and greater emphasis on output controls....

  9. The US Public Sector and Its Adoption of Service Oriented Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) provides public sector organizations the capability to provide real increases in organizational effectiveness by aiding in the efficient exchange of information. Adoption of advanced IT such as service oriented environments, Web 2.0, and bespoke systems such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) promises to markedly…

  10. Economic and Social Role of the ICT Private Sector in West and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It is the same with the ICT sector, which has advanced in recent years aided by the liberalization of telecommunications, the arrival of the Internet and, more recently, the expansion of mobile telephone service to the farthest reaches of African countries. This new environment creates economic opportunities that contribute to ...

  11. Staff/bed and staff/patient ratios in South African public sector mental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To document staff/bed and staff/patient ratios in public. sector mental health services in South Africa. Design. Cross-sectional survey. Method. Aquestionnaire was distributed to provincial mental health co-ordinators requesting numbers of full-time equivalent (FTE) staff who provide mental health care at all ...

  12. The Continuing Development of Primary Sector Physical Education: Working Together to Raise Quality of Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper sets out to provide further insight as to the reasons why many schools within the primary sector continue to find it difficult to ensure quality provision for physical education (PE) and school sport. It examines why class teachers, including the subject coordinator, possess concerns about teaching PE. It asks the question of who is…

  13. An Examination of the Impacts of Exchange Rate Volatility on Sectoral Trade in the Mercosur

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald W.; Bittencourt, Maurício Vaz Lobo; Thompson, Stanley R.

    2005-01-01

    This study captures the lack of macroeconomic policy coordination among Mercosur countries, through the impact of real bilateral exchange rate volatility on trade. A sectoral gravity model is estimated under two different measures of exchange rate volatility. Results show that the reduction in exchange rate volatility can increase bilateral trade.

  14. Federal interagency radiation policy coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses Federal interagency radiation policy coordination. The Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC) is explained as being dedicated to the success and forward motion of enhanced radiation research and policy coordination. Both CIRRPC and the Science Panel are staffed with Federal employees. Their expertise includes many and various radiation disciplines including cytogenetics, dosimetry, epidemiology, genetics, health physics, nuclear medicine, radiology, radiation carcinogenesis, and risk assessment. Ten scientific and technical issues in their preliminary order are presented: radioepidemiological tables; de minimis radiation levels; radon progeny health effects; occupational exposure registry; measurement, recording, and control of radiation; food irradiation; use of radiation in science, industry, and medicine; nonionizing radiation; and remedial actions

  15. Marketing demand management in the commercial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has a marketing strategy for designing and implementing demand side management (DSM) programs, which marks a turnaround from previous years when marketing efforts were concentrated on selling electricity. Starting in the 1980s, marketing activities consisted, in effect, of coordinating relations between the customer, the market, and the utility. To achieve a better understanding of the needs of customers, the nature of the energy market, and the utilization of energy, the utility conducted research on the decision-making process associated with consumer choices of energy systems. To develop relations with its clientele in the commercial sector, the utility published an information bulletin and prepared an energy guide. Along with this initiative, the number of energy advisers to the commercial sector was increased in Ontario Hydro's regional offices. To improve understanding of each segment of the commercial market, the utility contacted organizations representing each segment as well as broader based organizations with the objective of creating opportunities to address this market, for example at conferences. Because of this philosophy of satisfying and understanding customer needs, Ontario Hydro has been in the process of commercializing demand-side management. Its high-efficiency lighting program is a good example in this regard. From a strategy which focused on a simple reduction in lighting in the 1970s, the utility has turned toward promoting efficient high-quality lighting which better responds to industry needs, to the point where industry itself has begun to promote the program. Such a strategy benefits industry, customers, and Ontario Hydro's demand-side management programs

  16. An argument for VP coordination: scene-setting coordination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article demonstrates the properties of this curious construction type and proposes the first analysis to date. It is argued that this is an instance of VP coordination and that this configuration allows the possibility of high merger of direct objects in a constrained fashion. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language ...

