WorldWideScience

Sample records for section northwest gotland

  1. [The reception of medieval Europe in the Baltic Sea region, Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby] / Juhan Kreem

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreem, Juhan, 1971-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: The reception of medieval Europe in the Baltic Sea Region : papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium, held at Gotland University, Visby / editor: Jörn Staecker. Visby : Gotland University Press, 2009. (Acta Visbyensia ; 12)

  2. [The Reception of Medieval Europa in the Baltic Sea Region. Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby] / Stefan Donecker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus : The Reception of Medieval Europa in the Baltic Sea Region. Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby. Viby : Gotland University Press, 2009. (Acta Visbyensia. 12)

  3. Tre lampor och ett ben : produktserie för Gotlands Lampfabrik

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Gotlands Lampfabrik är en nystartad verksamhet (2009) som drivs av Jonas Kling och Jane Odell centralt på Gotland. De producerar stilrena lampskärmar i ett ljust polymermaterial med papp på båda sidorna. Produktionen är liten och görs för hand på plats i den egna fabriken i Väskinde. Sortimentet består av 33 lampskärmar och i nuläget producerar inte Gotlands Lampfabrik sina egna lampben eller upphängningar utan köper in dem från fristående parter vilket medför att sortimentet kan uppfattas so...

  4. Wind power and defense interests on Gotland. Presentation of a joint project between the County Administrative Board, Region Gotland and the Swedish Armed Forces in 2011; Vindkraft och foersvarsintressen paa Gotland. Redovisning av ett samverkansprojekt mellan Laensstyrelsen, Region Gotland och Foersvarsmakten 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The island of Gotland has a large potential for wind power production. An existing weather radar system, however, causes extensive restrictions for further development of wind power on Gotland. In a joint project during 2011 the County Administration Board of Gotland, the Municipality of Gotland and the Swedish Armed Forces have explored ways to overcome the existing conflicts. The project has been sponsored by the Swedish Energy Agency. Through the collaboration, the participants have gained a better understanding of various aspects of the conflicting interests. Studies have been carried out with the prospect to modelling alternative solutions to reduce the conflicts. The study regarding the radar system has been carried out by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst.. This report present some practical solutions to avoid conflict in most of areas which are planned for wind power by the municipality. It is suggested that a complimentary radar can be built. A number of alternative localizations for the complimentary radar have been suggested and the potential effects for wind power production estimated. Costs for the suggested solutions have been calculated.

  5. Reproduction of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua (Actinopterygii: Gadiformes: Gadidae), in the Gotland Basin: Causes of annual variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plikshs, Maris; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Elferts, D.

    2015-01-01

    observations during 1969–1995 on four stations in each of two transects. The oceanographic monitoring and demersal trawl research survey data from 1974–2012 have been used in analyses. Results. The sufficient reproduction conditions in the southern Gotland Basin persisted only until 1981. In later decades...... reproduction volume concept can be used as an ecological indicator for egg survival probability in the Gotland Basin. However, it is too premature to re-define the concept of the suitable reproduction volume because it is applicable only to the Gotland spawning ground...

  6. Correlation of upper Llandovery–lower Wenlock bentonites in the När (Gotland, Sweden and Ventspils (Latvia drill cores: role of volcanic ash clouds and shelf sea currents in determining areal distribution of bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmo Kiipli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Study of volcanic ash beds using biostratigraphy, sanidine composition and immobile elements within bentonites has manifested several well-established and some provisional correlations between Gotland and East Baltic sections. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence microanalysis of phenocrysts has revealed bentonites containing Mg-rich or Fe-rich biotite. Sanidine phenocrysts contain, in addition to a major Na and K component, often a few per cent of Ca and Ba. On the basis of new correlations the mapping of the distribution areas of bentonites has been extended from the East Baltic to Gotland. The bentonite distribution can be separated into two parts in North Latvia–South Estonia, indicating the existence of shelf sea currents in the Baltic Silurian Basin.

  7. A new species of Conchicolites (Cornulitida, Tentaculita from the Wenlock of Gotland, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Vinn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new cornulitid species, Conchicolites crispisulcans sp. nov., is described from the Wenlock of Gotland, Sweden. The undulating edge of C. crispisulcans sp. nov. peristomes is unique among the species of Conchicolites. This undulating peristome edge may reflect the position of setae at the tube aperture. The presence of the undulating peristome edge supports the hypothesis that cornulitids had setae and were probably related to brachiopods.

  8. HIV, appendectomy and postoperative complications at a reference hospital in Northwest Tanzania: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heukelbach Jorg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appendicitis is a frequent surgical emergency worldwide. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HIV, and the association of infection with clinical, intraoperative and histological findings and outcome, among patients with appendicitis. Methods We performed a cross sectional study at Weill-Bugando Medical Centre in northwest Tanzania. In total, 199 patients undergoing appendectomy were included. Demographic characteristics of patients, clinical features, laboratory, intraoperative and histopathological findings, and HIV serostatus were recorded. Results In total, 26/199 (13.1% were HIV-seropositive. The HIV-positive population was significantly older (mean age: 38.4 years than the HIV-negative population (25.3 years; p Conclusion HIV infections are common among patients with appendicitis in Tanzania, and are associated with severe morbidity, postoperative complications and longer hospital stays. Early diagnosis of appendicitis and prompt appendectomy are crucial in areas with high prevalence of HIV infection. Routine pre-test counseling and HIV screening for appendicitis patients is recommended to detect early cases who may benefit from HAART.

  9. Postpartum contraceptive use in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Yeshewas; Mengesha, Zelalem Birhanu; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa

    2015-01-01

    Addressing family planning in the postpartum period is crucial for better maternal, neonatal and child survival because it enables women to achieve healthy interval between births. The contraceptive behavior of women in the postpartum period is usually different from other times in a woman's life cycle due to the additional roles and presence of emotional changes. Therefore, this study is conducted with the aim of assessing the contraceptive behavior of women in the postpartum period. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in August 2013 among women who gave birth one year before the study period in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Multistage cluster sampling technique was employed to recruit a total of 703 study participants. For data collection, a structured and pretested questionnaire was used. Descriptive statistics were done to characterize the study population using different variables. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were computed to identify factors associated with contraceptive use. Nearly half (48.4%) of the postpartum women were using different types of contraceptives. The most commonly used method was injectable (68.5%). Resumption of mensus [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 8.32 95% Confidence Interval (CI): (5.27, 13.14)], age ≤24 years [AOR = 2.36, 95% CI: (1.19, 4.69), duration of 7-9 months after delivery [AOR = 2.26 95% CI: (1.12, 4.54)], and having antenatal care [AOR = 5.76, 95% CI: (2.18, 15.2)] were the factors positively associated with contraceptive use in the extended postpartum period. Postpartum contraceptive practice was lower as compared to the Ethiopian demographic and health survey 2011 report for urban areas. Strengthening family planning counseling during antenatal care visit and postnatal care would improve contraceptive use in the postpartum period.

  10. Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Risk Factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abate, Abraraw; Kibret, Biniam; Bekalu, Eylachew; Abera, Sendeku; Teklu, Takele; Yalew, Aregawi; Endris, Mengistu; Worku, Ligabaw; Tekeste, Zinaye

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Teda Health Centre from February to April, 2011. Stool samples were collected from 410 study participants and analysed by direct wet mount and formal ether concentration techniques. Furthermore, sociodemographic data were collected by using standardized questionnaire. Result. The overall prevalence of intes...

  11. Dietary diversity, meal frequency and associated factors among infant and young children in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross- sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Beyene, Melkamu; Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu; Wassie, Molla Mesele

    2015-01-01

    Background Inappropriate feeding practice increases risk of under nutrition, illness, and mortality amongst children less than 2 years of age. The objective of this study is to assess minimum dietary diversity, meal frequency and its associated factors among infant and young children aged 6–23 months in Dangila Town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted. Simple random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Interviewer administere...

  12. Stable isotope stratigraphy of Latest Miocene sequences in northwest Morocco: The Bou Regreg section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodell, David A.; Benson, Richard H.; Kennett, James P.; Rakic-El Bied, Kruna

    1989-08-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotopic ratios of foraminifers were measured from outcrop and drill core sequences from the Bou Regreg Section, northwest Morocco. This composite section was located at the western end of the Rifian Corridor during the late Miocene and thus potentially contains a record of water exchange between the Atlantic and Mediterranean during the late Tortonian and Messinian stages. Here we correlate isotopic and sedimentologic events in the Bou Regreg Section with Mediterranean and deep-sea sequences during the time leading up to and including the deposition of the Messinian evaporites. The late Miocene chron 6 carbon shift was identified in two Moroccan sequences, providing a valuable 6.3-Ma datum level. In both sections, the carbon shift coincides with the first occurrence of Globorotalia conomiozea and the Tortonian/Messinian boundary. Near this boundary, a major faunal turnover occurred in ostracod, planktonic foraminiferal, and nannofossil assemblages that indicates a cooling of surface and deep water in the Rifian Corridor. At 6.1 Ma, just above the Tortonian/Messinian boundary, mean ∂18O values of benthic foraminifers increased by 0.4-0.5‰ suggesting decreased temperature and/or increased continental ice volume. The faunal and isotopic changes are interpreted as reflecting a reversal in the direction of deep water flow through the Rifian Corridor that occurred between 6.3 and 6.1 Ma. At this time, cold, nutrient-rich waters filled the Mediterranean basins from intermediate depths of the Atlantic, and the production of Mediterranean Outflow Water ceased. The upwelling of nutrient-rich Atlantic intermediate water stimulated productivity in the Mediterranean, which led to the deposition of organic-rich strata such as those found in the Tripoli Formation. At ˜5.5 Ma, coincident with a coiling shift in Neogloboquadrina acostaensis, the variability of the benthic ∂18O signal increased markedly, and strong color variations appeared in the sediments

  13. Cultural Competence among Maternal Healthcare Providers in Bahir Dar City Administration, Northwest Ethiopia: Cross sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragaw, Amanu; Yigzaw, Tegbar; Tetemke, Desalegn; G/Amlak, Wubalem

    2015-09-24

    Cultural competency is now a core requirement for maternal health providers working in multicultural society. However, it has not yet received due attention in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the level of cultural competence and its associated factors among maternal health care providers in Bahir Dar City Administration, Northwest Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Maternal health care providers from all health facilities were our study participants. Structured Questionnaire with some modification of Campinha Bacote's tool was used to collect quantitative data from health workers and semi structured guide line was used for qualitative data among women. While quantitative data analysis was done using SPSS, qualitative data was analyzed using open code software. P-value of less than 0.05 was taken to determine statistical significance. Cronbach's alpha was used to test internal reliability and a factor loading of 0.3 or greater was the criterion used to retain items. Two hundred seventy four health workers and seven women were involved in the study. The overall competency level was 57.3 % thought vary in different subscales or stages. Of the cultural competent health workers near to three fourth (73.0 %) were in awareness stage which is the earliest stage of competence in which individuals were aware only their own culture but not the world view of their clients. The voices of mothers in the qualitative assessment also showed discordance in cultural competence with their healthcare providers. Female health workers almost six times [AOR,5.5; 2.71, 11.30] more competent than male providers and those who got in-service training related to maternal care provided services more culturally competent than their counter parts with [AOR,3.5; 1.4, 8.64]. Reliability Cronbach's α coefficient value of cultural competence subscales showed 0.672,0 .719, 0.658, 0.714, and 0.631 for cultural

  14. Benefits from restoring wetlands for nitrogen abatement: A case study of Gotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gren, I.M.

    1992-01-01

    The values of nitrogen abatement by measures involving restoration of wetlands, sewage treatment plants and agriculture are calculated and compared. The analytical results show that the value of wetlands is likely to exceed the values of other measures due to the multi-functionality of wetlands and their self-organizing ability. The multi-functionality implies that, in addition to nitrogen abatement, other outputs like buffering of water and biodiversity are produced and the self-organizing feature reduces the rate at which future values of outputs are discounted. According to the empirical results applied to Gotland, a Swedish island in the Baltic with high concentrations of nitrate in the ground water, the imputed value of wetlands exceeds the corresponding values of the other nitrogen abatement measures by several hundred per cent. 21 refs, 6 tabs

  15. Nurse uniform wearing practices and associated factors among nurses working in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional institution based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desta, Etaferahu Alamaw; Gebrie, Mignote Hailu; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2015-01-01

    Wearing uniforms help in the formation of professional identity in healthcare. It fosters a strong self image and professional identity which can lead to good confidence and better performance in nursing practice. However, most nurses in Ethiopia are not wearing nursing uniforms and the reasons remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of this research is to assess nurse uniform wearing practices among nurses and factors associated with such practice in hospitals in Northwest Ethiopia. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April, 2014 in five hospitals located in Northwest Ethiopia. A total 459 nurses participated in the study. Data was collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were analyzed in order to characterize the study population. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were computed to identify factors associated with nursing uniform practice. Nurse uniform wearing practice was found to be 49.2 % of the total sample size. Around 35 % of the respondents that did not implement nurse uniform wearing practices stated that there was no specific uniform for nurses recommended by hospital management. In addition to this, nurse uniform wearing practices were positively associated with being female [AOR = 1.58, 95 % CI (1.02, 2.44)], studying nursing by choice [AOR =3.16, 95 % CI (2.03, 4.92)], and the appeal of nursing uniforms to nurses [AOR = 3.43 95 % CI (1.96, 5.98)]. Nurse uniform wearing practices were not exceptionally prevalent in Northwest Ethiopian hospitals. However, encouraging students to pursue interest-based careers and implementing a nurse uniform wearing policy may have the potential to improve such practices.

  16. HIV associated hypocalcaemia among diarrheic patients in northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moges, Beyene; Amare, Bemnet; Yabutani, Timoki; Kassu, Afework

    2014-07-04

    Hypocalcaemia, defined by serum calcium level less than 8.5 mg/dl, could be caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and diarrheal diseases. In Ethiopia, while morbidities from diarrheal diseases and HIV are serious health problems, studies assessing the interactions amongst of the three do not exist. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the level of calcium among diarrheic patients with and without HIV co-infection. Consecutive diarrheic patients attending Gondar University Hospital in Ethiopia were enrolled and screened for HIV, intestinal parasites, Shigella and Salmonella. Concentration of calcium in serum was determined using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. A total of 206 diarrheic patients were included in the study (109 = HIV positive, 97 = HIV negative). Intestinal parasites and Shigella species were detected in 32.2% and 8.5% of the patients, respectively. The serum calcium levels in the patients who were found positive for Shigella species or intestinal parasites was not significantly different by the presence or absence of HIV co-infection. HIV infected diarrheic patients had significantly lower mean serum calcium levels (7.82 ± 1.23 mg/dl) than those negative for HIV (8.38 ± 1.97) (P = 0.015). The age groups 25-35 and greater than 45 years showed significantly lower mean serum calcium levels (7.77 ± 1.55 mg/dl) in comparison to the other age groups (7.84 ± 1.41 mg/dl, P = 0.009). On the other hand, females presented with significantly lower mean serum calcium levels (7.79 ± 1.60 mg/dl, P = 0.044) than males (8.26 ± 1.65 mg/dl). There is high prevalence of hypocalcaemia among diarrheic patients in northwest Ethiopia. And HIV stood out to be a major risk factor for development of hypocalcaemia among the diarrheic patients in northwest Ethiopia. Further studies are required to substantiate and characterize the mechanisms and consequences of calcium metabolism disorders among HIV infected individuals in the

  17. Prevalence of malnutrition and associated risk factors among adult visceral leishmaniasis patients in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengesha, Bewketu; Endris, Mengistu; Takele, Yegnasew; Mekonnen, Kalehiwot; Tadesse, Takele; Feleke, Amsalu; Diro, Ermias

    2014-02-04

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) causes considerable morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia. Data on the prevalence and associated risk factors on malnutrition among VL patients in Ethiopia are scarce. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and its associated risk factor among VL patients in Northwest Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from June to September 2012 at four leishmaniasis treatment sites in Northwest Ethiopia. Four hundred and three adult VL patients were enrolled in the study. Malnutrition was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≤ 18.5 kg/m2. The data collected from the VL patients included sex, age, residence, occupation, weight, height, laboratory results (HIV, hemoglobin, intestinal parasites). Multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the strength of association between malnutrition and associated risk factors. Among 403 adult VL patients 385 (95.5%) were malnourished. Twenty eight percent (n = 113), 30.3% (n = 122), and 37.2% (n = 150) were mildly, moderately and severely malnourished, respectively. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 47.6% (n = 192) and it was associated with malnutrition (P = 0.01). The prevalence of VL-HIV co-infection was 10.4% (n = 42). Hook worm, Giardia intestinalis and Ascaris lumbircoides were the leading prevalent intestinal parasites. Factors such as age, sex, residence, occupation, HIV status and anemia were not associated with severe malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition in VL patients was very high and it was associated with intestinal parasitic infections. Therefore, screening of severely malnourished VL patients for intestinal parasitic infections during admission is recommended.

  18. Differentials of fertility in North and South Gondar zones, northwest Ethiopia: A comparative cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worku Alemayehu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopia is one of the most densely populated countries in Africa with an estimated population of 77.1 million in mid-2007. Uncontrolled fertility has adversely influenced the socio-economic, demographic and environmental situations of the country. It is one of the largest and poorest countries that, even in the midst of crisis, has maintained high levels of fertility. This study was aimed at investigating the most important factors influencing fertility behavior in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study which included 2424 women aged 25 years and above was undertaken in the Amhara region of Northwest Ethiopia. The study subjects were grouped into high fertile and low fertile categories. There were 1011 and 1413 women in the high and low fertile groups, respectively. A multi-stage cluster sampling stratified by place of residence was employed to select the required study subjects. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to analyze the data. Results Among the 25 variables considered in this study, only 9 of them were found significantly and independently associated with the level of fertility. Women with at least secondary education were at a lower risk of high fertility with OR = 0.37 (95% CI: 0.21 to 0.64 compared to those with no formal education. However, women with primary education did not show any significant difference when compared with the same baseline group. Age at first marriage was inversely associated with the number of children ever born alive. Place of residence, household expenditure, number of children who have died, attitude towards using contraceptives, women's knowledge on the safe period, and current marital status were the other variables that showed significant associations with the level of fertility. Conclusion Female education beyond the primary level, reduced infant and child mortality, delayed marriage and correct knowledge on the safe

  19. An audit of caesarean section in a tertiary hospital northwest Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the increasing safety of anesthesia and surgical technique, caesarean delivery accounts for more maternal morbidity and mortality compared to a normal ... Records of patients who had caesarean section (CIS) were retrieved from the operation record book in the theatre and the labour ward delivery record book.

  20. Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Risk Factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Abraraw; Kibret, Biniam; Bekalu, Eylachew; Abera, Sendeku; Teklu, Takele; Yalew, Aregawi; Endris, Mengistu; Worku, Ligabaw; Tekeste, Zinaye

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Teda Health Centre from February to April, 2011. Stool samples were collected from 410 study participants and analysed by direct wet mount and formal ether concentration techniques. Furthermore, sociodemographic data were collected by using standardized questionnaire. Result. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in this study was 62.3%. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite (23.2%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (12.4%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (4.6%), Schistosoma mansoni (8.9%), hookworm (6.6%), Hymenolepis nana (1.5%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.2%). Absence of toilet and hand washing after toilet was shown to be associated with intestinal parasitic infection (P intestinal parasitic infection in the study area. Absence of toilet and hand washing after toilet was found to be associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Therefore, there is a need for integrated control programme to have a lasting impact on transmission of intestinal parasitic infection.

  1. Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections among children of northwest Mexico: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Quihui-Cota

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background G. intestinalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are responsible for gastrointestinal infections worldwide. Contaminated food, feces, drinking water and predictors such as poverty, cultural and behavioral aspects have been involved in their transmission. Published studies about these infections are limited in Mexico. Cananea, Sonora is located in northwest Mexico and is one of the regions with the lowest marginalization index in the Sonora state. However, its rate of gastrointestinal infections increased from 48.7/1000 in 2003 to 77.9/1000 in 2010 in the general population. It was estimated that the prevalence of giardiasis can range from 20 to 30% in the Sonoran childhood population. However, the prevalence of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are unknown in Cananea, Sonora and they are likely contributing to its gastrointestinal infections rates. Methods A total of 173 children (average age 8.8 ± 2.8 years participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measurements and stool analysis were performed. Socioeconomic, cultural and symptomatology information were collected. The association between the risk factors and intestinal parasitic infections was analyzed by multivariate analysis using the STATA/SE package at a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Results More than half of the children (n = 103, 60% had intestinal parasitic infections. Cryptosporidium spp. showed the highest prevalence (n = 47, 27%, which was followed by G. intestinalis (n = 40, 23%. Children with giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis had lower H/A and BMI/A Z scores than children who were free of these infections. Children with giardiasis were at higher risk (OR = 4.0; 95%CI = 1.11–13.02; p = 0.030 of reporting abdominal pain, and children who drank tap water were at higher risk (OR = 5.0; 95% CI = 1.41–17.20; p = 0.012 of cryptosporidiosis. Conclusions This was the first epidemiological study conducted in

  2. Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections among children of northwest Mexico: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quihui-Cota, Luis; Morales-Figueroa, Gloria Guadalupe; Javalera-Duarte, Aarón; Ponce-Martínez, José Antonio; Valbuena-Gregorio, Edith; López-Mata, Marco Antonio

    2017-10-30

    G. intestinalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are responsible for gastrointestinal infections worldwide. Contaminated food, feces, drinking water and predictors such as poverty, cultural and behavioral aspects have been involved in their transmission. Published studies about these infections are limited in Mexico. Cananea, Sonora is located in northwest Mexico and is one of the regions with the lowest marginalization index in the Sonora state. However, its rate of gastrointestinal infections increased from 48.7/1000 in 2003 to 77.9/1000 in 2010 in the general population. It was estimated that the prevalence of giardiasis can range from 20 to 30% in the Sonoran childhood population. However, the prevalence of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are unknown in Cananea, Sonora and they are likely contributing to its gastrointestinal infections rates. A total of 173 children (average age 8.8 ± 2.8 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measurements and stool analysis were performed. Socioeconomic, cultural and symptomatology information were collected. The association between the risk factors and intestinal parasitic infections was analyzed by multivariate analysis using the STATA/SE package at a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. More than half of the children (n = 103, 60%) had intestinal parasitic infections. Cryptosporidium spp. showed the highest prevalence (n = 47, 27%), which was followed by G. intestinalis (n = 40, 23%). Children with giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis had lower H/A and BMI/A Z scores than children who were free of these infections. Children with giardiasis were at higher risk (OR = 4.0; 95%CI = 1.11-13.02; p = 0.030) of reporting abdominal pain, and children who drank tap water were at higher risk (OR = 5.0; 95% CI = 1.41-17.20; p = 0.012) of cryptosporidiosis. This was the first epidemiological study conducted in children in the region of Cananea, Sonora in northwest Mexico. The

  3. Pharmacy students' provision of health promotion counseling services during a community pharmacy clerkship: a cross sectional study, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelayee, Dessalegn Asmelashe; Mekonnen, Gashaw Binega

    2018-05-04

    Globally, undergraduate pharmacy education comprises practice programs aimed to address different competencies. This study was intended to investigate pharmacy students' provision of health promotion (HP) counseling services during a community pharmacy clerkship in Northwest Ethiopia. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on fifty one fifth-year pharmacy students immediately after completion of a 2-week community pharmacy clerkship. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Relationship between variables was examined using Pearson's Chi-square test of independence, Mann-Whitney U test, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The mean number of HP counseling service types delivered during the clerkship was 6.3 ± 2.8 out of 12. It is positively correlated with the number of HP counseling service types delivered in students' previous training (rho =0.437, p = 0.001). Nearly half (n = 25, 49%) of the students were actively-involved (i.e delivered ≥ 7 types of HP counseling service types) in the service and those who were well involved in previous training are more likely to do the same during the clerkship (X 2  = 4.581, p = 0.032). The main barriers perceived to hinder health promotion service were clients' lack of time and interest as well as absence of a guideline for health promotion service. Community pharmacy clerkship is a good opportunity for pharmacy students to develop health promotion counseling skill. Clerkship performance can best be improved through successful exposures to similar activities in previous courses and students shall be encouraged to carry out self-assessments of their health promotion counseling practice against standards set for the clerkship.

