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Sample records for sectional observational study

  1. Assessing the completeness of reporting of observational studies in Colombian Journal of Anesthesiology. Cross sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo-Peña, M. (Mary); Barona-Fong, L. (Luis); Campo-López, J. (Julio); Arroyave, Y. (Yeni); J.A. Calvache (Jose Andres)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction The STROBE statement (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology), consisting of 22 points, was published in 2007 with the aim of improving the reporting of observational research. Objective To determine the completeness of reporting of

  2. Urea cycle disorders in Spain: an observational, cross-sectional and multicentric study of 104 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Hernández, Elena; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luis; Castejón-Ponce, Esperanza; Pedrón-Giner, Consuelo; Couce, María Luz; Serrano-Nieto, Juliana; Pintos-Morell, Guillem; Bélanger-Quintana, Amaya; Martínez-Pardo, Mercedes; García-Silva, María Teresa; Quijada-Fraile, Pilar; Vitoria-Miñana, Isidro; Dalmau, Jaime; Lama-More, Rosa A; Bueno-Delgado, María Amor

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of urea cycle disorders (UCDs) have led to a higher survival rate. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of patients with urea cycle disorders in Spain. Methods Observational, cross-sectional and multicenter study. Clinical, biochemical and genetic data were collected from patients with UCDs, treated in the metabolic diseases centers in Spain between February 2012 and February 2013, covering the entire Spanish populatio...

  3. Organisational culture in residential aged care facilities: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherton-Beer, Christopher; Venturato, Lorraine; Horner, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Organisational culture is increasingly recognised as important for provision of high-quality long-term care. We undertook this study to measure organisational culture in residential aged care facilities in two Australian states. Cross-sectional observational study in 21 residential aged care facilities in Western Australia (n = 14) and Queensland (n = 7), Australia. Staff and next-of-kin of residents participated. Measurement comprised surveys of facility staff and residents' next-of-kin, and structured observation of indicators of care quality. Staff tended to rate organisational culture positively. Some qualitative feedback from staff emphasised negative perceptions of communication, leadership and teamwork. Staffing levels were perceived as a dominant challenge, threatening care quality. Direct observation revealed variability within and between facilities but suggested that most facilities (n = 12) were in the typical range, or were quality facilities (n = 8). There was scope to strengthen organisational culture in participating aged care facilities.

  4. Vaginal birth after caesarean section prediction models: a UK comparative observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mone, Fionnuala; Harrity, Conor; Mackie, Adam; Segurado, Ricardo; Toner, Brenda; McCormick, Timothy R; Currie, Aoife; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-10-01

    Primarily, to assess the performance of three statistical models in predicting successful vaginal birth in patients attempting a trial of labour after one previous lower segment caesarean section (TOLAC). The statistically most reliable models were subsequently subjected to validation testing in a local antenatal population. A retrospective observational study was performed with study data collected from the Northern Ireland Maternity Service Database (NIMATs). The study population included all women that underwent a TOLAC (n=385) from 2010 to 2012 in a regional UK obstetric unit. Data was collected from the Northern Ireland Maternity Service Database (NIMATs). Area under the curve (AUC) and correlation analysis was performed. Of the three prediction models evaluated, AUC calculations for the Smith et al., Grobman et al. and Troyer and Parisi Models were 0.74, 0.72 and 0.65, respectively. Using the Smith et al. model, 52% of women had a low risk of caesarean section (CS) (predicted VBAC >72%) and 20% had a high risk of CS (predicted VBAC <60%), of whom 20% and 63% had delivery by CS. The fit between observed and predicted outcome in this study cohort using the Smith et al. and Grobman et al. models were greatest (Chi-square test, p=0.228 and 0.904), validating both within the population. The Smith et al. and Grobman et al. models could potentially be utilized within the UK to provide women with an informed choice when deciding on mode of delivery after a previous CS. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Within country inequalities in caesarean section rates: observational study of 72 low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatin, Adeline Adwoa; Schlotheuber, Anne; Betran, Ana Pilar; Moller, Ann-Beth; Barros, Aluisio J D; Boerma, Ties; Torloni, Maria Regina; Victora, Cesar G; Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza

    2018-01-24

    To provide an update on economic related inequalities in caesarean section rates within countries. Secondary analysis of demographic and health surveys and multiple indicator cluster surveys. 72 low and middle income countries with a survey conducted between 2010 and 2014 for analysis of the latest situation of inequality, and 28 countries with a survey also conducted between 2000 and 2004 for analysis of the change in inequality over time. Women aged 15-49 years with a live birth during the two or three years preceding the survey. Data on caesarean section were disaggregated by asset based household wealth status and presented separately for five subgroups, ranging from the poorest to the richest fifth. Absolute and relative inequalities were measured using difference and ratio measures. The pace of change in the poorest and richest fifths was compared using a measure of excess change. National caesarean section rates ranged from 0.6% in South Sudan to 58.9% in the Dominican Republic. Within countries, caesarean section rates were lowest in the poorest fifth (median 3.7%) and highest in the richest fifth (median 18.4%). 18 out of 72 study countries reported a difference of 20 percentage points or higher between the richest and poorest fifth. The highest caesarean section rates and greatest levels of absolute inequality were observed in countries from the region of the Americas, whereas countries from the African region had low levels of caesarean use and comparatively lower levels of absolute inequality, although relative inequality was quite high in some countries. 26 out of 28 countries reported increases in caesarean section rates over time. Rates tended to increase faster in the richest fifth (median 0.9 percentage points per year) compared with the poorest fifth (median 0.2 percentage points per year), indicating an increase in inequality over time in most of these countries. Substantial within country economic inequalities in caesarean deliveries remain

  6. A cross-sectional observational study of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaateba, Millicent Awialie; Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Yakubu, Ibrahim

    2014-03-01

    Motorcyclists' injuries and fatalities are a major public health concern in many developing countries including Ghana. This study therefore aimed to investigate the prevalence of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana. The method used involved a cross-sectional roadside observation at 12 randomly selected sites within and outside the CBD of Wa. A total of 14,467 motorcyclists made up of 11,360 riders and 3107 pillion riders were observed during the study period. Most observed riders (86.5%) and pillion riders (61.7%) were males. The overall prevalence of helmet use among the observed motorcyclists was 36.9% (95% CI: 36.1-37.7). Helmet use for riders was 45.8% (95% CI: 44.8-46.7) whilst that for pillion riders was 3.7% (95 CI: 3.0-4.4). Based on logistic regression analysis, higher helmet wearing rates were found to be significantly associated with female gender, weekdays, morning periods and at locations within the CBD. Riders at locations outside the CBD were about 7 times less likely to wear a helmet than riders within the CBD (48.9% compared to 42.3%; χ(2)(1)=49.526; plegislation that mandates the use of helmets by both riders and pillion riders on all roads in Ghana, helmet use is generally low in Wa. This suggests that all stakeholders in road safety should jointly intensify education on helmet use and pursue rigorous enforcement on all road types especially at locations outside the CBD to improve helmet use in Wa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study in Pediatric Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhankar, Mukesh

    2018-01-01

    The aim was to study the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in acutely sick hospitalized children and factors associated with it. This is a cross-sectional, hospital-based study in a tertiary care center of Delhi, India. Children admitted to a pediatric unit during the study period were assessed using a specially designed questionnaire. Out of the total 887 admitted children, 161 (18.1%) were using complementary and alternate medicine in one form or another. Of these, 113 (70.2%) were using complementary and alternate medicine for the current illness directly leading to admission and the remaining 48 (29.8%) had used complementary and alternate medicine in past. The common complementary and alternate medicine use observed in our study was combined ayurveda and spiritual approach (25.5%), ayurveda (24.8%), spiritual (21.7%), homeopathic (13%), and 47.2% of children were using spiritual approach in form of Jhada (tying piece of cloth on arm or leg or keeping a knife by the side of child). The significant factors associated with complementary and alternate medicine use were younger age, female gender, and father being employed. Complementary and alternate medicine is commonly used even in acutely sick children.

  8. Use of Head Guards in AIBA Boxing Tournaments-A Cross-Sectional Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosemore, Michael P; Butler, Charles F; Khadri, Abdelhamid; McDonagh, David; Patel, Vimal A; Bailes, Julian E

    2017-01-01

    This study looks at the changes in injuries after the implementation of a new rule by the International Boxing Association (AIBA) to remove head guards from its competitions. A cross-sectional observational study performed prospectively. This brief report examines the removal of head guards in 2 different ways. The first was to examine the stoppages due to blows to the head by comparing World Series Boxing (WSB), without head guards, to other AIBA competitions with head guards. Secondly, we examined the last 3 world championships: 2009 and 2011 (with head guards) and 2013 (without head guards). World Series Boxing and AIBA world championship boxing. Boxers from WSB and AIBA world championships. The information was recorded by ringside medical physicians. Stoppages per 10 000 rounds; stoppages per 1000 hours. Both studies show that the number of stoppages due to head blows was significantly decreased without head guards. The studies also showed that there was a notable increase in cuts. Removing head guards may reduce the already small risk of acute brain injury in amateur boxing.

  9. Genetic Expression in Cystic Fibrosis Related Bone Disease. An Observational, Transversal, Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuca, Ioana M; Pop, Liviu L; Rogobete, Alexandru F; Onet, Dan I; Guta-Almajan, Bogdan; Popa, Zoran; Horhat, Florin G

    2016-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most frequent monogenic genetic disease with autosomal recessive transmission and characterized by important clinical polymorphism and significant lethal prospective. CF related bone disease occurs frequently in adults with CF. Childhood is the period of bone formation, and therefore, children are more susceptible to low bone density. Several factors like pancreatic insufficiency, hormone imbalance, and physical inactivity contribute to CF bone disease development. Revealing this would be important for prophylactic treatment against bone disease occurrence. The study was observational, transversal, with a cross-sectional design. The study included 68 children with cystic fibrosis, genotyped and monitored in the National CF Centre. At the annual assessment, besides clinical examination, biochemical evaluation for pancreatic insufficiency, and diabetes, they were evaluated for bone mineral density using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Twenty-six patients, aged over 10 years were diagnosed with CF bone disease, without significant gender gap. Bone disease was frequent in patients aged over 10 years with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, carriers of severe mutations, and CF liver disease. CF carriers of a severe genotype which associates pancreatic insufficiency and CF liver disease, are more likely predisposed to low bone mineral density. Further studies should discover other significant influences in order to prevent the development of CF bone disease and an improved quality of life in cystic fibrosis children.

  10. Psychiatric comorbidity in diabetes type 1: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Ana Claudia C de Ornelas; Braga, Arthur de Azevedo; Paes, Flávia; Machado, Sérgio; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso da

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, i.e., the presence of signs and symptoms of anxiety and depression in type 1 diabetic patients, as well as to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in insulin dependent patients. A cross-sectional observational study of 110 diabetic outpatients (mean = 58.3, SD = 14.5; 50 male and 60 female) was conducted in a public health clinic with patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus who were under the medical supervision of an endocrinologist. The patients were evaluated through the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale(HADS). With respect to anxiety symptoms, we found a prevalence of 60% (n = 66) among patients, while in depression symptoms we found a prevalence of 53.6% (n = 59) concerning the 110 patients evaluated. More specifically, we found 28.2% (n = 31) of patients without depression or anxiety, 13.6% (n = 15) of patients with depression, 16.4% (n = 18) of patients with anxiety and 41.8% (n = 46) of patients with depression combined with anxiety. The most remarkable data were generalized anxiety disorder (22.7%), dysthymia (18.2%), panic disorder (8.2%) and social phobia (5.5%). The need for accurate assessments about the presence of symptoms related to psychopathology in patients with type 1 diabetes is evident.

  11. Psychiatric comorbidity in diabetes type 1: a cross-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia C. de Ornelas Maia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aims to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, i.e., the presence of signs and symptoms of anxiety and depression in type 1 diabetic patients, as well as to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in insulin dependent patients. Methods A cross-sectional observational study of 110 diabetic outpatients (mean = 58.3, SD = 14.5; 50 male and 60 female was conducted in a public health clinic with patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus who were under the medical supervision of an endocrinologist. The patients were evaluated through the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale(HADS. Results With respect to anxiety symptoms, we found a prevalence of 60% (n = 66 among patients, while in depression symptoms we found a prevalence of 53.6% (n = 59 concerning the 110 patients evaluated. More specifically, we found 28.2% (n = 31 of patients without depression or anxiety, 13.6% (n = 15 of patients with depression, 16.4% (n = 18 of patients with anxiety and 41.8% (n = 46 of patients with depression combined with anxiety. The most remarkable data were generalized anxiety disorder (22.7%, dysthymia (18.2%, panic disorder (8.2% and social phobia (5.5%. Conclusion The need for accurate assessments about the presence of symptoms related to psychopathology in patients with type 1 diabetes is evident.

  12. PROMETHEUS: an observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study of hypertriglyceridemia in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Yuri; Khomitskaya, Yunona

    2015-08-25

    Data regarding the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in the Russian population are lacking, despite triglyceride (TG)-mediated pathways being causal in cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of mixed dyslipidemia and severe hypertriglyceridemia in the Russian population (PROMETHEUS) was undertaken to address this gap. This was an observational, cross-sectional retrospective study. Data from adults with a full/partial lipoprotein record who had blood analyses done at an INVITRO laboratory in Russia between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2013 were analyzed. The primary endpoint was the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 1.7 mmol/L); secondary endpoints included prevalence of borderline high, high, and very high TG and severe hypertriglyceridemia, defined as a TG level of 1.7 to hypertriglyceridemia, borderline high TG, high TG, very high TG, and severe hypertriglyceridemia in the full dataset was 29.2, 16.2, 12.9, 0.11, and 0.011%, respectively; corresponding rates in the nested sample were 19.0, 17.2, 0.25, and 0.016%, respectively. TG levels were 16.4% higher in males versus females; males had a greater risk of hypertriglyceridemia (risk ratio 1.25; 95% CI 1.24, 1.26; P hypertriglyceridemia increased with age, peaking at 40-49 years in males (42.8%) and 60-69 years in females (34.4%); a 0.61% increase in TG levels for each year of life was predicted. Hypertriglyceridemia prevalence increased over time. Correlations between TG and LDL-C, HDL-C, TC, and HbA1c (nested sample only) were observed. Almost one-third of Russians have hypertriglyceridemia, but severe disease (TG ≥ 10.0 mmol/L) is rare. Although the risk of hypertriglyceridemia was greater in males versus females, its prevalence increased with age, regardless of sex. TG was associated with HbA1c, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TC.

  13. Sexual harassment and menstrual disorders among Italian university women: A cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romito, P; Cedolin, C; Bastiani, F; Beltramini, L; Saurel-Cubizolles, M J

    2017-07-01

    Menstrual disorders and sexual harassment are common among young women and interfere with their life and activities. We aimed to describe the association of sexual harassment and menstrual disorders among female university students. This cross-sectional, observational study examined the association between sexual harassment and menstrual disorders in a sample of 349 university students in Italy. Students answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive bivariate analyses and logistic regression analyses were performed. Main outcome measures were associations between levels of exposure to sexual harassment (none, levels 1 and 2) and five menstrual disorders (premenstrual symptoms, heavy bleeding, pain, irregular cycles, and amenorrhea). Among the women interviewed (mean age 20.4 ± 1.45 years), 146 (41.8%) had experienced sexual harassment in the previous 12 months: 91 (26.1%) level 1 and 55 (15.7%) level 2. The frequency of premenstrual symptoms was 31.9% ( n=110); heavy bleeding, 35.3% ( n=124); pain, 51.4% ( n=181); irregular cycles, 55.5% ( n=195); and amenorrhea, 6.7% ( n=23). After adjustment for age, place of birth, being in a couple relationship and receiving hormone therapy, the frequency of menstrual disorders, except for amenorrhea, was increased with sexual harassment, with a regular gradient from no harassment to level 2 harassment. Introducing factors of depression, specific gynaecological problems and lifetime sexual violence did not change the results. For instance, the adjusted odds ratios of premenstrual symptoms were 2.10 [1.19-3.68] for women with level 1 harassment and 3.58 [1.83-7.03] for women with level 2 compared with women without harassment exposure. Sexual harassment is related to the prevalence of menstrual disorders. Healthcare providers should encourage dialogue with patients and address the issue of sexual violence or harassment.

  14. Prevalence and Characteristics of Work Anxiety in Medical Rehabilitation Patients: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschalla, Beate; Jöbges, Michael

    2018-01-01

    To investigate frequency, type, and characteristics of work anxieties in patients with somatic illness. Cross-sectional observation study. Neurology, orthopedic, and cardiology rehabilitation clinics. Patients (N=1610; age, 18-65y) with work anxieties. Not applicable. Patients who scored high on at least 2 of 9 items in the work-anxiety screening questionnaire and who reported impairment were investigated with a differential diagnostic interview on work anxieties and with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview on non-work-related common mental disorders. Patients also filled out a self-rating questionnaire on their subjective symptom load and sociodemographic data. Approximately 20% to 27% of the investigated inpatients in somatic rehabilitation (altogether n=393) received a work-anxiety diagnosis. Patients with orthopedic illness report highest work anxiety and have previous longest sick leave (20.6wk in the past 12mo). Patients with orthopedic illness suffer from work-related adjustment disorder with anxiety, social anxieties, and workplace phobias, whereas patients with cardiac illness are more often affected by hypochondriac anxieties. Anxieties of insufficiency and worrying occur equally in all indications. About a quarter of patients in somatic rehabilitation are in need of additional diagnostic attention owing to work anxieties. Differential diagnostic of work anxiety is needed for initiating adequate therapeutic action. Somatic rehabilitation physicians should be aware of work anxieties in their patients, especially in patients with orthopedic illness with previous long-term sick leave. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Urea cycle disorders in Spain: an observational, cross-sectional and multicentric study of 104 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Hernández, Elena; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luis; Castejón-Ponce, Esperanza; Pedrón-Giner, Consuelo; Couce, María Luz; Serrano-Nieto, Juliana; Pintos-Morell, Guillem; Bélanger-Quintana, Amaya; Martínez-Pardo, Mercedes; García-Silva, María Teresa; Quijada-Fraile, Pilar; Vitoria-Miñana, Isidro; Dalmau, Jaime; Lama-More, Rosa A; Bueno-Delgado, María Amor; Del Toro-Riera, Mirella; García-Jiménez, Inmaculada; Sierra-Córcoles, Concepción; Ruiz-Pons, Mónica; Peña-Quintana, Luis J; Vives-Piñera, Inmaculada; Moráis, Ana; Balmaseda-Serrano, Elena; Meavilla, Silvia; Sanjurjo-Crespo, Pablo; Pérez-Cerdá, Celia

    2014-11-30

    Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of urea cycle disorders (UCDs) have led to a higher survival rate. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of patients with urea cycle disorders in Spain. Observational, cross-sectional and multicenter study. Clinical, biochemical and genetic data were collected from patients with UCDs, treated in the metabolic diseases centers in Spain between February 2012 and February 2013, covering the entire Spanish population. Heterozygous mothers of patients with OTC deficiency were only included if they were on treatment due to being symptomatic or having biochemistry abnormalities. 104 patients from 98 families were included. Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency was the most frequent condition (64.4%) (61.2% female) followed by type 1 citrullinemia (21.1%) and argininosuccinic aciduria (9.6%). Only 13 patients (12.5%) were diagnosed in a pre-symptomatic state. 63% of the cases presented with type intoxication encephalopathy. The median ammonia level at onset was 298 μmol/L (169-615). The genotype of 75 patients is known, with 18 new mutations having been described. During the data collection period four patients died, three of them in the early days of life. The median current age is 9.96 years (5.29-18), with 25 patients over 18 years of age. Anthropometric data, expressed as median and z-score for the Spanish population is shown. 52.5% of the cases present neurological sequelae, which have been linked to the type of disease, neonatal onset, hepatic failure at diagnosis and ammonia values at diagnosis. 93 patients are following a protein restrictive diet, 0.84 g/kg/day (0.67-1.10), 50 are receiving essential amino acid supplements, 0.25 g/kg/day (0.20-0.45), 58 arginine, 156 mg/kg/day (109-305) and 45 citrulline, 150 mg/kg/day (105-199). 65 patients are being treated with drugs: 4 with sodium benzoate, 50 with sodium phenylbutyrate, 10 with both drugs and 1 with carglumic acid. Studies like this make it

  16. Comparison of balance assessment modalities in emergency department elders: a pilot cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino, Jeffrey M; Karaman, Rowan; Arora, Vinay; Martin, Jacqueline L; Hiestand, Brian C

    2009-09-28

    More than one-third of US adults 65 and over fall every year. These falls may cause serious injury including substantial long-term morbidity (due declines in activities of daily living) and death. The emergency department (ED) visit represents an opportunity for identifying high risk elders and potentially instituting falls-related interventions. The unique characteristic of the ED environment and patient population necessitate that risk-assessment modalities be validated in this specific setting. In order to better identify elders at risk of falls, we examined the relationship between patient-provided history of falling and two testing modalities (a balance plate system and the timed up-and-go [TUG] test) in elder emergency department (ED) patients. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of patients > or = 60 years old being discharged from the ED. Patient history of falls in the past week, month, 6 months, and year was obtained. Balance plate center of pressure excursion (COP) measurements and TUG testing times were recorded. COP was recorded under four conditions: normal stability eyes open (NSEO) and closed (NSEC), and perturbed stability eyes open and closed. Correlation between TUG and COP scores was measured. Univariate logistic regression was used to identify the relationship between patient-provided falls history and the two testing modalities. Proportions, likelihood ratios, and receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curves for prediction of previous falls were reported. Fifty-three subjects were enrolled, 11% had fallen in the previous week and 42% in the previous year. There was no correlation between TUG and any balance plate measurements. In logistic regression, neither testing modality was associated with prior history of falls (p > 0.05 for all time periods). Balance plate NSEO and NSEC testing cutoffs could be identified which were 83% sensitive and had a negative likelihood ratio (LR-) of 0.3 for falls in the past week. TUG testing

  17. Emergency Care Capabilities in North East Haiti: A Cross-sectional Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wulf, Annelies; Aluisio, Adam R; Muhlfelder, Dana; Bloem, Christina

    2015-12-01

    The North East Department is a resource-limited region of Haiti. Health care is provided by hospitals and community clinics, with no formal Emergency Medical System and undefined emergency services. As a paucity of information exists on available emergency services in the North East Department of Haiti, the objective of this study was to assess systematically the existing emergency care resources in the region. This cross-sectional observational study was carried out at all Ministry of Public Health and Population (MSPP)-affiliated hospitals in the North East Department and all clinics within the Fort Liberté district. A modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care and Generic Essential Emergency Equipment Lists were completed for each facility. Three MSPP hospitals and five clinics were assessed. Among hospitals, all had a designated emergency ward with 24 hour staffing by a medical doctor. All hospitals had electricity with backup generators and access to running water; however, none had potable water. All hospitals had x-ray and ultrasound capabilities. No computed tomography scanners existed in the region. Invasive airway equipment and associated medications were not present consistently in the hospitals' emergency care areas, but they were available in the operating rooms. Pulse oximetry was unavailable uniformly. One hospital had intermittently functioning defibrillation equipment, and two hospitals had epinephrine. Basic supplies for managing obstetrical and traumatic emergencies were available at all hospitals. Surgical services were accessible at two hospitals. No critical care services were available in the region. Clinics varied widely in terms of equipment availability. They uniformly had limited emergency medical equipment. The clinics also had inconsistent access to basic assessment tools (sphygmomanometers 20% and stethoscopes 60%). A protocol for transferring

  18. Consumers’ estimation of calorie content at fast food restaurants: cross sectional observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Jason Perry; Condon, Suzanne K; Kleinman, Ken Paul; Mullen, Jewel; Linakis, Stephanie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl Lynn; Gillman, Matthew William

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate estimation of calorie (energy) content of meals from fast food restaurants in adults, adolescents, and school age children. Design: Cross sectional study of repeated visits to fast food restaurant chains. Setting: 89 fast food restaurants in four cities in New England, United States: McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s, KFC, Dunkin’ Donuts. Participants: 1877 adults and 330 school age children visiting restaurants at dinnertime (evening meal) in 2010 and 2011; 1...

  19. Comparison of balance assessment modalities in emergency department elders: a pilot cross-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaman Rowan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than one-third of US adults 65 and over fall every year. These falls may cause serious injury including substantial long-term morbidity (due declines in activities of daily living and death. The emergency department (ED visit represents an opportunity for identifying high risk elders and potentially instituting falls-related interventions. The unique characteristic of the ED environment and patient population necessitate that risk-assessment modalities be validated in this specific setting. In order to better identify elders at risk of falls, we examined the relationship between patient-provided history of falling and two testing modalities (a balance plate system and the timed up-and-go [TUG] test in elder emergency department (ED patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of patients ≥ 60 years old being discharged from the ED. Patient history of falls in the past week, month, 6 months, and year was obtained. Balance plate center of pressure excursion (COP measurements and TUG testing times were recorded. COP was recorded under four conditions: normal stability eyes open (NSEO and closed (NSEC, and perturbed stability eyes open and closed. Correlation between TUG and COP scores was measured. Univariate logistic regression was used to identify the relationship between patient-provided falls history and the two testing modalities. Proportions, likelihood ratios, and receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC curves for prediction of previous falls were reported. Results Fifty-three subjects were enrolled, 11% had fallen in the previous week and 42% in the previous year. There was no correlation between TUG and any balance plate measurements. In logistic regression, neither testing modality was associated with prior history of falls (p > 0.05 for all time periods. Balance plate NSEO and NSEC testing cutoffs could be identified which were 83% sensitive and had a negative likelihood ratio (LR- of 0

  20. Intrathecal Administration of Morphine Decreases Persistent Pain after Cesarean Section: A Prospective Observational Study.

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    Kumi Moriyama

    Full Text Available Chronic pain after cesarean section (CS is a serious concern, as it can result in functional disability. We evaluated the prevalence of chronic pain after CS prospectively at a single institution in Japan. We also analyzed perioperative risk factors associated with chronic pain using logistic regression analyses with a backward-stepwise procedure.Patients who underwent elective or emergency CS between May 2012 and May 2014 were recruited. Maternal demographics as well as details of surgery and anesthesia were recorded. An anesthesiologist visited the patients on postoperative day (POD 1 and 2, and assessed their pain with the Prince Henry Pain Scale. To evaluate the prevalence of chronic pain, we contacted patients by sending a questionnaire 3 months post-CS.Among 225 patients who questionnaires, 69 (30.7% of patients complained of persistent pain, although no patient required pain medication. Multivariate analyses identified lighter weight (p = 0.011 and non-intrathecal administration of morphine (p = 0.023 as determinant factors associated with persistent pain at 3 months. The adjusted odds ratio of intrathecal administration of morphine to reduce persistent pain was 0.424, suggesting that intrathecal administration of morphine could decrease chronic pain by 50%. In addition, 51.6% of patients had abnormal wound sensation, suggesting the development of neuropathic pain. Also, 6% of patients with abnormal wound sensation required medication, yet no patients with persistent pain required medication.Although no effect on acute pain was observed, intrathecal administration of morphine significantly decreased chronic pain after CS.

  1. Consumers' estimation of calorie content at fast food restaurants: cross sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Jason P; Condon, Suzanne K; Kleinman, Ken; Mullen, Jewel; Linakis, Stephanie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Gillman, Matthew W

    2013-05-23

    To investigate estimation of calorie (energy) content of meals from fast food restaurants in adults, adolescents, and school age children. Cross sectional study of repeated visits to fast food restaurant chains. 89 fast food restaurants in four cities in New England, United States: McDonald's, Burger King, Subway, Wendy's, KFC, Dunkin' Donuts. 1877 adults and 330 school age children visiting restaurants at dinnertime (evening meal) in 2010 and 2011; 1178 adolescents visiting restaurants after school or at lunchtime in 2010 and 2011. Estimated calorie content of purchased meals. Among adults, adolescents, and school age children, the mean actual calorie content of meals was 836 calories (SD 465), 756 calories (SD 455), and 733 calories (SD 359), respectively. A calorie is equivalent to 4.18 kJ. Compared with the actual figures, participants underestimated calorie content by means of 175 calories (95% confidence interval 145 to 205), 259 calories (227 to 291), and 175 calories (108 to 242), respectively. In multivariable linear regression models, underestimation of calorie content increased substantially as the actual meal calorie content increased. Adults and adolescents eating at Subway estimated 20% and 25% lower calorie content than McDonald's diners (relative change 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.96; 0.75, 0.57 to 0.99). People eating at fast food restaurants underestimate the calorie content of meals, especially large meals. Education of consumers through calorie menu labeling and other outreach efforts might reduce the large degree of underestimation.

  2. Ultrasonic evaluation of the abductor hallucis muscle in hallux valgus: a cross-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to investigate the abductor hallucis muscle characteristics, defined as dorso-plantar (DP thickness, medio-lateral (ML width, and cross-sectional area (CSA in relation to the severity of hallux valgus using musculoskeletal ultrasound. One hundred and two feet, mean (SD age of 60.3 (20.54 years old, displaying varying severities of hallux valgus were stratified into four groups representing the four grades of the Manchester Scale (grade 0: no deformity, grade 1: mild deformity, grade 2: moderate deformity and grade 3: severe deformity. Methods The abductor hallucis muscle was imaged in each foot using a portable ultrasound system. The mean (SD DP thickness, ML width, and CSA measurements were compared across the four Manchester Scale grades using a one-way ANOVA. Results Significant differences in DP thickness were found between feet with no hallux valgus (grade 0 and feet with hallux valgus grade 2 (p = 0.001 and 3 (p  0.0125. Conclusions We speculate that morphological changes to the abductor hallucis muscle occur early in the development of the deformity.

  3. Consumers’ estimation of calorie content at fast food restaurants: cross sectional observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Suzanne K; Kleinman, Ken; Mullen, Jewel; Linakis, Stephanie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Gillman, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate estimation of calorie (energy) content of meals from fast food restaurants in adults, adolescents, and school age children. Design Cross sectional study of repeated visits to fast food restaurant chains. Setting 89 fast food restaurants in four cities in New England, United States: McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s, KFC, Dunkin’ Donuts. Participants 1877 adults and 330 school age children visiting restaurants at dinnertime (evening meal) in 2010 and 2011; 1178 adolescents visiting restaurants after school or at lunchtime in 2010 and 2011. Main outcome measure Estimated calorie content of purchased meals. Results Among adults, adolescents, and school age children, the mean actual calorie content of meals was 836 calories (SD 465), 756 calories (SD 455), and 733 calories (SD 359), respectively. A calorie is equivalent to 4.18 kJ. Compared with the actual figures, participants underestimated calorie content by means of 175 calories (95% confidence interval 145 to 205), 259 calories (227 to 291), and 175 calories (108 to 242), respectively. In multivariable linear regression models, underestimation of calorie content increased substantially as the actual meal calorie content increased. Adults and adolescents eating at Subway estimated 20% and 25% lower calorie content than McDonald’s diners (relative change 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.96; 0.75, 0.57 to 0.99). Conclusions People eating at fast food restaurants underestimate the calorie content of meals, especially large meals. Education of consumers through calorie menu labeling and other outreach efforts might reduce the large degree of underestimation. PMID:23704170

  4. Stress and cardiometabolic manifestations among Saudi students entering universities: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Alokail, Majed S; Albanyan, Abdulmajeed; Sabico, Shaun; Chrousos, George P

    2014-04-23

    In this observational study, we aimed to see whether transition in Saudi students entering university life could be a breeding stage for cardiometabolic risk factor emergence and clustering. A total of 1878 apparently healthy Saudi students of the Preparatory Year, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA (1112 men and 766 women) spanning 2 academic years were included. They were divided into 2 groups based on the validated perceived stress test (PST). Anthropometrics were obtained and fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of fasting blood glucose and a lipid profile. PST score (>27) considered indicative of stress was noted in 44.4% of students. The prevalence of this score was higher in women than in men (49.7% versus 40.7%). The prevalence of obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia was significantly higher in men than women (p students entering universities. This study sheds light on the social responsibility of universities in promoting a healthy lifestyle, particularly in this age group, when exposure to different kinds of stressors may result in body weight and metabolic changes.

  5. Mechanical Ventilation and ARDS in the ED: A Multicenter, Observational, Prospective, Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Brian M; Mohr, Nicholas M; Miller, Christopher N; Deitchman, Andrew R; Levine, Brian J; Castagno, Nicole; Hassebroek, Elizabeth C; Dhedhi, Adam; Scott-Wittenborn, Nicholas; Grace, Edward; Lehew, Courtney; Kollef, Marin H

    2015-08-01

    There are few data regarding mechanical ventilation and ARDS in the ED. This could be a vital arena for prevention and treatment. This study was a multicenter, observational, prospective, cohort study aimed at analyzing ventilation practices in the ED. The primary outcome was the incidence of ARDS after admission. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of ARDS. We analyzed 219 patients receiving mechanical ventilation to assess ED ventilation practices. Median tidal volume was 7.6 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW) (interquartile range, 6.9-8.9), with a range of 4.3 to 12.2 mL/kg PBW. Lung-protective ventilation was used in 122 patients (55.7%). The incidence of ARDS after admission from the ED was 14.7%, with a mean onset of 2.3 days. Progression to ARDS was associated with higher illness severity and intubation in the prehospital environment or transferring facility. Of the 15 patients with ARDS in the ED (6.8%), lung-protective ventilation was used in seven (46.7%). Patients who progressed to ARDS experienced greater duration in organ failure and ICU length of stay and higher mortality. Lung-protective ventilation is infrequent in patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the ED, regardless of ARDS status. Progression to ARDS is common after admission, occurs early, and worsens outcome. Patient- and treatment-related factors present in the ED are associated with ARDS. Given the limited treatment options for ARDS, and the early onset after admission from the ED, measures to prevent onset and to mitigate severity should be instituted in the ED. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01628523; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  6. Sex tourism among Chinese men who have sex with men: a cross-sectional observational study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, J; Tang, W; Liu, C; Wong, NS; Tang, S; Wei, C; Tucker, JD

    2018-01-01

    Sex tourism among men who have sex with men (MSM) may exacerbate transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sex tourism is defined as purchasing sex with gifts or money outside of one's hometown. Our objective was to characterize the frequency, socio-demographic characteristics, and sexual risk behaviors among Chinese MSM sex tourists. An online, cross-sectional survey for high-risk MSM throughout China was conducted in November 2015 covering sociodemographic charac...

  7. Sex tourism among Chinese men who have sex with men: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jessica; Tang, Weiming; Liu, Chuncheng; Wong, Ngai Sze; Tang, Songyuan; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D

    2018-03-02

    Sex tourism among men who have sex with men (MSM) may exacerbate transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sex tourism is defined as purchasing sex with gifts or money outside of one's hometown. Our objective was to characterize the frequency, socio-demographic characteristics, and sexual risk behaviors among Chinese MSM sex tourists. An online, cross-sectional survey for high-risk MSM throughout China was conducted in November 2015 covering sociodemographic characteristics, sexual risk behaviors, and sex tourism. Univariate and multivariable logistic regressions were performed to identify correlates of sex tourism. The mean MSM HIV prevalence of sex tourism journey origins and destinations were compared. Of 1189 MSM who completed the survey, 62 (5%) men identified as sex tourists; among these sex tourists, twenty (32%) traveled primarily to purchase sex and the remainder purchased sex while traveling for another purpose. There was minimal socio-demographic and behavioral difference between the two groups. In multivariable analyses, adjusting for age and income, sex tourism was correlated with high-risk sexual behaviors, higher income (aOR 4.44, 95%CI 1.77-11.18) and living with HIV (aOR 2.79, 95%CI 1.03-7.55). Sex tourism was more often from locations with lower to higher MSM HIV prevalence (mean = 4.47, SD = 2.01 versus mean = 6.86, SD = 5.24). MSM sex tourists were more likely to have risky sexual behaviors and travel to locations with a higher HIV prevalence. MSM sex tourists may be part of core groups that are disproportionately responsible for MSM HIV transmission. Enhanced surveillance and interventions tailored to MSM sex tourists should be considered.

  8. Anxiety during pregnancy and autonomic nervous system activity: A longitudinal observational and cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Taeko; Tamakoshi, Koji; Tanabe, Keiko

    2017-08-01

    To assess the longitudinal change in autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity during pregnancy and the association between anxiety during pregnancy and ANS activity. Pregnant Japanese women with a singleton fetus and normal pregnancy were recruited (n=65). ANS activity and anxiety were measured using a self-rating questionnaire at approximately 20, 30, and 36weeks of gestation. Very low (VLF) and high (HF) frequency bands of heart rate variability spectrums were used. Anxiety was assessed using the Japanese version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. A score of 45 or more on trait-anxiety and the other represent the trait-anxiety group and the non- trait-anxiety group, respectively. The state-anxiety group and the non-state-anxiety group were defined in the same manner. Longitudinal observation of individual pregnant women indicated the significant increasing trend (p=0.002) of VLF power and the significant decreasing trend (p<0.001) of HF power during 20 to 36 gestation weeks. Compared with the non-trait-anxiety group, the trait-anxiety group had significantly lower VLF values at 20 gestational weeks (p=0.033) and had significantly lower HF values at 30 and 36 gestational weeks (p=0.015 and p=0.044, respectively). The increasing rate of VLF from 20 to 36 gestational weeks was higher among the trait-anxiety group. The same associations were observed between the state-anxiety and non-state-anxiety groups at 20 gestational weeks. Anxiety during pregnancy decreased heart rate variability. Anxiety in second trimester pregnancy promoted a subsequent increase in sympathetic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quality of life in individuals with chronic foot conditions: a cross sectional observational study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Chronic foot conditions have been reported to be a significant cause of impairment and disability to individuals affected. However, studies to date have particularly focussed on patient satisfaction with outcomes following surgery.

  10. Parent induced self-medication among under five children: an observational cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Nazir

    2015-04-01

    CONCLUSION: This study identifies the problem of self-medication in the under-five children and highlights the need for urgent educational measures for general public and drug dispensers in particular, to improve their knowledge and practices related to self-treatment of minor ailments. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 81-86

  11. Outdoor play among children in relation to neighborhood characteristics : A cross-sectional neighborhood observation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; de Vries, Sanne I; van Oers, J.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although environmental characteristics as perceived by parents are known to be related to children's outdoor play behavior, less is known about the relation between independently measured neighborhood characteristics and outdoor play among children. The purpose of this study was to

  12. Outdoor play among children in reletion to neighborhood characteristics. A cross-sectional neighborhood observation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; de Vries, S.I.; van Oers, J.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although environmental characteristics as perceived by parents are known to be related to children's outdoor play behavior, less is known about the relation between independently measured neighborhood characteristics and outdoor play among children. The purpose of this study was to

  13. A single-center, cross-sectional, observational study of heart failure patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U M Nagamalesh

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that a significant proportion of inpatients belonged to elderly age group. Octogenarians also formed a sizeable proportion of patients. Hypertension, CAD, DM, overweight, and anemia were identified as the commonly associated comorbidities and understanding the complex interplay of these factors to plan optimal treatment strategy is of great challenge to the physician, especially when dealing with the elderly and very elderly group.

  14. Pulmonary sarcoidosis with and without extrapulmonary involvement: a cross-sectional and observational study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Wei; Tao, Ru-Jia; Zou, Dan-Feng; Li, Man-Hui; Xu, Xin; Cao, Wei-Jun

    2018-02-16

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease characterised by the formation of granulomas within various organs, mainly the lungs. Several studies from different countries have been undertaken to investigate sarcoidosis with extrapulmonary involvement except from China. The objective of this study is to investigate a comparative clinical analysis in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis with and without extrapulmonary involvement from China. Data from inpatients diagnosed with sarcoidosis at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital (Shanghai, China) between January 2009 and December 2014 were retrospectively collected and analysed. Six hundred and thirty-six patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis were included in the study, including 378 isolated pulmonary sarcoidosis and 258 pulmonary sarcoidosis plus extrapulmonary involvement. Two hundred and fifty-eight (40.6%) patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis had extrapulmonary involvement. Extrapulmonary localisations were detected mostly in extrathoracic lymph nodes (n=147) and skin (n=86). Statistically significant differences were demonstrated between patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis plus extrapulmonary involvement and patients with isolated pulmonary sarcoidosis for fatigue (16.6%vs8.3%, PSACE) levels (79.0±46.9 IU/L vs 69.7±38.7 IU/L, PSACE levels and more deteriorating HRCT findings, to which clinicians should pay attention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. The proximity between hallucination and delusion dimensions: An observational, analytic, cross-sectional, multicentre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Telles-correia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 5.In the current psychiatric classifications, hallucinations (mainly auditory hallucinations are one of the fundamental criteria for establishing a schizophrenia diagnosis or any of the related psychotic disorder’s diagnoses.6.Throughout the history of Psychiatry the conceptual proximity between delusions and hallucinations in the psychiatric patient was maintained until the end of the XIX century,with several supporters during the XX century. Their frontier was not yet definitely defined in terms of Descriptive Psychopathology, and much less so in terms of biochemical and anatomical models.7.In this article we aimed to analyse the dimensions of both hallucinations and delusions in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. We also intend to find the determinants of the main dimensions of hallucinations.8.One hundred patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder from both the outpatient and inpatient units of the Psychiatry Department of Hospital of Santa Maria and the Centro Hospitalar Psiquiátrico de Lisboa were assessed by means of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS. 9.In this study we found an empirical based model, where the main dimensions of hallucinations are determined by the central dimensions of delusions. 10.Keywords: Psyrats, Hallucinations, Psychopathology, Psychosis, delusions

  16. Is histologic esophagitis associated with dental erosion: a cross-sectional observational study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Lynn Roosa; Bohaty, Brenda; Onikul, Robin; Walker, Mary P; Abraham, Caren; Williams, Karen B; Cocjin, Jose T; Cocjin, Eileen L; Friesen, Craig A

    2017-08-10

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) affects 15-25% of children and adolescents in the United States. The diagnosis of GERD in children is complex as reported symptoms or symptom profiles have been found to be unreliable. Frequently, the diagnosis must be confirmed by objective tests such as pH monitoring or histological evidence of esophagitis on an esophageal biopsy. Dental erosion has been shown to be associated with GERD as an atypical complication and has the potential to be a marker of GERD. The purposes of this study were to compare the frequency and patterns of dental erosion in children and adolescents with and without histologic esophagitis. Twenty-five subjects were recruited from patients scheduled for an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Information regarding potential GERD symptoms, food habits, and dental hygiene habits were obtained. Intra-oral photographs were taken, and a dental exam for erosion was performed. The results of a standard biopsy taken from the lower third of the esophagus during an endoscopy were used to divide subjects into either the control group or the GERD group (i.e. those with histologic esophagitis). Twenty-two subjects yielded 586 evaluable teeth. No significant difference was found between frequency or erosion patterns of those with and without histologic esophagitis. Dental erosions were more frequent in primary teeth. Dental erosions do not appear to be associated with histologic esophagitis indicative of GERD.

  17. Quality of life among women with sexual dysfunction undergoing hemodialysis: a cross-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Paulo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual function among women undergoing hemodialysis (HD is under-studied and there is no consensus about the effect of sexual dysfunction (SD on their quality of life (QoL. We aimed to determine the prevalence of SD and to compare QoL between women undergoing maintenance HD with and without SD. Methods We included female end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients undergoing HD during June 2011 in the only renal unit in the north of Ceará state, northeastern Brazil. The criteria for inclusion were age between 18 and 55, at least three months on dialysis and being sexually active. Women using antidepressant medication were excluded. We used the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, which evaluates six domains of sexual function, including desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain. The patients were classified as presenting SD if the total FSFI score was less than 26. For QoL evaluation, we used the validated Brazilian version of SF-36. This is a widely used 36-item questionnaire covering eight dimensions of QoL. Demographic data, time on dialysis, underlying etiology of ESRD, and laboratory measures were assessed in unit records. Results Of a total of 58 women, 46 (79.3% presented SD. There were lower scores related to physical functioning (48.2 vs. 71.2; p = 0.007, bodily pain (45 vs. 67.5; p = 0.010, vitality (52.1 vs. 69.1; p = 0.026 and social functioning (57.2 vs. 76.1; p = 0.034 among women with SD compared to women without SD. Physical functioning and role-physical presented positive linear correlation with FSFI scores, respectively, r = 0.322 (p = 0.013 and r = 0.345 (p = 0.007. Conclusion The prevalence of SD among women on HD is very high, reaching nearly 80%. Women on HD with SD had worse QoL, especially physical aspects of QoL, when compared to women without SD. Therefore, approaches aiming to improve QoL among women undergoing HD should be considered.

  18. Factors influencing observed and self-reported functional ability in women with chronic widespread pain: A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amris, Kirstine; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen; Stockmarr, Anders

    2014-01-01

    -sectional with systematic data collection in a clinical setting. Subjects: A total of 257 consecutively enrolled women with chronic widespread pain. Methods: Multidimensional assessment using self-report and observation-based assessment tools identified to cover ICF categories included in the brief ICF Core Set for chronic...

  19. Common psychiatric symptoms among public school teachers in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. An observational cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldaçara, Leonardo; Silva, Álvaro Ferreira; Castro, José Gerley Díaz; Santos, Gessi de Carvalho Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Teachers are at great risk of physical and mental stress due to material or psychological difficulties associated with their work. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of common psychiatric symptoms measured on the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) scale that would suggest a diagnosis of psychiatric disorders among public school teachers in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil, in 2012. Observational cross-sectional study in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. We assessed 110 municipal teachers in the city of Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. They were selected randomly from a list of employees of the Municipal Education Department of Palmas. All of them answered the SRQ-20 questionnaire after giving their consent. Between the years 2008 and 2011, 24 cases of absence from work due to mental disorders were found. We excluded one case and 109 teachers answered the SRQ-20questionnaire. Out of the 109 teachers assessed, 54 had ≥ 7 points on the SRQ-20 scale. This finding suggests that 49.5% of the teachers had symptoms that were sufficient to consider a diagnosis of mental disorder, with the need for treatment. Our study found that the prevalence of mental disorders among teachers is as high as seen in the literature. Our results suggest that recognition of mental disorders is low and that the current statistics fail to reach the occupational health sector.

  20. Common psychiatric symptoms among public school teachers in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. An observational cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Baldaçara

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Teachers are at great risk of physical and mental stress due to material or psychological difficulties associated with their work. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of common psychiatric symptoms measured on the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 scale that would suggest a diagnosis of psychiatric disorders among public school teachers in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil, in 2012. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cross-sectional study in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. METHOD: We assessed 110 municipal teachers in the city of Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. They were selected randomly from a list of employees of the Municipal Education Department of Palmas. All of them answered the SRQ-20 questionnaire after giving their consent. RESULTS: Between the years 2008 and 2011, 24 cases of absence from work due to mental disorders were found. We excluded one case and 109 teachers answered the SRQ-20questionnaire. Out of the 109 teachers assessed, 54 had ≥ 7 points on the SRQ-20 scale. This finding suggests that 49.5% of the teachers had symptoms that were sufficient to consider a diagnosis of mental disorder, with the need for treatment. CONCLUSION: Our study found that the prevalence of mental disorders among teachers is as high as seen in the literature. Our results suggest that recognition of mental disorders is low and that the current statistics fail to reach the occupational health sector.

  1. Laterality judgments in people with low back pain--A cross-sectional observational and test-retest reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Martin; Michaelson, Peter; Röijezon, Ulrik

    2016-02-01

    Disruption of cortical representation, or body schema, has been indicated as a factor in the persistence and recurrence of low back pain (LBP). This has been observed through impaired laterality judgment ability and it has been suggested that this ability is affected in a spatial rather than anatomical manner. We compared laterality judgment performance of foot and trunk movements between people with LBP with or without leg pain and healthy controls, and investigated associations between test performance and pain. We also assessed the test-retest reliability of the Recognise Online™ software when used in a clinical and a home setting. Cross-sectional observational and test-retest study. Thirty individuals with LBP and 30 healthy controls performed judgment tests of foot and trunk laterality once supervised in a clinic and twice at home. No statistically significant group differences were found. LBP intensity was negatively related to trunk laterality accuracy (p = 0.019). Intraclass correlation values ranged from 0.51 to 0.91. Reaction time improved significantly between test occasions while accuracy did not. Laterality judgments were not impaired in subjects with LBP compared to controls. Further research may clarify the relationship between pain mechanisms in LBP and laterality judgment ability. Reliability values were mostly acceptable, with wide and low confidence intervals, suggesting test-retest reliability for Recognise Online™ could be questioned in this trial. A significant learning effect was observed which should be considered in clinical and research application of the test. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Blood transfusion in patients having caesarean section: a prospective multicentre observational study of practice in three Pakistan hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, S; Siddiqui, S; Shafiq, F; Ishaq, M; Khan, S

    2014-08-01

    Increasing awareness of the risks of blood transfusion has prompted examination of red cell transfusion practice in obstetrics. A six-month prospective observational study was performed to examine blood transfusion practices in patients undergoing caesarean delivery at three hospitals in Pakistan. In the three hospitals (two private, one public) 3438 caesarean deliveries were performed in the study period. Data were collected on patient demographics, indications for transfusion, ordering physicians, consent, associations with obstetric factors, estimated allowable blood loss, calculated blood loss, pre- and post-transfusion haemoglobin and discharge haemoglobin. A total number of 397 (11.5%) patients who underwent caesarean section received a blood transfusion. The highest transfusion rate of 16% was recorded in the public tertiary care hospital compared to 5% in the two private hospitals. Emergency caesarean delivery and multiparity were associated with blood transfusion (Ptransfusion in 98% of cases. In 343 (86%) patients, blood transfusion was given even when the haemoglobin was >7g/dL. The method for documenting the indication or consent for transfusion was not found in any of the three hospitals. Blood transfusion was prescribed more readily in the public hospital. Identification of a transfusion trigger and the development of institutional guidelines to reduce unnecessary transfusion are required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Asthma control in severe asthmatics under treatment with omalizumab: a cross-sectional observational study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Federica; Latorre, Manuela; Vergura, Letizia; Caiaffa, Maria Filomena; Camiciottoli, Gianna; Guarnieri, Gabriella; Matucci, Andrea; Macchia, Luigi; Vianello, Andrea; Vultaggio, Alessandra; Celi, Alessandro; Cazzola, Mario; Paggiaro, Pierluigi

    2015-04-01

    Few data are available on the proportion of asthmatics achieving a good asthma control (according GINA guidelines) and on the level of airway inflammation during omalizumab treatment. The aim of this cross-sectional national observational study was to assess the level of control (according to GINA guidelines) achieved in a group of asthmatics on omalizumab treatment, and to characterize the factors that influence the lack of control. We studied 306 asthmatics under omalizumab treatment for a median of 32 months (range 4-120). The level of control according to GINA was good in 25.2%, partial in 47.1% and poor in 24.5% of patients (data were missing for the remaining 3.2%). Comparison between poorly controlled and partially or well controlled asthmatics showed a statistically significant higher prevalence of some comorbidities in the first group, namely obesity, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), aspirin intolerance and mental disorders (all p omalizumab treatment, a high percentage of asthmatics obtain a good or partial control of asthma. Comorbidities are associated with the lack of asthma control and persistence of exacerbations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Practice Patterns for Chronic Respiratory Diseases in the Asia-Pacific Region: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De Yun; Cho, Sang-Heon; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Ghoshal, Aloke Gopal; Bin Abdul Muttalif, Abdul Razak; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak; Tunceli, Kaan; Urdaneta, Eduardo; Zhang, Dongmu; Faruqi, Rab

    2018-06-06

    Allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and rhinosinusitis are common and little studied in the Asia-Pacific region. We sought to investigate real-world practice patterns for these respiratory diseases in India, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand. This cross-sectional observational study enrolled adults (age ≥18 years) presenting to general practitioners (GP) or specialists for physician-diagnosed AR, asthma, COPD, or rhinosinusitis. Physicians and patients completed study-specific surveys at one visit, recording patient characteristics, health-related quality of life (QoL), work impairment, and healthcare resource use. Findings by country and physician category (GP or specialist) were summarized. Of the 13,902 patients screened, 7,243 (52%) presented with AR (18%), asthma (18%), COPD (7%), or rhinosinusitis (9%); 5,250 of the 7,243 (72%) patients were eligible for this study. Most eligible patients (70-100%) in India, Korea, Malaysia, and Singapore attended GP, while most (83-85%) in Taiwan and Thailand attended specialists. From 42% (rhinosinusitis) to 67% (AR) of new diagnoses were made by GP. On average, patients with COPD reported the worst health-related QoL, particularly to GP. Median losses of work productivity for each condition and activity impairment, except for asthma, were numerically greater for patients presenting to GP vs. specialists. GP prescribed more antibiotics for AR and asthma, and fewer intranasal corticosteroids for AR, than specialists (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Our findings, albeit mostly descriptive and influenced by between-country differences, suggest that practice patterns differ between physician types, and the disease burden may be substantial for patients presenting in general practice. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Factors that influence functional ability in individuals with spinal cord injury: A cross-sectional, observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn M. Hastings

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal cord injuries result in devastating impairments that can produce severe functional limitations. However, few documented studies have investigated the levels of function and factors that influence functional ability at discharge from in-patient rehabilitation facilities in Gauteng following such injuries. This necessitated further investigation. Method: Fifty participants were recruited for this cross-sectional, observational study. Participants were recruited from one private and one government spinal rehabilitation unit in Gauteng. A custom-developed questionnaire was used to establish the physical and demographic characteristics of the sample, whilst existing classification scales and measures were used to establish the degree of a lesion and a patient’s associated functional ability. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine factors that influenced the level of functional ability. Results: Patients achieved an average functional independence score of 64.6 (± 27.6 at discharge according to the Spinal Cord Independence Measure III. Longer stays at rehabilitation facilities were associated with higher scores, whereas scores decreased with increasing patient age. Pressure sores and spasticity affected scores negatively. The type of funding also influenced patients’ scores, with government funding being associated with the best outcome. Both the degree and the level at which the injury occurred could be considered predictive measures that influenced functional independence scores. Conclusion: Most participants were not functionally independent at discharge. Factors such as patient age, length of rehabilitation, presence of pressure sores or spasticity, degree of motor ability and location of the injury should be considered in tailoring rehabilitation therapy.

  6. Medication details documented on hospital discharge: cross-sectional observational study of factors associated with medication non-reconciliation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grimes, Tamasine C

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: Movement into or out of hospital is a vulnerable period for medication safety. Reconciling the medication a patient is using before admission with the medication prescribed on discharge, and documenting any changes (medication reconciliation) is recommended to improve safety. The aims of the study were to investigate the factors contributing to medication reconciliation on discharge, and identify the prevalence of non-reconciliation. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional, observational survey using consecutive discharges from purposively selected services in two acute public hospitals in Ireland. Medication reconciliation, potential for harm and unplanned re-admission were investigated. RESULTS: Medication non-reconciliation was identified in 50% of 1245 inpatient episodes, involving 16% of 9569 medications. The majority of non-reconciled episodes had potential to result in moderate (63%) or severe (2%) harm. Handwritten rather than computerized discharges (adjusted odds ratio (adjusted OR) 1.60, 95% CI 1.11, 2.99), increasing number of medications (adjusted OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.21, 1.31) or chronic illness (adjusted OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.33, 3.24) were associated with non-reconciliation. Omission of endocrine, central nervous system and nutrition and blood drugs was more likely on discharge, whilst omission on admission and throughout inpatient care, without documentation, was more likely for obstetric, gynaecology and urinary tract (OGU) or respiratory drugs. Documentation in the discharge communication that medication was intentionally stopped during inpatient care was less likely for cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and OGU drugs. Errors involving the dose were most likely for respiratory drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The findings inform strategies to facilitate medication reconciliation on discharge from acute hospital care.

  7. Internet health seeking behaviour of parents attending a general paediatric outpatient clinic: A cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebelefsky, Christian; Karner, Denise; Voitl, Jasmin; Klein, Frederic; Voitl, Peter; Böck, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Our aim was to examine the internet health seeking behaviour of parents attending a general paediatric outpatient clinic. For this purpose, the proportion of parents going online to obtain child health information, the most commonly used online resources, and factors having an influence on internet usage were identified. This cross-sectional observational study was conducted at a general paediatric outpatient clinic in Vienna, Austria. Data collection was done by means of an anonymous questionnaire containing 14 items. A total number of 500 questionnaires were collected. Among parents visiting the outpatient clinic, 94.4% use the internet to obtain child health information in general and 21% to be informed about the reason for consultation. Most commonly used online resources are Google (91.4%), websites run by doctors (84.8%), Wikipedia (84.7%), health portals (76.4%), the outpatient clinic's homepage (76.4%), as well as health forums and communities (61.9%). Younger parents (p = 0.022) and parents of younger children (p parents with different completed educational levels (mothers: p = 0.078; fathers: p = 0.388) do not differ in this behaviour. Important reasons for high internet use might be the inexperience of young parents regarding child health as well as the frequent infections, vaccinations, and preventive check-ups which are associated with young age of children. In contrast to former findings relating to health seekers in general, internet usage of parents is independent of their sex and educational level. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Relationship between Resilience, Psychological Distress and Physical Activity in Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Matzka

    Full Text Available Psychological distress remains a major challenge in cancer care. The complexity of psychological symptoms in cancer patients requires multifaceted symptom management tailored to individual patient characteristics and active patient involvement. We assessed the relationship between resilience, psychological distress and physical activity in cancer patients to elucidate potential moderators of the identified relationships.A cross-sectional observational study to assess the prevalence of symptoms and supportive care needs of oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy in a tertiary oncology service. Resilience was assessed using the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10, social support was evaluated using the 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS and both psychological distress and activity level were measured using corresponding subscales of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL. Socio-demographic and medical data were extracted from patient medical records. Correlation analyses were performed and structural equation modeling was employed to assess the associations between resilience, psychological distress and activity level as well as selected socio-demographic variables.Data from 343 patients were included in the analysis. Our revised model demonstrated an acceptable fit to the data (χ2(163 = 313.76, p = .000, comparative fit index (CFI = .942, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI = .923, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = .053, 90% CI [.044.062]. Resilience was negatively associated with psychological distress (β = -.59, and positively associated with activity level (β = .20. The relationship between resilience and psychological distress was moderated by age (β = -0.33 but not social support (β = .10, p = .12.Cancer patients with higher resilience, particularly older patients, experience lower psychological distress. Patients with higher resilience are

  9. Observation-based assessment of functional ability in patients with chronic widespread pain: A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amris, Kirstine; Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen; Jespersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about functional ability, including activities of daily living (ADL), in patients with chronic widespread pain (CWP) and fibromyalgia (FMS) is largely based on self-report. The purpose of this study was to assess functional ability by using standardised, observation-based assessment...... of ADL performance and to examine the relationship between self-reported and observation-based measures of disability. A total of 257 women with CWP, 199 (77%) fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology tender point criteria for FMS, were evaluated with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills...... (AMPS), an observation-based assessment providing linear measures of ADL motor and ADL process skill ability (unit: logits). A cutoff for effortless and independent ADL task performance is set at 2.0 for the motor scale and 1.0 for the process scale. A total of 248 (96.5%) had ability measures below...

  10. Prediction of Students’ Use and Acceptance of Clickers by Learning Approaches: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Wan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The student response system (a.k.a clickers had been widely used in classrooms for various pedagogical purposes these years. However, few of the studies examine students learning approaches toward both technology and engagement. The present study adopted a cross-sectional study method to investigate the relationship between students’ user acceptance of clickers, learning approaches, and general engagement in the clicker classes. A group of 3371 university students were investigated by an online questionnaire that contained with Unified Theory of Use and Acceptance of Technology, Study Process Questionnaire, and National Survey of Student Engagement across a two-semester span in 2015 and 2016. A regression analysis had been adopted to examine the relationship between those variables. Results indicated that a deep learning approach significantly predicted all user acceptance domains towards using clickers and significantly predicted several engagement domains such as collaborative learning and reflective and integrative learning. We concluded that deep learners tend to share a constructive attitude toward using clickers, especially when their peers are also using the clickers. While deep learners prefer integration of knowledge and skills from various sources and experiences, we hypothesize that their willingness to integrate clicker activities in their learning process stems from seeing clickers as a medium for consolidation in the learning process. Future research is, therefore, necessary to provide more detailed evidence of the characteristic of deep learners on the qualitative arm or in a way of mixed research method.

  11. Dermatoses among Children from Celebration of "Holi," the Spring Festival, in India: A Cross-sectional Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Agarwal, Megha; Rudra, Olympia

    2016-01-01

    "Holi" is a spring festival celebrated primarily in the Indian subcontinent and also abroad by expatriate Indians. It is a festival of colors, traditionally celebrated by mutual application of colors in different forms on a particular day of the year. These colors frequently comprise a range of synthetic dyes which have harmful effects on the skin and mucosae. Children take part in this colorful festival with much enthusiasm and vigor, making them prone to develop different "Holi"-related dermatoses. Our objective was to find out the different patterns of "Holi"-related dermatoses in a group of pediatric patients. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out over a period of 6 years (2010-2015). Consecutive patients of pediatric age group who attended dermatology outpatient department (OPD) with different dermatoses following application of "Holi" color were included in this study. A total of 63 patients (mean age 11 years; range 1-16 years) were evaluated with a female to male ratio of 1.3:1. Itching is the predominant presenting symptom followed by burning sensation, dryness, scaling, oozing, and loss of hair. Examination revealed that eczematous lesion was the most common (69.8%) reaction pattern followed by xerosis, desquamation, excoriation, erythema, morbilliform eruption, erosion, alopecia, ulceration, acute paronychia, and hyperpigmentation. The face was the most common (76.4%) site of affection. A sizable number of patients of pediatric age group may be affected by "Holi"-related dermatoses necessitating precautionary measures.

  12. Impact of Apolipoprotein B on Hepatosteatosis in a Population Infected with Hepatitis C Virus: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Shyan Lin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is an established risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, antiviral treatment resistance, and progression of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection to fibrosis. Apolipoprotein-B 100 (ApoB-100 is a dyslipidemia marker and steatosis predictor. We assess the correlation between ApoB-100 and hepatosteatosis. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 1,218 HCV-seropositive participants from a 2012-2013 health checkup in Taiwan. NAFLD was detected using ultrasound. All anthropometric and laboratory studies that included ApoB-100 were evaluated whether or not ApoB-100 predicts NAFLD. Logistic regression was also used to examine the association between ApoB-100 and NAFLD. Results: Participants were 47.16 ± 16.08 years old (mean age. The overall prevalence of NAFLD was 35.8% (n = 436; 32.8% men, 38.1% women. Participants with ApoB-100 ≥ 8 had a significantly higher incidence of NAFLD (39.4 vs. 29.4%; 95% CI 0.044-0.156; p Conclusion: ApoB-100 is strongly associated with NAFLD in people with non-genotype 3 HCV; greater ApoB-100 content is significantly correlated with higher-grade hepatosteatosis.

  13. Polypharmacy as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in geriatric patients: an observational, cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spandel Leszek

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between polypharmacy and depressive symptoms in hospitalized adults aged over 65 years. Patients and methods: We obtained medical history and current treatment data from clinical records. We used the Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS to exclude patients with dementia. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS was used assess depressive symptoms. Pearson and Spearman coefficients were used to determine the relationship between variables. Results: A total of 206 individuals were included. The average number of medications taken by the individuals was 6.9 ± 2.7 and the average GDS score was 4.9 ± 3.4 points. Depressive symptoms (GDS score >5 points were observed in 68 (33.0% individuals. GDS score positively correlated with the number of medications used (R = 0.74; P = 0.0001, the number of chronic conditions (R = 0.78; P = 0.001, and pain complaints (Z = 7.94; P = 0.0001. A significant association between GDS score and the use of the following medications was observed: statins, cytostatic agents, corticosteroids, benzodiazepines, cardiac glycosides, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, non-psychotropic drugs with anticholinergic properties, and centrally acting analgesics (all P < 0.05. Conclusions: Our study indicates that polypharmacy is positively correlated with the presence of depressive symptoms in geriatric patients. We identified a number of medications associated with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, however these relationships require further examination.

  14. Methotrexate intolerance in oral and subcutaneous administration in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a cross-sectional, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijkhuizen, E H Pieter; Pouw, Juliëtte N; Scheuern, Andrea; Hügle, Boris; Hardt, Sven; Ganser, Gerd; Kümmerle-Deschner, Jasmin Beate; Horneff, Gerd; Holzinger, Dirk; Bulatović Ćalasan, Maja; Wulffraat, Nico M

    2016-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is the cornerstone disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). In Dutch patients, MTX intolerance occurred frequently and was associated with subcutaneous (SC) administration. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MTX intolerance and its association with the route of administration in a German cohort of JIA patients. A cross-sectional study of JIA patients on MTX was performed. Primary outcome was MTX intolerance, which was determined using the validated Methotrexate Intolerance Severity Score (MISS) questionnaire. The prevalence of gastrointestinal adverse effects and MTX intolerance was compared between patients on MTX SC and MTX administered orally (PO). Of 179 JIA patients on MTX, 73 (40.8%) were intolerant. The odds of MTX intolerance were higher in patients using MTX exclusively SC compared to exclusively PO (adjusted odds ratio 3.37 [95% confidence interval 1.19-10.0]). There was strong evidence that the former experienced more behavioural complaints (76.1% vs. 47.4%, p=0.001) and weak evidence that they experienced more abdominal pain after MTX intake (43.5% vs. 27.4%, p=0.056). The prevalence of MTX intolerance was high and exclusively SC administration of MTX was associated with MTX intolerance and behavioural adverse effects. The prevalence of gastrointestinal adverse effects was at least as high as in patients on MTX PO. The frequently held assumption that SC causes fewer side effects than PO seems unwarranted. Definite answers about the differences between SC and PO administration with respect to safety and efficacy should be obtained by randomised trials.