  17. Restructuring of the Bulgaria power sector - changes and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, K.

    1999-01-01

    On the base of the analysis made by KEMA Consulting GmbH, Germany in 1998 - 1999 according to the project 'Aid for the development of the power authority in Bulgaria' some of the possibilities and risks for the new organization are discussed. Currently the National Electric Company is a monopolist in the electricity production sector. The government policy is aimed to efficiency improvement, creation a competition where possible, expanding of the private sector. The reconstruction is based on the model of 'the single customer'. Disadvantages are: insufficient competition, centralized planning and inappropriate risk distribution, necessity of a comprehensive regulatory control. The advantages of the method are: smooth transition to the new structures, separation of the monopole and competition functions, clear predictability of the purchases, competition of new capacities. The recommendations include urgent developing of system rules, conclusion of short-term agreements for power purchase, preparation for introduction of open access and development of the Government Agency for Power Regulation

  18. Evaluating the Relational Coordination instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke

    2014-01-01

    consistency, interrater agreement and reliability, structural validity, content validity. However as relational coordination is being used as a diagnostics tool it is important to examine further if the instrument can measure changes. Indeed we need to know how precise and sensitive the instrument is when....... We distinguish between statistical and clinical significance. Statistical significance is calculated using T-test. Clinical significance is the minimal amount of change in relational coordination score that is not considered noise. Sensitivity of the instrument i.e. the ability of the instrument...

  19. Cation coordination in oxychloride glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J A [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Holland, D [Physics Department, Warwick University, Coventry (United Kingdom); Bland, J [Physics Department, University of Liverpool, PO Box 147, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Johnson, C E [Physics Department, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL (United States); Thomas, M F [Physics Department, University of Liverpool, PO Box 147, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2003-02-19

    Glasses containing mixtures of cations and anions of nominal compositions [Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}]{sub x} - [ZnCl{sub 2}]{sub 1-x} where x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00, have been studied by means of neutron diffraction and Raman and Moessbauer spectroscopy. There is preferential bonding within the system with the absence of Sb-Cl bonds. Antimony is found to be threefold coordinated to oxygen, and zinc fourfold coordinated. The main contributing species are of the form [Sb(OSb){sub 2}(OZn)] and [Zn(ClZn){sub 2}(OSb){sub 2}].

  20. Cation coordination in oxychloride glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J A; Holland, D; Bland, J; Johnson, C E; Thomas, M F

    2003-01-01

    Glasses containing mixtures of cations and anions of nominal compositions [Sb 2 O 3 ] x - [ZnCl 2 ] 1-x where x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00, have been studied by means of neutron diffraction and Raman and Moessbauer spectroscopy. There is preferential bonding within the system with the absence of Sb-Cl bonds. Antimony is found to be threefold coordinated to oxygen, and zinc fourfold coordinated. The main contributing species are of the form [Sb(OSb) 2 (OZn)] and [Zn(ClZn) 2 (OSb) 2

  1. Bare coordination: the semantic shift

    OpenAIRE

    de Swart, Henriette; Le Bruyn, Bert

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops an analysis of the syntax-semantics interface of two types of split coordination structures. In the first type, two bare singular count nouns appear as arguments in a coordinated structure, as in bride and groom were happy. We call this the N&N construction. In the second type, the determiner shows agreement with the first conjunct, while the second conjunct is bare, as in the Spanish example el hornero y hornera cobraban en panes (‘thesg.m bakersg.m and bakersg.f werepl p...