  4. Condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in Northwest Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamene, Masresha Molla; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Beyera, Getahun Kebede

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are among the most important public health problems in the world. People who indulge in unsafe sex, such as female sex workers are the most at risk population groups due to multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use. The aim of this study was to assess condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. A quantitative cross-sectional study triangulated with qualitative method was conducted from March 20 - April 10, 2014 in Gondar town. The quantitative data were collected through interviewing 488 female sex workers while in-depth interview was administered to collect qualitative data from 10 female sex workers. The collected data were entered into EPI-INFO version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 20.0 software for analysis. Logistic regression analysis was done to determine the association between condom utilization and independent variables. This study revealed that less than half (47.7%) of the respondents utilized condom with any type of client. Secondary education or above, perceiving themselves at risk of HIV/AIDS infection, having awareness that sexually transmitted infections could increase HIV infection, being tested for HIV/AIDS in the last 12 months, and having lower number of clients in a month were positively associated with condom utilization. This finding depicted that condom utilization was low among female sex workers. Thus, developing and implementing target oriented behavioral change and communication strategies are needed to prevent the risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections in female sex workers.

  5. Dietary diversity, meal frequency and associated factors among infant and young children in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross- sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Melkamu; Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu; Wassie, Molla Mesele

    2015-10-03

    Inappropriate feeding practice increases risk of under nutrition, illness, and mortality amongst children less than 2 years of age. The objective of this study is to assess minimum dietary diversity, meal frequency and its associated factors among infant and young children aged 6-23 months in Dangila Town, Northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study was conducted. Simple random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Interviewer administered questionnaire were used. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses was employed to identify factors associated with minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency. A total of 920 children 6-23 months were included. Proportion of children who met the minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency was 12.6 and 50.4 %, respectively. Mothers education [AOR =2.52], age of a child [AOR = 2.05], birth order of index child [AOR = 2.08], living in urban area [AOR = 2.09], having home gardening [AOR = 2.03], and media exposure [AOR = 2.74] were positively associated with dietary diversity. Moreover, age of the child [AOR = 3.03], birth order of index child [AOR = 1.58], mothers involvement in decision making [AOR = 1.51], media exposure [AOR = 2.62], and having postnatal visit [AOR = 2.30] were positively associated with meal frequency. The proportion of children who received minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency was low. Being at younger age, first birth order, and lack of media exposure affect both dietary diversity and meal frequency. Increasing mother's education, home gardening, mass media promotion and empowering women in decision making are highly recommended to increase dietary diversity and meal frequency.

  6. Surfaces and Air Bacteriology of Selected Wards at a Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Hailu; Derbie, Awoke; Mekonnen, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The hospital environment is a source of medically important pathogens that are mostly multidrug resistant (MDR) and posing a major therapeutic challenge. The aim of this study was to assess the surface and air bacteriology of selected wards at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital (FHRH), Northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was carried out from 15th February to 30th April 2017. A total of 356 surface and air samples were collected from selected wards using 5% sheep blood agar (Oxoid, UK) and processed at FHRH microbiology laboratory following the standard bacteriological procedures. Pure isolates were tested against the recommended antibiotics using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methods, and the susceptibility profile was determined based on Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 23 for Windows. Of the total 356 samples processed, 274 were from surfaces and 82 were from air. Among these, 141 (39.6%) showed bacterial growth, yielding a total of 190 isolates. Gram-positive isolates were predominant at 81.6% ( n =155), while the gram negatives were at 18.4% ( n =35). The main isolates were coagulase negative staphylococci ( CoNs ), 44%, followed by S. aureus , 37.4%, and Klebsiella species at 11.6%. The bacterial load on surfaces and air was found beyond the standard limits. Besides, the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates showed that about 75% of the identified isolates were found resistant for two and more antimicrobial agents tested. This study showed high degree of bacterial load that is beyond the standard limits on both surfaces and air samples of the hospital. Furthermore, some 75% of the isolates were found multidrug resistant. Therefore, it is important to evaluate and strengthen the infection prevention practice of the hospital. Moreover, stakeholders should also reinforce actions to decrease the pressure of antimicrobial resistance in the studied area.

  7. Portable audio magnetotellurics - experimental measurements and joint inversion with radiomagnetotelluric data from Gotland, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chunling; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Pedersen, Laust B.; Erlström, Mikael; Persson, Lena

    2017-08-01

    Field setup of an audio magnetotelluric (AMT) station is a very time consuming and heavy work load. In contrast, radio magnetotelluric (RMT) equipment is more portable and faster to deploy but has shallower investigation depth owing to its higher signal frequencies. To increase the efficiency in the acquisition of AMT data from 10 to 300 Hz, we introduce a modification of the AMT method, called portable audio magnetotellurics (PAMT), that uses a lighter AMT field system and (owing to the disregard of signals at frequencies of less than 10 Hz) shortened data acquisition time. PAMT uses three magnetometers pre-mounted on a rigid frame to measure magnetic fields and steel electrodes to measure electric fields. Field tests proved that the system is stable enough to measure AMT fields in the given frequency range. A PAMT test measurement was carried out on Gotland, Sweden along a 3.5 km profile to study the ground conductivity and to map shallow Silurian marlstone and limestone formations, deeper Silurian, Ordovician and Cambrian sedimentary structures and crystalline basement. RMT data collected along a coincident profile and regional airborne very low frequency (VLF) data support the interpretation of our PAMT data. While only the RMT and VLF data constrain a shallow ( 20-50 m deep) transition between Silurian conductive ( 1000 Ωm resistivity) limestone, the single-method inversion models of both the PAMT and the RMT data show a transition into a conductive layer of 3 to 30 Ωm resistivity at 80 m depth suggesting the compatibility of the two data sets. This conductive layer is interpreted as saltwater saturated succession of Silurian, Ordovician and Cambrian sedimentary units. Towards the lower boundary of this succession (at 600 m depth according to boreholes), only the PAMT data constrain the structure. As supported by modelling tests and sensitivity analysis, the PAMT data only contain a vague indication of the underlying crystalline basement. A PAMT and RMT

  8. Microfacies characteristics, sedimentary environments and sequence stratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous deposits in northwest of Nehbandan (Basiran section

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    Mohammad nabi Gorgij

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   The Basiran stratigraphic section is located about 160 km northwest of Nehbandan.The section was measured in detail at 59 06 30 N and 31 52 50 E. Nehbandan area with respect to fourfold geological subdivision of Iran is part of Central Iran that is located in the eastern flank of Lut Block which first time are studied by Stocklin et al.in 1972. Gorgij (2001 stratigraphically and paleontologically investigate Upper Cretaceous deposits in Mighan and Basiran sections. Upper Cretaceous deposits in in this area consists of 275m conglomerate,alternation of conglomerate-sandstone, sandy limestone -marl and limy marl, marl with intercalation of limestone-sandy limestone thin beds and medium-bedded to massive limestone. Microfacies analysis led to the recognition of 9 microfacies that are related to 5 belts; Coast, tidal flat, lagoon, shoal, shallow open marine and deep open marine environments. Main part of the section are deposited in the open marine environment that consist of marl,marly limestone and limestone. The doals of this study are : (1 describing and determining main carbonate and siliciclastic microfacies of late Cretaceous deposits (2 interpreting and providing depositional model for reconstruction of its paleoenvironmental setting based on microfacies characteristics (3 dividing the section based on lithostratigraphic principles and (4 recognizing a sequence stratigraphic model of this successions based on the vertical variation of facies,stratal key beds and stratal packing pattern.       Material and Method   The Basiran section as a complete stratigraphic section was measured and described. Up to 68 samples (indicated by KB1 to KB68 were collected and 170 thin sections are prepared. Based on field observations, sedimentological characteristics, parasequence stacking patterns, sequence boundary types and other key stratigraphical surfaces are identified and were obtained. Scheme of Dunham (1962 and Embry and Klovan

  9. Microfacies characteristics, sedimentary environments and sequence stratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous deposits in northwest of Nehbandan (Basiran section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Bordbar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction   The Basiran stratigraphic section is located about 160 km northwest of Nehbandan.The section was measured in detail at 59 06 30 N and 31 52 50 E. Nehbandan area with respect to fourfold geological subdivision of Iran is part of Central Iran that is located in the eastern flank of Lut Block which first time are studied by Stocklin et al.in 1972. Gorgij (2001 stratigraphically and paleontologically investigate Upper Cretaceous deposits in Mighan and Basiran sections. Upper Cretaceous deposits in in this area consists of 275m conglomerate,alternation of conglomerate-sandstone, sandy limestone -marl and limy marl, marl with intercalation of limestone-sandy limestone thin beds and medium-bedded to massive limestone. Microfacies analysis led to the recognition of 9 microfacies that are related to 5 belts Coast, tidal flat, lagoon, shoal, shallow open marine and deep open marine environments. Main part of the section are deposited in the open marine environment that consist of marl,marly limestone and limestone. The doals of this study are : (1 describing and determining main carbonate and siliciclastic microfacies of late Cretaceous deposits (2 interpreting and providing depositional model for reconstruction of its paleoenvironmental setting based on microfacies characteristics (3 dividing the section based on lithostratigraphic principles and (4 recognizing a sequence stratigraphic model of this successions based on the vertical variation of facies,stratal key beds and stratal packing pattern.       Material and Method   The Basiran section as a complete stratigraphic section was measured and described. Up to 68 samples (indicated by KB1 to KB68 were collected and 170 thin sections are prepared. Based on field observations, sedimentological characteristics, parasequence stacking patterns, sequence boundary types and other key stratigraphical surfaces are identified and were obtained. Scheme of Dunham (1962 and Embry

  10. Awareness and knowledge of glaucoma and associated factors among adults: a cross sectional study in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Destaye Shiferaw; Gudeta, Alemayehu Desalegn; Gebreselassie, Kbrom Legesse

    2017-08-24

    Raising public awareness and knowledge about glaucoma is a key for early case identification and prevention of blindness. However, awareness and knowledge about glaucoma is unknown at community level, making provision of interventions difficult. This study was intended to assess the awareness and knowledge of adults about glaucoma and the factors affecting it in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Community based cross - sectional study was conducted on 701 adults 35 and above years in Gondar from April 12-30, 2016. Multistage sampling technique was used to select study participants. Interviewer administered pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data after verbal informed consent. Data were entered into EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models and Odds ratio with 95% interval were used to identify factors. P-value glaucoma aware participants. Education (primary [AOR: 3.21; 1.73, 5.95], secondary [AOR: 4.34; 2.30, 8.22]; college and above [AOR: 9.82; 4.27, 22.60]) and having eye examination [AOR: 2.78; 1.86, 4.15] were positively associated with awareness of glaucoma whereas older age (65 -74 years [AOR: 0.31(0.21, 0.76]) was inversely related. Level of Education (primary[AOR:2.83;1.04,7.71],secondary[AOR:3.45;1.33,9.41],college and above [AOR: 4.86;1.82,12,99] and having eye examination [AOR: 2.61;1.53,4.45] were significantly associated with knowledge. The study has indicated higher level of awareness and knowledge about glaucoma in urban communities than previous studies. It has also identified educational status, eye examination at least once in life are related with better awareness and knowledge. The present awareness and knowledge should be enhanced through public oriented glaucoma education via mass media and incorporating eye check up as a routine in older people.

  11. Holocene history of the Baltic Sea as a background for assessing records of human impact in the sediments of the Gotland Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, E.; Andrén, T.; Kunzendorf, Helmar

    2000-01-01

    Sediment cores from the Gotland Basin were studied for their siliceous microfossil assemblages and organic carbon content to compare recent environmental changes in the Baltic Sea with its natural long-term history. Age models were constructed using Pb-210, Cs-137 and corrected and calibrated C-14...

  12. Analysis of late mid-Neolithic pottery illuminates the presenceof a Corded Ware Culture on the Baltic Island of Gotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Palmgren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss variations seen in the ornamentation and modes of manufacturing pottery from the end of the mid-Neolithic 4600–4300 BP on the Island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea. The Pitted Ware cultural groups have been discussed as a western influence from the Swedish mainland, but the aDNA on skeletal remains point to eastern influences. We analyse and discuss pottery from the well-investigated Ajvide Pitted Ware site and what these variations mean in term of intra- and inter-island relationships, ethnicity and change, and we suggest the development of what could be described as a hybrid culture.

  13. Processes regulating pCO2 in the surface waters of the central eastern Gotland Sea: a model study

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    Bernd Schneider

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a one-dimensional simulation of the seasonal changes in CO2 partial pressure (pCO2. The results of the model were constrained using data from observations, which improved the model's ability to estimate nitrogen fixation in the central Baltic Sea and allowed the impact of nitrogen fixation on the ecological state of the Baltic Sea to be studied. The model used here is the public domain water-column model GOTM (General Ocean Turbulence Model, which in this study was coupled with a modifed Baltic Sea ecosystem model, ERGOM (The Baltic Sea Research Institute's ecosystem model. To estimate nitrogen fixation rates in the Gotland Sea, the ERGOM model was modified by including an additional cyanobacteria group able to fix nitrogen from March to June. Furthermore, the model was extended by a simple CO2 cycle. Variable C:P and N:P ratios, controlled by phosphate concentrations in ambient water, were used to represent cyanobacteria, detritus and sediment detritus. This approach improved the model's ability to reproduce sea-surface phosphate and pCO2 dynamics. The resulting nitrogen fixation rates in 2005 for the two simulations, with and without the additional cyanobacteria group, were 259 and 278 mmol N m-2 year-1respectively.

  14. Overweight/Obesity and associated factors among preschool children in Gondar City, Northwest Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrie, Muluken Bekele; Yesuf, Melkie Edris; GebreMichael, Tsgehana GebreGyorgis

    2017-01-01

    Overweight and obesity among children has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century, which is a predictor of adulthood obesity, morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight /obesity and associated factors among preschool children. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar City from February 14 to March 4, 2016. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 504 preschool children. Data were collected using structured interviewer administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO 2007 Anthro version 2.0.4 software. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify associated factors. P values 2hr/day [AOR = 4.01 (95%CI;2.22, 7.26)] and mother's education at secondary level [AOR = 0.35 (95% CI; 0.12, 0.96)] were associated with overweight/obesity among preschool children. Once considered a high income country problem, result of this study in urban city like Gondar reveals that overweight/obesity is on the rise in urban Ethiopia, which indicates the need for formulating preventive programs and policies during a child's early years.

  15. Overweight/Obesity and associated factors among preschool children in Gondar City, Northwest Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muluken Bekele Sorrie

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity among children has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century, which is a predictor of adulthood obesity, morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight /obesity and associated factors among preschool children.A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar City from February 14 to March 4, 2016. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 504 preschool children. Data were collected using structured interviewer administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO 2007 Anthro version 2.0.4 software. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify associated factors. P values 2hr/day [AOR = 4.01 (95%CI;2.22, 7.26] and mother's education at secondary level [AOR = 0.35 (95% CI; 0.12, 0.96] were associated with overweight/obesity among preschool children.Once considered a high income country problem, result of this study in urban city like Gondar reveals that overweight/obesity is on the rise in urban Ethiopia, which indicates the need for formulating preventive programs and policies during a child's early years.

  16. Prevalence and Predictors of Maternal Anemia during Pregnancy in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: An Institutional Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alem, Meseret; Enawgaw, Bamlaku

    2014-01-01

    Background. Anaemia is a global public health problem which has an eminence impact on pregnant mother. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of maternal anemia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1 to April 30, 2012, on 302 pregnant women who attended antenatal care at Gondar University Hospital. Interview-based questionnaire, clinical history, and laboratory tests were used to obtain data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors. Result. The prevalence of anemia was 16.6%. Majority were mild type (64%) and morphologically normocytic normochromic (76%) anemia. Anemia was high at third trimester (18.9%). Low family income (AOR [95% CI] = 3.1 [1.19, 8.33]), large family size (AOR [95% CI] = 4.14 [4.13, 10.52]), hookworm infection (AOR [95% CI] = 2.72 [1.04, 7.25]), and HIV infection (AOR [95% CI] = 5.75 [2.40, 13.69]) were independent predictors of anemia. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia was high; mild type and normocytic normochromic anemia was dominant. Low income, large family size, hookworm infection, and HIV infection were associated with anemia. Hence, efforts should be made for early diagnosis and management of HIV and hookworm infection with special emphasis on those having low income and large family size. PMID:24669317

  17. Prevalence and Predictors of Maternal Anemia during Pregnancy in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: An Institutional Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Mulugeta Melku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anaemia is a global public health problem which has an eminence impact on pregnant mother. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of maternal anemia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1 to April 30, 2012, on 302 pregnant women who attended antenatal care at Gondar University Hospital. Interview-based questionnaire, clinical history, and laboratory tests were used to obtain data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors. Result. The prevalence of anemia was 16.6%. Majority were mild type (64% and morphologically normocytic normochromic (76% anemia. Anemia was high at third trimester (18.9%. Low family income (AOR [95% CI] = 3.1 [1.19, 8.33], large family size (AOR [95% CI] = 4.14 [4.13, 10.52], hookworm infection (AOR [95% CI] = 2.72 [1.04, 7.25], and HIV infection (AOR [95% CI] = 5.75 [2.40, 13.69] were independent predictors of anemia. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia was high; mild type and normocytic normochromic anemia was dominant. Low income, large family size, hookworm infection, and HIV infection were associated with anemia. Hence, efforts should be made for early diagnosis and management of HIV and hookworm infection with special emphasis on those having low income and large family size.

  18. Wind power integration in island-based smart grid projects : A comparative study between Jeju Smart Grid Test-bed and Smart Grid Gotland

    OpenAIRE

    Piehl, Hampus

    2014-01-01

    Smart grids seem to be the solution to use energy from renewable and intermittent energy sources in an efficient manner. There are many research projects around the world and two of them are Jeju Smart Grid Test-bed and Smart Grid Gotland. They have in common that they are both island-based projects and connected to the Powergrid on the mainland by HVDC-link. The purpose of this thesis is to compare the two projects and find out what challenges and strategies they have related to wind power i...

  19. Assessing the functional disability of rural elderly population from North-West India using activity of daily living scale: A cross-sectional survey

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    Parveen Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging is associated with both physical impairment and functional disability. One of the areas of concerns is a derangement in the activities of daily living (ADL where the elderly people are unable to perform their basic personal care tasks. The present study was planned with the aim to evaluate functional impairment among rural elderly using ADL scale. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted as a cross-sectional population-based survey using multistage randomized sampling technique from August 2015 to October 2015 in Miran Sahib Health Zone of R S Pura health block in Jammu District in North-West India. The study involved 418 elderly individuals above 60 years of age. Results: A higher proportion of elderly (378/418; 90.43% were classified as functionally independent. Among the study participants 9.54% (40/418 were found to have some had some impairment. Among the elderly impaired individuals, 5.26% (22/418 were moderately impaired while 2.64% (11/418 were severely impaired. However, importantly only a small proportion (7/418; 1.67% of elderly individuals was completely dependent on others. Conclusion: The total impairment prevalence reported among the geriatrics in the current study was 9.5%. With the increase in the geriatric population expected in near future, this number will be significant. Policies with a clear focus on geriatric health-care need to be developed to reduce the dependency among elderly.

  20. Knowledge and Attitude towards Exclusive Breast Feeding among Mothers Attending Antenatal and Immunization Clinic at Dabat Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Institution Based Study

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    Mulugeta Wassie Alamirew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To assess knowledge and attitude towards exclusive breast feeding among mothers attending antenatal care and immunization clinic in Dabat Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia, 2016. Methodology. Institutional based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. The data was collected by using pretested, structured interview based questionnaires. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Result. A total of 384 participants were included in the study with a response rate of 100%. The majority were in the age groups of 20–30 (66.9% and the mean age was 27.65; 325 (84.6% were Orthodox Christianity followers. Majority were of Amhara ethnicity 370 (96.4%. Based on knowledge score, 268 (69.8% were grouped as having good knowledge and regarding attitudinal score, 92 (24% of the study participants were categorized as having negative attitude towards exclusive breast feeding (EBF and the remaining 292 (76% were categorized as having positive attitude. Conclusion. In this study, the knowledge of study participant mothers towards EBF is low which is less than three-fourths; however positive attitude towards EBF is more than three-fourths in this study. The authors recommend that health care workers who work in the areas of maternal and child health clinic should give appropriate information about EBF.

  1. Knowledge and Attitude towards Exclusive Breast Feeding among Mothers Attending Antenatal and Immunization Clinic at Dabat Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Institution Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamirew, Mulugeta Wassie; Bayu, Netsanet Habte; Birhan Tebeje, Nigusie; Kassa, Selam Fiseha

    2017-01-01

    To assess knowledge and attitude towards exclusive breast feeding among mothers attending antenatal care and immunization clinic in Dabat Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia, 2016. Institutional based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. The data was collected by using pretested, structured interview based questionnaires. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. A total of 384 participants were included in the study with a response rate of 100%. The majority were in the age groups of 20-30 (66.9%) and the mean age was 27.65; 325 (84.6%) were Orthodox Christianity followers. Majority were of Amhara ethnicity 370 (96.4%). Based on knowledge score, 268 (69.8%) were grouped as having good knowledge and regarding attitudinal score, 92 (24%) of the study participants were categorized as having negative attitude towards exclusive breast feeding (EBF) and the remaining 292 (76%) were categorized as having positive attitude. In this study, the knowledge of study participant mothers towards EBF is low which is less than three-fourths; however positive attitude towards EBF is more than three-fourths in this study. The authors recommend that health care workers who work in the areas of maternal and child health clinic should give appropriate information about EBF.