  15. Exploring sexual dimorphism in placental circulation at 22-24 weeks of gestation: A cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widnes, Christian; Flo, Kari; Acharya, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    Placental blood flow is closely associated with fetal growth and wellbeing. Recent studies suggest that there are differences in blood flow between male and female fetuses. We hypothesized that sexual dimorphism exists in fetal and placental blood flow at 22-24 weeks of gestation. This was a prospective cross-sectional study of 520 healthy pregnant women. Blood flow velocities of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), umbilical artery (UA), umbilical vein (UV) and the uterine arteries (UtA) were measured using Doppler ultrasonography. UV and UtA diameters were measured using two-dimensional ultrasonography and power Doppler angiography. Volume blood flows (Q) of the UV and UtA were calculated. Maternal haemodynamics was assessed with impedance cardiography. UtA resistance (R uta ) was computed as MAP/Q uta . UA PI was significantly (p = 0.008) higher in female fetuses (1.19 ± 0.15) compared with male fetuses (1.15 ± 0.14). MCA PI, cerebro-placental ratio (MCA PI/UA PI), Q uv, UtA PI, Q uta and R uta were not significantly different between groups. At delivery, the mean birth weight and placental weight of female infants (3504 g and 610 g) were significantly (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.039) lower than that of the male infants (3642 g and 634 g). We have demonstrated sexual dimorphism in UA PI, a surrogate for placental vascular resistance, at 22-24 weeks of gestation. Therefore, it would be useful to know when this difference emerges and whether it translates into blood flow differences that may impact upon the fetal growth trajectory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Posterior teeth occlusion and dysphagia risk in older nursing home residents: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Y; Takeuchi, K; Izumi, M; Furuta, M; Takeshita, T; Shibata, Y; Kageyama, S; Ganaha, S; Yamashita, Y

    2017-02-01

    The total number of natural teeth was related to swallowing function among older adults; however, limited information is available regarding the impact of occluding pairs of teeth on swallowing function. This study aimed to examine the association between posterior teeth occlusion and dysphagia risk in older nursing home residents. This cross-sectional study included 238 residents aged ≥60 years from eight nursing homes in Aso City, Japan. Swallowing function was evaluated using the modified water swallowing test (MWST); the primary outcome was dysphagia risk (MWST score ≤3). Posterior teeth occlusion was assessed using number of functional tooth units (FTUs), determined based on number and location of the remaining natural and artificial teeth on implant-supported, fixed or removable prostheses. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between posterior teeth occlusion and dysphagia risk, adjusted for the covariates of number of natural teeth, demographic characteristics, comorbidities, physical function, body mass index and cognitive function. Of the 238 subjects, 44 (18·5%) were determined to be at risk of dysphagia based on the MWST scores. The odds ratio (OR) of dysphagia risk decreased in subjects with higher total FTUs [OR = 0·92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·87-0·98]. After adjusting for covariates, this association remained significant (OR = 0·90, 95% CI 0·84-0·97). Loss of posterior teeth occlusion was independently associated with dysphagia risk in older nursing home residents. Maintaining and restoring posterior teeth occlusion may be an effective measure to prevent dysphagia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Periodontal disease, tooth loss and coronary heart disease assessed by coronary angiography: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, S M; Pereira, S S; Barbisan, J N; Vieira, L; Saba-Chujfi, E; Haas, A N; Rösing, C K

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the association between periodontal disease, tooth loss and coronary heart disease (CHD). There is still controversy about the relationship between periodontal disease and tooth loss with vessel obstruction assessed using coronary angiography. This cross-sectional study included 195 patients that underwent coronary angiography and presented with at least six teeth. Patients were classified into three categories of coronary obstruction severity: absence; one or more vessels with ≤ 50% obstruction; and one or more vessels with ≥ 50% obstruction. The extent of coronary obstruction was dichotomized into 0 and ≥ 1 affected vessels. A periodontist blinded to patient CHD status conducted a full mouth examination to determine mean clinical attachment loss, mean periodontal probing depth and tooth loss. Multiple logistic regression models were applied adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, smoking, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and C-reactive protein. Most patients were males (62.1%) older than 60 years (50.8%), and 61% of them had CHD. Mean periodontal probing depth, clinical attachment loss and tooth loss were 2.64 ± 0.72 mm, 4.40 ± 1.31 mm and 12.50 ± 6.98 teeth respectively. In the multivariable models, tooth loss was significantly associated with a higher chance of having at least one obstructed vessel (odds ratio = 1.04; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.09) and with vessel obstruction ≥ 50% (odds ratio = 1.06; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.11). No significant associations were found between periodontal variables and vessel obstruction. Tooth loss was found to be a risk indicator for CHD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. What to eat and drink in the festive season: a pan-European, observational, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Helen L; Curcic, Jelena; Heinrich, Henriette; Sauter, Matthias; Hollenstein, Michael; Schwizer, Werner; Savarino, Edoardo; Fox, Mark

    2017-05-01

    Digestive discomfort after meals is common in the community, especially during the festive season. It is uncertain whether this is related to intake of either high-calorie or high-fat foods or, alternatively, intake of specific foods. This prospective, cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that the risk of reflux or dyspepsia is associated with the fat content of the meal independent of caloric load in a 'real-life' setting. Four festive meals were served to delegates attending a conference on four consecutive days. Test meals had the same volume, but varied in calorie and fat content. Study procedures and symptoms were monitored using a mobile application (SymTrack). The effect of alcoholic compared with nonalcoholic drinks was also assessed. Primary outcome was the occurrence of reflux or dyspeptic symptoms. Fullness was documented by a visual analogue scale. A total of 84/120 (70%) delegates aged 22-69 years consented to participate. At screening, 22 (31%) participants reported at least mild symptoms on the Leuven Dyspepsia Questionnaire. Specific ingredients did not appear to impact on postprandial symptoms. All high-calorie dinners [British, German, Italian (with alcohol)] induced more symptoms than the low-fat, low-calorie Czech dinner [odds ratio: 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97-6.9 (P=0.058), 1.5 (0.3-3.8), and 2.8 (0.7-10.5), respectively]. Self-reported fullness after the high-fat, high-calorie British dinner was higher by 23/100 (95% CI: 4-42, P=0.016) with respect to low-fat, low-calorie Czech and German dinners. Study participants tolerated a range of food and drink well. Reflux or dyspeptic symptoms were least likely after the low-fat, low-calorie meal. Fullness was increased after the high-fat, high-calorie dinner, but not low-fat meals. These results will help the public to make evidence-based dietary choices during the carnival season!

  19. Effect of natalizumab treatment on circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells: a cross-sectional observational study in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Kivisäkk

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs serve a critical role both in promoting and inhibiting adaptive immunity. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of natalizumab (NTZ treatment on DC numbers, phenotype, and function in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS.Frequency and phenotype of myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs (MDCs and PDCs, respectively were analyzed in blood from two separate cohorts of untreated, interferon-treated, or NTZ-treated MS patients. In addition, PDCs were stimulated with CpG-containing oligonucleotides or co-cultured with homologous T cells in the presence or absence of NTZ in vitro to determine functional effects of NTZ treatment.We observed that NTZ treatment was associated with a 25-50% reduction in PDC frequency in peripheral blood as compared to untreated MS patients, while the frequency of MDCs was unchanged. PDCs in NTZ-treated patients displayed a mature, activated phenotype with increased expression of HLA-DR, TLR9, CCR7, IL-6 and IL-12. In contrast, in vitro treatment with NTZ did not increase markers of PDC activation or their ability to induce T cell differentiation.Our study shows that NTZ treatment is associated with a reduced frequency of PDCs in the peripheral circulation, but that PDCs in NTZ-treated individuals display an activated phenotype. Taken together the data suggests that transmigration of activated PDCs is preferentially affected by blockade of integrin α4 leading to an increased frequency of activated PDCs in blood.

  20. A cross-sectional observational study comparing foot and ankle characteristics in people with stroke and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Dorit; Potter, Julia; Mamode, Louis

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and compare foot and ankle characteristics in people with stroke and healthy controls; and between stroke fallers and non-fallers. Participants were recruited from community groups and completed standardized tests assessing sensation, foot posture, foot function, ankle dorsiflexion and first metatarsal phalangeal joint range of motion (1st MPJ ROM), hallux valgus presence and severity. Twenty-three stroke participants (mean age 75.09 ± 7.57 years; 12 fallers) and 16 controls (mean age 73.44 ± 8.35 years) took part. Within the stroke group, reduced 1st MPJ sensation (p = 0.016) and 1st MPJ ROM (p = 0.025) were observed in the affected foot in comparison to the non-affected foot; no other differences were apparent. Pooled data (for both feet) was used to explore between stroke/control (n = 78 feet) and stroke faller/non-faller (n = 46 feet) group differences. In comparison to the control group, stroke participants exhibited reduced sensation of the 1st MPJ (p = 0.020), higher Foot Posture Index scores (indicating greater foot pronation, p = 0.008) and reduced foot function (p = 0.003). Stroke fallers exhibited significantly greater foot pronation in comparison to non-fallers (p = 0.027). Results indicated differences in foot and ankle characteristics post stroke in comparison to healthy controls. These changes may negatively impact functional ability and the ability to preserve balance. Further research is warranted to explore the influence of foot problems on balance ability and falls in people with stroke. Implications for Rehabilitation Foot problems are common post stroke. As foot problems have been linked to increased fall risk among the general population we recommend that it would be beneficial to include foot and ankle assessments or a referral to a podiatrist for people with stroke who report foot problems. Further research is needed to explore if we can improve functional

  1. Observational study comparing non-invasive blood pressure measurement at the arm and ankle during caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M J P; Hill, J S

    2013-05-01

    Upper-arm non-invasive blood pressure measurement during caesarean section can be uncomfortable and unreliable because of movement artefact in the conscious parturient. We aimed to determine whether ankle blood pressure measurement could be used instead in this patient group by comparing concurrent arm and ankle blood pressure measured throughout elective caesarean section under regional anaesthesia in 64 term parturients. Bland-Altman analysis of mean difference (95% limits of agreement [range]) between the ankle and arm was 11.2 (-20.3 to +42.7 [-67 to +102]) mmHg for systolic arterial pressure, -0.5 (-21.0 to +19.9 [-44 to +91]) mmHg for mean arterial pressure and -3.8 (-25.3 to +17.8 [-41 to +94]) mmHg for diastolic arterial pressure. Although ankle blood pressure measurement is well tolerated and allows greater mobility of the arms than measurement from the arm, the degree of discrepancy between the two sites is unacceptable to allow routine use of ankle blood pressure measurement, especially for systolic arterial pressure. However, ankle blood pressure measurement may be a useful alternative in situations where arm blood pressure measurement is difficult or impossible. Anaesthesia © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  2. Patient satisfaction and non-UK educated nurses: a cross-sectional observational study of English National Health Service Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germack, Hayley D; Griffiths, Peter; Sloane, Douglas M; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Ball, Jane E; Aiken, Linda H

    2015-12-02

    To examine whether patient satisfaction with nursing care in National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in England is associated with the proportion of non-UK educated nurses providing care. Cross-sectional analysis using data from the 2010 NHS Adult Inpatient Survey merged with data from nurse and hospital administrator surveys. Logistic regression models with corrections for clustering were used to determine whether the proportions of non-UK educated nurses were significantly related to patient satisfaction before and after taking account of other hospital, nursing and patient characteristics. 31 English NHS trusts. 12,506 patients 16 years of age and older with at least one overnight stay that completed a satisfaction survey; 2962 bedside care nurses who completed a nurse survey; and 31 NHS trusts. Patient satisfaction. The percentage of non-UK educated nurses providing bedside hospital care, which ranged from 1% to 52% of nurses, was significantly associated with patient satisfaction. After controlling for potential confounding factors, each 10-point increase in the percentage of non-UK educated nurses diminished the odds of patients reporting good or excellent care by 12% (OR=0.88), and decreased the odds of patients agreeing that they always had confidence and trust in nurses by 13% (OR=0.87). Other indicators of patient satisfaction also revealed lower satisfaction in hospitals with higher percentages of non-UK educated nurses. Use of non-UK educated nurses in English NHS hospitals is associated with lower patient satisfaction. Importing nurses from abroad to substitute for domestically educated nurses may negatively impact quality of care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Associations between Body Composition Indices and Metabolic Disorders in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: This study identified positive associations between all evaluated body composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults. Among the body composition indices, BMI predicted four of the five evaluated metabolic disorders in both gender groups.

  4. Medication details documented on hospital discharge: cross-sectional observational study of factors associated with medication non-reconciliation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grimes, Tamasine C

    2011-03-01

    Movement into or out of hospital is a vulnerable period for medication safety. Reconciling the medication a patient is using before admission with the medication prescribed on discharge, and documenting any changes (medication reconciliation) is recommended to improve safety. The aims of the study were to investigate the factors contributing to medication reconciliation on discharge, and identify the prevalence of non-reconciliation.

  5. A cross-sectional observational study comparing foot and ankle characteristics in people with stroke and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Kunkel, Dorit; Potter, Julia; Mamode, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and compare foot and ankle characteristics in people with stroke and healthy controls; and between stroke fallers and non-fallers.Methods: Participants were recruited from community groups and completed standardized tests assessing sensation, foot posture, foot function, ankle dorsiflexion and first metatarsal phalangeal joint range of motion (1st MPJ ROM), hallux valgus presence and severity.Results: Twenty-three stroke participants (mean age...

  6. A Large, Cross-sectional Observational Study of Serum BDNF, Cognitive Function, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eShimada

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The clinical relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and cognitive function or mild cognitive impairment (MCI is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between serum BDNF and cognitive function and MCI, and determine whether serum BDNF level might be a useful biomarker for assessing risk for MCI in older people.Materials and Methods: A total of 4463 individuals aged 65 years or older (mean age 72 years participating in the study. We measured performance in a battery of neuropsychological and cognitive function tests; serum BDNF concentration.Results: Eight hundred twenty-seven participants (18.8% had MCI. After adjustment for sex, age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking, serum BDNF was associated with poorer performance in the story memory, and digit symbol substitution task scores. Serum BDNF was marginally associated with the presence of MCI (OR, 95% CI: 1.41, 1.00–1.99 when BDNF was 1.5 SD lower than the mean value standardized for sex and age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking.Conclusion: Low serum BDNF was associated with lower cognitive test scores and MCI. Future prospective studies should establish the discriminative value of serum BDNF for the risk of MCI.

  7. Association of general psychological factors with frequent attendance in primary care: a population-based cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, André; Bock, Jens-Oliver; König, Hans-Helmut

    2017-03-24

    Whereas several studies have examined the association between frequent attendance in primary care and illness-specific psychological factors, little is known about the relation between frequent attendance and general psychological factors. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between being a frequent attender in primary care and general psychological factors. Data were used from a large, population-based sample of community-dwelling individuals aged 40 and above in Germany in 2014 (n = 7,446). Positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, optimism, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and self-regulation were included as general psychological factors. The number of self-reported GP visits in the past twelve months was used to quantify frequency of attendance; individuals with more than 9 visits (highest decile) were defined as frequent attenders. Multiple logistic regressions showed that being a frequent attender was positively associated with less life satisfaction [OR: 0.79 (0.70-0.89)], higher negative affect [OR: 1.38 (1.17-1.62)], less self-efficacy [OR: 0.74 (0.63-0.86)], less self-esteem [OR: 0.65 (0.54-0.79)], less self-regulation [OR: 0.74 (0.60-0.91)], and higher perceived stress [OR: 1.46 (1.28-1.66)], after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, morbidity and lifestyle factors. However, frequent attendance was not significantly associated with positive affect and self-regulation. The present study highlights the association between general psychological factors and frequent attendance. As frequent GP visits produce high health care costs and are potentially associated with increased referrals and use of secondary health care services, this knowledge might help to address these individuals with high needs.

  8. Metabolic evaluation and measurement of ovarian volume in polycystic ovary sydrome: a cross-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Evran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Polycystic ovary sydrome is a disease of women in reproductive period, with hirsutism or hyperandrogenic signs in laboratory evaluation, causing infertility due to dysmenorrhea and unovulation. Accompanying insulin resistance and adiposity may increase cardiometabolic risk. In our study, we planned to represent the physical examination and laboratory findings of the patients diagnosed as polycystic ovary sydrome, together with andominal ultrasonographic evaluation of the ovaries. Material-methods: Twenty-two patients who admitted the endocrinology department with the complaints of hirsutism and dysmenorrhea were included in the study. Purpose: Polycystic ovary sydrome is a disease of women in reproductive period, with hirsutism or hyperandrogenic signs in laboratory evaluation, causing infertility due to dysmenorrhea and unovulation. Accompanying insulin resistance and adiposity may increase cardiometabolic risk. In our study, we planned to represent the physical examination and laboratory findings of the patients diagnosed as polycystic ovary sydrome, together with andominal ultrasonographic evaluation of the ovaries. Material and Methods: Twenty-two patients who admitted the endocrinology department with the complaints of hirsutism and dysmenorrhea were included in the study. Their ages, family histories, polycystic ovary sydrome phenotypes, first menstrual age, length of cyclus and physical examination findings were recorded. Ferriman and Gallwey score was used for hirsutism. Insulin resistance was calculated via HOMA-IR method by making the biochemical and hormonal tests. Ovarian volumes were measured by abdominal ultrasonography. SPSS-16 was used for the statistical analysis of the findings. Results: Mean age was 21.41+/-0.88. Polycystic ovary sydrome phenotypes were B in 40.9%, C in 31.8% and A in 27.3%. Cyclus length was normal in 31.8% (27-34 days. Ferriman and Gallwey score was and #8805;7 in all of the patients. Although

  9. Dermatoglyphics in periodontics: An assessment of the relationship between fingerprints and periodontal status - A cross-sectional observation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prutha Vaidya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Widespread interest in epidermal ridges developed only in the last several decades; however, it is still at infancy in the world of dentistry. The word “dermatoglyphics” comes from two Greek words (derma: Skin and glyphe: Carve and refers to the epidermal skin ridge formations which appear on the fingers, palms of the hands, and soles of the feet. Aims: This study aims to assess the relationship between finger prints and chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients were equally divided into chronic periodontitis and periodontally healthy group. The fingerprint patterns of the participants were recorded with a rolling impression technique using duplicating ink on executive bond paper. Statistical Analysis Used: The descriptive analysis of the data was presented as percentage frequency. The percentage frequencies of each pattern on each individual finger were calculated, and statistical tests were applied. Unpaired t-test was used for intergroup comparisons (P < 0.05. Results: There were statistically more whorls and less arches in both right and left hands in patients with chronic periodontitis. Conclusions: Dermatoglyphics can lead to early diagnosis, treatment, and better prevention of many genetic disorders of the oral cavity and other diseases whose etiology may be influenced directly or indirectly by genetic inheritance.

  10. NutriCancer: A French observational multicentre cross-sectional study of malnutrition in elderly patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacau St Guily, Jean; Bouvard, Éric; Raynard, Bruno; Goldwasser, François; Maget, Brigitte; Prevost, Alain; Seguy, David; Romano, Olivier; Narciso, Bérengère; Couet, Charles; Balon, Jean-Michel; Vansteene, Damien; Salas, Sébastien; Grandval, Philippe; Gyan, Emmanuel; Hebuterne, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of malnutrition and nutritional management between elderly (≥70years old) and younger patients (malnutrition in adult patients with cancer in France. Patients diagnosed with cancer at the study date in both inpatient and outpatient settings were included. Data collection was performed by means of questionnaires completed by the physician, the patient and the caregiver. This post-hoc analysis compared 578 elderly patients (27.6%) vs. 1517 younger patients (72.4%). There were significant differences in cancer localization between the groups particularly in gastrointestinal cancer (27% in younger patients vs. 42% in elderly), breast cancer (17% vs 8% in elderly) and oropharyngeal (15% vs. 9% in elderly). Weight loss was significantly more reported in the elderly than in younger patients (73.6% vs. 67.6%, p=0.009). Elderly patients were more frequently malnourished than younger patients (44.9% vs. 36.7%, p=0.0006). Food intake was comparable between the groups; however, physicians overestimated the food intake, particularly in the elderly. The malnutrition management was more frequently proposed in elderly, as dietary advice and oral nutritional supplements, than in younger patients; however, enteral nutrition was significantly less undertaken in the elderly. Malnutrition is prevalent in elderly patients with cancer, and more frequent than in younger patients. There is a need for an early integration of the nutritional counselling in patients with cancer, and particularly in the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Consumer underestimation of sodium in fast food restaurant meals: Results from a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Alyssa J; Ramirez, Maricelle; Block, Jason P

    2017-06-01

    Restaurants are key venues for reducing sodium intake in the U.S. but little is known about consumer perceptions of sodium in restaurant foods. This study quantifies the difference between estimated and actual sodium content of restaurant meals and examines predictors of underestimation in adult and adolescent diners at fast food restaurants. In 2013 and 2014, meal receipts and questionnaires were collected from adults and adolescents dining at six restaurant chains in four New England cities. The sample included 993 adults surveyed during 229 dinnertime visits to 44 restaurants and 794 adolescents surveyed during 298 visits to 49 restaurants after school or at lunchtime. Diners were asked to estimate the amount of sodium (mg) in the meal they had just purchased. Sodium estimates were compared with actual sodium in the meal, calculated by matching all items that the respondent purchased for personal consumption to sodium information on chain restaurant websites. Mean (SD) actual sodium (mg) content of meals was 1292 (970) for adults and 1128 (891) for adolescents. One-quarter of diners (176 (23%) adults, 155 (25%) adolescents) were unable or unwilling to provide estimates of the sodium content of their meals. Of those who provided estimates, 90% of adults and 88% of adolescents underestimated sodium in their meals, with adults underestimating sodium by a mean (SD) of 1013 mg (1,055) and adolescents underestimating by 876 mg (1,021). Respondents underestimated sodium content more for meals with greater sodium content. Education about sodium at point-of-purchase, such as provision of sodium information on restaurant menu boards, may help correct consumer underestimation, particularly for meals of high sodium content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hypothyrodism in male patients: a descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study in a series of 260 men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Pedro; Díez, Juan J

    2008-10-01

    Several aspects of thyroid dysfunction have not been fully characterized in large series of male patients. Our aim was to investigate the etiology and clinical features of hypothyroidism and assess the adequacy of replacement therapy in men attending an endocrinology clinic. We studied a group of 260 men (mean (+/-standard deviation) age 58.3 +/- 16.1 years) periodically seen because of thyroid hypofunction. We evaluated the etiology of hypothyroidism, presence or absence of goiter, time of evolution from diagnosis, current thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid functional status, and adequacy of disease control. Overt hypothyroidism was found in 182 (70.0%) and subclinical hypothyroidism in 78 (30.0%) patients. Autoimmune thyroiditis was the most frequent etiology (n = 107, 41.2%). Of these, 96 (89.7%) showed no goiter. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies were measured in 238 patients, being positive in 129 (54.2%) and negative in 109 (45.8%) patients. After excluding patients with thyroid carcinoma and those with recently diagnosed hypothyroidism, we found an adequate control of thyroid function, ie, normal thyrotropin and free thyroxine levels, in 95 patients (64.2%). Adequacy of treatment did not show any relationship with age, age at diagnosis, etiology, and autoimmune status. However, adequacy was significantly related to the degree of thyroid hypofunction (P < 0.001) and to the duration of disease (P < 0.01). We conclude that autoimmune thyroiditis, mainly the nongoitrous form, and postoperative hypothyroidism are the foremost causes of thyroid hypofunction in male patients. Adequacy of replacement treatment seems to be mainly related to the degree of thyroid hypofunction and the time from starting therapy.

  13. Medication and supplement use in older people with and without intellectual disability: An observational, cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Peklar

    Full Text Available Understanding the medication and supplement use of aging people is critical to ensuring that health service providers in primary care can optimise use of these agents. An increasing number of people with different levels of intellectual disability (ID are living in the community and becoming for the first time substantial users of primary health care services. This, however, brings new challenges that need to be addressed at the primary health care level. We quantified the use of medicines and food supplements and described the associated patterns of morbidity in the two comparable cohorts of aging population with and without intellectual disability.This research aligned participants of 50 years and over who lived in the community from two nationally representative cohorts of older people; those with ID from the Intellectual Disability Supplement (n = 238 and those without ID (n = 8,081 from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing.Data showed that both medication and supplement use in the two groups was prevalent but that those with ID received more of both medications and supplements (e.g. polypharmacy was 39.0% in ID vs. 18.1% in non-ID cohort. Moreover, based on an analysis of the therapeutic groups and medications used that treatment was more intense in the ID cohort (95.8 vs. 7.0 International Non-proprietary Names per 100 participants. Supplement use was almost twice as prevalent in the ID group but substantially less diverse with only 10 types of supplements reported. Morbidity was higher in the ID group and showed a higher prevalence of neurological and mental health disorders.The results highlight that the burden of therapy management and the potential risks in those ageing with ID differs substantially from those ageing without ID. Understanding the medication and supplement use of people aging with intellectual disability (ID is critical to ensuring that health service providers in primary/ambulatory care can optimise use of these

  14. Skin hydration of the heel with fissure in patients with diabetes: a cross-sectional observational study

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    Oe M

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Makoto Oe,1 Kimie Takehara,2 Hiroshi Noguchi,3 Yumiko Ohashi,4 Mayu Fukuda,1 Takashi Kadowaki,5 Hiromi Sanada1,6 1Global Nursing Research Center, 2Department of Advanced Nursing Technology, 3Department of Life Support Technology (Molten, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 4Department of Nursing, The University of Tokyo Hospital, 5Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, 6Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: Foot fissure should be prevented in patients with diabetes due to the likelihood of subsequent diabetic ulcer. The purpose of this study was to investigate a cutoff point for skin hydration with fissure and the factors associated with low skin hydration in patients with diabetes. Subjects and methods: Subjects were patients with diabetes who visited the diabetic foot clinic and were evaluated for skin hydration on the heel between April 2008 and March 2015. Information about fissure, skin hydration, age, sex, autonomic neuropathy, angiopathy, and tinea pedis were collected from the medical charts. Skin hydration on the heel was measured using a moisture checker. Skin hydration was compared between heels with and without fissure, and a cutoff for skin hydration with fissure was determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Based on the determined cutoff, factors associated with lower skin hydration were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Results: Participants comprised 693 patients. Mean±SD age was 66.8±10.8 years, and 57.0% of subjects were male. The frequency of fissures on the heels was 10.4%. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for skin hydration in the presence of fissure was 0.717. Twenty percent was selected as the cutoff point, offering sensitivity of 0.478 and specificity of 0.819. Logistic regression analysis showed correlations between three factors (male sex, tinea

  15. a cross sectional observational study.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angel_D

    2009-04-15

    Apr 15, 2009 ... overpopulated city and brought a new wave of inexperienced motorists. Many young men are using their motorcycles as makeshift taxis, often without licences or personal protection. This coupled with poor road conditions has created a perfect environment for motorcycle related trauma. (MRT). The aim of ...

  16. [The practice of special observation in adults in the German-speaking part of Switzerland - a descriptive cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienhardt, Andrea; Rabenschlag, Franziska; Panfil, Eva-Maria

    2018-06-08

    The practice of special observation in adults in the German-speaking part of Switzerland - a descriptive cross-sectional study Abstract. Psychiatric Special Observation (PSO) is an intervention often used by nurses to prevent service users of harming themselves or to protect others. The intervention ranges between control and therapy and is resource intensive. Despite the widespread use of PSO, there is still no data on the practice of the intervention in Switzerland. What is the current practice of PSO in adults in psychiatric hospitals in the German-speaking part of Switzerland? Descriptive cross-sectional study. Nurses from inpatient psychiatric services in the German-speaking part of Switzerland completed a questionnaire based on a concept analysis of PSO. 538 questionnaires were analysed. PSO was more often conducted intermittent than as constant observation. In more than one out of four cases, suicidality reasoned as a cause for prescription. Nurses generally used standardized instruments to assess the risk of harming oneself or others. The duration of PSO lasted eight hours or more in three out of four cases. In every fifth case, there was no validation of the need of the intervention taking place during one shift. Nurses have a neutral attitude towards the intervention and are experiencing no or weak negative feelings during performance of PSO. The results suggest that there is an inconsistent performance of PSO in Switzerland as well as in other countries. The validation of the need of the intervention is insufficient. To facilitate PSO as a justified performance, the preparation of an interprofessional guideline is recommended.

  17. Do pneumonia readmissions flagged as potentially preventable by the 3M PPR software have more process of care problems? A cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzecki, Ann M; Chen, Qi; Restuccia, Joseph; Mull, Hillary J; Shwartz, Michael; Gupta, Kalpana; Hanchate, Amresh; Strymish, Judith; Rosen, Amy

    2015-12-01

    In the USA, administrative data-based readmission rates such as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' all-cause readmission measures are used for public reporting and hospital payment penalties. To improve this measure and identify better quality improvement targets, 3M developed the Potentially Preventable Readmissions (PPRs) measure. It matches clinically related index admission and readmission diagnoses that may indicate readmissions resulting from admission- or post-discharge-related quality problems. To examine whether PPR software-flagged pneumonia readmissions are associated with poorer quality of care. Using a retrospective observational study design and Veterans Health Administration (VA) data, we identified pneumonia discharges associated with 30-day readmissions, and then flagged cases as PPR-yes or PPR-no using the PPR software. To assess quality of care, we abstracted electronic medical records of 100 random readmissions using a tool containing explicit care processes organised into admission work-up, in-hospital evaluation/treatment, discharge readiness and post-discharge period. We derived quality scores, scaled to a maximum of 25 per section (maximum total score=100) and compared cases by total and section-specific mean scores using t tests and effect size (ES) to characterise the clinical significance of findings. Our abstraction sample was selected from 11,278 pneumonia readmissions (readmission rate=16.5%) during 1 October 2005-30 September 2010; 77% were flagged as PPR-yes. Contrary to expectations, total and section mean quality scores were slightly higher, although non-significantly, among PPR-yes (N=77) versus PPR-no (N=23) cases (respective total scores, 71.2±8.7 vs 65.8±11.5, p=0.14); differences demonstrated ES >0.30 overall and for admission work-up and post-discharge period sections. Among VA pneumonia readmissions, PPR categorisation did not produce the expected quality of care findings. Either PPR-yes cases are not more

  18. Sectioning of radiolarians under continuous observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stanek

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method to study the internal structure of fossil radiolarians in presented. The core of the method is (1 freezing the radiolarian in a drop of water using a Peltier module and (2 slicing the radiolarian with a specially equipped electric tooth-brush under an optical microscope. With this method the internal structure of diagenetically altered radiolarians can be studied even if internal sediment cannot be removed. Eine neue Methode zur Analyse der Internstrukturen von Radiolarien wird vorgestellt. Die Methode beinhaltet (1 Einfrieren einzelner Radiolarien in einem Wassertropfen mit Hilfe eine Peltier-Elements und (2 Schleifen der Radiolarien mit Hilfe eine modifizierten elektrischen Zahnbürste unter einem Binokular. Mit dieser Methode ist es möglich Internstrukturen von Radiolarien zu untersuchen, selbst wenn diese diagenetisch verändert sind oder fest verbackenes Internsediment aufweisen. doi:10.1002/mmng.20020050104

  19. Residential greenness and prevalence of major depressive disorders: a cross-sectional, observational, associational study of 94 879 adult UK Biobank participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmoy Sarkar, PhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Increased urbanisation and the associated reduced contact of individuals with natural environments have led to a rise in mental disorders, including depression. Residential greenness, a fundamental component of urban design, has been shown to reduce the public health burden of mental disorders. The present study investigates the association between residential green exposure and prevalence of major depressive disorders using a large and diverse cross-sectional dataset from the UK Biobank. Methods: In this cross-sectional, observational, associational study, we used baseline data from the UK Biobank cohort of participants aged 37–73 years from across the UK. Environmental exposure data were derived from a modelled and linked built environment database. Residential greenness was assessed with a 0·5 m resolution Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, which is derived from spectral reflectance measurements in remotely sensed colour infrared data and measured within geocoded dwelling catchments. Other environment metrics included street-level movement density, terrain, and fine particulate exposures. A series of logistic models examined associations between residential greenness and odds of major depressive disorder after adjusting for activity-influencing environments and individual covariates. Findings: Of 122 993 participants with data on major depressive disorder, the study analytical sample comprised 94 879 (77·1% participants recruited across ten UK Biobank assessment centres between April 29, 2009, and Oct 1, 2010. A protective effect of greenness on depression was consistently observed, with 4·0% lower odds of major depressive disorder per interquartile increment in Normalised Difference Vegetation Index greenness (odds ratio 0·960, 95% CI 0·93–0·99; p=0·0044. Interaction analyses indicated that the beneficial effects of greenness were more pronounced among women, participants younger than 60 years, and

  20. Cross-sectional analysis of adult diabetes type 1 and type 2 patients with diabetic microvascular complications from a German retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happich, M; Breitscheidel, L; Meisinger, C; Ulbig, M; Falkenstein, P; Benter, U; Watkins, J

    2007-06-01

    To obtain epidemiological data on the prevalence of predefined stages of diabetic microvascular complications from a representative cross-section of patients with existing microvascular complications of type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Germany. A cross-sectional, retrospective study of medical records of 705 type 1 and 1910 type 2 adult diabetic patients with a diagnosis of retinopathy and/or peripheral neuropathy and/or nephropathy before 2002 and treated in 2002 in Germany. Of 376 patients with type 1 diabetes having retinopathy, 59.3% had mild or moderate non-proliferative retinopathy without macular oedema, 27.1% had macular oedema, and 13.6% had severe retinopathy without macular oedema. In 862 patients with type 2 diabetes, the distribution of retinopathy/maculopathy classes was 56.8%, 35.5%, and 7.7%, respectively. Of 381 type 1 diabetes patients with observed peripheral neuropathy, 81.4% had sensorimotor neuropathy, 8.9% had diabetic foot conditions, and 9.7% had lower extremity amputations because of diabetes. In 1005 patients with type 2 diabetes, the distribution of neuropathy classes was 78.2%, 12.1%, and 9.7%, respectively. The proportions of patients with renal insufficiency in type 1 and type 2 diabetes groups were 15.3% versus 13.5%, respectively. The study suggests that there are considerable proportions of patients with progressive stages of microvascular complications related to type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Germany. This underlines the importance of improvement of optimal quality of care and frequent screening for preventing late diabetic microvascular complications and the necessity of effective intervention strategies to tackle this major public health problem.

  1. Burnout and job satisfaction of intensive care personnel and the relationship with personality and religious traits: An observational, multicenter, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntantana, Asimenia; Matamis, Dimitrios; Savvidou, Savvoula; Giannakou, Maria; Gouva, Mary; Nakos, George; Koulouras, Vasilios

    2017-08-01

    To investigate if burnout in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is influenced by aspects of personality, religiosity and job satisfaction. Cross-sectional study, designed to assess burnout in the ICU and to investigate possible determinants. Three different questionnaires were used: the Malach Burnout Inventory, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Spiritual/Religious Attitudes Questionnaire. Predicting factors for high burnout were identified by multivariate logistic regression analysis. This national study was addressed to physicians and nurses working full-time in 18 Greek ICU departments from June to December 2015. The participation rate was 67.9% (n=149) and 65% (n=320) for ICU physicians and nurses, respectively). High job satisfaction was recorded in both doctors (80.8%) and nurses (63.4%). Burnout was observed in 32.8% of the study participants, higher in nurses compared to doctors (pJob satisfaction (OR 0.26, 95%CI 0.14-0.48, psatisfaction with current End-of-Life care (OR 0.41, 95%CI 0.23-0.76, p=0.005) and isolation feelings after decisions to forego life sustaining treatments (OR 3.48, 95%CI 1.25-9.65, p=0.017). Personality traits, job satisfaction and the way End-of-Life care is practiced influence burnout in the ICU. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A cross-sectional observational study to assess inhaler technique in Saudi hospitalized patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammari, Maha Al; Sultana, Khizra; Yunus, Faisal; Ghobain, Mohammed Al; Halwan, Shatha M. Al

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the proportion of critical errors committed while demonstrating the inhaler technique in hospitalized patients diagnosed with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 47 asthmatic and COPD patients using inhaler devices. The study took place at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between September and December 2013. Two pharmacists independently assessed inhaler technique with a validated checklist. Results: Seventy percent of patients made at least one critical error while demonstrating their inhaler technique, and the mean number of critical errors per patient was 1.6. Most patients used metered dose inhaler (MDI), and 73% of MDI users and 92% of dry powder inhaler users committed at least one critical error. Conclusion: Inhaler technique in hospitalized Saudi patients was inadequate. Health care professionals should understand the importance of reassessing and educating patients on a regular basis for inhaler technique, recommend the use of a spacer when needed, and regularly assess and update their own inhaler technique skills. PMID:27146622

  3. HFE gene mutation and oxidative damage biomarkers in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and its relation to transfusional iron overload: an observational cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Geane Felix; Ribeiro, Howard Lopes; De Sousa, Juliana Cordeiro; Heredia, Fabíola Fernandes; De Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes; Martins, Manoel Ricardo Alves; Gonçalves, Romélia Pinheiro; Pinheiro, Ronald Feitosa; Magalhães, Silvia Maria Meira

    2015-04-03

    A relation between transfusional IOL (iron overload), HFE status and oxidative damage was evaluated. An observational cross-sectional study involving 87 healthy individuals and 78 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with and without IOL, seen at University Hospital of the Federal University of Ceará, Brazil, between May 2010 and September 2011. IOL was defined using repeated measures of serum ferritin ≥1000 ng/mL. Variations in the HFE gene were investigated using PCR/restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The biomarkers of oxidative stress (plasmatic malonaldehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were determined by spectrophotometry. The HFE gene variations were identified in 24 patients (30.77%) and 5 volunteers (5.74%). The H63D variant was observed in 35% and the C282Y variant as heterozygous in 5% of patients with MDS with IOL. One patient showed double heterozygous variant (C282Y/H63D) and serum ferritin of 11,649 ng/mL. In patients without IOL, the H63D variant was detected in 29.34%. Serum MDA levels were highest in patients with MDS with IOL, with a significant difference when compared with patients without IOL and healthy volunteers, pointing to the relationship between IOL and oxidative stress. The GPx and SOD were also significantly higher in these patients, indicating that lipid peroxidation increase was followed by an increase in antioxidant capacity. Higher ferritin levels were observed in patients with HFE gene variation. 95.7% of patients with MDS with the presence of HFE gene variations had received more of 20 transfusions. We observed a significant increase in MDA levels in patients with MDS and IOL, suggesting an increased lipid peroxidation in these patients. The accumulation of MDA alters the organisation of membrane phospholipids, contributing to the process of cellular degeneration. Results show that excess iron intensifies the process of cell damage through oxidative stress

  4. Patient-Physician Communication in the Era of Mobile Phones and Social Media Apps: Cross-Sectional Observational Study on Lebanese Physicians’ Perceptions and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabak, Suha; Sasso, Roula; Chamoun, Yara; Tamim, Hani

    2018-01-01

    Background The increased prevalence of virtual communication technology, particularly social media, has shifted the physician-patient relationship away from the well-established face-to-face interaction. The views and habits of physicians in Lebanon toward the use of online apps and social media as forms of patient communication have not been previously described. Objective The aim of this study is to describe the views of Lebanese physicians toward the use of social media and other online apps as means of patient communication. Methods This was a cross-sectional observational study using an online survey that addressed physicians’ perceptions on the use of virtual communication in their clinical practice. The study took place between April and June 2016, and was directed toward physicians at the American University of Beirut Medical Center. Results A total of 834 doctors received the online survey, with 238 physicians completing the survey. Most of the participants were from medical specialties. Most responders were attending physicians. Less than half of the respondents believed that Web-based apps and social media could be a useful tool for communicating with patients. Email was the most common form of professional online app, followed by WhatsApp (an instant messaging service). The majority of participants felt that this mode of communication can result in medicolegal issues and that it was a breach of privacy. Participants strictly against the use of virtual forms of communication made up 47.5% (113/238) of the study sample. Conclusions The majority of physicians at the American University of Beirut Medical Center are reluctant to use virtual communication technology as a form of patient communication. Appropriate policy making and strategies can allow both physicians and patients to communicate virtually in a more secure setting without fear of breaching privacy and confidentiality. PMID:29625955

  5. Patient-Physician Communication in the Era of Mobile Phones and Social Media Apps: Cross-Sectional Observational Study on Lebanese Physicians' Perceptions and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Fady; Jabak, Suha; Sasso, Roula; Chamoun, Yara; Tamim, Hani

    2018-04-06

    The increased prevalence of virtual communication technology, particularly social media, has shifted the physician-patient relationship away from the well-established face-to-face interaction. The views and habits of physicians in Lebanon toward the use of online apps and social media as forms of patient communication have not been previously described. The aim of this study is to describe the views of Lebanese physicians toward the use of social media and other online apps as means of patient communication. This was a cross-sectional observational study using an online survey that addressed physicians' perceptions on the use of virtual communication in their clinical practice. The study took place between April and June 2016, and was directed toward physicians at the American University of Beirut Medical Center. A total of 834 doctors received the online survey, with 238 physicians completing the survey. Most of the participants were from medical specialties. Most responders were attending physicians. Less than half of the respondents believed that Web-based apps and social media could be a useful tool for communicating with patients. Email was the most common form of professional online app, followed by WhatsApp (an instant messaging service). The majority of participants felt that this mode of communication can result in medicolegal issues and that it was a breach of privacy. Participants strictly against the use of virtual forms of communication made up 47.5% (113/238) of the study sample. The majority of physicians at the American University of Beirut Medical Center are reluctant to use virtual communication technology as a form of patient communication. Appropriate policy making and strategies can allow both physicians and patients to communicate virtually in a more secure setting without fear of breaching privacy and confidentiality. ©Fady Daniel, Suha Jabak, Roula Sasso, Yara Chamoun, Hani Tamim. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http

  6. Prevalence and treatment of atherogenic dyslipidemia in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in Europe: EURIKA, a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcox, Julian P; Banegas, José R; Roy, Carine; Dallongeville, Jean; De Backer, Guy; Guallar, Eliseo; Perk, Joep; Hajage, David; Henriksson, Karin M; Borghi, Claudio

    2017-06-17

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes, yet markers of this condition are often ignored in clinical practice. Here, we address a clear evidence gap by assessing the prevalence and treatment of two markers of atherogenic dyslipidemia: elevated triglyceride levels and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This cross-sectional observational study assessed the prevalence of two atherogenic dyslipidemia markers, high triglyceride levels and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, in the study population from the European Study on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention and Management in Usual Daily Practice (EURIKA; N = 7641; of whom 51.6% were female and 95.6% were White/Caucasian). The EURIKA population included European patients, aged at least 50 years with at least one cardiovascular risk factor but no history of cardiovascular disease. Over 20% of patients from the EURIKA population have either triglyceride or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels characteristic of atherogenic dyslipidemia. Furthermore, the proportions of patients with one of these markers were higher in subpopulations with type 2 diabetes mellitus or those already calculated to be at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Approximately 55% of the EURIKA population who have markers of atherogenic dyslipidemia are not receiving lipid-lowering therapy. A considerable proportion of patients with at least one major cardiovascular risk factor in the primary cardiovascular disease prevention setting have markers of atherogenic dyslipidemia. The majority of these patients are not receiving optimal treatment, as specified in international guidelines, and thus their risk of developing cardiovascular disease is possibly underestimated. The present study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT00882336).

  7. Gender as a Modifying Factor Influencing Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 Phenotype Severity and Mortality: A Nationwide Multiple Databases Cross-Sectional Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Dogan

    Full Text Available Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1 is one of the most heterogeneous hereditary disease in terms of age of onset, clinical manifestations, and severity, challenging both medical management and clinical trials. The CTG expansion size is the main factor determining the age of onset although no factor can finely predict phenotype and prognosis. Differences between males and females have not been specifically reported. Our aim is to study gender impact on DM1 phenotype and severity.We first performed cross-sectional analysis of main multiorgan clinical parameters in 1409 adult DM1 patients (>18 y from the DM-Scope nationwide registry and observed different patterns in males and females. Then, we assessed gender impact on social and economic domains using the AFM-Téléthon DM1 survey (n = 970, and morbidity and mortality using the French National Health Service Database (n = 3301.Men more frequently had (1 severe muscular disability with marked myotonia, muscle weakness, cardiac, and respiratory involvement; (2 developmental abnormalities with facial dysmorphism and cognitive impairment inferred from low educational levels and work in specialized environments; and (3 lonely life. Alternatively, women more frequently had cataracts, dysphagia, digestive tract dysfunction, incontinence, thyroid disorder and obesity. Most differences were out of proportion to those observed in the general population. Compared to women, males were more affected in their social and economic life. In addition, they were more frequently hospitalized for cardiac problems, and had a higher mortality rate.Gender is a previously unrecognized factor influencing DM1 clinical profile and severity of the disease, with worse socio-economic consequences of the disease and higher morbidity and mortality in males. Gender should be considered in the design of both stratified medical management and clinical trials.

  8. Continuing professional development for volunteers working in palliative care in a tertiary care cancer institute in India: A cross-sectional observational study of educational needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayita Kedar Deodhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Training programs for volunteers prior to their working in palliative care are well-established in India. However, few studies report on continuing professional development programs for this group. Aims: To conduct a preliminary assessment of educational needs of volunteers working in palliative care for developing a structured formal continuing professional development program for this group. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional observational study conducted in the Department of Palliative Medicine of a tertiary care cancer institute in India. Materials and Methods: Participant volunteers completed a questionnaire, noting previous training, years of experience, and a comprehensive list of topics for inclusion in this program, rated in order of importance according to them. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics for overall data and Chi-square tests for categorical variables for group comparisons were applied using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 18. Results: Fourteen out of 17 volunteers completed the questionnaire, seven having 5-10-years experience in working in palliative care. A need for continuing professional development program was felt by all participants. Communication skills, more for children and elderly specific issues were given highest priority. Spiritual-existential aspects and self-care were rated lower in importance than psychological, physical, and social aspects in palliative care. More experienced volunteers (>5 years of experience felt the need for self-care as a topic in the program than those with less (<5-years experience ( P < 0.05. Conclusions: Understanding palliative care volunteers′ educational needs is essential for developing a structured formal continuing professional development program and should include self-care as a significant component.

  9. Solid State Studies Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1974-12-31

    Research is summarized on fuel, fertile, and cladding materials. Results of studies in the field of solid state sciences are also reported. It was found during the studies on the thermal diffusion release of /sup 133/Xe from irradiated thoria--urania powders that during prolonged annealing at high temperatures, there were several sudden burst releases of /sup 133/Xe as a function of time. These sudden bursts appear to be related to the particle size of the powders. Studies on the phase composition of U/sub 3/O/sub 8//su established that the phase obtained at room temperature after heating at 850 deg K is always oxygen deficient. Results of studies on the different modifications of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ indicated that the so-called delta-phase has a crystal structure almost identical with the beta-phase, yet there were differences in the heats of transition of each of these phases to the alpha-U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ phase at 130 deg C. Studies on fast neutron damage in stainless steel were initiated and results related to damage by void formation were obtained even when the fluencies were only moderately high. Studies on the phase transformations in solids brought out the unusual phase transition behavior of KNO/sub 3/. It was established that the phase transformation attributed to the orthorhombic (II) to the trigonal (I) transition at 129 deg C is essentially a 2-step transition. Results of differential scanning colorimeter (DSC) studies also revealed a peculiar feature which is as yet not understood, namely that on cooling, differential thermal analysis (DTA) showed a III to II phase transition; this is not seen in the DSC. The capabilities of the DSC technique to delineate temperatures of magnetic transitions were demonstrated by studying the transitions in a number of standard substances (metals, alloys, and compounds). In studies on KMnF/sub 3/, it was further demonstrated that the DSC technique is superior in measuring and detecting the heats of crystallographic and

  10. Frequency and risk factors for malnutrition in children undergoing general anaesthesia in a French university hospital: A cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbaud-Morlaes, Louis; Frison, Eric; Babre, Florence; De Luca, Arnaud; Didier, Anne; Borde, Maryline; Zaghet, Brigitte; Batoz, Hélène; Semjen, François; Nouette-Gaulain, Karine; Enaud, Raphael; Hankard, Régis; Lamireau, Thierry

    2017-08-01

    Malnutrition is often underdiagnosed in hospitalised children, although it is associated with postoperative complications, longer hospital lengths of stay and increased healthcare-related costs. We aimed to estimate the frequency of, and identify factors associated with, malnutrition in children undergoing anaesthesia. Cross-sectional observational study. Paediatric anaesthesia department at the University Children's Hospital, Bordeaux, France. A total of 985 patients aged less than 18 years. Anthropometric measurements, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification score and the Pediatric Nutritional Risk Score (PNRS) recorded at the pre-anaesthesia evaluation. When assessed as a Waterlow index less than 80%, malnutrition was present in 7.6% children. This increased to 8.1% of children assessed by clinical signs and to 11% of children when defined by a BMI less than the third percentile. In a univariate analysis, children with a BMI less than the third percentile were more often born prematurely (22.4 vs 10.4%; P = 0.0008), were small for gestational age at birth (18.4 vs 4.5%; P malnutrition. In the multivariate analysis, a premature birth, a lower birth weight and a higher Pediatric Nutritional Risk Score were significantly associated with a higher odds of malnutrition when defined by BMI. All children should be screened routinely for malnutrition or the risk of malnutrition at the pre-anaesthesia visit, allowing a programme of preoperative and/or postoperative nutritional support to be initiated. We suggest that as well as weight and height, BMI and a pediatric nutritional risk score such as PNRS should be recorded routinely at the pre-anaesthesia visit.

  11. Sex differences in flexibility-arterial stiffness relationship and its application for diagnosis of arterial stiffening: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Nishiwaki

    Full Text Available Arterial stiffness might be related to trunk flexibility in middle-aged and older participants, but it is also affected by age, sex, and blood pressure. This cross-sectional observational study investigated whether trunk flexibility is related to arterial stiffness after considering the major confounding factors of age, sex, and blood pressure. We further investigated whether a simple diagnostic test of flexibility could be helpful to screen for increased arterial stiffening.According to age and sex, we assigned 1150 adults (male, n = 536; female, n = 614; age, 18-89 y to groups with either high- or poor-flexibility based on the sit-and-reach test. Arterial stiffness was assessed by cardio-ankle vascular index.In all categories of men and in older women, arterial stiffness was higher in poor-flexibility than in high-flexibility (P<0.05. This difference remained significant after normalizing arterial stiffness for confounding factors such as blood pressure, but it was not found among young and middle-aged women. Stepwise multiple-regression analysis also supported the notion of the sex differences in flexibility-arterial stiffness relationship. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that cut-off values for sit-and-reach among men and women were 33.2 (area under the curve [AUC], 0.711; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.666-0.756; sensitivity, 61.7%; specificity, 69.7% and 39.2 (AUC, 0.639; 95% CI, 0.592-0.686; sensitivity, 61.1%; specificity, 62.0% cm, respectively.Our results indicate that flexibility-arterial stiffness relationship is not affected by BP, which is a major confounding factor. In addition, sex differences are observed in this relationship; poor trunk flexibility increases arterial stiffness in young, middle-aged, and older men, whereas the relationship in women is found only in the elderly. Also, the sit-and-reach test can offer a simple method of predicting arterial stiffness at home or elsewhere.

  12. Community-based directly observed treatment for TB patients to improve HIV services: a cross-sectional study in a South African province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Embry M; Kigozi, N Gladys; Heunis, J Christo

    2018-04-07

    There is uncertainty about how directly observed treatment (DOT) support for tuberculosis (TB) can be delivered most effectively and how DOT support can simultaneously be used to strengthen human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control among TB patients. This study describes how DOT support by community health workers (CHWs) was used in four municipalities in the Free State province - a high TB/HIV burden, poorly-resourced setting - to provide HIV outreach, referrals, and health education for TB patients. The study was part of a larger cross-sectional study of HIV counselling and testing (HCT) among 1101 randomly-selected TB patients registered at 40 primary health care (PHC) facilities (clinics and community health centres) across small town/rural and large town/urban settings. Univariate analysis of percentages, chi-square tests and t-tests for difference in means were used to describe differences between the types of TB treatment support and patient characteristics, as well as the types of - and patient satisfaction with - HIV information and referrals received from various types of treatment supporters including home-based DOT supporters, clinic-based DOT supporters or support from family/friends/employers. Multivariate logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of not having receiving home-based DOT and of never having received HIV counselling. The independent variables include poverty-related health and socio-economic risk factors for poor outcomes. Statistical significance is shown using a 95% confidence interval and a 0.05 p-value. Despite the fact that DOT support for all TB patients was the goal of South African health policy at the time (2012), most TB patients were not receiving formal DOT support. Only 155 (14.1%) were receiving home-based DOT, while 114 (10.4%) received clinic-based DOT. TB patients receiving home-based DOT reported higher rates of HIV counselling than other patients. Public health providers should train DOT

  13. An observational, cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes patients in India (START -India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Prasannakumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, observational, epidemiological, multi-center, study is enrolling T2DM patients of either gender aged 30 years or above. This study aimed to enroll a total of 3000 T2DM patients at 30 participating hospitals/clinics across India and the data from a planned interim analysis of 1500 patients are presented here. The primary endpoint of the study is to estimate proportion of T2DM patients with CKD (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] <60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 or albumin creatinine ratio [ACR] ≥30 mg/g or ≥3 mg/mmol or both. Routine treatment, as administered by the treating physician, was continued without any study specific intervention. Patients′ data pertaining to demographic characteristics, medical history, current medication and physical examination were recorded. The blood/plasma and urine samples, were collected for estimation of hemoglobin A1c, microalbuminuria, serum creatinine, urine creatinine, and routine urine analysis. ACR was calculated from urine creatinine and albumin while GFR was estimated by using a modification of diet in the renal disease equation. Results: Study recruited 1500 patients from 18 centers across India. The study population included 840 (56.05% males. Mean age, body mass index and systolic blood pressure were 55.1 years, 27.4 kg/m 2 and 134.5 mmHg respectively. The mean duration of diabetes was 102.2 months. History of co-morbid diseases such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, microvascular complications and macrovascular complications was present in 657 (43.8%, 655 (43.7%, 268 (17.9% and 104 (6.93%, respectively. This interim analysis revealed that about 46% of the T2DM patients had CKD (urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR ≥30 mg/g and/or estimated GFR [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . The renal dysfunction as per e

  14. Stress and Burnout in Health-Care Workers after the 2009 L’Aquila Earthquake: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Mattei; Fabiana Fiasca; Mariachiara Mazzei; Stefano Necozione; Valeria Bianchini

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a work-related mental health impairment, which is now recognized as a real problem in the context of the helping professions due to its adverse health outcomes on efficiency. To our knowledge, the literature on the postdisaster scenario in Italy is limited by a focus on mental health professionals rather than other health-care workers. Our cross-sectional study aims to evaluate the prevalence of burnout and psychopathological distress in different categories of health-care workers,...

  15. Sympatho-vagal balance, as quantified by ANSindex, predicts post spinal hypotension and vasopressor requirement in parturients undergoing lower segmental cesarean section: a single blinded prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashanth, Anitha; Chakravarthy, Murali; George, Antony; Mayur, Rohini; Hosur, Rajathadri; Pargaonkar, Sumant

    2017-08-01

    Hypotension subsequent to spinal anesthesia occurs in a significant number of parturients undergoing lower segment caesarian section. Currently available methods to predict the incidence of hypotension, its severity and the outcome are sub-optimal. Many workers have used basal heart rate as one of the predictors. But using this method it is not possible to objectively analyze and predict the extent and severity of hypotension. We used an equipment measuring the level of sympatho-vagal balance, ANSiscope™, which derives these values from computed value of RR interval variability. We made a single measure of the value which was blinded to the patient and the anesthesiologist. We studied one hundred eight patients who underwent lower segment caesarian section under spinal anesthesia and found the variability of preoperative ANSindex (% activity displayed by the equipment) from 9 to 65 %. Higher ANSindex value was significantly associated with post spinal hypotension (p 0.017). A value of 24 % indicated the critical level above which hypotension appeared commonly. The ANSindex value might help anesthesiologist to anticipate and prepare for hypotension that is likely to ensue.

  16. Association between infrastructure and observed quality of care in 4 healthcare services: A cross-sectional study of 4,300 facilities in 8 countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah H Leslie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly apparent that access to healthcare without adequate quality of care is insufficient to improve population health outcomes. We assess whether the most commonly measured attribute of health facilities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs-the structural inputs to care-predicts the clinical quality of care provided to patients.Service Provision Assessments are nationally representative health facility surveys conducted by the Demographic and Health Survey Program with support from the US Agency for International Development. These surveys assess health system capacity in LMICs. We drew data from assessments conducted in 8 countries between 2007 and 2015: Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda. The surveys included an audit of facility infrastructure and direct observation of family planning, antenatal care (ANC, sick-child care, and (in 2 countries labor and delivery. To measure structural inputs, we constructed indices that measured World Health Organization-recommended amenities, equipment, and medications in each service. For clinical quality, we used data from direct observations of care to calculate providers' adherence to evidence-based care guidelines. We assessed the correlation between these metrics and used spline models to test for the presence of a minimum input threshold associated with good clinical quality. Inclusion criteria were met by 32,531 observations of care in 4,354 facilities. Facilities demonstrated moderate levels of infrastructure, ranging from 0.63 of 1 in sick-child care to 0.75 of 1 for family planning on average. Adherence to evidence-based guidelines was low, with an average of 37% adherence in sick-child care, 46% in family planning, 60% in labor and delivery, and 61% in ANC. Correlation between infrastructure and evidence-based care was low (median 0.20, range from -0.03 for family planning in Senegal to 0.40 for ANC in Tanzania. Facilities with similar

  17. Association between infrastructure and observed quality of care in 4 healthcare services: A cross-sectional study of 4,300 facilities in 8 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Hannah H; Sun, Zeye; Kruk, Margaret E

    2017-12-01

    It is increasingly apparent that access to healthcare without adequate quality of care is insufficient to improve population health outcomes. We assess whether the most commonly measured attribute of health facilities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)-the structural inputs to care-predicts the clinical quality of care provided to patients. Service Provision Assessments are nationally representative health facility surveys conducted by the Demographic and Health Survey Program with support from the US Agency for International Development. These surveys assess health system capacity in LMICs. We drew data from assessments conducted in 8 countries between 2007 and 2015: Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda. The surveys included an audit of facility infrastructure and direct observation of family planning, antenatal care (ANC), sick-child care, and (in 2 countries) labor and delivery. To measure structural inputs, we constructed indices that measured World Health Organization-recommended amenities, equipment, and medications in each service. For clinical quality, we used data from direct observations of care to calculate providers' adherence to evidence-based care guidelines. We assessed the correlation between these metrics and used spline models to test for the presence of a minimum input threshold associated with good clinical quality. Inclusion criteria were met by 32,531 observations of care in 4,354 facilities. Facilities demonstrated moderate levels of infrastructure, ranging from 0.63 of 1 in sick-child care to 0.75 of 1 for family planning on average. Adherence to evidence-based guidelines was low, with an average of 37% adherence in sick-child care, 46% in family planning, 60% in labor and delivery, and 61% in ANC. Correlation between infrastructure and evidence-based care was low (median 0.20, range from -0.03 for family planning in Senegal to 0.40 for ANC in Tanzania). Facilities with similar infrastructure scores

  18. Relationship between resilience, social support as well as anxiety/depression of lung cancer patients: A cross-sectional observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tingjie; Xiao, Jian; Peng, Juan; Kuang, Xiao; He, Bixiu

    2018-01-01

    The mood of patients with lung carcinoma would be greatly influenced by the diagnosing and treating processes. This study was aimed to explore the effects of resilience between social assistance and anxiety/depression of patients with lung cancer, which may assist in clinical intervention. A cross-sectional pilot study was conducted on lung cancer patients at Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, China. A total of 289 patients aged 25-81 years were included in this study. Correlational analyses revealed that anxiety/depression was negatively associated with psychological resilience and each dimension of social assistance, including subjective support, objective support along with the supports utilization (P resilience was positively related to subjective support (P resilience could partially mediate the relation between anxiety and subjective support and totally mediate the relationship between support utilization and anxiety. On the other hand, resilience could totally mediate the relation between depression and subjective support and partially mediate the relation between support utilization and depression. However, resilience did not play an intermediary role between anxiety/depression and objective support. Lower psychological anxiety and depression would be experienced by lung cancer patients with higher resilience and social support. The level of anxiety and depression would be indirectly affected by social support through the mediation of resilience.

  19. A Prospective Observational Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This was a prospective, questionnaire-based observational study. Printed questionnaires were distributed to the visitors of medical, surgical and neurosurgical ICU patients to determine awareness of basic infection control practices among visitors to an ICU. All the ICU staff, including nurses, doctors, consultant ...

  20. Multibiomarker disease activity score and C-reactive protein in a cross-sectional observational study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis with and without concomitant fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yvonne C; Hackett, James; Frits, Michelle; Iannaccone, Christine K; Shadick, Nancy A; Weinblatt, Michael E; Segurado, Oscar G; Sasso, Eric H

    2016-04-01

    To examine the association between a multibiomarker disease activity (MBDA) score, CRP and clinical disease activity measures among RA patients with and without concomitant FM. In an observational cohort of patients with established RA, we performed a cross-sectional analysis comparing MBDA scores with CRP by rank correlation and cross-classification. MBDA scores, CRP and clinical measures of disease activity were compared between patients with RA alone and RA with concomitant FM (RA and FM) by univariate and multivariate analyses. CRP was ⩽1.0 mg/dl for 184 of 198 patients (93%). MBDA scores correlated with CRP (r = 0.755, P < 0.001), but were often discordant, being moderate or high for 19%, 55% and 87% of patients with CRP ⩽0.1, 0.1 to ⩽0.3, or 0.3 to ⩽1.0 mg/dl, respectively. Among patients with CRP ⩽1.0 mg/dl, swollen joint count (SJC) increased linearly across levels of MBDA score, both with (P = 0.021) and without (P = 0.004) adjustment for CRP, whereas CRP was not associated with SJC. The 28-joint-DAS-CRP, other composite measures, and their non-joint-count component measures were significantly greater for patients with RA and FM (n = 25) versus RA alone (n = 173) (all P ⩽ 0.005). MBDA scores and CRP were similar between groups. MBDA scores frequently indicated RA disease activity when CRP did not. Neither one was significantly greater among patients with RA and FM versus RA alone. Thus, MBDA score may be a useful objective measure for identifying RA patients with active inflammation when CRP is low (⩽1.0 mg/dl), including RA patients with concomitant FM. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology.

  1. Analysis of the relationship between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis within a local clinical system: a cross-sectional observational pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Chieko; Shin, Wee Soo; Minabe, Masato; Harai, Kazuo; Kato, Kai; Seino, Hiroaki; Goke, Eiji; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Fujino, Takemasa; Kuribayashi, Nobuichi; Pearce, Youko Onuki; Taira, Masato; Maeda, Hiroshi; Takashiba, Shogo

    2015-09-01

    It has been revealed that atherosclerosis and periodontal disease may have a common mechanism of "chronic inflammation". Several reports have indicated that periodontal infection is related to atherosclerosis, but none have yet reported such an investigation through the cooperation of local clinics. This study was performed in local Japanese clinics to examine the relationship between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis under collaborative medical and dental care. A pilot multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted on 37 medical patients with lifestyle-related diseases under consultation in participating medical clinics, and 79 periodontal patients not undergoing medical treatment but who were seen by participating dental clinics. Systemic examination and periodontal examination were performed at baseline, and the relationships between periodontal and atherosclerosis-related clinical markers were analyzed. There was a positive correlation between LDL-C level and plasma IgG antibody titer to Porphyromonas gingivalis. According to the analysis under adjusted age, at a cut-off value of 5.04 for plasma IgG titer to Porphyromonas gingivalis, the IgG titer was significantly correlated with the level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). This study suggested that infection with periodontal bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis) is associated with the progression of atherosclerosis. Plasma IgG titer to Porphyromonas gingivalis may be useful as the clinical risk marker for atherosclerosis related to periodontal disease. Moreover, the application of the blood examination as a medical check may lead to the development of collaborative medical and dental care within the local medical clinical system for the purpose of preventing the lifestyle-related disease.

  2. Dermatoses among children from celebration of “Holi,” the spring festival, in India: A cross-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Kumar Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: “Holi” is a spring festival celebrated primarily in the Indian subcontinent and also abroad by expatriate Indians. It is a festival of colors, traditionally celebrated by mutual application of colors in different forms on a particular day of the year. These colors frequently comprise a range of synthetic dyes which have harmful effects on the skin and mucosae. Children take part in this colorful festival with much enthusiasm and vigor, making them prone to develop different “Holi”-related dermatoses. Our objective was to find out the different patterns of “Holi”-related dermatoses in a group of pediatric patients. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out over a period of 6 years (2010–2015. Consecutive patients of pediatric age group who attended dermatology outpatient department (OPD with different dermatoses following application of “Holi” color were included in this study. Results: A total of 63 patients (mean age 11 years; range 1–16 years were evaluated with a female to male ratio of 1.3:1. Itching is the predominant presenting symptom followed by burning sensation, dryness, scaling, oozing, and loss of hair. Examination revealed that eczematous lesion was the most common (69.8% reaction pattern followed by xerosis, desquamation, excoriation, erythema, morbilliform eruption, erosion, alopecia, ulceration, acute paronychia, and hyperpigmentation. The face was the most common (76.4% site of affection. Conclusion: A sizable number of patients of pediatric age group may be affected by “Holi”-related dermatoses necessitating precautionary measures.