  2. Can AIDS drugs be afforded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    UNAIDS has launched an 'HIV Drug Access Initiative' in the Ivory Coast, Uganda, Chile, and Vietnam; the pilot project will attempt to improve access to HIV drugs. Public and private sector efforts will be coordinated. The Glaxo Wellcome, Hoffman-La Roche, and Virco pharmaceutical companies will participate. Each country will 1) adapt its present system with regard to HIV and 2) establish both an HIV drug advisory board and a non-profit company which will import the drugs. Health ministries within each country will be required to find sources of funding for the programs. Uganda will probably use funds from its sexually transmitted disease (STD) program, which is supported by the World Bank; the Ivory Coast will combine corporate contributions, new tariffs, and non-profit insurance system monies into a 'solidarity fund.' UNAIDS funds will be used for oversight and evaluation. UNAIDS also released a review of 68 studies which examined the impact of sex education on the sex behavior of young people; it indicated that, in 65 of the studies, sex education did not increase the sexual activity of youth. UNAIDS concluded that quality programs helped delay first intercourse and often reduced the number of sexual partners, resulting in reduced rates of STDs and unplanned pregnancy. UNAIDS further concluded that effective sex education should begin before the onset of sexual activity, and curriculums should be focused. Openness in communicating about sex should be encouraged, and social and media influences on behavior should be addressed. Young people should be taught negotiating skills (how to say 'no' to sex and how to insist on safer sex).

  3. Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... destroying the white blood cells that fight infection. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. Infection with HIV is serious. But thanks to ...

  4. HIV/AIDS and Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having HIV/AIDS weakens your body's immune system. It destroys the white blood cells that fight infection. This puts ... such as crypto (cryptosporidiosis) and toxo (toxoplasmosis) Having HIV/AIDS can make infections harder to treat. People ...

  5. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...

  6. Does Corruption Cause Aid Fatigue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauhr, Monika; Charron, Nicholas; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh

    2013-01-01

    Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries? This under-explored yet salient question is examined using the 2009 Eurobarometer survey for the 27 EU countries. We suggest that perceived corruption can cause aid fatigue but that this relationship...... is highly contextualized. The results show that perceptions about corruption in developing countries reduce overall support for aid among respondents in donor countries. However, this effect is mitigated by country and contextual-level effects and different understandings of what we call the “aid-corruption...... paradox,” namely that the need for foreign aid is often the greatest in corrupt environments. Three different dynamics of the aid-corruption paradox influence support for aid: moral, pragmatic, and strategic understandings. In EU-15 countries, the effect of perceived corruption in recipient states on aid...

  7. Sectoral panorama: the electric power sector in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2003-10-01

    This study takes stock on the main european markets to help the electric power companies in their decisions and investments. The first part presents the electric power sector structure in Europe. The second part is devoted to the market evolution for the different european markets (german, french, british, italian and spanish) with an analysis of the retail prices, the competition and the evolution perspectives. The third part presents the highlights in the electric power sector between 2001 and the middle of 2003. The enterprises management and strategies are presented in the fourth part. In the last part the document analyzes the financial performances of the sector and the electric power companies. (A.L.B.)

  8. Gender differentiation in community responses to AIDS in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyamurwa, J M; Ampek, G T

    2007-01-01

    AIDS has been reported in Africa to push households into poverty and chronic food insecurity. At the same time there are reports of significant household resilience to AIDS. This study explored how a mature epidemic in rural Uganda has affected rural farming households. It focused on gender differences in the experience of AIDS and, in particular, household capabilities to sustain livelihoods. The study compared the vulnerability of male- and female-headed households in relation to their ability to mitigate human resource losses, as well as their access to natural and physical resources, to social networks and to finance capital for production. The findings suggest that when rural households are affected by AIDS, depleting productive resources and directing resources towards immediate needs, there are gender differences in responses to, and in impacts of, the epidemic due to the different resources available to male- and female- headed households. Female-headed households were found to be more vulnerable to AIDS than male-headed counterparts. Women's remarriage opportunities were lower than men's, they faced greater risk of losing control over land and livestock and they accessed less state and private sector support. Women-headed households were more dependent on livelihood support from non-governmental organizations, which were found to provide both welfare and credit support to female-headed households affected by AIDS. Women were found to play an important role in social networks and resources at community level but themselves received little support from many formal community networks and services.