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity among private kindergarten school children in Bahirdar Town, Northwest Ethiopia: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Yoseph; Derso, Terefe; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Wassie, Molla Mesele

    2017-01-04

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, most nutrition efforts have concentrated on under-nutrition in children. However, national surveys rarely report the high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Likewise, in Ethiopia there is growing recognition of the emergence of a "double-burden" of malnutrition, with under and over nutrition occurring simultaneously among children, especially allied with improvements in socio-economic conditions. Hence, the study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity among private kindergarten school children aged 3-6 years in Bahirdar town, Northwest Ethiopia. A school-based cross sectional study was conducted in Bahirdar Town, northwest Ethiopia from August to September, 2015. Anthropometric measurements such as weight and height were taken from 462 private Kindergarten preschool children aged 3-6 years; socio-economic and demographic factors and feeding practices were collected by interviewing the, mothers or caregivers of the children. The z-score values for BMI-for-age of children were generated using Emergency Nutrition Assessment (ENA) for Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief Transitions (SMART) 2011. Binary logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with overweight and obesity in children. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to show the strength of association. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 6.9% [95% CI 2.4, 11.4]. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 4.1 and 2.8%, respectively. The odds of overweight and obesity was higher among children with high dietary diversity score (DDS) [AOR = 5.12, 95% CI 1.42, 18.47], family size of less than five [AOR = 4.76, 95% CI 1.84, 12.31] and a family having a private car [AOR = 3.43, 95% CI 1.02, 11.49]. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among private kindergarten preschool children in the study area was high. Interventions on improving feeding

  3. Malaria helminth co-infections and their contribution for aneamia in febrile patients attending Azzezo health center, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Abebe; Shiferaw, Yitayal; Ambachew, Aklilu; Hamid, Halima

    2012-10-01

    To assess the prevalence of malaria helminth co-infections and their contribution for aneamia in febrile patients attending Azzezo health center, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. A cross section study was conducted among febrile patients attending Azezo health center from February-March 30, 2011. Convenient sampling technique was used to select 384 individuals. Both capillary blood and stool were collected. Giemsa stained thick and thin blood film were prepared for identification of Plasmodium species and stool sample was examined by direct wet mount and formalin-ether concentration technique for detection of intestinal helminthes parasites. Haemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable haemoglobin spectrophotometer, Hemocue Hb 201 analyzer. Out of 384 febrile patients examined for malaria parasites, 44 (11.5%) individuals were positive for malaria parasites, of which Plasmodium vivax accounted for 75.0% (33), Plasmodium falciparum for 20.5% (9) infectious, whereas two person (4.5%) had mixed species infection. Prevalence of malaria was higher in males (28) when compared with prevalence in females (16). More than half (207, 53.9%) of study participants had one or more infection. Prevalence was slightly higher in females (109, 52.7%) than in males (98, 47.3%). About helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (62.1%) followed by hookworms (18.4%). Only 22 participants were co-infected with malaria parasite and helminths and co-infection with Ascaris lumbricoides was predominant (45.0%). The prevalence of anemia was 10.9% and co-infection with Plasmodium and helminth parasites was significantly associated with (Pparasitic infections is very crucial to improve health of the affected communities in economically developing countries. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Seroprevalence of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus infections among pregnant women who attend the University of Gondar teaching hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endris, Mengistu; Deressa, Tekalign; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Moges, Feleke

    2015-03-03

    Syphilis and HIV infections in pregnancy result in a number of adverse outcomes including neonatal death and vertical transmission. Ethiopia is a country where these infections are highly prevalent. However, data on co-morbidities of syphilis and HIV among pregnant women in Gondar are scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of these infections and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care at the University of Gondar teaching hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from February to June 2011. Structured interviews were used to collect socio-demographic and obstetric data. Sera against syphilis were screened by rapid plasma reagin test; and confirmed by Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay. HIV infection was detected by rapid HIV test kits following the national algorithms for HIV testing. Data were summarized by descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Of 385 pregnant women, reactive syphilis was noted in 11/385 (2.9%) and seroprevalence of HIV was 43/385 (11.2%). The prevalence of syphilis and HIV co-infection was 2/385(0.5%). High rate of syphilis was observed among the women with above 30 years of age (OR 3.69, 95% CI 0.83 - 16.82). Women with a history of miscarriage and stillbirth were more likely to be infected by syphilis (OR 2.22, 95% CI 0.54-9.60) and (OR 3.24, 95% CI 0.00-17.54), respectively. Our data indicated that syphilis and HIV infections are still important public health concerns among pregnant women in the Gondar area. Hence, we recommend strenuous screening of all pregnant women for these infections during antenatal care. Further, strengthening health education on the mode of transmission and prevention of HIV and syphilis is essential for effective control of these infections.

  5. Effect of residence on mothers' health care seeking behavior for common childhood illness in Northwest Ethiopia: a community based comparative cross--sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa; Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Alene, Kefyalew Addis

    2014-10-08

    Children are at higher risk of acquiring infections and developing severe disease. This study assessed the health care seeking behavior and associated factors of urban and rural mothers for common childhood illness in Northwest Ethiopia. A comparative community based cross-sectional study was conducted among urban and rural mothers living in the district. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. A pre-tested and structured questioner via interview was used to collect the data. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors. Odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to assess the strength of the associations. A total of 827 (274 urban and 553 rural) mothers were interviewed. Among these, 79.3% (95% CI: (76.5%, 82.06%)) of the mothers were sought health care in the district. Health care seeking behavior was higher among urban mothers (84.6%) than rural mothers (76.7%). Marital status, completion health extension package, and sex of child were significantly associated with health care seeking behavior of urban mothers. Whereas age of child, age and occupation of mothers, educational level of fathers, wealth quintile, and type of reported illness were significantly associated with rural mothers. Perceived severity of illness was significantly associated with both urban and rural mothers for health care seeking behavior. The overall health seeking behaviors of mothers for common childhood illness was high. However, urban mothers seek health care more than rural. Socio Economic position and types of reported illness has an effect for health seeking behavior of rural mothers. Whereas child sex preference and graduation status for health extension package has an effect for health care seeking behavior of urban mothers. Work on strengthen accessibility of health care services in the rural mothers and increase awareness of mothers about the disadvantage of sex preferences will improve the health care seek behavior of

  6. Use of previous maternal health services has a limited role in reattendance for skilled institutional delivery: cross-sectional survey in Northwest Ethiopia

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    Kebede B

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bekana Kebede,1 Abebaw Gebeyehu,2 Gashaw Andargie11Department of Health Services Management, 2Department of Reproductive Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, EthiopiaBackground: Maternal mortality rates are unacceptably high in Ethiopia. Institutional delivery with skilled care of the mother is one of the interventions proven to reduce the risk of complications that can cause maternal and neonatal mortality. Quality of service given during antenatal visits and childbirth are important measures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of skilled institutional delivery and its repeat use during a subsequent pregnancy and to identify any reasons why women avoid institutional delivery.Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to June 2012 in Chilga Woreda, Northwest Ethiopia. Data were collected from women who gave birth during the year preceding the survey. Information was entered and cleaned using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Multivariate and binary logistic regression was used to identify the relative effect of each explanatory variable on the outcome.Results: A total of 402 (84.2% women gave birth at home. Previous experience of skilled institutional delivery had a limited role in subsequent acceptance or use of institutional delivery. Most mothers who had previously had institutional delivery gave birth at home. Although 111 (40.8% women visited the health facility during their pregnancy only because of illness, 184 (38.8% did not know when to visit for antenatal care. In multivariate analysis, lower maternal education, being a rural resident, previous use of institutional delivery, remoteness of the health facility, and multiparity were factors significantly associated with less likelihood of institutional delivery. Number of months pregnant at the time of the first antenatal visit had no role in increasing the likelihood of institutional delivery.Conclusion: The

  7. Prevalence of stunting and its associated factors among children 6-59 months of age in Libo-Kemekem district, Northwest Ethiopia; A community based cross sectional study.

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    Geberselassie, Selamawit Bekele; Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen; Melsew, Yayehirad Alemu; Mutuku, Shadrack Mulinge; Wassie, Molla Mesele

    2018-01-01

    Children in developing countries are highly vulnerable to impaired physical growth because of poor dietary intake, lack of appropriate care, and repeated infections. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of stunting and associated factors among children 6-59 months of age in Libo-kemekem district, northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study was conducted in Libo-Kemekem from October 15 to December 15, 2015. The multistage sampling technique was employed to select 1,320 children aged 6-59months. Data were collected by trained community health extension workers under regular supervision. Data were entered into EPI-Info version 3.5.1, and height for age was converted to Z-score with ENA-SMART software. Data were then exported to SPSS version 20 for descriptive and binary logistic regression analysees. The significance of associations was determined at p<0.05. Out of 1287 children included in the analysis, 49.4% (95% CI: 46.7%-52.3%) were found to be stunted. In the multivariate analysis, increased child age [AOR = 6.31, 95%CI: (3.65, 10.91)], family size of six and above [AOR = 1.77, 95%CI: (1.35, 2.32)] were positively associated with stunting, while, fathers with secondary school education [AOR = 0.50, 95%CI: (0.30, 0.81)], farmers as household heads [AOR = 0.56, 95%CI: (0.38, 0.84)] and self-employed parents as household head [AOR = 0.45, 95% CI: (0.28, 0.72)] were found to be preventive factors. The prevalence of stunting was high in the study area. We found that stunting was significantly correlated with child age, occupational status of household head, family size, and fathers' education. Therefore, intervention focusing on supporting housewives, family planning, and education on child feeding and nutrition should be implemented.

  8. Prevalence of mental distress and associated factors among undergraduate students of University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional institutional based study.

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    Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Azale Bisetegn, Telake; Berhe Gebremariam, Resom

    2015-01-01

    Mental health problems affect society as a whole and no group is immune to mental disorders; however, students have significantly high level of mental distress than their community peers. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of mental distress among undergraduate students of University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Institution based cross sectional study was conducted among 836 students from April 9-11/2014. Stratified multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Data were collected using pretested and structured self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with mental distress among students. An adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. Prevalence of mental distress among students was found to be 40.9%. Female sex (AOR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.17-2.30), lack of interest towards their field of study (AOR = 2.28; 95% CI 1.49-3.50), not having close friends (AOR = 1.48; 95% CI 1.03-2.14), never attend religious programs (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI 1.02-2.46), conflict with friends (AOR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.41-2.65), having financial distress (AOR1.49 = 95% CI 1.05, 2.10), family history of mental illness (AOR = 2.12; 95% CI 1.31-3.45), Ever use of Khat (AOR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.12-2.59), lower grade than anticipated(AOR = 2.07; 95% CI 1.51-2.83), lack of vacation or break (AOR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.06-2.02), and low social support(AOR = 2.58; 95% CI 1.58-4.22) were significantly associated with mental distress. The overall prevalence of mental distress among students was found to be high. Therefore, it is recommended that mental distress needs due attention and remedial action from policy makers, college officials, non-governmental organizations, parents, students and other concerned bodies.

  9. Prevalence of mental distress and associated factors among undergraduate students of University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional institutional based study.

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    Berihun Assefa Dachew

    Full Text Available Mental health problems affect society as a whole and no group is immune to mental disorders; however, students have significantly high level of mental distress than their community peers.The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of mental distress among undergraduate students of University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.Institution based cross sectional study was conducted among 836 students from April 9-11/2014. Stratified multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Data were collected using pretested and structured self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with mental distress among students. An adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance.Prevalence of mental distress among students was found to be 40.9%. Female sex (AOR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.17-2.30, lack of interest towards their field of study (AOR = 2.28; 95% CI 1.49-3.50, not having close friends (AOR = 1.48; 95% CI 1.03-2.14, never attend religious programs (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI 1.02-2.46, conflict with friends (AOR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.41-2.65, having financial distress (AOR1.49 = 95% CI 1.05, 2.10, family history of mental illness (AOR = 2.12; 95% CI 1.31-3.45, Ever use of Khat (AOR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.12-2.59, lower grade than anticipated(AOR = 2.07; 95% CI 1.51-2.83, lack of vacation or break (AOR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.06-2.02, and low social support(AOR = 2.58; 95% CI 1.58-4.22 were significantly associated with mental distress.The overall prevalence of mental distress among students was found to be high. Therefore, it is recommended that mental distress needs due attention and remedial action from policy makers, college officials, non-governmental organizations, parents, students and other concerned bodies.

  10. Tuberculosis infection control practices and associated factors among health care workers in health centers of West Gojjam zone, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

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    Tamir, Kassahun; Wasie, Belaynew; Azage, Muluken

    2016-08-08

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem. The emerging epidemic of multi- and extensively drug-resistant (M/XDR) TB further imperils health workers, patients and public health. Health facilities with inadequate infection control are risky environments for the emergence and transmission of TB. There was no study that presented data on infection control practices of health care workers. This study aimed to assess tuberculosis infection control practices and associated factors among health care workers in West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. Institution based quantitative cross-sectional study triangulated with qualitative observation and key informant interview was conducted. Six hundred sixty two health care workers were selected by multistage random sampling method. Self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data. Observation checklists and key informant interview guides were used to collect qualitative data. Quantitative data were entered in to Epi Info version 3.5.3 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Odds ratio with 95 % confidence interval was used to identify factors associated with TB infection control practice of health care workers. Qualitative data were translated, transcribed, analyzed and triangulated with the quantitative findings. The proportion of proper TB infection control (TBIC) practices was 38 %. Qualitative data showed that administrative, environmental and personal respiratory protection control measures were not practiced well. Knowledge on the presence of TBIC plan [AOR = 4.25, 95 % CI: 2.46 - 7.35], knowledge on the presence of national guideline [AOR = 8.95, 95 % CI: 4.35 - 18.40] and working department of the health care workers were independent predictors of TBIC practices. The proportion of proper TBIC practices of health care workers was low. TBIC practices were determined by knowing the presence of TBIC plan and national guideline and working department. Hence, supportive

  11. Undernutrition and associated factors among children aged 6-59 months in East Belesa District, northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

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    Wagaye Fentahun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undernutrition remains the major public health concern in Ethiopia and continues as the underlying cause of child mortality. However, there is a scarcity of information on the magnitude and determinant factors of undernutrition. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of undernutrition and associated factors among children aged 6–59 months in East Belesa District, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May, 2014. A multistage stratified sampling technique was used to select 633 study participants. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. In order to identify factors associated with undernutrition (stunting and wasting a multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed. The Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR with a 95 % Confidence Interval (CI was computed to show the strength of the association. In the multivariate analysis, variables with a p-value of <0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results In this study, about 57.7 and 16 % of the children were stunted and wasted, respectively. The odds of stunting were higher in children born to mothers who gave their first birth before 15 years of age (AOR = 2.4; 95 % CI: 1.19, 5.09 and gave prelacteal feeding to their child (AOR = 1.83; 95 % CI: 1.28, 2.61. However, lower odds of stunting were observed among children aged 36–47 months (AOR = 0.41; 95 % CI: 0.22, 0.78 and had higher family monthly income, Et. Br. 750–1000, (AOR = 0.61; 95 % CI: 0.39, 0.92. Moreover, the odds of wasting were higher among children who received butter as prelacteal food (AOR = 2.32; 95 % CI:1.82, 5.31. Conclusion Child undernutrition is a critical public health problem in the study area. Advanced age of children (36–47 months and higher family monthly income were inversely associated with stunting. However, higher odds of stunting were observed among

  12. Demand for long acting contraceptive methods and associated factors among family planning service users, Northwest Ethiopia: a health facility based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalew, Saleamlak Adbaru; Zeleke, Berihun Megabiaw; Teferra, Alemayehu Shimeka

    2015-02-04

    Demand for long acting contraceptive methods is one of the key factors for total fertility rate and reproductive health issues. Increased demand for these methods can decline fertility rate through spacing and limiting family size in turn improving maternal and family health and socioeconomic development of a country. The aim of this study was to assess demand for long acting contraceptives and associated factors among family planning users in Debre-Tabor Town, Northwest Ethiopia. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2013. Data was collected on 487 current family planning users through face to face interview using structured questionnaire. Study participants were selected by systematic sampling method. Data were entered in to Epi Info and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Bi-variable and multi-variable regression analyses were done to identify factors associated with demand for long acting contraceptive methods. Odds ratio with 95% CI was used to assess the association between the independent variables and demand for long acting family planning methods. The study showed that, demand for long acting contraceptives was 17%. Only 9.2% of the women were using long acting contraceptive methods (met need). About 7.8% of women were using short acting methods while they actually want to use long acting methods (unmet need). Demand for LACMs was positively associated 3 with being a daily labour (AOR = 3.87, 95% CI = [1.06, 14.20]), being a student (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI = [1.27, 5.47]), no future birth intensions (AOR = 2.17, 95% CI = [1.12, 4.23]), having five or more children (AOR = 1.67, 95% CI = [1.58, 4.83]), deciding together with husbands for using the methods (AOR = 2.73, 95% CI = [1.40, 5.32]) and often having discussion with husband (AOR = 3.89, 95% CI = [1.98, 7.65]). Clients treated poorly by the health care providers during taking the services was negatively associated with demand for LACMs (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI = [0.24, 0

  13. Prevalence of anemia and associated factors among school children in Gondar town public primary schools, northwest Ethiopia: A school-based cross-sectional study.

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    Getaneh, Zegeye; Enawgaw, Bamlaku; Engidaye, Getabalew; Seyoum, Masresha; Berhane, Muruts; Abebe, Zegeye; Asrie, Fikir; Melku, Mulugeta

    2017-01-01

    Anemia is a global public health problem affecting 305 million school children (SC) worldwide. It has deleterious effects in SC, including lower school achievement due to impaired cognitive development and physical growth, fatigue and poor attention span, and increased morbidity because of reduced resistance to infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of anemia among SC attending public primary schools in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia. A school-based cross sectional study was conducted on a total of 523 SC aged from 6-14 years old. Multi-stage sampling followed by systematic random sampling techniques were employed to select study participants. Data on socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics, and dietary status of children were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaire through face-to-face interview of children's caregivers. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was determined by using HemoCue 301+analyser. Stool and blood samples were collected in the school premises, and examined for intestinal and hemoparasites, respectively. Data were entered into Epi Info version 3.5.3 and transferred to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression models were fitted to identify associated factors of anemia. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Of the total SC participated in the study, 269 (51.4%) were males. The median (inter quartile range (IQR)) age was 12 (10-13) years, and 332 (63.5%) of them were in the age group 11-14 years. About 81 (15.5%; 95%CI: 12.4%, 18.7%) of them were anemic: 56 (69.1%) and 25 (38.9%) of them were mildly and moderately anemic, respectively. Low maternal education (AOR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.11, 4.78), stunting (AOR = 2.22; 95%CI: 1.30, 3.80), severe food insecurity (AOR = 5.11; 95%CI: 1.53, 17.13), and soil-transmitted helminthic (STH) infection (AOR = 7.13; 95%CI: 3.16, 16.86) were

  14. Prevalence of anemia and associated factors among school children in Gondar town public primary schools, northwest Ethiopia: A school-based cross-sectional study.

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    Zegeye Getaneh

    Full Text Available Anemia is a global public health problem affecting 305 million school children (SC worldwide. It has deleterious effects in SC, including lower school achievement due to impaired cognitive development and physical growth, fatigue and poor attention span, and increased morbidity because of reduced resistance to infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of anemia among SC attending public primary schools in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia.A school-based cross sectional study was conducted on a total of 523 SC aged from 6-14 years old. Multi-stage sampling followed by systematic random sampling techniques were employed to select study participants. Data on socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics, and dietary status of children were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaire through face-to-face interview of children's caregivers. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Hemoglobin (Hb concentration was determined by using HemoCue 301+analyser. Stool and blood samples were collected in the school premises, and examined for intestinal and hemoparasites, respectively. Data were entered into Epi Info version 3.5.3 and transferred to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression models were fitted to identify associated factors of anemia. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.Of the total SC participated in the study, 269 (51.4% were males. The median (inter quartile range (IQR age was 12 (10-13 years, and 332 (63.5% of them were in the age group 11-14 years. About 81 (15.5%; 95%CI: 12.4%, 18.7% of them were anemic: 56 (69.1% and 25 (38.9% of them were mildly and moderately anemic, respectively. Low maternal education (AOR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.11, 4.78, stunting (AOR = 2.22; 95%CI: 1.30, 3.80, severe food insecurity (AOR = 5.11; 95%CI: 1.53, 17.13, and soil-transmitted helminthic (STH infection (AOR = 7.13; 95%CI: 3.16, 16

  15. Seroprevalence and correlates of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among young adults in Arkhangelsk, Northwest Russia: a population-based cross-sectional study

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    Tatiana Balaeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 infection is the most common cause of genital ulcer disease (GUD worldwide. Mother to child transmission causes high morbidity and mortality among infants. Russia is on the brink of a generalized HIV-epidemic, but Arkhangelsk is still a low-prevalence area. HSV-2 infection is associated with a three-fold increased risk of HIV-infection. The evidence on the seroprevalence of HSV-2 in Russia is limited. The aim of this study was to assess HSV-2 seroprevalence and correlates among young adults in the city of Arkhangelsk. Methods 1243 adults aged 18-39 years participated in a cross-sectional population-based study, recruited by a public opinion agency applying a quota sampling method to achieve a data set with similar age- and sex-distribution as the population in Arkhangelsk. All participants completed a standardized, self-administrated questionnaire and were tested for HSV-2. Associations between HSV-2 seropositivity and selected sociodemographic and behavioral factors, and self-reported history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs were studied by multivariable logistic regression. Results HSV-2 seroprevalence was 18.8 %: 12.2 % (95 % confidence interval, CI 9.7-15.2 among men and 24.0 % (95 % CI 20.1-27.3 among women. Among men, HSV-2 positivity was associated with being divorced/widowed (OR = 2.85, 95 % CI 1.06-7.70, cohabitation (OR = 2.45, 95 % CI 1.07-5.62, and a history of STIs (OR = 2.11, 95 % CI 1.14-3.91. In women, HSV-2 positivity was associated with high income (OR = 3.11, 95 % CI 1.45-6.71 and having a lifetime number of sexual partners between 2 and 5 (OR = 2.72, 95 % CI 1.14-6.51, whereas sexual debut at age 18 years or older was inversely associated with the outcome (OR = 0.47, 95 % CI 0.31-0.72. In both sexes, increasing age was the strongest correlate of HSV-2 seropositivity in multivariable analyses. Conclusion The HSV-2 seroprevalence

  16. 77 FR 73635 - Northwest Storage GP, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ...) 1254 to a proposed 346-megawatt (MW) power plant located within the north industrial area of the Port...] Northwest Storage GP, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on November 21, 2012, Northwest Storage GP, LLC. (Northwest) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission an application under section 7 of...