  3. Dermatoses among Children from Celebration of “Holi,” the Spring Festival, in India: A Cross-sectional Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Agarwal, Megha; Rudra, Olympia

    2016-01-01

    Background: “Holi” is a spring festival celebrated primarily in the Indian subcontinent and also abroad by expatriate Indians. It is a festival of colors, traditionally celebrated by mutual application of colors in different forms on a particular day of the year. These colors frequently comprise a range of synthetic dyes which have harmful effects on the skin and mucosae. Children take part in this colorful festival with much enthusiasm and vigor, making them prone to develop different “Holi”-related dermatoses. Our objective was to find out the different patterns of “Holi”-related dermatoses in a group of pediatric patients. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out over a period of 6 years (2010–2015). Consecutive patients of pediatric age group who attended dermatology outpatient department (OPD) with different dermatoses following application of “Holi” color were included in this study. Results: A total of 63 patients (mean age 11 years; range 1–16 years) were evaluated with a female to male ratio of 1.3:1. Itching is the predominant presenting symptom followed by burning sensation, dryness, scaling, oozing, and loss of hair. Examination revealed that eczematous lesion was the most common (69.8%) reaction pattern followed by xerosis, desquamation, excoriation, erythema, morbilliform eruption, erosion, alopecia, ulceration, acute paronychia, and hyperpigmentation. The face was the most common (76.4%) site of affection. Conclusion: A sizable number of patients of pediatric age group may be affected by “Holi”-related dermatoses necessitating precautionary measures. PMID:27688442

  4. An evaluation of seasonal variations in footwear worn by adults with inflammatory arthritis: a cross-sectional observational study using a web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton-Rule, Angela; Hendry, Gordon J; Barr, Georgina; Rome, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Foot problems are common in adults with inflammatory arthritis and therapeutic footwear can be effective in managing arthritic foot problems. Accessing appropriate footwear has been identified as a major barrier, resulting in poor adherence to treatment plans involving footwear. Indeed, previous New Zealand based studies found that many people with rheumatoid arthritis and gout wore inappropriate footwear. However, these studies were conducted in a single teaching hospital during the New Zealand summer therefore the findings may not be representative of footwear styles worn elsewhere in New Zealand, or reflect the potential influence of seasonal climate changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate seasonal variations in footwear habits of people with inflammatory arthritic conditions in New Zealand. A cross-sectional study design using a web-based survey. The survey questions were designed to elicit demographic and clinical information, features of importance when choosing footwear and seasonal footwear habits, including questions related to the provision of therapeutic footwear/orthoses and footwear experiences. One-hundred and ninety-seven participants responded who were predominantly women of European descent, aged between 46-65 years old, from the North Island of New Zealand. The majority of participants identified with having either rheumatoid arthritis (35%) and/or osteoarthritis (57%) and 68% reported established disease (>5 years duration). 18% of participants had been issued with therapeutic footwear. Walking and athletic shoes were the most frequently reported footwear type worn regardless of the time of year. In the summer, 42% reported wearing sandals most often. Comfort, fit and support were reported most frequently as the footwear features of greatest importance. Many participants reported difficulties with footwear (63%), getting hot feet in the summer (63%) and the need for a sandal which could accommodate a supportive insole (73%). Athletic and

  5. Shooting history and presence of high-frequency hearing impairment in swedish hunters: A cross-sectional internet-based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeth, Louise; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Bagger-Sjöbäck, Dan; Rosenhall, Ulf; Nyrén, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters was to examine the association between shooting history and presence of high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI). All hunters registered with an e-mail address in the membership roster of the Swedish Hunters' Association were invited via e-mail to a secure website with a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test. Associations, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR), were multivariately modelled using Poisson regression. The questionnaire was answered by 1771 hunters (age 11-91 years), and 202 of them also completed the audiometry test. Subjective severe hearing loss was reported by 195/1771 (11%), while 23/202 (11%) exhibited HFHI upon testing with Internet-based audiometry. As many as 328/1771 (19%) had never used hearing protection during hunting. In the preceding 5 years, 785/1771 (45%), had fired >6 unprotected gunshots with hunting rifle calibers. The adjusted PR of HFHI when reporting 1-6 such shots, relative to 0, was 1.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.1; P = 0.02]. We could not verify any excessive HFHI prevalence among 89 hunters reporting unprotected exposure to such gunshot noise >6 times. Nor did the total number of reported rifle shots seem to matter. These findings support the notion of a wide variation in individual susceptibility to impulse noise; that significant sound energy, corresponding to unprotected noise from hunting rifle calibers, seems to be required; that susceptible individuals may sustain irreversible damage to the inner ear from just one or a few shots; and that use of hearing protection should be encouraged from the first shot with such weapons.

  6. Stress and Burnout in Health-Care Workers after the 2009 L’Aquila Earthquake: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Antonella; Fiasca, Fabiana; Mazzei, Mariachiara; Necozione, Stefano; Bianchini, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a work-related mental health impairment, which is now recognized as a real problem in the context of the helping professions due to its adverse health outcomes on efficiency. To our knowledge, the literature on the postdisaster scenario in Italy is limited by a focus on mental health professionals rather than other health-care workers. Our cross-sectional study aims to evaluate the prevalence of burnout and psychopathological distress in different categories of health-care workers, i.e., physicians, nurses, and health-care assistants, working in different departments of L’Aquila St. Salvatore General Hospital 6 years after the 2009 earthquake in order to prevent and reduce work-related burnout. With a two-stage cluster sampling, a total of 8 departments out of a total of 28 departments were selected and the total sample included 300 health-care workers. All the participants completed the following self-reporting questionnaires: a sociodemographic data form, a Maslach Burnout Inventory and a General Health Questionnaire 12 Items (GHQ-12). Statistically significant differences emerged between the total scores of the GHQ-12: post hoc analysis showed that the total average scores of the GHQ-12 were significantly higher in doctors than in health-care assistants. A high prevalence of burnout among doctors (25.97%) emerged. Using multivariate analysis, we identified a hostile relationship with colleagues, direct exposure to the L’Aquila earthquake and moderate to high levels of distress as being burnout predictors. Investigating the prevalence of burnout and distress in health-care staff in a postdisaster setting and identifying predictors of burnout development such as stress levels, time-management skills and work-life balance will contribute to the development of preventative strategies and better organization at work with a view to improving public health efficacy and reducing public health costs, given that these workers live in the disaster

  7. Stress and Burnout in Health-Care Workers after the 2009 L'Aquila Earthquake: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Antonella; Fiasca, Fabiana; Mazzei, Mariachiara; Necozione, Stefano; Bianchini, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a work-related mental health impairment, which is now recognized as a real problem in the context of the helping professions due to its adverse health outcomes on efficiency. To our knowledge, the literature on the postdisaster scenario in Italy is limited by a focus on mental health professionals rather than other health-care workers. Our cross-sectional study aims to evaluate the prevalence of burnout and psychopathological distress in different categories of health-care workers, i.e., physicians, nurses, and health-care assistants, working in different departments of L'Aquila St. Salvatore General Hospital 6 years after the 2009 earthquake in order to prevent and reduce work-related burnout. With a two-stage cluster sampling, a total of 8 departments out of a total of 28 departments were selected and the total sample included 300 health-care workers. All the participants completed the following self-reporting questionnaires: a sociodemographic data form, a Maslach Burnout Inventory and a General Health Questionnaire 12 Items (GHQ-12). Statistically significant differences emerged between the total scores of the GHQ-12: post hoc analysis showed that the total average scores of the GHQ-12 were significantly higher in doctors than in health-care assistants. A high prevalence of burnout among doctors (25.97%) emerged. Using multivariate analysis, we identified a hostile relationship with colleagues, direct exposure to the L'Aquila earthquake and moderate to high levels of distress as being burnout predictors. Investigating the prevalence of burnout and distress in health-care staff in a postdisaster setting and identifying predictors of burnout development such as stress levels, time-management skills and work-life balance will contribute to the development of preventative strategies and better organization at work with a view to improving public health efficacy and reducing public health costs, given that these workers live in the disaster

  8. Stress and Burnout in Health-Care Workers after the 2009 L’Aquila Earthquake: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Mattei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Burnout is a work-related mental health impairment, which is now recognized as a real problem in the context of the helping professions due to its adverse health outcomes on efficiency. To our knowledge, the literature on the postdisaster scenario in Italy is limited by a focus on mental health professionals rather than other health-care workers. Our cross-sectional study aims to evaluate the prevalence of burnout and psychopathological distress in different categories of health-care workers, i.e., physicians, nurses, and health-care assistants, working in different departments of L’Aquila St. Salvatore General Hospital 6 years after the 2009 earthquake in order to prevent and reduce work-related burnout. With a two-stage cluster sampling, a total of 8 departments out of a total of 28 departments were selected and the total sample included 300 health-care workers. All the participants completed the following self-reporting questionnaires: a sociodemographic data form, a Maslach Burnout Inventory and a General Health Questionnaire 12 Items (GHQ-12. Statistically significant differences emerged between the total scores of the GHQ-12: post hoc analysis showed that the total average scores of the GHQ-12 were significantly higher in doctors than in health-care assistants. A high prevalence of burnout among doctors (25.97% emerged. Using multivariate analysis, we identified a hostile relationship with colleagues, direct exposure to the L’Aquila earthquake and moderate to high levels of distress as being burnout predictors. Investigating the prevalence of burnout and distress in health-care staff in a postdisaster setting and identifying predictors of burnout development such as stress levels, time-management skills and work-life balance will contribute to the development of preventative strategies and better organization at work with a view to improving public health efficacy and reducing public health costs, given that these workers live in the

  9. Characteristics and practices of Traditional Chinese Medicine retail shops in London, UK: A cross-sectional study using an observational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Lida; Shaw, Debbie; Barnes, Joanne

    2015-09-15

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a popular form of ethnomedicine in the UK, and is accessed by Western, Chinese and other ethnic groups. The current regulatory regime does not effectively protect the public against poor-quality and unsafe TCMs. Understanding ethnopharmacological information on how TCM is promoted and practiced may help to inform initiatives aimed at ensuring the safe use of TCMs in the UK, and put laboratory-based ethnopharmacological investigations of TCMs in a broader context. This study aimed to examine the characteristics and practices of TCM retail outlets in London, UK, and to identify factors relevant to the safe use of TCM in the UK. TCM retail outlets ('shops') in London, UK, were identified using a systematic approach. A structured questionnaire including questions on shop business type was used to recruit participant shops. Shops consenting to participate were visited within six weeks of providing consent. A piloted semi-structured questionnaire on shop characteristics was used for data collection following observation. The British National Formulary 53 was used to classify medical conditions/uses for TCMs promoted in the shops. Data were stored and analysed using MS Access 2003, MS Excel 2003 and SPSS 13. In total, 54 TCM shops in London were identified, of which 94% offered TCM consultations with a TCM practitioner. Detailed characteristics were described within 35/50 shops that gave consent to observing their premises. Most shops labelled and displayed over 150 Chinese Materia Medica (CMMs; crude materials, particularly herbs) for dispensing after consultations with a TCM practitioner. Medical conditions/uses and Patent Chinese Medicines (PCMs) were commonly promoted. In total, 794 occurrences of 205 different medical conditions/uses (median=32, QL=19, QU=48) were identified. These conditions/uses most commonly related to the following therapeutic systems: central nervous system (160/794, 20.2%); musculoskeletal and joint disease

  10. A cross sectional observational study of research activity of allied health teams: is there a link with self-reported success, motivators and barriers to undertaking research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, Rachel J; Mickan, Sharon; Bisset, Leanne

    2017-02-06

    Team-based approaches to research capacity building (RCB) may be an efficient means to promote allied health research participation and activity. In order to tailor such interventions, a clearer understanding of current patterns of research participation within allied health teams is needed. Different self-report measures exist which evaluate a team's research capacity and participation, as well as associated barriers and motivators. However, it remains unclear how such measures are associated with a team's actual research activity (e.g., journal publications, funding received). In response, this observational study aimed to identify the research activity, self-reported success, and motivations and barriers to undertaking research of eight allied health professional (AHP) teams and to explore whether any relationships exist between the self-reported measures and actual research activity within each team. A total of 95 AHPs from eight teams completed the research capacity and culture survey to evaluate team success, barriers and motivators to undertaking research, and an audit of research activity from January 2013 to August 2014 was undertaken within each team. Kendell's correlation coefficients were used to determine the association between research activity (i.e., number of journal publications, ethically approved projects and funding received) and the self-reported measures. Seven out of eight teams rated their teams as having average success in research and demonstrated some form of research activity including at least two ethically approved projects. Research activity varied between teams, with funding received ranging from $0 to over $100,000, and half the teams not producing any journal publications. Team motivators demonstrated a stronger association with research activity compared to barriers, with the motivator "enhancing team credibility" being significantly associated with funding received. No significant association between self-reported research

  11. Assessment of periodontal health status in postmenopausal women visiting dental hospital from in and around Meerut city: Cross-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Deepa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause are the different phases of a woman′s life which have a varied influence on oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production which affects their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels can be seen directly in the oral cavity leading to a few oral conditions and diseases seen more frequently during postmenopausal years. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess periodontal health status in postmenopausal women in and around Meerut city. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised ninety postmenopausal women. History of menopause was recorded, and the dental examinations were done by measuring the following parameters of periodontal health: plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, bleeding on probing (BOP, pocket probing depth, and Russell′s periodontal index. The collected data were subjected to statistical analyses. Results and Conclusion: In the study group, mean age was 55 years, mean missing teeth were 10.3, mean duration of menopause was 9.23. Eleven percent females were completely edentulous, and 5 females had never brushed. Mean PI-s was 1.99, mean GI-s was 1.74, mean BOP was 52.85, and mean Russell′s periodontal index was 4.34. Eleven patients were at the initial stages of destructive periodontal disease, 34 had established destructive periodontal disease while thirty patients had the terminal periodontal disease. These findings suggest that females after menopause are at a risk of developing destructive periodontal disease if proper oral hygiene practices are not followed.

  12. Relationship between pulmonary function and elevated glycated hemoglobin levels in health checkups: A cross-sectional observational study in Japanese participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saigo Baba

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insulin resistance has been associated with cytokines, including interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha soluble receptor, both of which are elevated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Few studies have investigated the relationship between pulmonary function tests using spirometry (PFT and fasting plasma glucose (FPG or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels in Japanese participants. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between PFT in Japanese people who had health checkups and their FPG or HbA1c levels. In the context of preventative medicine, we intend to connect early detection of COPD to an index of blood sugar. Methods: From August 2013 through March 2014, 1019 participants underwent health checkups. PFT, FPG, and HbA1c measurements were conducted. HbA1c levels were measured according to National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program guidelines. Results: Participants with FPG ≥100 mg/dL and HbA1c ≥5.6% showed a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s:forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC compared to participants with lower FPG and Hb1Ac levels. Prevalence of FEV1/FVC values <70% in PFT differed significantly depending on sex, age, body mass index, FPG, HbA1c, and smoking habits. Age (≥60 years, HbA1c (≥5.6%, and current or former smoking were associated with FEV1/FVC values <70%. Conclusion: In Japan, HbA1c levels were higher in participants with FEV1/FVC values <70% in PFT than in those with FEV1/FVC ≥70%. In preventive medicine, PFT by spirometry should be performed in elderly participants with elevated HbA1c levels who are current or former smokers.

  13. Recurrent neck pain and headaches in preadolescents associated with mechanical dysfunction of the cervical spine: a cross-sectional observational study with 131 students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber Hellstenius, Sue A

    2009-10-01

    To identify if there were differences in the cervical biomechanics in preadolescents who had recurrent neck pain and/or headaches and those who did not. A controlled comparison study with a convenience sample of 131 students (10-13 years old) was performed. A questionnaire placed students in the no pain group or in the neck pain/headache group. A physical examination was performed by a doctor of chiropractic to establish head posture, active cervical rotation, passive cervical joint functioning, and muscle impairment. The unpaired t test and the chi(2) test were used to test for differences between the 2 groups, and data were analyzed using SPSS 15 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill). Forty percent of the children (n = 52) reported neck pain and/or recurrent headache. Neck pain and/or headache were not associated with forward head posture, impaired functioning in cervical paraspinal muscles, and joint dysfunction in the upper and middle cervical spine in these subjects. However, joint dysfunction in the lower cervical spine was significantly associated with neck pain and/or headache in these preadolescents. Most of the students had nonsymptomatic biomechanical dysfunction of the upper cervical spine. There was a wide variation between parental report and the child's self-report of trauma history and neck pain and/or headache prevalence. In this study, the physical examination findings between preadolescents with neck pain and/or headaches and those who were symptom free differed significantly in one of the parameters measured. Cervical joint dysfunction was a significant finding among those preadolescents complaining of neck pain and/or headache as compared to those who did not.

  14. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in men with urethritis in a large public hospital in Brussels, Belgium: An observational, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libois, Agnès; Hallin, Marie; Crucitti, Tania; Delforge, Marc; De Wit, Stéphane

    2018-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is a cause of urethritis. While resistance to azithromycin is increasing, routine detection of MG is not performed in Belgium, where its prevalence is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine prevalence of MG in men with urethritis. An "in-house" amplification assay detecting MG was performed on urine of men with complaints of urethritis who consulted the emergency unit or the Sexually Transmitted Infection clinic of our public hospital in Brussels. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) were tested on the same sample. A total of 187 men were tested. Prevalence of MG was 9% (95% Confidence Interval: 5 to 13.2%). CT was detected in 20%, NG in 22% and 56% of samples were negative for these three pathogens. Neither age, ethnic origin, sexual orientation nor HIV infection were associated with MG urethritis. M. genitalium was identified in 9% of men with complaints of urethritis indicating that amplification assay detecting MG should be implemented in routine testing for those patients.

  15. Associations of health, physical activity and weight status with motorised travel and transport carbon dioxide emissions: a cross-sectional, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Brand, Christian; Ogilvie, David

    2012-08-03

    Motorised travel and associated carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions generate substantial health costs; in the case of motorised travel, this may include contributing to rising obesity levels. Obesity has in turn been hypothesised to increase motorised travel and/or CO₂ emissions, both because heavier people may use motorised travel more and because heavier people may choose larger and less fuel-efficient cars. These hypothesised associations have not been examined empirically, however, nor has previous research examined associations with other health characteristics. Our aim was therefore to examine how and why weight status, health, and physical activity are associated with transport CO₂ emissions. 3463 adults completed questionnaires in the baseline iConnect survey at three study sites in the UK, reporting their health, weight, height and past-week physical activity. Seven-day recall instruments were used to assess travel behaviour and, together with data on car characteristics, were used to estimate CO2 emissions. We used path analysis to examine the extent to which active travel, motorised travel and car engine size explained associations between health characteristics and CO₂ emissions. CO₂ emissions were higher in overweight or obese participants (multivariable standardized probit coefficients 0.16, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.25 for overweight vs. normal weight; 0.16, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.28 for obese vs. normal weight). Lower active travel and, particularly for obesity, larger car engine size explained 19-31% of this effect, but most of the effect was directly explained by greater distance travelled by motor vehicles. Walking for recreation and leisure-time physical activity were associated with higher motorised travel distance and therefore higher CO₂ emissions, while active travel was associated with lower CO₂ emissions. Poor health and illness were not independently associated with CO₂ emissions. Establishing the direction of causality between weight status

  16. Associations of health, physical activity and weight status with motorised travel and transport carbon dioxide emissions: a cross-sectional, observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Anna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motorised travel and associated carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions generate substantial health costs; in the case of motorised travel, this may include contributing to rising obesity levels. Obesity has in turn been hypothesised to increase motorised travel and/or CO2 emissions, both because heavier people may use motorised travel more and because heavier people may choose larger and less fuel-efficient cars. These hypothesised associations have not been examined empirically, however, nor has previous research examined associations with other health characteristics. Our aim was therefore to examine how and why weight status, health, and physical activity are associated with transport CO2 emissions. Methods 3463 adults completed questionnaires in the baseline iConnect survey at three study sites in the UK, reporting their health, weight, height and past-week physical activity. Seven-day recall instruments were used to assess travel behaviour and, together with data on car characteristics, were used to estimate CO2 emissions. We used path analysis to examine the extent to which active travel, motorised travel and car engine size explained associations between health characteristics and CO2 emissions. Results CO2 emissions were higher in overweight or obese participants (multivariable standardized probit coefficients 0.16, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.25 for overweight vs. normal weight; 0.16, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.28 for obese vs. normal weight. Lower active travel and, particularly for obesity, larger car engine size explained 19-31% of this effect, but most of the effect was directly explained by greater distance travelled by motor vehicles. Walking for recreation and leisure-time physical activity were associated with higher motorised travel distance and therefore higher CO2 emissions, while active travel was associated with lower CO2 emissions. Poor health and illness were not independently associated with CO2 emissions. Conclusions Establishing

  17. Health of men, women, and children in post-trafficking services in Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam: an observational cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ligia; Pocock, Nicola S; Naisanguansri, Varaporn; Suos, Soksreymom; Dickson, Brett; Thuy, Doan; Koehler, Jobst; Sirisup, Kittiphan; Pongrungsee, Nisakorn; Nguyen, Van Anh; Borland, Rosilyne; Dhavan, Poonam; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2015-03-01

    Trafficking is a crime of global proportions involving extreme forms of exploitation and abuse. Yet little research has been done of the health risks and morbidity patterns for men, women, and children trafficked for various forms of forced labour. We carried out face-to-face interviews with a consecutive sample of individuals entering 15 post-trafficking services in Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam. We asked participants about living and working conditions, experience of violence, and health outcomes. We measured symptoms of anxiety and depression with the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist and post-traumatic stress disorder with the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, and used adjusted logistic regression models to estimate the effect of trafficking on these mental health outcomes, controlling for age, sector of exploitation, and time in trafficking. We interviewed 1102 people, of whom 1015 reached work destinations. Participants worked in various sectors including sex work (329 [32%]), fishing (275 [27%]), and factories (136 [13%]). 481 (48%) of 1015 experienced physical violence, sexual violence, or both, with 198 (35%) of 566 women and girls reporting sexual violence. 478 (47%) of 1015 participants were threatened and 198 (20%) were locked in a room. 685 (70%) of 985 who had data available worked 7 days per week and 296 (30%) of 989 worked at least 11 hours per day. 222 (22%) of 983 had a serious injury at work. 61·2% (95% CI 58·2-64·2) of participants reported symptom of depression, 42·8% (39·8-45·9) reported symptoms of anxiety, and 38·9% (36·0-42·0) reported symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. 5·2% (4·0-6·8) had attempted suicide in the past month. Participants who experienced extremely excessive overtime at work, restricted freedom, bad living conditions, threats, or severe violence were more likely to report symptoms of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. This is the first health study of a large and diverse sample of men, women

  18. Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmaier, S; Passarino, G; Tanaka, R; Baglio, J; Bolzoni, P; Boughezal, R; Brein, O; Collins-Tooth, C; Dawson, S; Dean, S; Denner, A; Farrington, S; Felcini, M; Flechl, M; de Florian, D; Forte, S; Grazzini, M; Hackstein, C; Hahn, T; Harlander, R; Hartonen, T; Heinemeyer, S; Huston, J; Kalinowski, A; Krämer, M; Krauss, F; Lee, J S; Lehti, S; Maltoni, F; Mazumdar, K; Moch, S -O; Mück, A; Mühlleitner, M; Nason, P; Neu, C; Oleari, C; Olsen, J; Palmer, S; Petriello, F; Piacquadio, G; Pilaftsis, A; Potter, C T; Puljak, I; Qian, J; Rebuzzi, D; Reina, L; Rzehak, H; Schumacher, M; Slavich, P; Spira, M; Stöckli, F; Thorne, R S; Acosta, M Vazquez; Vickey, T; Vicini, A; Wackeroth, D; Warsinsky, M; Weber, M; Weiglein, G; Weydert, C; Yu, J; Zaro, M; Zirke, T

    2011-01-01

    This Report summarizes the results of the first 10 months' activities of the LHC Higgs Cross Sections Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the status-of-art on Higgs Physics at the LHC integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. The Report is more than a mere collection of the proceedings of the general meetings. The subgroups have been working in different directions. An attempt has been made to present the first Report from these subgroups in a complete and homogeneous form. The subgroups' contributions correspondingly comprise the main parts of the Report. A significant amount of work has been performed in providing higher-order corrections to the Higgs-boson cross sections and pinning down the theoretical uncertainty of the Standard Model predictions. This Report comprises explicit numerical results on total cross sections, leaving the issues of event selection cuts and differential distributions to future publications. The subjects for further study a...

  19. Distracted Biking: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Elizabeth Suzanne; Arabian, Sandra Strack; Breeze, Janis L; Salzler, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Commuting via bicycle is a very popular mode of transportation in the Northeastern United States. Boston, MA, has seen a rapid increase in bicycle ridership over the past decade, which has raised concerns and awareness about bicycle safety. An emerging topic in this field is distracted bicycle riding. This study was conducted to provide descriptive data on the prevalence and type of distracted bicycling in Boston at different times of day. This was a cross-sectional study in which observers tallied bicyclists at 4 high traffic intersections in Boston during various peak commuting hours for 2 types of distractions: auditory (earbuds/phones in or on ears), and visual/tactile (electronic device or other object in hand). Nineteen hundred seventy-four bicyclists were observed and 615 (31.2%), 95% CI [29, 33%], were distracted. Of those observed, auditory distractions were the most common (N = 349; 17.7%), 95% CI [16, 19], p = .0003, followed by visual/tactile distractions (N = 266; 13.5%), 95% CI [12, 15]. The highest proportion (40.7%), 95% CI [35, 46], of distracted bicyclists was observed during the midday commute (between 13:30 and 15:00). Distracted bicycling is a prevalent safety concern in the city of Boston, as almost a third of all bicyclists exhibited distracted behavior. Education and public awareness campaigns should be designed to decrease distracted bicycling behaviors and promote bicycle safety in Boston. An awareness of the prevalence of distracted biking can be utilized to promote bicycle safety campaigns dedicated to decreasing distracted bicycling and to provide a baseline against which improvements can be measured.

  20. Cross‑Sectional Studies Published in Indian Journal of Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement.[2] Items relate to title, abstract, introduction, methods, results and discussion sections of articles. This. Cross‑Sectional Studies Published in Indian Journal of Community Medicine: Evaluation of Adherence to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational.

  1. Relaxation of the one child policy and trends in caesarean section rates and birth outcomes in China between 2012 and 2016: observational study of nearly seven million health facility births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Juan; Mu, Yi; Li, Xiaohong; Tang, Wen; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Zheng; Huang, Xiaona; Scherpbier, Robert W; Guo, Sufang; Li, Mingrong; Dai, Li; Deng, Kui; Deng, Changfei; Li, Qi; Kang, Leni; Zhu, Jun; Ronsmans, Carine

    2018-03-05

    To examine how the relaxation of the one child policy and policies to reduce caesarean section rates might have affected trends over time in caesarean section rates and perinatal and pregnancy related mortality in China. Observational study. China's National Maternal Near Miss Surveillance System (NMNMSS). 6 838 582 births at 28 completed weeks or more of gestation or birth weight ≥1000 g in 438 hospitals in the NMNMSS between 2012 and 2016. Obstetric risk was defined using a modified Robson classification. The main outcome measures were changes in parity and age distributions and relative frequency of each Robson group, crude and adjusted trends over time in caesarean section rates within each risk category (using Poisson regression with a robust variance estimator), and trends in perinatal and pregnancy related mortality over time. Caesarean section rates declined steadily between 2012 and 2016 (crude relative risk 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.89 to 0.93), reaching an overall hospital based rate of 41.1% in 2016. The relaxation of the one child policy was associated with an increase in the proportion of multiparous births (from 34.1% in 2012 to 46.7% in 2016), and births in women with a uterine scar nearly doubled (from 9.8% to 17.7% of all births). Taking account of these changes, the decline in caesarean sections was amplified over time (adjusted relative risk 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.84). Caesarean sections declined noticeably in nulliparous women (0.75, 0.73 to 0.77) but also declined in multiparous women without a uterine scar (0.65, 0.62 to 0.77). The decrease in caesarean section rates was most pronounced in hospitals with the highest rates in 2012, consistent with the government's policy of targeting hospitals with the highest rates. Perinatal mortality declined from 10.1 to 7.2 per 1000 births over the same period (0.87, 0.83 to 0.91), and there was no change in pregnancy related mortality over time. China is the only country that

  2. a cross-sectional analytic study 2014

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of HIV/AIDS comprehensive correct knowledge among Sudanese university: a cross-sectional analytic study 2014. ... There are limited studies on this topic in Sudan. In this study we investigated the Comprehensive correct ...

  3. Evidence-Based Novel Changes in Prevalence and Symptom Characteristics of Spleen Deficiency Syndrome in Persons of Varied Health Status and Different Ages: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of the organs is a vital pathophysiologic characteristic in the elderly. A core TCM aging theory is known as aging caused by spleen deficiency syndrome (SDS that can be found in ancient and modern literature. The key objectives of this study were to establish a full-scale trial to evaluate the prevalence, symptom severity, frequency, and distribution of SDS in different age groups as related to health status (healthy, subhealthy, and chronic disease to elucidate the role of spleen deficiency in the aging process and deterioration of health status. This cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 4 hospitals in China. 1390 participants aged 20–79 were interviewed by investigators who completed questionnaires recording prevalence, severity, and frequency of symptoms as well as other relevant information. The results revealed that prevalence and symptom characteristics of SDS showed regularities with increasing age and deteriorating health status. It supports the TCM concept that spleen deficiency is an important mechanism of aging, subhealth, and chronic diseases. Early recognition of the warning signs and symptoms of SDS may lead to intervention and even prevention strategies for subhealth and chronic diseases as well as promotion of healthy aging.

  4. Each small antral follicle in ovaries of women with polycystic ovary syndrome produces more antimüllerian hormone than its counterpart in a normal ovary: an observational cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, Priya; Dilgil, Merve; Gudi, Anil; Shah, Amit; Akwaa, Charity; Homburg, Roy

    2015-02-01

    To ascertain if subfertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) secrete more antimüllerian hormone (AMH) per antral follicle than control women. Observational cross-sectional study. Fertility clinic. A total of 438 women attending the fertility clinic over a period of 13 months from September 2012 to September 2013. Serum concentrations of AMH and the total antral follicle count (AFC) were obtained from women attending the fertility clinic. The ratio of AMH/AFC for each subject was calculated. Women were categorized into three groups: PCOS, polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM), and control. PCOS and PCOM were defined based on the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society for Reproductive Medicine Rotterdam consensus criteria. The ratio of AMH/AFC for each subject in the three groups: PCOS, PCOM, and control. The median AMH/AFC ratios in the PCOS, PCOM, and control groups were 1.92, 1.13, and 1.00, respectively. The AMH/AFC ratio was significantly higher in the PCOS group compared with the PCOM and control groups (F[2,152] = 21.82). Women in the three groups were not statistically different regarding age, body mass index, earlier ovarian surgery, and smoking status. Subfertile women with PCOS secrete significantly more AMH per antral follicle than women with PCOM only and control women. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Peripheral artery disease assessed by ankle-brachial index in patients with established cardiovascular disease or at least one risk factor for atherothrombosis - CAREFUL Study: A national, multi-center, cross-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabak Omur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the presence of peripheral artery disease (PAD via the ankle brachial index (ABI in patients with known cardiovascular and/or cerebrovascular diseases or with at least one risk factor for atherothrombosis. Methods Patients with a history of atherothrombotic events, or aged 50-69 years with at least one cardiovascular risk factor, or > = 70 years of age were included in this multicenter, cross-sectional, non-interventional study (DIREGL04074. Demographics, medical history, physical examination findings, and physician awareness of PAD were analyzed. The number of patients with low ABI ( Results A total of 530 patients (mean age, 63.4 ± 8.7 years; 50.2% female were enrolled. Hypertension and dyslipidemia were present in 88.7% and 65.5% of patients, respectively. PAD-related symptoms were evident in about one-third of the patients, and at least one of the pedal pulses was negative in 6.5% of patients. The frequency of low ABI was 20.0% in the whole study population and 30% for patients older than 70 years. Older age, greater number of total risk factors, and presence of PAD-related physical findings were associated with increased likelihood of low ABI (p Conclusion Our results indicate that advanced age, greater number of total risk factors and presence of PAD-related physical findings were associated with increased likelihood of low ABI. These findings are similar to those reported in similar studies of different populations, and document a fairly high prevalence of PAD in a Mediterranean country.

  6. The potential impact of Brexit and immigration policies on the GP workforce in England: a cross-sectional observational study of GP qualification region and the characteristics of the areas and population they served in September 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmail, Aneez; Panagioti, Maria; Kontopantelis, Evangelos

    2017-11-16

    The UK is dependent on international doctors, with a greater proportion of non-UK qualified doctors working in its universal health care system than in any other European country, except Ireland and Norway. The terms of the UK exit from the European Union can reduce the ability of European Economic Area (EEA) qualified doctors to work in the UK, while new visa requirements will significantly restrict the influx of non-EEA doctors. We aimed to explore the implications of policy restrictions on immigration, by regionally and spatially describing the characteristics of general practitioners (GPs) by region of medical qualification and the characteristics of the populations they serve. This is a cross-sectional study on 37,792 of 41,865 GPs in England, as of 30 September 2016. The study involved age, sex, full-time equivalent (FTE), country and region of qualification and geography (organisational regions) of individual GPs. Additionally at the practice and geography levels, we studied patient list size by age groups, average patient location deprivation, the overall morbidity as measured by the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) and the average payment made to primary care per patient. Non-UK qualified GPs comprised 21.1% of the total numbers of GPs, with the largest percentage observed in East England (29.8%). Compared to UK qualified GPs, EEA and elsewhere qualified GPs had higher FTE (medians were 0.80, 0.89 and 0.93, respectively) and worked in practices with higher median patient location deprivation (18.3, 22.5 and 25.2, respectively). Practices with high percentages of EEA and elsewhere qualified GPs served patients who resided in more deprived areas, had lower GP-to-patient ratios and lower GP-to-cumulative QOF register ratios. A decrease in pay as the percentage of elsewhere qualified GPs increased was observed; a 10% increase in elsewhere qualified GPs was linked to a £1 decrease (95% confidence interval 0.5-1.4) in average pay per patient. A large

  7. Standardized screening for periodontitis as an integral part of multidisciplinary management of adults with type 2 diabetes: an observational cross-sectional study of cohorts in the USA and UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumerantz, Andrew S; Bissett, Susan M; Dong, Fanglong; Ochoa, Cesar; Wassall, Rebecca R; Davila, Heidi; Barbee, Melanie; Nguyen, John; Vila, Pamela; Preshaw, Philip M

    2017-01-01

    To determine prevalence and factors predictive of periodontitis by using a standardized assessment model in adults with type 2 diabetes. We performed an observational cross-sectional study to determine the burden of periodontitis in adults with type 2 diabetes attending urban, ambulatory referral centers in the USA and UK. Full-mouth probing was performed and periodontitis was diagnosed based on either a low (≥5 mm at ≥1 site) or high pocket probing-depth threshold (≥6 mm at ≥1 site). Results were stratified into a five-stage schema and integrated with other clinical variables into the novel Diabetes Cross-Disciplinary Index to function as a balanced health scorecard. Corresponding demographic and routinely collected health data were obtained and comparisons were made between patients with and without periodontitis. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors predictive of the presence or absence of periodontitis. Between our two cohorts, 253 patients were screened. Caucasians comprised >90% and Hispanic Americans >75% of the UK and US cohorts, respectively. Males and females were equally distributed; mean age was 53.6±11 years; and 17 (6.7%) were edentulous. Of the 236 dentate patients, 128 (54.2%) had periodontitis by low threshold and 57 (24.2%) by high threshold. Just 17 (7.2%) were periodontally healthy. No significant differences in age, HbA1c, blood pressure, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or smoking status (all p>0.05) were identified between those with or without periodontitis (regardless of threshold) and none was found to be a significant predictor of disease. Periodontitis is frequent in adults with type 2 diabetes and all should be screened. Periodontal health status can be visualized with other comorbidities and complications using a novel balanced scorecard that could facilitate patient-clinician communication, shared decision-making, and prioritization of individual healthcare needs.

  8. The effect of a physiotherapy education compared with a non-healthcare education on the attitudes and beliefs of students towards functioning in individuals with back pain: an observational, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Cormac; Murphy, Dervla; Clark, Michael; Lee, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the difference in attitudes: (1) between first and fourth year physiotherapy students towards functioning in individuals with back pain; and (2) between physiotherapy students and non-healthcare students towards functioning in individuals with back pain. Observational, cross-sectional study. Glasgow Caledonian University, Scotland, UK. First year physiotherapy (n=61) and non-healthcare students (n=61), and fourth year physiotherapy (n=62) and non-healthcare students (n=62). All participants completed the Health Care Providers' Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (range 15 to 105). This questionnaire measures attitudes towards functioning in individuals with back pain. Fourth year physiotherapy students had more positive attitudes towards functioning in individuals with back pain than first year physiotherapy students [57.4 vs 66.6 (mean difference -9.2, 95% confidence interval -12.2 to -6.1, Pstudents had more positive attitudes towards functioning in individuals with back pain compared with first year non-healthcare students [69.2 vs 65.3 (mean difference -3.9, 95% confidence interval -7.2 to -0.5, P=0.03)]. Physiotherapy students had more positive attitudes than non-healthcare students in the first year [66.6 vs 69.2 (mean difference -2.6, 95% confidence interval -5.5 to 0.4, P=0.08)] and the fourth year [57.4 vs 65.3 (mean difference -7.9, 95% confidence interval -11.4 to -4.4, Pphysiotherapy education brings about positive student attitudes towards functioning in individuals with back pain. This may be partly attributable to receiving a university degree education, but would appear to be further enhanced by specifically receiving a physiotherapy degree. This may facilitate students to become more evidence-based practitioners following qualification. Copyright 2009 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of healthcare professionals' personality and religious beliefs on the decisions to forego life sustaining treatments: an observational, multicentre, cross-sectional study in Greek intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntantana, Asimenia; Matamis, Dimitrios; Savvidou, Savvoula; Marmanidou, Kyriaki; Giannakou, Maria; Gouva, Μary; Nakos, George; Koulouras, Vasilios

    2017-07-21

    To assess the opinion of intensive care unit (ICU) personnel and the impact of their personality and religious beliefs on decisions to forego life-sustaining treatments (DFLSTs). Cross-sectional, observational, national study in 18 multidisciplinary Greek ICUs, with >6 beds, between June and December 2015. 149 doctors and 320 nurses who voluntarily and anonymously answered the End-of-Life (EoL) attitudes, Personality (EPQ) and Religion (SpREUK) questionnaires. Multivariate analysis was used to detect the impact of personality and religious beliefs on the DFLSTs. The participation rate was 65.7%. Significant differences in DFLSTs between doctors and nurses were identified. 71.4% of doctors and 59.8% of nurses stated that the family was not properly informed about DFLST and the main reason was the family's inability to understand medical details. 51% of doctors expressed fear of litigation and 47% of them declared that this concern influenced the information given to family and nursing staff. 7.5% of the nurses considered DFLSTs dangerous, criminal or illegal. Multivariate logistic regression identified that to be a nurse and to have a high neuroticism score were independent predictors for preferring the term 'passive euthanasia' over 'futile care' (OR 4.41, 95% CI 2.21 to 8.82, ppersonality trait (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.25 to 4.80, ppersonality and religious beliefs influence the attitudes of ICU personnel when making decisions to forego life-sustaining treatments. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Are general and strategic measures of organizational context and leadership associated with knowledge and attitudes toward evidence-based practices in public behavioral health settings? A cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Byron J; Mandell, David S; Hadley, Trevor R; Rubin, Ronnie M; Evans, Arthur C; Hurford, Matthew O; Beidas, Rinad S

    2017-05-12

    Examining the role of modifiable barriers and facilitators is a necessary step toward developing effective implementation strategies. This study examines whether both general (organizational culture, organizational climate, and transformational leadership) and strategic (implementation climate and implementation leadership) organizational-level factors predict therapist-level determinants of implementation (knowledge of and attitudes toward evidence-based practices). Within the context of a system-wide effort to increase the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) and recovery-oriented care, we conducted an observational, cross-sectional study of 19 child-serving agencies in the City of Philadelphia, including 23 sites, 130 therapists, 36 supervisors, and 22 executive administrators. Organizational variables included characteristics such as EBP initiative participation, program size, and proportion of independent contractor therapists; general factors such as organizational culture and climate (Organizational Social Context Measurement System) and transformational leadership (Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire); and strategic factors such as implementation climate (Implementation Climate Scale) and implementation leadership (Implementation Leadership Scale). Therapist-level variables included demographics, attitudes toward EBPs (Evidence-Based Practice Attitudes Scale), and knowledge of EBPs (Knowledge of Evidence-Based Services Questionnaire). We used linear mixed-effects regression models to estimate the associations between the predictor (organizational characteristics, general and strategic factors) and dependent (knowledge of and attitudes toward EBPs) variables. Several variables were associated with therapists' knowledge of EBPs. Clinicians in organizations with more proficient cultures or higher levels of transformational leadership (idealized influence) had greater knowledge of EBPs; conversely, clinicians in organizations with more resistant cultures

  11. [The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology [STROBE] statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, E. von; Altman, D.G.; Egger, M.

    2008-01-01

    Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative developed...... recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September, 2004, with methodologists...... and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case...

  12. Preparation and Observation of Fresh-frozen Sections of the Green Fluorescent Protein Transgenic Mouse Head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Masahito; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Kato, Ichiro; Hiraga, Koichi; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Demura, Makoto; Mori, Yoshihiro; Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Kawano, Keiichi

    2006-01-01

    Hard tissue decalcification can cause variation in the constituent protein characteristics. This paper describes a method of preparating of frozen mouse head sections so as to clearly observe the nature of the constituent proteins. Frozen sections of various green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mouse heads were prepared using the film method developed by Kawamoto and Shimizu. This method made specimen dissection without decalcification possible, wherein GFP was clearly observed in an undamaged state. Conversely, using the same method with decalcification made GFP observation in the transgenic mouse head difficult. This new method is suitable for observing GFP marked cells, enabling us to follow the transplanted GFP marked cells within frozen head sections

  13. Methodology series module 3: Cross-sectional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. Unlike in case–control studies (participants selected based on the outcome status or cohort studies (participants selected based on the exposure status, the participants in a cross-sectional study are just selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set for the study. Once the participants have been selected for the study, the investigator follows the study to assess the exposure and the outcomes. Cross-sectional designs are used for population-based surveys and to assess the prevalence of diseases in clinic-based samples. These studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive. They may be conducted either before planning a cohort study or a baseline in a cohort study. These types of designs will give us information about the prevalence of outcomes or exposures; this information will be useful for designing the cohort study. However, since this is a 1-time measurement of exposure and outcome, it is difficult to derive causal relationships from cross-sectional analysis. We can estimate the prevalence of disease in cross-sectional studies. Furthermore, we will also be able to estimate the odds ratios to study the association between exposure and the outcomes in this design.

  14. Methodology Series Module 3: Cross-sectional Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. Unlike in case-control studies (participants selected based on the outcome status) or cohort studies (participants selected based on the exposure status), the participants in a cross-sectional study are just selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set for the study. Once the participants have been selected for the study, the investigator follows the study to assess the exposure and the outcomes. Cross-sectional designs are used for population-based surveys and to assess the prevalence of diseases in clinic-based samples. These studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive. They may be conducted either before planning a cohort study or a baseline in a cohort study. These types of designs will give us information about the prevalence of outcomes or exposures; this information will be useful for designing the cohort study. However, since this is a 1-time measurement of exposure and outcome, it is difficult to derive causal relationships from cross-sectional analysis. We can estimate the prevalence of disease in cross-sectional studies. Furthermore, we will also be able to estimate the odds ratios to study the association between exposure and the outcomes in this design.

  15. Cause, effect, and observational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Block

    2013-01-01

    A critical niche of the Journal of Wildlife Management is to publish research that will help guide wildlife conservation. Hence, nearly every paper concludes with a Management Implications section which is the "so what'" part of the paper. In other words, how does the science reported in the paper contribute to the management and conservation of the...

  16. Digital Processing for Modifying and Rearranging Rectilinear and Section Scan Data under Direct Observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, D. E.; Edwards, R. Q. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1969-01-15

    Our digital processor for scan data is an on-site instrument that is intermediate in complexity between conventional optical processing devices and large digital computers. It is designed to provide for a wide and flexible range of secondary data operations, direct picture display on a CRT screen, and full operator control of both processing and display operations at the time of viewing. The instrument does not require the user to learn complicated programing schemes. The operator is expected to be a physician who will control the parameters of interest by punching preset buttons on a keyboard while observing changes displayed on a CRT screen. The system functions primarily as an investigative tool for studying perception of scan information and ways of making this information more meaningful. Data operations include data bounding, spatial averaging, iso-count line generation, image addition and subtraction, and several forms of quantitative read-out for analysis of regional data. The instrument is intended to serve as a central processor and reader for data from several units. Investigations with this processor have served as a source of information leading to the design of more simple processing devices suitable for wider acceptance. For example, the Mark III rectilinear and transverse section brain scanner that has evolved from this project is expected to be a practical improvement of the brain study method. This instrument is designed especially for rapid brain scanning using {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate. It has a self-contained computer, integrated digital circuits for compactness and economy, and provision for transverse section scanning. The advantages of this system are that it provides a more thorough study using both transverse section and rectilinear modes, rapid performance, precise orientation of section and rectilinear views to the patient position, efficient transfer of information between physician and machine during studies, and economy of design

  17. Elliptical cross section fuel rod study II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, H.; Marajofsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper it is continued the behavior analysis and comparison between cylindrical fuel rods of circular and elliptical cross sections. Taking into account the accepted models in the literature, the fission gas swelling and release were studied. An analytical comparison between both kinds of rod reveals a sensible gas release reduction in the elliptical case, a 50% swelling reduction due to intragranular bubble coalescence mechanism and an important swelling increase due to migration bubble mechanism. From the safety operation point of view, for the same linear power, an elliptical cross section rod is favored by lower central temperatures, lower gas release rates, greater gas store in ceramic matrix and lower stored energy rates. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  18. Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuris

    1995-03-01

    Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical

  19. Science Studies from Archived Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. P.; Manweiler, J. W.; Patterson, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Goals for spaceflight investigations include the discovery and characterization of physical features of the in- situ and remote environment. Abundant successes of flight investigations are easily documented. Prudent scientific practice dictates that to the maximum extent possible, observations should be well-characterized, reliably catalogued, and knowledgeably interpreted. This is especially true of data sets used in the publication of results in the reviewed literature. Typical scientific standards include making primary data numbers available to other investigators for replicated study. While NASA's contracts with investigators have required that data be submitted to agency official archives, the details, completeness (especially of ancillary and metadata) and forms differ from investigation to investigation and project to project. After several generations of improvements and refinements, modern computing and communications technology makes it possible to link multiple data sets at multiple locations through a unified data model. Virtual Observatories provide the overall organizational structures and SPASE-compliant XML defines the data granules that can be located. Proofs of the feasibility and value of this latest approach remain to be seen, but its ultimate goal of improving archival research using flight-derived data sets appears to depend on user acceptance and efficient use of the VxO resources. Criteria based on the authors experience in science derived from archival sources follow: 1. Interfaces and tools must be easy to learn, easy to use, and reliable. 2. Data numbers must be promptly downloadable in plain text. 3. Data must be available in or readily converted to physical units using calibrations and algorithms easily traceable as part of the search. Knowledge about (or heritage of) specific data items present in the science literature must be associated with the search for that item. 4. Data items must be trustworthy, having quoted uncertainties and

  20. Associations between Both Lignan and Yogurt Consumption and Cardiovascular Risk Parameters in an Elderly Population: Observations from a Cross-Sectional Approach in the PREDIMED Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creus-Cuadros, Anna; Tresserra-Rimbau, Anna; Quifer-Rada, Paola; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Corella, Dolores; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Fitó, Montse; Estruch, Ramon; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Lapetra, José; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Ros, Emili; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Moreno, Juan José; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Sorli, Jose Vicente; Basora, Josep; Schröder, Helmut; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria

    2017-04-01

    The study of dietary patterns is gaining interest. Although the health benefits of yogurt and lignans have been investigated separately, to our knowledge there are no studies on their associative effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible association between yogurt and lignans using biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in an elderly population. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the association between baseline dietary information and cardiovascular risk parameters using food frequency questionnaires. We enrolled 7,169 Spanish participants of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study (elderly men and women at high cardiovascular risk) from June 2003 to June 2009. Cardiovascular risk parameters, including cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, body mass index, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure were measured. General linear models were used to assess the relationship between categorical variables (yogurt, total dairy intake, lignans, and yogurt plus lignans) and cardiovascular risk parameters. The consumption of either yogurt or lignans seems to have beneficial effects on human health, but the consumption of both showed greater improvement in some cardiovascular health parameters. Indeed, participants with a higher consumption of both yogurt and lignans showed lower total cholesterol (estimated β-coefficients=-6.18; P=0.001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (β=-4.92; P=0.005). In contrast, participants with lower yogurt and lignan consumption had a higher body mass index (β=0.28; P=0.007) and weight (β=1.20; P=0.008). High lignan and yogurt consumption is associated with a better cardiovascular risk parameters profile in an elderly Mediterranean population. Further research is warranted to determine the mechanisms and consequences of this potential effect. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The relationship between observer-based toxicity scoring and patient assessed symptom severity after treatment for head and neck cancer. A correlative cross sectional study of the DAHANCA toxicity scoring system and the EORTC quality of life questionnaires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Kenneth; Bonde Jensen, Anders; Grau, Cai

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Morbidity is an important issue in cancer research. The observer-based toxicity scoring system used by DAHANCA (the Danish head and neck cancer study group) has proved itself sensitive to differences in toxicity in a large randomised study, but like other toxicity scoring systems it has not been formally validated. Conversely, the EORTC quality of life questionnaire (QLQ) has been validated as a tool for collecting information about the consequences of disease and treatment on the well being of cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the two methods of side effect recording. Patients and methods: One hundred and sixteen recurrence free patients with laryngeal (n=44), pharyngeal (n=34) and oral cavity (n=38) cancer attending follow-up after radiotherapy (n=83) or surgery (n=33) completed EORTC C30, the core questionnaire concerning general symptoms and function and EORTC H and N35 the head and neck specific questionnaire. The attending physicians in the follow-up clinic evaluated and recorded DAHANCA toxicity scores on the same patients. Results: The DAHANCA toxicity scoring system and the EORTC QLQ correlated with several clinical endpoints. The conceptually similar endpoints of the two methods correlated significantly. The objective endpoints of the DAHANCA scoring system were only correlated with quality of life endpoints to a very low degree. The DAHANCA toxicity scores had a low sensitivity (0.48-0.74) in detecting equivalent subjective complaints from the questionnaires and the observer-based scoring system severely underestimated patient complaints. A specific patient group where the DAHANCA score had a higher tendency to fail could not be detected. Conclusion: The DAHANCA toxicity score is an effective instrument in assessing objective treatment induced toxicity in head and neck cancer patients but insensitive and non-specific with regard to patient assessed subjective endpoints. This

  2. The thyroid status of children and adolescents in Fukushima Prefecture examined during 20-30 months after the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster: a cross-sectional, observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Watanobe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A possible increase in thyroid cancer in the young represents the most critical health problem to be considered after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan (March 2011, which is an important lesson from the Chernobyl disaster (April 1986. Although it was reported that childhood thyroid cancer had started to increase 3-5 yr after the Chernobyl accident, we speculate that the actual period of latency might have been shorter than reported, considering the delay in initiating thyroid surveillance in the then Soviet Union and also the lower quality of ultrasonographic testing in the 1980s. Our primary objectives in the present study were to identify any possible thyroid abnormality in young Fukushima citizens at a relatively early timepoint (20-30 months after the accident, and also to strive to find a possible relationship among thyroid ultrasonographic findings, thyroid-relevant biochemical markers, and iodine-131 ground deposition in the locations of residence where they stayed during very early days after the accident. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a cross-sectional study. We targeted the Fukushima residents who were 18 yr old or younger (including fetuses at the time of the accident. Our examinations comprised a questionnaire, thyroid ultrasonography, thyroid-related blood tests, and urinary iodine measurement. We analyzed a possible relationship among thyroid ultrasonographic findings (1,137 subjects, serum hormonal data (731 subjects, urinary iodine concentrations (770 subjects, and iodine-131 ground deposition (1,137 subjects. We did not find any significant relationship among these indicators, and no participant was diagnosed to contract thyroid cancer. CONCLUSIONS: At the timepoint of 20-30 months after the accident, we did not confirm any discernible deleterious effects of the emitted radioactivity on the thyroid of young Fukushima residents. This is the first report in English detailing the thyroid status of young Fukushima

  3. The Thyroid Status of Children and Adolescents in Fukushima Prefecture Examined during 20–30 Months after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Disaster: A Cross-Sectional, Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanobe, Hajime; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Yanai, Rie; Takahashi, Miyuki; Sato, Hideo; Sagawa, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    Background A possible increase in thyroid cancer in the young represents the most critical health problem to be considered after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan (March 2011), which is an important lesson from the Chernobyl disaster (April 1986). Although it was reported that childhood thyroid cancer had started to increase 3–5 yr after the Chernobyl accident, we speculate that the actual period of latency might have been shorter than reported, considering the delay in initiating thyroid surveillance in the then Soviet Union and also the lower quality of ultrasonographic testing in the 1980s. Our primary objectives in the present study were to identify any possible thyroid abnormality in young Fukushima citizens at a relatively early timepoint (20–30 months) after the accident, and also to strive to find a possible relationship among thyroid ultrasonographic findings, thyroid-relevant biochemical markers, and iodine-131 ground deposition in the locations of residence where they stayed during very early days after the accident. Methods and Findings This is a cross-sectional study. We targeted the Fukushima residents who were 18 yr old or younger (including fetuses) at the time of the accident. Our examinations comprised a questionnaire, thyroid ultrasonography, thyroid-related blood tests, and urinary iodine measurement. We analyzed a possible relationship among thyroid ultrasonographic findings (1,137 subjects), serum hormonal data (731 subjects), urinary iodine concentrations (770 subjects), and iodine-131 ground deposition (1,137 subjects). We did not find any significant relationship among these indicators, and no participant was diagnosed to contract thyroid cancer. Conclusions At the timepoint of 20–30 months after the accident, we did not confirm any discernible deleterious effects of the emitted radioactivity on the thyroid of young Fukushima residents. This is the first report in English detailing the thyroid status of young Fukushima

  4. Optimization of specimen preparation of thin cell section for AFM observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xinhui [Nanobiology Laboratory, Bio-X Life Science Research Center, School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Minhang District, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ji Tong [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Affiliated Ninth People' s Hospital, Medical School, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200011 (China); Hu Jun [Nanobiology Laboratory, Bio-X Life Science Research Center, School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Minhang District, Shanghai 200240 (China); Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Sun Jielin [Nanobiology Laboratory, Bio-X Life Science Research Center, School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Minhang District, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: jlsun@sjtu.edu.cn

    2008-08-15

    High resolution imaging of intracellular structures of ultrathin cell section samples is critical to the performance of precise manipulation by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Here, we test the effect of multiple factors during section sample preparation on the quality of the AFM image. These factors include the embedding materials, the annealing process of the specimen block, section thickness, and section side. We found that neither the embedding materials nor the temperature and speed of the annealing process has any effect on AFM image resolution. However, the section thickness and section side significantly affect the surface topography and AFM image resolution. By systematically testing the image quality of both sides of cell sections over a wide range of thickness (40-1000 nm), we found that the best resolution was obtained with upper-side sections approximately 50-100 nm thick. With these samples, we could observe precise structure details of the cell, including its membrane, nucleoli, and other organelles. Similar results were obtained for other cell types, including Tca8113, C6, and ECV-304. In brief, by optimizing the condition of ultrathin cell section preparation, we were able to obtain high resolution intracellular AFM images, which provide an essential basis for further AFM manipulation.

  5. UFOs: Observations, Studies and Extrapolations

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Cerutti, F; Dehning, B; Ducimetière, L; Ferrari, A; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Garrel, N; Gerardin, A; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Jackson, S; Jimenez, J M; Kain, V; Zimmermann, F; Lechner, A; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Nebot Del Busto, E; Morón Ballester, R; Norderhaug Drosdal, L; Nordt, A; Papotti, G; Redaelli, S; Uythoven, J; Velghe, B; Vlachoudis, V; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zerlauth, M; Fuster Martinez, N

    2012-01-01

    UFOs (“ Unidentified Falling Objects”) could be one of the major performance limitations for nominal LHC operation. Therefore, in 2011, the diagnostics for UFO events were significantly improved, dedicated experiments and measurements in the LHC and in the laboratory were made and complemented by FLUKA simulations and theoretical studies. The state of knowledge is summarized and extrapolations for LHC operation in 2012 and beyond are presented. Mitigation strategies are proposed and related tests and measures for 2012 are specified.

  6. The relationship between observer-based toxicity scoring and patient assessed symptom severity after treatment for head and neck cancer. A correlative cross sectional study of the DAHANCA toxicity scoring system and the EORTC quality of life questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth; Bonde Jensen, Anders; Grau, Cai

    2006-01-01

          toxicity scoring systems it has not been formally validated. Conversely,       the EORTC quality of life questionnaire (QLQ) has been validated as a tool       for collecting information about the consequences of disease and treatment       on the well being of cancer patients. The purpose of this study......) completed       EORTC C30, the core questionnaire concerning general symptoms and function       and EORTC H&N35 the head and neck specific questionnaire. The attending       physicians in the follow-up clinic evaluated and recorded DAHANCA toxicity       scores on the same patients. RESULTS: The DAHANCA...... low degree. The       DAHANCA toxicity scores had a low sensitivity (0.48-0.74) in detecting       equivalent subjective complaints from the questionnaires and the       observer-based scoring system severely underestimated patient complaints.       A specific patient group where the DAHANCA score had...

  7. Phenotypic variation in anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) production per follicle in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and isolated polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM): an observational cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, Priya; Kulkarni, Abhijit; Dilgil, Merve; Dhir, Puja; Shah, Amit; Gudi, Anil; Homburg, Roy

    2017-10-01

    This observational study compares the ratio of serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) to the total antral follicle count (AFC) (as a marker of AMH production per follicle) in the various phenotypes of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and isolated polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM). Two hundred and sixty-two women were recruited. Women with PCOS were divided into four phenotypes based on the diagnostic inclusion criteria of oligo-anovulation (OA), hyperandrogenism (HA) and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM). These included Group A (OA + HA + PCOM), Group B (OA + HA), Group C (HA + PCOM) and Group D (OA + PCOM). A ratio of serum AMH to total AFC was calculated and expressed as the AMH/AFC ratio which was compared in the phenotypes of PCOS and isolated PCOM. The median AMH/AFC ratios in PCOS-A, PCOS-D, PCOS-C and PCOM were 1.5, 1.6, 1.2 and 1.1, respectively. There were significant differences in the groups compared [F(3, 238) = 6.14, p = 0.000)]. The ratios were significantly higher in the oligo-anovulatory phenotypes PCOS-A and PCOS-D than the PCOM (p = 0.004 and 0.002, respectively). There was no significant difference in the ratio between ovulatory phenotype PCOS-C and PCOM (p = 0.59). The role of androgens and LH in per-follicle AMH production remains limited. The findings support the hypothesis of a key role for AMH in the mechanism of anovulation in PCOS.

  8. Unit root tests for cross-sectionally dependent panels : The influence of observed factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becheri, I.G.; Drost, F.C.; van den Akker, R.

    This paper considers a heterogeneous panel unit root model with cross-sectional dependence generated by a factor structure—the factor common to all units being an observed covariate. The model is shown to be Locally Asymptotically Mixed Normal (LAMN), with the random part of the limiting Fisher

  9. Female medical leadership: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaerner, K J; Aasland, O G; Botten, G S

    1999-01-09

    To assess the relation between male and female medical leadership. Cross sectional study on predictive factors for female medical leadership with data on sex, age, specialty, and occupational status of Norwegian physicians. Oslo, Norway. 13 844 non-retired Norwegian physicians. Medical leaders, defined as physicians holding a leading position in hospital medicine, public health, academic medicine, or private health care. 14.6% (95% confidence interval 14.0% to 15.4%) of the men were leaders compared with 5.1% (4.4% to 5.9%) of the women. Adjusted for age men had a higher estimated probability of leadership in all categories of age and job, the highest being in academic medicine with 0.57 (0.42 to 0.72) for men aged over 54 years compared with 0.39 (0.21 to 0.63) for women in the same category. Among female hospital physicians there was a positive relation between the proportion of women in their specialty and the probability of leadership. Women do not reach senior positions as easily as men. Medical specialties with high proportions of women have more female leaders.

  10. Acceptance of a reusable self-injection device for recombinant human growth hormone: final data from a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional, international, multicenter, observational study in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnabel D

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dirk Schnabel,1 Carl-Joachim Partsch,2 Muriel Houang,3 Sarah Ehtisham,4 Helen Johnstone,5 Markus Zabransky,6 Wieland Kiess7 1Pediatric Endocrinology, Center for Chronic Sick Children, Otto-Heubner-Centrum für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Charite, University Medicine, Berlin, Germany; 2Endokrinologikum Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; 3Explorations Fonctionnelles Endocriniennes, Hôpital Armand Trousseau, Paris, France; 4Mediclinic City Hospital, Dubai Healthcare City, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; 5The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle, UK; 6Sandoz International GmbH, Holzkirchen, 7Department of Women and Child Health, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University Hospitals, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany Background: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to assess attitudes toward a reusable self-injection system (SurePal™ among pediatric patients with growth disturbances who were prescribed treatment with Omnitrope® within routine clinical practice.Methods: This was a multicenter, observational study, incorporated into the noninterventional PAtients TReated with Omnitrope® (PATRO Children study. Included subjects, or their caregivers, completed a questionnaire on the following five main areas: attractiveness of SurePal™, training received, using the device, the low drug wastage system, and experience versus other devices used previously (pretreated patients. Responses were based on a 5-point scale, with 2 being the best possible outcome and −2 the worst possible outcome.Results: In total, 550 patients were included in this study (338 from France, 169 from Germany, and 43 from the UK. The mean age ± standard deviation of participants was 10.8±3.5 years; the majority (57% were male and growth hormone treatment naïve (88%. Almost half (49.8% of children prepared their SurePal™ for injection themselves and 45.5% performed injections themselves. As patients progressed into their teens, the majority

  11. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenbroucke, Jan P; von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G

    2014-01-01

    Much medical research is observational. The reporting of observational studies is often of insufficient quality. Poor reporting hampers the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a study and the generalisability of its results. Taking into account empirical evidence and theoretical...... to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results and discussion sections of articles. Eighteen items are common to cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies and four are specific to each of the three study designs. The STROBE Statement provides guidance to authors about how...

  12. AECL's excavation stability study - summary of observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, R.S.; Chandler, N.A.

    1996-05-01

    The Excavation Stability Study (ESS) was conducted at the 420 Level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) to evaluate stability and the extent of excavation damage in tunnels as a function of tunnel geometry and orientation, geology, and excavation method. A series of ovaloid and circular openings were used to achieve different boundary stress levels and near-field stress distributions to assess the effect of tunnel geometry on damage development. Several of these openings had sections in both granite and granodiorite lithology, providing a comparison of damage in rock types with different strength characteristics. Damage around circular tunnels (one excavated by drill-and-blast, the other by mechanical means) was also investigated. The study.showed that mechanically stable openings can be excavated in the most adverse stress conditions at the 420 Level of the URL. In addition, it was shown that tunnel stability is sensitive to tunnel shape, variations in geology, and to some extent, the excavation method. Findings of the study are relevant in developing design criteria, and in assessing the feasibility of constructing large ovaloid openings in adverse stress conditions. This report summarizes the preliminary observations related to tunnel stability and excavation damage. (author). 8 refs., 7 tabs., 23 figs

  13. A global reference for caesarean section rates (C-Model): a multicountry cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, J P; Betran, A P; Dumont, A; de Mucio, B; Gibbs Pickens, C M; Deneux-Tharaux, C; Ortiz-Panozo, E; Sullivan, E; Ota, E; Togoobaatar, G; Carroli, G; Knight, H; Zhang, J; Cecatti, J G; Vogel, J P; Jayaratne, K; Leal, M C; Gissler, M; Morisaki, N; Lack, N; Oladapo, O T; Tunçalp, Ö; Lumbiganon, P; Mori, R; Quintana, S; Costa Passos, A D; Marcolin, A C; Zongo, A; Blondel, B; Hernández, B; Hogue, C J; Prunet, C; Landman, C; Ochir, C; Cuesta, C; Pileggi-Castro, C; Walker, D; Alves, D; Abalos, E; Moises, Ecd; Vieira, E M; Duarte, G; Perdona, G; Gurol-Urganci, I; Takahiko, K; Moscovici, L; Campodonico, L; Oliveira-Ciabati, L; Laopaiboon, M; Danansuriya, M; Nakamura-Pereira, M; Costa, M L; Torloni, M R; Kramer, M R; Borges, P; Olkhanud, P B; Pérez-Cuevas, R; Agampodi, S B; Mittal, S; Serruya, S; Bataglia, V; Li, Z; Temmerman, M; Gülmezoglu, A M

    2016-02-01

    To generate a global reference for caesarean section (CS) rates at health facilities. Cross-sectional study. Health facilities from 43 countries. Thirty eight thousand three hundred and twenty-four women giving birth from 22 countries for model building and 10,045,875 women giving birth from 43 countries for model testing. We hypothesised that mathematical models could determine the relationship between clinical-obstetric characteristics and CS. These models generated probabilities of CS that could be compared with the observed CS rates. We devised a three-step approach to generate the global benchmark of CS rates at health facilities: creation of a multi-country reference population, building mathematical models, and testing these models. Area under the ROC curves, diagnostic odds ratio, expected CS rate, observed CS rate. According to the different versions of the model, areas under the ROC curves suggested a good discriminatory capacity of C-Model, with summary estimates ranging from 0.832 to 0.844. The C-Model was able to generate expected CS rates adjusted for the case-mix of the obstetric population. We have also prepared an e-calculator to facilitate use of C-Model (www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/maternal_perinatal_health/c-model/en/). This article describes the development of a global reference for CS rates. Based on maternal characteristics, this tool was able to generate an individualised expected CS rate for health facilities or groups of health facilities. With C-Model, obstetric teams, health system managers, health facilities, health insurance companies, and governments can produce a customised reference CS rate for assessing use (and overuse) of CS. The C-Model provides a customized benchmark for caesarean section rates in health facilities and systems. © 2015 World Health Organization; licensed by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Studies on Section XI ultrasonic repeatability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, T.D.; McDearman, W.R.