  9. CO2 mitigation scenarios in China's road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Can; Cai, Wenjia; Lu, Xuedu; Chen, Jining

    2007-01-01

    China is the world's second largest greenhouse gas emitter, and emissions from the road transport sector represent one of the fastest growing GHG sources in China. Taking previous research on China's projected future vehicle ownership and future CO 2 emissions in the transport sector as a starting point, this paper reviews all recent environmental policies relating to the automobile industry and employs a scenario analysis to estimate different emissions inventories for different development strategies. The new policy scenario considers all possible mitigation options available to the road transport sector from a bottom up perspective and examines the effects for fuel efficiency improvement and the cost of these mitigation options - vehicle technology improvement, bus rapid transit system and fuel switching, through which the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential is estimated. Not only does this paper indicate that a large emissions reduction potential exists in China's road transport sector, but it implies that vehicle technology improvement, especially engine technology is likely to be the most effective means to meet emissions reduction targets. This paper concludes by identifying key barriers to implementing those options in China and deduces the technical, financial and institutional aspects of the demand in China for national capacity building and international aid in order to achieve the emissions reduction goals

  10. Organizing the health sector for response to disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley Shoaf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Each year millions of people around the world are affected by natural and manmade disasters. The consequences of natural disasters in terms of health are complex. Disasters directly impact the health of the population resulting in physical trauma, acute disease, and emotional trauma. Furthermore, disasters may increase the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic and infectious diseases due to the impact on the health system. The health sector must be organized for adequate preparedness, mitigation, response and recuperation from a plethora of potential disasters. This paper examines the various potential impacts of disasters on health, the components of the health sector and their roles in emergency medical care and disaster situations, as well as the coordination and organization necessary within the system to best meet the health needs of a population in the aftermath of a disaster.

  11. Short Summary European Reports on Retail Sector, Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector, Food and Beverages Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is composed of European synthesis reports on retail trade, the agro-food sector, and the motor vehicle sales and repair sector. They are based on the most important findings of the European report and the 12 national reports for each sector. Section 1, "Retail Sector," deals in part 1 with the structure of retailing in the…

  12. 47 CFR 95.1113 - Frequency coordinator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1113 Frequency coordinator. (a) The Commission will designate a frequency coordinator(s) to manage the usage of the frequency bands for the operation of medical telemetry devices. (b) The frequency coordinator shall (1) Review and...

  13. 29 CFR 42.8 - Coordination plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Coordination plan. 42.8 Section 42.8 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.8 Coordination plan. (a) Based upon, among other things, the... coordination plan concerning farm labor-related responsibilities of the Department, including migrant housing...

  14. Service Coordination Policies and Models: National Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbin, Gloria L.; Bruder, M.; Mazzarella, C.; Gabbard, G.; Reynolds, C.

    This report discusses the findings of a study that investigated state coordination of early intervention services for infants, toddlers, and young children with disabilities. State Part C coordinators participated in a survey that sought their perceptions of values under girding service coordination, approach to service coordination, policies,…

  15. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ, F.; Steudel, H.; Klotz, D.; Bonn Univ.; Bonn Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1982 (Hauser and co-workers), literature has reported focal cerebral tissue charges in AIDS patients whose diagnosis was unclear at first but which could be identified finally as florid toxoplasmosis encephalitis by biopsy and autopsy. It was found that the value of otherwise reliable serological tests (KBR, Sabin-Feldmann tests, etc.) is questionable in patients with severely impaired or incompetent immune systems, and, in particular, that a negative or uncharacteristic test result may not preclude any opportunistic infection process. Furthermore, isolation of Toxoplasma gondii or specific antibodies from the cerebrospinal fluid will be successful in exceptional cases only. In patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy syndrome, the differential diagnosis will have to include - first and foremost - reactivated toxoplasma infection (not newly acquired, as a rule) if central neurological symptoms occur. (orig.) [de

  16. Mutual aid fund commission

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The composition of the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund for 2011 is as follows: President: Pascal Droux Vice-president: Connie Potter Treasurer: Louis Pereira Deputy treasurer: Barbara Brugger Secretary: Sonia Casenove Deputy secretary: Isabelle Mardirossian Members: Christopher David Thomas   Jean-Claude Vialis (GAC member)   Marie-Luce Falipou   Gunilla Santiard (Jean-Claude Vialis’s alternate) The role of the Fund is to provide financial help to members of personnel and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund who are in need of exceptional financial assistance. All requests are treated in the strictest confidence. Should you wish to apply for aid from the Fund, kindly contact any member of the Board as given above or Social Services, tel.74479 – 73867.