  17. 7 CFR 319.8-13 - From Northwest Mexico.

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    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From Northwest Mexico. 319.8-13 Section 319.8-13... for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-13 From Northwest Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of Northwest Mexico and of the West Coast of Mexico from infestations of the pink bollworm...

  18. Level of insulin adherence among diabetes mellitus patients in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia, 2017: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewabe, Tilahun; Kindie, Selamsew

    2018-05-11

    The objective of this study was to know the level of insulin adherence and to identify factors affecting insulin adherence among diabetes mellitus patients in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. Prevalence of insulin adherence was 59.2%. Patients who are married [AOR = 0.3 (0.14-0.7)], have regular health care visit [AOR = 3.3 (1.5-7.5)] and accessing insulin with low cost [AOR = 2.9 (1.3-6.3)] were more likely to adhere insulin therapy than their counterparts. Recommendations to increase insulin adherence were: government and non-governmental organizations, volunteers and concerned bodies should support syringe and needles for diabetes patients, health care providers and responsible bodies should give intensive health education about the effect of stopping insulin medication.

  19. Sedimentary deposition and reflux of phosphorus (P in the Eastern Gotland Basin and their coupling with P concentrations in the water column

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    Sven Hille

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to describe the role of sedimentary processes for the phosphorus (P cycle in the open Baltic Proper, P deposition and reflux were quantified for the predominately anoxic sediments of the Eastern Gotland Basin. The study is based on investigations of 53 surface sediment samples and pore water samples from 8 sediment cores. The average P deposition rate was estimated at 0.20 g ± 0.18 g -2 yr-1, the fluctuation being due to variable bulk sediment deposition rates. P refluxes were estimated by applying Fick's First Law of Diffusion. A fairly good positive correlation between sedimentary P deposition and P release was obtained. P release from sediments by diffusion exceeds net P deposition by a factor of 2. This suggests that 2/3 of the deposited gross P is recycled in the sediments and released back into the water column; only 1/3 remains in the sediment permanently. A budget calculation demonstrates that the released dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP accounts for the observed increase in DIP concentrations in the deep water during periods of stagnation, which is noticeable even at the surface P concentrations. Under such conditions and with the present remediation conditions it is not possible to freely manage P concentrations in the water column on short time scales.

  20. Changes in Socioeconomic Inequality of Low Birth Weight and Macrosomia in Shaanxi Province of Northwest China, 2010-2013: A Cross-sectional Study.

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    Pei, Leilei; Kang, Yijun; Zhao, Yaling; Cheng, Yue; Yan, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in birth weights (BWs) are associated with lifelong differences in health and productivity. Understanding socioeconomic disparities in BW is presently of concern to develop public health interventions that promote a good start in life in Northwest China. In the study, our objective is to investigate the socioeconomic disparities in low and high BW from 2010 to 2013 in this region.Those single live births were recruited using a stratified multistage sampling method in Shaanxi province from August to December 2013. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire and a review of birth certificates. Socioeconomic status (SES) was stratified based on the calculated household wealth index. Prevalence differences (PDs) and concentration indices (CIs) were used to depict the SES inequality of low BW (LBW) and macrosomia.Information for 28722 single live births born were obtained in Shaanxi province. From 2010 to 2013, the overall rates of LBW decreased, and the difference in LBW across differing SES groups decreased by 0.7% (boys, 0.4%; girls, 0.8%). From 2010 to 2013, the overall rates of macrosomia increased by 14.3% (boys, 17.5%; girls, 7.8%), whereas the PDs in macrosomia across various SES groups remained unchanged. From 2010 to 2013, concentration indices for SES inequalities in LBW and macrosomia confirmed the results shown by differences in prevalence. Compared with mothers of high SES, those in low SES group were significantly older, less educated, engaged in farming with less availabile healthcare, and engaged in unhealthy lifestyles (eg, exposure to secondhand smoke) during pregnancy, regardless of the baby's sex.From 2010 to 2013, in Shaanxi province, the negative association between socioeconomic status and LBW weakened. Rates of macrosomia were higher in those of high SES, but the SES disparities varied insignificantly over the same time. Our findings may provide valuable insights to direct healthcare policies for pregnant women

  1. Job Satisfaction and Associated Factors among Anesthetists Working in Amhara National Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia, May 2017: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study

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    Demeke Yilkal Fentie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Job satisfaction is an important determinant of health staff’s motivation, retention, and performance. Difficulties in critical decision-making and problems with lack of respect and recognition lead to lower job satisfaction level among anesthetists. It leads to high turnover intention, dropout from the profession, burnout, impaired health status of anesthetists, and lower work performance. Objective. The aim of this multicenter cross-sectional study was to assess the level of job satisfaction and associated factors among anesthetists working in Amhara National Regional State. Methods. A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1 to June 30, 2017. Ninety-eight anesthetists that were working in Amhara National Regional State Hospitals were involved in this study. The structured questionnaire was scored on five-point Likert scales. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. Binary logistic regression was used to measure statistical significance between dependent and each independent variable. Variables with P value of ≤0.2 on crude analysis were taken into multivariate analysis, and P value 0.05 and 95% CI was used as cut off point. Result. 98 out of 104 participants were involved in this study with a response rate of 94.3%. The overall level of job satisfaction was 46.9%. Anesthetists in academic working position were satisfied with the odds of about 2.3 (AOR = 2.269; CI = 1.137–6.740 compared to those in clinical working position. Anesthetists were least satisfied with coworker relationships (37.8%, work schedule (43.9%, professional opportunity (46.9%, and recognition (49% while they were most satisfied from their control of responsibility (59.2%, social interaction (55%, and salary and benefits (51%. Conclusion and Recommendation. Job satisfaction of anesthetists was low, and we suggest that facilitation of professional development, creation of smooth relationship in

  2. First choice of treatment place in the pathways to epileptic care at the outpatient department of University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: Cross-sectional institutional based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Tiruneh, Bewket Tadesse; Alemu, Wondale Getinet

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy treatment gap range from 87% to 98%. In spite of this, there is a gross inadequacy of the availability, accessibility and affordability of Anti-Epileptic Drugs. In countries like Ethiopia, where most populations are less aware about mental health problems, most people seek help for their illness from traditional healers. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to assess the pathways to epilepsy care and associated factors. Cross-sectional study design utilized among 409 participants selected by systematic random sampling technique. Pathways to epilepsy care were assessed by using the WHO Pathway Study tool. Multivariable logistic regression was done to identify factors associated with pathways to epileptic care. Overall, 162 (39.6%) of participants first contacted with modern treatment. Two hundred and forty seven (60.4%) of participants counted traditional healers and religious healers were the most common (47.2%). Being men, attending higher education, urban residence, short duration of illness, social support and age at the onset of illness were factors associated with first contact with modern treatment. Modern treatment was not the first place of choice for the majority of the respondents. Strengthening awareness creation program about epilepsy and its treatment is highly recommended with special emphases to urban dwellers and less educated people.

  3. First choice of treatment place in the pathways to epileptic care at the outpatient department of University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: Cross-sectional institutional based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Boru Bifftu

    Full Text Available Epilepsy treatment gap range from 87% to 98%. In spite of this, there is a gross inadequacy of the availability, accessibility and affordability of Anti-Epileptic Drugs. In countries like Ethiopia, where most populations are less aware about mental health problems, most people seek help for their illness from traditional healers. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to assess the pathways to epilepsy care and associated factors.Cross-sectional study design utilized among 409 participants selected by systematic random sampling technique. Pathways to epilepsy care were assessed by using the WHO Pathway Study tool. Multivariable logistic regression was done to identify factors associated with pathways to epileptic care.Overall, 162 (39.6% of participants first contacted with modern treatment. Two hundred and forty seven (60.4% of participants counted traditional healers and religious healers were the most common (47.2%. Being men, attending higher education, urban residence, short duration of illness, social support and age at the onset of illness were factors associated with first contact with modern treatment.Modern treatment was not the first place of choice for the majority of the respondents. Strengthening awareness creation program about epilepsy and its treatment is highly recommended with special emphases to urban dwellers and less educated people.

  4. Current status of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni infection among children in two primary schools in North Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewos, Biniam; Alemu, Abebe; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Alemu, Agersew; Addis, Zelalem; Tiruneh, Moges; Aimero, Mulugeta; Kassu, Afework

    2014-02-10

    School age children are one of the groups at high risk for intestinal parasitic infections especially in developing countries like Ethiopia as the supply of good quality drinking water and latrine coverage are poor. Though there are previous data on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STHs) and Schistosoma mansoni infection among these high risk groups current status in the study area is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the current prevalence and associated risk factors of STHs and S. mansoni infections among school children. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Gorgora and Chuahit towns, North Gondar Zone, North West Ethiopia from January 20 to February 25, 2012 involving 261 school children. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using Kato Katz method. Chi-square test was used to see if there is association between sociodemographic factors and other risk factors for STH and S. mansoni infection and odds ratio with 95% CI was computed as measures of association. P intestinal parasites. Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolates (39.8%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (6.1%) and Hookworms (4.9%). Schistosoma mansoni was detected in 33.7% of the children. Among infected individuals, 9.5% were coinfected by S. mansoni and A. lumbricoides and 1.5% with S. mansoni and T. trichiura. Swimming habit (OR: 2.536, 95% CI: 1.122, 5.737, P = 0.022) was significantly associated with S. mansoni infection. The prevalence of STH and S. mansoni was high among school children. This should call for implementation of an integrated strategy to reduce morbidity and control of transmission of STH and S. mansoni.

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and risk factors among schoolchildren at the University of Gondar Community School, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaw, Aschalew; Anagaw, Belay; Nigussie, Bethel; Silesh, Betrearon; Yirga, Atnad; Alem, Meseret; Endris, Mengistu; Gelaw, Baye

    2013-04-05

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Their distribution is mainly associated with poor personal hygiene, environmental sanitation and limited access to clean water. Indeed, epidemiological information on the prevalence of various intestinal parasitic infections in different localities is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control measures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren. This school-based cross-sectional study was undertaken at the University of Gondar Community School from April 2012 to June 2012. Study subjects were selected using a systematic random sampling method. Data were gathered through direct interview by using a pretested questionnaire. The collected stool specimens were examined microscopically for the presence of eggs, cysts and trophozoites of intestinal parasites using direct saline smear and formol-ether concentration methods. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS version 16 software. Out of 304 study subjects, 104 (34.2%) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The prevalence rate was 43 (32.1%) for male and 61 (35.9%) for female. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was high in age group of 10-12 years compared to other age groups. The predominant intestinal parasite was Hymenolepis nana, followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Ascaris lumbricoides with 42 (13.8%), 28 (9.2%), 18 (5.9%), respectively. Hand washing practice and ways of transportation were statistically associated with intestinal parasitic infections. Children in grades 1 to 3 had a higher prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection than those in grades 4 to 8 (p = 0.031). Intestinal parasites were prevalent in varying magnitude among the schoolchildren. The prevalence of infections were higher for helminths compared to protozoa. Measures including education on personal

  6. Blood donation practice and its associated factors among health professionals of University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arage, Getachew; Ibrahim, Seada; Adimasu, Endeshaw

    2017-07-19

    Blood donation has remained a challenge in developing countries, like Ethiopia. In Ethiopia there is a high reliance on family surrogate and waged blood donors which carries an attendant increased risk of transfusion transmissible infection. Health workers are expected to practice blood donation so as to create a good image to the public. A study on blood donation behavior may improve successful implementation of the blood donation programs. An institution based cross-sectional study was deployed from January to June 2015. An aggregate of 427 health workers were included in the study by using simple random sampling technique. Data were collected by using pre tested and structured questionnaire via self-administrated method. Descriptive and summary statistics were employed. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were computed. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine the level of significance. A total of 427 participants were included in the final analysis (response rate = 100%). Among these participants, 33.2% of them practice blood donation. Age above 25 years [AOR = 1.8 (95% CI 1.1, 3.0)], health professionals' knowledge of blood donation [AOR = 1.9 (95% CI 1.1, 3.1)], health professionals' attitude towards blood donation [AOR = 3.0, 95% CI 1. 8, 4.9)], and the presence of family members or relatives who received blood [AOR = 5.4, 95% CI 3.7, 8.7)] were significantly and independently associated with blood donation behavior of health professionals. Blood donation practice of health professionals in this study was found to be low as compared to other studies conducted in developing countries. Health professionals' knowledge, attitude, age and the presence of family members or relatives who received blood before were independently associated with blood donation practice. Thus, awareness has to be created for health professionals to improve blood donation practices.

  7. Predictors of dental caries among children 7-14 years old in Northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayele, Fenta A; Taye, Belaynew W; Ayele, Tadesse A; Gelaye, Kassahun A

    2013-01-18

    Dental caries in children remains a significant public health problem. It is a disease with multifactorial causes. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries among children between 7 to 14 years old. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar town from June 2011 to September 2011. A total of 842 children were involved in the study. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the children. Pretested and structured questionnaires were used to collect data from mothers. Clinical examination of children was done using dental caries criteria set by world health organization. Data were entered, cleaned and edited using EPI Info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. Binary multiple logistic regression analyses was applied to test the association. Four hundred sixty three (55%) children were females. The prevalence of dental caries was 306(36.3%).The educational status of children's father (AOR=0.3, 95%CI, 0.17, 0.80), monthly household income (AOR=0.59, 95%CI, 0.01, 0.45), regular teeth brushing (AOR=0.08, 95% CI, 0.03, 0.20) and using mouth rinsing (AOR=0.40, 95% CI, 0.2, 0.80) were found statistically significantly associated with dental caries. Dental caries were high among children in Gondar town. Low socioeconomic status and poor oral hygiene practices were the influencing factors for dental caries. Oral hygiene, dietary habits and access to dental care services are supreme important for the prevention of the problem.

  8. Sexually transmitted diseases among female commercial sex workers in Finote Selam town, northwest Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteneh, Zelalem Alamrew; Agumas, Yirdaw Amare; Tarekegn, Molalign

    2017-01-01

    Female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) are considered a high-risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), yet the reported prevalence varies in studies around the world. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude and associated factors of STDs among female sex workers. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among female sex workers in Finote Selam town. A total of 389 sex workers were studied using census method. Data were collected using an interview with structured questionnaires. The data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20 software package. The findings of this study showed that the overall prevalence of STDs was 20.6%. The reported prevalence of genital discharge, ulcer, and bubo was 15.9%, 15.2%, and 11.6%, respectively. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, respondents who did not use a condom were about four times at higher risk of STDs than those who were using a condom consistently (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.812, 9.139). Respondents who experienced condom breakages were more than 12 times more likely to report STDs than those who never experienced condom breakages (AOR = 12.291, 95% CI: 5.701, 26.495). The findings of this study showed that one in five commercial sex workers in Finote Selam town had STDs. Sex without a condom and condom breakage during sexual intercourse showed a significant association with STDs. Therefore, the Woreda Health Office in collaboration with nongovernmental organizations in the area should work on safe sex promotion to enhance consistent condom use and reduce condom breakage through continuous education among commercial sex workers.

  9. Metabolic Syndrome and Its Characteristics among Reproductive-Aged Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study in Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Pourteymour Fard Tabrizi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a clustering of factors known to increase the risk forcardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes mellitus. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, the mostcommon endocrine disorder among reproductive-aged women, is also closely linked to MetS. Limitedinformation is available pertaining to the prevalence of MetS in Iranian PCOS women; therefore thisstudy assesses the frequency of MetS and its components among PCOS women from Tabriz, Iran.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated a total of 200 women withPCOS who referred to the only specialty and subspecialty gynecological center in Northwestern Iran.PCOS was diagnosed according to Rotterdam criteria. This study defined clinical and biochemicalparameters for MetS by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III(NCEP ATP III criteria. Statistical analyses were performed with descriptive-analytical methodsusing SPSS software version 16.Results: MetS was identified in 39.5% of PCOS women. The frequencies of individual componentsof MetS among studied subjects were: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (HDL-C<50 mg/dL (99.5%, waist circumference(WC ≥88cm (65%, triglycerides (TG ≥150 mg/dL(98%, andblood pressure≥130/85 mmHg(34%.There were no fasting glucose concentrations≥110 mg/dL. Thefrequency of MetS increased with body mass index (BMIas follows: normal (5.4%, overweight(41.5% and obese (85.7% women (p<0.0001.Conclusion: The PCOS women in this study had a high frequency of MetS and its individualcomponents, particularly decreased HDL-C and increased triglyceride levels. These data can usefulfor lifestyle modification programs.

  10. Association Between Awareness of Hypertension and Health-Related Quality of Life in a Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study in Rural Area of Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Baibing; Dang, Shaonong; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Yaling; Yang, Ruihai; Wang, Duolao; Yan, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Hypertensive patients have more complex health care needs and are more likely to have poorer health-related quality of life than normotensive people. The awareness of hypertension could be related to reduce health-related quality of life. We propose the use of quantile regression to explore more detailed relationships between awareness of hypertension and health-related quality of life. In a cross-sectional, population-based study, 2737 participants (including 1035 hypertensive patients and 1702 normotensive participants) completed the Short-Form Health Survey. A quantile regression model was employed to investigate the association of physical component summary scores and mental component summary scores with awareness of hypertension and to evaluate the associated factors. Patients who were aware of hypertension (N = 554) had lower scores than patients who were unaware of hypertension (N = 481). The median (IQR) of physical component summary scores: 48.20 (13.88) versus 53.27 (10.79), P mental component summary scores: 50.68 (15.09) versus 51.70 (10.65), P = 0.03. adjusting for covariates, the quantile regression results suggest awareness of hypertension was associated with most physical component summary scores quantiles (P mental component summary scores quantiles in which the β-estimates from -3.47 (95% CI: -6.65 to -0.39) to -2.18 (95% CI: -4.30 to -0.06). The awareness of hypertension has a greater effect on those with intermediate physical component summary status: the β-estimates were equal to -2.04 (95% CI: -3.51 to -0.57, P Awareness of hypertension was negatively related to health-related quality of life in hypertensive patients in rural western China, which has a greater effect on mental component summary scores with the poorer status and on physical component summary scores with the intermediate status.

  11. Effect of emergency oral contraceptive use on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among university students, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasie, Belaynew; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Moges, Beyene; Amare, Bemnet

    2012-09-13

    Young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years are both the most at risk of HIV and the greatest hope for turning the tide against HIV/AIDS. Although various surveys have been done on sexual behaviour of youth in Ethiopia, studies assessing the effect of emergency oral contraceptives on condom utilization of university students are lacking. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two major universities of Ethiopia from January to May 2011 using structured self administered questionnaire with the aim to assess the effect of introducing oral emergency contraceptive pills on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among female university students. Study participants were selected by simple random sampling using the list from the associate registrars of each University. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with condom utilization. a total of 623 students out of 660 were included giving response rate of 94.4%. A total of 103(16.5%) had history of sexual intercourse and nearly half (45.6%) of them had sex before the age of 20 years. Forty (6.4%) students had history of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Sixty seven percent of students had heard about emergency oral contraceptives. One hundred and ninety one (45.7%) of students believe that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy. Believing that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy (adjusted Odds ratio, AOR = 0.22 95% CI 0.06, 0.87), condom prevents STI (AOR = 10.37, 95% CI 1.73, 62.24) and younger age below 20 years (AOR = 11.68 95% CI 1.25, 109.19) were statistically significantly associated with condom use. a significant number of students had history of sexual intercourse and used emergency contraception. The belief in the effectiveness of EOC negatively affects condom use. The preference for the pill may make teenagers less prepared to practice STI protective behaviours in

  12. Cotton dust exposure and self-reported respiratory symptoms among textile factory workers in Northwest Ethiopia: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daba Wami, Sintayehu; Chercos, Daniel Haile; Dessie, Awrajaw; Gizaw, Zemichael; Getachew, Atalay; Hambisa, Tesfaye; Guadu, Tadese; Getachew, Dawit; Destaw, Bikes

    2018-01-01

    Cotton dust induced respiratory disorders are dramatically increased over the globe, especially the problem is serious in developing countries. Respiratory symptoms, such as cough, phlegm, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, chronic bronchitis, and byssinosis are common among workers exposed to cotton dust. However, in Ethiopia, the magnitude of the problem is not well known and information is limited about the risk factors. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and associated factors. A Comparative cross-sectional study design was employed. A total of 413 (276 exposed and 137 unexposed) participants were included in the study. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to select exposed and unexposed groups to cotton dust respectively. Multivariable binary logistic regression analyses was performed to identify variables associated with respiratory symptoms and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was used to determine the strength of associations. Significance level was obtained at 95% confidence interval (CI) and p -value ≤0.05. The prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms was 47.8% (95% CI: 41.3, 53.7%) and 15.3% (95% CI: 9.6, 22.3%) among exposed and control groups respectively. Sex (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.29, 3.45), service year (AOR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.19, 4.71) and ventilation (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.17, 4.91) were factors significantly associated with respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, working department such as; ginning (AOR = 5.1, 95% CI: 2.13, 12.16), spinning (AOR = 4.96, 95% CI: 2.18, 11.29), weaving (AOR = 5.9, 95% CI: 2.46, 14.27) and blowing working departments (AOR = 5.14, 95% CI: 1.4, 18.94) were significantly associated with respiratory disorders. The prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms was higher among workers exposed to cotton dust than unexposed workers. Sex, service year, working department and work unit ventilation were predictor

  13. Effect of emergency oral contraceptive use on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among university students, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasie Belaynew

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years are both the most at risk of HIV and the greatest hope for turning the tide against HIV/AIDS. Although various surveys have been done on sexual behaviour of youth in Ethiopia, studies assessing the effect of emergency oral contraceptives on condom utilization of university students are lacking. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in two major universities of Ethiopia from January to May 2011 using structured self administered questionnaire with the aim to assess the effect of introducing oral emergency contraceptive pills on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among female university students. Study participants were selected by simple random sampling using the list from the associate registrars of each University. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with condom utilization. Results a total of 623 students out of 660 were included giving response rate of 94.4%. A total of 103(16.5% had history of sexual intercourse and nearly half (45.6% of them had sex before the age of 20 years. Forty (6.4% students had history of sexually transmitted infections (STI. Sixty seven percent of students had heard about emergency oral contraceptives. One hundred and ninety one (45.7% of students believe that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy. Believing that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy (adjusted Odds ratio, AOR = 0.22 95% CI 0.06, 0.87, condom prevents STI (AOR = 10.37, 95% CI 1.73, 62.24 and younger age below 20 years (AOR = 11.68 95% CI 1.25, 109.19 were statistically significantly associated with condom use. Conclusion a significant number of students had history of sexual intercourse and used emergency contraception. The belief in the effectiveness of EOC negatively affects condom use. The preference for the

  14. Prevalence of Active Trachoma and Its Associated Factors among Rural and Urban Children in Dera Woreda, Northwest Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metadel Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Trachoma is the most common infectious cause of blindness worldwide. Once an epidemic in most parts of the world, it has largely now disappeared from developed countries. However, it continues to be endemic in many developing countries like Ethiopia. Even if several studies were conducted in different parts of Ethiopia, most of them did not show the independent predictors for rural and urban children separately. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the prevalence and associated factors of active trachoma in urban and rural children. Methods. Community based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Dera woreda. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 671 children of one up to nine years of age. Data were collected by face to face interview and observation using a structured and pretested questionnaire. Binary Logistic Regression Model was fitted to consider adding independent predictors of outcome. Results. Out of 671 children, 20 (9.3% of urban and 85 (18.6% of rural children were positive for active trachoma. Having discharge on eye (AOR = 6.9, 95% CI: 1.79–27.89, presence of liquid waste around the main house (AOR = 5.6, 95% CI: 1.94–16.18, and living in households without latrine (AOR = 4.39, 95% CI: 1.39–13.89 were significantly associated with active trachoma of urban children. Rural children who had discharge on their eye (AOR = 5.86, 95% CI: 2.78–12.33, those who had unclean face (AOR = 4.68, 95% CI: 2.24–9.81, and those living in households with feces around their main houses (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.04–3.62 were significantly associated with active trachoma. Conclusion. The result showed that the prevalence of active trachoma in urban areas of the district was below WHO threshold of 10% to determine trachoma as public health problem. However, in rural areas of the district it is far from elimination of trachoma as a public health problem. Thus, in order to improve awareness of the community

  15. Sexually transmitted diseases among female commercial sex workers in Finote Selam town, northwest Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anteneh ZA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zelalem Alamrew Anteneh,1 Yirdaw Amare Agumas,2 Molalign Tarekegn3 1School of Public Health, Bahir Dar University, 2Networks of Charitable Societies of HIV Positive Association in Amhara Region (NAP+, 3Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Background: Female commercial sex workers (FCSWs are considered a high-risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, yet the reported prevalence varies in studies around the world. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude and associated factors of STDs among female sex workers. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among female sex workers in Finote Selam town. A total of 389 sex workers were studied using census method. Data were collected using an interview with structured questionnaires. The data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20 software package.Results: The findings of this study showed that the overall prevalence of STDs was 20.6%. The reported prevalence of genital discharge, ulcer, and bubo was 15.9%, 15.2%, and 11.6%, respectively. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, respondents who did not use a condom were about four times at higher risk of STDs than those who were using a condom consistently (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.812, 9.139. Respondents who experienced condom breakages were more than 12 times more likely to report STDs than those who never experienced condom breakages (AOR = 12.291, 95% CI: 5.701, 26.495. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that one in five commercial sex workers in Finote Selam town had STDs. Sex without a condom and condom breakage during sexual intercourse showed a significant association with STDs. Therefore, the Woreda Health Office in collaboration with nongovernmental organizations in the area should work on safe sex promotion to enhance consistent condom use and reduce condom breakage through continuous education among

  16. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order...