    1981-05-01

    A block representative of a nuclear component has been welded containing intentional defects. Acoustic emission data taken during the welding correlate well with ultrasonic data. Repetitive ultrasonic examinations have been performed by skilled operators using a procedure based on that desribed in ASME Section XI. These examinations were performed by different examination teams using different ultrasonic equipment in such a manner that the effects on the repeatability of the ultrasonic test method caused by the operator and by the use of different equipment could be estimated. It was tentatively concluded that when considering a large number of inspections: (1) there is no significant difference in indication sizing between operators, and (2) there is a significant difference in amplitude and defect sizing when instruments having different, Code acceptable operating characteristics are used. It was determined that the Section XI sizing parameters follow a bivariate normal distribution. Data derived from ultrasonically and physically sizing indications in nuclear components during farication show that the Section XI technique tends to overestimate the size of the reflectors

  15. An international, multicenter, observational survey to evaluate diabetes control in subjects using insulin for the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic: study protocol for a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brož J

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jan Brož,1 Denisa Janickova Zdarska,1 Jana Urbanova,2 Marek Brabec,3 Bohumila Krivska,4 Viera Donicova,5 Radka Stepanova,6 Emil Martinka,7 Milan Kvapil1 1Department of Internal Medicine, Second Faculty of Medicine, 2Center for Research on Diabetes, Metabolism and Nutrition, Second Department of Internal Medicine, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, 3Institute of Computer Science of the ASCR, vvi, 4Sanofi, Prague, Czech Republic; 5Private Department of Diabetology, Internal Medicine and Metabolism, Kosice, Slovak Republic; 6ADDS sro, Brno, Czech Republic; 7National Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Lubochna, Slovak Republic Background: Despite the improvements in insulin therapy, a large number of patients fail to achieve their target glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels. Control of diabetes is often unsatisfactory because the patient does not know about the principles of successful insulin therapy (ie, blood glucose self-monitoring, the principles of insulin administration, titration, current dose adjustments, dietary recommendations, and physical activity preventive measures or because these principles are applied incorrectly or insufficiently. Furthermore, the fear of hypoglycemia may lead to maintaining higher than recommended blood glucose levels. Methods/design: This is a noninterventional, international study focusing on a questionnaire survey of diabetes patients (patient-reported outcome treated with insulin for at least 1 year. It is designed so that the data obtained reflect real access of patients to insulin treatment. The primary objective is to show the results of glycemic control of diabetes (HbA1c achieved in diabetes patients treated with at least one dose of insulin. The secondary objective is to monitor the factors potentially affecting these results, which include the frequency and other characteristics of hypoglycemia, the frequency of blood glucose self-monitoring, and the effects produced when the results

  16. Evaluation of community provision of a preventive cardiovascular programme - the National Health Service Health Check in reaching the under-served groups by primary care in England: cross sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woringer, Maria; Cecil, Elizabeth; Watt, Hillary; Chang, Kiara; Hamid, Fozia; Khunti, Kamlesh; Dubois, Elizabeth; Evason, Julie; Majeed, Azeem; Soljak, Michael

    2017-06-14

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of premature mortality and a major contributor of health inequalities in England. Compared to more affluent and white counterparts, deprived people and ethnic minorities tend to die younger due to preventable CVD associated with lifestyle. In addition, deprived, ethnic minorities and younger people are less likely to be served by CVD prevention services. This study assessed the effectiveness of community-based outreach providers in delivering England's National Health Services (NHS) Health Check programme, a CVD preventive programme to under-served groups. Between January 2008 and October 2013, community outreach providers delivered a preventive CVD programme to 50,573 individuals, in their local communities, in a single consultation without prescheduled appointments. Community outreach providers operated on evenings and weekends as well as during regular business hours in venues accessible to the general public. After exclusion criteria, we analysed and compared socio-demographic data of 43,177 Health Check attendees with the general population across 38 local authorities (LAs). We assessed variation between local authorities in terms of age, sex, deprivation and ethnicity structures using two sample t-tests and within local authority variation in terms of ethnicity and deprivation using Chi squared tests and two sample t-tests respectively. Using Index of Multiple Deprivation, the mean deprivation score of the population reached by community outreach providers was 6.01 higher (p successful in recruiting ethnic minority groups. The mean proportion of men screened was 11.39% lower (p successful in motivating the under-served groups to improve lifestyle, it may reduce health inequalities therein.

  17. METHOD FOR OBSERVATION OF DEEMBEDDED SECTIONS OF FISH GONAD BY SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This article reports a method for examining the intracellular structure of fish gonads using a scanning electron microscope(SEM). The specimen preparation procedure is similar to that for transmission electron microscopy wherein samples cut into semi-thin sections are fixed and embedded in plastic. The embedment matrix was removed by solvents. Risen-free specimens could be observed by SEM. The morphology of matured sperms in the gonad was very clear, and the oocyte internal structures appeared in three-dimensional images. Spheroidal nucleoli and yolk vesicles and several bundles of filaments adhered on the nucleoli could be viewed by SEM for the first time.

  18. A cross-sectional study in Morocco

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Morocco, there are no studies that focused on the hypertension and its associated risk factors through patients with type 2 diabetes. Different findings show that the frequency of type 2 diabetes has risen rapidly in Morocco. The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of hypertension and its ...

  19. Observing Protein & Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study was designed to assess dietary measurement error by comparing results from self-reported dietary intake data with four dietary biomarkers: doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen, sodium, and potassium.

  20. STRengthening analytical thinking for observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauerbrei, Willi; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Altman, Douglas G.

    2014-01-01

    The validity and practical utility of observational medical research depends critically on good study design, excellent data quality, appropriate statistical methods and accurate interpretation of results. Statistical methodology has seen substantial development in recent times. Unfortunately, ma...

  1. The Alberta smoke plume observation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anderson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A field project was conducted to observe and measure smoke plumes from wildland fires in Alberta. This study used handheld inclinometer measurements and photos taken at lookout towers in the province. Observations of 222 plumes were collected from 21 lookout towers over a 6-year period from 2010 to 2015. Observers reported the equilibrium and maximum plume heights based on the plumes' final levelling heights and the maximum lofting heights, respectively. Observations were tabulated at the end of each year and matched to reported fires. Fire sizes at assessment times and forest fuel types were reported by the province. Fire weather conditions were obtained from the Canadian Wildland Fire Information System (CWFIS. Assessed fire sizes were adjusted to the appropriate size at plume observation time using elliptical fire-growth projections. Though a logical method to collect plume observations in principle, many unanticipated issues were uncovered as the project developed. Instrument limitations and environmental conditions presented challenges to the investigators, whereas human error and the subjectivity of observations affected data quality. Despite these problems, the data set showed that responses to fire behaviour conditions were consistent with the physical processes leading to plume rise. The Alberta smoke plume observation study data can be found on the Canadian Wildland Fire Information System datamart (Natural Resources Canada, 2018 at http://cwfis.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/datamart.

  2. The Alberta smoke plume observation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kerry; Pankratz, Al; Mooney, Curtis; Fleetham, Kelly

    2018-02-01

    A field project was conducted to observe and measure smoke plumes from wildland fires in Alberta. This study used handheld inclinometer measurements and photos taken at lookout towers in the province. Observations of 222 plumes were collected from 21 lookout towers over a 6-year period from 2010 to 2015. Observers reported the equilibrium and maximum plume heights based on the plumes' final levelling heights and the maximum lofting heights, respectively. Observations were tabulated at the end of each year and matched to reported fires. Fire sizes at assessment times and forest fuel types were reported by the province. Fire weather conditions were obtained from the Canadian Wildland Fire Information System (CWFIS). Assessed fire sizes were adjusted to the appropriate size at plume observation time using elliptical fire-growth projections. Though a logical method to collect plume observations in principle, many unanticipated issues were uncovered as the project developed. Instrument limitations and environmental conditions presented challenges to the investigators, whereas human error and the subjectivity of observations affected data quality. Despite these problems, the data set showed that responses to fire behaviour conditions were consistent with the physical processes leading to plume rise. The Alberta smoke plume observation study data can be found on the Canadian Wildland Fire Information System datamart (Natural Resources Canada, 2018) at http://cwfis.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/datamart.

  3. Observational constraints on dark matter-dark energy scattering cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Suresh [BITS Pilani, Department of Mathematics, Rajasthan (India); Nunes, Rafael C. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Fisica, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    In this letter, we report precise and robust observational constraints on the dark matter-dark energy scattering cross section, using the latest data from cosmic microwave background (CMB) Planck temperature and polarization, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) measurements and weak gravitational lensing data from Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). The scattering scenario consists of a pure momentum exchange between the dark components, and we find σ{sub d} < 10{sup -29} cm{sup 2} (m{sub dm}c{sup 2}/GeV) at 95% CL from the joint analysis (CMB + BAO + CFHTLenS), where m{sub dm} is a typical dark matter particle mass. We notice that the scattering among the dark components may influence the growth of large scale structure in the Universe, leaving the background cosmology unaltered. (orig.)

  4. Photoproduction of η mesons from the neutron: Cross sections and double polarization observable E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witthauer, L.; Dieterle, M.; Challand, T.; Kaeser, A.; Keshelashvili, I.; Krusche, B.; Rostomyan, T.; Walford, N.K.; Werthmueller, D. [University of Basel, Department of Physics, Basel (Switzerland); Afzal, F.; Beck, R.; Boese, S.; Funke, C.; Gottschall, M.; Gruener, M.; Hammann, C.; Hartmann, J.; Hoffmeister, P.; Honisch, C.; Kaiser, D.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kalischewski, F.; Klassen, P.; Koop, K.; Lang, M.; Mahlberg, P.; Mueller, J.; Muellers, J.; Piontek, D.; Schmidt, C.; Seifen, T.; Sokhoyan, V.; Spieker, K.; Thiel, A.; Thoma, U.; Urban, M.; Pee, H. van; Walther, D.; Wendel, C.; Winnebeck, A. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Anisovich, A.V.; Bayadilov, D.; Nikonov, V.; Sarantsev, A. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Gatchina (Russian Federation); Bantes, B.; Dutz, H.; Eberhardt, H.; Elsner, D.; Ewald, R.; Fornet-Ponse, K.; Frommberger, F.; Goertz, S.; Hammann, D.; Hannappel, J.; Hillert, W.; Jude, T.; Kammer, S.; Kleber, V.; Klein, F.; Schmieden, H. [Universitaet Bonn, Physikalisches Institut, Bonn (Germany); Bichow, M.; Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik I, Bochum (Germany); Brinkmann, K.T.; Gutz, E. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Crede, V. [Florida State University, Department of Physics, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Friedrich, S.; Makonyi, K.; Metag, V.; Nanova, M. [Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Gridnev, A.; Lopatin, I. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Gatchina (Russian Federation); Wilson, A. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Florida State University, Department of Physics, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Collaboration: The CBELSA/TAPS Collaboration

    2017-03-15

    Results from measurements of the photoproduction of η mesons from quasifree protons and neutrons are summarized. The experiments were performed with the CBELSA/TAPS detector at the electron accelerator ELSA in Bonn using the η → 3π{sup 0} → 6γ decay. A liquid deuterium target was used for the measurement of total cross sections and angular distributions. The results confirm earlier measurements from Bonn and the MAMI facility in Mainz about the existence of a narrow structure in the excitation function of γn → nη. The current angular distributions show a forward-backward asymmetry, which was previously not seen, but was predicted by model calculations including an additional narrow P{sub 11} state. Furthermore, data obtained with a longitudinally polarized, deuterated butanol target and a circularly polarized photon beam were analyzed to determine the double polarization observable E. Both data sets together were also used to extract the helicity-dependent cross sections σ{sub 1/2} and σ{sub 3/2}. The narrow structure in the excitation function of γn → nη appears associated with the helicity-1/2 component of the reaction. (orig.)

  5. A Study of Aerodynamics in Kevlar-Wall Test Sections

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Kenneth Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This study is undertaken to characterize the aerodynamic behavior of Kevlar-wall test sections and specifically those containing two-dimensional, lifting models. The performance of the Kevlar-wall test section can be evaluated against the standard of the hard-wall test section, which in the case of the Stability Wind Tunnel (SWT) at Virginia Tech can be alternately installed or replaced by the Kevlar-wall test section. As a first step towards the evaluation of the Kevlar-wall test section aer...

  6. An observational study on oesophageal variceal endoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An observational study on oesophageal variceal endoscopic injection sclerotherapy in patients with portal hypertension seen at the Centre for Clinical Research, ... The report concludes that variceal injection sclerotherapy is a useful method of treating oesophageal varices and can be performed on an out patient basis.

  7. The NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Stephen; Maier, Mark; Di Pietro, David

    2016-01-01

    NOAA is beginning a study, the NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture (NSOSA) study, to plan for the future operational environmental satellite system that will follow GOES and JPSS, beginning about 2030. This is an opportunity to design a modern architecture with no pre-conceived notions regarding instruments, platforms, orbits, etc. The NSOSA study will develop and evaluate architecture alternatives to include partner and commercial alternatives that are likely to become available. The objectives will include both functional needs and strategic characteristics (e.g., flexibility, responsiveness, sustainability). Part of this study is the Space Platform Requirements Working Group (SPRWG), which is being commissioned by NESDIS. The SPRWG is charged to assess new or existing user needs and to provide relative priorities for observational needs in the context of the future architecture. SPRWG results will serve as input to the process for new foundational (Level 0 and Level 1) requirements for the next generation of NOAA satellites that follow the GOES-R, JPSS, DSCOVR, Jason-3, and COSMIC-2 missions.

  8. Theoretical Studies on Photoionization Cross Sections of Solid Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiaoguang; Sun Weiguo; Cheng Yansong

    2005-01-01

    Accurate expression for photoabsorption (photoionization) cross sections of high density system proposed recently is used to study the photoionization of solid gold. The results show that the present theoretical photoionization cross sections have good agreement both in structure and in magnitude with the experimental results of gold crystal. The studies also indicate that both the real part ε' and the imaginary part ε'' of the complex dielectric constant ε, and the dielectric influence function of a nonideal system have rich structures in low energy side with a range about 50 eV, and suggest that the influence of particle interactions of surrounding particles with the photoionized particle on the photoionization cross sections can be easily investigated using the dielectric influence function. The electron overlap effects are suggested to be implemented in the future studies to improve the accuracy of theoretical photoionization cross sections of a solid system.

  9. Experimental Study on Pipe Sections against Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin GÜCÜYEN

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pipelines are significant structural systems that transfer necessary materials from one place to another. They are under the effect of static and dynamic loads during their service lives. Investigations have become important to determine the effects of sudden dynamic loads with technological developments. Researchers study the mechanical properties of different materials and structural members under dynamic effects such as earthquake, wind, blast, rock falling and vehicle crushing. For this purpose, different test setups have been developed to investigate the behaviour of test members. In this study, galvanized and water filled galvanized pipe sections having three different diameter values are produced in a laboratory to perform tests under impact loading. The behaviour of the pipes is determined by free falling test apparatus. In addition, measurement devices as accelerometer, dynamic force sensor, lvdt, and data logger are used in the experimental program. So, acceleration, impact force, and displacement values are obtained during the tests. Besides, damage developments of the pipes are also observed to determine the impact resistances of test members. The results are compared to each other and it is stated that while acceleration and impact force values decrease, displacement values increase as the test members approach to collapse damage situation.

  10. Organizational home care models across Europe: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eenoo, Liza; van der Roest, Henriëtte; Onder, Graziano; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Garms-Homolova, Vjenka; Jonsson, Palmi V; Draisma, Stasja; van Hout, Hein; Declercq, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Decision makers are searching for models to redesign home care and to organize health care in a more sustainable way. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize home care models within and across European countries by means of structural characteristics and care processes at the policy and the organization level. At the policy level, variables that reflected variation in health care policy were included based on a literature review on the home care policy for older persons in six European countries: Belgium, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Italy, and the Netherlands. At the organizational level, data on the structural characteristics and the care processes were collected from 36 home care organizations by means of a survey. Data were collected between 2013 and 2015 during the IBenC project. An observational, cross sectional, quantitative design was used. The analyses consisted of a principal component analysis followed by a hierarchical cluster analysis. Fifteen variables at the organizational level, spread across three components, explained 75.4% of the total variance. The three components made it possible to distribute home care organizations into six care models that differ on the level of patient-centered care delivery, the availability of specialized care professionals, and the level of monitoring care performance. Policy level variables did not contribute to distinguishing between home care models. Six home care models were identified and characterized. These models can be used to describe best practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Crustal Deformation across the Jericho Valley Section of the Dead Sea Fault as Resolved by Detailed Field and Geodetic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamiel, Yariv; Piatibratova, Oksana; Mizrahi, Yaakov; Nahmias, Yoav; Sagy, Amir

    2018-04-01

    Detailed field and geodetic observations of crustal deformation across the Jericho Fault section of the Dead Sea Fault are presented. New field observations reveal several slip episodes that rupture the surface, consist with strike slip and extensional deformation along a fault zone width of about 200 m. Using dense Global Positioning System measurements, we obtain the velocities of new stations across the fault. We find that this section is locked for strike-slip motion with a locking depth of 16.6 ± 7.8 km and a slip rate of 4.8 ± 0.7 mm/year. The Global Positioning System measurements also indicate asymmetrical extension at shallow depths of the Jericho Fault section, between 0.3 and 3 km. Finally, our results suggest the vast majority of the sinistral slip along the Dead Sea Fault in southern Jorden Valley is accommodated by the Jericho Fault section.

  12. Theoretical and observational studies of stellar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J.H.M.M.

    1984-01-01

    In the theoretical part of this thesis, doubly-diffusive MHD instabilities are studied as a means of breaking up a diffuse magnetic field at the bottom of the solar convection zone. The analysis is linear and local, and assumes short meridional wavelengths; the effects of rotation and diffusion of vorticity, magnetic fields and heat are included. Results show that the instability depends sensitively on the temperature stratification, but rather insensitively on the assumed magnetic field configuration; instability time scales considerably less than the solar cycle period can be easily obtained. In the observational part of the thesis, results are reported of a survey of the x-ray emission of stars with shallow connection zones to study the onset of convection and dynamo activity along the main sequence. Complications arising from stellar multiplicity are discussed extensively; it is demonstrated that binaries have statistically higher x-ray luminosities; and it is shown that physical parameters can only be deduced from single stars. It is further shown that the x-ray luminosities of stars with spectral type in the color range 0.1 less than or equal to B. V less than or equal to 0.5 increase rapidly, whereas stars with B. V approx. 0.0 appear to have no intrinsic x-ray emission at presently detectable levels

  13. Cross-sectional study of health effects of cryolite production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Clausen, J; Gyntelberg, F

    1989-01-01

    A cross-sectional health study of 101 cryolite workers was performed, using spirometry and a questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the index of smoking and a decrease in FEV1 (per cent). There was no significant correlation between work-related exp......A cross-sectional health study of 101 cryolite workers was performed, using spirometry and a questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the index of smoking and a decrease in FEV1 (per cent). There was no significant correlation between work...

  14. Late onset rheumatoid arthritis an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Blerta; Bahtiri, Elton; Mahmutaj, Vigan

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may have an onset at older age. The onset of the disease at the age of 60 and over is called late-onset rheumatoid arthritis (LORA). The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical, laboratory, radiological, and treatment characteristics of patients with LORA compared to those with early-onset RA (EaORA), provided that all the patients had an approximately equal duration of the disease. This is an observational single-center study, which involved 120 patients with an established diagnosis of RA, of which 60 patients had LORA, and 60 patients EaORA. The disease activity, measured by the Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28-ESR), was significantly higher in the LORA group compared to the EaORA group (p0.05), while the number of patients positive for anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) was signifi cantly greater in the EaORA group (p<0.05). The values of C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were significantly higher in the LORA than in the EaORA group. Hemoglobin levels were lower in the LORA group (11.96±1.64 g/dL) than in the EaORA group (12.18±1.56 g/dL). The most used disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were methotrexate and sulfasalazine, while biological drugs were not used. In conclusion, based on the results of our study, LORA has some features that distinguish it from EaORA, such as higher disease activity, more frequent involvement of large joints, and more pronounced structural damage. This should be taken in account in clinical practice, especially regarding treatment choices.

  15. [Therapeutic failure in scabies: An observational study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sainte Marie, B; Mallet, S; Gaudy-Marqueste, C; Baumstarck, K; Bentaleb, N; Loundou, A; Hesse, S; Monestier, S; Grob, J-J; Richard, M-A

    2016-01-01

    Several sources suggest an escalation of scabies in France. To describe a population of patients continuing to present with scabies despite multiple treatments in order to identify factors associated with persistence of infection. A descriptive cross-sectional study in adults and children consulting for persistent scabies despite at least one previous treatment. A standardized questionnaire explored potential sources of treatment failure. Thirty-one patients were analyzed. Initial symptoms were noted to have started between two and 52 weeks earlier (mean: 19 weeks). The mean number of prior consultations with a general practitioner was 3.1 (0-10) and 1.7 with a dermatologist (0-7). The mean number of patients per household was 3.5 (1-9). At least one dose of oral ivermectin (maximum of 6 doses per household) was prescribed for 84 % of patients (29 % of whom were not fasted at the time). Further, 74 % of patients received at least one local application of esdepallethrin and piperonyl butoxide (maximum: 5 courses), four received benzyl benzoate and two received permethrin; however, 58 % did not reapply the substance after hand washing. All households bought the prescribed treatments despite the costs. Close contacts of patients were treated in 58 % of households. Decontamination of bedding and clothing was carried out properly in 90 % of households. Persistence of infection appears to be linked to: (1) insufficient treatment of close contacts; (2) absence of a second treatment between days 7 and 14; (3) insufficient efficacy of the available treatments, doubtless due to multiple factors (intrinsic resistance of Sarcoptes, failure to repeat treatment, poor explanation of methods for dosing and application, and oral intake of treatments). Access to non-reimbursed treatments was not identified as a problem and decontamination of bedding and clothing was correctly performed in most cases. Though certain fundamental aspects of scabies treatment must be better

  16. Some oceanographic observations in the polynya and along a section in the southwest Indian/ Antarctic Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    which reduces the surface salinity. A sub-surface oxygen maximum is observed in January associated with a maximum in primary production. Oxygen concentrations at all depths exhibit decreases from January to February in conjunction with increases...

  17. Intermediate structure studies of 234U cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, G.D.; Schindler, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron induced fission and total cross sections of 234 U have been measured over the neutron energy range from a few eV to several MeV. Neutron and fission widths for 118 cross section resonances below 1500 eV have been determined and give a class I level spacing of 10.64 + -0.46 eV and a neutron strength function of (0.857 +- 0.108)x10 -4 . These fine structure resonances comprise a narrow intermediate structure resonance in the sub-threshold fission cross section of 234 U. Parameters for the Lorentzian energy dependence of the mean fission width are deduced on the assumption that, relative to this mean, the observed fission widths have a Porter-Thomas distribution. Two large fission widths measured for resonances at 1092.5 eV and 1134 eV may indicate the presence of a second narrow intermediate structure resonance at about this energy. The class II level spacing derived from the observation of 7 resonances below 13 keV is 2.1 +-0.3 keV. Pronounced breaks in the fission cross section at 310 keV, 550 keV and 720 keV are assumed to be due to β-vibrational levels in the second minimum of the Strutinsky potential. Fluctuations due to the presence of class II resonances are strongly evident for each of these vibrational levels. It is shown that the fluctuations near 310 keV are consistent with parameters deduced from the low energy data and this enables parameters for the double humped fission barrier potential to be obtained

  18. Multicenter observational prehospital resuscitation on helicopter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, John B; Swartz, Michael D; DeSantis, Stacia M; Greene, Thomas J; Fox, Erin E; Stein, Deborah M; Bulger, Eileen M; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Goodman, Michael; Schreiber, Martin A; Zielinski, Martin D; O'Keeffe, Terence; Inaba, Kenji; Tomasek, Jeffrey S; Podbielski, Jeanette M; Appana, Savitri N; Yi, Misung; Wade, Charles E

    2017-07-01

    Earlier use of in-hospital plasma, platelets, and red blood cells (RBCs) has improved survival in trauma patients with severe hemorrhage. Retrospective studies have associated improved early survival with prehospital blood product transfusion (PHT). We hypothesized that PHT of plasma and/or RBCs would result in improved survival after injury in patients transported by helicopter. Adult trauma patients transported by helicopter from the scene to nine Level 1 trauma centers were prospectively observed from January to November 2015. Five helicopter systems had plasma and/or RBCs, whereas the other four helicopter systems used only crystalloid resuscitation. All patients meeting predetermined high-risk criteria were analyzed. Patients receiving PHT were compared with patients not receiving PHT. Our primary analysis compared mortality at 3 hours, 24 hours, and 30 days, using logistic regression to adjust for confounders and site heterogeneity to model patients who were matched on propensity scores. Twenty-five thousand one hundred eighteen trauma patients were admitted, 2,341 (9%) were transported by helicopter, of which 1,058 (45%) met the highest-risk criteria. Five hundred eighty-five of 1,058 patients were flown on helicopters carrying blood products. In the systems with blood available, prehospital median systolic blood pressure (125 vs 128) and Glasgow Coma Scale (7 vs 14) was significantly lower, whereas median Injury Severity Score was significantly higher (21 vs 14). Unadjusted mortality was significantly higher in the systems with blood products available, at 3 hours (8.4% vs 3.6%), 24 hours (12.6% vs 8.9%), and 30 days (19.3% vs 13.3%). Twenty-four percent of eligible patients received a PHT. A median of 1 unit of RBCs and plasma were transfused prehospital. Of patients receiving PHT, 24% received only plasma, 7% received only RBCs, and 69% received both. In the propensity score matching analysis (n = 109), PHT was not significantly associated with mortality

  19. The safe motherhood referral system to reduce cesarean sections and perinatal mortality - a cross-sectional study [1995-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudge Marilza VC

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs set targets for reducing child mortality and improving maternal health by 2015. Objective To evaluate the results of a new education and referral system for antenatal/intrapartum care as a strategy to reduce the rates of Cesarean sections (C-sections and maternal/perinatal mortality. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Botucatu Medical School, Sao Paulo State University/UNESP, Brazil. Population: 27,387 delivering women and 27,827 offspring. Data collection: maternal and perinatal data between 1995 and 2006 at the major level III and level II hospitals in Botucatu, Brazil following initiation of a safe motherhood education and referral system. Main outcome measures: Yearly rates of C-sections, maternal (/100,000 LB and perinatal (/1000 births mortality rates at both hospitals. Data analysis: Simple linear regression models were adjusted to estimate the referral system's annual effects on the total number of deliveries, C-section and perinatal mortality ratios in the two hospitals. The linear regression were assessed by residual analysis (Shapiro-Wilk test and the influence of possible conflicting observations was evaluated by a diagnostic test (Leverage, with p Results Over the time period evaluated, the overall C-section rate was 37.3%, there were 30 maternal deaths (maternal mortality ratio = 109.5/100,000 LB and 660 perinatal deaths (perinatal mortality rate = 23.7/1000 births. The C-section rate decreased from 46.5% to 23.4% at the level II hospital while remaining unchanged at the level III hospital. The perinatal mortality rate decreased from 9.71 to 1.66/1000 births and from 60.8 to 39.6/1000 births at the level II and level III hospital, respectively. Maternal mortality ratios were 16.3/100,000 LB and 185.1/100,000 LB at the level II and level III hospitals. There was a shift from direct to indirect causes of

  20. Musculoskeletal injuries: A cross-sectional study in Irrua, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Musculoskeletal injuries: A cross-sectional study in Irrua, Nigeria. ... Its economic impact on victims and family is tremendous. ... Road traffic collision was the leading cause of injury (121 patients; 80%), and 67.8% of these injuries were ...

  1. A Cross-Sectional Study on Knowledge and Perceptions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the perceptions and knowledge of pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reporting among Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) and Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students of selected tertiary institutions in Jordan. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 434 pharmacy students from three ...

  2. Consent for pediatric anesthesia: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagana, Zoe; Foster, Andrew; Bibbo, Adriana; Dowling, Kate; Cyna, Allan M

    2012-08-01

    Informed consent prior to anesthesia is an important part of the pediatric pre-anesthetic consultation. This study aimed to observe and identify the number and nature of the anesthesia risks considered and communicated to parents/guardians and children during the pediatric informed consent process on the day of elective surgery. A convenience sample of anesthetists had their pre-anesthesia consultations voice recorded, prior to elective surgery, during a 4-month period at the largest tertiary referral centre for pediatric care in South Australia. A data collection form was used to note baseline demographic data, and voice recording transcripts were independently documented by two researchers and subsequently compared for accuracy regarding the number and nature of risks discussed. Of the 96 voice recordings, 91 (92%) were suitable for the analysis. The five most commonly discussed risks were as follows: nausea and vomiting (36%); sore throat (35%); allergy (29%); hypoxia (25%); and emergence delirium (19%). Twenty-seven pre-anesthetic consultations (30%) were found to have had no discussion of anesthetic risk at all while a further 23 consultations (26%) incorporated general statements inferring that anesthesia carried risks, but with no elaboration about their nature, ramifications or incidence. The median number of risks (IQR) specifically mentioned per consultation was higher, 3 (1) vs 1 (1), P anesthesia experience odds ratio 0.34, 95% CI [0.13, 0.87], P = 0.025. The pediatric anesthesia risk discussion is very variable. Trainees tend to discuss more specific risks than consultants and a patient's previous experience of anesthesia was associated with a more limited discussion of anesthesia risk. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Century Scale Evaporation Trend: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoui, Lahouari

    2012-01-01

    Several climate models with different complexity indicate that under increased CO2 forcing, runoff would increase faster than precipitation overland. However, observations over large U.S watersheds indicate otherwise. This inconsistency between models and observations suggests that there may be important feedbacks between climate and land surface unaccounted for in the present generation of models. We have analyzed century-scale observed annual runoff and precipitation time-series over several United States Geological Survey hydrological units covering large forested regions of the Eastern United States not affected by irrigation. Both time-series exhibit a positive long-term trend; however, in contrast to model results, these historic data records show that the rate of precipitation increases at roughly double the rate of runoff increase. We considered several hydrological processes to close the water budget and found that none of these processes acting alone could account for the total water excess generated by the observed difference between precipitation and runoff. We conclude that evaporation has increased over the period of observations and show that the increasing trend in precipitation minus runoff is correlated to observed increase in vegetation density based on the longest available global satellite record. The increase in vegetation density has important implications for climate; it slows but does not alleviate the projected warming associated with greenhouse gases emission.

  4. Observational study of Herbig-Haro nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugel, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    Spectrophotometric data have been obtained for twelve Herbig-Haro nebulae with the multichannel spectrometer on the Mt. Palomar 5.08 meter telescope and with the image intensified dissector scanner on the Kitt Peak 2.13 meter telescope. Energy distributions of the continuous spectra of the Herbig-Haro objects H-H 1 (NW), H-H 2A, H-H 2G, H-H 2H, H-H 24A and H-H 32 have been determined in the wavelength range 3300 to 8000A. The signal-to-noise ratio has been improved in comparison to an earlier attempt to measure the continuum in H-H 1 and H-H 2H. Reddening corrections are based on Miller's [SII] method. The [FeII] emission line spectra have also been utilized as a secondary method for determining the interstellar reddening. In all continua the flux F/sub lambda/ increases rapidly with decreasing wavelength after the small scale structure has been averaged out. A power law interpolation F/sub lambda/ proportional lambda/sup -n/ demonstrates that for all observed H-H objects n lies in the range between 2.04 (H-H 2A, H-H 2H) and 2.92 (H-H 32). The relation of these results to recent I.U.E. observations of H-H 1 is discussed. It is also found that the ratio of the total optical continuum flux to Hβ flux is almost the same for all observed H-H objects with the sole exception of H-H 24A in which the continuum is considerably stronger than in other objects. This fact leads to difficulties in the usual dust scattering hypothesis for the interpretation of H-H continua. It is argued, if these energy distributions are really due to dust scattering in stellar continua as has been usually assumed, the original source must be a hot object and cannot be a T Tauri star.An interpretation in terms of transition radiation (as suggested by Gurzadyan) does not seem to be possible because the observed rise of F/sub lambda/ towards the ultraviolet is too steep

  5. Further evidences for enhanced nuclear cross-sections observed in 44 GeV carbon ion interactions with copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, R.; Abdullaev, I.G.; Adloff, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The work of enhanced nuclear cross-sections of secondary fragments produced in the interaction of 44 GeV 12 C with copper has been deepened and extended. The earlier experiment on the emission of secondary fragments into large angles producing enhanced amounts of 24 Na in copper (Phys. Rev. C, 45, 1194(1992)) was confirmed and refined both experimentally and theoretically. In this context, one looked for another signature of such enhanced production, namely for enhanced neutron production. In order to search for this, a 20 cm thick massive copper target was irradiated with 18 and 44 GeV 12 C-ions. Secondary fragments already described could interact again with copper. Outside the metallic target, secondary neutrons got moderated and low energy nuclear reactions were studied in La and U radiochemically via (n,γ)-reactions and also with various solid state nuclear track detectors. One observed an indication, however not yet significant, of enhanced production rates for low energy nuclear reactions only with 44 GeV 12 C, when compared to 18 GeV 12 C-ions. Besides some proton irradiations at SATURNE, Saclay (France) at 2.6 GeV and at PSI, Villigen (Switzerland) at 0.6 GeV all other irradiations were carried out at the Synchrophasotron, LHE, JINR, Dubna (Russia). 46 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs

  6. Observation of multiphase magnetic state of hematite crystal during Morin transition by the method of section topography of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchetinkin, S.A.; Kvardakov, V.V.; Viler, Eh.; Barushel', Zh.; Shlenker, M.

    2005-01-01

    The boundaries between weak ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases in hematite crystals during Morin transition are detected by the section topography method by synchrotron radiation. It is shown that these boundaries are parallel to (111) surface hence magnetic phases during Morin transition separate the crystal by layers. Change of layer depth in dependence on temperature and magnetic field, and interaction interphase boundaries with crystal defects are observed [ru

  7. Geomagnetic Observations for Main Field Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzka, Jürgen; Chulliat, A.; Mandea, M.

    2010-01-01

    Direct measurements of the geomagnetic field have been made for more than 400 years, beginning with individual determinations of the angle between geographic and magnetic North. This was followed by the start of continuous time series of full vector measurements at geomagnetic observatories...... and the beginning of geomagnetic repeat stations surveys in the 19th century. In the second half of the 20th century, true global coverage with geomagnetic field measurements was accomplished by magnetometer payloads on low-Earth-orbiting satellites. This article describes the procedures and instruments...... for magnetic field measurements on ground and in space and covers geomagnetic observatories, repeat stations, automatic observatories, satellites and historic observations. Special emphasis is laid on the global network of geomagnetic observatories....

  8. Ectopic pregnancy in a Caesarean section scar: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Niziurski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of a pregnancy in a scar after Caesarean section is one of the rarest locations of ectopic pregnancies. A diagnosis and/or treatment which is too late may lead to a uterine rupture, the necessity to remove the uterus and a significant increase in morbidity among mothers. The study presents a diagnostically difficult case of a 29-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with pregnancy in its seventh week, located in a scar after a Caesarean section, with highly increased values of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG concentration in blood serum. The pregnancy was removed and the wound was stitched during laparotomy, without a need to remove the uterus.

  9. National Variation in Caesarean Section Rates: A Cross Sectional Study in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sinnott, Sarah-Jo

    2016-01-01

    Internationally, caesarean section (CS) rates are rising. However, mean rates of CS across providers obscure extremes of CS provision. We aimed to quantify variation between all maternity units in Ireland.

  10. Observation of a cross-section enhancement near mass threshold in e+e-→Λ Λ ¯

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ahmed, S.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Bakina, O.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chai, J.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fegan, S.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Holtmann, T.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ikegami Andersson, W.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kühn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leithoff, H.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. L.; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Y. Y.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Long, Y. F.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Mezzadri, G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Morello, G.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Musiol, P.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Papenbrock, M.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schnier, C.; Schoenning, K.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Zongyuan; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xie, Y. H.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; You, Z. Y.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    The process e+e-→Λ Λ ¯ is studied using data samples at √{s }=2.2324 , 2.400, 2.800 and 3.080 GeV collected with the BESIII detector operating at the BEPCII collider. The Born cross section is measured at √{s }=2.2324 GeV , which is 1.0 MeV above the Λ Λ ¯ mass threshold, to be 305 ±4 5-36+66 pb , where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. The cross section near threshold is larger than that expected from theory, which predicts the cross section to vanish at threshold. The Born cross sections at √{s }=2.400 , 2.800 and 3.080 GeV are measured and found to be consistent with previous experimental results, but with improved precision. Finally, the corresponding effective electromagnetic form factors of Λ are deduced.

  11. A cross-sectional study of home-based management of malaria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A community-based cross-sectional study was designed to assess knowledge on signs, symptoms and treatment options for malaria in Bakaano, a suburb of Cape Coast, to determine the extent to which malaria is managed at homes. Our observations showed that the community had good knowledge of signs and ...

  12. Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections Observational European study (CIAO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartelli Massimo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complicated intra-abdominal infections are frequently associated with poor prognoses and high morbidity and mortality rates. Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. In order to describe the clinical, microbiological, and management-related profiles of both community-acquired and healthcare-acquired complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs, the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES, in collaboration with the Surgical Infections Society of Europe (SIS-E and other prominent European surgical societies, has designed the CIAO study. The CIAO study is a multicenter, observational study and will be carried out in various surgical departments throughout Europe. The study will include patients undergoing surgery or interventional drainage for complicated IAI.

  13. Management of rheumatic chorea: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo Alexandra Prufer de Queiroz Campos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rheumatic chorea (RC has recently been linked to an antibody-mediated immune mechanism. OBJECTIVE/METHOD: To verify if this knowledge reflected in management changes we conceived a descriptive study. RESULTS: The medical charts of 20 children (13 females aged 6 to 12 years (mean 8 years, diagnosed as RC from June 1996 to June 1999, were reviewed. All patients received some medical treatment. Haloperidol was the most prescribed medication (15 patients - 75 %. Sulpiride, diazepam and valproate were also used as symptomatic treatment. Imune-modulating therapy with prednisone was prescribed for seven children. The shortest course of chorea (16 days occurred in a patient treated with prednisone. CONCLUSION: Prednisone has been prescribed for rheumatic chorea besides the traditional symptomatic approach. A great variety of antichoreic drugs are being employed.

  14. INJURIES IN DISC GOLF - A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Martin Amadeus; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disc golf is rapidly increasing in popularity and more than two million people are estimated to regularly participate in disc golf activities. Despite this popularity, the epidemiology of injuries in disc golf remains under reported. PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study...... was to investigate the prevalence and anatomic distribution of injuries acquired through disc-golf participation in Danish disc golf players. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted on Danish disc-golf players. In May 2015, invitations to complete a web-based questionnaire were spread online via...... social media, and around disc-golf courses in Denmark. The questionnaire included questions regarding disc-golf participation and the characteristics of injuries acquired through disc golf participation. The data was analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: An injury prevalence of 13.3% (95% CI: 6.7% to 19...

  15. Constraint on the velocity dependent dark matter annihilation cross section from gamma-ray and kinematic observations of ultrafaint dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Yin, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Xinmin

    2018-03-01

    Searching for γ rays from dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) is a promising approach to detect dark matter (DM) due to the high DM densities and low baryon components in dSphs. The Fermi-LAT observations from dSphs have set stringent constraints on the velocity independent annihilation cross section. However, the constraints from dSphs may change in velocity dependent annihilation scenarios because of the different velocity dispersions in galaxies. In this work, we study how to set constraints on the velocity dependent annihilation cross section from the combined Fermi-LAT observations of dSphs with the kinematic data. In order to calculate the γ ray flux from the dSph, the correlation between the DM density profile and velocity dispersion at each position should be taken into account. We study such correlation and the relevant uncertainty from kinematic observations by performing a Jeans analysis. Using the observational results of three ultrafaint dSphs with large J-factors, including Willman 1, Reticulum II, and Triangulum II, we set constraints on the p-wave annihilation cross section in the Galaxy as an example.

  16. A cross sectional, observational survey to assess levels and predictors of psychological wellbeing in adults with epidermolysis bullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Dures

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa (EB describes a cluster of genetically determined skin disorders. Symptoms can be painful, disabling and disfiguring, yet there is little research on the psychological impact of the disease. The study aim was to measure psychological wellbeing in adults with EB; and to examine the association between psychological wellbeing and self efficacy, health locus of control and adjustment to appearance in an observational, cross sectional survey. Questionnaire packs comprising the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, the General Self Efficacy Scale (GSE, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLOC, and the Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS-24, were sent to approximately 385 adults with EB. The data were analysed using SPSS. Eighty-seven participants responded. Scores on the GHQ-12 showed non-problematic psychological health in 36% of the sample; levels bordering on clinical disorder in 32.1% and severe psychological distress in 31.9%. No correlations were found between demographic factors (age and sex or clinical factors (EB type and perceived severity and psychological well-being. Scores on the GSE, the internal locus of control sub-scale of the MHLOC and the DAS-24 showed them to be statistically significant correlates of psychological wellbeing (P<0.001; P<0.018; and P<0.001 respectively. In a regression analysis, adjustment to appearance and self efficacy accounted for 24% of the variation in psychological wellbeing. Adults with EB might be at risk of experiencing poor psychological health. Interventions designed to enhance disease self management, self efficacy and improve body image are likely to be beneficial in this clinical group.

  17. Backscattered electron SEM imaging of resin sections from plant specimens: observation of histological to subcellular structure and CLEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, N W; Duncan, K E; Bourett, T M; Howard, R J

    2016-08-01

    We have refined methods for biological specimen preparation and low-voltage backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope that allow for observation at continuous magnifications of ca. 130-70 000 X, and documentation of tissue and subcellular ultrastructure detail. The technique, based upon early work by Ogura & Hasegawa (1980), affords use of significantly larger sections from fixed and resin-embedded specimens than is possible with transmission electron microscopy while providing similar data. After microtomy, the sections, typically ca. 750 nm thick, were dried onto the surface of glass or silicon wafer and stained with heavy metals-the use of grids avoided. The glass/wafer support was then mounted onto standard scanning electron microscopy sample stubs, carbon-coated and imaged directly at an accelerating voltage of 5 kV, using either a yttrium aluminum garnet or ExB backscattered electron detector. Alternatively, the sections could be viewed first by light microscopy, for example to document signal from a fluorescent protein, and then by scanning electron microscopy to provide correlative light/electron microscope (CLEM) data. These methods provide unobstructed access to ultrastructure in the spatial context of a section ca. 7 × 10 mm in size, significantly larger than the typical 0.2 × 0.3 mm section used for conventional transmission electron microscopy imaging. Application of this approach was especially useful when the biology of interest was rare or difficult to find, e.g. a particular cell type, developmental stage, large organ, the interface between cells of interacting organisms, when contextual information within a large tissue was obligatory, or combinations of these factors. In addition, the methods were easily adapted for immunolocalizations. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Microscopy published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd on behalf of the Royal Microscopical Society.

  18. Cross-section uncertainty study of the NET shielding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, J.F.

    1990-11-01

    The Next European Torus (NET) is foreseen as the next step in the European development towards the controlled use of thermonuclear fusion. Detail design of the shielding blanket protecting the peripherals, more especially the super-conducting coils, is well advanced. A cross-section uncertainty, i.e. a study of the expected inaccuracy due to the nuclear cross-section data, has been done for the neutron-gamma reactions in the insulation of the coils for such a design. As an extension of previous work on the NET shielding blanket (e.g. MCNP calculations), it was deemed necessary to estimate the accuracy attainable with transport codes in view of the uncertainties in microscopic cross-sections. The code used, SENSIBL, is based on perturbation theory and uses covariance files, COVFILS-2, for the cross-section data. This necessitates forward and adjoint flux calculations with a transport code (e.g. ONEDANT, TRISM) and folding the information contained in these coupled fluxes with the accuracy estimates of the evaluators of the ENDF/B-V files. Transport, P 5 S 12 , calculations were done with the ONEDANT code, for a shielding blanket design with 714 MW plasma fusion power. Several runs were done to obtain well converged forward and adjoint fluxes (ca. 1%). The forward and adjoint integral responses agree to 2%, which is consistent with the above accuracy. The n-γ response was chosen as it is typical of the general accuracy and is available for all materials considered. The present version of SENSIBL allows direct use of the geometric files of ONEDANT (or TRISM) which simplifies the input. Covariance data is not available at present in COVFILS-2 for all of the materials considered. Only H, C, N, O, Al, Si, Fe, Ni, and Pb could be considered, the big absentee being copper. The resulting uncertainty for the neutron-gamma reactions in the insulation of the coil was found to be 17%. Simulating copper by aluminium produces a negligible increase in the uncertainty, mainly

  19. Neuroanatomy from Mesoscopic to Nanoscopic Scales: An Improved Method for the Observation of Semithin Sections by High-Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José-Rodrigo; Turégano-López, Marta; DeFelipe, Javier; Merchán-Pérez, Angel

    2018-01-01

    Semithin sections are commonly used to examine large areas of tissue with an optical microscope, in order to locate and trim the regions that will later be studied with the electron microscope. Ideally, the observation of semithin sections would be from mesoscopic to nanoscopic scales directly, instead of using light microscopy and then electron microscopy (EM). Here we propose a method that makes it possible to obtain high-resolution scanning EM images of large areas of the brain in the millimeter to nanometer range. Since our method is compatible with light microscopy, it is also feasible to generate hybrid light and electron microscopic maps. Additionally, the same tissue blocks that have been used to obtain semithin sections can later be used, if necessary, for transmission EM, or for focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM).

  20. s-wave threshold in electron attachment - Observations and cross sections in CCl4 and SF6 at ultralow electron energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutjian, A.; Alajajian, S. H.

    1985-01-01

    The threshold photoionization method was used to study low-energy electron attachment phenomena in and cross sections of CCl4 and SF6 compounds, which have applications in the design of gaseous dielectrics and diffuse discharge opening switches. Measurements were made at electron energies from below threshold to 140 meV at resolutions of 6 and 8 meV. A narrow resolution-limited structure was observed in electron attachment to CCl4 and SF6 at electron energies below 10 meV, which is attributed to the divergence of the attachment cross section in the limit epsilon, l approaches zero. The results are compared with experimental collisional-ionization results, electron-swarm unfolded cross sections, and earlier threshold photoionization data.

  1. Three-Dimensional Human Cardiac Tissue Engineered by Centrifugation of Stacked Cell Sheets and Cross-Sectional Observation of Its Synchronous Beatings by Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Yuji; Hasegawa, Akiyuki; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Kobayashi, Mari; Iwana, Shin-Ichi; Kabetani, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tissues are engineered by stacking cell sheets, and these tissues have been applied in clinical regenerative therapies. The optimal fabrication technique of 3D human tissues and the real-time observation system for these tissues are important in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, cardiac physiology, and the safety testing of candidate chemicals. In this study, for aiming the clinical application, 3D human cardiac tissues were rapidly fabricated by human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cardiac cell sheets with centrifugation, and the structures and beatings in the cardiac tissues were observed cross-sectionally and noninvasively by two optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems. The fabrication time was reduced to approximately one-quarter by centrifugation. The cross-sectional observation showed that multilayered cardiac cell sheets adhered tightly just after centrifugation. Additionally, the cross-sectional transmissions of beatings within multilayered human cardiac tissues were clearly detected by OCT. The observation showed the synchronous beatings of the thicker 3D human cardiac tissues, which were fabricated rapidly by cell sheet technology and centrifugation. The rapid tissue-fabrication technique and OCT technology will show a powerful potential in cardiac tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug discovery research.

  2. Employee Engagement within the NHS: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadava Bapurao Jeve

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES at a teaching hospital. Methods We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption and total score compared with control score from test manual. Results We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (P< 0.0001 for both. The score for absorption was significantly higher than comparison group (P< 0.0001. However, total score is not significantly different. Conclusion The study shows that work engagement level is below average within the NHS employees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one’s effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience.

  3. Health literacy among Saudi population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M M; Saad, Sherif Y

    2017-09-12

    Health literacy is a major problem worldwide and adversely affects an individual's health. The aim of the present study was to assess health literacy level among Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a randomly selected population (n = 500) in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire comprised of questions pertaining to demographic characteristics, health literacy and health information. Health literacy was measured by REALM-R test. Internal reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The majority of the respondents had intermediate (43.8%) and basic (34.4%) health literacy levels. A higher percentage among men had intermediate (59.8%) and basic (70.93%) health literacy levels compared with women. About 30% of respondents had difficulty in understanding health screening tests and disease treatment. More than half of participants (52.4%) had difficulty in finding health information. The REALM-R test revealed that about 42.6% of individuals with score of >6 had adequate health literacy compared with 57.4% with score of ≤6 had inadequate health literacy. The present study demonstrated that a majority of Saudi individuals had inadequate health literacy that associated with poor knowledge of health information. Our findings highlighted the importance of understanding the status of health literacy among Saudis and the need for educational programs to raise the health literacy awareness among Saudi population. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Observational study of outpatients with schizophrenia in the Middle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observational study of outpatients with schizophrenia in the Middle East and Africa — 3- and 6-month efficacy and safety results. The Intercontinental Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes Study.

  5. Employee engagement within the NHS: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeve, Yadava Bapurao; Oppenheimer, Christina; Konje, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) at a teaching hospital. We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS) Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption) and total score compared with control score from test manual. We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (Pengagement level is below average within the NHS employees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one's effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience.

  6. Determinants of burn first aid knowledge: Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Hilary J; O'Neill, Tomas B; Wood, Fiona M; Edgar, Dale W; Rea, Suzanne M

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated demographic factors, experience of burn/care and first aid course attendance as factors influencing burn first aid knowledge. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using convenience sampling of members of sporting and recreation clubs. The main outcome measure was the proportion of correct responses to multiple-choice questions relating to four burn scenarios: (1) scald, (2) contact burn, (3) ignited clothing, and (4) chemical burn. A total of 2602 responses were obtained. Large gaps (30-50% incorrect answers) were identified in burn first aid knowledge across all scenarios. 15% more individuals gave correct answers if they had attended a first aid course compared to those who had not (pfirst aid knowledge. Gender and age were significant predictors of first aid course attendance, with males and younger (≤25 years) and older (≥65 years) age-groups less likely to have attended a first aid course. In this sample, first aid training undertaken within the last 5 years with a specific burns component was associated with enhanced burn first aid knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Employee engagement within the NHS: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeve, Yadava Bapurao; Oppenheimer, Christina; Konje, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) at a teaching hospital. Methods: We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS) Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption) and total score compared with control score from test manual. Results: We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (Pemployees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one’s effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience PMID:25674571

  8. [Assessment of Urinary Incontinence in Pregnancy and Postpartum: Observational Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Juliana; Brandão, Pedro; Melo, Anabela; Torres, Silvia; Mota, Lurdes; Costa, Fernanda

    2017-08-31

    The urinary incontinence can affect up to 50% of women at some stage of their lives, particularly during pregnancy and postpartum. This study was designed in order to identify and assess the prevalence and risk factors for urinary incontinence during the third trimester of pregnancy and three months postpartum. Observational and cross-sectional study. The population of the study was composed of 268 women who delivered and were admitted to the Centro Hospitalar Tâmega e Sousa in the years 2013 and 2014, and who agreed to participate in this study. Postpartum women were asked to fill out a questionnaire adapted from the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form, for urinary incontinence research in the third trimester of pregnancy. Three months after delivery, they were contacted by telephone and asked to answer the same questions about the urinary incontinence postpartum. Of the 268 women interviewed, 31 were excluded from the study, taking into account the defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. In total (n = 237), 51.89% of women included in the study, reported the occurrence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy. The prevalence of urinary incontinence in pregnancy by parity (primiparous versus multiparous) was statistically significant (p = 0.006). At postpartum (n = 237), 28.69% of women with urinary incontinence had vaginal delivery and 5.91% of women underwent cesarean delivery (p = 0.001). In these group of women with postpartum urinary incontinence (n = 82), 31.69% have had urinary incontinence only in the postpartum and 68.31% of women have had symptoms during pregnancy (p urinary incontinence in pregnancy and the respective decrease in postpartum. Multiparity and occurrence of urinary incontinence in pregnancy appear as potential risk factors in the emergence of the urinary incontinence.

  9. Collagenous sprue cross-sectional imaging: a comparative blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bawardy, Badr; Sheedy, Shannon P; Herberts, Michelle B; Murray, Joseph A; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; Rajan, Elizabeth; Bruining, David H; Hansel, Stephanie L; Barlow, John M; Fletcher, Joel G; Fidler, Jeff L

    2017-02-01

    Collagenous sprue (CS) is a rare enteropathy characterized by villous atrophy and a thickened subepithelial collagen band. The aim of this study is to describe the cross-sectional imaging findings of CS. A case-control, retrospective study with cases of all CS patients from January 2000 to 2015 was performed. Inclusion criteria were (1) Histopathologic diagnosis and (2) Imaging with computed tomography abdomen/pelvis (CT A/P), CT enterography (CTE), or magnetic resonance enterography within 6 months of small bowel (SB) biopsy. Control subjects were irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients who underwent CTE. Imaging studies were examined by two GI radiologists, blinded to patient data. 108 patients (54 CS; 54 IBS) were included. Mean age was 56.7 ± 16.5 years, and 68% were female (72% in CS group vs. 63% in IBS group; p = 0.3). CS patients were significantly older (67 ± 12 vs. 47 ± 15 year; p reversal (46% vs. 6%; p < 0.001), SB dilation (28% vs. 0%; p < 0.001), SB conformational change (28% vs. 6%; p = 0.002), SB wall thickening (13% vs. 2%; p = 0.03), and ulcerative jejunoileitis (4% vs. 0%; p = 0.01). Radiologists suspected malabsorption in 72% in the CS group and 2% in the IBS group (p < 0.001). Imaging findings suggestive of mucosal malabsorption are commonly demonstrated in CS.

  10. Cardiovascular Complications of Acute Amphetamine Abuse; Cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Bazmi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate cardiovascular complications among patients who abuse amphetamines. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between April 2014 and April 2015 among 3,870 patients referred to the Toxicology Emergency Department of Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Those with clinical signs of drug abuse and positive urine screening tests were included in the study, while cases of chronic abuse were excluded. Cardiac complications were evaluated via electrocardiography (ECG and transthoracic echocardiography. Results: A total of 230 patients (5.9% had a history of acute amphetamine abuse and positive urine tests. Of these, 32 patients (13.9% were <20 years old and 196 (85.2% were male. In total, 119 (51.7% used amphetamine and methamphetamine compounds while 111 (48.3% used amphetamines with morphine or benzodiazepines. The most common ECG finding was sinus tachycardia (43.0%, followed by sinus tachycardia plus a prolonged QT interval (34.3%. Mean creatine kinase-MB and troponin I levels were 35.9 ± 4.3 U/mL and 0.6 ± 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. A total of 60 patients (26.1% were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. The majority (83.3% of these patients had normal echocardiography results. The mean aortic root diameter (ARD was 27.2 ± 2.8 mm. Abnormalities related to the ARD were found in 10 patients (16.7%, three of whom subsequently died. Conclusion: According to these findings, cardiac complications were common among Iranian patients who abuse amphetamines, although the majority of patients had normal echocardiography and ECG findings.

  11. Sleep disorders and oral health: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Maria Clotilde; Schmitt, Audrey; Thomas, Frederique; Danchin, Nicolas; Pannier, Bruno; Bouchard, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    Sleep disorders (SDs), particularly sleep deprivation, may alter the immune system and induce systemic inflammation. Recent evidence supports an association between SDs and periodontal diseases. This cross-sectional epidemiological study aims to compare oral health variables, such as the amount of plaque/calculus, gingival inflammation, and masticatory function, in individuals with and without SDs. The study population consisted in a French cohort of individuals who underwent medical and oral examinations between 2012 and 2013. Multivariate logistic regression and general linear models were used for group comparisons. Over a total of 29,870 individuals, 11,185 (37.4 %) reported to suffer from SDs on a regular basis. Compared to individuals without SDs, SD individuals were older (mean age 44.2 vs. 45.3 years; p < 0.0001), prevalently female (38.6 vs. 52.1 %; p < 0.0001), and with higher BMI (25.3 vs. 25.7; p < 0.0001). Moreover, SD individuals displayed a significantly higher prevalence of comorbidities, higher level of gingival inflammation (adjusted odds ratio 1.22 [95 % confidence interval 1.13-1.32]), and lower masticatory function (1.45 [1.33-1.58]). Short sleepers (<6 h of sleep/night) were found to be at an increased risk of gingival inflammation (1.25 [1.1-1.4]). SD individuals with moderate-to-high gingival inflammation showed a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease (1.39 [1.04-1.84]) compared to SD individuals with low or no gingival inflammation. Individuals with self-report SDs are at increased risk of gingival inflammation. The coexistence of SDs and gingival inflammation is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. These findings provide evidence for an association between SDs and gingival inflammation and support further clinical and experimental studies.

  12. Assessment of the profile of psychiatric manifestations in cannabis users: A cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Indrajeet Sharma; Tulika Jha; Purshottam K. Kaundal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cannabis is the world's most commonly used illicit drug, with approximately 200 to 300 million regular users. It occupies fourth place in worldwide popularity among psychoactive drugs, after caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. Nowadays, cannabis is widely used by young people and, the prevalence of lifetime use of cannabis by young adults has increased in many developed countries over the past several decades. Methods: It was a one year cross-sectional observational study. The stu...

  13. Predictors of over-the-counter medication: A cross-sectional Indian study

    OpenAIRE

    Abinash Panda; Supriya Pradhan; Gurukrushna Mohapatro; Jaya Singh Kshatri

    2017-01-01

    Context: The determinants of over-the-counter (OTC) medication need to be understood to design adequate drug information policies. Aim: To determine the prevalence and predictors of OTC medication among the adult population of Berhampur town in Odisha, India. Settings and Design: It was a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study carried out in the private retail pharmacy on a convenience sample of 880 adults over a period of 6 months at Berhampur, Odisha, India. Materials and Methods...

  14. Observation of a backward peak in the gamma d ---> pi0 d cross- section near the eta threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanka Ilieva; Barry Berman; Alexander Kudryavtsev; I.I. Strakovsky; V.E. Tarasov; Moscov Amaryan; Pawel Ambrozewicz; Marco Anghinolfi; G. Asryan; Harutyun Avakian; Hovhannes Baghdasaryan; Nathan Baillie; Jacques Ball; Nathan Baltzell; V. Batourine; Marco Battaglieri; Ivan Bedlinski; Ivan Bedlinskiy; Matthew Bellis; Nawal Benmouna; Angela Biselli; Sylvain Bouchigny; Sergey Boyarinov; Robert Bradford; Derek Branford; William Briscoe; William Brooks; Stephen Bueltmann; Volker Burkert; Cornel Butuceanu; John Calarco; Sharon Careccia; Daniel Carman; Shifeng Chen; Philip Cole; Patrick Collins; Philip Coltharp; Donald Crabb; Volker Crede; R. De Masi; Enzo De Sanctis; Raffaella De Vita; Pavel Degtiarenko; Alexandre Deur; Richard Dickson; Chaden Djalali; Gail Dodge; Joseph Donnelly; David Doughty; Michael Dugger; Oleksandr Dzyubak; Hovanes Egiyan; Kim Egiyan; Latifa Elouadrhiri; Paul Eugenio; Gleb Fedotov; Gerald Feldman; Herbert Funsten; Michel Garcon; Gagik Gavalian; Gerard Gilfoyle; Kevin Giovanetti; Francois-Xavier Girod; John Goetz; Atilla Gonenc; Ralf Gothe; Keith Griffioen; Michel Guidal; Nevzat Guler; Lei Guo; Vardan Gyurjyan; Kawtar Hafidi; Rafael Hakobyan; F. Hersman; Kenneth Hicks; Ishaq Hleiqawi; Maurik Holtrop; Charles Hyde; Charles Hyde-Wright; David Ireland; Boris Ishkhanov; Eugeny Isupov; Mark Ito; David Jenkins; Hyon-Suk Jo; Kyungseon Joo; Henry Juengst; Narbe Kalantarians; James Kellie; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Andreas Klein; Franz Klein; Mikhail Kossov; Zebulun Krahn; Laird Kramer; V. Kubarovsky; Joachim Kuhn; Sebastian Kuhn; Sergey Kuleshov; Jeff Lachniet; Jean Laget; Jorn Langheinrich; David Lawrence; Kenneth Livingston; Haiyun Lu; Marion MacCormick; Nikolai Markov; Bryan McKinnon; Bernhard Mecking; Mac Mestayer; Curtis Meyer; Tsutomu Mibe; Konstantin Mikhaylov; Marco Mirazita; Rory Miskimen; Viktor Mokeev; Kei Moriya; Steven Morrow; M. Moteabbed; E. Munevar; Gordon Mutchler; Pawel Nadel-Turonski; Rakhsha Nasseripour; Silvia Niccolai; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Bogdan Niczyporuk; Megh Niroula; Rustam Niyazov; Mina Nozar; Mikhail Osipenko; Alexander Ostrovidov; K. Park; Evgueni Pasyuk; Craig Paterson; Joshua Pierce; Nikolay Pivnyuk; Oleg Pogorelko; S. Pozdniakov; John Price; Yelena Prok; Dan Protopopescu; Brian Raue; Giovanni Ricco; Marco Ripani; Barry Ritchie; Federico Ronchetti; Guenther Rosner; Patrizia Rossi; Franck Sabatie; Carlos Salgado; Joseph Santoro; Vladimir Sapunenko; Reinhard Schumacher; Vladimir Serov; Youri Sharabian; Nikolay Shvedunov; Elton Smith; Lee Smith; Daniel Sober; Aleksey Stavinskiy; Samuel Stepanyan; Stepan Stepanyan; Burnham Stokes; Paul Stoler; Steffen Strauch; Mauro Taiuti; David Tedeschi; Ulrike Thoma; Avtandil Tkabladze; Svyatoslav Tkachenko; Clarisse Tur; Maurizio Ungaro; Michael Vineyard; Alexander Vlassov; Lawrence Weinstein; Dennis Weygand; M. Williams; Elliott Wolin; Michael Wood; Amrit Yegneswaran; Lorenzo Zana; Jixie Zhang; Bo Zhao; Zhiwen Zhao

    2007-05-14

    High-quality cross sections for the reaction gamma+d->pi^0+d have been measured using the CLAS at Jefferson Lab over a wide energy range near and above the eta-meson photoproduction threshold. At backward c.m. angles for the outgoing pions, we observe a resonance-like structure near E_gamma=700 MeV. Our model analysis shows that it can be explained by eta excitation in the intermediate state. The effect is the result of the contribution of the N(1535)S_11 resonance to the amplitudes of the subprocesses occurring between the two nucleons and of a two-step process in which the excitation of an intermediate eta meson dominates.