  17. Performance Aided Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario

    2014-01-01

    paradigm where the increasing integration of parametric tools and performative analysis is changing the way we learn and design. The term Performance Aided Architectural Design (PAD) is proposed at the Master of Science of Architecture and Design at Aalborg University, with the aim of extending a tectonic...... tradition of architecture with computational tools, preparing the basis for the creation of the figure of a modern master builder, sitting at the boundary of the disciplines of architecture and engineering. Performance Aided Design focuses on the role of performative analysis, embedded tectonics......, and computational methods tools to trigger creativity and innovative understanding of relation between form material and a increasingly wide range of performances in architectural design. The ultimate goal is to pursue a design approach that aims at embracing rather than excluding the complexity implicit...

  18. Speedy changes in energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazlauskas, J.

    1998-01-01

    Status of the reforms in Lithuania's energy sector and preparation of updated Energy Strategy is presented in this article. The new Strategy has been worked out considering the conclusions of different studies as well as the changes that have taken place in Lithuania and restructuring of its energy sector, the guidelines of the European Union. The principal objectives of the country's energy sector consists in reliable and safe energy supply with minimum expenses, increasing efficiency of energy utilisation, introducing principles of market economy within the sector, reducing environmental impacts, preparing Lithuania's energy sector for integration into the EU. In the field of nuclear energy the top priority is to ensure the safety of Ignalina NPP. Ignalina NPP will only be operated if and as long as it is safe. Two most likely scenarios for the future operation of Ignalina NPP are analysed in the draft Strategy. According to scenario 1, reactor 1 and 2 are to be operated half of the design service life, until 2005 and 2010 respectively, i.e. until the gap between the graphite and fuel channels reaches the critical margin. In accordance with the second scenario, the fuel channels are to be replaced as envisaged in the design, after which the reactors may be operated for another 10 - 15 years

  19. Maneuvering a pilot implementation to align agendas across sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted, Troels; Hertzum, Morten; Søndergaard, Jens

    2017-01-01

    A prerequisite for pilot implementations in complex organizational settings is that the agendas of the stakeholders of the system are maneuvered into alignment. In this paper we present a study of the pilot implementation of the IT-supported, preventive intervention TOF (Tidlig Opsporing og...... Forebyggelse). A core element of TOF is an IT system that stratifies citizens into risk groups on the basis of self-reported lifestyle information and data retrieved from the medical records of the general practitioners (GPs). In addition, the system facilitates cross-sectoral coordination between preventive...

  20. Energy policy and development of the energy sector in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazhev, Blagoja.

    1996-01-01

    Energetics is an important precondition for everyday life in the economic activities as well as the social activities on the whole. The main goal of the energy sector is to monitor and support the planned social development. Consequently, the development of the society and the development of energetics must be coordinated as much as possible. If not, with an autarchic development of the energy system, because of its capital characteristic, could mean a substantial erosion of the social accumulation, without an appropriate contribution to the growth of the national income. Because of this, the issue we wish to speak of is constantly current. (author). 1 tab., 6 ills

  1. Cross-Sector Problems of Collaboration in Psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Petersen, Anne; Lyager Kaae, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    - and community-based services. Results: Staff and management experiencing cross-sector problems of collaboration point to ineffective coordination of services between systems and lack of mutual understanding of how systems other than the staffs’ own systems work. Solutions include specific procedural changes...... existed in Danish psychiatry since the 1980s when mental health service provisions were split into two psychiatric systems. Material and methods: We report from two qualitative studies: STUDY#1 (n = 24) consisted of twenty-four individ­ual, qualitative interviews with the staff and management...