  17. Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, John S.

    Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

  18. The Northwest Passage Dispute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    2018-01-01

    This is an article written for the Oxford Research Group "Sustainable Security" series. It gives an overview of the dispute of the Northwest Passage and discusses factors which will contribute to the evolution of the dispute in the 21st century. This short contribution summarizes and adds to the ...... to the research recently published by the author through Palgrave Macmillan, Danita Catherine Burke, 2018, International Disputes and Cultural Ideas in the Canadian Arctic...

  19. Agony in the Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labella, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    A public power crisis in the Pacific Northwest arose over plans to build five nuclear power plants. This review traces the decisions made by the 23 members of the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS), the Bonneville Power Administration, and 115 other utilities and industrial users, rural cooperatives, and investor-owned utilities during the planning and construction stages to the decision to terminate three plants. The effects of political action committees working for referenda to stop bond issues, suits by rate payers and cooperatives, and other financial problems led to the decision to mothball two units and halt construction of a third, which led to the loss of 6000 construction jobs. Work continues at one site at record levels. The region must submit a cost-effective conservation and renewable resource plan next year that will help to clarify the future of nuclear plants in the affected states

  20. Global warming: A Northwest perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Counts, C.A. (eds.)

    1990-02-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council convened a symposium in Olympia, Washington, on the subject of global climate change ( the greenhouse effect'') and its potential for affecting the Pacific Northwest. The symposium was organized in response to a need by the Power Council to understand global climate change and its potential impacts on resource planning and fish and wildlife planning for the region, as well as a need to understand national policy developing toward climate change and the Pacific Northwest's role in it. 40 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. 40 CFR 81.115 - Northwest Nevada Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.115 Section 81.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.115 Northwest Nevada Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northwest Nevada Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  2. Planning for prescribed burning in the inland northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Martin; John D. Dell

    1978-01-01

    Fire has historically played a role in forests and ranges of the inland Northwest. This guide has been prepared to help managers understand the role of fire and the potential uses of fire and to plan for fire use in managing these lands. Sections deal with these topics, and steps in planning a prescribed burn are outlined. A sample burning situation illustrates the...

  3. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.; Anderson, D.B.; Hungate, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing resrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides

  4. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides

  5. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  6. Solar 78 Northwest conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Thirty eight papers are included. One was abstracted previously. Separate entries were prepared for thirty-seven. Also included are the conference evaluation summary, Pacific Northwest Solar Energy Association organization information, lists of commercial and non-commercial exhibitors, speakers and stearing committee members, and attendees. (MHR)

  7. Pacific Northwest regional assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest (comprised of the states of Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming) can by several measures be regarded as a national warehouse of fossil energy resources. This condition coupled with an evolving national policy stressing utilization of fossil fuels in the near term prior to development of more advanced technologies for energy supply, could result in the imposition of major changes in the region's environmental, socioeconomic and possibly health status. The objective of the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program is to establish and exercise an integrated analytical assessment program for evaluation of these potential changes that may result from various energy development or conservation scenarios. After consideration of a variety of approaches to integrated assessment at a regional level, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) has concluded that dynamic simulation techniques provide the best available approach to evaluating the issues pertinent to the Northwest. As a result, the PNW Regional Assessment Program has been structured in a framework involving ten sectors. Each of these sectors involve their own submodels that receive information either from outside the model as exogenous inputs or from other sector submodels

  8. Canyons off northwest Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, W.D.; Glover, L.K.; Hollister, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    The Nuclear-Research Submarine NR-1 was used to study morphoplogy, sediment, and sediment-water interactions off the northwest coast of Puerto Rico. New detailed bathymetry from the surface-support ship, USS Portland, shows several submarine canyons in the area, some of them unreported previously. The north coast canyons, Arecibo, Tiberones and Quebradillas, are primarily erosional features although no recent turbidity-current evidence is seen. The canyons are presently filling with river-transported sediments. (orig./ME)

  9. Evaluation of electrical power alternatives for the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    This study evaluates the concept of implementation of large-scale energy conservation to reduce end-use demand for electrical energy as an alternative to the need for continued construction of new power plants to meet projected energy requirements for the Pacific Northwest. In particular, the numerical accuracy, economic feasibility, and institutional impact of a conservation-oriented scenario developed by the Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., is assessed, relative to the energy forecast prepared by the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Commission. The results of this study are presented in four detailed sections following an introductory and summary section: Reconstruction and Numerical Evaluation of Alternative Scenario; Economic Analysis; Institutional Impact; and Impact of New National Energy Policy.

  10. Sediment Evaluation Framework for the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sediment Evaluation Framework provides a regional framework for assessment, characterization and management of sediments in the Pacific Northwest to determine suitability for unconfined in-water disposal.

  11. Pacific Northwest regional AGU meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Roy

    The 27th Annual Pacific Northwest Regional American Geophysical Union Meeting, held September 25 and 26, 1980, was hosted by the Pacific Geoscience Centre at the Institute of Ocean Sciences, near Victoria, British Columbia. A total of 79 papers was presented to the 150 registrants in six general sessions: seismology; electromagnetic induction; general geophysics; volcanology; hydrology; and oceanography, and in three special symposia: ‘The Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault system and other active faults of the Pacific Northwest’ ‘Coastal circulation in the northeast Pacific’ and ‘Studies of the eruption of Mount St. Helens.’

  12. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2000-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2000-2004 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; management practices and standards; and communications and trust.

  13. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2001-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-12-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2001-2005 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; managaement procatices and standards; and communications and trust.

  14. Delimiting communities in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen M. Donoghue

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an approach for delimiting communities in the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) region of the Pacific Northwest that responds to the need to assess impacts and issues associated with broad-scale ecosystem management. Census block groups are aggregated to provide an alternative to more commonly used geographic delimitations of communities, specifically...

  15. Studies of physical-chemical properties of phosphorites of the northwest part of the Dzhanatas field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyumebayev, O T; Bashayeva, L A; Galuzo, V N; Koldobskaya, K V; Ospanov, Ye S; Zhantasov, K T

    1983-01-01

    The Karatau basin includes dozens of phosphorite fields which are distinguished both in chemical composition and in mineralogy. The main factors which influence the technological properties of the ores are chemical-mineralogical composition and structural-textural features of the phosphorites. Changes are examined in the physical chemical properties during thermal treatment of phosphorite of the Dzhanats field, northwest section. It was established as a result of the studies that the sample of phosphorite of Dzhanatas of the northwest section contains 3 main components: phosphate substance, silica and carbonates. Of the mineral admixtures, oxides and hydroxides of iron, alumosilicates, mica and organic substance are present. In the dominance of a certain mineral, the northwest section belongs to the silicon-phosphatecarbonate type.

  16. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  17. Program Contacts for Northwest Indiana Area (Indiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Indiana Area (Indiana) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  18. Northwest Atlantic Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0155889)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, NCEI Regional Climatology Team...

  19. Northwest Hazardous Waste Research, Development, and Demonstration Center: Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    The Northwest Hazardous Waste Research, Development, and Demonstration Center was created as part of an ongoing federal effort to provide technologies and methods that protect human health and welfare and environment from hazardous wastes. The Center was established by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) to develop and adapt innovative technologies and methods for assessing the impacts of and remediating inactive hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste sites. The Superfund legislation authorized $10 million for Pacific Northwest Laboratory to establish and operate the Center over a 5-year period. Under this legislation, Congress authorized $10 million each to support research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) on hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste problems in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington, including the Hanford Site. In 1987, the Center initiated its RD and D activities and prepared this Program Plan that presents the framework within which the Center will carry out its mission. Section 1.0 describes the Center, its mission, objectives, organization, and relationship to other programs. Section 2.0 describes the Center's RD and D strategy and contains the RD and D objectives, priorities, and process to be used to select specific projects. Section 3.0 contains the Center's FY 1988 operating plan and describes the specific RD and D projects to be carried out and their budgets and schedules. 9 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  20. The Northwest Indiana Robotic Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Shawn D.; Rengstorf, A. W.; Aros, J. C.; Segally, W. B.

    2011-01-01

    The Northwest Indiana Robotic (NIRo) Telescope is a remote, automated observing facility recently built by Purdue University Calumet (PUC) at a site in Lowell, IN, approximately 30 miles from the PUC campus. The recently dedicated observatory will be used for broadband and narrowband optical observations by PUC students and faculty, as well as pre-college students through the implementation of standards-based, middle-school modules developed by PUC astronomers and education faculty. The NIRo observatory and its web portal are the central technical elements of a project to improve astronomy education at Purdue Calumet and, more broadly, to improve science education in middle schools of the surrounding region. The NIRo Telescope is a 0.5-meter (20-inch) Ritchey-Chrétien design on a Paramount ME robotic mount, featuring a seven-position filter wheel (UBVRI, Hα, Clear), Peltier (thermoelectrically) cooled CCD camera with 3056 x 3056, square, 12 μm pixels, and off-axis guiding. It provides a coma-free imaging field of 0.5 degrees square, with a plate scale of 0.6 arcseconds per pixel. The observatory has a wireless internet connection, local weather station which publishes data to an internet weather site, and a suite of CCTV security cameras on an IP-based, networked video server. Control of power to every piece of instrumentation is maintained via internet-accessible power distribution units. The telescope can be controlled on-site, or off-site in an attended fashion via an internet connection, but will be used primarily in an unattended mode of automated observation, where queued observations will be scheduled daily from a database of requests. Completed observational data from queued operation will be stored on a campus-based server, which also runs the web portal and observation database. Partial support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation's Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) program under Award No. 0736592.

  1. Non-communicable diseases among prison inmates in North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is paucity of data on prevalence of non-communicable diseases in prison inmates. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of non-communicable diseases in inmates of Sokoto Central Prison, North-West Nigeria. Methodology: Cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out.

  2. The Pacific northwest stream quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Sheibley, Rich W.

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program is assessing stream quality in the Pacific Northwest. The goals of the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (Pacific Northwest study) are to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and to evaluate the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality for the Puget Lowlands and Willamette Valley are the focus of this regional study. Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information regarding which human and environmental factors are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect or improve the health of streams in the region.

  3. Analysis of the Radio-Ecological State of Units and Installations Involved in Nuclear Submarine Decommissioning in the Northwest Region of Russia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarkissov, A

    2003-01-01

    .... in the first section of the report, all nuclear-powered units and installations involved in the process of nuclear submarine utilization in the northwest region of Russia are listed and considered in detail...

  4. Fish resource data from the Snare River, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessop, E.F.; Chang-Kue, K.T.J.; MacDonald, G.

    1994-01-01

    An extensive fish sampling and tagging program was conducted on the Snare River, Northwest Territories, in order to collect baseline data on the fish populations in sections of the river altered by hydroelectric projects. Fish populations were sampled from May to July 1977 in five sections of the river that were influenced by development of hydropower at three dams currently on line; 530 tagged fish were also released. The biweekly catch composition in experimental gill nets for each study area and the catch per gill net mesh size are presented for walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), lake cisco (Coregonus artedi), northern pike (Esox lucius), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus). Age-specific data on length, weight, age, sex, and maturity are also included. 7 refs., 12 figs., 42 tabs

  5. 1991 Pacific Northwest loads and resources study, Pacific Northwest economic and electricity use forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication provides detailed documentation of the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used in preparing BPA's 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (the Study). This is one of two technical appendices to the Study; the other appendix details the utility-specific loads and resources used in the Study. The load forecasts and assumption were developed jointly by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) staff. This forecast is also used in the Council's 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan (1991 Plan)

  6. 77 FR 20807 - Northwest Pipeline GP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... diameter pipelines away from an adjacent surface coal mine west of Kemmerer, Wyoming. Northwest also... directed to Pam Barnes, Manager Certificates and Tariffs, Northwest Pipeline GP, 295 Chipeta Way, Salt Lake...

  7. Achievements in emergency medical rescue service, North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-28

    Aug 28, 2006 ... In North-West province this process of provincialisation took place in ... Emergency Medical Rescue Service, Department of Health, North-West. Victor R .... recovery after CPR treatment should be started as soon as possible ...

  8. Indians of Yukon and Northwest Territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    A report is presented of the 7 American Indian tribes (Chipewyan, Yellowknife, Slave, Dogrib, Hare, Nahani, and Kutchin) of the Yukon and Northwest Territories. Described is each tribe's history, foodgathering methods, clothing, work distribution practices, social organization, and religion. A brief history of formal education among the tribes…

  9. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  10. FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILLS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN IN NORTHWEST ENGLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, J D; Knowles, Z; Fairclough, S J; Stratton, G; O'Dwyer, M; Ridgers, N D; Foweather, L

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study examined fundamental movement skill competency among deprived preschool children in Northwest England and explored sex differences. A total of 168 preschool children (ages 3-5 yr.) were included in the study. Twelve skills were assessed using the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Motor Skills Protocol and video analysis. Sex differences were explored at the subtest, skill, and component levels. Overall competence was found to be low among both sexes, although it was higher for locomotor skills than for object-control skills. Similar patterns were observed at the component level. Boys had significantly better object-control skills than girls, with greater competence observed for the kick and overarm throw, while girls were more competent at the run, hop, and gallop. The findings of low competency suggest that developmentally appropriate interventions should be implemented in preschool settings to promote movement skills, with targeted activities for boys and girls.

  11. Regional climate change for the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBean, G.A.; Thomas, G.

    1991-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest climate is dominated by topography and the Pacific Ocean; the forests have become adapted to the present climate. Within short distances there are large changes in precipitation and temperature, with resultant changes in ecosystems. As the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases increase, global climate is expected to warm and precipitation to increase. Global climate model simulations show enhanced warming at high northern latitudes. For the Pacific Northwest, models show 2-6 degree C warming and increased precipitation in the winter for doubled atmospheric CO 2 concentration. However, the regional details of these models are presently not very reliable. The results and limitations of present global climate models are reviewed. The roles of the oceans, clouds, and other feedback mechanisms are described along with some of the possible impacts of climate change on forest resources. 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Sustaining the Northwest way of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    These Discussion Papers are from a number of organizations with a high stake in the future performance of the Bonneville Power Administration. Bonneville solicited papers from other organizations to assure a broaded-based discussion of the topics for the 1991 Programs in Perspective. PIP meetings will be held throughout the Northwest in September. PIP runs on a two-year cycle. The first year is aimed at discussion of broad, strategic issues. The second year evaluates specific program levels for all Bonneville programs and test them for affordability against financial constraints. This year's PIP focuses on strategic-issues discussion. It specifically asks for regional discussion to help put some flesh on the skeleton of Bonneville's own vision for its future: ''Best for the Northwest Through Teamwork B... P... A... The Most Competitive and Socially Responsible Power System in the Nation'' Specific topics are (1) achieving social responsibility and (2) conserving Northwest competitiveness. Bonneville executives chose this vision as a means of directing the organization into and beyond the 1990s. It guides the 3000 plus employees of the agency in their day-to-day operations. By asking for discussion of the terms ''Most Competitive'' and ''Socially Responsible'' in the 1991 PIP, Bonneville intends to better understand the diverse needs of its customers and constituents, and to become of even greater service to the Northwest. The papers are designed to help stimulate thought about the dimensions of the future direction of BPA. Bonneville intends that the real substance of PIP will occur in the meetings themselves. We hope that these papers will provoke new thinking, and that the interchange of views in the meetings will produce new approaches to the issues

  13. Sustaining the Northwest Way of Life.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Customer Services.

    1991-08-01

    These Discussion Papers are from a number of organizations with a high stake in the future performance of the Bonneville Power Administration. Bonneville solicited papers from other organizations to assure a broaded-based discussion of the topics for the 1991 Programs in Perspective. PIP meetings will be held throughout the Northwest in September. PIP runs on a two-year cycle. The first year is aimed at discussion of broad, strategic issues. The second year evaluates specific program levels for all Bonneville programs and test them for affordability against financial constraints. This year's PIP focuses on strategic-issues discussion. It specifically asks for regional discussion to help put some flesh on the skeleton of Bonneville's own vision for its future: Best for the Northwest Through Teamwork B... P... A... The Most Competitive and Socially Responsible Power System in the Nation'' Specific topics are (1) achieving social responsibility and (2) conserving Northwest competitiveness. Bonneville executives chose this vision as a means of directing the organization into and beyond the 1990s. It guides the 3000 plus employees of the agency in their day-to-day operations. By asking for discussion of the terms Most Competitive'' and Socially Responsible'' in the 1991 PIP, Bonneville intends to better understand the diverse needs of its customers and constituents, and to become of even greater service to the Northwest. The papers are designed to help stimulate thought about the dimensions of the future direction of BPA. Bonneville intends that the real substance of PIP will occur in the meetings themselves. We hope that these papers will provoke new thinking, and that the interchange of views in the meetings will produce new approaches to the issues.

  14. Electricity: Cornerstone of the northwest economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this Northwest Power Plan is to preserve and enhance valuable assets by identifying the steps that need to be taken to ensure the lowest cost electrical energy future for the Pacific Northwest. With the 1980's the region entered a new age of electrical power, which poses five major new challenges for the region. (1) All new sources of power are much more expensive than the region's existing hydropower system. (2) The region's industries have divergent needs, and the dilemma is that new additions to the power system will raise costs and threaten the traditional industries. (3) The current surplus of electricity is expensive. Today's surplus is made up of coal and nuclear powered systems which are expensive. (4) The surplus is not evenly shared. High growth metropolitan served by investor-owned utilities with fewer resources compared to demand than the publicly-owned utilities. (5) The surplus could disappear quickly, with high growth the region would need new supplies in the next few years. A 25 year history of the Northwest electrical power development is given

  15. Navigable windows of the Northwest Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing-he; Ma, Long; Wang, Jia-yue; Wang, Ye; Wang, Li-na

    2017-09-01

    Artic sea ice loss trends support a greater potential for Arctic shipping. The information of sea ice conditions is important for utilizing Arctic passages. Based on the shipping routes given by ;Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment 2009 Report;, the navigable windows of these routes and the constituent legs were calculated by using sea ice concentration product data from 2006 to 2015, by which a comprehensive knowledge of the sea ice condition of the Northwest Passage was achieved. The results showed that Route 4 (Lancaster Sound - Barrow Strait - Prince Regent Inlet and Bellot Strait - Franklin Strait - Larsen Sound - Victoria Strait - Queen Maud Gulf - Dease Strait - Coronation Gulf - Dolphin and Union Strait - Amundsen Gulf) had the best navigable expectation, Route 2 (Parry Channel - M'Clure Strait) had the worst, and the critical legs affecting the navigation of Northwest Passage were Viscount Melville Sound, Franklin Strait, Victoria Strait, Bellot Strait, M'Clure Strait and Prince of Wales Strait. The shortest navigable period of the routes of Northwest Passage was up to 69 days. The methods used and the results of the study can help the selection and evaluation of Arctic commercial routes.

  16. The public view of Pacific Northwest forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    There are diverse communities that make up the public in the Pacific Northwest, all with differing views on the forest. To the media, the public are those indirect stakeholders, or average citizens, who have become keenly aware of the importance of environmental issues, including the implications for global change. Linkages between the forests, deforestation, global climate change, and overall environmental sustainability have been widely publicized, though less frequently analyzed in depth. Consequently, the state of Northwest forests has become a vital public interest. The need for an overall margin of global environmental security, and a concern over unsuspected consequences of all economic activity (including forestry) have created a community of interest among the urban population. In part, this is a spillover effect from promoting individual environmental responsibility and the conserver ethic into issues beyond the city boundary. In the Northwest, this often translates as a deep concern over forest management issues and strong conviction that changes are needed. At the same time, and largely as a direct response, the socioeconomic interests of rural forest communities have become a high-profile issue, raising debate over local empowerment and local forest stewardship models. The consequences of this complex and rapidly evolving public view of the forests are critical to forest managers and policymakers. 12 refs

  17. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison of BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur University Students in Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Jingya, Bai; Ye, He; Jing, Wang; Xi, Huanjiu; Tao, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To fully analyze and compare BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, to discuss the differences in their physical properties and physical health, and thus to provide some theoretical suggestions for the improvement of students’ physical health. Methods. The cross-sectional random cluster sampling was used to investigate 10103 Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, aged 20–24 in Northwest China, and their height and weight were measured to calculate BMI. The BM...