  15. PHOSPHATE METABOLISM IN KIDNEY DONORS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Edathedathe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM To study the changes in phosphate metabolism in kidney donors, to study the correlation of albuminuria, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] with fibroblast growth factor 23 [FGF 23] in kidney donors, to study the early tubule interstitial injury in the remnant kidney of donors by measuring urine transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study in which kidney donors with 1 year or more after donation were included. 69 kidney donors with a mean duration of 5.86 years after kidney donation were studied. Serum phosphate level, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and serum levels of parathyroid hormone were measured. Plasma levels of FGF 23 were measured by a second generation enzyme linked immune sorbent assay [ELISA]. Renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and degree of albuminuria. Urine levels of transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] were measured by ELISA. A hypothesis that in kidney donors with reduced nephron number, the single nephron excretion of phosphorus will be increased to maintain normal phosphorus homeostasis and that this increase in single nephron phosphorus excretion may be mediated by FGF 23 was proposed. Testing of this hypothesis was done by studying the correlation between parameters of phosphorus metabolism, FGF 23 and the renal function of the donors. RESULTS The mean eGFR was 70.36 mL/min/1.73 m2 . 52.2% of donors had moderate increase in albuminuria [microalbuminuria], Serum phosphorus, fractional excretion of phosphorus and serum PTH levels were in the normal range. FGF 23 levels were in the normal reference range and showed no correlation with FE pi, eGFR or albuminuria, Urine TGF-beta levels were undetectable in all the donors. DISCUSSION Normal phosphorus homeostasis is maintained in kidney donors. There was no correlation between FE pi and FGF 23 levels. Kidney

  16. New neutron cross sections for fusion materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, L.R.; Smither, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron cross sections are being developed for a variety of fusion-related applications including neutron dosimetry, fusion plasma diagnostics, the activation of very long-lived isotopes, and high-energy accelerator neutron sources

  17. Parametric Study of Fire Performance of Concrete Filled Hollow Steel Section Columns with Circular and Square Cross-Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurfaidhi Rizalman, Ahmad; Tahir, Ng Seong Yap Mahmood Md; Mohammad, Shahrin

    2018-03-01

    Concrete filled hollow steel section column have been widely accepted by structural engineers and designers for high rise construction due to the benefits of combining steel and concrete. The advantages of concrete filled hollow steel section column include higher strength, ductility, energy absorption capacity, and good structural fire resistance. In this paper, comparison on the fire performance between circular and square concrete filled hollow steel section column is established. A three-dimensional finite element package, ABAQUS, was used to develop the numerical model to study the temperature development, critical temperature, and fire resistance time of the selected composite columns. Based on the analysis and comparison of typical parameters, the effect of equal cross-sectional size for both steel and concrete, concrete types, and thickness of external protection on temperature distribution and structural fire behaviour of the columns are discussed. The result showed that concrete filled hollow steel section column with circular cross-section generally has higher fire resistance than the square section.

  18. Health promoting Behaviors Among Adolescents: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musavian, Azra Sadat; Pasha, Afsaneh; Rahebi, Seyyedeh-Marzeyeh; Atrkar Roushan, Zahra; Ghanbari, Atefeh

    2014-04-01

    Health maintenance and promotion are the fundamental prerequisites to community development. The best time for establishing healthy lifestyle habits is during adolescence. Due to importance of health promotion behaviors in adolescents, this study was conducted to investigate health-promoting behaviors and its associated factors among high school students in Rasht, Iran. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 424 students during the first semester of the year 2012. We employed the multistage sampling design to recruit from private and public high schools in Rasht, Iran. The data collection instrument was a self-report questionnaire consisting of two parts. The first part of instrument was consisted of demographic questionnaire and the second part was adolescent health promotion scale (AHPS) questionnaire. AHPS questionnaire was consisted of six dimensions (nutrition, social support, health responsibility, life appreciation, physical activity, and stress management) to measure health promoting lifestyles. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 16 software employing ANOVA (analysis of variance) test, t-test, Mann-Whitney, and the Kruskal-Wallis. The score of total Adolescent Health Promotion Scale were 3.58 ± 0.52 (possible range was 1-5). The highest score was in life appreciation dimension (3.99 ± 0.068) and the lowest score was in health responsibility dimension. Moreover, Significant associations were found between the adolescent health promotion Scale with age (P school grade (P health instructors, schoolteachers, and families must pay more attention to these students. Moreover, as most of lifelong healthy and unhealthy lifestyle habits are established during adolescence, developing effective health promotion and disease prevention strategies for adolescents seems crucial.

  19. Smoking habits in French farmers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Pauline; Guillien, Alicia; Soumagne, Thibaud; Ritter, Ophélie; Laplante, Jean-Jacques; Travers, Cécile; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Peiffer, Gérard; Laurent, Lucie; Degano, Bruno

    2017-02-04

    Farmers are exposed to multiple air contaminants that may interact with tobacco smoking in the development of respiratory diseases. Farmers are currently considered to smoke less than non-farmers, but precise data in different categories of age and farming activities are lacking. Smoking habits were studied in a cross-sectional study involving 4105 farmers and 996 non-farming controls aged 40-74 years in 9 French departments between October 2012 and May 2013. Three age groups were defined (40-54, 55-64 and 65-74years). Farmers were divided into four activity groups, namely cattle breeders, livestock farmers working in confined spaces, crop farmers and others. Smoking prevalence was compared between farmers and controls, and odds ratios (ORs) for smoking adjusted for age were calculated. The adjusted OR for ever-smoking was lower among farmers than among non-farmers in all age categories, but the ORs for current smoking were similar in farmers and controls. Smoking prevalence varied according to the type of farming activity, and was lower than in non-farming controls only among cattle breeders and confined livestock farmers. In farmers, the proportion of smokers was higher in the youngest age categories compared with the older age classes. Our results confirm that the prevalence of ever-smokers is lower in farmers than in non-farmers. Nevertheless, our data show that active smoking prevalence is similar in farmers and in non-farmers. This suggests that farmers, just like non-farmers, should be targeted by primary prevention campaigns against smoking.

  20. Experimental study of bolted connections using light gauge channel sections and packing plates at the joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Ravindra B.; Vaghe, Vishal M.

    2014-12-01

    Cold-formed structural members are being used more widely in routine structural design as the world steel industry moves from the production of hot-rolled section and plate to coil and strip, often with galvanized and/or painted coatings. Steel in this form is more easily delivered from the steel mill to the manufacturing plant where it is usually cold-rolled into open and closed section members. In the present experimental study, the use of packing plate at the joints in cold-formed channel sections may increase the load carrying capacity and also reduce the buckling of unconnected cold form channel steel plate at joints. The present study focuses on examining the experimental investigation to use mild steel as a packing plate with cold-formed channel sections by bolted connection at the joints and the connection subjected to axial tension. Series of tests are carried out with increase in the thickness of packing plate and results are observed and analyzed. Total Twelve experimental tests have been carried out on cold-formed channel tension members fastened with single as well as three numbers of bolts at the connection and from the observations the strength of the joint is increased by increasing the various thicknesses of packing plates and also the buckling of unconnected leg of channel specimen is reduced. It is analyzed by plotting the entire load versus elongation path, so that the behavior of the connection is examined.

  1. STUDY CONCERNING THE COSTS OF BIRTH BY CAESAREAN SECTION COMPARED TO NATURAL BIRTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana UIVAROȘAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The birth by caesarean section has become an expanding phenomenon in the recent years, natural births being more and more rare in Romania. The increasing incidence of these operations has been observed in the recent years, in the conditions of more effective fetal monitoring, modification of the malpractice law and increasing degree of information of the women. In Romania, depending on the hospital, the percentage of births by caesarean section ranges between 20-80%, even 90% (these latter percentage being valid especially in private clinics. The percentage of the operations is higher in big cities, and in Bucharest about 70% of the births are done by C-section. The World Health Organization recommends a maximum percentage surgical intervention of 10-15%. Fearing the labor pain, more and more women are choosing to bring their children into the world by Caesarean section. Also the number of doctors who claim that cesarean section is a better option is increasing. Both persons involved in the birth process have the responsibility of that decision - meaning both mother and doctor. The option of the mother is very important, but the recommendation of the doctor can make the difference. The decision is not only of the doctor, he just presents the information that the mother does not know, mother's wish being the most important. In this paper we conducted a study to determine the comparative costs of the vaginal births with those by Caesarean section. The retrospective study was conducted between 01.01.2015 - 31.12.2015, on 3607 births registered in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of Clinical Emergency County Hospital Oradea. Gemellary births were excluded from the study. We analyzed the comparative costs of a vaginal birth and of a birth by caesarean section in order to highlight the share of cesarean births compared to vaginal births.

  2. Lifestyle factors and multimorbidity: a cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Lifestyle factors have been associated mostly with individual chronic diseases. We investigated the relationship between lifestyle factors (individual and combined) and the co-occurrence of multiple chronic diseases. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of results from the Program of Research on the Evolution of a Cohort Investigating Health System Effects (PRECISE) in Quebec, Canada. Subjects aged 45 years and older. A randomly-selected cohort in the general population recruited by telephone. Multimorbidity (3 or more chronic diseases) was measured by a simple count of self-reported chronic diseases from a list of 14. Five lifestyle factors (LFs) were evaluated: 1) smoking habit, 2) alcohol consumption, 3) fruit and vegetable consumption, 4) physical activity, and 5) body mass index (BMI). Each LF was given a score of 1 (unhealthy) if recommended behavioural targets were not achieved and 0 otherwise. The combined effect of unhealthy LFs (ULFs) was evaluated using the total sum of scores. Results A total of 1,196 subjects were analyzed. Mean number of ULFs was 2.6 ± 1.1 SD. When ULFs were considered separately, there was an increased likelihood of multimorbidity with low or high BMI [Odd ratio (95% Confidence Interval): men, 1.96 (1.11-3.46); women, 2.57 (1.65-4.00)], and present or past smoker [men, 3.16 (1.74-5.73)]. When combined, in men, 4-5 ULFs increased the likelihood of multimorbidity [5.23 (1.70-16.1)]; in women, starting from a threshold of 2 ULFs [1.95 (1.05-3.62)], accumulating more ULFs progressively increased the likelihood of multimorbidity. Conclusions The present study provides support to the association of lifestyle factors and multimorbidity. PMID:24996220

  3. Patients for patient safety in China: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiongwen; Li, Yulin; Li, Jing; Mao, Xuanyue; Zhang, Lijuan; Ying, Qinghua; Wei, Xin; Shang, Lili; Zhang, Mingming

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the baseline status of patients' awareness, knowledge, and attitudes to patient safety in China, and to determine the factors that influence patients' involvement in patient safety. We conducted a cross sectional survey using questionnaires adapted from recent studies on patient safety from outside China. The items included medical errors, infection, medication safety, and other aspects of patient safety. The questionnaire included 17 items and 5 domains. The survey was conducted between Jan. 2009 and Dec. 2010 involving 1000 patients from ten grade-A hospitals in seven provinces or cities in China. Most patients from the surgery departments completed the questionnaires voluntarily and anonymously. Five reviewers independently input the data into Microsoft Excel 2003, and the data were double-checked. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software for differences in the perceptions and attitudes of patients toward patient safety among different genders, ages, and regions. We distributed 1000 questionnaires and collected 959 completed questionnaires (response rate: 96%). Among the respondents, 58% of patients did not know what medical error is. Sixty-five percent of patients wanted disclosure of all medical errors. After errors occurred, 58% of patients wanted explanations of all possible harms that had resulted. Among 187 patients who had experienced medical errors, 83% of patients had sought appropriate legal action. About 52% of patients understood hospital infection, but 28% patients did not know that infections could occur in hospital. Seventy-eight percent of patients thought that medical staff should wash their hands before examining patients. More than half of the patients (68%) were willing to remind the staff of hygiene if they saw unsanitary conditions in a health clinic. Only 14% of patients knew the side effects of medications that they took. The majority of patients surveyed expressed willingness to contribute to patient safety, but their

  4. Drug-related celebrity deaths: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Johannes M; Bleckwenn, Markus; Schnakenberg, Rieke; Skatulla, Philipp; Weckbecker, Klaus

    2016-12-09

    Celebrities are at risk for premature mortality as well as drug-related death. Despite being a vulnerable patient group, celebrities influence people's health behaviours through biological, psychological and social processes. Therefore, celebrity endorsement of the topic could be one way to challenge the current "opioid endemic". Our aim was to better understand the factors surrounding drug-related celebrity deaths by investigating the incidence as well as substances used between 1970 and 2015 using a cross-sectional study design. We searched public databases for drug-related celebrity deaths between 1970 and 2015. They were categorized for sex, profession, age at death, year of death and substances involved. The main outcome measures are descriptive values including number of drug deaths per year and substances involved. Secondary outcome measures are analytical questions to examine whether and which factors influence age at death and year of death (e.g. type of substance use disorder). We identified 220 celebrities who died a drug-related death with a clear indication of involved substances between 1970 and 2015. The average age at death was 38.6 years; 75% were male. Most celebrities died between the age of 25 and 40. The number of drug-related deaths increased in the 21st century, with a significant increase in the use of prescription opioids. Deaths involving prescription opioids and heroin were associated with a significantly lower mean age at death compared to deaths where these substances were not involved. Compared to the 20th century, the total number of celebrities who died from a drug-related death in the 21st century increased, possibly due to an increased involvement of prescription opioids. Negative effects on individual health decisions of celebrity's followers could be the result.

  5. Acromegaly and aging: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Esra; Yuruyen, Mehmet; Keskin, Ela; Yavuzer, Hakan; Niyazoglu, Mutlu; Doventas, Alper; Erdincler, Deniz Suna; Beger, Tanju; Kadioglu, Pinar; Gundogdu, Sadi

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive and functional geriatric assessment may change in acromegaly. Herein we aimed to determine at which points geriatric assessment of the cases with acromegaly differs from that of general elderly population. In this comparative cross-sectional study, a total of 30 cases with acromegaly (controlled n = 14, uncontrolled n = 16) and 30 gender and body-mass index-matched cases without acromegaly (control group, CG) above 60 years old were included. Cognitive functions were evaluated on the basis of the mini-mental state exam (MMSE). Affective status was determined using the geriatric depression scale. Activities of daily living (ADL) were ranked according to the Barthel index while instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were graded on the basis of the Lawton scale. Nutritional status was evaluated using the mini-nutritional assessment (MNA). Body composition was measured through bioimpedance analysis. Functional mobility was determined using the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and muscle strength with the handgrip strength test. Scores on the MMSE were significantly lower in the elderly cases with acromegaly than in the cases without acromegaly (p < 0.001). Dementia was more frequent in the acromegaly group than in the CG (p = 0.04). Total MNA scores were significantly lower in cases with acromegaly than in the CG (p = 0.006). More subjects in the acromegaly group (33%) were at greater risk of malnutrition than in the CG (3%) (p = 0.003). There was greater moderate functional impairment based on Barthel ADL in the acromegaly group than in the CG (p = 0.04). Acromegaly may impair cognitive functions, functional mobility and instrumental daily living activities in the geriatric population. With acromegaly, the risk of malnutrition may also increase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Workplace violence against nurses: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liuyi; Wang, Anni; Xie, Xia; Zhou, Yanhong; Li, Jing; Yang, Lijun; Zhang, Jingping

    2017-07-01

    Workplace violence is a serious problem for clinical nurses, as it leads to a series of adverse consequences. However, little information is available on the prevalence and influencing factors of workplace violence in China. To determine the prevalence of workplace violence against Chinese nurses, and its influencing factors. A multi-center, cross-sectional study. The seven geographical regions (i.e., northeast, north, central, east, south, northwest, and southwest) of China. Four thousand one hundred and twenty-five nurses. We randomly selected 28 hospitals, located in 14 cities over 13 provinces across the seven geographical regions. We distributed 4125 questionnaires between May 4 and September 23, 2014. The questionnaire included demographic information, the Workplace Violent Incident Questionnaire, the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Professionals, and the Practice Environment Scale of Nursing Work Index. Workplace violence was assessed in terms of physical violence, non-physical violence, sexual harassment, and organized healthcare disturbances. We then performed descriptive analyses and logistic regressions on the collected data. The response rate was 92.97% (n=3835). Additionally, we obtained valid questionnaires from 3004 individuals. Of these, 25.77% reported experiencing physical violence, 63.65% non-physical violence, 2.76% sexual harassment, and 11.72% organized healthcare disturbances. A logistic regression analysis revealed that nurses who have less experience, work a rotating roster, work in emergency rooms and pediatrics departments, have low empathy levels, and who work in poor nursing environments have greater odds of experiencing violence. Experiences of workplace violence are prevalent among Chinese nurses, and several complex factors are associated with a greater risk of such violence, including nurses' personal characteristics, work settings, and work environments. Our results might help nursing managers understand their employees' work

  7. Overweight in adult cats: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhlund, Malin; Palmgren, Malin; Holst, Bodil Ström

    2018-01-19

    Overweight in cats is a major risk factor for diabetes mellitus and has also been associated with other disorders. Overweight and obesity are believed to be increasing problems in cats, as is currently seen in people, with important health consequences. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of overweight in cats from two different cohorts in a cross-sectional study design and to assess associations between overweight and diagnoses, and between overweight and demographic and environmental factors. Data were obtained from medical records for cats (n = 1072) visiting an academic medical center during 2013-2015, and from a questionnaire on insured cats (n = 1665). From the medical records, information on body condition score, breed, age, sex, neutering status, and diagnosis was obtained. The questionnaire included questions relating to the cat's body condition, breed, age, sex, neutering status, outdoor access, activity level, and diet. Data were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of overweight was 45% in the medical records cohort and 22% in the questionnaire cohort, where owners judged their pet's body condition. Overweight cats in the medical records cohort were more likely to be diagnosed with lower urinary tract disease, diabetes mellitus, respiratory disease, skin disorders, locomotor disease, and trauma. Eating predominantly dry food, being a greedy eater, and inactivity were factors associated with an increased risk of overweight in the final model in the questionnaire cohort. In both cohorts, the Birman and Persian breeds, and geriatric cats, were less likely to be overweight, and male cats were more likely to be overweight. The prevalence of overweight cats (45%) as assessed by trained personnel was high and in the same range as previously reported. Birman and Persian cats had a lower risk of overweight. The association with dry food found in adult, neutered cats is potentially important because

  8. Concatenation of observed grasp phases with observer's distal movements: a behavioural and TMS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa De Stefani

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at determining how actions executed by two conspecifics can be coordinated with each other, or more specifically, how the observation of different phases of a reaching-grasping action is temporary related to the execution of a movement of the observer. Participants observed postures of initial finger opening, maximal finger aperture, and final finger closing of grasp after observation of an initial hand posture. Then, they opened or closed their right thumb and index finger (experiments 1, 2 and 3. Response times decreased, whereas acceleration and velocity of actual finger movements increased when observing the two late phases of grasp. In addition, the results ruled out the possibility that this effect was due to salience of the visual stimulus when the hand was close to the target and confirmed an effect of even hand postures in addition to hand apparent motion due to the succession of initial hand posture and grasp phase. In experiments 4 and 5, the observation of grasp phases modulated even foot movements and pronunciation of syllables. Finally, in experiment 6, transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to primary motor cortex 300 ms post-stimulus induced an increase in hand motor evoked potentials of opponens pollicis muscle when observing the two late phases of grasp. These data suggest that the observation of grasp phases induced simulation which was stronger during observation of finger closing. This produced shorter response times, greater acceleration and velocity of the successive movement. In general, our data suggest best concatenation between two movements (one observed and the other executed when the observed (and simulated movement was to be accomplished. The mechanism joining the observation of a conspecific's action with our own movement may be precursor of social functions. It may be at the basis for interactions between conspecifics, and related to communication between individuals.

  9. Concatenation of observed grasp phases with observer's distal movements: a behavioural and TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefani, Elisa; Innocenti, Alessandro; De Marco, Doriana; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at determining how actions executed by two conspecifics can be coordinated with each other, or more specifically, how the observation of different phases of a reaching-grasping action is temporary related to the execution of a movement of the observer. Participants observed postures of initial finger opening, maximal finger aperture, and final finger closing of grasp after observation of an initial hand posture. Then, they opened or closed their right thumb and index finger (experiments 1, 2 and 3). Response times decreased, whereas acceleration and velocity of actual finger movements increased when observing the two late phases of grasp. In addition, the results ruled out the possibility that this effect was due to salience of the visual stimulus when the hand was close to the target and confirmed an effect of even hand postures in addition to hand apparent motion due to the succession of initial hand posture and grasp phase. In experiments 4 and 5, the observation of grasp phases modulated even foot movements and pronunciation of syllables. Finally, in experiment 6, transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to primary motor cortex 300 ms post-stimulus induced an increase in hand motor evoked potentials of opponens pollicis muscle when observing the two late phases of grasp. These data suggest that the observation of grasp phases induced simulation which was stronger during observation of finger closing. This produced shorter response times, greater acceleration and velocity of the successive movement. In general, our data suggest best concatenation between two movements (one observed and the other executed) when the observed (and simulated) movement was to be accomplished. The mechanism joining the observation of a conspecific's action with our own movement may be precursor of social functions. It may be at the basis for interactions between conspecifics, and related to communication between individuals.

  10. Criticality studies of fast assemblies with the new 27-group cross-section set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, S.B.; Shukla, V.K.

    1976-01-01

    A test of 27-group cross-section set (Garg-set) recently derived from ENDF/B library has been carried out in the criticality studies of the Pu 239 , U 235 and U 233 based metal, oxide and carbide fuelled fast critical assemblies. A total of twenty fast critical assemblies of different sizes and varying neutron spectra have been selected for analysis. Based on these analyses it has been observed that the Garg-set predicts well the criticality of uranium and plutonium based hard-spectra assemblies. In the soft-spectra systems it underpredicts criticality because of the following reasons: (a) It makes use of the higher capture cross-sections of structural and coolant elements given in ENDF/B - Version IV library. (b) It does not account for the resonance self-shielding effects of cross-sections. It has also been observed that the Garg-set gives better results than the MABBN-set for dense and dilute plutonium-based and the hard uranium-based assemblies. This superior trend of the Garg-set is slightly lost in the uranium-based dilute systems because of large differences in the capture cross-sections of structural elements of these two sets. (author)

  11. Sarbanes Oxley section 404 costs of compliance : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneller, Lineke; Langendijk, H.P.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 US Congress approved the Sarbanes Oxley Act (SOX). Section 404 requires companies to assess their internal controls and acquire an attestation of this assessment from their external auditor. In this paper, we investigate the costs of compliance of this assessment and attestation. The

  12. Sarbanes Oxely Section 404 costs of compliance: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneller, L.; Langendijk, H.

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 US Congress approved the Sarbanes Oxley Act (SOX). Section 404 requires companies to assess their internal controls and acquire an attestation of this assessment from their external auditor. In this paper, we investigate the costs of compliance of this assessment and attestation. The

  13. Numerical study on the incompressible Euler equations as a Hamiltonian system: Sectional curvature and Jacobi field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkitani, K.

    2010-05-01

    We study some of the key quantities arising in the theory of [Arnold "Sur la geometrie differentielle des groupes de Lie de dimension infinie et ses applications a l'hydrodynamique des fluides parfaits," Annales de l'institut Fourier 16, 319 (1966)] of the incompressible Euler equations both in two and three dimensions. The sectional curvatures for the Taylor-Green vortex and the ABC flow initial conditions are calculated exactly in three dimensions. We trace the time evolution of the Jacobi fields by direct numerical simulations and, in particular, see how the sectional curvatures get more and more negative in time. The spatial structure of the Jacobi fields is compared to the vorticity fields by visualizations. The Jacobi fields are found to grow exponentially in time for the flows with negative sectional curvatures. In two dimensions, a family of initial data proposed by Arnold (1966) is considered. The sectional curvature is observed to change its sign quickly even if it starts from a positive value. The Jacobi field is shown to be correlated with the passive scalar gradient in spatial structure. On the basis of Rouchon's physical-space based expression for the sectional curvature (1984), the origin of negative curvature is investigated. It is found that a "potential" αξ appearing in the definition of covariant time derivative plays an important role, in that a rapid growth in its gradient makes a major contribution to the negative curvature.

  14. Prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction in primiparae two years after cesarean section: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Angélica Mércia Pascon; Marini, Gabriela; Piculo, Fernanda; Rudge, Cibele Vieira Cunha; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha

    2013-01-01

    There is uncertainty in the literature regarding the theory that obstetric events and pelvic floor injuries give rise to lower risk of subsequent urinary incontinence among women delivering via cesarean section than among women delivering vaginally. The objective of this study was to assess the two-year postpartum prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction and the factors responsible for them. Cross-sectional study, conducted in a public university. 220 women who had undergone elective cesarean section or vaginal childbirth two years earlier were selected. Their urinary incontinence symptoms were investigated, and their pelvic floor muscle dysfunction was assessed using digital palpation and a perineometer. The two-year urinary incontinence prevalences following vaginal childbirth and cesarean section were 17% and 18.9%, respectively. The only risk factor for pelvic floor muscle dysfunction was weight gain during pregnancy. Body mass index less than 25 kg/m 2 and normal pelvic floor muscle function protected against urinary incontinence. Gestational urinary incontinence increased the risk of two-year postpartum urinary incontinence. Gestational urinary incontinence was a crucial precursor of postpartum urinary incontinence. Weight gain during pregnancy increased the subsequent risk of pelvic floor muscle dysfunction, and elective cesarean section did not prevent urinary incontinence.

  15. Prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction in primiparae two years after cesarean section: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Mércia Pascon Barbosa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE There is uncertainty in the literature regarding the theory that obstetric events and pelvic floor injuries give rise to lower risk of subsequent urinary incontinence among women delivering via cesarean section than among women delivering vaginally. The objective of this study was to assess the two-year postpartum prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction and the factors responsible for them. DESIGN AND SETTING Cross-sectional study, conducted in a public university. METHODS 220 women who had undergone elective cesarean section or vaginal childbirth two years earlier were selected. Their urinary incontinence symptoms were investigated, and their pelvic floor muscle dysfunction was assessed using digital palpation and a perineometer. RESULTS The two-year urinary incontinence prevalences following vaginal childbirth and cesarean section were 17% and 18.9%, respectively. The only risk factor for pelvic floor muscle dysfunction was weight gain during pregnancy. Body mass index less than 25 kg/m 2 and normal pelvic floor muscle function protected against urinary incontinence. Gestational urinary incontinence increased the risk of two-year postpartum urinary incontinence. CONCLUSION Gestational urinary incontinence was a crucial precursor of postpartum urinary incontinence. Weight gain during pregnancy increased the subsequent risk of pelvic floor muscle dysfunction, and elective cesarean section did not prevent urinary incontinence.

  16. Evaluation of Multiclass Model Observers in PET LROC Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, H. C.; Kinahan, P. E.; Lartizien, C.; King, M. A.

    2007-02-01

    A localization ROC (LROC) study was conducted to evaluate nonprewhitening matched-filter (NPW) and channelized NPW (CNPW) versions of a multiclass model observer as predictors of human tumor-detection performance with PET images. Target localization is explicitly performed by these model observers. Tumors were placed in the liver, lungs, and background soft tissue of a mathematical phantom, and the data simulation modeled a full-3D acquisition mode. Reconstructions were performed with the FORE+AWOSEM algorithm. The LROC study measured observer performance with 2D images consisting of either coronal, sagittal, or transverse views of the same set of cases. Versions of the CNPW observer based on two previously published difference-of-Gaussian channel models demonstrated good quantitative agreement with human observers. One interpretation of these results treats the CNPW observer as a channelized Hotelling observer with implicit internal noise

  17. Stroke risk and NSAIDs: A systematic review of observational studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Varas-Lorenzo (Cristina); N. Riera-Guardia (Nuria); B. Calingaert (Brian); J. Castellsague (Jordi); A. Pariente (Antoine); L. Scotti (Lorenza); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); S. Perez-Gutthann (Susana)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAims: To perform a quantitative systematic review of observational studies on the risk of stroke associated with the use of individual NSAIDs. Methods and results: Searches were conducted using the Medline database within PubMed (1990-2008). Observational cohort or case-control studies

  18. Learning to observe mathematical learning in lesson studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Klaus; Østergaard, Camilla Hellsten; Foss, Kristian Kildemoes

    2016-01-01

    This poster deals with lesson study (LS) in pre-service teacher education. In particular how to prepare for, carry out, and reflect upon, observations of pupil learning. Observation is of crucial importance to the lesson study process, and here we present a study of observation features which ena...... enable or hinder fruitful lesson study. While substantial research has been carried out in the general field of bserving pupils’ learning processes and teachers’ pedagogical practice, little is known about this in the particular setting of lesson study....

  19. An observational study on the relationship between plasma vitamin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARTICLE. An observational study on the relationship between plasma ... To study plasma vitamin C, oxidative stress, hyperglycaemia, endothelial dysfunction and outcome in septic shock. ..... with critical illness,[6,7,16] and excess losses of.

  20. Weaknesses in the reporting of cross-sectional studies according to the STROBE statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaga, German; Miranda, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The inadequate reporting of cross-sectional studies, as in the case of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, could cause problems in the synthesis of new evidence and lead to errors in the formulation of public policies. Objective: To evaluate the reporting quality of the articles regarding metabolic syndrome prevalence in Peruvian adults using the STROBE recommendations. Methods: We conducted a thorough literature search with the terms "Metabolic Syndrome", "Sindrome Metabolico" and "Peru" in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, LIPECS and BVS-Peru until December 2014. We selected those who were population-based observational studies with randomized sampling that reported prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults aged 18 or more of both sexes. Information was analysed through the STROBE score per item and recommendation. Results: Seventeen articles were included in this study. All articles met the recommendations related to the report of the study's rationale, design, and provision of summary measures. The recommendations with the lowest scores were those related to the sensitivity analysis (8%, n= 1/17), participant flowchart (18%, n= 3/17), missing data analysis (24%, n= 4/17), and number of participants in each study phase (24%, n= 4/17). Conclusion: Cross-sectional studies regarding the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in peruvian adults have an inadequate reporting on the methods and results sections. We identified a clear need to improve the quality of such studies. PMID:26848197

  1. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed...... recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September 2004, with methodologists...... and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case...

  2. Determining SUSY model parameters and masses at the LHC using cross sections, kinematic edges and other observables

    CERN Document Server

    White, M J; Parker, M A

    2005-01-01

    We address the problem of mass measurements of supersymmetric particles at the Large Hadron Collider, using the ATLAS detector as an example. By using Markov Chain sampling techniques to combine standard measurements of kinematic edges in the invariant mass distributions of decay products with a measurement of a missing $p_T$ cross-section, we show that the precision of mass measurements at the LHC can be dramatically improved, even when we do not assume that we have measured the kinematic endpoints precisely, or that we have identified exactly which particles are involved in the decay chain causing the endpoints. The generality of the technique is demonstrated in a preliminary investigation of a non-universal SUGRA model, in which we relax the requirements of mSUGRA by breaking the degeneracy of the GUT scale gaugino masses. The model studied is compatible with the WMAP limits on dark matter relic density.

  3. Case Study Observational Research: A Framework for Conducting Case Study Research Where Observation Data Are the Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sonya J; Pullon, Susan R H; Macdonald, Lindsay M; McKinlay, Eileen M; Gray, Ben V

    2017-06-01

    Case study research is a comprehensive method that incorporates multiple sources of data to provide detailed accounts of complex research phenomena in real-life contexts. However, current models of case study research do not particularly distinguish the unique contribution observation data can make. Observation methods have the potential to reach beyond other methods that rely largely or solely on self-report. This article describes the distinctive characteristics of case study observational research, a modified form of Yin's 2014 model of case study research the authors used in a study exploring interprofessional collaboration in primary care. In this approach, observation data are positioned as the central component of the research design. Case study observational research offers a promising approach for researchers in a wide range of health care settings seeking more complete understandings of complex topics, where contextual influences are of primary concern. Future research is needed to refine and evaluate the approach.

  4. Case-Control Studies - An Efficient Observational Study Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J.

    2010-01-01

    Case-control studies are an efficient research method for investigating risk factors of a disease. The method involves the comparison of the odds of exposure in a patient group with that of the odds of exposure in a control group. As only a minority of the population is included in the study, less

  5. Neutron halo in 14B studied via reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, M.; Tanaka, M.; Iwamoto, K.; Wakabayashi, S.; Yaguchi, M.; Ohno, J.; Morita, Y.; Kamisho, Y.; Mihara, M.; Matsuta, K.; Nishimura, D.; Suzuki, S.; Nagashima, M.; Ohtsubo, T.; Ogura, T.; Abe, K.; Kikukawa, N.; Sakai, T.; Sera, D.; Takechi, M.; Izumikawa, T.; Suzuki, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Sato, K.; Furuki, H.; Miyazawa, S.; Ichihashi, N.; Kohno, J.; Yamaki, S.; Kitagawa, A.; Sato, S.; Fukuda, S.

    2014-01-01

    Reaction cross sections (σ R ) for the neutron-rich nucleus 14 B on Be, C, and Al targets have been measured at several energies in the intermediate energy range of 45-120 MeV/nucleon. The present experimental σ R show a significant enhancement relative to the systematics of stable nuclei. The nucleon density distribution was deduced through the fitting procedure with the modified Glauber calculation. The necessity of a long tail in the density distribution was found, which is consistent with the valence neutron in 2s 1/2 orbital with the small empirical one-neutron separation energy in 14 B. (authors)

  6. 75 FR 5333 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ...) Place: Embassy Suites Hotel, 1900 Diagonal Road, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, Telephone (703) 684-5900... matters related to the conduct of Study Section business and for the study section to consider safety and...

  7. 76 FR 52330 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ...). Place: Embassy Suites, 1900 Diagonal Road, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, Telephone: (703) 684-5900, Fax... convene to address matters related to the conduct of Study Section business and for the study section to...

  8. 77 FR 51810 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ...). Place: Embassy Suites, 1900 Diagonal Road, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, Telephone: (703) 684-5900, Fax... convene to address matters related to the conduct of Study Section business and for the study section to...

  9. 77 FR 75633 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... (Closed). 8:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m., February 22, 2013 (Closed). Place: Embassy Suites, 1900 Diagonal Road... conduct of Study Section business and for the study section to consider safety and occupational health...

  10. 77 FR 4048 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ...). Place: Embassy Suites, 1900 Diagonal Road, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, Telephone: (703) 684-5900, Fax... convene to address matters related to the conduct of Study Section business and for the study section to...

  11. 76 FR 3908 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS); National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ..., 2011 (Closed). Place: Embassy Suites Hotel, 1900 Diagonal Road, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, Telephone... address matters related to the conduct of Study Section business and for the study section to consider...

  12. An observational study of road safety around selected primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: A multistage sampling technique was used to select 46 of the 74 schools in the study area. Some (11) of the selected schools were sited within the same premises and shared a common entrance; thus a total of 35 school premises were eventually observed. Trained research assistants observed the ...

  13. Cytogenetic studies in some species of Bromus L., section Genea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    test performed between chromosome number and relative chiasmata values in Bromus species also did not show a significant correlation. Sticky chromosomes. Sticky chromosomes were observed from early stages of prophase and continued to the final stages of meiosis in. Table 1. Meiotic characters in Bromus species ...

  14. Assessing validity of observational intervention studies - the Benchmarking Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2016-09-01

    Benchmarking Controlled Trial (BCT) is a concept which covers all observational studies aiming to assess impact of interventions or health care system features to patients and populations. To create and pilot test a checklist for appraising methodological validity of a BCT. The checklist was created by extracting the most essential elements from the comprehensive set of criteria in the previous paper on BCTs. Also checklists and scientific papers on observational studies and respective systematic reviews were utilized. Ten BCTs published in the Lancet and in the New England Journal of Medicine were used to assess feasibility of the created checklist. The appraised studies seem to have several methodological limitations, some of which could be avoided in planning, conducting and reporting phases of the studies. The checklist can be used for planning, conducting, reporting, reviewing, and critical reading of observational intervention studies. However, the piloted checklist should be validated in further studies. Key messages Benchmarking Controlled Trial (BCT) is a concept which covers all observational studies aiming to assess impact of interventions or health care system features to patients and populations. This paper presents a checklist for appraising methodological validity of BCTs and pilot-tests the checklist with ten BCTs published in leading medical journals. The appraised studies seem to have several methodological limitations, some of which could be avoided in planning, conducting and reporting phases of the studies. The checklist can be used for planning, conducting, reporting, reviewing, and critical reading of observational intervention studies.

  15. Observational studies and the difficult quest for causality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipsitch, Marc; Jha, Ayan; Simonsen, Lone

    2016-01-01

    be answered once the vaccine is in use, from observational studies. However, such studies are inherently at risk for bias. Using a causal framework and illustrating with examples, we review newer approaches to detecting and avoiding confounding and selection bias in three major classes of observational study...... design: cohort, case-control and ecological studies. Studies of influenza VE, especially in seniors, are an excellent demonstration of the challenges of detecting and reducing such bias, and so we use influenza VE as a running example. We take a fresh look at the time-trend studies often dismissed...... as 'ecological'. Such designs are the only observational study design that can measure the overall effect of a vaccination programme [indirect (herd) as well as direct effects], and are in fact already an important part of the evidence base for several vaccines currently in use. Despite the great strides towards...

  16. Pain in neurosurgically treated patients: A prospective observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Klimek (Markus); J.F. Ubben (Johannes); J. Ammann (Jan); K. Borner (Katy); J. Klein (Jan); S.J.C. Verbrugge (Serge)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractObject. This is the first observational study to compare perioperative pain character and intensity in patients undergoing different types of elective neurosurgical procedures. Methods. A structured questionnaire was used to inquire about pain intensity, character, and management during

  17. On sensitivity value of pair-matched observational studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Qingyuan

    2017-01-01

    An observational study may be biased for estimating causal effects by failing to control for unmeasured confounders. This paper proposes a new quantity called the "sensitivity value", which is defined as the minimum strength of unmeasured confounders needed to change the qualitative conclusions of a naive analysis assuming no unmeasured confounder. We establish the asymptotic normality of the sensitivity value in pair-matched observational studies. The theoretical results are then used to app...

  18. Necrotizing soft tissue infections - a multicentre, prospective observational study (INFECT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, M. B.; Skrede, S.; Bruun, T.

    2018-01-01

    these to patient-important outcomes. With this protocol and statistical analysis plan we describe the methods used to obtain data and the details of the planned analyses. Methods: The INFECT study is a multicentre, prospective observational cohort study. Patients with NSTIs are enrolled in five Scandinavian......Background: The INFECT project aims to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs). The INFECT observational study is part of the INFECT project with the aim of studying the clinical profile of patients with NSTIs and correlating...

  19. INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING PRACTICES IN GUNTUR DISTRICT-A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Optimal Infant and Young Child-Feeding (IYCF practices are crucial for nutritional status, growth, development, health, and ultimately the survival of infants and young children. It was estimated that, if 90% of infants are covered with a package of intervention to protect, promote, and support the optimal IYCF practices, almost one-fifth of overall under-five mortality can be averted. OBJECTIVES 1. To study the socio-demographic characteristics of the Infants and Young children living in the rural areas. 2. To study the core Infant and Young Child Feeding indicators. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in Venigandla village, the rural field practice area of NRI Medical College, Guntur, for a period of 4 months from January to April 2015. A total of 100 children aged 6-23 months were studied using a pre-tested semi-structured schedule. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel and analysed using Epi Info software. RESULTS Of the 100 children studied, majority of families belong to lower middle class (40% according to BG Prasad socio- economic classification. One in 10 children was given pre- lacteal feeds after birth. Two-thirds of mothers breastfed their children within first hour after birth. Three fourths of children received exclusively breastfed up to 6 months of age. Minimum Dietary Diversity was observed in 74%, Minimum Meal Frequency observed in 94% and Minimum Acceptable Diet was observed in 70% of the 6-23 months children. CONCLUSION The IYCF practices were observed to be better in the present study when compared to similar studies done elsewhere in the country. Area specific programmes need to be created for providing comprehensive nutrition and health education for mothers, to protect, promote and sustain the optimal IYCF practices.

  20. Comprehensive study of observables in Compton scattering on the nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grießhammer, Harald W.; McGovern, Judith A.; Phillips, Daniel R.

    2018-03-01

    We present an analysis of 13 observables in Compton scattering on the proton. Cross sections, asymmetries with polarised beam and/or targets, and polarisation-transfer observables are investigated for energies up to the Δ(1232) resonance to determine their sensitivity to the proton's dipole scalar and spin polarisabilities. The Chiral Effective Field Theory Compton amplitude we use is complete at N4LO, O(e2δ4), for photon energies ω˜ m_{π}, and so has an accuracy of a few per cent there. At photon energies in the resonance region, it is complete at NLO, O(e2δ0), and so its accuracy there is about 20%. We find that for energies from pion-production threshold to about 250 MeV, multiple asymmetries have significant sensitivity to presently ill-determined combinations of proton spin polarisabilities. We also argue that the broad outcomes of this analysis will be replicated in complementary theoretical approaches, e.g., dispersion relations. Finally, we show that below the pion-production threshold, 6 observables suffice to reconstruct the Compton amplitude, and above it 11 are required. Although not necessary for polarisability extractions, this opens the possibility to perform "complete" Compton-scattering experiments. An interactive Mathematica notebook, including results for the neutron, is available from judith.mcgovern@manchester.ac.uk.

  1. Necrotizing soft tissue infections - a multicentre, prospective observational study (INFECT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, M.B.; Skrede, S.; Bruun, T.; Arnell, P.; Rosén, A.; Nekludov, M.; Karlsson, Y.; Bergey, F.; Saccenti, E.; Martins dos Santos, V.A.P.; Perner, A.; Norrby-Teglund, A.; Hyldegaard, O.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The INFECT project aims to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs). The INFECT observational study is part of the INFECT project with the aim of studying the clinical profile of patients with NSTIs and correlating

  2. Assessment of implementation of COTPA-2003 in Bengaluru city, India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Gururaj Habbu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tobacco as a slow and modern epidemic remains a serious public health problem for the country. Despite the existence of a comprehensive law to reduce tobacco burden, India still faces the uphill task of its acceptance and successful implementation. Aim: To assess the implementation of Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act 2003 (COTPA-2003 (Section 4, 6b, and 7 in public places of Bengaluru city and to assess the awareness of the head of these institutions/offices regarding COTPA-2003 and its enforcement in their premises. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 175 public places selected as sources of data using cluster random sampling. The tool in the form of a checklist was prepared based on the sections of COTPA-2003 (Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products' Act, and data were recorded through direct observation. A structured interview was conducted of the institutional heads regarding the implementation of COTPA-2003 in their premises. Informed consent was obtained from the institutional heads or in-charges of the public places. Results: Section 4 (Prohibition of smoking in public places was not complied by 58%. Only 16.7% educational institutions complied with the Section 6b (Prohibition of sale of tobacco products near educational institutions. More than 50% of the head of the institutions were unaware of their role in the implementation of this law. Conclusion: Although the law has been drafted comprehensively, it is implemented only to a certain extent. Hence, all concerned departments and ministries responsible for meeting the framework convention on tobacco control objectives and enforcing COTPA, at central and state levels, should act urgently and in coordination.

  3. sponsorship ban in Lebanon: a baseline cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Chaaya

    2016-05-01

    This study provided information about compliance to the smoking ban in Beirut. The advertising sector's compliance would hopefully decrease the tobacco industry’s influence on the public. Further studies aiming at understanding the underlying factors behind the lack of compliance to the indoor smoking ban and finding effective solutions in a politically unstable country with weak rule of law like Lebanon are crucial and can serve as an example for similar developing countries.

  4. A population-based cohort study of the effect of Caesarean section on subsequent fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurol-Urganci, I; Cromwell, D A; Mahmood, T A; van der Meulen, J H; Templeton, A

    2014-06-01

    Is there an association between Caesarean section and subsequent fertility? There is no or only a slight effect of Caesarean section on future fertility. Previous studies have reported that delivery by a Caesarean section is associated with fewer subsequent pregnancies and longer inter-pregnancy intervals. The interpretation of these findings is difficult because of significant weaknesses in study designs and analytical methods, notably the potential effect of the indication for Caesarean section on subsequent delivery. Retrospective cohort study of 1 047 644 first births to low-risk women using routinely collected, national administrative data of deliveries in English maternity units between 1 April 2000 and 31 March 2012. Primiparous women aged 15-40 years who had a singleton, term, live birth in the English National Health Service were included. Women with high-risk pregnancies involving placenta praevia, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia (gestational or pre-existing), hypertension or diabetes were excluded from the main analysis. Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the effect of mode of delivery on time to subsequent birth, adjusted for age, ethnicity, socio-economic deprivation and year of index delivery. Among low-risk primiparous women, 224 024 (21.4%) were delivered by Caesarean section. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the subsequent birth rate at 10 years for the cohort was 74.7%. Compared with vaginal delivery, subsequent birth rates were marginally lower after elective Caesarean for breech (adjusted hazard ratio, HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98). Larger effects were observed after elective Caesarean for other indications (adjusted HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.78-0.83), and emergency Caesarean (adjusted HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.90-0.93). The effect was smallest for elective Caesarean for breech, and this was not statistically significant in women younger than 30 years of age (adjusted HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.01). We used birth cohorts from maternity

  5. Numerical study of Wavy Blade Section for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobæk, C. M.; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    2016-01-01

    than a flipper having a smooth trailing edge and thus could be potentially beneficial when catching food. A thorough literature study of the Wavy Blade concept is made and followed by CFD computations of two wavy blade geometries and a comparison with their baseline S809 airfoil at conditions more...

  6. A phylogenetic study of Boletus section Boletus in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, D.C.M.; Linde, van der S.; Zuccarello, G.C.; Bakker, den H.C.

    2008-01-01

    A phylogenetic study of the species in Boletus sect. Boletus was undertaken using the molecular markers ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and Gap dh. Four well-supported lineages, one comprising Boletus edulis s.l., the others referring to B. aereus, B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus have been distinguished. The ML and

  7. Institution Based Prospective Cross-Sectional Study on Patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Every year, millions of babies are born and a large proportion of them are being admitted to hospital for various indications. This study was conducted to identify the general characteristics, disease spectrum and common causes of Neonatal morbidity and mortality at Gondar University Hospital, Neonatal ...

  8. A Cross Section Study to Correlate Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    Background: Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is cheap, simple, quick, minimally invasive procedure that is widely used for preoperative diagnosis of Parotid tumours. Methods: Twenty five patients were prospectively studied over a two-year period at four major hospitals in Zambia. FNAC was done using a 10cc syringe ...

  9. Comparative Study on Pre and Post Caeserean Section ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed significant differences (p<0.05) in the red cell count and some related RBC indices (hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration), platelet count and granulocyte values of the pre-and-post CS blood samples. Based on the findings of this study, it is obvious that stress during CS may cause some alterations in ...

  10. DENTAL MATERIAL BIOCOMPATIBILITY: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen SAVIN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge of the students in the Faculty of Dental Medicine of Iasi on the biocompatibility of the dental materials used in current practice. To this end, we elaborated our own questionnaire, including 10 questions to which 92 students from the last 2 years of study answered. The questionnaire cotains assertions on the potential toxic reactions of the most frequently used dental materials. The students answered correctly to the questions related to the biocompatibility of certain dental materials, such as glass-ionomer cement and calcium hydroxide, and they recognized that allergic reactions determined by acrylic resins may occur. We also noticed the lack of knowledge referring to the irreversible modifications produced by the tooth whitening substances on the enamel and dentin, as well as to the side effects produced by dental amalgam.

  11. Computational study of axisymmetric modes in noncircular cross section tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.L.; Chance, M.S.; Greene, J.M.; Grimm, R.C.; Jardin, S.C.; Kerner, W.; Manickam, J.; Weimer, K.E.

    1976-09-01

    A major computational program to investigate the MHD equilibrium, stability, and nonlinear evolution properties of realistic tokamak configurations is proceeding. Preliminary application is made to the Princeton PDX device. Both axisymmetric (n = 0) modes and kink (n = 1) modes are found; the growth rates depend sensitively on the configuration. A study of the nonlinear evolution of axisymmetric modes in such a device shows that flux conservation in the vacuum region can limit their growth

  12. A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY OF RETROPHARYNGEAL ABSCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For many ENT-clinicians, it is very difficult to diagnose the stage of infection and options available for treating retropharyngeal space abscesses (RPSAs with very limited literature available to focus on the treatment options in limited resource setup. The main cutting edge of the study aims to correlate post-surgical complications of RPSAs and also to know the age related incidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective and retrospective study was undertaken in the Department of ENT, Narayana Medical College & General Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh during the period of 2011-15. The incumbent laboratory parameters like throat swab culture was done for all the suspected patients along with Complete blood counts (CBC & X-ray neck. RESULTS A total sixty suspected paediatric patients were prospectively and retrospectively studied for the period of four years, out of which males 35 and females were 25 respectively. The mean age of the patient was 8.96±1.25 years (IQR 4-14 years median age was 10 years. Radiological examination and Computed tomography (CT scan was done for greater accuracy. Blocked airway is most common postsurgical intervention and it was found to be statistically significant (p<0.00 with respect to lower age group of the population. CONCLUSION The present study concludes that proper positioning and avoidance of unnecessary manipulation is essential for preventing the postoperative complications of RPSAs. The spread of infection to the spine can lead to replicate the osteomyelitis and vertebral erosion, which in turn results in subluxation and subsequent spinal cord injury, rupture of the abscess with inhalation of contents can lead to aspiration pneumonia (or rarely asphyxiation and spread of infection to mediastinum can lead to mediastinitis. More research could be intervened to prevent the infections at poor resource setup.

  13. Measurement of the $^{44}$Ti($\\alpha$,p)$^{47}$V reaction cross section, of relevance to $\\gamma$-ray observation of core collapse supernovae, using reclaimed $^{44}$Ti

    CERN Multimedia

    Despite decades of research, fundamental uncertainties remain in the underlying explosion mechanism of core collapse supernovae. One of the most direct methods that might help resolve this problem is a comparison of the predicted to the observed flux of $\\gamma$-rays due to decay of $^{44}$Ti produced in the explosion, as it is believed this could reveal the location of the mass cut, a key hydrodynamical property of the explosion. Such a study is at present limited by the uncertainty in the $^{44}$Ti($\\alpha$,p)$^{47}$V reaction rate. In this experiment we propose to measure the cross section for this reaction at astrophysically relevant energies. The single previous measurement of this reaction was limited to higher energies due to low beam intensities. Here, a more intense beam will be employed, generated from $^{44}$Ti reclaimed as part of the ERAWAST project at PSI.

  14. Neurological symptoms among dental assistants: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Be; Hollund, Be; Riise, T

    2008-05-18

    Dental assistants help the dentist in preparing material for filling teeth. Amalgam was the filling material mostly commonly used in Norway before 1980, and declined to about 5% of all fillings in 2005. Amalgam is usually an alloy of silver, copper, tin and mercury. Copper amalgam, giving particularly high exposure to mercury was used in Norway until 1994. Metallic mercury is neurotoxic. Few studies of the health of dental assistants exist, despite their exposure to mercury. There are questions about the existence of possible chronic neurological symptoms today within this working group, due to this exposure. The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence of neurological symptoms among dental assistants likely to be exposed to mercury from work with dental filling material, compared to similar health personnel with no such exposure. All dental assistants still at work and born before 1970 registered in the archives of a trade union in Hordaland county of Norway were invited to participate (response rate 68%, n = 41), as well as a similar number of randomly selected assistant nurses (response rate 87%, n = 64) in the same age group. The participants completed a self-administered, mailed questionnaire, with questions about demographic variables, life-style factors, musculoskeletal, neurological and psychosomatic symptoms (Euroquest). The dental assistants reported significant higher occurrence of neurological symptoms; psychosomatic symptoms, problems with memory, concentration, fatigue and sleep disturbance, but not for mood. This was found by analyses of variance, adjusting for age, education, alcohol consumption, smoking and personality traits. For each specific neurological symptom, adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed, showing that these symptoms were mainly from arms, hands, legs and balance organs. There is a possibility that the higher occurrence of neurological symptoms among the dental assistants may be related to their previous work

  15. Neurological symptoms among dental assistants: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollund BE

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental assistants help the dentist in preparing material for filling teeth. Amalgam was the filling material mostly commonly used in Norway before 1980, and declined to about 5% of all fillings in 2005. Amalgam is usually an alloy of silver, copper, tin and mercury. Copper amalgam, giving particularly high exposure to mercury was used in Norway until 1994. Metallic mercury is neurotoxic. Few studies of the health of dental assistants exist, despite their exposure to mercury. There are questions about the existence of possible chronic neurological symptoms today within this working group, due to this exposure. The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence of neurological symptoms among dental assistants likely to be exposed to mercury from work with dental filling material, compared to similar health personnel with no such exposure. Methods All dental assistants still at work and born before 1970 registered in the archives of a trade union in Hordaland county of Norway were invited to participate (response rate 68%, n = 41, as well as a similar number of randomly selected assistant nurses (response rate 87%, n = 64 in the same age group. The participants completed a self-administered, mailed questionnaire, with questions about demographic variables, life-style factors, musculoskeletal, neurological and psychosomatic symptoms (Euroquest. Results The dental assistants reported significant higher occurrence of neurological symptoms; psychosomatic symptoms, problems with memory, concentration, fatigue and sleep disturbance, but not for mood. This was found by analyses of variance, adjusting for age, education, alcohol consumption, smoking and personality traits. For each specific neurological symptom, adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed, showing that these symptoms were mainly from arms, hands, legs and balance organs. Conclusion There is a possibility that the higher occurrence of neurological symptoms

  16. Flow visualization studies of bodies with square cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, G. T.; Clarkson, M. H.

    1983-01-01

    A water-tunnel study was conducted of four bodies. A solution of sodium fluorescein coating the body provided visualization of vortices and feeding sheets and isolated dots of methyl blue dye provided visualization of stream lines. These data, along with published oil-flow photos, were analyzed to develop the topological representation of the flows in cross-flow planes. Presented are the development of the flow along the body at fixed angles of attack and at a fixed body station with changes in angle of attack. Effects of roll angle, body corner radius, and nose bluntness are illustrated.

  17. Cyberdrugs: a cross-sectional study of online pharmacies characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Orizio, Grazia; Schulz, Peter; Domenighini, Serena; Caimi, Luigi; Rosati, Cristina; Rubinelli, Sara; Gelatti, Umberto

    2017-01-01

    As e-commerce and online pharmacies (OPs) arose, the potential impact of the Internet on the world of health shifted from merely the spread of information to a real opportunity to acquire health services directly. Aim of the study was to investigate the offer of prescription drugs in OPs, analysing their characteristics, using the content analysis method. The research performed using the Google search engine led to an analysis of 118 online pharmacies. Only 51 (43.2%) of them stated their pre...

  18. Study of the thermal and hydraulic phenomena occurring during power excursion on a heated test section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyer, M.

    1969-01-01

    The thermal and hydrodynamic phenomena occurring during a power excursion were studied in an out-of-pile loop with a water cooled channel at low pressure (1 to 4 atm. abs. ). Circular and rectangular test sections with electrically heated walls of two different thermal diffusivity materials(aluminium and stainless steel) were used. The rectangular test sections were 600 mm long, 35 mm wide and had a 2, 9 mm gap; they simulate two half plates of the M.T.R. fuel element. Natural or forced convection are possible in the test section; the water height above it can be varied from 2.8 to 8 meters and the maximum allowed pressure at its outlet is 4 atm. abs.The heating source is a series of lead batteries which is able to generate, for short periods of time, 85 volts and 25000 amperes; linear, square or exponential power rise versus time can be realized. A 14 channels tape recorder (0-10 000 Hz bandwidth; is used for the measurements of temperature (8/100 mm diameter thermocouple), pressure ('Statham' pressure transducers) and void fraction (X rays). More than 500 tests have been carried out. The influence of the initial water temperature, flow rate, pressure, water height on the water ejections, pressure variations and void fraction in the test section were studied. Tests with energies up to 3000 W/cm in 50 milliseconds were attempted. The energy above which the instabilities appear was determined. An interpretation of the observed phenomena and a simplified theoretical model are presented [fr

  19. Sarcopenia in diabetic nephropathy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeliker, Meral; Selçuk, Mustafa Yavuz; Olt, Serdar

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between sarcopenia and diabetic nephropathy. 56 diabetic patients without complications, 50 diabetic patients with nephropathy, 53 healthy controls included in this present study. Demographic characteristics such as sex, age, anthropometric measurements such as weight, body mass index [BMI], hip circumference, waist circumference and upper arm circumference were measured. Sarcopenia diagnosis was based on European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People [EWGSOP] criteria which consist of hand grip strength, 6-meter walking test and muscle mass. The frequency of sarcopenia increased gradually from 15.1% in healthy control group to 21.4% in the diabetes group, and 34% in diabetic nephropathy group (X2 for trend, p = 0.029). The frequency of sarcopenia was similar in diabetes and diabetic nephropathy group. However, the frequency of sarcopenia was higher in diabetic nephropathy than healthy controls (OR = 2.89, CI [1.11-7.51] in logistic regression). In the present study, the prevalence of sarcopenia was higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy compared to healthy controls.

  20. Quick assessment of hopelessness: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Yin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lengthy questionnaires reduce data quality and impose a burden on respondents. Previous researchers proposed that a single item ("My future seems dark to me" and a 4-item component of the Beck's Hopelessness Scale (BHS can summarise most of the information the BHS provides. There is no clear indication of what BHS cutoff values are useful in identifying people with suicide tendency. Methods In a population-based study of Chinese people aged between 15 and 59 in Hong Kong, the Chinese version of the BHS and the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression scale were administered by trained interviewers and suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts were self-reported. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and regression analysis were used to compare the performance of the BHS and its components in identifying people with suicidality and depression. Smoothed level of suicidal tendency was assessed in relation to scores on the BHS and its component to identify thresholds. Results It is found that the 4-item component and, to a lesser extent, the single item of the BHS perform in ways similar to the BHS. There are non-linear relationship between suicidality and scores on the BHS and the 4-item component; cutoff values identified accordingly have sensitivity and specificity of about 65%. Conclusion The 4-item component is a useful alternative to the BHS. Shortening of psycho-social measurement scales should be considered in order to reduce burden on patients or respondents and to improve response rate.

  1. Maternal mortality: a cross-sectional study in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedinejad, Sima; Majdzadeh, Reza; Vedadhir, AbouAli; Tabatabaei, Mahmoud Ghazi; Mohammad, Kazem

    2015-02-12

    Although most of maternal deaths are preventable, maternal mortality reduction programs have not been completely successful. As targeting individuals alone does not seem to be an effective strategy to reduce maternal mortality (Millennium Development Goal 5), the present study sought to reveal the role of many distant macrostructural factors affecting maternal mortality at the global level. After preparing a global dataset, 439 indicators were selected from nearly 1800 indicators based on their relevance and the application of proper inclusion and exclusion criteria. Then Pearson correlation coefficients were computed to assess the relationship between these indicators and maternal mortality. Only indicators with statistically significant correlation more than 0.2, and missing values less than 20% were maintained. Due to the high multicollinearity among the remaining indicators, after missing values analysis and imputation, factor analysis was performed with principal component analysis as the method of extraction. Ten factors were finally extracted and entered into a multiple regression analysis. The findings of this study not only consolidated the results of earlier studies about maternal mortality, but also added new evidence. Education (std. B = -0.442), private sector and trade (std. B = -0.316), and governance (std. B = -0.280) were found to be the most important macrostructural factors associated with maternal mortality. Employment and labor structure, economic policy and debt, agriculture and food production, private sector infrastructure investment, and health finance were also some other critical factors. These distal factors explained about 65% of the variability in maternal mortality between different countries. Decreasing maternal mortality requires dealing with various factors other than individual determinants including political will, reallocation of national resources (especially health resources) in the governmental sector, education

  2. Contribution of infrared observations to the study of supernovae remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douvion, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of dust in young supernovae remnants observed in middle infrared, mainly by means of the ISOCAM instrument installed on the ISO satellite. The author first presents the supernovae physics and the studied young remnants, describes dusts and the main sites of formation and destruction, and outlines the difficulties and benefits of observations performed in the middle infrared. Then, the author reports acquired evidences related to the formation of dusts in supernovae, and the search for a millimetre emission by cold dust contained in regions which are not yet excited by the shock, in order to better assess the overall quantities created by supernovae. He reports the use of observations of dust and neon in Cassiopeia A to perform a diagnosis on the mixture of elements during the supernovae explosion [fr

  3. Self-stigma and schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrbova K

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kristyna Vrbova,1 Jan Prasko,1 Michaela Holubova,1,2 Dana Kamaradova,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Marketa Marackova,1 Klara Latalova,1 Ales Grambal,1 Milos Slepecky,3 Marta Zatkova3 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University in Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovak Republic Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of self-stigma in schizophrenia and its association with clinical and demographic factors. Patients and methods: A total of 197 outpatients (54.3% females diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder according to International Classification of Diseases – tenth edition participated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 40.10±11.49 years. All individuals completed the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale and a demographic questionnaire. The disorder severity was assessed by both a psychiatrist (the objective version of Clinical Global Impression – severity scale [objCGI-S] and the patients (the subjective version of Clinical Global Impression – severity scale [subjCGI-S]. Treatment with antipsychotics stabilized the patients. Results: The overall level of self-stigma measured by the total score of the ISMI was 63.32±13.59. The total score of the ISMI positively correlated with the severity of the disorder measured by the objCGI-S and subjCGI-S. In addition, self-stigma positively correlated with the treatment duration and the number of psychiatric hospitalizations. The backward stepwise regression was applied to identify the most significant factors connected to self-stigma. The regression analysis identified the following regressors as the most relevant to self-stigma: the number of

  4. Risky Behaviors of University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Ozcebe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to identify certain risky behavior patterns (unsafe sex, tobacco and drug use, and binge drinking and the factors affecting these behaviors among first- and third-year students in a university. Method: The study included a total of 8407 students enrolled as first- (4392 and third- (4015 year students. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. In data analysis, respecting sampling weights, models were formed by logistic regression method to determine factors that affect the risky behaviors. Results: 731 male–1114 female students from the first year and 560 male–1096 female students from the third year were interviewed. Male students were found to be engaged in risky behaviors more frequently than females. Logistic models of the study indicated that gender, place of residence, relationship with parents, and socialization with friends have profound effects on risky behaviors. Conclusion: After leaving home, young people develop their own lifestyles, and this study demonstrates that lifestyle is the main effective factor for risky behaviors in this group. Universities need to assume more responsibility to guide students’ lives and to provide the facilities and opportunities that encourage and facilitate their adoption of a healthy lifestyle.   Key Words: University students, risky behaviours Bir Üniversitede Öğrencilerin Riskli Davranışları: Kesitsel Bir Çalışma Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı, bir üniversitenin birinci ve üçüncü sınıf öğrencileri arasında bazı riskli davranış modellerini (güvensiz seks, tütün ve uyuşturucu kullanımı ve aşırı alkol ve bu davranışları etkileyen faktörleri saptamaktır. Yöntem: Araştırmanın evrenini birinci (4392 ve üçüncü (4015 sınıflarda kayıtlı 8407 öğrenci oluşturmaktadır. Veri öğrencilerin gözlem altında doldurdukları anket aracılığı ile toplanmıştır. Riskli davranışları etkileyen fakt

  5. A phylogenetic study of Boletus section Boletus in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugelsdijk, D C M; van der Linde, S; Zuccarello, G C; den Bakker, H C; Draisma, S G A; Noordeloos, M E

    2008-06-01

    A phylogenetic study of the species in Boletus sect. Boletus was undertaken using the molecular markers ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and GAPDH. Four well-supported lineages, one comprising Boletus edulis s.l., the others referring to B. aereus, B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus have been distinguished. The ML and MP trees of ITS showed remarkably low resolution within the B. edulis clade, and confirmed earlier published results, despite the use of samples from a wider geographical area and different hosts. The results of GAPDH demonstrate clearly that this low resolution must be ascribed to a low genetic variability with the B. edulis clade, and make clear that morphological and ecological characters have been overestimated within this species complex. Boletus edulis is therefore defined as a variable species with a wide morphological, ecological and geographic range, and includes several specific and subspecific taxa described in the literature (e.g. B. betulicola, B. persoonii, B. quercicola and B. venturii). Three other European species (B. aereus, B. pinophilus and B. reticulatus) are well delimited species based on morphology and our genetic data.

  6. Effects of Badminton Expertise on Representational Momentum: A Combination of Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Jin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Representational momentum (RM has been found to be magnified in experts (e.g., sport players with respect to both real and implied motion in expert-familiar domains. However, it remains unclear whether similar effects can be achieved in expert-unfamiliar domains, especially within the context of implied motion. To answer this question, we conducted two independent experiments using an implied motion paradigm and examined the expert effects of badminton training on RM in both adult and child players. In Experiment 1, we used a cross-sectional design and compared RM between adult professional badminton players and matched controls. The results revealed significantly enhanced RM for adult players, supporting the expert effect in expert-unfamiliar domains for implied motion. However, cross-sectional studies could not ascertain whether the observed expert effect was due to innate factors or expertise acquirement. Therefore, in Experiment 2, we used a longitudinal design and compared RM between two groups of child participants, naming child players who had enrolled professional badminton training program at a sports school and age-matched peer non-players who attended an ordinary primary school without sports training. Before training, there were no differences in RM among child players, their non-player peers, and adult non-players. However, after 4 years of badminton training, child players demonstrated significantly enhanced RM compared to themselves prior to training. The increased RM observed in both adult and child players suggests that badminton expertise modulates implied motion RM.

  7. Effects of Badminton Expertise on Representational Momentum: A Combination of Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hua; Wang, Pin; Fang, Zhuo; Di, Xin; Ye, Zhuo’er; Xu, Guiping; Lin, Huiyan; Cheng, Yongmin; Li, Yongjie; Xu, Yong; Rao, Hengyi

    2017-01-01

    Representational momentum (RM) has been found to be magnified in experts (e.g., sport players) with respect to both real and implied motion in expert-familiar domains. However, it remains unclear whether similar effects can be achieved in expert-unfamiliar domains, especially within the context of implied motion. To answer this question, we conducted two independent experiments using an implied motion paradigm and examined the expert effects of badminton training on RM in both adult and child players. In Experiment 1, we used a cross-sectional design and compared RM between adult professional badminton players and matched controls. The results revealed significantly enhanced RM for adult players, supporting the expert effect in expert-unfamiliar domains for implied motion. However, cross-sectional studies could not ascertain whether the observed expert effect was due to innate factors or expertise acquirement. Therefore, in Experiment 2, we used a longitudinal design and compared RM between two groups of child participants, naming child players who had enrolled professional badminton training program at a sports school and age-matched peer non-players who attended an ordinary primary school without sports training. Before training, there were no differences in RM among child players, their non-player peers, and adult non-players. However, after 4 years of badminton training, child players demonstrated significantly enhanced RM compared to themselves prior to training. The increased RM observed in both adult and child players suggests that badminton expertise modulates implied motion RM. PMID:28970810

  8. Space observations for global and regional studies of the biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihlar, J.; Li, Z.; Chen, J.; Sellers, P.; Hall, F.