  2. How Do People Get AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Do People Get AIDS? Print en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...

  3. AIDS dementia complex: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portegies, P.

    1994-01-01

    AIDS dementia complex (ADC) is a constellation of cognitive, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions frequently observed in persons with AIDS. Estimates of its prevalence vary. ADC may occur at any stage of AIDS but is usually associated with later stages of disease. Its severity varies among patients

  4. Women and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghal, P N

    1991-04-01

    In this article, Dr. P.N. Sehgal, former director of the National Institute of Communicable Diseases in Delhi, explains the steps that women need to take to protect themselves against AIDS and discusses some issues facing women who have already contracted the disease. Because of women's lack of status in the family and society, it is harder for them to ensure their safety. Women based at home often lack information on AIDS, and those women who are informed sometimes depend on their male partner for financial support, which means that they are forced to engage in unsafe sexual practices. Safer sexual practices can reduce the risk for women. Though varying in degree of safety, some safer practices include: monogamous relationships between uninfected partners; the use of condoms for all types of sexual intercourse; non-penetrative sex practices (hugging, kissing, masturbating); reducing the number of sexual partners; avoiding sex when either of the partners has open sores or any STD. Pregnant women should also receive information concerning AIDS, including: a baby born from an HIV-infected mother has a 20-40% of being infected; the risk of transmission is higher when the mother already shows signs of AIDS; and an infected baby may die within the first few years of life. the HIV transmission may occur prepartum or during birth itself, but the risk of transmission from breastfeeding is extremely low. Dr. Sehgal stresses the need for privacy and confidentiality when dealing with carriers of the disease or when carrying out HIV testing. Above all, the rights of HIV-infected people must be protected.

  5. Lung complications in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiske, R.; Buck, J.; Schneider, R.; Hannemann, T.; Krauss, B.

    1986-01-01

    A short description of epidemiologic and clinical facts correlated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is followed by a report on the manifestation of pulmonary infections mostly effected by pneumocystis carinii. Two examples out of four cases will demonstrate the radiographic appearance of the pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and clinical data. Only in rare cases does it seem possible to reduce the fatal outcome by early diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  6. Computer aided product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantinou, Leonidas; Bagherpour, Khosrow; Gani, Rafiqul

    1996-01-01

    A general methodology for Computer Aided Product Design (CAPD) with specified property constraints which is capable of solving a large range of problems is presented. The methodology employs the group contribution approach, generates acyclic, cyclic and aromatic compounds of various degrees......-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) and gas solubility. Finally, a computer program based on the extended methodology has been developed and the results from five case studies highlighting various features of the methodology are presented....

  7. How Advances in Technology Improve HIV/AIDS Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Tehrani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the U.S., the number of individuals aged 50 and older who are living with HIV has increased, leading to a phenomenon called the graying of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Advances in treating HIV have brought about a large growing population of seniors with HIV who are simultaneously facing social, psychological, and physical challenges correlated with the aging process. The stigma against HIV/AIDS has been linked to poor health, depression, and loneliness. In a recent study, about 39.1% of HIV/AIDS patients showed symptoms of major depression (C. Grov et al, 2010. Consequently, to reduce lasting effects of major depressive symptoms, there is a vital need for service providers to employ innovative efforts to confront the stigma and psychosocial and physical health problems that are characteristic of an older HIV/AIDS population. The new technological approaches to healthcare delivery have resulted in faster, more accurate diagnosis and monitoring, in more sophisticated coordination across regions and agencies, and in sophisticated risk-checking procedures. New healthcare technology that can help the AIDS/HIV patient is called Health Information Technology, a basic element of Health Relationship Management Services (HRMS, which is a new approach to healthcare. HRMS can assist individuals with HIV/AIDS in managing not only their physical, but also their mental health.