  18. Northwest Territories Power Corporation annual report 1991/92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Northwest Territories Power Corporation is a crown corporation of the government of the Northwest Territories. The Corporation operates diesel and hydroelectric production facilities to provide utility services on a self-sustaining basis in the Northwest Territories. Total revenue for 1991/92 amounted to $92,872,000 with $84,954,000 coming from the sale of power. Financial statements are presented. 3 figs

  19. Northwest Territories Power Corporation annual report 1992/93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The Northwest Territories Power Corporation is a crown corporation of the government of the Northwest Territories. The Corporation operates diesel and hydroelectric production facilities to provide utility services on a self-sustaining basis in the Northwest Territories. Total revenue for 1992/93 amounted to $98,327,000 with $90,274,000 coming from the sale of power. Financial statements are presented. 3 figs

  20. Incidence of Leukemia in the Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atabak Asvadi Kermani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukemia is cancer of the blood or bone marrow, characterized by an unusualincrease in white blood cells. It is the sixth most common malignancy in the country in bothmales and females. The aim of this study was to document some epidemiological features ofleukemia in the Northwest of Iran.Methods: The study subjects (n=669, including 377 males and 292 females comprised allleukemia cases registered/notified to the clinical and pathology centers of Tabriz and Ardebilcities, from 2003 to 2006. All patients were classified using the ICD-10 based coding system(C91-C95, C77 and C42. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals were calculated to assessthe statistical significance of the data.Results: Annual incidence of leukemia was 3.7 [95% CI: 3.3–4.0] and 4.9 [95% CI: 4.2–5.6]per 100 000 population in Tabriz and Ardebil, respectively, with an overall case fatality rateof 13.5 percent [95% CI: 10.8–16.0]. The sex ratio (male/female was 1.23. Myeloid leukemia(C92 and Hematopoetic and Reticuloendothelial system (C42 accounted proportionally formore than 47 percent of cases in the region. Over the study period, the annual occurrence ofleukemia in the region increased from 3.9 [95% CI: 3.4–4.5] to 4.1 [95% CI: 3.5–4.6] per 100000 population (P>0.1.Conclusions- The data from this cross-sectional study of leukemia in the North-West of Iranmay be used as the baseline information to establish a population-based registry of hematologicdisorders in the area for health care and research purposes. However, more investigationsare needed to develop effective strategies to control the relevant disorders in high-riskgroups.

  1. BOUND PERIODICAL HOLDINGS BATTELLE - NORTHWEST LIBRARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1967-05-01

    This report lists the bound periodicals in the Technical Library at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. It was prepared from a computer program and is arranged in two parts. Part one is an alphabetical list of journals by title; part two is an arrangement of the journals by subject. The list headings are self-explanatory, with the exception of the title code, which is necessary in the machine processing. The listing is complete through June, 1966 and updates an earlier publication issued in March, 1965.

  2. Pacific Northwest geothermal 1977 review - 1978 outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngquist, W

    1978-06-01

    A survey covers some of the more important geothermal exploration and development activity in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho in 1977, including a projection of what may be expected in these areas in 1978 and the Pacific Northwest extensive young volcanic terrain as a prime exploration target; continuing investment by the geothermal industry; and recommendations that access should be provided to public lands which hold much of this resource, that it should be recognized that the hydrologic systems which bring this energy to the well bore in economic quantities can be depleted, and that taxation should account for this depletion.

  3. Proceedings of the Northwest regional energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, A S; Comstock, D R [eds.

    1978-12-01

    The conference was directed toward two main objectives. First, a major portion of the proceedings were to focus on the policies, programs, and priorities of the new US DOE, and their relationships to the Pacific Northwest region. Second, the conference was to explore specific energy issues of regional significance and provide an opportunity for regional feedback on energy policies. The 10 sessions of the conference are Keynote Session: Congress, and the National Energy Plan Sen. Henry Jackson; National Perspectives on Energy Issues (I): An Overview of the NEP, Programs and Priorities of DOE (Alvin Alm and NEP - Conservation and Solar Applications (Don Beattie); and Luncheon address - Alaska Energy Issues (Robert LeResche); National Perspectives on Energy Issues (II): Utility Rate Reform - National Provisions and Relationships to the Pacific Northwest (David Bardin) and Technology for Energy and Long Term Short Alternatives (Robert Thorne); Concurrent Interest Group Sessions: State and Local Roles in Energy Planning and Decision-Making and Industry and University Roles in DOE Research and Programs; Banquet address. The US Energy Future (James Schlesinger); Regional Perspectives on Energy Issues: DOE-X - Organization and Response to Regional Needs (Randall Hardy). What Comes After Number 13 (Sterling Munro), Hanford 1978 (Alex Fremling), and Low Head Hydro and Geothermal (Richard Wood); Lucheon address - The Washington Perspective on Energy (Dixie Lee Ray); Regional Power Planning (Panel); and Conference Wrap Up Session. (MCW)

  4. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoding, David [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  5. Customer satisfaction assessment at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DN Anderson; ML Sours

    2000-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing and implementing a customer satisfaction assessment program (CSAP) to assess the quality of research and development provided by the laboratory. This report presents the customer survey component of the PNNL CSAP. The customer survey questionnaire is composed of two major sections: Strategic Value and Project Performance. Both sections contain a set of questions that can be answered with a 5-point Likert scale response. The strategic value section consists of five questions that are designed to determine if a project directly contributes to critical future national needs. The project Performance section consists of nine questions designed to determine PNNL performance in meeting customer expectations. A statistical model for customer survey data is developed and this report discusses how to analyze the data with this model. The properties of the statistical model can be used to establish a gold standard or performance expectation for the laboratory, and then to assess progress. The gold standard is defined using laboratory management input-answers to four questions, in terms of the information obtained from the customer survey: (1) What should the average Strategic Value be for the laboratory project portfolio? (2) What Strategic Value interval should include most of the projects in the laboratory portfolio? (3) What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 2? (4) What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 4? To be able to provide meaningful answers to these questions, the PNNL customer survey will need to be fully implemented for several years, thus providing a link between management perceptions of laboratory performance and customer survey data

  6. Marginal thinning in Northwest Greenland during 2002-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjær, K. H.; Wahr, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coast of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the Greenland ice sheet's (GrIS) contribution to global sea-level rise. Here, we map elevation changes in northwest Greenland during 2003-2009 using high-resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satell...

  7. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  8. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  9. Northwest Africa 8535 and Northwest Africa 10463: New Insights into the Angrite Parent Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. R.; Agee, C. B.; Shearer, C. K.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    The angrite meteorites are valuable samples of igneous rocks formed early in Solar System history (approx.4.56 Ga, summarized in [1]). This small meteorite group (approx.24 individually named specimens) consists of rocks with somewhat exotic mineral compositions (e.g., high Ca olivine, Al-Ti-bearing diopside-hedenbergite, calcium silico-phosphates), resulting in exotic bulk rock compositions. These mineral assemblages remain fairly consistent among angrite samples, which suggests they formed due to similar processes from a single mantle source. There is still debate over the formation process for these rocks (see summary in [1]), and analysis of additional angrite samples may help to address this debate. Toward this end, we have begun to study two new angrites, Northwest Africa 8535, a dunite, and Northwest Africa 10463, a basaltic angrite.

  10. Cesarean Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... birth after a C-section, called a VBAC ) Emergency C-Sections Some C-sections are unexpected emergency ... side to nurse or using the clutch (or football) hold can take the pressure off your abdomen. ...

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Solid Waste Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, G.M.

    1993-09-01

    In fiscal year 1992 (FY-92), a Solid Waste Initiative was undertaken within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This action was partly in response to a perceived increase in the frequency and severity of impacts associated with solid waste issues at all levels. It also recognized the limited attention of previous efforts in addressing the broader impacts resulting from solid waste and, thus, dealing with solid waste issues in a holistic fashion. This paper provides a description of the Solid Waste Initiative at PNL, including a historical perspective on PNL's involvement in solid waste issues, the goals and objectives of the Solid Waste Initiative, and a discussion of selected activities being conducted under the Initiative

  12. Safeguards training at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years considerable attention has been given to upgrading security education programs at facilities across the country. At Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), a Laboratory-wide Safeguard Awareness Training Program has been established in order to raise the cognizance of the entire staff with regard to safeguards issues and concerns. This aggressive safeguards program involves a strong interface of physical security measure and material control and accountability systems. Within PNL, four distinct audiences were defined and a needs assessment analysis performed for each to determine specific training requirements. The target audiences identified were: material balance area (MBA) custodians, managers of material balance areas, material handlers, and new employees. Five safeguards training courses were created to meet the needs of those audiences. This paper discusses the development of the Safeguards Awareness Program at PNL and its benefits to the Laboratory

  13. Public information - Northwest region of Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiapina, A.

    2001-01-01

    Regional Center of Public Information in Northwest region of Russian Federation is a part of the State Regional Educational Center of Ministry of the Russian Federation for atomic energy in St.-Petersburg, Russia (http://graph.runnet.ru/). This Center of Public Information (CPI) provides a wide range of information dealing with the nuclear power. The objectives of the CPI are: to conduct informational and educational activities so as to form a positive attitude toward atomic energy and nuclear technologies; to provide the population with a means reliable information about objects of potential risk; to organize an active exchange of the information with enterprises using nuclear technologies in the region. The main topics of informational support are these: electricity production, the ground of nuclear power, new Russian nuclear reactors, nuclear safety, nuclear power and environment, radioactivity, Leningrad nuclear power plant, responsibilities in nuclear engineering. (author)

  14. Prevalence of workplace violence in Northwest Ethiopia: a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Bewket Tadesse; Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Tumebo, Akililu Azazh; Kelkay, Mengistu Mekonnen; Anlay, Degefaye Zelalem; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2016-01-01

    Workplace violence has been acknowledged as a global problem, particularly in the health sector. However, there is scarce data on workplace violence among nurses in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of workplace violence and associated factors among nurses in northwest Ethiopia. Hospital based cross-sectional study design was employed in 386 nurses from April 1 - April 30, 2015. Data were collected through the use of self-administered questionnaire developed by the International Labor Office/International Council of Nurses/World Health Organization and Public Services International. To keep the quality of the data collection training was given to supervisors and data collectors. Piloting was done in Debark hospital two weeks before actual data collection to assess the tool's clarity and make amendments. The proposal was approved by the Institutional Review Board of University of Gondar prior to study commencement and a written consent was obtained from each study participant. The overall prevalence of workplace violence was 26.7 %. Exploratory logistic regression analyses suggested that age, number of staff in the same work shift, working in a male ward, history of workplace violence, and marital status were factors independently associated with workplace violence. The prevalence of workplace violence among nurses was high. Creating a prevention strategy involving different stakeholders is recommended.

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA Report for Calendar Year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, S.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides summary results of the Calendar Year (CY) 1993 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report includes information regarding whole-body exposures to radiation, and skin contaminations. The collective whole-body radiation dose to employees during 1993 was 0.58 person-sievert (58 person-rem). This dose was 11 percent lower than the projected dose of 0.65 person-sievert (65 person-rem). The Radiation Protection Section's Field Dosimetry Services group projected that no PNL employee's dose would exceed 0.02 sievert (2 rem) based on dosimeters processed during the year; no worker actually exceeded the limit by the end of CY 1993. There were 15 reported cases of skin contamination for PNL employees during 1993. This number of 60 percent of the projected total of 25 cases. There were an additional 21 cases of personal-effects contamination to PNL staff: Nine of these contamination events occurred at the 324 Building, nine occurred at the 325 Building, one occurred in the 327 Building, one occurred in the 3720 Building, and one occurred in the 326 Building. Line management set numerous challenging and production ALARA goals for their facilities. Appendix A describes the final status of the 1993 ALARA goals. Appendix B describes the radiological ALARA goals for 1994. The Radiation Protection Section of the Laboratory Safety Dept. routinely perform audits of radiological ALARA requirements for specific facilities with significant potential for exposure. These ALARA audits are part of a comprehensive safety audit of the facility, designed to evaluate and improve total safety performance

  16. Photographic atlas of fish otoliths of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campana, Steven E

    2004-01-01

    This photographic atlas presents light and (or) scanning electron micrographs of 580 pairs of sagittal otoliths representing 288 species, 97 families, and 27 orders of fish from the northwest Atlantic...

  17. 2007 Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD) Lidar: Holmes County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing points classified as bare-earth and canopy (first return) were produced for the 2007/2008 Northwest Florida Water...

  18. Building an infrastructure project performance in the North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    projects are numerous, and it is believed that the inputs and views of as many participants ... all companies listed. ..... Inadequate contingency allowance by the contractor; .... facing small contractors in the North-West Province of South Africa.

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This 1993 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US DOE describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year (FY) 1993. The report is divided into four parts, each in a separate volume. This part, Volume 2, covers Environmental Sciences. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. There are sections on Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Technology Transfer, Interactions with Educational Institutions, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development

  20. Unfrozen sea : sailing the northwest passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byers, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article described the author's journey into the Canadian Arctic that documented the shrinking sea of Canada's Arctic region. It emphasized the loss of ecosystem and animal habitat. It addressed issues regarding Canada's claims of Arctic sovereignty over disputed waters, such as the Northwest Passage. In March 2006, the area covered during the winter by sea-ice was at an all-time low, namely 300,000 square kilometres less than the previous year. At this rate the Arctic could lose all of its sea-ice by 2030. The article also discussed phytoplankton in the Arctic which, removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by photosynthesis. Since the waters they live in are so cold, the phytoplankton sink into the ocean depths when they die, without decomposing. The carbon they removed from the atmosphere remains at the bottom of the sea for hundreds of years. However, as water warms up, the activity of marine bacteria that feed on the dead plankton will increase, releasing carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere. Issues related to international shipping, navigation, ownership of Arctic islands, military presence and boats in the northern channels, and political promises with respect to the Canadian Coast Guard and northern waterways were also discussed. 1 fig

  1. Safeguards training at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, D.A.

    1986-10-01

    Safeguarding our country's nuclear materials against theft or diversion is extremely important due to their significantly strategic value. In addition, nuclear materials also have an extremely high monetary value. The term ''safeguards'' is defined as an integrated system of physical protection, accountability, and material control measures designed to deter, prevent, detect, and respond to unauthorized possession and use of special nuclear materials. An aggressive Safeguards program, therefore, employs both good security measures and a strong material control and accountability system. For effective internal control of nuclear materials, having people qualified in the many aspects of safeguards and accountability is essential. At Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), this goal is accomplished through a Laboratory-wide Safeguards Awareness Program. All PNL staff members receive a level of Safeguards training appropriate to their particular function within the Laboratory. This paper presents an overview of the unique training opportunities this topic provides and how the training goals are accomplished through the various training courses given to the staff members

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Maintenance Implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, J.D.

    1992-06-01

    This Maintenance Implementation plan has been developed for Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) Nuclear Facilities: 306W, 324, 325, 327 and 329NMF. It is based on a graded approach, self-assessment of the existing maintenance program(s) per the requirements specified by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4A, Chapter II, Change number-sign 3. The results of this assessment were evaluated to determine needed improvements in PNL Craft Services' current maintenance program. The objective of this implementation plan is to provide baseline information for compliance to the DOE 4330.4A, and for needed improvements. The prime consideration in applying a graded approach to the Order has been to maintain safe and reliable operations, environmental compliance, safeguards and security, programmatic mission, facility preservation, and/or other facility-specific requirements. Using the results of the self-assessment, PNL has selected nine of the 18 elements of the Maintenance Program defined by DOE Order 4330.4A for improvement. The elements selected for improvement are Training and Qualification of Maintenance Personnel; Maintenance Procedures; Planning, Scheduling, and Coordination of Maintenance; Control of Maintenance Activities; Post-Maintenance Testing; Facility Condition Inspection; Management Involvement; Maintenance History; and Additional Maintenance Requirements. Based upon graded approach and current funding, those elements considered most important have been selected as goals for earliest compliance. Commitment dates for these elements have been established for compliance. The remaining elements of noncompliance will be targeted for implementation during later budget periods

  3. LATE DEVONIAN-TOURNAISIAN CONODONTS FROM THE EASTERN KHYBER REGION, NORTH-WEST PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER D. MOLLOY

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Conodonts (62 species and subspecies from acid-leaching of 226 samples from four sections through the Ali Masjid Formation west of Misri Khel in the former South Khyber Agency, north-west Pakistan, are documented by illustrations and distributional data. These indicate that most of this unit, at least in that area, spans the interval Middle crepida Zone (low in the Famennian to at least Early crenulata Zone (mid-Tournaisian, though a fauna from low in one of the sections produced conodonts indicative of the Late falsiovalis Zone (early Frasnian. Two major hiatuses are inferred: between the Late falsiovalis and Middle crepida zones, and between the Late expansa and Early duplicata zones. Coherence of the conodont biostratigraphy accords with lithologic alignments between the sections.  

  4. Invasive crayfish in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Christopher A.; McCreary, Brome; Adams, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species directly threaten freshwater biodiversity, particularly in regions of high aquatic richness like the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Crayfish are among the most impactful of aquatic invasive species. Invasive crayfish are considered ecosystem engineers due to their ability to alter basic wetland properties, such as reducing vegetation and bank integrity and increasing turbidity. In areas where invasion is advanced, crayfish pose major economic and ecological problems. Crayfish have been widely introduced for aquaculture and can become established in a wide range of habitat conditions. They also may be spread by anglers who use them as bait. Several non-native crayfish are established in the PNW, but the extent of their invasion is not well known. At least two groups are known from scattered sites in the PNW, and both have proven problematic for native species in other parts of the world: Red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and several members of the genus Orconectes. Both groups are native to areas of the eastern United States. Both are identified globally as invasives of high concern and appear on the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's "10 Most Unwanted" and the U.S. Forest Service's "Primary Species of Concern" lists for stream systems in the PNW. Despite the presence of introduced crayfish in the PNW and their high potential for negative effects, the scope of their invasion and effects on aquatic systems are not well known. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), along with local groups and state agencies, is working to clarify crayfish distribution and to outline which basins may not yet be invaded. Other goals are to improve understanding of habitat associations of invasive crayfish and their potential effects on native crayfish.

  5. Nuclear desalination for the northwest of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega C, R. F.

    2008-01-01

    The IMPULSA project of the Engineering Institute of UNAM, it has dedicated from the year 2005 to the study and development of new desalination technologies of seawater with renewable energies. The objective is to form a group of expert engineers and investigators in the desalination topics able to transform their scientific knowledge in engineering solutions, with a high grade of knowledge of the environment and the renewable energies. In the middle of 2007 was took the initiative in the IMPULSA project to study the nuclear desalination topic. It is evident that before the high cost of the hydrocarbons and its high environmental impact, the nuclear generation alternative of energy becomes extremely attractive, mainly for desalination projects of seawater of great size. The Northwest of Mexico is particularly attractive as the appropriate site for one nuclear desalination plant of great size given its shortage of drink water and the quick growth of its population; as well as its level of tourist, agricultural and industrial activity. In this study was revised the state of the art of the nuclear desalination on the world and it is simulated some couplings and operation forms of nuclear reactors and desalination units, from the thermodynamic and economic viewpoint with the purpose of identifying the main peculiarities of this technology. The objective of the study was to characterize several types and sizes of nuclear reactors of the last generation that could be couple to a desalination technology as multi-stage distillation, type flash distillation or inverse osmosis. It is used for this effect the DEEP 3.1 program of the IAEA to simulate the coupling and to carry out an economic preliminary evaluation. Was found cost very competitive of 0.038-0.044 US$/kWh for the electric power production and 0.60 to 0.77 US$/m 3 for the drink water produced, without including the water transport cost or the use of carbon certificates. (Author)

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA report for Calendar Year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, S.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides summary results of the Calendar Year (CY) 1994 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program performance at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report includes data regarding performance in the area of personnel exposures to radiation, skin contaminations, control of contaminated areas, minimization of radioactive waste, and control of radioactive releases. In CY 1994: (1) The collective total effective dose equivalent to PNL employees during 1994 was 55 person-rem. The Field Dosimetry Services of the Radiological Control Department, Technical Support Section, projected that no PNL employee's dose would exceed 2 rem based on dosimeters processed during the year; no worker actually exceeded the projection-by the end of CY 1994. The maximum dose to any individual was 1.11 rem. (2) There were 34 instances of skin and personal-clothing contamination events for PNL employees during 1994. Eighteen of these contamination events occurred at the 324 Building; eleven occurred at the 325 Building; two occurred in the 327 Building; one occurred in the 326 Building; one occurred in the 3708 Building; and one occurred in the RTL Building. (3) PNL facilities contained 12 Airborne Radioactivity Areas, and 60 Contamination Areas and High Contamination Areas. The area of the Airborne Radioactivity Areas was 383 m 2 (4125 ft 2 ). The area of the Contamination Areas was 5290 m 2 (56,947 ft 2 ). The area of the High Contamination Areas was 266 m 2 (2863 ft 2 ). (4) PNL disposed of 10.5 m 3 (371 ft 3 ) of compacted low level waste. Also disposed was 423 m 3 (14,949 ft 3 ) of noncompacted low level and mixed waste that was not subject to volume reduction. The total radioactivity of the disposed waste was 1217 Ci. (5) PNL facilities released 165.2 Ci of noble gas, 3.0E-5 Ci of airborne particulate radioactive material, and 12.2 Ci of tritium to the environment

  7. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women of Northwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaii, Mehrangiz; Pourhassan, Aboulfazl; Asle-Rahnamaie-Akbari, Najibeh; Aghebati, Leili; Xie, Juliana Ling; Goldust, Mohammad; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes the most common parasitic infection in the world. Congenital transmission, prenatal mortality and abortion are major problems of T. gondii. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis is high in Iran, especially in Azerbaijan. The current literature reviewed in this paper reveal results pertaining to various regions of Iran. The present cross-sectional e-study was designed to evaluate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women in Northwest Iran. We evaluated 1659 women in childbearing age from several cities in Northwestern Iran (Tabriz, Maragheh, Ahar, Marand, Sarab, Miane) from July 2009 to August 2010. Women aged between 20 and 40 years and seeking prenatal care were enrolled in the study. The subjects' sera were probed with indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA). A total of 1659 subjects were examined. Titres ranged from 1:100 to 1:800. In all, 899 subjects (54.13%) were seropositive. The highest frequency of seropositivity was shown in 1:200 dilution (36.08%) and in subjects from Maragheh (84% of 211 subjects). There was a direct linear relationship between seropositivity and age (p 0.001). Also, seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was higher in subjects with primary school/lower educational level (p 0.001) and subjects living in rural regions (p 0.001). Overall, more than 50% of women in childbearing age were seropositive for toxoplasmosis in northwestern Iran. Increasing seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis with age was a predictable result due to longer exposure to the parasite. The relationship between increasing seroprevalence and lower educational level as well as living in rural areas is in line with the latest epidemiological findings, which also show such relationships due to lower socioeconomic status.