    1994-01-01

    The capability to make space-based measurements of Earth at high spatial and temporal resolutions, which would not otherwise be economically or practically feasible, became available just in time to contribute to scientific understanding of the interactive processes governing the total Earth system. Such understanding has now become essential in order to take practical steps which would counteract or mitigate the pervasive impact of the growing human population on the future habitability of the Earth. The paper reviews the rationale for using space observations for studies of climate and terrestrial ecosystems at global and regional scales, as well as the requirements for such observations for studies of climate and ecosystem dynamics. The present status of these developments is reported along with initiatives under way to advance the use of satellite observations for Earth system studies. The most important contribution of space observations is the provision of physical or biophysical parameters for models representing various components of the Earth system. Examples of such parameters are given for climatic and ecosystem studies.

  9. An observational study of defensible space in the neighbourhood park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzukhi, M. A.; Afiq, M. A.; Zaki, S. Ahmad; Ling, O. H. L.

    2018-02-01

    The planning of neighborhood park is important to provide space for interaction, leisure, and recreation among residents in any neighbourhood area. However, on an almost daily basis, newspapers report inappropriate incidents such as snatch theft, robbery and street attack that occurred in the neighborhood park. These cases reflect the significance of physical planning and design of neighborhood park that directly affect the safety and comfort of the users. Thus, this study attempts to engage with the defensible space concept in ensuring the security elements be applied in the planning of the recreational area. This study adopts a qualitative method form of research that is retrofitted to an observational study. The observational study is significant for revealing the condition of a neighbourhood park in the ‘real-world,’ in which direct observation is conducted on Taman Tasik Puchong Perdana. The observer focused on four elements or variables of defensible space concept including the provision of facilities in the neighborhood park, territoriality, surveillance, image and milieu. The findings revealed that the planning of Taman Tasik Puchong Perdana does not deliberate the defensible space elements, which may contribute to the crime activities in the park. In these circumstances, the planning of neighbourhood park needs to include proposals for the implementation of defensible space in response to the challenges underpinned by crime problems. Besides, the awareness among the residents needs to be emphasized with the support from local authorities and other organizations to manage and sustain the safety environment in the neighborhood park.

  10. Observing position and movements in hydrotherapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Mary Ann; Rudell, Barb; Haus, George

    2008-01-01

    To observe and describe the positions and movements women choose while immersed in water during the first stage of labor. Descriptive, observational pilot study. A rural community hospital that provided hydrotherapy in labor. Women (N = 7) who intended to use hydrotherapy in labor were recruited prenatally from a midwife-managed practice. For 15 minutes of each hour during the first stage of labor, position and movements of the participants were observed and recorded on a laptop computer. The observational tool was developed for this study from a review of the literature and interviews with nursing experts; 435 observations were recorded. Women were free to choose when and how long to use hydrotherapy and had no restriction on their positions and movements. Only 3 of the 7 participants labored in the tub. Women demonstrated a greater range of positions and movements in the tub than in bed, both throughout labor and during late first-stage labor (7-10 cm of dilatation). Women had more contractions and made more rhythmic movements while in the tub than in bed. Hydrotherapy may encourage upright positions and movements that facilitate labor progress and coping, helping women avoid unnecessary interventions.

  11. Medical tourism in Thailand: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noree, Thinakorn; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the magnitude and characteristics of medical tourism in Thailand and the impact of such tourism on the Thai health system and economy. Methods In 2010, we checked the records of all visits to five private hospitals that are estimated to cover 63% of all foreign patients. We reviewed hospital records of foreign patients and obtained data on their countries of origin, diagnoses and interventions. We surveyed 293 medical tourists to collect demographic characteristics and information on their expenditure and travelling companions. To help understand the impact of medical tourism on the Thai health system, we also interviewed 15 hospital executives and 28 service providers from the private hospitals. Findings We obtained 911 913 records of hospital visits, of which 324 906 came from 104 830 medical tourists. We estimated that there were 167 000 medical tourists in Thailand in 2010. Of the medical tourists who attended our study hospitals, 67 987 (64.8%) came from the eastern Mediterranean region or Asia and 109 509 (34%) of them were treated for simple and uncomplicated conditions – i.e. general check-ups and medical consultations. The mean self-reported non-medical expenditure was 2750 United States dollars. According to the hospital staff interviewed, medical tourism in 2010 brought benefits to – and apparently had no negative impacts on – the Thai health system and economy. Conclusion We estimate that the total number of medical tourists visiting Thailand is about 10% of previous national government estimates of 1.2 million. Such tourists appear to bring economic benefits to Thailand and to have negligible effects on the health system. PMID:26769994

  12. Medical tourism in Thailand: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noree, Thinakorn; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the magnitude and characteristics of medical tourism in Thailand and the impact of such tourism on the Thai health system and economy. In 2010, we checked the records of all visits to five private hospitals that are estimated to cover 63% of all foreign patients. We reviewed hospital records of foreign patients and obtained data on their countries of origin, diagnoses and interventions. We surveyed 293 medical tourists to collect demographic characteristics and information on their expenditure and travelling companions. To help understand the impact of medical tourism on the Thai health system, we also interviewed 15 hospital executives and 28 service providers from the private hospitals. We obtained 911,913 records of hospital visits, of which 324,906 came from 104,830 medical tourists. We estimated that there were 167,000 medical tourists in Thailand in 2010. Of the medical tourists who attended our study hospitals, 67,987 (64.8%) came from the eastern Mediterranean region or Asia and 109,509 (34%) of them were treated for simple and uncomplicated conditions - i.e. general check-ups and medical consultations. The mean self-reported non-medical expenditure was 2750 United States dollars. According to the hospital staff interviewed, medical tourism in 2010 brought benefits to - and apparently had no negative impacts on - the Thai health system and economy. We estimate that the total number of medical tourists visiting Thailand is about 10% of previous national government estimates of 1.2 million. Such tourists appear to bring economic benefits to Thailand and to have negligible effects on the health system.

  13. Changes in Hypertension Treatment in the Yaroslavl Region of Russia: Improvements Observed Between 2 Cross-Sectional Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Mozheyko, Maria; Eregin, Sergey; Vigdorchik, Alexey; Tobe, Sheldon; Campbell, Norman; Riahi, Farhad; Hughes, David

    2013-01-01

    This prospective before-and-after survey of hypertensive patients visiting government-run outpatient health facilities in the Yaroslavl Region of Russia assessed blood pressure (BP)–related endpoints following initiation of a comprehensive health system improvement program for hypertension. Two cross-sectional surveys, one at baseline and the other approximately 1 year after program initiation, evaluated the primary measure of BP control rate. Secondary measures included mean BP levels and di...

  14. Clinical Observation on Termination of Early Pregnancy of 213 Cases after Caesarian Section with Repeated Use of Mifepristone and Misoprostol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高佩佩; 汪平

    1999-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety in women after caesarian section for termination of early pregnancies by treatment, or repeated treatment with mifepristone and misoprostot.Subjects and Methods A total of 213 pregnant women with amenorrhea of 34-69d after caesarian section who asked for medical abortion were recruited,including 63 cases undergoing their second medical abortion.A total amount of mi feprisstone of 150 mg given in separate doses(25 mg×4 and 50 mg at the first time)was administered orally within 3d, followed by misoprostot of 0.6 mg orally in the morning of d 3.Results The complete abortion rate was 92.5%,incomplete abortion was 4.7% and failure was 2.8%.Conclusion The sequential use of mifepristone and misoprostol could be successfully and repeatedly used for induced abortion in those women with a caesarian section histo-ry.Its efficacy was similar to that for ordinary population.Its safety and effec-tiveness were satisfactory.

  15. Seroepidemiology of pertussis in a cross-sectional study of an adult general population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, P F; Dalby, T; Simonsen, J

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY An increase in pertussis has been observed in several countries over the last decades, especially in adult populations. The seroprevalence of pertussis was determined in a cross-sectional study of the adult population in the Copenhagen area, Denmark, conducted between 2006 and 2008....... Specific IgG antibodies against pertussis toxin (PT) were measured in 3440 persons resulting in an age-standardized seroprevalence of 3·0% (95% confidence interval 1·9-4·7) using an IgG anti-PT cut-off of 75 IU/ml. By using antibody decay profiles from longitudinal data the estimated seroincidence was 143....../1000 person-years. In contrast, an incidence of 0·03/1000 person-years was estimated from the official data of notified cases during the same period. Of the investigated risk factors, only age and education were significantly associated with pertussis infection. This study indicates that pertussis is highly...

  16. Folic Acid Supplementation and Preterm Birth: Results from Observational Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mantovani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Folic acid (FA supplementation is recommended worldwide in the periconceptional period for the prevention of neural tube defects. Due to its involvement in a number of cellular processes, its role in other pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage, low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB, preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and stillbirth has been investigated. PTB is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity; therefore its association with FA supplementation is of major interest. The analysis of a small number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs has not found a beneficial role of FA in reducing the rate of PTBs. Aim of the Study. The aim of this review was to examine the results from recent observational studies about the effect of FA supplementation on PTB. Materials and Methods. We carried out a search on Medline and by manual search of the observational studies from 2009 onwards that analyzed the rate of PTB in patients who received supplementation with FA before and/or throughout pregnancy. Results. The results from recent observational studies suggest a slight reduction of PTBs that is not consistent with the results from RCTs. Further research is needed to better understand the role of FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in PTB.

  17. Differential cross sections and polarization observables from CLAS K* photoproduction and the search for new N* states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisovich, A. V.; Hicks, K.; Klempt, E.; Nikonov, V. A.; Sarantsev, A.; Tang, W.; Adikaram, D.; Akbar, Z.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Badui, R. A.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Chetry, T.; Ciullo, G.; Clark, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dugger, M.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fanchini, E.; Fedotov, G.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gleason, C.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guo, L.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lanza, L.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Murdoch, G.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Net, L. A.; Ni, A.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phelps, W.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Schumacher, R. A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, G. D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stankovic, I.; Stepanyan, S.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tian, Ye.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zhang, J.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2017-08-01

    The reaction γp →K*+ Λ was measured using the CLAS detector for photon energies between the threshold and 3.9 GeV at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. For the first time, spin-density matrix elements have been extracted for this reaction. Differential cross sections, spin density matrix elements, and the Λ recoil polarization are compared with theoretical predictions using the BnGa partial wave analysis. The main result is the evidence for significant contributions from N (1895) 1 /2- and N (2100) 1 /2+ to the reaction. Branching ratios for decays into K* Λ for these resonances and further resonances are reported.

  18. Polysomnographic Findings and Clinical Correlates in Huntington Disease: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Carla; Losurdo, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo; Solito, Marcella; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Provini, Federica; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Cortelli, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the sleep pattern and the motor activity during sleep in a cohort of patients affected by Huntington disease (HD). Design: Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients: Thirty HD patients, 16 women and 14 men (mean age 57.3 ± 12.2 y); 30 matched healthy controls (mean age 56.5 ± 11.8 y). Interventions: Subjective sleep evaluation: Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS); Berlin's Questionnaire, interview for restless legs syndrome (RLS), questionnaire for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Clinical evaluation: disease duration, clinical severity (unified Huntington disease motor rating scale [UHDMRS]), genetic tests. Laboratory-based full-night attended video-polysomnography (V-PSG). Measurements and Results: The duration of the disease was 9.4 ± 4.4 y, UHMDRS score was 55.5 ± 23.4, CAG repeats were 44.3 ± 4.1. Body mass index was 21.9 ± 4.0 kg/m2. No patients or caregivers reported poor sleep quality. Two patients reported symptoms of RLS. Eight patients had an ESS score ≥ 9. Eight patients had high risk of obstructive sleep apnea. At the RBD questionnaire, two patients had a pathological score. HD patients, compared to controls, showed shorter sleep, reduced sleep efficiency index, and increased arousals and awakenings. Four patients presented with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Periodic limb movements (PLMs) during wake and sleep were observed in all patients. No episode of RBD was observed in the V-PSG recordings, and no patients showed rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia. The disease duration correlated with ESS score (P Marca G, Solito M, Calandra-Buonaura G, Provini F, Bentivoglio AR, Cortelli P. Polysomnographic findings and clinical correlates in Huntington disease: a cross-sectional cohort study. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1489–1495. PMID:25845698

  19. Observed Orbit Effects during Long Range Beam-Beam Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Alemany, R; Buffat, X; Calaga, R; Fitterer, M; Giachino, R; Hemelsoet, GH; Herr, W; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Poyer, M; Schaumann, M; Trad, G; Wollmann, D

    2012-01-01

    Possible limitations due to long range beam-beam effects at the LHC have been studied and are presented in this note. With a larger number of bunches and collisions in all interaction points, the crossing angles were reduced to enhance long range beam-beam effects. The analysis of the effects on the dynamic aperture and losses are documented in [1]. This note concentrates on the bunch-by-bunch orbit effects observed during the experiment.

  20. Strategies GeoCape Intelligent Observation Studies @ GSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelaere, Pat; Frye, Stu; Moe, Karen; Mandl, Dan; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Flatley, Tom; Geist, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides information a summary of the tradeoff studies conducted for GeoCape by the GSFC team in terms of how to optimize GeoCape observation efficiency. Tradeoffs include total ground scheduling with simple priorities, ground scheduling with cloud forecast, ground scheduling with sub-area forecast, onboard scheduling with onboard cloud detection and smart onboard scheduling and onboard image processing. The tradeoffs considered optimzing cost, downlink bandwidth and total number of images acquired.

  1. The new worlds observer: The astrophysics strategic mission concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cash W.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present some results of the Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study for the New Worlds Observer (NWO. We show that the use of starshades is the most effective and affordable path to mapping and understanding our neighboring planetary systems, to opening the search for life outside our solar system, while serving the needs of the greater astronomy community. A starshade-based mission can be implemented immediately with a near term program of technology demonstration.

  2. Folic acid supplementation and preterm birth: results from observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Elena; Filippini, Francesca; Bortolus, Renata; Franchi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) supplementation is recommended worldwide in the periconceptional period for the prevention of neural tube defects. Due to its involvement in a number of cellular processes, its role in other pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage, low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB), preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and stillbirth has been investigated. PTB is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity; therefore its association with FA supplementation is of major interest. The analysis of a small number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has not found a beneficial role of FA in reducing the rate of PTBs. The aim of this review was to examine the results from recent observational studies about the effect of FA supplementation on PTB. We carried out a search on Medline and by manual search of the observational studies from 2009 onwards that analyzed the rate of PTB in patients who received supplementation with FA before and/or throughout pregnancy. The results from recent observational studies suggest a slight reduction of PTBs that is not consistent with the results from RCTs. Further research is needed to better understand the role of FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in PTB.

  3. [Observational studies in the era of evidence based medicine: short review on their relevance, taxonomy and designs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronteira, Ines

    2013-01-01

    In this review of the literature, we distinguish between experimental and observational studies, highlighting the importance that the later have gained in the era of evidence-based medicine. We further analyze the value of observational studies in light of experimental studies. We present a taxonomy for observational studies based on units of observation and measurement (cross-sectional or longitudinal). We distinguish between descriptive studies and analytical studies. Then, and given its specificity, we define and present a classification for ecological studies. We define and consider the advantages and disadvantages of cross-sectional, case control and cohort studies. We analyze the strength of the evidence given by each study design. We finished by examining what should guide the choice of a study design.

  4. A concealed observational study of infection control and safe injection practices in Jordanian governmental hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawajfah, Omar M; Tubaishat, Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    The recognized international organizations on infection prevention recommend using an observational method as the gold standard procedure for assessing health care professional's compliance with standard infection control practices. However, observational studies are rarely used in Jordanian infection control studies. This study aimed to evaluate injection practices among nurses working in Jordanian governmental hospitals. A cross-sectional concealed observational design is used for this study. A convenience sampling technique was used to recruit a sample of nurses working in governmental hospitals in Jordan. Participants were unaware of the time and observer during the observation episode. A total of 384 nurses from 9 different hospitals participated in the study. A total of 835 injections events were observed, of which 73.9% were performed without handwashing, 64.5% without gloving, and 27.5% were followed by needle recapping. Handwashing rate was the lowest (18.9%) when injections were performed by beginner nurses. Subcutaneous injections were associated with the lowest rate (26.7%) of postinjection handwashing compared with other routes. This study demonstrates the need for focused and effective infection control educational programs in Jordanian hospitals. Future studies should consider exploring the whole infection control practices related to waste disposal and the roles of the infection control nurse in this process in Jordanian hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Eating difficulties among stroke patients in the acute state: a descriptive, cross-sectional, comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medin, Jörgen; Windahl, Jenny; von Arbin, Magnus; Tham, Kerstin; Wredling, Regina

    2011-09-01

    To examine eating difficulties among stroke patients - a comparison between women and men. Gender differences have been reported in studies of stroke, but the findings are inconclusive and few of these studies have specifically focused on gender differences in eating difficulties. This study was a descriptive, cross-sectional, comparative study. Patients with stroke were recruited at a general hospital in Sweden. To detect eating difficulties, individual observations of the patients were made during one meal using a structured observation protocol. Assessment also included measurements of nutritional and oral status, degree of independence, stroke severity, neglect and well-being. One hundred and four patients (53·8% women) were included in the study. The proportion of stroke patients with one or more eating difficulties was 81·7%. The most common eating difficulties were 'managing food on the plate' (66·3%), 'food consumption' (54·8%) and 'sitting position' (45·2%). Women had lower 'food consumption', more severe stroke (p = 0·003), worse functional status (p = 0·001) and lower quality of life (QoL) (p=0·038) than men. More women than men were malnourished and living alone. After adjustment for functional status and motor arm, the odds ratio of having difficulties with food consumption was four times higher among women than men (1·7-9·4, confidence interval 95%). More women than men with stroke suffered from inadequate food consumption. The women had more severe strokes, experienced poorer QoL and showed lower functional status than the men. In the rehabilitation process of women with stroke, these factors should be taken into consideration. Structured observation of meals, including assessment of food consumption, might be necessary in acute stroke care to detect patients, especially women, who might need closer supervision and nutritional intervention. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Variation in the prevalence of chronic bronchitis among smokers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, P A; Jayaraj, B S; Chaya, S K; Lokesh, K S; McKay, A J; Prabhakar, A K; Pape, U J

    2014-07-01

    Given the wide variations in prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease observed between populations with similar levels of exposure to tobacco smoke, we aimed to investigate the possibility of variations in prevalence of chronic bronchitis (CB) between two geographically distinct smoking populations in rural Karnataka, India. The Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) questionnaire was administered to all men aged >30 years in a cross-sectional survey. The χ(2) and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare CB prevalence in the two populations. Logistic regression was used to analyse the impact of multiple variables on the occurrence of CB. Two samples of 2322 and 2182 subjects were included in the study. In non-smokers, CB prevalence did not differ between the populations. However, it was significantly different between smoking populations (44.79% vs. 2.13%, P < 0.0001). Logistic regression indicated that, in addition to smoking, region, age, occupational dust exposure and type of house were associated with higher likelihood of CB. An interaction between smoking and area of residence was found (P < 0.001) and appeared to explain the effect of region (without interaction). A significant difference in CB prevalence was observed between male populations from two areas of Karnataka state, including when stratified by smoking status. No significant difference was observed between non-smokers.

  7. Multicollinearity may lead to artificial interaction: an example from a cross sectional study of biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithisarankul, P; Weaver, V M; Diener-West, M; Strickland, P T

    1997-06-01

    Collinearity is the situation which arises in multiple regression when some or all of the explanatory variables are so highly correlated with one another that it becomes very difficult, if not impossible, to disentangle their influences and obtain a reasonably precise estimate of their effects. Suppressor variable is one of the extreme situations of collinearity that one variable can substantially increase the multiple correlation when combined with a variable that is only modestly correlated with the response variable. In this study, we describe the process by which we disentangled and discovered multicollinearity and its consequences, namely artificial interaction, using the data from cross-sectional quantification of several biomarkers. We showed how the collinearity between one biomarker (blood lead level) and another (urinary trans, trans-muconic acid) and their interaction (blood lead level* urinary trans, trans-muconic acid) can lead to the observed artificial interaction on the third biomarker (urinary 5-aminolevulinic acid).

  8. Sexual and reproductive health knowledge: a cross-sectional study with adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Carvalho Oliveira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to investigate and compare sexual and reproductive knowledge and sources of information, between public school adolescents from Goiânia-Goiás. A cross-sectional study conducted with 2,449 students. We analyzed data from the self-reported questionnaire using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 13.0. We investigated the differences between proportions using c2 tests and a significance level (p<0.05. We observed a statistical difference between sex considering the knowledge about Sexually Transmitted Infections and, STI and contraception prevention (p<0.000. Additionally, male adolescents presented higher exposure risk to sexual relations without preservative (p<0.000. About the acquisition of preventive methods for STIs and contraception, women were more knowledgeable about access to devices, as well as; they searched different sources and content information about sexual and reproductive health. We concluded that male adolescents presented higher social and individual vulnerability profiles.

  9. A foundational observation method for studying design situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Hicks, Ben; Culley, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies of designers play an important role in engineering design research, yet there is currently no accepted standard approach for comparing, combining, or contrasting studies. Consequentially, reuse, reanalysis, replication, and aggregation of data are limited and the potential...... that covers capture, coding, and analysis. The capture step defines overall and situational context as well as multiple capture streams, generating a broad data-set that can be examined from multiple perspectives. The coding step employs a multi-level approach that seeks to minimise workload while describing...

  10. [Using consumer panels in public health observational studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Fu, Marcela; Ballbè, Montse; Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, José M

    Consumer panels are a market research method useful for gathering information about low-frequency or difficult-access customers. The objective of this field-note is to explain our experience using this method in a cross-sectional public health study on the use of electronic cigarettes. After taking into account other non-probabilistic sampling techniques to obtain a huge sample of electronic-cigarette users (n=600), in the end we decided to use consumer panels (recruiters) because of the relative short duration of the field work and the high representativeness of the sample. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Using data mining techniques to characterize participation in observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Yarnold, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    Data mining techniques are gaining in popularity among health researchers for an array of purposes, such as improving diagnostic accuracy, identifying high-risk patients and extracting concepts from unstructured data. In this paper, we describe how these techniques can be applied to another area in the health research domain: identifying characteristics of individuals who do and do not choose to participate in observational studies. In contrast to randomized studies where individuals have no control over their treatment assignment, participants in observational studies self-select into the treatment arm and therefore have the potential to differ in their characteristics from those who elect not to participate. These differences may explain part, or all, of the difference in the observed outcome, making it crucial to assess whether there is differential participation based on observed characteristics. As compared to traditional approaches to this assessment, data mining offers a more precise understanding of these differences. To describe and illustrate the application of data mining in this domain, we use data from a primary care-based medical home pilot programme and compare the performance of commonly used classification approaches - logistic regression, support vector machines, random forests and classification tree analysis (CTA) - in correctly classifying participants and non-participants. We find that CTA is substantially more accurate than the other models. Moreover, unlike the other models, CTA offers transparency in its computational approach, ease of interpretation via the decision rules produced and provides statistical results familiar to health researchers. Beyond their application to research, data mining techniques could help administrators to identify new candidates for participation who may most benefit from the intervention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Observation and characterization of flow in critical sections of a horizontal pressurized gating system using water models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiganesh Venkataramani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the hydraulics and flow characterization in a pressurized, horizontal gating system with multiple ingates attached to a plate mold, using transparent water models. Runners with two different aspect ratios (w/h = 0.5 and 2 and four different types of ingates (rectangular, convergent, divergent and venturi were examined for their influence on flow behavior. Flow behavior was visualized using a high speed camera capable of capturing images up to 10,000 frames per second. Real time experimentation with a few runner – ingate combinations were carried out to validate the usefulness of water models in predicting the filling behavior. Comparison of the approaches provided useful insights into the filling behavior in critical sections of the flow passages as well as the utility of water models towards understanding of the filling behavior during real time casting.

  13. Differential cross sections and polarization observables from CLAS K⁎ photoproduction and the search for new N⁎ states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Anisovich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The reaction γp→K⁎+Λ was measured using the CLAS detector for photon energies between the threshold and 3.9 GeV at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. For the first time, spin-density matrix elements have been extracted for this reaction. Differential cross sections, spin density matrix elements, and the Λ recoil polarization are compared with theoretical predictions using the BnGa partial wave analysis. The main result is the evidence for significant contributions from N(18951/2− and N(21001/2+ to the reaction. Branching ratios for decays into K⁎Λ for these resonances and further resonances are reported.

  14. Practice of use of diapers in hospitalized adults and elderly: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziele Ribeiro Bitencourt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: analyze the practice of use of diapers in adults and elderly in hospital. Method: observational cross-sectional study, with a sample of 105 participants assigned according to the data collection period, from September 2013 to January 2014, in the surgical clinic wards in a University Hospital. Results: it was observed that 38% of the 105 participants of the study did not need the use of diapers. 18% used it because they were disabled and 16% had their cognitive system damaged. As they were hospitalized, it was identified that 51.4% of patients were there ranging from 02 to 10 days, and 60% used diapers for the same period. It is also identified that long term urinary catheter (24.8%, as technology associated to diapers in the urinary control and to pressure ulcers (12.4%, being the main complication. Conclusion: the use of diapers did not have specific criteria to be selected. For this, it was proposed an "Evaluation Scale of Diapers Use in Adults", as for indication as for its monitoring to help the study transposal for the nursing practice.

  15. Educating Adolescents in the Context of Section 504 Policy: a Comparative Study of Two Middle Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Martha Asterilla

    2002-01-01

    EDUCATING ADOLESCENTS IN THE CONTEXT OF SECTION 504 POLICY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO MIDDLE SCHOOLS By Martha Asterilla Taylor Jean B. Crockett, Ph.D. Chairperson Educational Leadership and Policy Studies (ABSTRACT) Section 504 "prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities by school districts receiving federal financial assistance" (First & Curcio, 1993, p.33). In public schools, eligible students receive an Individualized Accommodation Plan (IA...

  16. 77 FR 43090 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Safety and Occupational Health Study Section... Secretary, Safety and Occupational Health Study Section, Department of Health and Human Services, 1600... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and...

  17. 75 FR 42455 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Safety and Occupational Health Study Section... Secretary, Safety and Occupational Health Study Section, Department of Health and Human Services, 1600... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and...

  18. 75 FR 26266 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In...) Public Law 92-463. Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health Study Section will review, discuss, and... cycles pertaining to research issues in occupational safety and health, and allied areas. It is the...

  19. Parental behaviour in paediatric chronic pain: a qualitative observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Emma; Thompson, Miles; Gauntlett-Gilbert, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    Parental behaviour appears to influence the adjustment of children with chronic pain. However, research in this area has failed to produce consistent evidence. Studies have tended to rely on self-report measures derived from adult pain populations. This qualitative, observational research provides descriptive data of parental behaviour in a clinical environment. A qualitative observational study was made of parents and adolescents in a physically stressful setting. Modified grounded theory was used to analyse verbal and non-verbal behaviours. Eight parent-adolescent dyads seeking treatment for chronic pain were videoed during physical exercise sessions. Verbal and non-verbal behaviours were recorded and transcribed. Four overarching categories emerged: 'monitoring', 'protecting', 'encouraging' and 'instructing'. These often had both verbal and non-verbal aspects. Within these categories, more precise behavioural groups were also identified. This research identifies categories of parental behaviour that were derived directly from observation, rather than imposed on the basis of results from different populations. Four categories of behaviour were derived, which clarify and extend dimensions used in existing self-report instruments. Careful description of parental behaviours showed features that past research has neglected, and highlighted potential drawbacks of apparently positive parental actions. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Observations of radiographer communication: An exploratory study using Transactional Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Lisa A.; Manning, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Communication in medical imaging is a neglected area of research, despite the necessity for good communication if optimum diagnostic images are to be achieved. Methods: The present study has investigated the styles of communication used in medical imaging, using an approach known as Transactional Analysis. This approach has been demonstrated previously as having reliability and validity, using observations and supporting interviews with medical imaging staff, along with inter-rater observations of radiographer-patient interactions. Results: The results indicate that Transactional Analysis can be used effectively for identifying and naming interaction events in diagnostic radiography, with diagnostic radiographers using five styles of communication. Conclusion: Radiographers tend to use Parental styles of communicating; these styles are commonly associated with a practitioner-centred approach to dealing with patients which often result in non-adherence

  1. Numerical Study on the Behaviour of Reduced Beam Section Presence in Rectangular Concrete Filled Tubes Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia, A. R.; Suswanto, B.; Kristijanto, H.; Irawan, D.

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses about the behaviour of two types of RCFT column connections with steel beams due to cyclic loads using software based on finite element method ABAQUS 6.14. This comparison involves modelling RCFT connections with rigid connection that do not allow any deformation and rotation in the joint. There are two types of model to be compared: BB and BRBS which include RCFT connections to ordinary beam without RBS (BB) and to Reduce Beam Section Beam (BRBS). The models behaviour can be discussed in this study are stress value, von misses stress pattern and rotational degree of each model. From the von misses stress pattern value, it found that the highest regions of stress occurs in vicinity of beam flange near column face for connection without RBS (BB). For earthquake resistant building, that behaviour needs to be avoided because sudden collapse often happen in that joint connection. Moreover, the connection with the presence of RBS (BRBS), the highest regions of stress occurs in reduced beam section of the beam, it means that the failure might be happen as proposed plan. The ultimate force that can be restrained by BB model (402 kN) is higher than BRBS model (257,18 kN) because of reducing of flange area. BRBS model has higher rotation angle (0,057 rad) than BB model (0,045 rad). The analysis results also observed that cyclic performances of the moment connection with RBS (BRBS) were more ductile than the connection with ordinary beam (BB).

  2. Observation of depth-dependent atomic displacements related to dislocations in GaN by optical sectioning in the STEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, J G; Hirsch, P B; Nellist, P D; Guerrero-Lebrero, M P; Galindo, P L; Yasuhara, A; Okinishi, E; Zhang, S; Humphreys, C J

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to observe depth-dependent atomic displacements in a GaN crystal due to the sufficiently small depth of field achievable in the aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. The depth-dependent displacements associated with the Eshelby twist of screw dislocations in GaN viewed end on are directly imaged, and makes possible the determination of the sign of the Burgers vector of the dislocation. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical images

  3. An observational study of sea breeze characteristics over Kalpakkam Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Manju; Mishra, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    An observational study of the sea breeze characteristics has been carried out at Kalpakkam, India which lies on the East coast of Southern Indian peninsula about 700 m inland from the sea, the Bay of Bengal. There are clear and significant changes in the surface meteorological parameters at the onset and during sea-breeze phenomenon in the coastal areas. Hourly averaged measurements from a 30 m tall micrometeorological tower were used to study the sea-breeze characteristics at the above site. In this study, based on detailed analysis of the data on-set criteria of the sea breeze is characterized by increase in relative humidity at least by 5%, fall in temperature by equal or greater than 0.5 K and increase in wind speed with respect to previous hour record. The present study is also compared with the earlier studies in relation to sea breeze carried out at Chennai located approximately 80 km North from Kalpakkam and the differences between these studies are discussed. The comparison of sea breeze characteristics of the present study with those from earlier studies that were carried out more than half a century back also reflects the changes due to urbanization and other development activities as well as resulting climatic impacts. (author)

  4. Foot health and quality of life among university students: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rodríguez-Sanz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Foot problems are believed to reduce quality of life and are increasingly present. Even among young adults of university age, untreated foot problems can lead to postural and mobility problems. Accordingly, our aim here was to determine the relationship between foot health and quality of life and general health among male and female university students. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cross-sectional quantitative study conducted at the Podiatric Medicine and Surgery Clinic of the University of Coruña, Ferrol, Spain. METHODS: A sample of 112 participants of median age 22 years came to a health center, where self-reported data were registered, including professional activity, and scores obtained through the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ were compared. RESULTS: In Section One of the FHSQ, the university students recorded lower scores of 66.66 in the footwear domain and 60 in the general foot health domain and higher scores of 84.37 in the foot pain domain and 93.75 in the foot function domain. In Section Two, they obtained lower scores of 60 in the overall health domain and 62.50 in the vigor domain and higher scores of 100 in the physical activity and 87.50 in the social capacity domain. Differences between males and females were evaluated using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, which showing statistical significance (P < 0.05 regarding the dimensions of footwear and general foot health. CONCLUSIONS: These university students’ quality of life relating to foot health was poor. This appears to be associated with the university period, regardless of gender.

  5. Photoeducation and photoprotection among liver transplant candidates: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Karina Dal Sasso; Rossin, Fabiana Murad; Ziviani, Luciana da Costa; Ribeiro, Kátia Prado; Zago, Márcia Maria Fontão; Ohler, Linda; de Castro-e-Silva, Orlando; Galvão, Cristina Maria

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of skin cancer after liver transplant ranges from 3% to 16%, considerably higher than that observed in the general population. Skin cancer causes 25% of deaths in patients who have survived more than 3 years after liver transplant. The objective of this study was to identify differences regarding the level of sun exposure, knowledge of potential risk factors, and photoprotection measures among liver transplant candidates and recipients. We carried out a prospective cross-sectional study with 100 patients enrolled at a liver transplant program in a Brazilian center. The patients were interviewed and received oral information regarding skin care and sun exposure. Results reveal that measures of photoprotection and photoeducation are more prevalent among recipients than among candidates. High degrees of solar exposure were observed more frequently among candidates, although recipients showed better knowledge about the risks of sun exposure. Educational actions concerning skin cancer prevention should be part of the guidelines given by the multidisciplinary team to the liver transplant patients, in particular, by the nursing team.

  6. JUNK FOOD ASSOCIATION WITH THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF GASTRITIS-A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY AMONG RURAL CHILDREN OF MELMARUVATHUR

    OpenAIRE

    Sumathi S; Padma K

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM Junk food consumption is common among children that have much adverse effect on the growth of the children and health. This study is aimed to assess the correlation of frequency of junk food intake with the morphological changes of gastric antral biopsies in dyspeptic children. MATERIALS AND METHODS This cross-sectional observational study was carried out in Melmaruvathur Medical College Hospital, Melmaruvathur, during the year 2014-2015. The participants ...

  7. Photodetachment spectroscopy and microscopy; measurement of the photodetachment cross section of H- at 1064 nm by the observation of the asymptotic behaviour in the saturated regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandevraye, Mickael

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we initiate the demonstration, at a reduced scale, of the feasibility of the almost-complete laser photodetachment of negative hydrogen ion beams in a Fabry-Perot optical cavity for future neutral beam injectors for the heating of fusion power plants plasmas.We develop a new method to measure a photodetachment cross section, the knowledge of which at the exciting wavelength is needed to scale the Fabry-Perot cavity, based on the observation of the saturation in a pulsed lighting regime. The analytical calculus of the detachment signal growth produced while illuminating a negative ion beam with a Gaussian laser pulse bring out a mathematical constraint on the required flux to pass through the saturated regime. This constraint is the signature of the transition toward the saturation for all experiment carried out in Gaussian beam and for all linear light-matter interaction processes. With this method, we measure the photodetachment cross section of H - at 1064 nm - selected wavelength for future neutral beam injectors - in slight disagreement with theoretical predictions.To reduce the technological requirement on the Fabry-Perot cavity and the laser, we study Landau resonances which appear in the photodetachment spectrum. Locking the laser on one of these resonances would allow increasing the photodetachment probability at a given flux.We also present our phosphorus, selenium and tin electron affinity measurements carried out with the photodetachment microscope. The photodetachment microscopy experiment of phosphorus is the first one where the neutral atom is left in an excited term. (author) [fr

  8. Photodetachment spectroscopy and microscopy, measurement of the photodetachment cross section of H- at 1064 nm by the observation of the asymptotic behaviour in the saturated regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandevraye, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we initiate the demonstration, at a reduced scale, of the feasibility of the almost-complete laser photodetachment of negative hydrogen ion beams in a Fabry-Perot optical cavity for future neutral beam injectors for the heating of fusion power plants plasmas. We develop a new method to measure a photodetachment cross section, the knowledge of which at the exciting wavelength is needed to scale the Fabry-Perot cavity, based on the observation of the saturation in a pulsed lighting regime. The analytical calculus of the detachment signal growth produced while illuminating a negative ion beam with a Gaussian laser pulse bring out a mathematical constraint on the required flux to pass through the saturated regime. This constraint is the signature of the transition toward the saturation for all experiment carried out in Gaussian beam and for all linear light-matter interaction processes. With this method, we measure the photodetachment cross section of H - at 1064 nm - selected wavelength for future neutral beam injectors - we get 5.0*10 -21 m 2 in slight disagreement with theoretical predictions. To reduce the technological requirement on the Fabry-Perot cavity and the laser, we study Landau resonances which appear in the photodetachment spectrum. Locking the laser on one of these resonances would allow increasing the photodetachment probability at a given flux. We also present our phosphorus, selenium and tin electron affinity measurements carried out with the photodetachment microscope. We get the following values: 6021.81(8) cm -1 for P, 16297.276(9) cm -1 for Se and 8969.447(13) cm -1 . The photodetachment microscopy experiment of phosphorus is the first one where the neutral atom is left in an excited term. (author)

  9. Surgical Procedures of the Elbow: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Observational Study in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kinaci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Elbow surgery is shared by several subspecialties. We were curious about the most common elbow surgeries and their corresponding diagnoses in the United States.   Methods:  We used the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS and the National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery (NSAS data gathered in 2006-databases that together provide an estimate of all inpatient and ambulatory surgical care in the US.  Results:  An estimated 150,000 elbow surgeries were performed in the US in 2006, 75% in an outpatient setting. The most frequent diagnosis treated operative was enthesopathy (e.g. lateral epicondylitis and it was treated with several different procedures. More than three quarters of all elbow surgeries treated enthesopathy, cubital tunnel syndrome, or fracture (radial head in particular. Arthroscopy and arthroplasty accounted for less than 10% of all elbow surgeries.  Conclusions:  Elbow surgery in the United States primarily addresses enthesopathies such as tennis elbow, cubital tunnel syndrome, and trauma. It is notable that some of the most common elbow surgeries (those that address enthesopathy and radial head fracture are some of the most variably utilized and debated.

  10. Etiopathogenesis of presenile cataracts in Central Kerala: A cross-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jyothi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Apart from DM and atopy, the place of residence and occupation (and thus possibly exposure to ultraviolet radiations is also associated with the development of presenile cataract. Posterior subcapsular cataract is the most common type of presenile cataract in Central Kerala.

  11. Comparison of balance assessment modalities in emergency department elders: a pilot cross-sectional observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Caterino, Jeffrey M; Karaman, Rowan; Arora, Vinay; Martin, Jacqueline L; Hiestand, Brian C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background More than one-third of US adults 65 and over fall every year. These falls may cause serious injury including substantial long-term morbidity (due declines in activities of daily living) and death. The emergency department (ED) visit represents an opportunity for identifying high risk elders and potentially instituting falls-related interventions. The unique characteristic of the ED environment and patient population necessitate that risk-assessment modalities be validated ...

  12. Disease awareness in myotonic dystrophy type 1: an observational cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Baldanzi, Sigrid; Bevilacqua, Francesca; Lorio, Rita; Volpi, Leda; Simoncini, Costanza; Petrucci, Antonio; Cosottini, Mirco; Massimetti, Gabriele; Tognoni, Gloria; Ricci, Giulia; Angelini, Corrado; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Background Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (Steinert?s disease or DM1), the most common form of autosomal dominant muscular dystrophy in adults, is a multisystem disorder, affecting skeletal muscle as well as eyes, heart, gastrointestinal tract, endocrine system, and central nervous system, finally responsible of increasing disabilities and secondary social consequences. To date, DM1-related brain involvement represents a challenging field of research. It is well known that DM1 patients frequently ...

  13. Nurses' intention to leave their profession: a cross sectional observational study in 10 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Achterberg, T. van; Schwendimann, R.; Zander, B.; Matthews, A.; Kozka, M.; Ensio, A.; Sjetne, I.S.; Moreno Casbas, T.; Ball, J.; Schoonhoven, L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the European population ages, the demand for nursing care increases. Yet, a shortage of nurses at the labour market exists or is predicted for most European countries. There are no adequate solutions for this shortage yet, and recruitment of future nurses is difficult. Therefore,

  14. A conceptual framework for evaluating data suitability for observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ning; Weng, Chunhua; Hripcsak, George

    2017-09-08

    To contribute a conceptual framework for evaluating data suitability to satisfy the research needs of observational studies. Suitability considerations were derived from a systematic literature review on researchers' common data needs in observational studies and a scoping review on frequent clinical database design considerations, and were harmonized to construct a suitability conceptual framework using a bottom-up approach. The relationships among the suitability categories are explored from the perspective of 4 facets of data: intrinsic, contextual, representational, and accessible. A web-based national survey of domain experts was conducted to validate the framework. Data suitability for observational studies hinges on the following key categories: Explicitness of Policy and Data Governance, Relevance, Availability of Descriptive Metadata and Provenance Documentation, Usability, and Quality. We describe 16 measures and 33 sub-measures. The survey uncovered the relevance of all categories, with a 5-point Likert importance score of 3.9 ± 1.0 for Explicitness of Policy and Data Governance, 4.1 ± 1.0 for Relevance, 3.9 ± 0.9 for Availability of Descriptive Metadata and Provenance Documentation, 4.2 ± 1.0 for Usability, and 4.0 ± 0.9 for Quality. The suitability framework evaluates a clinical data source's fitness for research use. Its construction reflects both researchers' points of view and data custodians' design features. The feedback from domain experts rated Usability, Relevance, and Quality categories as the most important considerations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. How safe do teenagers behave on Facebook? An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin; Raes, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    The substantial use of social network sites by teenagers has raised concerns about privacy and security. Previous research about behavior on social network sites was mostly based on surveys and interviews. Observational research overcomes problems inherent to this research method, for example social desirability. However, existing observational research mostly focuses on public profiles of young adults. Therefore, the current observation-study includes 1050 public and non-public Facebook-profiles of teenagers (13-18) to investigate (1) what kind of information teenagers post on their profile, (2) to what extent they protect this information using privacy-settings and (3) how much risky information they have on their profile. It was found that young people mostly post pictures, interests and some basic personal information on their profile. Some of them manage their privacy-settings as such that this information is reserved for friends' eyes only, but a lot of information is accessible on the friends-of-friends' pages. Although general risk scores are rather low, more detailed analyses show that teenagers nevertheless post a significant amount of risky information. Moreover, older teenagers and girls post more (risky) information while there are no differences in applying privacy settings. We found no differences in the Facebook behavior of teenagers enrolled in different education forms. Implications of these results are discussed.

  16. How safe do teenagers behave on Facebook? An observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Vanderhoven

    Full Text Available The substantial use of social network sites by teenagers has raised concerns about privacy and security. Previous research about behavior on social network sites was mostly based on surveys and interviews. Observational research overcomes problems inherent to this research method, for example social desirability. However, existing observational research mostly focuses on public profiles of young adults. Therefore, the current observation-study includes 1050 public and non-public Facebook-profiles of teenagers (13-18 to investigate (1 what kind of information teenagers post on their profile, (2 to what extent they protect this information using privacy-settings and (3 how much risky information they have on their profile. It was found that young people mostly post pictures, interests and some basic personal information on their profile. Some of them manage their privacy-settings as such that this information is reserved for friends' eyes only, but a lot of information is accessible on the friends-of-friends' pages. Although general risk scores are rather low, more detailed analyses show that teenagers nevertheless post a significant amount of risky information. Moreover, older teenagers and girls post more (risky information while there are no differences in applying privacy settings. We found no differences in the Facebook behavior of teenagers enrolled in different education forms. Implications of these results are discussed.

  17. A Statistical Study of Interplanetary Type II Bursts: STEREO Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupar, V.; Eastwood, J. P.; Magdalenic, J.; Gopalswamy, N.; Kruparova, O.; Szabo, A.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the primary cause of the most severe and disruptive space weather events such as solar energetic particle (SEP) events and geomagnetic storms at Earth. Interplanetary type II bursts are generated via the plasma emission mechanism by energetic electrons accelerated at CME-driven shock waves and hence identify CMEs that potentially cause space weather impact. As CMEs propagate outward from the Sun, radio emissions are generated at progressively at lower frequencies corresponding to a decreasing ambient solar wind plasma density. We have performed a statistical study of 153 interplanetary type II bursts observed by the two STEREO spacecraft between March 2008 and August 2014. These events have been correlated with manually-identified CMEs contained in the Heliospheric Cataloguing, Analysis and Techniques Service (HELCATS) catalogue. Our results confirm that faster CMEs are more likely to produce interplanetary type II radio bursts. We have compared observed frequency drifts with white-light observations to estimate angular deviations of type II burst propagation directions from radial. We have found that interplanetary type II bursts preferably arise from CME flanks. Finally, we discuss a visibility of radio emissions in relation to the CME propagation direction.

  18. Palliative care team visits. Qualitative study through participant observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaya Góngora, Maria Del Mar; Bueno Pernias, Maria José; Hueso Montoro, César; Guardia Mancilla, Plácido; Montoya Juárez, Rafael; García Caro, Maria Paz

    2016-03-30

    To describe the clinical encounters that occur when a palliative care team provides patient care and the features that influence these encounters and indicate whether they are favorable or unfavorable depending on the expectations and feelings of the various participants. A qualitative case study conducted via participant observation. A total of 12 observations of the meetings of palliative care teams with patients and families in different settings (home, hospital and consultation room) were performed. The visits were follow-up or first visits, either scheduled or on demand. Content analysis of the observation was performed. The analysis showed the normal follow-up activity of the palliative care unit that was focused on controlling symptoms, sharing information and providing advice on therapeutic regimens and care. The environment appeared to condition the patients' expressions and the type of patient relationship. Favorable clinical encounter conditions included kindness and gratitude. Unfavorable conditions were deterioration caused by approaching death, unrealistic family objectives and limited resources. Home visits from basic palliative care teams play an important role in patient and family well-being. The visits seem to focus on controlling symptoms and are conditioned by available resources.

  19. 78 FR 56235 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ..., 2013 (Closed). Place: Embassy Suites, 1900 Diagonal Road, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, Telephone: (703... meeting will convene to address matters related to the conduct of Study Section business and for the study...

  20. Finite element study of a HDR-RPV-section including a nozzle under thermal shock transient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany); Katzenmeier, G [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Wanner, R; Mercier, O [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1988-12-31

    This document presents a finite element study of a reactor pressure vessel section under thermal stresses. The strength properties of the vessel walls are studied as well as cracks due to the thermo-shock transient. (TEC). 6 refs.

  1. Serum YKL-40 and gestational diabetes - an observational cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gybel-Brask, Dorte; Johansen, Julia S; Christiansen, Ib J

    2016-01-01

    To examine serum YKL-40 in women developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In the present large observational cohort study of 1179 pregnant women, we determined serum YKL-40 four times during pregnancy (at gestational age 12, 20, 25, and 32 weeks). Pregnancy outcome was obtained from medical...... records. Sixty-eight women (5.8%) developed GDM. Serum YKL-40 increased from gestational age (GA) 12 weeks and the following weeks in the women who developed GDM and was independent of BMI, parity, and maternal age (OR = 2.69, 95% CI: 1.45-5.00, p = 0.002). No association was found between serum YKL-40...

  2. Relationship between Plasma Ghrelin Levels and Sarcopenia in Elderly Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Prat, M; Papiol, M; Monteis, R; Palomera, E; Cabré, M

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma ghrelin levels and sarcopenia in elderly people. Cross-sectional study. Health consortium medical centers in the Maresme region, Barcelona (Spain). Two groups of subjects: persons ≥70 years (elderly group) and persons 25-65 years (young adults). Sarcopenia, diagnosed according to the EWGSOP definition, fasting and postprandial plasma ghrelin levels, body composition, hand grip, Barthel score, and frailty using Fried criteria. Fifty-five elderly subjects and 33 young adults were recruited. In both age groups, mean ghrelin levels were significantly higher in women than in men. However, mean ghrelin levels were similar in elderly and young men (716 vs. 752 pg mL-1, P = 0.763) as well as in elderly and young women (859 vs. 995 pg mL-1, P = 0.190). In the elderly group, subjects with sarcopenia showed significantly lower ghrelin levels than those without sarcopenia (650 vs. 899 pg mL-1, P = 0.036), but these differences disappeared when stratifying by gender. Elderly subjects without sarcopenia had the same ghrelin levels as young adults (899.3 vs. 899.6 pg mL-1). In young women, ghrelin levels correlated with fat free mass (rs = 0.58, P = 0.007) and muscular mass (rs = 0.54, P = 0.015) but these correlations were not observed in men nor in elderly women. This cross-sectional study does not allow a definitive conclusion about the relationship between ghrelin levels and sarcopenia. Further large prospective studies are needed to test this hypothesis.

  3. Nursing praxis, compassionate caring and interpersonal relations: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Margaret; MacGregor, Casimir; Ruperto, Kate; Jarrett, Kate; Wheeler, Janet; Fong, Jacqueline; Fetchet, Wendy

    2013-05-01

    The Clinical Initiative Nurse (CIN) is a role that requires experienced emergency nurses to assess, initiate diagnostic tests, treat and manage a range of patient conditions. The CIN role is focused on the waiting room and to 'communicate the wait', initiate diagnostics or treatment and follow-up for waiting room patients. We aim to explore what emergency nurses' do in their extended practice role in observable everyday life in the emergency department (ED). The paper argues that compassionate caring is a core nursing skill that supports CIN interpersonal relations, despite the role's highly clinical nature. Sixteen non-participant observations were undertaken in three EDs in New South Wales, Australia. Nurses were eligible for inclusion if they had two years of emergency experience and had worked in the CIN role for more than one year. All CIN's that were observed were highly experienced with a minimum three year ED experience. The CIN observations revealed how compassionate caring was utilised by CIN's to quickly build a therapeutic relationship with patients and colleagues, and helped to facilitate core communication and interpersonal skills. While the CIN role was viewed as extended practice, the role relied heavily on compassionate care to support interpersonal relationships and to actualise extended practice care. The study supports the contribution made by emergency nurses and demonstrates how compassionate caring is central to nursing praxis. This paper also demonstrates that the CIN role utilises a complex mix between advanced clinical skills and compassion that supports interpersonal and therapeutic relationships. Further research is needed to understand how compassionate care can be optimised within nursing praxis and the duty of care between nurses and patients, nurses and other health care professionals so that future healthcare goals can be realised. Copyright © 2013 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. MALDI Mass Spectral Imaging of Bile Acids Observed as Deprotonated Molecules and Proton-Bound Dimers from Mouse Liver Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzagalinski, Ignacy; Hainz, Nadine; Meier, Carola; Tschernig, Thomas; Volmer, Dietrich A.

    2018-02-01

    Bile acids (BAs) play two vital roles in living organisms, as they are involved in (1) the secretion of cholesterol from liver, and (2) the lipid digestion/absorption in the intestine. Abnormal bile acid synthesis or secretion can lead to severe liver disorders. Even though there is extensive literature on the mass spectrometric determination of BAs in biofluids and tissue homogenates, there are no reports on the spatial distribution in the biliary network of the liver. Here, we demonstrate the application of high mass resolution/mass accuracy matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) to MS imaging (MSI) of BAs at high spatial resolutions (pixel size, 25 μm). The results show chemical heterogeneity of the mouse liver sections with a number of branching biliary and blood ducts. In addition to ion signals from deprotonation of the BA molecules, MALDI-MSI generated several further intense signals at larger m/z for the BAs. These signals were spatially co-localized with the deprotonated molecules and easily misinterpreted as additional products of BA biotransformations. In-depth analysis of accurate mass shifts and additional electrospray ionization and MALDI-FTICR experiments, however, confirmed them as proton-bound dimers. Interestingly, dimers of bile acids, but also unusual mixed dimers of different taurine-conjugated bile acids and free taurine, were identified. Since formation of these complexes will negatively influence signal intensities of the desired [M - H]- ions and significantly complicate mass spectral interpretations, two simple broadband techniques were proposed for non-selective dissociation of dimers that lead to increased signals for the deprotonated BAs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Brucellosis in pregnant women from Pakistan: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahzad; Akhter, Shamim; Neubauer, Heinrich; Scherag, André; Kesselmeier, Miriam; Melzer, Falk; Khan, Iahtasham; El-Adawy, Hosny; Azam, Asima; Qadeer, Saima; Ali, Qurban

    2016-09-02

    Brucella species occasionally cause spontaneous human abortion. Brucella can be transmitted commonly through the ingestion of raw milk or milk products. The objective of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of and to identify potential risk factors for brucellosis in pregnant women from Rawalpindi, Pakistan. We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Gynecology Outdoor Patient department of the Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from March to June 2013. Data related to potential risk factors and clinical history was collected by individual interviews on the blood sampling day. The 429 serum samples collected were initially screened by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination test for the detection of Brucella antibodies. We applied standard descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses. Twenty five (5.8 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 3.8 % -8.5 %) serum samples were found to be seropositive. Brucellosis-related clinical symptoms were recorded in various seropositive cases. Animal contact, raw milk consumption, having an abortion history and the experience of an intrauterine fetal death were associated with seropositivity for brucellosis in univariate analyses (all p Brucellosis is a serious threat for pregnant women and their unborn children in Pakistan. Pregnant women having brucellosis-related symptoms or previous history of abortions, miscarriages, intrauterine fetal death and other brucellosis-related manifestations should be screened for brucellosis - especially those exposed to animals given the increased risk - and medication should be administered according to state of the art.

  6. Choosing Public Health Dentistry as a Career: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Guntipalli M.; Prasad, Ghanasyam M.; Kandregula, Chaitanya Ram; Babburi, Suresh; KVNR, Pratap

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the attitude of dental students towards considering Public Health Dentistry as their future career. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire based, cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included dental students from different years of study. It consisted of 27 questions that were graded on five point Likert scale. Results: A total of 293 of the 320 registered undergraduate students participated in the study, with an overall response rate of 91.5%. Among the sample, 80 (27%) were males and 213 (73%) were females. Among the total sample which was studied, it was observed that only one third (35.4%) of them had high attitude towards selecting Public Health Dentistry as a future career, and nearly two thirds of them (58.02%) had an average attitude, with very few students having low attitude (6.48%). Conclusion: The present study concluded that there was an average attitude of 58% among dental students, which showed that they had a considerable amount of interest in pursuing post graduation in this speciality. Efforts should be intensified, both by dental council and by the dental colleges, to develop this speciality, keeping in mind the increasing attitude of dental undergraduates towards it. This also helps in increasing the number of dental personnel who are specialized in implementation of oral health policy, which does not exist in India. PMID:24701534

  7. Access to facility delivery and caesarean section in north-central Liberia: a cross-sectional community-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Matthew G; Taryor, Victor D; Norman, Andy M; Vermund, Sten H

    2012-01-01

    Objective Rural north-central Liberia has one of the world's highest maternal mortality ratios. We studied health facility birthing service utilisation and the motives of women seeking or not seeking facility-based care in north-central Liberia. Design Cross-sectional community-based structured interviews and health facility medical record review. Setting A regional hospital and the surrounding communities in rural north-central Liberia. Participants A convenience sample of 307 women between 15 and 49 years participated in structured interviews. 1031 deliveries performed in the regional hospital were included in the record review. Primary outcomes Delivery within a health facility and caesarean delivery rates were used as indicators of direct utilisation of care and as markers of availability of maternal health services. Results Of 280 interview respondents with a prior childbirth, only 47 (16.8%) delivered their last child in a health facility. Women who did not use formal services cited cost, sudden labour and family tradition or religion as their principal reasons for home delivery. At the regional hospital, the caesarean delivery rate was 35.5%. Conclusions There is an enormous unmet need for maternal health services in north-central Liberia. Greater outreach and referral services as well as community-based education among women, family members and traditional midwives are vital to improve the timely utilisation of care. PMID:23117566

  8. Technological aspects of hospital communication challenges: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Ilinca; Morita, Plinio P; Doran, Diane; Lapinsky, Stephen; Morra, Dante; Shier, Ashleigh; Wu, Robert; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    To gain insights into how technological communication tools impact effective communication among clinicians, which is critical for patient safety. This multi-site observational study analyzes inter-clinician communication and interaction with information technology, with a focus on the critical process of patient transfer from the Emergency Department to General Internal Medicine. Mount Sinai Hospital, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and Toronto General Hospital. At least five ED and general internal medicine nurses and physicians directly involved in patient transfers were observed on separate occasions at each institution. N/A. N/A. The study provides insight into clinician workflow, evaluates current hospital communication systems and identifies key issues affecting communication: interruptions, issues with numeric pagers, lack of integrated communication tools, lack of awareness of consultation status, inefficiencies related to the paper chart, unintuitive user interfaces, mixed use of electronic and paper systems and lack of up-to-date contact information. It also identifies design trade-offs to be negotiated: synchronous communication vs. reducing interruptions, notification of patient status vs. reducing interruptions and speed vs. quality of handovers. The issues listed should be considered in the design of new technology for hospital communications. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of Crohn's disease with cannabis: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftali, Timna; Lev, Lihi Bar; Yablecovitch, Doron; Yablekovitz, Doron; Half, Elisabeth; Konikoff, Fred M

    2011-08-01

    The marijuana plant cannabis is known to have therapeutic effects, including improvement of inflammatory processes. However, no report of patients using cannabis for Crohn's disease (CD) was ever published. To describe the effects of cannabis use in patients suffering from CD. In this retrospective observational study we examined disease activity, use of medication, need for surgery, and hospitalization before and after cannabis use in 30 patients (26 males) with CD. Disease activity was assessed by the Harvey Bradshaw index for Crohn's disease. Of the 30 patients 21 improved significantly after treatment with cannabis. The average Harvey Bradshaw index improved from 14 +/- 6.7 to 7 +/- 4.7 (P disease in humans. The results indicate that cannabis may have a positive effect on disease activity, as reflected by reduction in disease activity index and in the need for other drugs and surgery. Prospective placebo-controlled studies are warranted to fully evaluate the efficacy and side effects of cannabis in CD.

  10. Coronary CT angiography characteristics of OCT-defined thin-cap fibroatheroma. A section-to-section comparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dong Hyun; Koo, Hyun Jung; Kang, Joon-Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Soo-Jin; Chang, Mineok; Lee, Pil Hyung; Roh, Jae-Hyung; Ahn, Jung-Min; Park, Duk-Woo; Lee, Seung-Whan; Lee, Cheol Whan; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Seung-Jung; Kim, Young-Hak [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Seunghee [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seungbong [Gachon University, Department of Applied Statistics, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Mintz, Gary S. [Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, NY (United States)

    2018-02-15

    To evaluate whether plaque characteristics as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) were associated with the presence of a thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) - a precursor of plaque rupture - defined by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in a section-to-section-level comparison. From 28 symptomatic patients, 31 coronary lesions were evaluated on 727 cross-sections co-registered by both CCTA and OCT. CCTA plaque characteristics included low attenuation plaque (LAP, <30 HU), napkin ring sign (NRS), positive remodelling (PR, remodelling index ≥1.10), and spotty calcification and plaque area and plaque burden. By OCT, presence of TCFA, lumen area and arc of lipid were determined. OCT revealed a TCFA in 69 (9.4%) sections from 19 (61.2 %) lesions. In per-section analysis, OCT-TCFA showed higher frequency of CCTA-detected LAP (58.0% vs. 18.5%), NRS (31.9% vs. 8.8%) and PR (68.1% vs. 48.0%) and greater plaque burden (70.6% vs. 61.9%) as compared to sections without OCT-TCFA (all p < 0.05). In multivariable analysis, LAP (odds ratio [OR] 4.05, p < 0.001) and NRS (OR 2.47, p = 0.005) were associated with OCT-TCFA. CCTA-measured lumen area correlated well with OCT-measured lumen area (R = 0.859, limits of agreement -0.5 ± 3.7 mm{sup 2}). LAP and NRS in CCTA were associated with the presence of OCT-defined TCFA in a section-to-section comparison. (orig.)

  11. Hearing loss in workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2016-02-18

    Epoxy adhesives contain organic solvents and are widely used in industry. The hazardous effects of epoxy adhesives remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of hearing loss among workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise. Cross-sectional study. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 182 stone workers who were exposed to both epoxy adhesives and noise, 89 stone workers who were exposed to noise only, and 43 workers from the administrative staff who had not been exposed to adhesives or noise. We obtained demographic data, occupational history and medical history through face-to-face interviews and arranged physical examinations and pure-tone audiometric tests. We also conducted walk-through surveys in the stone industry. A total of 40 representative noise assessments were conducted in 15 workplaces. Air sampling was conducted at 40 workplaces, and volatile organic compounds were analysed using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) TO-15 method. The mean sound pressure level was 87.7 dBA (SD 9.9). The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was considerably increased in the stone workers exposed to epoxy adhesives (42%) compared with the stone workers who were not exposed to epoxy adhesives (21%) and the administrative staff group (9.3%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that exposure to epoxy adhesives significantly increased the risk of hearing loss between 2 and 6 kHz after adjusting for age. Significant interactions between epoxy adhesives and noise and hearing impairment were observed at 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Epoxy adhesives exacerbate hearing impairment in noisy environments, with the main impacts occurring in the middle and high frequencies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Inequalities in the spiritual health of young Canadians: a national, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelson, Valerie; Freeman, John; King, Nathan; Ascough, Hannah; Davison, Colleen; Trothen, Tracy; Phillips, Sian; Pickett, William

    2016-11-28

    Spiritual health, along with physical, emotional, and social aspects, is one of four domains of health. Assessment in this field of research is challenging methodologically. No contemporary population-based studies have profiled the spiritual health of adolescent Canadians with a focus on health inequalities. In a 2014 nationally representative sample of Canadians aged 11-15 years we therefore: (1) psychometrically evaluated a series of items used to assess the perceived importance of spiritual health and its four potential sub-domains (connections with: self, others, nature and the natural environment, and the transcendent) to adolescents; (2) described potential inequalities in spiritual health within adolescent populations, overall and by spiritual health sub-domain, by key socio-demographic factors. Cross-sectional analysis of survey reports from the 2014 (Cycle 7) of the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (weighted n = 25,036). Principal components analysis followed by confirmatory factor analysis were used to explore the psychometric properties of the spiritual health items and the associated composite scale describing perceived importance of spiritual health. Associations among this composite scale, its individual sub-domains, and key socio-demographic factors were then explored. The principal components analysis best supported a four-factor structure where the eight scale items loaded highly according to the original four domains. This was also supported in confirmatory factor analyses. We then combined the eight items into composite spiritual health score as supported by theory, principal components analysis findings, and acceptable tests of reliability. Further confirmatory factor analysis suggested the need for additional refinements to this scale. Based upon exploratory cross-sectional analyses, strong socio-demographic inequalities were observed in the spiritual health measures by age, gender, relative material wealth

  13. Prospective Observational Study on acute Appendicitis Worldwide (POSAW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartelli, Massimo; Baiocchi, Gian L; Di Saverio, Salomone; Ferrara, Francesco; Labricciosa, Francesco M; Ansaloni, Luca; Coccolini, Federico; Vijayan, Deepak; Abbas, Ashraf; Abongwa, Hariscine K; Agboola, John; Ahmed, Adamu; Akhmeteli, Lali; Akkapulu, Nezih; Akkucuk, Seckin; Altintoprak, Fatih; Andreiev, Aurelia L; Anyfantakis, Dimitrios; Atanasov, Boiko; Bala, Miklosh; Balalis, Dimitrios; Baraket, Oussama; Bellanova, Giovanni; Beltran, Marcelo; Melo, Renato Bessa; Bini, Roberto; Bouliaris, Konstantinos; Brunelli, Daniele; Castillo, Adrian; Catani, Marco; Che Jusoh, Asri; Chichom-Mefire, Alain; Cocorullo, Gianfranco; Coimbra, Raul; Colak, Elif; Costa, Silvia; Das, Koray; Delibegovic, Samir; Demetrashvili, Zaza; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Kiseleva, Nadezda; El Zalabany, Tamer; Faro, Mario; Ferreira, Margarida; Fraga, Gustavo P; Gachabayov, Mahir; Ghnnam, Wagih M; Giménez Maurel, Teresa; Gkiokas, Georgios; Gomes, Carlos A; Griffiths, Ewen; Guner, Ali; Gupta, Sanjay; Hecker, Andreas; Hirano, Elcio S; Hodonou, Adrien; Hutan, Martin; Ioannidis, Orestis; Isik, Arda; Ivakhov, Georgy; Jain, Sumita; Jokubauskas, Mantas; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Kauhanen, Saila; Kaushik, Robin; Kavalakat, Alfie; Kenig, Jakub; Khokha, Vladimir; Khor, Desmond; Kim, Dennis; Kim, Jae I; Kong, Victor; Lasithiotakis, Konstantinos; Leão, Pedro; Leon, Miguel; Litvin, Andrey; Lohsiriwat, Varut; López-Tomassetti Fernandez, Eudaldo; Lostoridis, Eftychios; Maciel, James; Major, Piotr; Dimova, Ana; Manatakis, Dimitrios; Marinis, Athanasio; Martinez-Perez, Aleix; Marwah, Sanjay; McFarlane, Michael; Mesina, Cristian; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Michalopoulos, Nickos; Misiakos, Evangelos; Mohamedahmed, Ali; Moldovanu, Radu; Montori, Giulia; Mysore Narayana, Raghuveer; Negoi, Ionut; Nikolopoulos, Ioannis; Novelli, Giuseppe; Novikovs, Viktors; Olaoye, Iyiade; Omari, Abdelkarim; Ordoñez, Carlos A; Ouadii, Mouaqit; Ozkan, Zeynep; Pal, Ajay; Palini, Gian M; Partecke, Lars I; Pata, Francesco; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Pereira Júnior, Gerson A; Pintar, Tadeja; Pisarska, Magdalena; Ploneda-Valencia, Cesar F; Pouggouras, Konstantinos; Prabhu, Vinod; Ramakrishnapillai, Padmakumar; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc; Reitz, Marianne; Rios-Cruz, Daniel; Saar, Sten; Sakakushev, Boris; Seretis, Charalampos; Sazhin, Alexander; Shelat, Vishal; Skrovina, Matej; Smirnov, Dmitry; Spyropoulos, Charalampos; Strzałka, Marcin; Talving, Peep; Teixeira Gonsaga, Ricardo A; Theobald, George; Tomadze, Gia; Torba, Myftar; Tranà, Cristian; Ulrych, Jan; Uzunoğlu, Mustafa Y; Vasilescu, Alin; Occhionorelli, Savino; Venara, Aurélien; Vereczkei, Andras; Vettoretto, Nereo; Vlad, Nutu; Walędziak, Maciej; Yilmaz, Tonguç U; Yuan, Kuo-Ching; Yunfeng, Cui; Zilinskas, Justas; Grelpois, Gérard; Catena, Fausto

    2018-01-01

    Acute appendicitis (AA) is the most common surgical disease, and appendectomy is the treatment of choice in the majority of cases. A correct diagnosis is key for decreasing the negative appendectomy rate. The management can become difficult in case of complicated appendicitis. The aim of this study is to describe the worldwide clinical and diagnostic work-up and management of AA in surgical departments. This prospective multicenter observational study was performed in 116 worldwide surgical departments from 44 countries over a 6-month period (April 1, 2016-September 30, 2016). All consecutive patients admitted to surgical departments with a clinical diagnosis of AA were included in the study. A total of 4282 patients were enrolled in the POSAW study, 1928 (45%) women and 2354 (55%) men, with a median age of 29 years. Nine hundred and seven (21.2%) patients underwent an abdominal CT scan, 1856 (43.3%) patients an US, and 285 (6.7%) patients both CT scan and US. A total of 4097 (95.7%) patients underwent surgery; 1809 (42.2%) underwent open appendectomy and 2215 (51.7%) had laparoscopic appendectomy. One hundred eighty-five (4.3%) patients were managed conservatively. Major complications occurred in 199 patients (4.6%). The overall mortality rate was 0.28%. The results of the present study confirm the clinical value of imaging techniques and prognostic scores. Appendectomy remains the most effective treatment of acute appendicitis. Mortality rate is low.