  8. AIDS and Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Garrós, MC

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available "When my first hospitalization took place, I must recognize I was plunged into the mistake of identifying AIDS with death, together with the depression, uneasiness, unsecurity and the feeling of inability to plan my life in the short and long term to the point of refusing in my mind to organize things as simple as future holidays or improvements at home".Thanks to retroviral treatments, the initially mortal HIV/AIDS infection has become a chronic disease as it can be today thediabetes, allowing objectives in the short, medium and long term. Here is where the occupational therapy operates as an instrument to improve, keep or rehabilitate the occupational areas of this group which has a series of special features to be borne in mind when working with them.I seek to reflect my 8 months experience working as an occupational therapist in a Refuge Centre for AIDS ill people, and how throughout this experience I changed several of my initial approaches and working methods too.

  9. Resource allocation within the National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan: a qualitative assessment of decision maker's opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Masood

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited resources, whether public or private, demand prioritisation among competing needs to maximise productivity. With a substantial increase in the number of reported HIV cases, little work has been done to understand how resources have been distributed and what factors may have influenced allocation within the newly introduced Enhanced National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to identify perceptions of decision makers about the process of resource allocation within Pakistan's Enhanced National AIDS Control Program. Methods A qualitative study was undertaken and in-depth interviews of decision makers at provincial and federal levels responsible to allocate resources within the program were conducted. Results HIV was not considered a priority issue by all study participants and external funding for the program was thought to have been accepted because of poor foreign currency reserves and donor agency influence rather than local need. Political influences from the federal government and donor agencies were thought to manipulate distribution of funds within the program. These influences were thought to occur despite the existence of a well-laid out procedure to determine allocation of public resources. Lack of collaboration among departments involved in decision making, a pervasive lack of technical expertise, paucity of information and an atmosphere of ad hoc decision making were thought to reduce resistance to external pressures. Conclusion Development of a unified program vision through a consultative process and advocacy is necessary to understand goals to be achieved, to enhance program ownership and develop consensus about how money and effort should be directed. Enhancing public sector expertise in planning and budgeting is essential not just for the program, but also to reduce reliance on external agencies for technical support. Strengthening available databases for effective

  10. Resource allocation within the National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan: a qualitative assessment of decision maker's opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Sara; Kadir, Masood; Fatmi, Zafar

    2007-01-23

    Limited resources, whether public or private, demand prioritisation among competing needs to maximise productivity. With a substantial increase in the number of reported HIV cases, little work has been done to understand how resources have been distributed and what factors may have influenced allocation within the newly introduced Enhanced National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to identify perceptions of decision makers about the process of resource allocation within Pakistan's Enhanced National AIDS Control Program. A qualitative study was undertaken and in-depth interviews of decision makers at provincial and federal levels responsible to allocate resources within the program were conducted. HIV was not considered a priority issue by all study participants and external funding for the program was thought to have been accepted because of poor foreign currency reserves and donor agency influence rather than local need. Political influences from the federal government and donor agencies were thought to manipulate distribution of funds within the program. These influences were thought to occur despite the existence of a well-laid out procedure to determine allocation of public resources. Lack of collaboration among departments involved in decision making, a pervasive lack of technical expertise, paucity of information and an atmosphere of ad hoc decision making were thought to reduce resistance to external pressures. Development of a unified program vision through a consultative process and advocacy is necessary to understand goals to be achieved, to enhance program ownership and develop consensus about how money and effort should be directed. Enhancing public sector expertise in planning and budgeting is essential not just for the program, but also to reduce reliance on external agencies for technical support. Strengthening available databases for effective decision making is required to make financial allocations based on real

  11. U.S. CWMD Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    coordination. For example, it conducted joint vehicle inspection training for Pakistani Customs and Border Guard personnel at a US- Mexico border...biological material, including such hazards as: anthrax, botulism, cholera , Ebola virus hemorrhagic fever, E. coli, Plague, and smallpox 79

  12. Collective coordinates on symplectic manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razumov, A.V.; Taranov, A.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    For an arbitrary Lie group of canonical transformations on a symplectic manifold collective coordinates are introduced. They describe a motion of the dynamical system as a whole under the group transformations. Some properties of Lie group of canonical transformations are considered [ru