  8. Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batten, Belinda [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Polagye, Brian [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); LiVecchi, Al [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    In 2008, the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Wind and Water Power Program issued a funding opportunity announcement to establish university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers. Oregon State University and the University of Washington combined their capabilities in wave and tidal energy to establish the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, or NNMREC. NNMREC’s scope included research and testing in the following topic areas: • Advanced Wave Forecasting Technologies; • Device and Array Optimization; • Integrated and Standardized Test Facility Development; • Investigate the Compatibility of Marine Energy Technologies with Environment, Fisheries and other Marine Resources; • Increased Reliability and Survivability of Marine Energy Systems; • Collaboration/Optimization with Marine Renewable and Other Renewable Energy Resources. To support the last topic, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was brought onto the team, particularly to assist with testing protocols, grid integration, and testing instrumentation. NNMREC’s mission is to facilitate the development of marine energy technology, to inform regulatory and policy decisions, and to close key gaps in scientific understanding with a focus on workforce development. In this, NNMREC achieves DOE’s goals and objectives and remains aligned with the research and educational mission of universities. In 2012, DOE provided NNMREC an opportunity to propose an additional effort to begin work on a utility scale, grid connected wave energy test facility. That project, initially referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center, is now referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center South Energy Test Site (PMEC-SETS) and involves work directly toward establishing the facility, which will be in Newport Oregon, as well as supporting instrumentation for wave energy converter testing. This report contains a breakdown per subtask of the funded project. Under each subtask, the following

  9. Northwest Africa 5790: Revisiting nakhlite petrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambon, A.; Sautter, V.; Barrat, J.-A.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Boudouma, O.; Badia, D.; Devouard, B.

    2016-10-01

    Northwest Africa 5790, the latest nakhlite find, is composed of 58 vol.% augite, 6% olivine and 36% vitrophyric intercumulus material. Its petrology is comparable to previously discovered nakhlites but with key differences: (1) Augite cores display an unusual zoning between Mg# 54 and 60; (2) Olivine macrocrysts have a primary Fe-rich core composition (Mg# = 35); (3) The modal proportion of mesostasis is the highest ever described in a nakhlite; (4) It is the most magnetite-rich nakhlite, together with MIL 03346, and exhibits the least anisotropic fabric. Complex primary zoning in cumulus augite indicates resorption due to complex processes such as remobilization of former cumulates in a new magma batch. Textural relationships indicate unambiguously that olivine was growing around resorbed augite, and that olivine growth was continuous while pyroxene growth resumed at a final stage. Olivine core compositions (Mg# = 35) are out of equilibrium with the augite core compositions (Mg# 60-63) and with the previously inferred nakhlite parental magma (Mg# = 29). The presence of oscillatory zoning in olivine and augite precludes subsolidus diffusion that could have modified olivine compositions. NWA 5790 evidences at least two magma batches before eruption, with the implication that melt in equilibrium with augite cores was never in contact with olivine. Iddingsite is absent. Accordingly, the previous scenarios for nakhlite petrogenesis must be revised. The first primary parent magmas of nakhlites generated varied augite cumulates at depth (Mg# 66-60) as they differentiated to different extents. A subsequent more evolved magma batch entrained accumulated augite crystals to the surface where they were partly resorbed while olivine crystallized. Trace element variations indicate unambiguously that they represent consanguineous but different magma batches. The compositional differences among the various nakhlites suggest a number of successive lava flows. To account for all

  10. A Pelagic Paleocene Seouence in the Biga Peninsula Northwest Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Burak YIKILMAZ

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A sequence of pelagic limestone, calciturbidite, debris flow, greywacke, basalt and limestone blocks. up to several hundred metres across, occur west of the town of Biga in northwest Turkey. The pelagic limestones in this sequence, named as the Ballıkaya formation, comprise pelagic foraminifera of Palaeocene age. Neritic limestone of Mid-Eocene age lies unconformably over the Ballıkaya formation. The age and the sedimentary environment of the Ballıkaya formation indicate the presence of a tectonically active deep-sea environment in northwest Turkey during the Palaeocene, and constrain the main Alpide deformation in northwest Turkey to the Late Palaeocene - Early Eocene interval.

  11. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study

  12. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 4, Physical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L.H.

    1988-06-01

    This 1987 annual report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1987. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. Part 4 includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped by budget category and each section is introduced by an abstract that indicates the Field Task Proposal/Agreement reported in that section.

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory, annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4. Physical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1983 to the Office of Energy Research, includes those programs funded under the title Physical and Technological Research. The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped under the subheadings and each section is introduced by a divider page that indicates the Field Task Agreement reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1983. The reader should contact the principal investigators named or examine the publications cited for more details

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 4, Physical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toburen, L.H.

    1987-02-01

    This 1986 annual report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1986. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. Part 4 includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped by budget category and each section is introduced by an abstract that indicates the Field Task Proposal/Agreement reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1985

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1984 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1985-02-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to assess, describe, and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to study the impacts of contaminants on local, regional, and global climates. The contaminants being investigated are those resulting from the development and use of conventional resources (coal, gas, oil, and nuclear power) as well as alternative energy sources. The description of the research is organized into 3 sections: (1) Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT); (2) Boundary Layer Meteorology; and (3) Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension of Atmospheric Contaminants. Separate analytics have been done for each of the sections and are indexed and contained in the EDB

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4. Physical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toburen, L.H.

    1986-02-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped by budget category and each section is introduced by an abstract that indicates the Field Task Proposal/Agreement reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1985. The reader should contact the principal investigators named or examine the publications cited for more details

  18. Implications of climate change for Pacific Northwest forest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, G.

    1991-01-01

    A Canada/USA symposium was held to identify potential consequences of global climate change to Pacific Northwest forests; to identify the future role and relative contribution of those forests in the balance of carbon, moisture, and energy exchange of the atmosphere; and to develop recommendations for Pacific Northwest forest management strategies and policy options for responding to global climate change. Papers were presented on such topics as regional climatic change, forest responses and processes, public policy on forests and climatic change, sequestration of atmospheric carbon, forest management, and forest adaptation to climatic change. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 14 papers from this symposium

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1979 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health, and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baalman, R.W.; Dotson, C.W.

    1980-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1979 Annual Report to the Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for the Environment presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Technology Impacts, the Office of Environmental Compliance and Overview, and the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The report is in four sections, corresponding to the program elements: technology impacts, environmental control engineering, operational and environmental compliance, and human health studies. In each section, articles describe progress made during FY 1979 on individual projects

  20. A TWO CENTURY HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR ACHIEVING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieving ecological sustainability is a daunting challenge. In the Pacific Northwest one of the most highly visible public policy debates concerns the future of salmon populations. Throughout the Pacific Northwest, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeare...

  1. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome among adults in a rural area of Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaling Zhao

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome (MetS among adults in a rural area of Northwest China.A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 among adults aged 18 to 80 years in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Interview, physical and clinical examinations, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2990 adults. The definitions of MetS proposed by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel (Adults Treatment Panel III, ATP III and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, and the modified ATP III definition for Asian population were used and compared. Proportions were adjusted for age and sex.The prevalence of MetS was 7.9%, 10.8% and 15.1% according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively. Agreement between ATP III and IDF criteria and that between ATP III and modified ATP III criteria were moderate (Kappa = 0.52 and 0.64, respectively, whereas agreement between IDF and modified ATP III criteria was good (Kappa = 0.83. The prevalence of MetS increased with age, and was higher in women than in men (10.4% versus 5.4%, 13.6% versus 8.1% and 17.4% versus 12.8%, according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively. The most common MetS component was high blood pressure. Having family history of hypertension, lack of physical activity, high economical level, overweight and obesity were positively associated with MetS.MetS is prevalent among rural adults in Northwest China and high blood pressure is the most common MetS component. Prevention and treatment of hypertension and MetS should be a public health priority to reduce cardiovascular diseases in rural areas of Northwest China. More attention should be given to the elderly, women, people with family history of hypertension and obese people who are at high risk of MetS.

  2. The intertwining paths of the density managment and riparian buffer study and the Northwest Forest Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth J. Ruzicka; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2013-01-01

    Initiated simultaneously, the Density Management and Riparian Buff er Study of western Oregon and the Northwest Forest Plan have had intertwining paths related to federal forest management and policy changes in the Pacifi c Northwest over the last 15 to 20 years. We briefl y discuss the development of the Northwest Forest Plan and how it changed the way forest policy...

  3. Watershed analysis on federal lands of the Pacific northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer; Michael J. Furniss

    1994-01-01

    Abstract - Watershed analysis-the evaluation of processes that affect ecosystems and resources in a watershed-is now being carried out by Federal land-management and regulatory agencies on Federal lands of the Pacific Northwest. Methods used differ from those of other implementations of watershed analysis because objectives and opportunities differ. In particular,...

  4. Special forest products: species information guide for the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan C. Vance; Melissa Borsting; David Pilz; Jim. Freed

    2001-01-01

    This guide is a collection of information about economically important vascular and nonvascular plants and fungi found in the Pacific Northwest that furnish special forest products. Many of these plants and fungi are also found in Alaska, northern Idaho, and western Montana. They contribute to many botanical, floral, woodcraft, and decorative industries and to the...

  5. Northwest range-plant symbols adapted to automatic data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Garrison; Jon M. Skovlin

    1960-01-01

    Many range technicians, agronomists, foresters, biologists, and botanists of various educational institutions and government agencies in the Northwest have been using a four-letter symbol list or code compiled 12 years ago from records of plants collected by the U.S. Forest Service in Oregon and Washington, This code has served well as a means of entering plant names...

  6. Earliest occupation of north-west Europe: A coastal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; MacDonald, K.; Joordens, J.C.A.; Roebroeks, W.; Gibbard, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discoveries from Pakefield and Happisburgh (Britain) have provided clear evidence for an unexpectedly early hominin occupation of north-west Europe. The sites, found in the deposits of interglacial rivers and estuaries on the southern rim of the ancient North Sea coast, span the older and

  7. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on

  8. Interagency strategy for the Pacific Northwest Natural Areas Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd M. Wilson; Reid Schuller; Russ Holmes; Curt Pavola; Robert A. Fimbel; Cynthia N. McCain; John G. Gamon; Pene Speaks; Joan I. Seevers; Thomas E. DeMeo; Steve. Gibbons

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the Pacific Northwest Interagency Natural Areas Committee has promoted the establishment and management of natural areas in Oregon and Washington—protected areas devoted to research, education, and conservation of biodiversity. This growing collection of sites is now unmatched in its diversity and representation of both common and unique natural...

  9. Teacher Certification: The Problem in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Leo D.

    1985-01-01

    Teacher certification procedures in the Pacific Northwest are used to illustrate the kinds of problems facing the nation in terms of teacher certification and program accreditation. Proposals for change include: cooperation between public schools and universities; five year programs; and use of research to study the teacher education process. (DF)

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory monthly activities report, April 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-05-14

    This report discusses research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory on topics relating to hanford production reactors. The topic deal with: reactor and material technology; reactor physics and instruments; chemistry; biology and medicine; applied mathematics; radiation protection; and test reactor and engineering services.

  11. Timber resource of Wisconsin's Northwest Survey Unit, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith

    1984-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of the Northwest Wisconsin Survey Unit shows a 1.8% decline in commercial forest area and a 36% gain in growing-stock volume between 1968 and 1983. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  12. Risk assessment for biodiversity conservation planning in Pacific Northwest forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky K. Kerns; Alan Ager

    2007-01-01

    Risk assessment can provide a robust strategy for landscape-scale planning challenges associated with species conservation and habitat protection in Pacific Northwest forests. We provide an overview of quantitative and probabilistic ecological risk assessment with focus on the application of approaches and influences from the actuarial, financial, and technical...

  13. 2014 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2015-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2014 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  14. 2013 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2014-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2013 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  15. Climate change and health effects in Northwest Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Brubaker

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides examples of adverse health effects, including weather-related injury, food insecurity, mental health issues, and water infrastructure damage, and the responses to these effects that are currently being applied in two Northwest Alaska communities.In Northwest Alaska, warming is resulting in a broad range of unusual weather and environmental conditions, including delayed freeze-up, earlier breakup, storm surge, coastal erosion, and thawing permafrost. These are just some of the climate impacts that are driving concerns about weather-related injury, the spread of disease, mental health issues, infrastructure damage, and food and water security. Local leaders are challenged to identify appropriate adaptation strategies to address climate impacts and related health effects.The tribal health system is combining local observations, traditional knowledge, and western science to perform community-specific climate change health impact assessments. Local leaders are applying this information to develop adaptation responses.The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium will describe relationships between climate impacts and health effects and provide examples of community-scaled adaptation actions currently being applied in Northwest Alaska.Climate change is increasing vulnerability to injury, disease, mental stress, food insecurity, and water insecurity. Northwest communities are applying adaptation approaches that are both specific and appropriate.The health impact assessment process is effective in raising awareness, encouraging discussion, engaging partners, and implementing adaptation planning. With community-specific information, local leaders are applying health protective adaptation measures.

  16. Community Service, Educational Performance and Social Responsibility in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Li, Hongbin; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to analyse the effect of high school scholarships tied to community service on the development of secondary school students in Northwest China. Using data from three rounds of surveys of thousands of students in 298 classes in 75 high schools in Shaanxi province, the paper documents the implementation of the…

  17. 2008 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2009-01-01

    This report highlights significant research findings and accomplishments by scientists at the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station during fiscal year 2008. The mission of the PNW Research Station is to generate and communicate scientific knowledge that helps people understand and make informed choices about people, natural resources, and the environment. The work...

  18. Investigations of Fusarium diseases within Inland Pacific Northwest forest nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. James; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2007-01-01

    Fusarium spp. cause important diseases that limit production of seedlings in forest nurseries worldwide. Several aspects of these diseases have been investigated for many years within Inland Pacific Northwest nurseries to better understand disease etiology, pathogen inoculum sources, and epidemiology. Investigations have also involved improving...

  19. Potato psyllid vector of zebra chip disease in Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip is a destructive disease of potatoes in the Pacific Northwest and other potato production regions of North America. The pathogen associated with this disease is transmitted by the potato psyllid. A team of researchers which included a scientist at the ARS in Wapato, WA updated an extens...

  20. Fire ecology of Scots pine in Northwest Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: biodiversity, fire ecology, fuel modelling, succession, tree regenerationIn this thesis the ecological consequences of forest fire are studied in North-west European Scots pine {Pinus sylvestris) forests. The focus is on post-fire succession, and the factors and mechanisms that influence

  1. Silvicultural approaches to animal damage management in Pacific Northwest forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1992-01-01

    This book examines the potential of Silvicultural approaches for managing animal damage in forests at two levels: management of free-to-grow stands and sitespecific practices that foster prompt and successful regeneration. Introductory chapters provide a historical perspective of animal damage management in the Pacific Northwest, describe the elements of an integrated...

  2. Sampling methods for amphibians in streams in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Bury; Paul Stephen. Corn

    1991-01-01

    Methods describing how to sample aquatic and semiaquatic amphibians in small streams and headwater habitats in the Pacific Northwest are presented. We developed a technique that samples 10-meter stretches of selected streams, which was adequate to detect presence or absence of amphibian species and provided sample sizes statistically sufficient to compare abundance of...

  3. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Northwest Plume interceptor system evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laase, A.D.; Clausen, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) recently installed an interceptor system consisting of four wells, evenly divided between two well fields, to contain the Northwest Plume. As stated in the Northwest Plume Record of Decision (ROD), groundwater will be pumped at a rate to reduce further contamination and initiate control of the northwest contaminant plume. The objective of this evaluation was to determine the optimum (minimal) well field pumping rates required for plume hotspot containment. Plume hotspot, as defined in the Northwest Plume ROD and throughout this report, is that portion of the plume with trichloroethene (TCE) concentrations greater than 1,000 microg/L. An existing 3-dimensional groundwater model was modified and used to perform capture zone analyses of the north and south interceptor system well fields. Model results suggest that the plume hotspot is not contained at the system design pumping rate of 100 gallons per minute (gal/min) per well field. Rather, the modeling determined that north and south well field pumping rates of 400 and 150 gal/min, respectively, are necessary for plume hotspot containment. The difference between the design and optimal pumping rates required for containment can be attributed to the discovery of a highly transmissive zone in the vicinity of the two well fields

  4. Remediation System Evaluation, Northwest Pipe and Casing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Northwest Pipe and Casing Site is located in Clackamas, Oregon, approximately 20 miles southeastof Portland. The site consists of approximately 53 acres, and has historically been divided into two parcels(Parcel A to the north and Parcel B to the..

  5. Petroleum system of Northwest Java basin based on gravity data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widianto, E.

    2018-01-01

    Energy management in the upstream oil and gas sector becomes very important for the country’s energy security. The renewal of energy resources and reserves becomes necessary and is a must. In the oil and gas industry, gravity data is usually used only for regional surveys, but with the development of instrumentation technology and gravity software development, this method can be used for assessing oil and gas survey stages from exploration to production. This study was conducted to evaluate aspects of petroleum system and exploration play concept in the part of Northwest Java Basin, covering source rock deposition regions (source kitchen area, migration direction), development of reservoirs, structural and stratigraphic trap, based on gravity data. This study uses data from Bouguer gravity anomaly map by filtering process to produce a residual map depicting sedimentation basin configuration. The mapping generated 20 sedimentary basins in Java Island with the total hydrocarbon resources of 113 BBOE (Billion Barrel of Oil Equivalent). The petroleum system analysis was conducted in the Northwest Basin section. The final map produced illustrates the condition of petroleum system and play concept that can be used as exploration direction, expectedly reducing the risk of drilling failure.

  6. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Hu, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2015-05-01

    Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China where surface water and groundwater undergoes dynamic exchanges. The spatially continuous river-surface temperature of the midstream section of the Heihe River was obtained by using an airborne pushbroom hyperspectral thermal sensor system. By using the hot spot analysis toolkit in the ArcGIS software, abnormally cold water zones were identified as indicators of the spatial pattern of groundwater discharge to the river.

  7. THE BAFFIN BAY REGION DURING THE LAST INTERGLACIATION: EVIDENCE FROM NORTHWEST GREENLAND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby

    1989-01-01

    Coastal sections in the Thule area, northwest Greenland, provide a recordof last interglacial glacial and oceanographic events on the northern perimeter of Baffin Bay. The record is dated by a combination of thermoluminescence and 14C dating; local and regional correlation is provided by amino acid...... for the last nterglacial/glacial cycle was attained during Middle Sangamonian times, and a smaller advance took place in the Late Wisconsinan. In beween ice coverage was similar to the present, or smaller. The record provides a link between events in Arctic Canada and northern Greenland, and shows...... analyses of mollusc shells, and periods of penetration by warm subarctic water have been identified by their foraminifera and mollusc faunas. Subarclic water reached the area on three occasions: during the Holocene, and in the Early and Late Sangamonian. Maximum, although restricted, ice coverage...

  8. [Epidemiological studies on Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes in north-west Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramisz, A; Eckert, J; Balicka-Ramisz, A; Bieńko, R; Pilarczyk, B

    1999-01-01

    The studies were carried out in 15 provinces of North-West part of Poland in the years 1994 - 1997 under a regime of strict laboratory safety regulation. The intestine of 1909 red foxes were examined for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis according to the method of Eckert et al (1991). The intestines were divided finto four to six sections and fifteen smears were prepared from each animal under study. Foxes infected with E. multilocularis were detected in 8 provinces. The average prevalence rate in these provinces was 1.20 per cent. Of special interest fis the finding in Slupsk and Gdafisk regions, where 9.6 per cent of foxes were infected with E. multilocularis. In comparison with some other European endemic regions the prevalence rates of E. multilocularis in Poland was low, except for the Stupsk-Gdańsk area.

  9. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China where surface water and groundwater undergoes dynamic exchanges. The spatially continuous river-surface temperature of the midstream section of the Heihe River was obtained by using an airborne pushbroom hyperspectral thermal sensor system. By using the hot spot analysis toolkit in the ArcGIS software, abnormally cold water zones were identified as indicators of the spatial pattern of groundwater discharge to the river.