  14. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-09-21

    Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87-5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships.

  15. The Green Bay cesarean section study. III. Falling cesarean birth rates without a formal curtailment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmire, H F; DeMott, R K

    1994-06-01

    We observed decreases in cesarean birth rates at two Green Bay hospitals after the 1990 publication of our first cesarean section study. The purpose of this study was to determine the causes of those decreases and to see whether any outcome changes occurred with lower rates. An additional objective was to determine the perceptions of the 10 physicians regarding the determinants of cesarean birth rates. We compared recent cesarean birth rates (1990 to 1992) to former rates (1986 to 1988) for 10 of the 11 physicians analyzed in our previous studies. Newborn outcomes were analyzed to determine whether variations occur in comparing low to high cesarean rate physician groups. The total, primary, and repeat cesarean birth rates declined from 13.3% to 10.2%, 8.6% to 6.8%, and 4.7% to 3.4%, respectively, between 1986 to 1988 and 1990 to 1992. Variations in cesarean rates occurred among physicians and groups of physicians. Higher cesarean rates did not result in better perinatal outcome. Literature reports, residency training, continuing medical education attendance, and liability risks were the major determinants of cesarean birth as perceived by the 10 physicians in the study. The least important determinant, rated fifteenth of 15, was the national cesarean birth rate.

  16. Cosmetics Utilization Practice in Jigjiga Town, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Arebu I. Bilal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The trend of cosmetics utilization has increased globally; however, the exact amount of usage is not researched well. Lack of population awareness on proper use of cosmetics, particularly in developing countries, causes a prominent health challenge. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the cosmetics utilization practices in Jigjiga town, Eastern Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was used to assess factors associated with cosmetics use. Of the 559 participants, 93% used at least one type of cosmetics in the two weeks prior to the survey. The most commonly used products were body creams and lotions (68%, shampoos and conditioners (35%, and deodorants and perfumes (29%. Being single, female, and in the age group of 18–20 years increased the odds of cosmetics utilization. However, being in primary school and being self-employed showed a less likely use of cosmetics. Two hundred forty-seven (44% of the interviewed household members reported that they use traditional herbal cosmetics. A higher likelihood of traditional herbal cosmetics use was observed in the age group of 18–20 years. This study indicated that the community in Jigjiga town use different types of cosmetics. Education, occupation, marital status, age, and gender were all important factors that determined the use of cosmetics in the study area.

  17. [Quality of sleep and selective attention in university students: descriptive cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Silvia Alicia; Raimondi, Waldina; Rizzo, María Laura

    2014-09-05

    Sleep quality not only refers to sleeping well at night, but also includes appropriate daytime functioning. Poor quality of sleep can affect a variety of attention processes. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between the perceived quality of sleep and selective focus in a group of college students. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 52 Argentinian college students of the Universidad Adventista del Plata. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Continuous Performance Test and the Trail Making Test were applied. The main results indicate that students sleep an average of 6.48 hours. Generally half of the population tested had a good quality of sleep. However, the dispersion seen in some components demonstrates the heterogeneity of the sample in these variables. It was observed that the evaluated attention processes yielded different levels of alteration in the total sample: major variability in the process of process and in the divided-attention processes were detected. A lower percentage of alteration was observed in the process of attention support. Poor quality of sleep has more impact in the sub processes with greater participation of corticocortical circuits (selective and divided attention) and greater involvement of the prefrontal cortex. Fewer difficulties were found in the attention-support processes that rely on subcortical regions and have less frontal involvement.

  18. Quality of sleep and selective attention in university students: descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Alicia Fontana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Sleep quality not only refers to sleeping well at night, but also includes appropriate daytime functioning. Poor quality of sleep can affect a variety of attention processes. PURPOSE The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between the perceived quality of sleep and selective focus in a group of college students. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 52 Argentinian college students of the Universidad Adventista del Plata. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Continuous Performance Test and the Trail Making Test were applied. RESULTS The main results indicate that students sleep an average of 6.48 hours. Generally half of the population tested had a good quality of sleep. However, the dispersion seen in some components demonstrates the heterogeneity of the sample in these variables. It was observed that the evaluated attention processes yielded different levels of alteration in the total sample: major variability in the process of process and in the divided-attention processes were detected. A lower percentage of alteration was observed in the process of attention support. CONCLUSION Poor quality of sleep has more impact in the sub processes with greater participation of corticocortical circuits (selective and divided attention and greater involvement of the prefrontal cortex. Fewer difficulties were found in the attention-support processes that rely on subcortical regions and have less frontal involvement.

  19. Bullying and Victimization Trends in Undergraduate Medical Students - A Self-Reported Cross-Sectional Observational Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Shrea; Ajinkya, Shaunak; Jadhav, Pradeep R

    2016-02-01

    Bullying is a form of behaviour that can negatively impact a person. It can lead to several deleterious consequences like low self-confidence, drop in academic performance and depression. Studies have shown that bullying behaviour exists amongst medical students also. In the medical field, it is known to negatively impact dispensing of health care and attitudes of medical students towards becoming doctors. It is very difficult for medical students to cope with such a menace as they are already burdened with a vast curriculum and rigorous schedules. There exists paucity of studies regarding bullying amongst undergraduate medical students in Indian context. To study prevalence of peer-based bullying and victimization along with their associated factors in undergraduate medical students. Four hundred randomly chosen undergraduate medical students were included in the study. Socio-demographic and personal details including history of substance use were recorded in a self-designed case record form. Illinois Bullying Scale was used to assess bullying behaviours. Out of total 400 students, 383 completed the survey and this data was analysed. In this study, 98.69% participants self-reported to having indulged in bullying while 88.77% reported feeling victimized. Physical (pbullying was found to be of significantly greater severity in males as compared to females. Students of the third year of medical school indulged in significantly (p=0.034) greater severity of physical bullying than those of other years. Alcohol consumption (p=0.001) and cigarette smoking (pbullying. Peer-based bullying and victimization was found to be highly prevalent amongst undergraduate medical students. There is an urgent need for more detailed studies on bullying in medical students so that remedial measures can be initiated and steps to limit such behaviours can be looked at seriously.

  20. Beyond the traditional definition of breakthrough pain: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Antonio; Gentili, Marta; Iorno, Vittorio; Mammucari, Massimo; Tufaro, Giuseppe; Lazzari, Marzia; Sabato, Alessandro Fabrizio

    2013-03-01

    Breakthrough pain (BTP) is traditionally defined as a transitory pain flare in opioid-treated patients with chronic background pain. This definition has, however, been challenged in recent years. This study aimed to analyze BTP prevalence in different pain conditions. This was a prospective, non-interventional, observational study conducted from June to September 2011 in two Italian pain treatment reference centres. Consecutive patients aged >18 years with oncological or non-oncological pain were eligible for this study; background pain was acute/ subacute (3 months). The characteristics of pain were evaluated by means of a structured interview by physicians, and patients were asked to complete a dedicated clinical study form. The following outcomes were assessed: chronic pain duration (in patients with chronic pain), BTP prevalence, and number and severity of daily BTP episodes. All outcomes were assessed in four populations of patients with: (a) chronic oncological pain; (b) chronic non-oncological pain; (c) non-chronic oncological pain; (d) non-chronic non-oncological pain. The correlation between BTP and gender was also investigated. Of 1,270 patients with chronic pain, 1,086 had non-oncological pain (85.5%). Most patients (68.6%) with non-oncological pain were female (P = 0.001). Pain duration was significantly longer in non-oncological pain versus oncological pain groups (P = 0.002). BTP prevalence was lower in non-oncological patients (P definition. BTP frequency and severity is similar in oncological and non-oncological pain.

  1. Yogurt and Diabetes: Overview of Recent Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Díaz-López, Andrés; Babio, Nancy

    2017-07-01

    The effects of dairy consumption on the prevention of type 2 diabetes remain controversial and depend on the dairy subtype. Yogurt intake has received special attention because its association with health benefits is more consistent than that of other types of dairy products. In the present article, we review those observational studies that evaluated the association between yogurt consumption and type 2 diabetes. We also discuss the possible mechanisms involved in these associations. We found that 13 prospective studies evaluated the association between yogurt intake and type 2 diabetes, most of which showed an inverse association between the frequency of yogurt consumption and the risk of diabetes. In addition to the scientific evidence accumulated from individual prospective studies, several meta-analyses have shown that yogurt consumption has a potential role in diabetes prevention. The most recent analysis shows a 14% lower risk of type 2 diabetes when yogurt consumption was 80-125 g/d compared with no yogurt consumption. The intake of fermented dairy products, especially yogurt, has been inversely associated with variables of glucose metabolism. Yogurt may have probiotic effects that could modulate glucose metabolism. We conclude that yogurt consumption, in the context of a healthy dietary pattern, may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in healthy and older adults at high cardiovascular risk. Large-scale intervention studies and randomized clinical trials are warranted to determine if yogurt consumption has beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Warfarin and fibrinolysis - a challenging combination: an observational cohort study

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    Luurila Harri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI frequently use warfarin. Fibrinolytic agents and warfarin both increase bleeding risk, but only a few studies have been published concerning the bleeding risk of warfarin-prescribed patients receiving fibrinolysis. The objective of this study was to define the prevalence for intracranial haemorrhage (ICH or major bleeding in patients on warfarin treatment receiving pre-hospital fibrinolysis. Methods This was an observational cohort study. Data for this retrospective case series were collected in Helsinki Emergency Medical Service catchment area from 1.1.1997 to 30.6.2010. All warfarin patients with suspected ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, who received pre-hospital fibrinolysis, were included. Bleeding complications were detected from Medical Records and classified as ICH, major or minor bleeding. Results Thirty-six warfarin patients received fibrinolysis during the study period. Fourteen patients had bleeding complications. One (3%, 95% CI 0-15% patient had ICH, six (17%, 95% CI 7-32% had major and seven (19%, 95% CI 9-35% had minor bleeding. The only fatal bleeding occurred in a patient with ICH. Patients' age, fibrinolytic agent used or aspirin use did not predispose to bleeding complications. High International Normalized Ratio (INR seemed to predispose to bleedings with values over 3, but no statistically significant difference was found. Conclusions Bleedings occur frequently in warfarin patients treated with fibrinolysis in the real world setting, but they are rarely fatal.

  3. An observational study of foot lifts asymmetry during obstacle avoidance

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    Ujjawal Singh Tomar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Specific information regarding obstacle-clearance strategies used by community-dwelling young and elderly is scant in the literature, and physical barriers encountered in real-life situations have not been used in most of the studies. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine foot lift asymmetry during obstacle avoidance in young and elderly subjects. Settings and Design: This was an observational study. Materials and Methods: Thirty elderly and 30 young individuals were taken for the study. All the subjects were evaluated using different scales and foot lift asymmetry was measured on a walkway using three obstacles of different heights. Results: The mean and standard deviation (SD value of the asymmetric index of the young was 3.25±0.28 and the mean and SD value of the asymmetric index of the elderly was 3.53±0.47. The asymmetric index of the elderly population was found to be higher than that of the younger population. Conclusion: The asymmetric index of the elderly population was found to be higher than that of the younger population, though it is not clinically significant.

  4. Intrauterine temperature during intrapartum amnioinfusion: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, T M; Schaecher, C; Sadovsky, Y; Gross, G

    2012-07-01

    To determine the influence of routine intrapartum amnioinfusion (AI) on intrauterine temperature. Prospective observational study. Maternity unit, Barnes Jewish Hospital, St Louis, MO, USA. Forty women with singleton gestations and an indication for intrapartum intrauterine pressure catheter placement. Using a temperature probe, we digitally recorded intrauterine temperature every 10 minutes during labour. Amnioinfusion was administered according to a standard protocol using saline equilibrated to the ambient temperature. Mean intrauterine temperature during labour. Participants were monitored for a mean of 280 minutes (range 20-820). A total of 164 intrauterine temperature readings in the AI cohort were compared with 797 control measurements. When compared with controls, we observed a lower intrauterine temperature in the AI cohort (36.4 versus 37.4°C, P<0.01). More measurements in the AI cohort were recorded in the presence of intrapartum fever (40% versus 30%). A subgroup analysis of measurements recorded in afebrile parturients revealed an even greater effect of AI (1.5°C decrease, 37.3 versus 35.8°C, P<0.01). Routine intrapartum AI using saline equilibrated to a mean ambient temperature of 25.0°C reduces intrauterine temperature and may thereby affect fetal core temperature. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  5. Clinical Profile and Comorbidity of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder among Children and Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Observation in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hafizur Rahman Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD is a common disorder characterised by persistent and unwanted intrusive thoughts, images, and urges and repetitive behaviours or mental acts and can cause pervasive impairments. In Bangladesh, the prevalence of OCD among children is 2% which is higher than in previous reporting. This study was aimed at looking into the type, frequency, and severity of symptoms of OCD and comorbidity among children and adolescents. A consecutive 60 OCD cases from a child mental health service with age range of 5–18 years were recruited and divided into below and above 12 years of age group. The assessment was carried out using standardized Bangla version of Development and Wellbeing Assessment and Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was administered. Of the obsession, contamination was the highest followed by doubt, and of the compulsion, washing/cleaning was the highest followed by checking, repeating, and ordering rituals. More than half of the subjects had severe OCD and comorbidity was present in 58% subjects. Specific phobia, social phobia, major depressive disorder, and tic disorder were more prevalent. These symptoms and comorbidity profile can serve the baseline data for a country like Bangladesh and further large scale study would better generalize the study results.

  6. Asthma and atopy in children born by caesarean section: effect modification by family history of allergies - a population based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokotroni, Ourania; Middleton, Nicos; Gavatha, Marina; Lamnisos, Demetris; Priftis, Kostas N; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K

    2012-11-16

    Studies on the association of birth by caesarean section (C/S) and allergies have produced conflicting findings. Furthermore, evidence on whether this association may differ in those at risk of atopy is limited. This study aims to investigate the association of mode of delivery with asthma and atopic sensitization and the extent to which any effect is modified by family history of allergies. Asthma outcomes were assessed cross-sectionally in 2216 children at age 8 on the basis of parents' responses to the ISAAC questionnaire whilst skin prick tests to eleven aeroallergens were also performed in a subgroup of 746 children. Adjusted odds ratios of asthma and atopy by mode of delivery were estimated in multivariable logistic models while evidence of effect modification was examined by introducing interaction terms in the models. After adjusting for potential confounders, children born by C/S appeared significantly more likely than those born vaginally to report ever wheezing (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.07-1.71), asthma diagnosis (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.09-1.83) and be atopic (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.08-2.60). There was modest evidence that family history of allergies may modify the effect of C/S delivery on atopy (p for effect modification=0.06) but this was not the case for the asthma outcomes. Specifically, while more than a two-fold increase in the odds of being a topic was observed in children with a family history of allergies if born by C/S (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.38-5.00), no association was observed in children without a family history of allergies (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.64-2.11). Birth by C/S is associated with asthma and atopic sensitization in childhood. The association of C/S and atopy appears more pronounced in children with family history of allergies.

  7. Nursing diagnoses in patients with chronic venous ulcer: observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glycia de Almeida Nogueira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze nursing diagnoses in people with chronic venous ulcer. An observational, descriptive, quantitative research conducted in an ambulatory specialized in wound treatment, with a non-probabilistic sample of 20 patients.  Data collection was performed in an institutional form denominated Assessment Protocol for Clients with Tissue Lesions. Diagnoses were established by consensus among four researchers with experience in nursing diagnoses and wound treatments. From data analysis, 16 diagnoses were identified, with 100% of participants presenting: Impaired tissue integrity, Ineffective peripheral tissue perfusion, Risk of infection, Impaired physical mobility and Ineffective health self-control. These diagnoses are found in Safety/Protection, Activity/Rest and Health promotion domains, which from the clinical practice stand point should be priority focuses in nursing intervention and assessment.

  8. Cross-sectional multicenter study of patients with urea cycle disorders in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchman, Mendel; Lee, Brendan; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Summar, Marshall L; Yudkoff, Marc; Cederbaum, Stephen D; Kerr, Douglas S; Diaz, George A; Seashore, Margaretta R; Lee, Hye-Seung; McCarter, Robert J; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Batshaw, Mark L

    2008-08-01

    Inherited urea cycle disorders comprise eight disorders (UCD), each caused by a deficiency of one of the proteins that is essential for ureagenesis. We report on a cross-sectional investigation to determine clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with UCD in the United States. The data used for the analysis was collected at the time of enrollment of individuals with inherited UCD into a longitudinal observation study. The study has been conducted by the Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium within the Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network (RDCRN) funded by the National Institutes of Health. One-hundred eighty-three patients were enrolled into the study. Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency was the most frequent disorder (55%), followed by argininosuccinic aciduria (16%) and citrullinemia (14%). Seventy-nine percent of the participants were white (16% Latinos), and 6% were African American. Intellectual and developmental disabilities were reported in 39% with learning disabilities (35%) and half had abnormal neurological examination. Sixty-three percent were on a protein restricted diet, 37% were on Na-phenylbutyrate and 5% were on Na-benzoate. Forty-five percent of OTC deficient patients were on L-citrulline, while most patients with citrullinemia (58%) and argininosuccinic aciduria (79%) were on L-arginine. Plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids were reduced in patients treated with ammonia scavenger drugs. Plasma glutamine levels were higher in proximal UCD and in neonatal type disease. The RDCRN allows comprehensive analyses of rare inherited UCD, their frequencies and current medical practices.

  9. Intrauterine growth standards: a cross-sectional study in a population of Nigerian newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga A. Mokuolu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to define an intrauterine growth curve for a population of Nigerian newborn babies. A cross-sectional observational study design was adopted. Weight, length and head circumference were all measured in consecutive singleton deliveries at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital over a 3-year period. Gestational age (GA of the babies was estimated from the last menstrual period or first trimester ultrasound. The estimates obtained were clinically validated using the Ballard score. Mean birth weights and percentiles of the weight, length and head circumferences for the respective GA were estimated using the SPSS 15 software package. A total of 5273 babies were recruited for the study with GA ranging from 25-44 weeks. Comparison of the mean birth weights of the various GA with the data from Denver, Colorado, showed that Nigerian babes tended to weigh less at the early GA, although these differences were not statistically significant. Between 26-36 weeks, the average weights of both sexes were similar; however, beyond this time point there was a consistent increase in the average weight of the males over the female babies. Growth curves for Nigerian newborn babies were generated and showed that the mean birth weight of Nigerian preterm babies was lighter than that of babies in Colorado. The impact of these differences on the classification of newborns will require further evaluation.

  10. Flatfoot and obesity in school-age children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Demneh, E; Azadinia, F; Jafarian, F; Shamsi, F; Melvin, J M A; Jafarpishe, M; Rezaeian, Z

    2016-02-01

    Childhood obesity exerts abnormally high stresses on developing foot structures which can lead to structural deformity of the foot. Screening for foot problems in children with overweight helps detect interior risks restricting normal lifestyle in these individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of excess weight on the structure and function of the developing foot in students aged 7-14 years. A total of 667 participants were recruited for this cross-sectional study via a multi-level cluster sampling method (randomization was used within each cluster). All subjects (340 boys and 327 girls) attended primary and secondary schools in Isfahan City, Iran. The children's feet were evaluated using clinical assessments and footprint-based measures whilst fully weight bearing. Significant differences were observed in the frequency of flatfoot between normal weight, overweight and obese groups (P Children with higher weight also had a more pronated heel, less dorsiflexion range and higher reported pain within physical activity. This study indicated that childhood obesity is associated with structural foot and ankle deformities and activity-related foot pain. © 2015 World Obesity.

  11. Predictors of sexual risk behaviour among adolescents from welfare institutions in Malaysia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Nik Daliana Nik; Rus, Sulaiman Che'; Dahlui, Maznah; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul

    2014-01-01

    In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-administered questionnaires, adolescents were asked to assess their self-esteem and to complete questions on pubertal onset, substance use, family structure, family connectedness, parental monitoring, and peer pressure. SRB was measured through scoring of five items: sexual initiation, age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, condom use, and sex with high-risk partners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the various predictors of sexual risk behaviour. The study showed that 55.1% (95%CI = 52.0-58.2) of the total sample was observed to practice sexual risk behaviours. Smoking was the strongest predictor of SRB among male adolescents (OR = 10.3, 95%CI = 1.25-83.9). Among females, high family connectedness (OR = 3.13, 95%CI = 1.64-5.95) seemed to predict the behaviour. There were clear gender differences in predicting SRB. Thus, a gender-specific sexual and reproductive health intervention for institutionalised adolescents is recommended.

  12. Metabolic syndrome among adults of surendranagar District of Saurashtra, Gujarat: A cross-sectional Study

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    Chaitanya Gopalrao Chinawale

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic syndrome (MetS is a complex disorder and a major health concern in developing countries. Data on MetS in Indian population show multiplicity. There are no published reports about the prevalence of MetS in population of Saurashtra region, Gujarat. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in adult population of this region. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was carried out among 473 participants who attended free health checkup camps. Demographics, personal details along with anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical data were recorded. The MetS was diagnosed as per the definition provided by Joint Interim Statement 2009. Results: The overall prevalence of MetS among studied population was found to be 41.01% (females 44.21% and males 37.91%. Abdominal obesity (66.38%, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (64.69%, and high blood pressure (40.59% appeared as the most prevalent components. MetS showed a significant association with age, body mass index, total cholesterol, habit of chewing tobacco, and history of hypertension and hyperglycemia. Conclusion: The high prevalence of MetS shows that population of Saurashtra is at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes. This highlights the need for extensive diabetes and CVD prevention and control program in this region.

  13. Splenic lesions observed in 71 splenectomized dogs: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Olegário da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The spleen of dogs is frequently affected by disorders that vary from local and systemic origin. The difficulty in associating clinical and gross findings contributes for the choice of total splenectomy as the main treatment, leading to an impairment of the immune and hematopoietic functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pathological findings in the spleen of splenectomized dogs during 2008 to 2014 at a Veterinary Teaching Hospital. From the 71 cases analyzed, 97% (69/71 of the dogs were submitted to total splenectomy and 3% (2/71 to partial splenectomy. In 45 (63.4% of these cases, the histopathological diagnosis was non-neoplastic alterations; only 36.6% (26/71 had a splenic neoplasia. The main non-neoplastic lesions observed were nodular hyperplasia 24.4% (11/45, infarction 22.3% (10/45, and hematoma 20% (9/45. The most frequent tumors were hemangiosarcoma 50% (13/26, histiocytic sarcoma 23% (6/26, and lymphoma 11.5% (3/26. The clinical methods used to diagnose splenic lesions were ultrasonography 88% (63/71, radiography 2.8% (2/71 and exploratory laparotomy 4.2% (3/71. In 4.2% (3/71 the spleen changes were observed during the therapeutic ovariohysterectomy. The results of the present study showed a prevalence of benign disorders in the spleen of splenectomized dogs associated with a high incidence of total splenectomy performed, indicating a difficulty in recognizing the different lesions that can affect the spleen by the veterinarian medical.

  14. Relations of thyroid function to body weight: cross-sectional and longitudinal observations in a community-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Caroline S; Pencina, Michael J; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Murabito, Joanne M; Seely, Ellen W; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2008-03-24

    Overt hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism may be associated with weight gain and loss. We assessed whether variations in thyroid function within the reference (physiologic) range are associated with body weight. Framingham Offspring Study participants (n=2407) who attended 2 consecutive routine examinations, were not receiving thyroid hormone therapy, and had baseline serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations of 0.5 to 5.0 mIU/L and follow-up concentrations of 0.5 to 10.0 mIU/L were included in this study. Baseline TSH concentrations were related to body weight and body weight change during 3.5 years of follow-up. At baseline, adjusted mean weight increased progressively from 64.5 to 70.2 kg in the lowest to highest TSH concentration quartiles in women (Pweight increased by 1.5 (5.6) kg in women and 1.0 (5.0) kg in men. Baseline TSH concentrations were not associated with weight change during follow-up. However, an increase in TSH concentration at follow-up was positively associated with weight gain in women (0.5-2.3 kg across increasing quartiles of TSH concentration change; Pweight in both sexes. Our findings raise the possibility that modest increases in serum TSH concentrations within the reference range may be associated with weight gain.

  15. Radiology workstation for mammography: preliminary observations, eyetracker studies, and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, David V.; Johnston, Richard E.; Pisano, Etta D.; Hemminger, Bradley M.; Pizer, Stephen M.

    1991-07-01

    For the last four years, the UNC FilmPlane project has focused on constructing a radiology workstation facilitating CT interpretations equivalent to those with film and viewbox. Interpretation of multiple CT studies was originally chosen because handling such large numbers of images was considered to be one of the most difficult tasks that could be performed with a workstation. The authors extend the FilmPlane design to address mammography. The high resolution and contrast demands coupled with the number of images often cross- compared make mammography a difficult challenge for the workstation designer. This paper presents the results of preliminary work with workstation interpretation of mammography. Background material is presented to justify why the authors believe electronic mammographic workstations could improve health care delivery. The results of several observation sessions and a preliminary eyetracker study of multiple-study mammography interpretations are described. Finally, tentative conclusions of what a mammographic workstation might look like and how it would meet clinical demand to be effective are presented.

  16. Stress and Its Effects on Medical Students: A Cross-sectional Study at a College of Medicine in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulghani, Hamza M.; AlKanhal, Abdulaziz A.; Mahmoud, Ebrahim S.; Ponnamperuma, Gominda G.; Alfaris, Eiad A.

    2011-01-01

    Medical education is perceived as being stressful, and a high level of stress may have a negative effect on cognitive functioning and learning of students in a medical school. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of stress among medical students and to observe an association between the levels of stress and their academic performance, including the sources of their stress. All the medical students from year one to year five levels from the College of Medicine, ...

  17. Frequencies and Associations of Narcolepsy-Related Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Lenise Jihe; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho; Hirotsu, Camila; Araujo, Paula; Bittencourt, Lia; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2015-12-15

    Narcolepsy is a disabling disease with a delayed diagnosis. At least 3 years before the disorder identification, several comorbidities can be observed in patients with narcolepsy. The early recognition of narcolepsy symptoms may improve long-term prognosis of the patients. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of the symptoms associated with narcolepsy and its social and psychological association in a sample of Sao Paulo city inhabitants. We performed a cross-sectional evaluation with 1,008 individuals from the Sao Paulo Epidemiologic Sleep Study (EPISONO). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) was assessed by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Volunteers were also asked about the occurrence of cataplectic-like, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis symptoms. The participants underwent a full-night polysomnography and completed questionnaires about psychological, demographic, and quality of life parameters. We observed a prevalence of 39.2% of EDS, 15.0% of cataplectic-like symptom, 9.2% of hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and 14.9% of sleep paralysis in Sao Paulo city inhabitants. A frequency of 6.9% was observed when EDS and cataplectic-like symptoms were grouped. The other associations were EDS + hallucinations (4.7%) and EDS + sleep paralysis (7.5%). Symptomatic participants were predominantly women and younger compared with patients without any narcolepsy symptom (n = 451). Narcolepsy symptomatology was also associated with a poor quality of life and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and fatigue. Narcolepsy-related symptoms are associated with poor quality of life and worse psychological parameters. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  18. A comparative study of cross sections at few energy groups for thermal reactors fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, L.H.; Prati, A.

    1992-01-01

    A comparative study of nuclear constant calculated with LEOPARD and WIMSD-4 codes using a typical PWR cell was done. Few groups macroscopic cross section, spectral index burnup and power distribution were analyzed. (author)

  19. 78 FR 24751 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... 14, 2013 (Closed) Place: Embassy Suites, 1900 Diagonal Road, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, Telephone... business and for the study section to consider safety and occupational health-related grant applications...

  20. A sera-epidemiological cross-sectional study of hepatitis B virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    epidemiological community-based cross- sectional study. Setting. All nine provinces of Zimbabwe. Palticipants. From April 1989 to December 1991 serum samples were collected tram 1 461 males and 1 933 females in the age group 10 - 61 ...

  1. Exploring full cervical dilatation caesarean sections-A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Edward M A; Ramphul, Meenakshi; Rowan, Ann M; Segurado, Ricardo; Mahony, Rhona M; Keane, Declan P

    2018-05-01

    The rate of caesarean sections at full cervical dilatation with their high risk of morbidity continues to rise mirroring the overall increase in caesarean section rates internationally. The objectives of this study were to determine the rate of full dilatation caesarean section in a tertiary referral unit and evaluate key labour, maternal and fetal factors potentially linked to those deliveries. We also assessed maternal and fetal morbidity at full dilatation sections. Where possible, these were compared with successful operative vaginal deliveries carried out in theatre to determine key differences. Retrospective cohort study. We reviewed the rate of full dilatation caesarean section over a 10-year period. We analysed deliveries (caesarean sections or operative vaginal deliveries) in single cephalic pregnancies ≥34 weeks with contemporaneously collected data from our unit's electronic database for 2015. The rate of full dilatation caesarean section increased by over a third in the ten-year period (56/6947 (0.80%) vs 92/7378 (1.24%), p = 0.01). Of 84 full dilatation caesarean sections who met the inclusion criteria, 63 (75%) were nulliparous and the mean maternal age was 33 (±5) years. Oxytocin was used in the second stage in less than half of second stage caesarean sections (22 out of a recorded 57, 38.6%). There were more fetal head malposition (occipito-posterior, or occipito-transverse) at full dilatation caesarean section compared to successful operative vaginal deliveries (41/46 (89.1%) vs 2/21 (9.5), p < 0.001). The rate of significant postpartum haemorrhage (defined as estimated blood loss ≥1000 ml) was similar in both full dilatation caesarean section and operative vaginal deliveries. There was no difference in the mean birthweight at full dilatation caesarean sections compared to operative vaginal delivery (3.88 kg (2.80-5.33 kg) vs 3.48 kg (1.53-4.40 kg)). There was no difference in neonatal morbidity. Fetal head malposition is

  2. Cross-sectional study of equol producer status and cognitive impairment in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igase, Michiya; Igase, Keiji; Tabara, Yasuharu; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Kohara, Katsuhiko

    2017-11-01

    It is well known that consumption of isoflavones reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the effectiveness of isoflavones in preventing dementia is controversial. A number of intervention studies have produced conflicting results. One possible reason is that the ability to produce equol, a metabolite of a soy isoflavone, differs greatly in individuals. In addition to existing data, we sought to confirm whether an apparent beneficial effect in cognitive function is observed after soy consumption in equol producers compared with non-producers. The present study was a cross-sectional, observational study of 152 (male/female = 61/91, mean age 69.2 ± 9.2 years) individuals. Participants were divided into two groups according to equol production status, which was determined using urine samples collected after a soy challenge test. Cognitive function was assessed using two computer-based questionnaires (touch panel-type dementia assessment scale [TDAS] and mild cognitive impairment [MCI] screen). Overall, 60 (40%) of 152 participants were equol producers. Both TDAS and prevalence of MCI were significantly higher in the equol producer group than in the non-producer group. In univariate analyses, TDAS significantly correlated with age, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In multiple regression analysis using TDAS as a dependent variable, equol producer (β = 0.236, P = 0.005) was selected as an independent variable. In addition, multiple logistic regression analysis to assess the presence of MCI showed that being an equol producer was an independent risk factor for MCI (odds ratio 3.961). Compared with equol non-producers, equol producers showed an apparent beneficial effect in cognitive function after soy intake. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2103-2108. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  3. Comorbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in family practice: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Olmos, Luis; Alberquilla, Angel; Ayala, Victoria; García-Sagredo, Pilar; Morales, Leticia; Carmona, Montserrat; de Tena-Dávila, María José; Pascual, Mario; Muñoz, Adolfo; Salvador, Carlos H; Monteagudo, Jose L

    2013-01-16

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequent and often coexists with other diseases. The aim of this study was to quantify the prevalence of COPD and related chronic comorbidity among patients aged over 40 years visiting family practices in an area of Madrid. An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in a health area of the Madrid Autonomous Region (Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid). The practice population totalled 198,670 persons attended by 129 Family Physicians (FPs), and the study population was made up of persons over the age of 40 years drawn from this practice population. Patients were deemed to have COPD if this diagnosis appeared on their clinical histories. Prevalence of COPD; prevalence of a further 25 chronic diseases in patients with COPD; and standardised prevalence ratios, were calculated. Prevalence of COPD in family medicine was 3.2% (95% CI 3.0-3.3) overall, 5.3% among men and 1.4% among women; 90% of patients presented with comorbidity, with a mean of 4 ± 2.04 chronic diseases per patient, with the most prevalent related diseases being arterial hypertension (52%), disorders of lipid metabolism (34%), obesity (25%), diabetes (20%) and arrhythmia (15%). After controlling for age and sex, the observed prevalence of the following ten chronic diseases was higher than expected: heart failure; chronic liver disease; asthma; generalised artherosclerosis; osteoporosis; ischaemic heart disease; thyroid disease; anxiety/depression; arrhythmia; and obesity. Patients with COPD, who are frequent in family practice, have a complex profile and pose a clinical and organisational challenge to FPs.

  4. Studying the ωN elastic and inelastic cross section with nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubeva, Ye.S.; Kondratyuk, L.A.; Buescher, M.

    2000-01-01

    We explore the possibility to measure the elastic and inelastic ωN cross section in p+d→d+ω+p sp and p+A reactions. Our studies indicate that the elastic scattering cross sections can be determined for ω momenta above 1 GeV/c in p+d reactions by gating on high proton spectator momenta whereas the ωN absorption cross section down to low relative ω momenta is most effectively studied in p+A reactions at beam energies 2.0-2.7 GeV. (orig.)

  5. Hypertension and type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study in Morocco (EPIDIAM Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraho, Mohamed; El Achhab, Youness; Benslimane, Abdelilah; El Rhazi, Karima; Chikri, Mohamed; Nejjari, Chakib

    2012-01-01

    In Morocco, there are no studies that focused on the hypertension and its associated risk factors through patients with type 2 diabetes. Different findings show that the frequency of type 2 diabetes has risen rapidly in Morocco. The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors among a group of patients with type 2 diabetes and to examine the level of control of hypertension among type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 525 type 2 diabetics in three Moroccan regions. The structured questionnaire was used to gather information on sociodemographic variables, history of hypertension, use of anti-hypertensive medications and duration of diabetes. Anthropometric measurements including weight and height were measured by trained staff. Blood pressure was measured using standardized sphygmomanometers. The prevalence of hypertension was 70.4%. The logistic regression indicated that hypertension was positively associated with age (peducation, counseling and behavioral interventions designed to modify lifestyle such as increasing physical activity and adopting recommended dietary changes, as well as compliance with medications.

  6. Using direct clinical observation to assess the quality of cesarean delivery in Afghanistan: an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background As part of a National Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmONC) Needs Assessment, a special study was undertaken in July 2010 to examine the quality of cesarean deliveries in Afghanistan and examine the utility of direct clinical observation as an assessment method in low-resource settings. Methods This cross-sectional assessment of the quality of cesareans at 14 facilities in Afghanistan included a survey of surgeons regarding their routine cesarean practices, direct observation of 29 cesarean deliveries and comparison of observations with facility records for 34 additional cesareans conducted during the 3 days prior to the observation period at each facility. For both observed cases and record reviews, we assessed time intervals between specified points of care-arrival to the ward, first evaluation, detection of a complication, decision for cesarean, incision, and birth. Results All time intervals with the exception of “decision to skin incision” were longer in the record reviews than in observed cases. Prior cesarean was the most common primary indication for all cases. All mothers in both groups observed survived through one hour postpartum. Among newborns there were two stillbirths (7%) in observed births and seven (21%) record reviews. Although our sample is too small to show statistical significance, the difference is noteworthy. In six of the reviewed cesareans resulting in stillbirth, a fetal heart rate was recorded in the operating theater, although four were recorded as macerated. For the two fresh stillbirths, the cesarean surgeries were recorded as scheduled and not urgent. Conclusions Direct observation of cesarean deliveries enabled us to assess a number of preoperative, postoperative, and intraoperative procedures that are often not described in medical records in low resource settings. Comparison of observations with findings from provider interviews and facility records allowed us to infer whether observed practices were typical

  7. Observational studies of X-ray binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klis, M. van der.

    1983-01-01

    The subject of Chapter 1 is theoretical. The other chapters, Ch. 2 to 6, contain original observational data and efforts towards their interpretation. Of these, Ch. 3, 4 and 5 deal with massive X-ray binaries, Ch. 6 with low-mass systems and Ch. 2 with Cygnus X-3, which we have not yet been able to assign to any of these two classes. The X-ray observations described were made with the COS-B satellite. Work based on UV and optical observations is described in Ch. 5. The UV observations were made with the IUE satellite, the optical observations at several ground-based observatories. (Auth.)

  8. Augmented cross-sectional studies with abbreviated follow-up for estimating HIV incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claggett, B; Lagakos, S W; Wang, R

    2012-03-01

    Cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation based on a sensitive and less-sensitive test offers great advantages over the traditional cohort study. However, its use has been limited due to concerns about the false negative rate of the less-sensitive test, reflecting the phenomenon that some subjects may remain negative permanently on the less-sensitive test. Wang and Lagakos (2010, Biometrics 66, 864-874) propose an augmented cross-sectional design that provides one way to estimate the size of the infected population who remain negative permanently and subsequently incorporate this information in the cross-sectional incidence estimator. In an augmented cross-sectional study, subjects who test negative on the less-sensitive test in the cross-sectional survey are followed forward for transition into the nonrecent state, at which time they would test positive on the less-sensitive test. However, considerable uncertainty exists regarding the appropriate length of follow-up and the size of the infected population who remain nonreactive permanently to the less-sensitive test. In this article, we assess the impact of varying follow-up time on the resulting incidence estimators from an augmented cross-sectional study, evaluate the robustness of cross-sectional estimators to assumptions about the existence and the size of the subpopulation who will remain negative permanently, and propose a new estimator based on abbreviated follow-up time (AF). Compared to the original estimator from an augmented cross-sectional study, the AF estimator allows shorter follow-up time and does not require estimation of the mean window period, defined as the average time between detectability of HIV infection with the sensitive and less-sensitive tests. It is shown to perform well in a wide range of settings. We discuss when the AF estimator would be expected to perform well and offer design considerations for an augmented cross-sectional study with abbreviated follow-up. © 2011, The

  9. Bounds on Cross-sections and Lifetimes for Dark Matter Annihilation and Decay into Charged Leptons from Gamma-ray Observations of Dwarf Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essig, Rouven; /SLAC; Sehgal, Neelima; Strigari, Louis E.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2009-06-19

    We provide conservative bounds on the dark matter cross-section and lifetime from final state radiation produced by annihilation or decay into charged leptons, either directly or via an intermediate particle {phi}. Our analysis utilizes the experimental gamma-ray flux upper limits from four Milky Way dwarf satellites: HESS observations of Sagittarius and VERITAS observations of Draco, Ursa Minor, and Willman 1. Using 90% confidence level lower limits on the integrals over the dark matter distributions, we find that these constraints are largely unable to rule out dark matter annihilations or decays as an explanation of the PAMELA and ATIC/PPB-BETS excesses. However, if there is an additional Sommerfeld enhancement in dwarfs, which have a velocity dispersion {approx} 10 to 20 times lower than that of the local Galactic halo, then the cross-sections for dark matter annihilating through {phi}'s required to explain the excesses are very close to the cross-section upper bounds from Willman 1. Dark matter annihilation directly into {tau}'s is also marginally ruled out by Willman 1 as an explanation of the excesses, and the required cross-section is only a factor of a few below the upper bound from Draco. Finally, we make predictions for the gamma-ray flux expected from the dwarf galaxy Segue 1 for the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We find that for a sizeable fraction of the parameter space in which dark matter annihilation into charged leptons explains the PAMELA excess, Fermi has good prospects for detecting a gamma-ray signal from Segue 1 after one year of observation.

  10. Study on relations between heavy ions single event upset cross sections and γ accumulated doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chaohui; Geng Bin; Wang Yanping; Peng Honglun; Yang Hailiang; Chen Xiaohua; Li Guozheng

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were done under 252 Cf and 60 Co γ source to study the relation between heavy ion Single Event Upset (SEU) cross sections and γ accumulated doses. There was no obvious rule and little influence of γ accumulated doses on SEU cross sections when Static Random Access Memories were in power off mode and static power on mode. In active measuring mode, the SEU cross section increased as the accumulated doses increasing when same data were written in memory cells. If reverse data, such as '55' and 'AA', were written in memory cells during the experiment, the SEU cross sections decreased to the level when memories were not irradiated under 60 Co γ source, even more small. It implied that the influence of γ accumulated doses on SEU cross sections can be set off by this method

  11. Association between rates of caesarean section and maternal and neonatal mortality in the 21st century: a worldwide population-based ecological study with longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, J; Zhang, J; Mikolajczyk, R; Torloni, M R; Gülmezoglu, A M; Betran, A P

    2016-04-01

    Caesarean section was initially performed to save the lives of the mother and/or her baby. Caesarean section rates have risen substantially worldwide over the past decades. In this study, we set out to compile all available caesarean section rates worldwide at the country level, and to identify the appropriate caesarean section rate at the population level associated with the minimal maternal and neonatal mortality. Ecological study using longitudinal data. Worldwide country-level data. A total of 159 countries were included in the analyses, representing 98.0% of global live births (2005). Nationally representative caesarean section rates from 2000 to 2012 were compiled. We assessed the relationship between caesarean section rates and mortality outcomes, adjusting for socio-economic development by means of human development index (HDI) using fractional polynomial regression models. Maternal mortality ratio and neonatal mortality rate. Most countries have experienced increases in caesarean section rate during the study period. In the unadjusted analysis, there was a negative association between caesarean section rates and mortality outcomes for low caesarean section rates, especially among the least developed countries. After adjusting for HDI, this effect was much smaller and was only observed below a caesarean section rate of 5-10%. No important association between the caesarean section rate and maternal and neonatal mortality was observed when the caesarean section rate exceeded 10%. Although caesarean section is an effective intervention to save maternal and infant lives, based on the available ecological evidence, caesarean section rates higher than around 10% at the population level are not associated with decreases in maternal and neonatal mortality rates, and thus may not be necessary to achieve the lowest maternal and neonatal mortality. The caesarean section rate of around 10% may be the optimal rate to achieve the lowest mortality. © 2015 The Authors

  12. Satellite Observation Systems for Polar Climate Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2012-01-01

    The key observational tools for detecting large scale changes of various parameters in the polar regions have been satellite sensors. The sensors include passive and active satellite systems in the visible, infrared and microwave frequencies. The monitoring started with Tiros and Nimbus research satellites series in the 1970s but during the period, not much data was stored digitally because of limitations and cost of the needed storage systems. Continuous global data came about starting with the launch of ocean color, passive microwave, and thermal infrared sensors on board Nimbus-7 and Synthetic Aperture Radar, Radar Altimeter and Scatterometer on board SeaSat satellite both launched in 1978. The Nimbus-7 lasted longer than expected and provided about 9 years of useful data while SeaSat quit working after 3 months but provided very useful data that became the baseline for follow-up systems with similar capabilities. Over the years, many new sensors were launched, some from Japan Aeronautics and Space Agency (JAXA), some from the European Space Agency (ESA) and more recently, from RuSSia, China, Korea, Canada and India. For polar studies, among the most useful sensors has been the passive microwave sensor which provides day/night and almost all weather observation of the surface. The sensor provide sea surface temperature, precipitation, wind, water vapor and sea ice concentration data that have been very useful in monitoring the climate of the region. More than 30 years of such data are now available, starting with the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus-7, the Special Scanning Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) on board a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on board the EOS/ Aqua satellite. The techniques that have been developed to derive geophysical parameters from data provided by these and other sensors and associated instrumental and algorithm errors and validation techniques

  13. Oral implications of the vegan diet: observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffranchi, L; Zotti, F; Bonetti, S; Dalessandri, D; Fontana, P

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate oral changes in subjects who have assumed a vegan diet for a long time (at least 18 months), that is to say, a diet completely lacking in meat and animal derivatives. A sample of 15 subjects was analyzed, all from northern Italy and aged 24 to 60 year, composed of 11 men and 4 women who had been following a vegan diet for a minimum of 18 months to a maximum of 20 years. In parallel with the study sample, a control group (15 subjects) with the same criteria of age, sex, and place of origin all following an omnivorous diet was chosen. The sample answered a questionnaire that investigated their eating habits, the frequency with which they eat meals, the main foodstuffs assumed, oral hygiene habits, and any painful symptomatology of the teeth or more general problems in the oral cavity. The sample was then subject to objective examination in which the saliva pH was measured and the teeth were checked for demineralization of the enamel, white spots, and caries (using KaVo DIAGNOdent) with particular attention being paid to the localization of these lesions, and lastly, sounding was carried out to detect any osseous defects and periodontal pockets. The study revealed greater incidence of demineralization and white spots in the vegan subjects compared to the omnivorous ones localized at the neck of the teeth and on the vestibular surfaces of dental elements (with the exception of the lower anterior group). The saliva pH, more acid in the omnivorous patients, ranged between four and six. Changes in oral conditions in both groups of subjects were observed. In order to research into the cause-effect relationship of the vegan diet on the oral cavity effectively, the sample needs to be studied for a longer period of time and the results re-evaluated.

  14. Estimation of Skin to Subarachnoid Space Depth: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Rajib; Choudhury, Dipika; Nath, Sangeeta; Parua, Samit

    2016-10-01

    In a patient, the skin to Subarachnoid Space Depth (SSD) varies considerably at different levels of the spinal cord. It also varies from patient to patient at the same vertebral level as per age, sex and Body Mass Index (BMI). Estimation of the skin to SSD reduces complications related to spinal anaesthesia. To measure the skin to SSD in the Indian population and to find a formula for predicting this depth. Three hundred adult patients belonging to American Society of Anaesthesiologist class I and II, undergoing surgery using spinal anaesthesia in various surgical specialities of Gauhati Medical College were selected by systemic sampling for this prospective, observational study. Patients were divided into three groups: Group M containing male patients, Group F containing non-pregnant female patients, and Group PF containing pregnant female's patients. SSD was measured after performing lumbar puncture. The relationship between SSD and patient characteristics were studied, correlated and statistical analysis was used to find a formula for predicting the skin to SSD. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 21.0, Chicago, IL, USA). One-way ANOVA with post-hoc(Bonferroni correction factor) analysis was applied to compare the three groups. Multivariate analysis was done for the covariates followed by a multivariate regression analysis to evaluate the covariates influencing SSD for each group separately. Mean SSD was 4.37±0.31cm in the overall population. SSD in adult males was 4.49±0.19cm which was significantly longer than that observed in female's 4.18±0.39cm which was comparable with SSD in parturient 4.43±0.19 cm. The formula for predicting the skin to SSD in the male population was 1.718+0.077×BMI+0.632×Height, in nonpregnant female population was 1.828+0.077×BMI+0.018×Height+0.007×Age and 0.748+0.209×BMI+4.703×Height-0.054×weight in parturient females, respectively. Skin to SSD correlated with the BMI in all

  15. Observational Study on Safety of Prehospital BLS CPAP in Dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Novneet; Matthews, Patrick; Groner, Kathryn; Papas, Mia A; Megargel, Ross

    2017-12-01

    Introduction Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves outcomes in patients with respiratory distress. Additional benefits are seen with CPAP application in the prehospital setting. Theoretical safety concerns regarding Basic Life Support (BLS) providers using CPAP exist. In Delaware's (USA) two-tiered Emergency Medical Service (EMS) system, BLS often arrives before Advanced Life Support (ALS). Hypothesis This study fills a gap in literature by evaluating the safety of CPAP applied by BLS prior to ALS arrival. This was a retrospective, observational study using Quality Assurance (QA) data collected from October 2009 through December 2012 throughout a state BLS CPAP pilot program; CPAP training was provided to BLS providers prior to participation. Collected data include pulse-oximetry (spO2), respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), skin color, and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) before and after CPAP application. Pre-CPAP and post-CPAP values were compared using McNemar's and t-tests. Advanced practitioners evaluated whether CPAP was correctly applied and monitored and whether the patient condition was "improved," "unchanged," or "worsened." Seventy-four patients received CPAP by BLS; CPAP was correctly indicated and applied for all 74 patients. Respiratory status and CPAP were appropriately monitored and documented in the majority of cases (98.6%). A total of 89.2% of patients improved and 4.1% worsened; CPAP significantly reduced the proportion of patients with SpO224, and cyanosis (PCPAP (mean difference [MD]=0.17; 95% CI, -0.49 to 0.83; P=.59). The HR decreased from 115.7 (SD=53) to 105.1 (SD=37) after CPAP (MD=-10.9; 95% CI, -3.2 to -18.6; PCPAP (MD=17.8; 95% CI, 14.2-21.5; PCPAP was indicated, to apply it correctly, and to appropriately monitor the status of these patients. The majority of patients who received CPAP by BLS providers had improvement in their clinical status and vital signs. The findings suggest that CPAP can be safely used by BLS providers

  16. Southeast Atmosphere Studies: learning from model-observation syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of atmospheric trace species in the United States have changed dramatically over the past several decades in response to pollution control strategies, shifts in domestic energy policy and economics, and economic development (and resulting emission changes elsewhere in the world. Reliable projections of the future atmosphere require models to not only accurately describe current atmospheric concentrations, but to do so by representing chemical, physical and biological processes with conceptual and quantitative fidelity. Only through incorporation of the processes controlling emissions and chemical mechanisms that represent the key transformations among reactive molecules can models reliably project the impacts of future policy, energy and climate scenarios. Efforts to properly identify and implement the fundamental and controlling mechanisms in atmospheric models benefit from intensive observation periods, during which collocated measurements of diverse, speciated chemicals in both the gas and condensed phases are obtained. The Southeast Atmosphere Studies (SAS, including SENEX, SOAS, NOMADSS and SEAC4RS conducted during the summer of 2013 provided an unprecedented opportunity for the atmospheric modeling community to come together to evaluate, diagnose and improve the representation of fundamental climate and air quality processes in models of varying temporal and spatial scales.This paper is aimed at discussing progress in evaluating, diagnosing and improving air quality and climate modeling using comparisons to SAS observations as a guide to thinking about improvements to mechanisms and parameterizations in models. The effort focused primarily on model representation of fundamental atmospheric processes that are essential to the formation of ozone, secondary organic aerosol (SOA and other trace species in the troposphere, with the ultimate goal of understanding the radiative impacts of these species in the southeast and

  17. [Pregnancy-Associated Breast Cancer: An analytical observational study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulies, Sonia; Cusidó, Maite; Tresserra, Francisco; Rodríguez, Ignacio; Ubeda, Belén; Ara, Carmen; Fábregas, Rafael

    2014-03-04

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and up to one year postpartum. A retrospective, analytical, observational study comparing 56 cases of breast cancer and pregnancy (PABC) diagnosed 1976-2008 with 73 patients with breast cancer not associated with pregnancy (non-PABC) was performed. Demographic data, prognostic factors, treatment and survival were reviewed and compared. The prevalence of PABC in our center is 8.3/10,000. The highest frequency (62%) appeared during the postpartum period. The stages are higher in PABC, being 31.3% advanced (EIII and EIV) in PABC versus 13.3% in non-PABC (P < .05). Regarding prognostic factors, 27.3% in PABC had a tumoral grade 3 versus 15.8% of non-PABC. Among women with PABC, 33.3% had negative estrogen receptors, 48.7% negative progesterone receptors and 34.5% positive Her2Neu compared with 22.2, 24.1 and 31%, respectively of non-PABC patients. Finally, positive lymph nodes were found in 52.8% of PABC, versus 33.8% non-PABC (P < .05). Overall and disease-free survival rate at 5 years for PABC was 63.7 and 74.2%, respectively. The poorer survival observed is possibly due to the presence of adverse prognostic features such as lymph node metastases, negative hormone receptors, tumoral grade iii, as well as a delay in diagnosis with a higher rate of advanced stages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Southeast Atmosphere Studies: learning from model-observation syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jingqiu; Carlton, Annmarie; Cohen, Ronald C.; Brune, William H.; Brown, Steven S.; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Pye, Havala O. T.; Ng, Nga Lee; Xu, Lu; McNeill, V. Faye; Tsigaridis, Kostas; McDonald, Brian C.; Warneke, Carsten; Guenther, Alex; Alvarado, Matthew J.; de Gouw, Joost; Mickley, Loretta J.; Leibensperger, Eric M.; Mathur, Rohit; Nolte, Christopher G.; Portmann, Robert W.; Unger, Nadine; Tosca, Mika; Horowitz, Larry W.

    2018-02-01

    Concentrations of atmospheric trace species in the United States have changed dramatically over the past several decades in response to pollution control strategies, shifts in domestic energy policy and economics, and economic development (and resulting emission changes) elsewhere in the world. Reliable projections of the future atmosphere require models to not only accurately describe current atmospheric concentrations, but to do so by representing chemical, physical and biological processes with conceptual and quantitative fidelity. Only through incorporation of the processes controlling emissions and chemical mechanisms that represent the key transformations among reactive molecules can models reliably project the impacts of future policy, energy and climate scenarios. Efforts to properly identify and implement the fundamental and controlling mechanisms in atmospheric models benefit from intensive observation periods, during which collocated measurements of diverse, speciated chemicals in both the gas and condensed phases are obtained. The Southeast Atmosphere Studies (SAS, including SENEX, SOAS, NOMADSS and SEAC4RS) conducted during the summer of 2013 provided an unprecedented opportunity for the atmospheric modeling community to come together to evaluate, diagnose and improve the representation of fundamental climate and air quality processes in models of varying temporal and spatial scales.This paper is aimed at discussing progress in evaluating, diagnosing and improving air quality and climate modeling using comparisons to SAS observations as a guide to thinking about improvements to mechanisms and parameterizations in models. The effort focused primarily on model representation of fundamental atmospheric processes that are essential to the formation of ozone, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and other trace species in the troposphere, with the ultimate goal of understanding the radiative impacts of these species in the southeast and elsewhere. Here we

  19. Study of Rayleigh-Love coupling from Spatial Gradient Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. J.; Hosseini, K.; Donner, S.; Vernon, F.; Wassermann, J. M.; Igel, H.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new method to study Rayleigh-Love coupling. Instead of using seismograms solely, where ground motion is recorded as function of time, we incorporate with rotation and strain, also called spatial gradient where ground is represented as function of distance. Seismic rotation and strain are intrinsic different observable wavefield so are helpful to indentify wave type and wave propagation. A Mw 7.5 earthquake on 29 March 2015 occurred in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea recorded by a dense seismic array at PFO, California are used to obtaint seismic spatial gradient. We firstly estimate time series of azimuthal direction and phase velocity of SH wave and Rayleigh wave by analyzing collocated seismograms and rotations. This result also compares with frequency wavenumber methods using a nearby ANZA seismic array. We find the direction of Rayleigh wave fits well with great-circle back azimuth during wave propagation, while the direction of Love wave deviates from that, especially when main energy of Rayleigh wave arrives. From the analysis of cross-correlation between areal strain and vertical rotation, it reveals that high coherence, either positive or negative, happens at the same time when Love wave deparate from great-circle path. We also find the observed azimuth of Love wave and polarized particle motion of Rayleigh wave fits well with the fast direction of Rayleigh wave, for the period of 50 secs. We conclude the cause of deviated azimuth of Love wave is due to Rayleigh-Love coupling, as surface wave propagates through the area with anisotropic structure.

  20. Safe medication management in specialized home healthcare - an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Marléne; Flink, Maria; Ekstedt, Mirjam

    2017-08-24

    Medication management is a complex, error-prone process. The aim of this study was to explore what constitutes the complexity of the medication management process (MMP) in specialized home healthcare and how healthcare professionals handle this complexity. The study is theoretically based in resilience engineering. Data were collected during the MMP at three specialized home healthcare units in Sweden using two strategies: observation of workplaces and shadowing RNs in everyday work, including interviews. Transcribed material was analysed using grounded theory. The MMP in home healthcare was dynamic and complex with unclear boundaries of responsibilities, inadequate information systems and fluctuating work conditions. Healthcare professionals adapted their everyday clinical work by sharing responsibility and simultaneously being authoritative and preserving patients' active participation, autonomy and integrity. To promote a safe MMP, healthcare professionals constantly re-prioritized goals, handled gaps in communication and information transmission at a distance by creating new bridging solutions. Trade-offs and workarounds were necessary elements, but also posed a threat to patient safety, as these interim solutions were not systematically evaluated or devised learning strategies. To manage a safe medication process in home healthcare, healthcare professionals need to adapt to fluctuating conditions and create bridging strategies through multiple parallel activities distributed over time, space and actors. The healthcare professionals' strategies could be integrated in continuous learning, while preserving boundaries of safety, instead of being more or less interim solutions. Patients' and family caregivers' as active partners in the MMP may be an underestimated resource for a resilient home healthcare.

  1. Human Resource Information System implementation readiness in the Ethiopian health sector: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilu, Eyilachew; Gebreslassie, Measho; Kebede, Mihiretu

    2017-12-20

    Health workforce information systems in low-income countries tend to be defective with poor relationship to information sources. Human Resource Information System (HRIS) is currently in a pilot implementation phase in the Federal Ministry of Health and Regional Health Bureaus of Ethiopia. Before scaling up the implementation, it is important to understand the implementation readiness of hospitals and health departments. The aims of this study were to assess the readiness for HRIS implementation, identify associated factors, and explore the implementation challenges in public hospitals and health departments of the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study supplemented with a qualitative study was conducted from the 15th of February to the 30th of March 2016 in 19 public hospitals and health departments of the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The questionnaire includes items on socio-demographic characteristics and questions measuring technical, personal, and organizational factors adapted from the 32-item questionnaire of the Management Science for Health (MSH) HRIS readiness assessment tool. The data were entered and analyzed with statistical software. Descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were computed to identify the factors statistically associated with readiness of HRIS implementation. In-depth interviews and observation checklists were used to collect qualitative data. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. A total of 246 human resource (HR) employees and 16 key informants have been included in the study. The HR employee's level of readiness for HRIS implementation in this study was 35.8%. Employee's Internet access (AOR = 2.59, 95%CI = 1.19, 5.62), availability of separate HR section (AOR = 8.08, 95%CI

  2. Observation of Q-switching and mode-locking in two-section InAs/InP (100) quantum dot lasers around 1.55 mum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Martijn J R; Bente, Erwin A J M; Smalbrugge, Barry; Oei, Yok-Siang; Smit, Meint K; Anantathanasarn, Sanguan; Nötzel, Richard

    2007-12-10

    First observation of passive mode-locking in two-section quantum-dot lasers operating at wavelengths around 1.55 mum is reported. Pulse generation at 4.6 GHz from a 9 mm long device is verified by background-free autocorrelation, RF-spectra and real-time oscilloscope traces. The output pulses are stretched in time and heavily up-chirped with a value of 20 ps/nm, contrary to what is normally observed in passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers. The complete output spectrum is shown to be coherent over 10 nm. From a 7 mm long device Q-switching is observed over a large operating regime. The lasers have been realized using a fabrication technology that is compatible with further photonic integration. This makes the laser a promising candidate for e.g. a mode-comb generator in a complex photonic chip.

  3. Vaccination Coverage for Infants: Cross-Sectional Studies in Two Regions of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods and Objectives. To estimate infant vaccination coverage in the French-speaking region of Belgium (Wallonia and in the Brussels-Capital Region, two cross-sectional studies were performed in 2012. A face-to-face questionnaire was administered by trained investigators. The objective was to evaluate infant vaccination coverage retrospectively in 18- to 24-month-old children. These studies offered the opportunity to assess some factors influencing vaccine uptake in infants. Results and Discussion. Approximately 99% of the children had received the first dose of IPV-DTaP, 90% the fourth dose, 94% the MMR vaccine, 97% the first dose of pneumococcal vaccine, and 90% the third dose. In both regions, when fitting a logistic model, the most associated factor was attendance at maternal and child clinics (MCH. No association was observed between vaccination coverage and the mother’s level of education. For the last immunization session, where the mother was a Belgian native and when she worked more hours, child was better immunized, but only in Brussels. Conclusion. Coverage for the fourth dose of hexavalent vaccine (DTaP-IPV-HBV/Hib needs to be increased. Indeed, additional effort is needed to increase HIB and pertussis coverage rates because the herd immunity threshold for these two diseases has not been reached.

  4. Risk of infectious mononucleosis among agonistic swimmers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallone, M S; Astuto, L; Mastrorilli, G; Tamma, R; Ascatigno, L; Sinesi, D; Notarnicola, A; Tafuri, S

    2016-01-01

    The risk of infectious mononucleosis among athletes is quite debated. Some personal observations seem to suggest an increase risk of mononucleosis among athletes, because they attend always close settings with an high probability of respiratory pathogens transmission; overtraining has been also proposed as risk factor. Cross-sectional study in a group of swimmers (aged 11-14 years) of the University Sport Centre of Bari. 40 swimmers were interviewed by healthcare personnel at the end of training courses; demographic characteristics, personal habits, information about sport training and diagnosis of mononucleosis were analysed. The life-time incidence of mononucleosis was around 40%; multivariate analysis showed the association between mononucleosis and use of bottles of other persons (aOR=8.2; 95% CI=1.4-49.2; z=2.32; p=0.021) and average duration of training session was longer among subjects who reported mononucleosis than in subjects who did not indicate this disease. Future multi-centric studies are needed to better define the epidemiology of the mononucleosis in sport settings and to formulate appropriate recommendations to prevent the spreading of this disease.

  5. SATISFACTION LEVEL OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS WORKING IN TEACHING INSTITUTIONS : A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeshna Chatterjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a resource-limited and high-burden disease setting, satisfied health professional is an asset in terms of maximized productivity, efficiency and quality health care. Job Satisfaction Index is a validated measure to identify the components that influence those issues. A multi-faceted structured questionnaire study was conducted upon a cross-section of medical educators (n=160 serving two tertiary care teaching institutions under different management set-up. Multiple demographic features were independent variables whereas three (3 critical areas of satisfaction index (SI were outcome variables. All participants were interviewed using 15 item Likert response-based, modified job satisfaction scale. It was observed that total SI scores among doctors representing the private group remained marginally higher (P<0.05 while compared to the other group. The comparative analysis of SI scores in critical areas like availability of academic supports and job security remained higher among the private doctors than that of the government ones though not significant. However the private doctors remained marginally satisfied in terms of working environment. The study outcome necessitates appropriate intervention measures at the organizational levels.

  6. Sleep quality and OPRM1 polymorphisms: a cross-sectional study among opioid-naive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalina Zahari

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Opioidergic system involves in regulation of sleep and wakefulness. It is possible, therefore, that genetic polymorphisms in OPRM1 influence sleep quality. This study investigated the association of OPRM1 polymorphisms with subjective sleep quality among opioid-naive individuals. This cross-sectional observational study involved 161 opioid-naive males (mean age = 27.74 years; range: 18−63 years. Subjective sleep quality was assessed with the translated and validated Malay version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. DNA was extracted from whole blood and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR-genotyping for two OPRM1 polymorphisms (118A>G and IVS2+691G>C. Subjects with combined 118A and IVS2+691G alleles (AC haplotype had significantly lower PSQI scores [mean (SD = 4.29 (1.76] compared to those without the haplotype [4.99 (2.50] (p = 0.004. On the other hand, subjects with combined heterozygous genotype (GC/AG diplotype had significantly higher PSQI scores compared to those without the diplotype [6.04 (2.48 vs 4.54 (2.22, p = 0.004]. In opioid-naive individuals, AC haplotype and GC/AG diplotype for the 118A>G and IVS2+691G>C polymorphisms of OPRM1 are associated with better and poorer sleep quality, respectively.