  13. Motivic amplitudes and cluster coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, J.K.; Goncharov, A.B.; Spradlin, M.; Vergu, C.; Volovich, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study motivic amplitudes — objects which contain all of the essential mathematical content of scattering amplitudes in planar SYM theory in a completely canonical way, free from the ambiguities inherent in any attempt to choose particular functional representatives. We find that the cluster structure on the kinematic configuration space Conf n (ℙ 3 ) underlies the structure of motivic amplitudes. Specifically, we compute explicitly the coproduct of the two-loop seven-particle MHV motivic amplitude A 7,2 M and find that like the previously known six-particle amplitude, it depends only on certain preferred coordinates known in the mathematics literature as cluster X-coordinates on Conf n (ℙ 3 ). We also find intriguing relations between motivic amplitudes and the geometry of generalized associahedrons, to which cluster coordinates have a natural combinatoric connection. For example, the obstruction to A 7,2 M being expressible in terms of classical polylogarithms is most naturally represented by certain quadrilateral faces of the appropriate associahedron. We also find and prove the first known functional equation for the trilogarithm in which all 40 arguments are cluster X-coordinates of a single algebra. In this respect it is similar to Abel’s 5-term dilogarithm identity

  14. Co-ordinated Classroom Lectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Darell Boyd

    From a series of lectures, a selection of eight are oriented principally toward the biologically developing child, and the physiological operations in visual process. The numbered lectures are--(1) The Coordinated Classroom, its Philosophy and Principles, (2) An Outline of a Biological Point of View, (3) The Evolution of Structure--despite man's…

  15. Henry Taube and Coordination Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Henry Taube and Coordination Chemistry Resources with Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus, at Stanford University, received the 1983 Nobel Prize in Chemistry " there from 1940-41. "I became deeply interested in chemistry soon after I came to Berkeley,"

  16. Should HIV and AIDS workplace programmes still be advocated in the automotive industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Liana Steenkamp; Jill von der Marwitz; Friederike Baasner-Weihs; Jacques Pietersen

    2015-01-01

    Orientation: In light of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic, and in order to improve competitiveness in the South African private sector, many structures have implemented subsidised workplace programmes. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to collect baseline data regarding the knowledge, attitudes, practices and belief (KAPB) of employees in the automotive industry in relation to HIV and AIDS, in order to assess the need for HIV and AIDS workplace programmes. Mot...

  17. Effect of HIV/AIDS on the agricultural workforce. Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV/AIDS has over the years, become a serious health hazard. It is today not strictly an health problem, but one that has serious octopoidal implications. It has reached a height where other sectors of the economy have to take more active roles. It is in this regard therefore, that this paper tends to look at HIV/AIDS as it affects ...

  18. Introduction of EDI in the public sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the status of EDI in the sectors of health, public transport and taxation and public administration. The impact of this on the diffusion of EDI in other sectors is analysed.......Reviews the status of EDI in the sectors of health, public transport and taxation and public administration. The impact of this on the diffusion of EDI in other sectors is analysed....

  19. On value differences experienced by sector switchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, G.; van der Wal, Z.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines experienced differences in values between employees in the public and private sector. To elucidate them, the authors interviewed 30 employees of the public sector previously employed in the private sector and 30 employees of the private sector previously employed in the public

  20. Regulation of the power sector

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of the Power Sector is a unified, consistent and comprehensive treatment of the theories and practicalities of regulation in modern power-supply systems. The need for generation to occur at the time of use occasioned by the impracticality of large-scale electricity storage coupled with constant and often unpredictable changes in demand make electricity-supply systems large, dynamic and complex and their regulation a daunting task. Conceptually arranged in four parts, this book addresses both traditional regulatory frameworks and also liberalized and re-regulated environments. First, an introduction gives a full characterization of power supply including engineering, economic and regulatory viewpoints. The second part presents the fundamentals of regulation and the third looks at the regulation of particular components of the power sector in detail. Advanced topics and subjects still open or subject to dispute form the content of the fourth part. In a sector where regulatory design is the key driver...