  7. Obesity and Prognostic Variables in Colombian Breast Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello-López, Javier; Fidalgo-Zapata, Ana; Vásquez-Trespalacios, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for cancer and cancer-related deaths, including that of the breast. While the prevalence of female obesity has accelerated over the past decade in many developing countries, such as Colombia, the prevalence of overweight and obesity specifically in breast cancer populations has not been fully described. A cross-sectional study including 849 women diagnosed with breast cancer between 2009 and 2014. Based on body mass index, prevalence of overweight (BMI ≥ 25 Colombian breast cancer patients had a prevalence of overweight of 34.28% and obesity of 28.15%. Mean BMI was comparable between premenopausal and postmenopausal women (27.2 versus 27.7, resp.). Among premenopausal women, higher BMI was significantly positively associated with hormone receptor negative tumors, as well as with greater lymphovascular invasion. Colombian breast cancer patients exhibit a significant prevalence of overweight and obesity. Associations of high BMI and poor prognosis variables in the premenopausal population suggest risk of aggressive disease in this population. Future studies to further validate our observations are warranted in order to implement multidisciplinary clinical guidelines.

  8. Insomnia and Relationship with Anxiety in University Students: A Cross-Sectional Designed Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choueiry, Nour; Salamoun, Tracy; Jabbour, Hicham; El Osta, Nada; Hajj, Aline; Rabbaa Khabbaz, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disorders (SDs) are now recognized as a public health concern with considerable psychiatric and societal consequences specifically on the academic life of students. The aims of this study were to assess SDs in a group of university students in Lebanon and to examine the relationship between SDs and anxiety. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at Saint-Joseph University, Lebanon, during the academic year 2013-2014. Four questionnaires were face-to-face administered to 462 students after obtaining their written consent: Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7). The prevalence of clinically significant insomnia was 10.6% (95% CI: 7.8-13.4%), more frequent in first year students. ISI mean score was 10.06 (SD = 3.76). 37.1% of the participants were poor sleepers. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and poor sleep were significantly more frequent among participants with clinical insomnia (p = 0.031 and 0.001 respectively). Clinically significant anxiety was more frequent in students suffering from clinical insomnia (p = 0.006) and in poor sleepers (p = 0.003). 50.8% of the participants with clinically significant anxiety presented EDS versus 30.9% of those with no clinically significant anxiety (panxiety reminds us of the importance of treating anxiety as soon as detected and not simply targeting the reduction of sleep problems.

  9. Impact of Patellar Tendinopathy on Knee Proprioception: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rui; Ferreira, João; Silva, Diogo; Rodrigues, Elisa; Bessa, Isabel M; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether high-level athletes with patellar tendinopathy have diminished knee proprioceptive acuity. Cross-sectional study. University research laboratory (institutional). Twenty-one basketball and volleyball players with patellar tendinopathy (13 men and 8 women; mean age 24.5 ± 3.6; body mass index = 22.5 ± 2.0 kg/m) and an equal number of athletes without symptoms of patellar tendinopathy injury were included in this study. Participants underwent knee proprioception assessments on a single day. Furthermore, age, sex, height, weight, VISA-P (Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment) questionnaire sports participation, medical history, knee injuries, previous treatment, and medication were obtained. Knee proprioception was evaluated by assessing sense of resistance, using a weight discrimination protocol, and joint position sense (JPS). No significant differences were observed in JPS at 30 and 60 degrees of knee flexion between groups (P = 0.165 and 0.481, respectively). In regard to the ability to discriminate weight, significant differences between the 2 groups were found with the tendinopathy group showing a higher percentage of error (P = 0.009), namely when the set of incremental weights varied by 10% from the standard weight. Athletes with patellar tendinopathy have a diminished perception of force signals required for weight discrimination, whereas JPS remains unaffected in these athletes.

  10. Keratosis pilaris and prevalence of acne vulgaris: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Lima, Brunno Zeni de; Souza, Monique Carolina Meira do Rosário de; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris has an important genetic predisposition, as well as keratosis pilaris. Clinical observations suggest that patients with keratosis pilaris have less frequent or less severe acne breakouts; however, we found no studies on this regard To determine if the presence of keratosis pilaris is associated with lower prevalence and severity of acne. A cross-sectional study was conducted with dermatology outpatients aged between 14 and 35 years. We evaluated history and clinical grade of acne, demographic variables, history of atopy, smoking, and use of hormonal contraceptives. Two groups were defined by the presence or absence of moderate to severe keratosis pilaris on the arms and were compared by bivariate analysis and by conditional multiple logistic regression. We included 158 patients (66% women), with a median age of 23 ± 11 years. Twenty-six percent of them had keratosis pilaris, which was associated with a history of atopy (odds ratio [OR]=2.80 [1.36 to 5.75]; pkeratosis pilaris had a less frequent history of acne (OR=0.32 [0.14 to 0.70]; pkeratosis pilaris on the arms was associated with lower prevalence of acne vulgaris and lower severity of facial lesions in adolescents and young adults.

  11. Keratosis pilaris and prevalence of acne vulgaris: a cross-sectional study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; de Lima, Brunno Zeni; de Souza, Monique Carolina Meira do Rosário; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acne vulgaris has an important genetic predisposition, as well as keratosis pilaris. Clinical observations suggest that patients with keratosis pilaris have less frequent or less severe acne breakouts; however, we found no studies on this regard OBJECTIVE To determine if the presence of keratosis pilaris is associated with lower prevalence and severity of acne. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted with dermatology outpatients aged between 14 and 35 years. We evaluated history and clinical grade of acne, demographic variables, history of atopy, smoking, and use of hormonal contraceptives. Two groups were defined by the presence or absence of moderate to severe keratosis pilaris on the arms and were compared by bivariate analysis and by conditional multiple logistic regression. RESULTS We included 158 patients (66% women), with a median age of 23±11 years. Twenty-six percent of them had keratosis pilaris, which was associated with a history of atopy (odds ratio [OR]=2.80 [1.36 to 5.75]; pkeratosis pilaris had a less frequent history of acne (OR=0.32 [0.14 to 0.70]; pkeratosis pilaris on the arms was associated with lower prevalence of acne vulgaris and lower severity of facial lesions in adolescents and young adults. PMID:24626653

  12. Early childhood caries and associated determinants: a cross-sectional study on Italian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congiu, Giovanna; Campus, Guglielmo; Sale, Silvana; Spano, Giovanni; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Lugliè, Pietrina Francesca

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of several determinants on the presence of early childhood caries (ECC) in preschool children living in northern Sardinia, Italy. These determinants include the educational level and occupational status of the parents as a proxy for the socioeconomical level (SES) and behavioral factors (dietary and oral hygiene). An observational cross-sectional study was designed with a dental examination and a standardized questionnaire. Five hundred forty-four subjects (260 girls and 284 boys) were enrolled and categorized into two age groups: 359 children were aged 18-47 months and 185 children were aged 48-60 months. The total caries prevalence was 15.99%. Caries risk increased with lower parents' educational level (P = 0.01), increased number of siblings (P family was associated with caries (OR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.20-2.40). ECC prevalence evaluated was similar to other western countries, and SES and behavioral habits influence the development of ECC. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  13. Factors affecting overweight and obesity among urban adults: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydip Sen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: the prevalence of overweight and obesity are increasing at an alarming rate in the developing countries. The present cross-sectional study assesses the prevalence of overweight and obesity along with their associated variables among urban adult individuals belonging to the Bengalee Hindu Caste Population (BHCP.Methods: the study has been carried out among 600 adult individuals belonging to the BHCP in the age group of 20-60 years and residing in the district of Jalpaiguri, West Bengal, India. Height and weight, along with a number of socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle variables were recorded. International cut off points of the body mass index were used to assess overweight (BMI ≥ 23.00 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI ≥ 25.00 kg/m2. The statistical tests (ANOVA, chi-square and multinomial logistic regression were done using SPSS (version 15.00.Results: the prevalence of overweight and obesity were observed to be high among both the male (23.67% and 9.67% and the female (20.33% and 29.33% individuals. The sex difference was observed to be significant in case of obesity (p<0.01 and combined overweight-obesity (p<0.01. The multinomial logistic regression indicated that age and monthly income had significant effects on overweight (p<0.05. Sex, age, monthly income, marital status, education and alcohol intake were observed to have significant effects on obesity (p<0.05. Sex, age, monthly income and monthly income and marital status also showed significant effects with combined overweight-obesity (BMI ≥ 23.00 kg/m2 (p<0.05.Conclusions: the prevalence of overweight and obesity exhibited an increasing trend among urban adults of the BHCP. Sex, age, marital status and monthly income were observed to have more influence on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among them. There appears to be an urgent need for the development of health strategies and intervention programmes for combating the consequences of overweight and obesity.

  14. The g-u interference oscillations observed in the emission cross sections and the optical polarizations in He+-He collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, M.; Hishikawa, A.; Okasaka, R.

    1991-01-01

    We have observed emission radiation from helium atoms excited in He + -He collisions by the direct and electron capture processes over the energy range 0.5-20 keV. The relative emission cross sections for transitions 2 1,3 P-3 1,3 S, 2 1,3 S-3 1,3 P and 2 1,3 P-2 1,3 D have been determined. Degrees of optical polarization have also been determined for the P- and D-state excitations. The emission cross section of the direct excitation and that of the electron capture excitation show oscillations against impact energy, which are in antiphase with each other. The polarization degrees for both processes are nearly the same magnitude and show weak oscillations in antiphase with each other. The oscillations of the cross section and those of the polarization degree are in phase in some cases and in antiphase in other cases. These oscillations are interpreted as due to the interference between the gerade and ungerade states of the helium quasimolecular ion. From the amplitude ratio and the phase correlation between the oscillations of the cross section and those of the polarization degree we find that the predominant g-u interference pair is Π g -Π u . (author)

  15. First measurement of the polarization observable E and helicity-dependent cross sections in single π0 photoproduction from quasi-free nucleons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dieterle

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The double-polarization observable E and the helicity-dependent cross sections σ1/2 and σ3/2 have been measured for the first time for single π0 photoproduction from protons and neutrons bound in the deuteron at the electron accelerator facility MAMI in Mainz, Germany. The experiment used a circularly polarized photon beam and a longitudinally polarized deuterated butanol target. The reaction products, recoil nucleons and decay photons from the π0 meson were detected with the Crystal Ball and TAPS electromagnetic calorimeters. Effects from nuclear Fermi motion were removed by a kinematic reconstruction of the π0N final state. A comparison to data measured with a free proton target showed that the absolute scale of the cross sections is significantly modified by nuclear final-state interaction (FSI effects. However, there is no significant effect on the asymmetry E since the σ1/2 and σ3/2 components appear to be influenced in a similar way. Thus, the best approximation of the two helicity-dependent cross sections for the free neutron is obtained by combining the asymmetry E measured with quasi-free neutrons and the unpolarized cross section corrected for FSI effects under the assumption that the FSI effects are similar for neutrons and protons.

  16. Insulin resistance and associated factors: a cross-sectional study of bank employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaroli, Luciane Bresciani; Cattafesta, Monica; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Zandonade, Eliana; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2017-04-01

    Insulin resistance is characterized by the failure of target cells to respond to normal levels of circulating insulin, and this condition is related to cardiovascular disease. This study sought to evaluate the prevalence of insulin resistance and its association with markers of metabolic abnormalities and metabolic syndrome in bank employees. A cross-sectional study was performed on 498 working men and women aged ≥20 years old. The Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) was used to determine the presence of insulin resistance based on cut-off values of ≤2.71 for normal insulin levels and >2.71 for insulin resistance, as established for the adult Brazilian population. It was observed that the 52 (10.4%) overweight individuals with insulin resistance were 4.97 times (95%CI 1.31-18.83) more likely to have high HOMA-IR values than the normal-weight participants; among those who were obese, the likelihood increased to 17.87 (95%CI 4.36-73.21). Individuals with large waist circumferences were 3.27 times (95%CI 1.03-10.38) more likely to develop insulin resistance than those who were within normal parameters. The HOMA-IR values differed between subjects with and without metabolic syndrome, with values of 2.83±2.5 and 1.10±0.81 (p=0.001), respectively. The levels of insulin, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein and uric acid were also associated with insulin resistance. The prevalence of insulin resistance among bank employees is high, and insulin resistance is associated with and serves as a marker of metabolic syndrome. Cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome-associated metabolic abnormalities were observed, and insulin resistance may be a risk factor in this group of professionals.

  17. Epidemiology of Child Tuberculosis (A Cross-Sectional Study at Pulmonary Health Center Semarang City, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswati, L. D.; Ginandjar, P.; Widjanarko, B.; Puspitasari, R. A.

    2018-02-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an acid-resistant bacterium that caused tuberculosis. The children might suffer tuberculosis by direct transmission of adult smear positive. The analytic observational study with a cross sectional was conducted. Samples were pediatric patients from January 2015 until December 2016. The 344 subject as total sampling were included as samples. Data were obtained through interviews and direct observations then analyzed with Chi-Square method. The results of these study were the majority of subjects were 3 years old (51.7%), the majority were female (55.2%), already immunized BCG (82.6%), and had moderate nutritional status (40.7%). More than half subjects had no contact with adult smear positive (64.5%). Most of subject had house population density ≥ 8m2 per person (99.4%), the level of humidity 40-70% (99.4%), the presence of ventilation 10% from floor area (75.6%), and all the composition of the floor made from tiles. In contrary, the lighting levels were not qualified tuberculosis (98%), and almost respondents were housewives (89.5%) with family income above the minimum wage Semarang (53.4%). The results of Chi-Square test showed that there was a relationship between the gender of the child (OR = 0.445; 95%CI = 0.241-0.821) and the presence of smokers (OR = 2.007; 95%CI = 1.074-3.751). It was suggested to educate the parents about smoker as the risk factor of child tuberculosis.

  18. An Epidemiologic Study of Pediatric Poisoning; a Six-month Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouchehrifar, Mohammad; Derakhshandeh, Niloufar; Shojaee, Majid; Sabzghabaei, Anita; Farnaghi, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Intentional and unintentional poisoning are among the most common reasons for referrals to emergency department (ED). Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate epidemiologic features and effective risk factors of intentional and unintentional poisoning in children. This prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in ED of Loghman Hakim Hospital, greatest referral poison center of Iran, Tehran during March to August 2014. Demographic data, medical history, history of psychiatric disease in child, the cause of poisoning, parents' educational level, household monthly income, location of residence, history of addiction or divorce in family, and the poisoning intentionality were gathered. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18 and appropriate statistical tests based on the purpose of study. 414 participants with the mean age of 4.2 ± 3.43 years were included (57.5% male). Children in the 0-4 year(s) age range had the most frequency with 281 (67.9%) cases. 29 (7%) cases were intentional (62% female, 76% in the 10-14 years old group). Methadone with 123 (29.7%) cases was the most frequent toxic agent in general and in unintentional cases. 10-14 years of age (p = 0.001), and the history of psychiatric disease in children (p <0.001), had a direct correlation with probability of intentional poisoning. While, history of addiction in the family showed an indirect correlation with this probability (p = 0.045). Based on the results of this study, most cases of poisoning in the children were unintentional methadone intoxication in boys in the 0-4 age range with a history of a psychiatric disease, and those who had a history of addiction in the family. In addition, the most powerful risk factor for the children's intentional poisoning was their history of psychiatric disease. The history of addiction in the child's family had indirect correlation with intentional intoxications.

  19. An Epidemiologic Study of Pediatric Poisoning; a Six-month Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Manouchehrifar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intentional and unintentional poisoning are among the most common reasons for referrals to emergency department (ED. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate epidemiologic features and effective risk factors of intentional and unintentional poisoning in children. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in ED of Loghman Hakim Hospital, greatest referral poison center of Iran, Tehran during March to August 2014. Demographic data, medical history, history of psychiatric disease in child, the cause of poisoning, parents’ educational level, household monthly income, location of residence, history of addiction or divorce in family, and the poisoning intentionality were gathered. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18 and appropriate statistical tests based on the purpose of study. Results: 414 participants with the mean age of 4.2 ± 3.43 years were included (57.5% male. Children in the 0-4 year(s age range had the most frequency with 281 (67.9% cases. 29 (7% cases were intentional (62% female, 76% in the 10-14 years old group. Methadone with 123 (29.7% cases was the most frequent toxic agent in general and in unintentional cases. 10-14 years of age (p = 0.001, and the history of psychiatric disease in children (p <0.001, had a direct correlation with probability of intentional poisoning. While, history of addiction in the family showed an indirect correlation with this probability (p = 0.045. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, most cases of poisoning in the children were unintentional methadone intoxication in boys in the 0-4 age range with a history of a psychiatric disease, and those who had a history of addiction in the family. In addition, the most powerful risk factor for the children’s intentional poisoning was their history of psychiatric disease. The history of addiction in the child’s family had indirect correlation with intentional intoxications.

  20. Exploring interprofessional, interagency multimorbidity care: case study based observational research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, Eileen M.; Morgan, Sonya J.; Gray, Ben V.; Macdonald, Lindsay M.; Pullon, Susan R.H.

    2017-01-01

    Background The increase in multimorbidity or co-occurring chronic illnesses is a leading healthcare concern. Patients with multimorbidity require ongoing care from many different professionals and agencies, and often report a lack of integrated care. Objective To explore the daily help-seeking behaviours of patients with multimorbidity, including which health professionals they seek help from, how professionals work together, and perceptions and characteristics of effective interprofessional, interagency multimorbidity care. Design Using a case study observational research design, multiple data sources were assembled for four patients with multimorbidity, identified by two general practitioners in New Zealand. In this paper, two case studies are presented, including the recorded instances of contact and communication between patients and professionals, and between professionals. Professional interactions were categorized as consultation, coordination, or collaboration. Results The two case studies illustrated two female patients with likely similar educational levels, but with different profiles of multimorbidity, social circumstances, and personal capabilities, involving various professionals and agencies. Engagement between professionals showed varying levels of interaction and a lack of clarity about leadership or care coordination. The majority of interactions were one-to-one consultations and rarely involved coordination and collaboration. Patients were rarely included in communications between professionals. Conclusion Cases constructed from multiple data sources illustrate the complexity of day-to-day, interprofessional, interagency multimorbidity care. While consultation is the most frequent mode of professional interaction, targeted coordinated and collaborative interactions (including the patient) are highly effective activities. Greater attention should be given to developing and facilitating these interactions and determining who should lead them. PMID

  1. Coordinated Regional Benefit Studies of Coastal Ocean Observing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Colgan, Charles S; Luger, Michael; Wieand, Ken; Pulsipher, Allan; Pendleton, Linwood; Wellman, Katherine; Pelsoci, Tom

    2003-01-01

    .... The authors will first produce regional "inventories" of ocean observation user sectors, including information about the physical and economic scale of their activities, how products from improved...

  2. Tea consumption may decrease the risk of osteoporosis: an updated meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Qu, Hua; Xu, Lin; Shi, Da-Zhuo

    2017-06-01

    Several epidemiological investigations have evaluated the correlation between tea consumption and risk of osteoporosis, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted an updated meta-analysis of observational studies to assess this association. We searched for all relevant studies including cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies published from database inception to July 15, 2016, using MEDLINE EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. Polled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using the random-effect model. Fourteen articles (16 studies) that examined 138523 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Seven studies concerning bone mineral density (BMD) showed an increase in BMD with tea consumption, including 4 cross-sectional studies (OR, 0.04, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.08) and 3 cohort studies (OR, 0.01; 95% CI, 0.01-0.01). The remaining 9 studies concerning fracture, including 6 case-control studies and 3 cohort studies, showed no association between tea consumption and osteoporotic fracture (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.74-1.01). This updated meta-analysis demonstrates that tea consumption could increase BMD, but the association with osteoporotic fracture requires further investigation. Together, the results highlight the need for future, high-quality-designed clinical trials on tea consumption and osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mn doped InSb studied at the atomic scale by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauger, S. J. C.; Bocquel, J.; Koenraad, P. M.; Feeser, C. E.; Parashar, N. D.; Wessels, B. W.

    2015-01-01

    We present an atomically resolved study of metal-organic vapor epitaxy grown Mn doped InSb. Both topographic and spectroscopic measurements have been performed by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The measurements on the Mn doped InSb samples show a perfect crystal structure without any precipitates and reveal that Mn acts as a shallow acceptor. The Mn concentration of the order of ∼10 20  cm −3 obtained from the cross-sectional STM data compare well with the intended doping concentration. While the pair correlation function of the Mn atoms showed that their local distribution is uncorrelated beyond the STM resolution for observing individual dopants, disorder in the Mn ion location giving rise to percolation pathways is clearly noted. The amount of clustering that we see is thus as expected for a fully randomly disordered distribution of the Mn atoms and no enhanced clustering or second phase material was observed

  4. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Luciana; Bergmann, Anke; Bahia, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review the use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in observational studies. This study is a systematic review of articles that use the ICF in observational studies. We took into account the observational design papers available in databases such as PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO, published in English and Portuguese from January 2001 to June 2011. We excluded those in which the samples did not comprise individuals, those about children and adolescents, and qualitative methodology articles. After reading the abstracts of 265 identified articles, 65 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 18 were excluded. The STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) adapted Checklist, with 15 items needed for observational studies, was applied to the 47 remaining articles. Any paper that met 12 of these criteria was included in this systematic review. 29 articles were reviewed. Regarding the ICF application methodology, the checklist was used in 31% of the articles, the core set in 31% and the ICF categories in 31%. In the remaining 7%, it was not possible to define the applied methodology. In most papers (41%), qualifiers were used in their original format. As far as the area of knowledge is concerned, most of the studies were related to Rheumatology (24%) and Orthopedics (21%). Regarding the study design, 83% of the articles used cross-sectional studies. Results indicate a wide scientific production related to ICF over the past 10 years. Different areas of knowledge are involved in the debate on the improvement of information on morbidity. However, there are only a few quantitative epidemiological studies involving the use of ICF. Future studies are needed to improve data related to functioning and disability.

  5. Study of the molecular structure and dynamics of bakelite with neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voi, D.L.

    1990-06-01

    The molecular structure and dynamics of calcined bakelite were studied with neutron transmission and scattering cross section measurements. The total cross sections determined were correlated with data obtained with infra-red spectroscopy, elemental analysis and other techniques to get the probable molecular formulae of bakelite. The total cross section determined showed a deviation smaller than 5% from the literature values. The frequency distribution as well as overall experimental results allowed to suggest a structural model like polycyclic hydrocarbons for bakelite calcined at 800 0 C. (F.E.). 65 refs, 31 figs, 5 tabs

  6. Corneal permeability changes in dry eye disease: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitani, Kenji; Gadaria, Neha; Lee, Kyu-In; Barry, Brendan; Asbell, Penny

    2016-05-13

    Diagnostic tests for dry eye disease (DED), including ocular surface disease index (OSDI), tear breakup time (TBUT), corneal fluorescein staining, and lissamine staining, have great deal of variability. We investigated whether fluorophotometry correlated with previously established DED diagnostic tests and whether it could serve as a novel objective metric to evaluate DED. Dry eye patients who have had established signs or symptoms for at least 6 months were included in this observational study. Normal subjects with no symptoms of dry eyes served as controls. Each eye had a baseline fluorescein scan prior to any fluorescein dye. Fluorescein dye was then placed into both eyes, rinsed with saline solution, and scanned at 5, 10, 15, and 30 min. Patients were administered the following diagnostic tests to correlate with fluorophotometry: OSDI, TBUT, fluorescein, and lissamine. Standard protocols were used. P eyes from 25 patients (DED = 22 eyes, 11 patients; Normal = 28 eyes, 14 patients) were included. Baseline scans of the dry eye and control groups did not show any statistical difference (p = 0.84). Fluorescein concentration of DED and normal patients showed statistical significance at all time intervals (p eyes up to 30 min after fluorescein dye instillation. There may be an aspect of DED that is missed in the current regimen of DED tests and only captured with fluorophotometry. Adding fluorophotometry may be useful in screening, diagnosing, and monitoring patients with DED.

  7. Observational study of drug-drug interactions in oncological inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sacramento Díaz-Carrasco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of potential clinically relevant drug- drug interactions in adult oncological inpatients, as well as to describe the most frequent interactions. A standard database was used. Method: An observational, transversal, and descriptive study including patients admitted to the Oncology Service of a reference hospital. All prescriptions were collected twice a week during a month. They were analysed using Lexicomp® database, recording all interactions classified with a level of risk: C, D or X. Results: A total of 1 850 drug-drug interactions were detected in 218 treatments. The prevalence of treatments with at least one clinically relevant interaction was 95%, being 94.5% for those at level C and 26.1% for levels D and X. The drugs most commonly involved in the interactions detected were opioid analgesics, antipsychotics (butyrophenones, benzodiazepines, pyrazolones, glucocorticoids and heparins, whereas interactions with antineoplastics were minimal, highlighting those related to paclitaxel and between metamizole and various antineoplastics. Conclusions: The prevalence of clinically relevant drug-drug interactions rate was very high, highlighting the high risk percentage of them related to level of risk X. Due to the frequency of onset and potential severity, highlighted the concomitant use of central nervous system depressants drugs with risk of respiratory depression, the risk of onset of anticholinergic symptoms when combining morphine or haloperidol with butylscopolamine, ipratropium bromide or dexchlorpheniramine and the multiple interactions involving metamizole.

  8. Young adult smoking in peer groups: an experimental observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this experimental observational study is to examine whether, in a group setting (same-sex triads), passive peer influence (imitation) in the context of homogeneous and heterogeneous (contradictory) behavior of peer models affects young adults' smoking behavior. An experiment was conducted among 48 daily-smoking college and university students aged 17-25. Participants had to complete a 30-min music task with two same-sex confederates. We tested the following three conditions: (a) neither of the confederates is smoking, (b) one confederate is smoking and the other is not, and (c) both confederates are smoking. The primary outcome tested was the total number of cigarettes smoked during the task. Students in the condition with two smoking peer models and in the condition with one smoking peer model and one nonsmoking peer model smoked significantly more cigarettes than those in the condition with two nonsmoking peer models. However, results for the condition with two smoking peer models did not differ significantly from the condition with one smoking peer model and one nonsmoking peer model. Our findings show that in a group setting, the impact of the homogeneity of smoking peers on young adults' smoking behavior is not greater than the impact of the heterogeneity of smoking and nonsmoking peers. This would suggest that the smoking peer in the group has a greater impact on the daily-smoking young adult, thus reducing or even eliminating the protective effect of the nonsmoking peer model.

  9. External Validation of the HERNIAscore: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherla, Deepa V; Moses, Maya L; Mueck, Krislynn M; Hannon, Craig; Ko, Tien C; Kao, Lillian S; Liang, Mike K

    2017-09-01

    The HERNIAscore is a ventral incisional hernia (VIH) risk assessment tool that uses only preoperative variables and predictable intraoperative variables. The aim of this study was to validate and modify, if needed, the HERNIAscore in an external dataset. This was a retrospective observational study of all patients undergoing resection for gastrointestinal malignancy from 2011 through 2015 at a safety-net hospital. The primary end point was clinical postoperative VIH. Patients were stratified into low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups based on HERNIAscore. A revised HERNIAscore was calculated with the addition of earlier abdominal operation as a categorical variable. Cox regression of incisional hernia with stratification by risk class was performed. Incidence rates of clinical VIH formation within each risk class were also calculated. Two hundred and forty-seven patents were enrolled. On Cox regression, in addition to the 3 variables of the HERNIAscore (BMI, COPD, and incision length), earlier abdominal operation was also predictive of VIH. The revised HERNIAscore demonstrated improved predictive accuracy for clinical VIH. Although the original HERNIAscore effectively stratified the risk of an incisional radiographic VIH developing, the revised HERNIAscore provided a statistically significant stratification for both clinical and radiographic VIHs in this patient cohort. We have externally validated and improved the HERNIAscore. The revised HERNIAscore uses BMI, incision length, COPD, and earlier abdominal operation to predict risk of postoperative incisional hernia. Future research should assess methods to prevent incisional hernias in moderate-to-high risk patients. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An observational study of disk-population globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armandroff, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    Integrated-light spectroscopy was obtained for twenty-seven globular clusters at the Ca II infrared triplet. Line strengths and radial velocities were measured from the spectra. For the well-studied clusters in the sample, the strength of the CA II lines is very well correlated with previous metallicity estimates obtained using a variety of techniques. The greatly reduced effect of interstellar extinction at these wavelengths compared to the blue region of the spectrum has permitted observations of some of the most heavily reddened clusters in the Galaxy. For several such clusters, the Ca II triplet metallicities are in poor agreement with metallicity estimates from infrared photometry by Malkan. Color-magnitude diagrams were constructed for six previously unstudied metal-rich globular clusters and for the well-studied cluster 47 Tuc. The V magnitudes of the horizontal branch stars in the six clusters are in poor agreement with previous estimates based on secondary methods. The horizontal branch morphologies and reddenings of the program clusters were also determined. Using the improved set of metallicities, radial velocities, and distance moduli, the spatial distribution, kinematics, and metallicity distribution of the Galactic globulars were analyzed. The revised data supports Zinn's conclusion that the metal-rich clusters form a highly flattened, rapidly rotating disk system, while the metal-poor clusters make up the familiar, spherically distributed, slowly rotating halo population. The scale height, metallicity distribution, and kinematics of the metal-rich globulars are in good agreement with those of the stellar thick disk. Luminosity functions were constructed, and no significant difference is found between disk and halo samples. Metallicity gradients seem to be present in the disk cluster system. The implications of these results for the formation and evol

  11. Sensitivity of dose-finding studies to observation errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Sarah; O'Quigley, John

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of Phase I designs is to estimate the MTD (maximum tolerated dose, in practice a dose with some given acceptable rate of toxicity) while, at the same time, minimizing the number of patients treated at doses too far removed from the MTD. Our purpose here is to investigate the sensitivity of conclusions from dose-finding designs to recording or observation errors. Certain toxicities may go undetected and, conversely, certain non-toxicities may be incorrectly recorded as dose-limiting toxicities. Recording inaccuracies would be expected to have an influence on final and within trial recommendations and, in this paper, we study in greater depth this question. We focus, in particular on three designs used currently; the standard '3+3' design, the grouped up-and-down design [M. Gezmu, N. Flournoy, Group up-and-down designs for dose finding. Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference 2006; 136 (6): 1749-1764.] and the continual reassessment method (CRM, [J. O'Quigley, M. Pepe, L. Fisher, Continual reassessment method: a practical design for phase 1 clinical trials in cancer. Biometrics 1990; 46 (1): 33-48.]). A non-toxicity incorrectly recorded as a toxicity (error of first kind) has a greater influence in general than the converse (error of second kind). These results are illustrated via figures which suggest that the standard '3+3' design in particular is sensitive to errors of the second kind. Such errors can have a very important impact on drug development in that, if carried through to the Phase 2 and Phase 3 studies, we can significantly increase the probability of failure to detect efficacy as a result of having delivered an inadequate dose.

  12. Giant cell arteritis: a multicenter observational study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Wagner Silva de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe demographic features, disease manifestations and therapy in patients with giant cell arteritis from referral centers in Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed on 45 giant cell arteritis patients from three university hospitals in Brazil. Diagnoses were based on the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for giant cell arteritis or temporal artery biopsy findings. RESULTS: Most patients were Caucasian, and females were slightly more predominant. The frequencies of disease manifestations were as follows: temporal headache in 82.2%, neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations in 68.9%, jaw claudication in 48.9%, systemic symptoms in 44.4%, polymyalgia rheumatica in 35.6% and extra-cranial vessel involvement in 17.8% of cases. Aortic aneurysms were observed in 6.6% of patients. A comparison between patients with biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis and those without temporal artery biopsies did not yield significant differences in disease manifestations. All patients were treated with oral prednisone, and intravenous methylprednisolone was administered to nearly half of the patients. Methotrexate was the most commonly used immunosuppressive agent, and low-dose aspirin was prescribed to the majority of patients. Relapses occurred in 28.9% of patients, and aspirin had a protective effect against relapses. Females had higher prevalences of polymyalgia rheumatica, systemic manifestations and jaw claudication, while permanent visual loss was more prevalent in men. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the clinical features of Brazilian giant cell arteritis patients were similar to those found in other studies, except for the high prevalence of neuro-ophthalmic manifestations and permanent blindness in the Brazilian patients. Aspirin had a protective effect on relapses.

  13. Active Bleeding after Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Observational Multicenter Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal H Colson

    Full Text Available To estimate the incidence of active bleeding after cardiac surgery (AB based on a definition directly related on blood flow from chest drainage; to describe the AB characteristics and its management; to identify factors of postoperative complications.AB was defined as a blood loss > 1.5 ml/kg/h for 6 consecutive hours within the first 24 hours or in case of reoperation for hemostasis during the first 12 postoperative hours. The definition was applied in a prospective longitudinal observational study involving 29 French centers; all adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were included over a 3-month period. Perioperative data (including blood product administration were collected. To study possible variation in clinical practice among centers, patients were classified into two groups according to the AB incidence of the center compared to the overall incidence: "Low incidence" if incidence is lower and "High incidence" if incidence is equal or greater than overall incidence. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors of postoperative complications.Among 4,904 patients, 129 experienced AB (2.6%, among them 52 reoperation. Postoperative bleeding loss was 1,000 [820;1,375] ml and 1,680 [1,280;2,300] ml at 6 and 24 hours respectively. Incidence of AB varied between centers (0 to 16% but was independent of in-centre cardiac surgical experience. Comparisons between groups according to AB incidence showed differences in postoperative management. Body surface area, preoperative creatinine, emergency surgery, postoperative acidosis and red blood cell transfusion were risk factors of postoperative complication.A blood loss > 1.5 ml/kg/h for 6 consecutive hours within the first 24 hours or early reoperation for hemostasis seems a relevant definition of AB. This definition, independent of transfusion, adjusted to body weight, may assess real time bleeding occurring early after surgery.

  14. Active Bleeding after Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Observational Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Pascal H; Gaudard, Philippe; Fellahi, Jean-Luc; Bertet, Héléna; Faucanie, Marie; Amour, Julien; Blanloeil, Yvonnick; Lanquetot, Hervé; Ouattara, Alexandre; Picot, Marie Christine

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the incidence of active bleeding after cardiac surgery (AB) based on a definition directly related on blood flow from chest drainage; to describe the AB characteristics and its management; to identify factors of postoperative complications. AB was defined as a blood loss > 1.5 ml/kg/h for 6 consecutive hours within the first 24 hours or in case of reoperation for hemostasis during the first 12 postoperative hours. The definition was applied in a prospective longitudinal observational study involving 29 French centers; all adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were included over a 3-month period. Perioperative data (including blood product administration) were collected. To study possible variation in clinical practice among centers, patients were classified into two groups according to the AB incidence of the center compared to the overall incidence: "Low incidence" if incidence is lower and "High incidence" if incidence is equal or greater than overall incidence. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors of postoperative complications. Among 4,904 patients, 129 experienced AB (2.6%), among them 52 reoperation. Postoperative bleeding loss was 1,000 [820;1,375] ml and 1,680 [1,280;2,300] ml at 6 and 24 hours respectively. Incidence of AB varied between centers (0 to 16%) but was independent of in-centre cardiac surgical experience. Comparisons between groups according to AB incidence showed differences in postoperative management. Body surface area, preoperative creatinine, emergency surgery, postoperative acidosis and red blood cell transfusion were risk factors of postoperative complication. A blood loss > 1.5 ml/kg/h for 6 consecutive hours within the first 24 hours or early reoperation for hemostasis seems a relevant definition of AB. This definition, independent of transfusion, adjusted to body weight, may assess real time bleeding occurring early after surgery.

  15. Endovascular control of haemorrhagic urological emergencies: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorpe Peter

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transarterial embolisation (TAE is an effective method in control of haemorrhage irrespective of the nature of urological emergency. As the technique and technology have evolved, it is now possible to perform highly selective embolisation. The aim of this study was to critically appraise feasibility and efficacy of therapeutic TAE in control of haemorrhagic urological emergencies using selective and non-selective embolisation. Specifically, we aimed to assess the impact of timing of embolisation on the requirement of blood transfusion and long-term morphological and functional follow-up of embolised organs. Methods This is a single institutional observational study carried out between March 1992 and March 2006. Records of all patients who underwent selective and non-selective angioembolisation to control bleeding in urological emergencies were reviewed. Data on success rate, periprocedural complications, timing of embolisation, requirement of blood transfusion and the long-term morphological and functional outcomes of embolised organs was recorded. Results Fourteen patients underwent endovascular control of bleeding as a result of trauma, iatrogenic injury and spontaneous perinephric haemorrhage during a period of 14 years. All these patients would have required emergency open surgery without the option of embolisation procedure. The mean time between the first presentation and embolisation was 22 hours (range 30 minutes to 60 hours. Mean pre-embolisation transfusion requirement was 6.8 units (range 0–22 units. None of the patients with successful embolisation required post-procedural blood transfusion. Permanent haemostasis was achieved in all but one patient, who required emergency nephrectomy. There were no serious procedure related post-embolisation complications. Conclusion Endovascular control using transarterial angioembolisation is an effective method for managing haematuria or haemorrhage in urological emergencies

  16. [The aggression in SPDC: an observational study. Preliminary data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutolo, Giuseppe; Cannavò, Dario; Petralia, Antonino; Gandolfo, Liliana; Palermo, Filippo; Aguglia, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    In the different psychiatric disorders the aggression often leads to uncontrolled events, taking aspects of impulsiveness and irrationality. Our research proposes the assessment of socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with a psychiatric disorder, who presented an aggressive event. The observational study was conducted on a sample of 50 patients (34 men and 16 women), hospitalized following the manifestation of an aggressive event. For each patient was provided an assessment of socio-demographic and clinical variables and a psychometric investigation through: the OAS, for the analysis of aggressive episodes; the BDHI, for the hostile behavior and attitudes; the BIS-11, for the impulsiveness and the BPRS for the psychopathological aspects. Among the socio-demographic features investigated, the highest correlation with aggressive behavior was related to the concomitant substance abuse, type of admission to psychiatric hospital and the male gender. The OAS has shown a greater propensity to directed-aggression in males with schizophrenia, and self-directed in females with major depression. The BPRS has shown a positive correlation between hetero-directed aggressive behavior and positive symptomatology, and between the self-directed and depression, risk of suicide, feelings of guilt and somatic concerns. The BDHI has indicated greater suspicion in women's group. The hypothesis that aggression is otherwise related to specific socio-demographic and clinical characteristics was confirmed by our study. The data suggest that early identification and assessment of potential risk factors involved in the genesis of aggressive episodes would allow the clinician to implement a better strategy for prevention and intervention.

  17. The G-spot: an observational MRI pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maratos, Y K; Gombergh, R; Cornier, E; Minart, J P; Amoretti, N; Mpotsaris, A

    2016-08-01

    To identify a G-spot complex (GSC) in vivo in MRI examinations at 1.5 Tesla field strength. Observational study. Single centre. Twenty-one consecutive patients (January-March 2014). Imaging analysis of routine imaging protocols for usual medical indications with and without concomitant opacification of the vaginal cavity with inert ultrasound gel. The gel distends the otherwise collapsed vaginal walls, allowing for an improved discrimination of anatomic features. The macroscopic and histological results recently derived from the dissections of fresh cadavers by Ostrzenski et al. were translated into imaging characteristics to be expected in the respective MRI sequences (e.g. T1- and T2-weighted) in search of an in vivo correlate of the GSC. Age, menopause status, medical indication and diagnosis were co-variables. To analyse primarily whether MRI imaging is able to depict a distinct morphological entity in vivo matching the GSC, based on anatomical descriptions published recently. The elaboration of an appropriate MRI-imaging protocol was a secondary aim. A total of 21 studies were obtained. A GSC was identified within the anterior vaginal wall in 13/21 patients (62%). In all, 10/21 (48%) had vaginal gel opacification. We identified a GSC in 10/10 patients (100%) with opacification in all three planes of the T2 images. This was only true for 3/11 cases (27%) without opacification. There is evidence for an in vivo morphological correlate to the postmortem anatomical findings of a GSC described by Ostrzenski et al.; its visibility in MRI imaging can be significantly improved with vaginal opacification by ultrasound gel. Identification of G-spot by MRI with vaginal gel-opacification in 13/21 patients. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  18. Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornaas, Mari A; Teige, Brita; Hovda, Knut E; Ekeberg, Oivind; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Jacobsen, Dag

    2010-06-06

    Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings in subjects aged > or =16 years in Oslo (428 198 inhabitants) were included consecutively in an observational multi-centre study including the ambulance services, the Oslo Emergency Ward (outpatient clinic), and hospitals, as well as medico-legal autopsies from 1st April 2003 to 31st March 2004. Characteristics of fatal poisonings were examined, and a comparison of toxic agents was made between fatal and non-fatal acute poisoning. In Oslo, during the one-year period studied, 103 subjects aged > or =16 years died of acute poisoning. The annual mortality rate was 24 per 100 000. The male-female ratio was 2:1, and the mean age was 44 years (range 19-86 years). In 92 cases (89%), death occurred outside hospital. The main toxic agents were opiates or opioids (65% of cases), followed by ethanol (9%), tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs) (4%), benzodiazepines (4%), and zopiclone (4%). Seventy-one (69%) were evaluated as accidental deaths and 32 (31%) as suicides. In 70% of all cases, and in 34% of suicides, the deceased was classified as drug or alcohol dependent. When compared with the 2981 non-fatal acute poisonings registered during the study period, the case fatality rate was 3% (95% C.I., 0.03-0.04). Methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines had the highest case fatality rates; 33% (95% C.I., 0.008-0.91), 14% (95% C.I., 0.04-0.33), and 10% (95% C.I., 0.02-0.27), respectively. Three per cent of all acute poisonings were fatal, and nine out of ten deaths by acute poisonings occurred outside hospital. Two-thirds were evaluated as accidental deaths. Although case fatality rates were

  19. A Cross-Sectional Study of School Experiences of Boys with Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soim, Aida; Lamb, Molly; Campbell, Kimberly; Pandya, Shree; Peay, Holly; Howard, James F., Jr.; Fox, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate types of supportive school services received and factors related to provision of these services. We conducted a cross-sectional study to describe the school experience of males with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. Study subjects were identified through the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance,…

  20. Risk of respiratory morbidity in term infants delivered by elective caesarean section: cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Kirkeby; Wisborg, Kirsten; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between elective caesarean sections and neonatal respiratory morbidity and the importance of timing of elective caesarean sections. DESIGN: Cohort study with prospectively collected data from the Aarhus birth cohort, Denmark. SETTING: Obstetric department...... and neonatal department of a university hospital in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All liveborn babies without malformations, with gestational ages between 37 and 41 weeks, and delivered between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2006 (34 458 babies). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Respiratory morbidity (transitory tachypnoea...

  1. C4P cross-section libraries for safety analyses with SIMMER and related studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rineiski, A.; Sinitsa, V.; Gabrielli, F.; Maschek, W.

    2011-01-01

    A code and data system, C 4 P, is under development at KIT. It includes fine-group master libraries and tools for generating problem-oriented cross-section libraries, primarily for safety studies with the SIMMER code and related analyses. In the paper, the 560-group master library and problem oriented 40-group and 72-group cross-section libraries, for thermal and fast systems, respectively, are described and their performances are investigated. (author)

  2. Augmented Cross-Sectional Studies with Abbreviated Follow-up for Estimating HIV Incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Claggett, B.; Lagakos, S.W.; Wang, R.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation based on a sensitive and less-sensitive test offers great advantages over the traditional cohort study. However, its use has been limited due to concerns about the false negative rate of the less-sensitive test, reflecting the phenomenon that some subjects may remain negative permanently on the less-sensitive test. Wang and Lagakos (2010) propose an augmented cross-sectional design which provides one way to estimate the size of the infected population ...

  3. Observation and Study of Proton Aurora by using Scanning Photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, T.; Ono, T.; Kadokura, A.; Sato, N.

    2009-12-01

    The proton auroras have significant differences from electron auroras in their spectral shape. They show Doppler-shifted and broadened spectra: the spectra have Doppler-shifted (~0.5 nm shorter) peak and both bluewing (~2-4 nm) and redwing (~1.5 nm) extending. Energy spectra of precipitating protons have been estimated from this shape. Recently it is found that the intensity in the extent of the blue wing reflects more effectively by the change of the mean energy of precipitating protons than the shift of peak wavelength [Lanchester et al., 2003]. Another character of the H-beta aurora is that it is diffuse form because a proton becomes hydrogen atom due to a charge-exchange reaction with atmospheric constituent and then possible to move across the magnetic field line. By using a scanning photometer, the movement of the proton auroral belt and change of a spectrum shape associated with the variation of proton source region due to storm and substorm were reported, however, not discussed in detail yet [Deehr and Lummerzheim, 2001]. The purpose of this study is to obtain the detail characteristics of H-beta aurora for understanding of source region of energetic protons in the magnetosphere. For this purpose, a new meridian-scanning photometer (SPM) was installed at Husafell station in Iceland in last summer season and Syowa Station, Antarctica. It will contribute to investigate the distribution of energetic protons and plasma waves which cause the pitch angle scattering in the magnetosphere. The meridian-scanning photometer is able to observe at five wavelengths for H-beta emission. One channel is to measure the background level. By analyzing the data obtained by the SPM, the H-beta spectrum can be estimated by fitting a model function with it. Then it is possible to obtain distribution of precipitating protons in north-south direction. It is also possible to estimate an energy spectrum of precipitating proton, simultaneously. The instrumental parameters of the SPM is

  4. Empathy and burnout of emergency professionals of a health region: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuguero, Oriol; Forné, Carles; Esquerda, Montserrat; Pifarré, Josep; Abadías, María José; Viñas, Joan

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the association between levels of empathy and burnout of emergency professionals in all the assistance levels.A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the health region of Lleida and the Pyrenees with 100 professionals from the field of Urgency. Participation reached 40.8%. Empathy and burnout were measured using the Spanish versions of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) respectively. The total MBI score and its 3 dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) were analyzed. The JSPE and MBI scores were categorized into tertiles that were identified as "low," "moderate," and "high" levels.The median (interquartile range) was 112 (102-123) and 37 (27-53.5) for the JSPE and MBI scores respectively. Professionals with high burnout (MBI≥47) showed the lowest levels of empathy, that is, JSPE score of 105 (98-114); those with moderate burnout (31≤MBI empathy were associated with the lowest levels of burnout, especially in depersonalization, and to a lesser extent in personal accomplishment. There were no differences in empathy and burnout for any of the other study variables.Our findings suggest that the empathy of emergency professionals is associated with burnout. Hence, reducing professional burnout could help keep emergency professionals' empathy levels high, which in turn would ensure a better quality of care. Nevertheless, it would be necessary to carry out prospective studies to describe the profiles of burnout and empathy as well as their association and evolution.

  5. Fecal Microbiome and Food Allergy in Pediatric Atopic Dermatitis: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieten, Karin B; Totté, Joan E E; Levin, Evgeni; Reyman, Marta; Meijer, Yolanda; Knulst, André; Schuren, Frank; Pasmans, Suzanne G M A

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to microbes may be important in the development of atopic disease. Atopic diseases have been associated with specific characteristics of the intestinal microbiome. The link between intestinal microbiota and food allergy has rarely been studied, and the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy (double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge [DBPCFC]) has seldom been used. We aimed to distinguish fecal microbial signatures for food allergy in children with atopic dermatitis (AD). Pediatric patients with AD, with and without food allergy, were included in this cross-sectional observational pilot study. AD was diagnosed according to the UK Working Party criteria. Food allergy was defined as a positive DBPCFC or a convincing clinical history, in combination with sensitization to the relevant food allergen. Fecal samples were analyzed using 16S rRNA microbial analysis. Microbial signature species, discriminating between the presence and absence food allergy, were selected by elastic net regression. Eighty-two children with AD (39 girls) with a median age of 2.5 years, and 20 of whom were diagnosed with food allergy, provided fecal samples. Food allergy to peanut and cow's milk was the most common. Six bacterial species from the fecal microbiome were identified, that, when combined, distinguished between children with and without food allergy: Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Escherichia coli, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Akkermansia muciniphila (AUC 0.83, sensitivity 0.77, specificity 0.80). In this pilot study, we identified a microbial signature in children with AD that discriminates between the absence and presence of food allergy. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Experimental and numerical study of a premixed flame stabilized by a rectangular section cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, P.; Garreton, D. [Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France); Bruel, P.; Champion, M. et al. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d`Aerotechnique (ENSMA), 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1996-12-31

    A numerical and experimental study of a turbulent reactive zone stabilized by a rectangular cross-section cylinder positioned in a fully developed turbulent channel flow of a propane-air mixture is presented. Such a flow geometry has been chosen because it features most of the phenomena (recirculation zones, flame stabilization, wall-flame interactions) present in systems of practical interest. The flow is experimentally investigated with a 2-D laser Doppler velocimeter and thin compensated thermocouples. The modelling of the reactive flow is based on a modified Bray-Moss-Libby combustion model associated with a Reynolds-Stress turbulence model. The resulting set of equations is solved by a finite difference Navier-Stokes code on a rectilinear mesh. The comparison between numerical nd experimental results shows that the use of a full second-order model with dedicated equations for both the Reynolds stresses and the scalar turbulent flux does not lead to a significant improvement of the numerical results. Indeed, although the longitudinal scalar turbulent flux exhibits a non-gradient behaviour, the evolution of the mean progress variable introduced by the Bray-Moss-Libby model appears to be mainly controlled by the transverse scalar gradient which follows in all cases a gradient like behaviour. Additional measurements and calculations are required to precise the exact range of mass flow rate, equivalence ratio and obstacle bluffness over which such a tendency can be observed. Nevertheless, the tentative conclusion of this study is that, as soon as a refinement of the modelling of reactive flows in combustors which involve flameholders similar to the one investigated in this study is needed, the use of a Reynolds-Stress model should be the first necessary step. Then, depending on the exact nature of the flow geometry, a second phase should consist in evaluating the need for the use of a full second order model like the one presented in this study. (authors) 25 refs.

  7. Visual impairment among 10-14-year school children in Puducherry: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnuprasad, R; Bazroy, Joy; Madhanraj, K; Prashanth, Hannah Ranjee; Singh, Zile; Samuel, Abel K; Muthukumar, T

    2017-01-01

    According to the 2010 estimates by the World Health Organization, nearly 285 million (4.24% of total population) people of all ages worldwide are visually impaired. Almost 18.9 million children under 15 years of age are visually impaired globally. In developing countries, 7%-31% of childhood blindness and visual impairment is avoidable. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study among 1884 school students in Puducherry, in the age group of 10-14 years. A child with presenting maximum vision ≤6/12 Snellen equivalent in the better eye is considered visually impaired. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel 2013 and analyzed using the statistical software SPSS version 21.0. Chi-square test was applied for testing difference in proportion and a P visual impairment (vision ≤6/12) among the study participants was 6.37% (95% confidence interval = 5.27-7.47). The prevalence of visual impairment increased with age and it was found to be high among male students (6.6%) when compared to female students (6%). Presenting vision of 6/6 was observed in 79.8% of the children while with pinhole correction, the proportion increased to 94.6%. The prevalence of visual impairment in our study population was found to be 6.37% and the prevalence was even higher among children who belonged to schools of urban region or private schools. Children with a positive family history of spectacle use were more likely to have visual impairment.

  8. Relative deprivation, poverty, and subjective health: JAGES cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashige Saito

    Full Text Available To evaluate the association between relative deprivation (lacking daily necessities and subjective health in older Japanese adults, we performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES. The data were obtained from functionally independent residents aged ≥65 years from 24 municipalities in Japan (n = 24,742. Thirteen items in three dimensions were used to evaluate relative deprivation of material conditions. Approximately 28% of older Japanese people indicated that they lacked some daily necessities (non-monetary poverty. A two-level Poisson regression analysis revealed that relative deprivation was associated with poor self-rated health (PR = 1.3-1.5 and depressive symptoms (PR = 1.5-1.8 in both men and women, and these relationships were stronger than those observed in people living in relative poverty (monetary poverty. The interaction effect between relative deprivation and relative poverty was not associated with poor health. As a dimension of the social determinants of health, poverty should be evaluated from a multidimensional approach, capturing not only monetary conditions but also material-based, non-monetary conditions.

  9. Anxiety symptoms and quality of interaction among oncology nurses: a correlational, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikola, Maria Nk; Giannakopoulou, Margarita; Kalafati, Maria; Kaite, Charis P; Patiraki, Elisabeth; Mpouzika, Meropi; Papathanassoglou, Elisabeth E D; Middleton, Nicos

    2016-01-01

    To explore the severity of Anxiety Symptoms (AS) among Greek oncology nursing personnel, the degree of satisfaction from professional relationships, and potential association between them. A descriptive cross-sectional correlational study was performed in 2 Greek Oncology Hospitals, in 72 members of nursing personnel. Hamilton Anxiety Scale was used for the assessment of AS severity and the Index of Work Satisfaction subscale "Satisfaction from Interaction" for the degree of satisfaction from professional relationships among nursing personnel (NN) and between nursing personnel and physicians (NP). 11% of the sample reported clinical AS [≥26, scale range (SR): 0-52]. Satisfaction from NN [5.10 (SD: 1.04), SR: 1-7], and NP [4.21 (SD: 0.77), SR: 1-7] professional interaction were both moderate. Statistically significantly associations were observed between clinical AS and satisfaction from NN (p=0.014) and NP (p=0.013) professional interaction. Anxiety reduction interventions and improvement of professional relationships are essentials in order to reduce oncology nurses' psychological distress.

  10. Reporting of conflicts of interest from drug trials in Cochrane reviews: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Michelle; Turner, Erick H; Lexchin, Joel; Coyne, James C; Bero, Lisa A; Thombs, Brett D

    2012-08-16

    To investigate the degree to which Cochrane reviews of drug interventions published in 2010 reported conflicts of interest from included trials and, among reviews that reported this information, where it was located in the review documents. Cross sectional study. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Systematic reviews of drug interventions published in 2010 in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, with review content classified as up to date in 2008 or later and with results from one or more randomised controlled trials. Of 151 included Cochrane reviews, 46 (30%, 95% confidence interval 24% to 38%) reported information on the funding sources of included trials, including 30 (20%, 14% to 27%) that reported information on trial funding for all included trials and 16 (11%, 7% to 17%) that reported for some, but not all, trials. Only 16 of the 151 Cochrane reviews (11%, 7% to 17%) provided any information on trial author-industry financial ties or trial author-industry employment. Information on trial funding and trial author-industry ties was reported in one to seven locations within each review, with no consistent reporting location observed. Most Cochrane reviews of drug trials published in 2010 did not provide information on trial funding sources or trial author-industry financial ties or employment. When this information was reported, location of reporting was inconsistent across reviews.

  11. Plasma lipid levels in Alzheimer's disease patients treated by Donepezil hydrochloride: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adunsky, Abraham; Chesnin, Vladimir; Ravona, Ramit; Harats, Dror; Davidson, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Donepezil hydrochloride is a central acetylcholine esterase inhibitor that is widely used in Alzheimer disease (AD). We have recently observed some differences in lipid profile between occasional cases of Donepezil hydrochloride users (DU) and non-users (DNU). This prompted us to study the levels of plasma lipids in these two groups, cross-sectionally. The medical charts of patients with probable AD were screened for current use of Donepezil hydrochloride and lipids profile, along with other clinical and demographic data. A total number of 105 patients were identified and included in the final analysis. Patients were divided into two groups (DU and DNU). Plasma levels of lipids were recorded. Mann-Whitney or t-test for continuous variables and Fisher exact test for categorical variables were used to test for significant differences between the groups. Regression analysis was applied to identify independently the factors associated with lipid levels. Thirty-three patients were DU and 72 DNU. The two groups differed in terms of age, lipid levels and cognitive level. DU had statistically significant higher levels of triglycerides compared with those not using the drug (P=0.036), higher total cholesterol (Phydrochloride. Alternatively, this may indicate that the effect of the medication may involve lipid metabolism, rather than other proposed mechanisms.

  12. Anxiety symptoms and quality of interaction among oncology nurses: a correlational, cross-sectional study

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    Maria NK. Karanikola

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To explore the severity of Anxiety Symptoms (AS among Greek oncology nursing personnel, the degree of satisfaction from professional relationships, and potential association between them. METHOD A descriptive cross-sectional correlational study was performed in 2 Greek Oncology Hospitals, in 72 members of nursing personnel. Hamilton Anxiety Scale was used for the assessment of AS severity and the Index of Work Satisfaction subscale "Satisfaction from Interaction" for the degree of satisfaction from professional relationships among nursing personnel (NN and between nursing personnel and physicians (NP. RESULTS 11% of the sample reported clinical AS [≥26, scale range (SR: 0-52]. Satisfaction from NN [5.10 (SD: 1.04, SR: 1-7], and NP [4.21 (SD: 0.77, SR: 1-7] professional interaction were both moderate. Statistically significantly associations were observed between clinical AS and satisfaction from NN (p=0.014 and NP (p=0.013 professional interaction. CONCLUSIONS Anxiety reduction interventions and improvement of professional relationships are essentials in order to reduce oncology nurses' psychological distress.

  13. Relative deprivation, poverty, and subjective health: JAGES cross-sectional study.

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    Saito, Masashige; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Abe, Aya; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the association between relative deprivation (lacking daily necessities) and subjective health in older Japanese adults, we performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES). The data were obtained from functionally independent residents aged ≥65 years from 24 municipalities in Japan (n = 24,742). Thirteen items in three dimensions were used to evaluate relative deprivation of material conditions. Approximately 28% of older Japanese people indicated that they lacked some daily necessities (non-monetary poverty). A two-level Poisson regression analysis revealed that relative deprivation was associated with poor self-rated health (PR = 1.3-1.5) and depressive symptoms (PR = 1.5-1.8) in both men and women, and these relationships were stronger than those observed in people living in relative poverty (monetary poverty). The interaction effect between relative deprivation and relative poverty was not associated with poor health. As a dimension of the social determinants of health, poverty should be evaluated from a multidimensional approach, capturing not only monetary conditions but also material-based, non-monetary conditions.

  14. Subgingival Microbiota in White Patients With Desquamative Gingivitis: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Arduino, Paolo G; Romano, Federica; Sasia, Danilo; Broccoletti, Roberto; Ricceri, Fulvio; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Cipriani, Raffaella; Cricenti, Luca; Cabras, Marco; Aimetti, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Presence of epithelial desquamation, erythema, and erosions on gingival tissue is usually described in the literature as desquamative gingivitis (DG). A wide range of autoimmune/dermatologic disorders can manifest as DG, although the two more common are oral lichen planus and mucous membrane pemphigoid. The aim of this study is to investigate prevalence of 11 periodontopathogenic microorganisms in patients with DG and to compare it with the microbiologic status of individuals affected by plaque-induced gingivitis (pGI). Cross-sectional clinical and microbiologic data were obtained from 66 patients (33 in each group). Subgingival plaque samples were analyzed using semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Statistically significant difference, but with little clinical significance, was observed in gingival conditions between the two groups, probably due to the worse home control hygiene of patients with DG. Prevalence and levels of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Eikenella corrodens, and Fusobacterium nucleatum/periodonticum were statistically higher in samples from patients with DG than in those with pGI. In multivariate regression models, subgingival colonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum/periodonticum was not statistically associated with DG, whereas, high levels of E. corrodens were associated with 13-fold increased odds for DG. Microbiologic differences were found in subgingival plaque for patients with DG and pGI. This may suggest possible association between periodontal pathogens and DG.

  15. A cross-sectional study of breath acetone based on diabetic metabolic disorders.

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    Li, Wenwen; Liu, Yong; Lu, Xiaoyong; Huang, Yanping; Liu, Yu; Cheng, Shouquan; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-02-26

    Breath acetone is a known biomarker for diabetes mellitus in breath analysis. In this work, a cross-sectional study of breath acetone based on clinical metabolic disorders of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was carried out. Breath acetone concentrations of 113 T2DM patients and 56 apparently healthy individuals were measured at a single time point. Concentrations varied from 0.22 to 9.41 ppmv (mean 1.75 ppmv) for T2DM, which were significantly higher than those for normal controls (ranged from 0.32 to 1.96 ppmv, mean 0.72 ppmv, p = 0.008). Observations in our work revealed that breath acetone concentrations elevated to different degrees, along with the abnormality of blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride and cholesterol. Breath acetone showed obviously positive correlations with blood ketone and urine ketone. Possible metabolic relations between breath acetone and diabetic disorders were also discussed. This work aimed at giving an overall assessment of breath acetone from the perspective of clinical parameters for type 2 diabetes.

  16. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome among obese individuals: A cross-sectional study

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    Débora Aparecida Oliveira Modena

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a respiratory illness, characterized by recurrent episodes of apnea and hypopnea, leading to reduction or cessation of the airflow. Obesity is one of the major risk factors for the development of OSAS. To help in the diagnosis of this disease, easily applicable and low-cost questionnaries were developed, such as the Berlin Questionnaire (BQ. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of the BQ for the screening of OSAS among candidates to bariatric surgery in a multidisciplinary preoperative program. Method: This is an observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study which evaluated obese individuals that were being prepared for bariatric surgery by means of the BQ. Results: BQ was able to detect that minimal variations in the body mass index, neck circumference and hip-to-waist ratio lead to changes in the risk to develop OSAS; the higher the values of these variables, the higher the risk for OSAS development. Conclusion: BQ was an efficient and reliable tool to demonstrate the high risk for OSAS development in individual with obesity.

  17. [Cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitosis in child populations in Argentina].

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    Navone, Graciela Teresa; Zonta, María Lorena; Cociancic, Paola; Garraza, Mariela; Gamboa, María Inés; Giambelluca, Luis Alberto; Dahinten, Silvia; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith

    2017-06-08

    Determine the distribution of intestinal parasitosis in children in nine provinces representative of Argentina's mosaic of contrasting environments. Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study of preschool children (5 years old or under) and school-age children (6-14 years) in the provinces of Buenos Aires (sample taken between 2005 and 2013), Chubut (2010-2013), Corrientes (2012), Entre Ríos (2010-2012), Formosa (2014), La Pampa (2006), Mendoza (2008-2011), Misiones (2005-2008 and 2013), and Salta (2012-2013). Serial samples, fecal samples, and anal swabs were processed using concentration techniques. The results were analyzed by sex, age interval, and province. Frequency of parasitosis (monoparasitosis and multiple parasitoses), wealth of species, and Sørensen similarity coefficient were calculated. Misiones presented the highest frequency of parasitized children and Chubut the lowest (82.0% vs 38.4%; p parasitosis in Formosa (69.2%). The most frequent species in the majority of provinces were Blastocystis sp. and Enterobius vermicularis. Misiones presented the highest frequency of soil-transmitted helminthes (23.3%) and Mendoza the lowest (0.6%); none were found in Chubut, La Pampa, or Salta. Buenos Aires, Formosa, and Misiones presented a similar species composition, as did Chubut and La Pampa. The frequency of parasitosis in Argentina corresponds to the country's complex mosaic of climatic and socioeconomic variability and shows a declining trend from north to south and from east to west.

  18. Flow Observations with Tufts and Lampblack of the Stalling of Four Typical Airfoil Sections in the NACA Variable-density Tunnel

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    Abbott, Ira H; Sherman, Albert

    1938-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the stalling processes of four typical airfoil sections was made over the critical range of the Reynolds Number. Motion pictures were taken of the movements of small silk tufts on the airfoil surface as the angle of attack increased through a range of angles including the stall. The boundary-layer flow also at certain angles of attack was indicated by the patterns formed by a suspension of lampblack in oil brushed onto the airfoil surface. These observations were analyzed together with corresponding force-test measurements to derive a picture of the stalling processes of airfoils.

  19. Direct observation of CD4 T cell morphologies and their cross-sectional traction force derivation on quartz nanopillar substrates using focused ion beam technique

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    Kim, Dong-Joo; Kim, Gil-Sung; Hyung, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Won-Yong; Hong, Chang-Hee; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2013-07-01

    Direct observations of the primary mouse CD4 T cell morphologies, e.g., cell adhesion and cell spreading by culturing CD4 T cells in a short period of incubation (e.g., 20 min) on streptavidin-functionalized quartz nanopillar arrays (QNPA) using a high-content scanning electron microscopy method were reported. Furthermore, we first demonstrated cross-sectional cell traction force distribution of surface-bound CD4 T cells on QNPA substrates by culturing the cells on top of the QNPA and further analysis in deflection of underlying QNPA via focused ion beam-assisted technique.

  20. Eating frequency and weight and body composition: a systematic review of observational studies.

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    Canuto, Raquel; da Silva Garcez, Anderson; Kac, Gilberto; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2017-08-01

    The present review aimed to examine the association of eating frequency with body weight or body composition in adults of both sexes. PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched. PRISMA and MOOSE protocols were followed. Observational studies published up to August 2016 were included. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed with the Downs and Black checklist. A systematic review of the literature. Adults (n 136 052); the majority of studies were developed in the USA and Europe. Thirty-one articles were included in the review: two prospective and twenty-nine cross-sectional studies. Thirteen per cent of the studies received quality scores above 80 %. The assessment of eating frequency and body composition or body weight varied widely across the studies. Potential confounders were included in 73