  10. Effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile in male adults in northwest rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X X; Zhao, Y; Huang, L X; Xu, H X; Liu, X Y; Yang, J J; Zhang, P J; Zhang, Y H

    2018-04-01

    To determine the individual and combined influences of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile in male adults in northwest rural China. Cross-sectional study. In total, 4614 subjects were enrolled in the cross-sectional study, performed between 2008 and 2012. The present study examined males aged ≥18 years from northwest rural China (n = 707). Data on current smoking and drinking status were collected. Logistic regression was used to estimate the individual and combined influences of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile. Age, ethnic group, educational background, smoking (or alcohol consumption), waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose were adjusted as confounders. Total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, triglycerides (TG)/HDL-C ratio, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/HDL-C ratio and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, whereas HDL-C was lower in smokers. TG/HDL-C ratio, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, TG, lipid accumulation product and VAI were significantly higher in drinkers than non-drinkers. After adjustment for confounders, significant relationships were observed between smoking status and any dyslipidemia, low HDL-C and high VAI (odds ratios [ORs]: 2.53 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.25-5.15], 6.13 [95% CI: 2.84-13.25] and 4.39 [95% CI: 2.02-9.54], respectively). The OR for any dyslipidaemia was 1.94 (95% CI: 1.09-3.48) for subjects who smoke and drank alcohol compared with subjects who did not smoke or drink alcohol. Abnormalities in lipid profile are correlated with smoking and alcohol consumption, which calls for intervention strategies to prevent dyslipidaemia and control risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk Factors of Congenital Heart Diseases: A Case-Control Study in Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghavi-Behzad Mohammad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital heart diseases are of immense importance and also a high prevalence. Contributing factors to developing these defects have not been abundantly studied. Therefore, the current study was conducted aiming at determining the effective factors on Congenital Heart Disease (CHD in newborn infants of Northwest Iran. Methods: A case-control study was carried out in North-West of Iran from 2002 to 2012 and a total of 473 infants entered the study. Required data were obtained through check lists completed by the information of hospital records and interview with mothers of 267 newborn infants with CHD together with medical records of mothers as the case group, and 206 medical records of healthy infants at the same period all together with those of their mothers as the control group. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistical methods, T-test, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, and Multi-variable Logistic Regression Model (OR with 95% CI, using SPSS.19. In the present study, P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Based on the results of univariable analyses, the number of previous cesarean sections, past medical history of diseases, gestational age (GA, fetal weight at birth, diastolic blood pressure, fetal heart rate, pulse rate, fetal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and fetal head circumference at birth have significant relationship with incidence of congenital abnormalities (P<0.05. Family history, past cesarean sections history, past medical history and GA had significant relationship with CHD incidence. Conclusion: Based on the results of present study, in order to control and reduce the cases of CHD, it is crucial to make proper decisions and implement policies for reducing cesarean cases, lowering consanguineous marriages, providing proper pre-marriage counseling, prompt treatment of mothers’ illnesses, improving pregnancy health care and mothers

  12. DYNAMICS ECONOMIC DISPARITIES IN NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florea Adrian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though over the years has enjoyed wide media coverage, with highlighted aspects, discrepancies and inequalities of economic potential between different regions of the world, or even parts of the same countries always remained topical. Difficulties arising from these differences were always felt, extremely painful by humans. Analyzing distinctly, participation of each county to the GDP of the Northwest Region and the composition of all indicators, we can identify significant discrepancies between counties, regions and municipalities. This is one of the reasons that led us trying to identify the causes that generated the current situation. From the perspective of the contribution of each county in the Northwest Region to Region's domestic product composition, the first place is taken by Cluj county 32.3%, followed by Bihor with 24.3%, Maramures, with 14.9% Satu-Mare, 12.1%, Bistrita-Nasaud, 9.1% and 7.2% Salaj. Consulting of the Regional Operational Programme 2007-2013 indicates that the poorest areas in the Northwest Region are in Maramures and Bistrita-Nasaud. An important part of the active population of North-West Region was employed in public enterprises and an increase of unemployment in the counties of Salaj, Satu Mare and Maramures became predictable, imminent amid restructuring of public enterprises with losses. Studies of employed population by sectors of the economy, shows a high rate of population employed in services in the counties of Cluj and Bihor and high employment in agriculture on other four counties. In a modern market economy, services are most concentrated labors, and how the workforce is distributed in the Northwest region also shows an imbalance. How Northwest Region is participating in international economic cycle has major effects on the population's living standards. Relevant for the inter-district disparities analysis is the human and agents behavior analysis and the savings and loan relationships. How people

  13. Collaborative environmental assessment in the Northwest Territories, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, Derek R.

    2005-01-01

    Recent trends in environmental assessment theory and practice indicate a growing concern with collaboration and learning. Although there are few examples of the institutional, organizational, and socio-political forms and processes required to foster this collaboration and learning, the establishment of an environmental planning, management, and assessment regime in Canada's Northwest Territories offers useful insights. Consequently, this paper identifies and examines the institutional, organizational, and socio-political conditions that have encouraged more collaborative forms of environmental assessment practice in the Northwest Territories. Key issues highlighted include: (1) the development of decentralized regulatory organizations more responsive to changing circumstances; (2) strategies for more effective communication and participation of community interests; (3) efforts to build a collaborative vision of economic and social development through region-specific land use plans; (4) the integration of knowledge frameworks; and (5) a concern with the capacity required to encourage effective intervention in the assessment process

  14. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan FY 1997--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s core mission is to deliver environmental science and technology in the service of the nation and humanity. Through basic research fundamental knowledge is created of natural, engineered, and social systems that is the basis for both effective environmental technology and sound public policy. Legacy environmental problems are solved by delivering technologies that remedy existing environmental hazards, today`s environmental needs are addressed with technologies that prevent pollution and minimize waste, and the technical foundation is being laid for tomorrow`s inherently clean energy and industrial processes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory also applies its capabilities to meet selected national security, energy, and human health needs; strengthen the US economy; and support the education of future scientists and engineers. Brief summaries are given of the various tasks being carried out under these broad categories.

  15. Will climate change affect biodiversity in pacific northwest forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, S.; Rosenbaum, B.J.

    1992-01-01

    Global climate change could have significant consequences for biological diversity in Pacific Northwest (PNW) forested ecosystems, particularly in areas already threatened by anthropogenic activities and the resultant habitat modification and fragmentation. The forests of the Pacific Northwest have a high biological diversity, not only in terms of tree species, but also in terms of herbs, bryophytes and hepatophytes, algae, fungi, protist, bacteria, and many groups of vertebrates and invertebrates. Global circulation and vegetation model projections of global climate change effects on PNW forests include reductions in species diversity in low elevation forests as well as elevational and latitudinal shifts in species ranges. As species are most likely to be stressed at the edges of their ranges, plant and animal species with low mobility, or those that are prevented from migrating by lack of habitat corridors, may become regionally extinct. Endangered species with limited distribution may be especially vulnerable to shifts in habitat conditions

  16. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2004-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadrel, Marilyn J.

    2004-04-15

    This Institutional Plan for FY 2004-2008 is the principal annual planning document submitted to the Department of Energy's Office of Science by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington. This plan describes the Laboratory's mission, roles, and technical capabilities in support of Department of Energy priorities, missions, and plans. It also describes the Laboratory strategic plan, key planning assumptions, major research initiatives, and program strategy for fundamental science, energy resources, environmental quality, and national security.

  17. Alteration of Sedimentary Clasts in Martian Meteorite Northwest Africa 7034

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Tartese, R.; Santos, A. R.; Domokos, G.; Muttik, N.; Szabo, T.; Vazquez, J.; Boyce, J. W.; Keller, L. P.; Jerolmack, D. J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The martian meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 and pairings represent the first brecciated hand sample available for study from the martian surface [1]. Detailed investigations of NWA 7034 have revealed substantial lithologic diversity among the clasts [2-3], making NWA 7034 a polymict breccia. NWA 7034 consists of igneous clasts, impact-melt clasts, and "sedimentary" clasts represented by prior generations of brecciated material. In the present study we conduct a detailed textural and geochemical analysis of the sedimentary clasts.

  18. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan: FY 1996--2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the operation and direction plan for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory of the US Department of Energy. The topics of the plan include the laboratory mission and core competencies, the laboratory strategic plan; the laboratory initiatives in molecular sciences, microbial biotechnology, global environmental change, complex modeling of physical systems, advanced processing technology, energy technology development, and medical technologies and systems; core business areas, critical success factors, and resource projections.

  19. The realities of doing business in the Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, E.

    2000-01-01

    The practical and legal issues regarding business operations in the Northwest Territories were discussed for the benefit of any enterprise wishing to conduct business in the territory. The non-renewable resources in the North are greatly responsible for the economic development in the Northwest Territories. Yellowknife was established in 1930's to service the gold mines and is now the service centre for Canada's only diamond mine located in the tundra one hour by air from Yellowknife. Other major oil and gas discoveries include Norman Wells along the Mackenzie River and the Beaufort Delta Region. In addition, new oil and gas has been discovered near Fort Liard. There is no legislation governing businesses operating in the oil and gas industry specifically, but several Acts exist where general applications would apply. This paper described the demographics of the territory and the types of government. Band councils play a significant role in local government. Much of the land in the Northwest Territories is the subject of land claims or has been transferred to indigenous people as part of settled land claims. A socio-economic agreement signed in 1996 ensures a certain percentage of northern suppliers, northern resident employees and aboriginal employees in both the construction and operation of the BHP mine. An even more demanding agreement was signed for the Diavik Diamond mine in 1999. The registration and licensing requirements that the government of the Northwest Territories imposes on businesses were described with emphasis on the Business Corporations Act, the Business License Act and the Worker's Compensation Act. Employee issues were also discussed as they relate to the Canada Labour Code, the Employment Standards Regulation, Fair Practices Act, and the Payroll Tax Act. Other regulatory requirements which would apply to the oil and gas industry include the Safety Act, the Motor Vehicles Act

  20. Pertussis outbreak in northwest Ireland, January - June 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barret, A S

    2010-09-02

    We report a community pertussis outbreak that occurred in a small town located in the northwest of Ireland. Epidemiological investigations suggest that waning immunity and the absence of a booster dose during the second year of life could have contributed to the outbreak. The report also highlights the need to reinforce the surveillance of pertussis in Ireland and especially to improve the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of cases.

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 2, Environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1986. The program is focused on terrestrial, subsurface, and coastal marine systems, and this research forms the basis, in conjunction with remote sensing, for definition and quantification of processes leading to impacts at the global level. This report is organized into sections devoted to Detection and Management of Change in Terrestrial Systems, Biogeochemical Phenomena, Subsurface Microbiology and Transport, Marine Sciences, and Theoretical (Quantitative) Ecology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual projects.

  2. An examination on the ostracod genus Cytherelloidea from the Aptian deposits of west and northwest of Kerman, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Zohreh; Vaziri, Mohammad Reza; Arab, Ahmad Lotfabad

    2018-05-01

    This research provides the first detailed taxonomic study of Cytherelloidea species from the Aptian deposits of the Kerman area. One hundred and seventy-five samples from two measured stratigraphic sections, Baghin and Siriz, in west and northwest of Kerman, have been analyzed and 11 species identified among them three new species Cytherelloidea baghinensis, Cytherelloidea mazarensis and Cytherelloidea sirizensis are reported for the first time from the regions. The paleoecological aspects of the studied ostracods are discussed as well. A compatible age determination has been inferred through the analysis of benthic foraminifera, gastropoda, pelecypoda and brachiopoda, which have been recovered in the study areas.

  3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2: Environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This 1993 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US DOE describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year (FY) 1993. The report is divided into four parts, each in a separate volume. This part, Volume 2, covers Environmental Sciences. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. There are sections on Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Technology Transfer, Interactions with Educational Institutions, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development.

  4. Critical experiments AT Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.; Bierman, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    After a short description of the facility, a brief listing of the principal types of fuel forms and assembly geometries is provided. A number of experiments have recently been performed on plain fissionable units, or isolated assemblies of single units, that include measurements on solutions composed of Pu-U mixtures and critical experiment data on lattices of low enriched uranium in water. Experiments have been performed on planar arrays of containers with Pu solutions because of the lack of data in this field concerning the safe storage of nuclear fuel; others have been conducted on arrays of low enriched U lattice assemblies. Neutronic measurements to date have shown they can be used to provide additional benchmark data for improvement and validation of criticality codes. Studies have previously been made to ascertain the need for critical experiments in support of fuel recycle operations. The result of an effort to update the list of needed critical experiments is summarized in this section. Experiments are listed in support of uranium based fuels and fast breeder reactor fuels. An effort is made to identify those areas within the fuel cycle wherein the critical experiment data would be applied and to identify the experiments (and data) required to fulfill the needs in each of these areas. The type and form of fuel on which the data would be obtained also are identified. In presenting this information, no attempt is made to describe the experiments in detail, or to define the actual number of critical experiments that might be needed to provide the required data

  5. Recycling of beverage containers in the Northwest Territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    This study researched existing recycling systems, presented pertinent data on the beverage and transportation industries, and evaluated the potential of recycling beverage bottles and cans in the Northwest Territories. The study first describes the history and existing concepts of recycling, provides a general description of recycling methods with advantages and disadvantages, and highlights particular approaches taken by other provinces. Markets for the Northwest Territories are also discussed, including the potential of recoverable material, anticipated recovery rates, transportation to markets, and present recycling operations. Three strategies are identified for the southwest, northwest, and the eastern Region. Recycling is preferred for aluminium cans, glass beer bottles, plastic bottles, and glass wine and liquor bottles in that order. The report recommends a limited program for aluminium cans and beer bottles to begin immediately. Beer bottles should be refilled either in Alberta or the Northwestern Territories and aluminium cans should be compacted and shipped to recycling markets in southern Canada or the United States. The program should first be implemented in areas serviced by Alberta and accessible by truck or barge from Hay River. A program implementation plan is also included. 8 refs., 2 figs., 14 tabs.

  6. Path of Social Construction in Northwest Sichuan Plateau Pastoral Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of main contents of social construction and key points of construction,this paper analyzes features of conditions of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area.The social construction at current stage mainly includes social cause in narrow sense,and social management at meso-level.The northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area is faced with the best policy and development opportunity.However,there are still many weak aspects.Firstly,social structure is not coordinated with economic structure.Secondly,social construction ability of grass-roots government is weak.Thirdly,the ability to respond to public demands is low.Fourthly,there is a big gap in availability of basic public service.Finally,it presents path selection for social construction of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area:strengthen social construction ability of grass-roots government;promote social construction with livelihood projects as key projects;boost social construction taking advantage of ecological construction;develop basic public service with the aid of external forces;intensify evaluation system for supervision of social construction works.

  7. Comparative Study on the Electrical Properties of the Oceanic Mantle Beneath the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, H.

    2013-12-01

    responses as well. It, however, should be also noted here that the penetration depth beneath Site WPB is significantly smaller than that beneath Site NWP because the solar activity has been very low since 2006. References Ichiki, M., K. Baba, H. Toh and K. Fuji-ta, An overview of electrical conductivity structures of the crust and upper mantle beneath the northwestern Pacific, the Japanese Islands, and continental East Asia, Gondwana Research, 16, 545?562, doi:10.1016/j.gr.2009.04.007, 2009. Salisbury MH et al (2006) 2. Leg 195 Synthesis: Site 1201?A geological and geophysical section in the West Philippine Basin from the 660-km discontinuity to the mudline. Proc. Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Reports 195:27. Shipboard Scientific Party of ODP Leg 191 (2000) Northwest Pacific seismic observatory and hammer drill tests, Proc. Ocean Drilling Program, Initial Reports 191. Toh, H., Y. Hamano and M. Ichiki, Long-term seafloor geomagnetic station in the northwest Pacific: A possible candidate for a seafloor geomagnetic observatory, Earth Planets Space, 58, 697-705, 2006. Toh, H., Y. Hamano, M. Ichiki and H. Utada, Geomagnetic observatory operates at the seafloor in the Northwest Pacific Ocean, Eos, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 85, 467/473, DOI: 10.1029/2004EO450003, 2004.

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1988-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1987. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section, which contains reports of health-effects research in biological systems, includes research with radiation and chemicals. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology.

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1988-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1987. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section, which contains reports of health-effects research in biological systems, includes research with radiation and chemicals. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology

  10. Maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnant patients with cardiac diseases referred for labour in northwest Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaghoubi, A.; Mirinazhad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity rates in women with different types of significant heart diseases. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary heart care centre in Tabriz, Iran, and comprised 200 pregnant women between March 2007 and March 2012 who had different cardiac diseases and were admitted in labour wards first and then transferred to the heart center for child-bearing (vaginal delivery or caesarean section). They were categorised based on the underlying etiology into valvular heart disease, dilated cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease and other etiologies. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean age of the 200 subjects was 29.4+-4.28 years. Caesarean section was performed on 152 (76%) cases, while 48 (24%) underwent vaginal delivery. There were 216 neonates as 16 (8%) women had twins. Overall, 164 (75.9%) were female, and 52 (24.1%) male. Maternal and neonatal mortality rates were 4.0% (n=8) and 10% (n=22) respectively. Pregnant women with Congenital heart disease experienced more maternal (p<0.022) and neonatal (p<0.031) mortality rates than other cardiac diseases. Conclusion: Pregnant women with cardiac diseases are prone to higher maternal and neonatal mortality rates in northwest Iran. (author)

  11. A population-based study examining hepatitis B virus infection and immunization rates in Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohua Ji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Current baseline data regarding the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV infections and the immune status in hyperendemic areas is necessary in evaluating the effectiveness of ongoing HBV prevention and control programs in northwest China. This study aims to determine the prevalence of chronic HBV infections, past exposure rates, and immune response profiles in Wuwei City, northwest China in 2010. METHODS: Cross-sectional household survey representative of the Wuwei City population. 28,579 participants were interviewed in the seroepidemiological survey ≥1 year of age. House to house screening was conducted using a standard questionnaire. All serum samples were screened by enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen, antibodies against HBV surface antigen, and antibodies to the hepatitis B core antigen. RESULTS: Among individuals ≥1 year of age, 7.2% (95%CI: 6.3-8.1% had chronic HBV infections, 43.9% (CI: 40.4-47.4% had been exposed to HBV, and 23.49% (CI: 21.6-25.3% had vaccine-induced immunity. Multi-factor weighted logistic regression analysis showed that having household contact with HBV carriers (OR = 2.6, 95%CI: 2.3-3.0 and beauty treatments in public places (OR = 1.2, 95%CI: 1.1-1.3 were the risk factors of HBV infection in whole population. Having household contact with HBV carriers (OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.2-6.5 and lack of hepatitis vaccination (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4-3.3 were the risk factors for HBV infection in children aged 1-14 years. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis B infection remains a serious public health problem in northwest China. Having household contact with HBV carriers and beauty treatments in public places represented HBV infection risk factors. Hepatitis B vaccine immunization strategies need further improvement, particularly by targeting the immunization of rural migrant workers.

  12. Non-timber forest products of the North-West District of Guyana

    OpenAIRE

    Andel, T.R. van

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) by indigenous peoples of northwest Guyana. Part I contains a general analysis of NTFP harvesting in northwest Guyana Part II is an illustrated field guide of the useful plants encountered. Chapter 1: introduction Chapter 2: floristic composition and vegetation structure of well-drained mixed forest and 20- and 60-year old secondary forests. Previous forest inventories predicted a general low diversity for the North-West Distr...

  13. Risk Factors of Congenital Heart Diseases: A Case-Control Study inNorthwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Mahasti; Azami, Saber; Foroughifar, Shirin; Ghasempour-Dabbaghi, Khazar; Karzad, Nazila; Ahadi, Hamid-Reza; Naghavi-Behzad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Congenital heart diseases are of immense importance and also a high prevalence. Contributing factors to developing these defects have not been abundantly studied. Therefore, the current study was conducted aiming at determining the effective factors on Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) in newborn infants of Northwest Iran. A case-control study was carried out in North-West of Iran from 2002 to 2012 and a total of 473 infants entered the study. Required data were obtained through check lists completed by the information of hospital records and interview with mothers of 267 newborn infants with CHD together with medical records of mothers as the case group, and 206 medical records of healthy infants at the same period all together with those of their mothers as the control group. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistical methods, T-test, Spearman's correlation coefficient, and Multi-variable Logistic Regression Model (OR with 95% CI), using SPSS.19. In the present study, P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Based on the results of univariable analyses, the number of previous cesarean sections, past medical history of diseases, gestational age (GA), fetal weight at birth, diastolic blood pressure, fetal heart rate, pulse rate, fetal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and fetal head circumference at birth have significant relationship with incidence of congenital abnormalities (Prelationship with CHD incidence. Based on the results of present study, in order to control and reduce the cases of CHD, it is crucial to make proper decisions and implement policies for reducing cesarean cases, lowering consanguineous marriages, providing proper pre-marriage counseling, prompt treatment of mothers' illnesses, improving pregnancy health care and mothers' health status for the purpose of better well-being of newborn infants.

  14. 2010 Ecological Survey of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, Michele A.; Perry, Christopher; Downs, Janelle L.; Powell, Sylvia D.

    2011-02-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL Site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL Site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL Site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL Site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), and the recently completed Physical Sciences Facility (PSF). This report describes the results of the annual survey of the biological resources found on the undeveloped portions of the PNNL Site in 2010. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the surveys and the results of the surveys are presented. Actions taken to fully delineate noxious weed populations discovered in 2009 and efforts in 2010 to control those weeds also are described. Appendix A provides a list of plant and

  15. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-Yan; LIU Cai-Hong; LI Yan-Chun; FANG Jian-Gang; LI Lin; LI Hong-Mei; ZHENG Guang-Fen; DENG Zhen-Yong; DONG An-Xiang; GUO Jun-Qin; ZHANG Cun-Jie; SUN Lan-Dong; ZHANG Xu-Dong; LIN Jing-Jing; WANG You-Heng; FANG Feng; MA Peng-Li

    2014-01-01

    Climate change resulted in changes in crop growth duration and planting structure, northward movement of planting region, and more severe plant diseases and insect pests in Northwest China. It caused earlier seeding for spring crop, later seeding for autumn crop, accelerated crop growth, and reduced mortality for winter crop. To adapt to climate change, measures such as optimization of agricultural arrangement, adjustment of planting structure, expansion of thermophilic crops, and development of water-saving agriculture have been taken. Damaging consequences of imbalance between grassland and livestock were enhanced. The deterioration trend of grassland was intensified; both grass quantity and quality declined. With overgrazing, proportions of inferior grass, weeds and poisonous weeds increased in plateau pastoral areas. Returning farmland to grazing, returning grazing to grassland, fence enclosure and artificial grassland construction have been implemented to restore the grassland vegetation, to increase the grassland coverage, to reasonably control the livestock carrying capacity, to prevent overgrazing, to keep balance between grassland and livestock, and to develop the ecological animal husbandry. In Northwest China, because the amount of regional water resources had an overall decreasing trend, there was a continuous expansion in the regional land desertification, and soil erosion was very serious. A series of measures, such as development of artificial precipitation (snow), water resources control, regional water diversion, water storage project and so on, were used effectively to respond to water deficit. It had played a certain role in controlling soil erosion by natural forest protection and returning farmland to forest and grassland. In the early 21st century, noticeable achievements had been made in prevention and control of desertification in Northwest China. The regional ecological environment has been improved obviously, and the desertification trend

  16. Northwest Territories Power Corporation annual report 1999/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The Northwest Territories Power Corp. is a crown corporation with the responsibility to generate, transform, transmit, distribute, deliver, sell and supply electrical and heat energy throughout the Northwest Territories on a safe, economic and reliable basis. The Corporation distributes electricity directly to the consumer in most of the 52 communities it serves. It also supplies electricity on a wholesale basis to two distributing utilities which retail electricity to customers in Yellowknife and Hay River, Northwest Territories. The Corporation consists of 48 separate power systems and serves a population of 67,000 with a total load of about 90 megawatts. This report presented highlights of the 1999 safety program which included vehicle safety, safe oil transfer and contractor safety. In addition, the report highlighted the restoring of power to Sanikiluaq after the plant was destroyed by fire. Emergency measures were put into effect and power was restored in record time. In 2000, the Corporation received approval for the renewal of three Snare hydro dam licenses. In addition, new plant construction in Clyde River and Paulatuk began in the summer of 1999. The $5 million program to replace the existing cable splices on the 140 km Snare transmission line was also completed. This report also included the company's balance sheets which presented the financial position of the Corporation and the results of its operations and the changes in cash flow for the year. The net income for 1999/2000 would have been $12.1 million, the highest net income in the Corporation's history, if not for the spending of $0.4 million on its Y2K plan, and an allowance of $1 million restructuring costs to allow the Nunavut Territory to operate and manage their own electrical utility. The net earnings therefore, after considering these one-time expenditures for 1999/2000, were $10.7 million, a decrease of $0.8 million from the 1998/1999. tabs., figs.

  17. Northwest Boreal Landscape Conservation Cooperative strategic plan 2015 - 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Carl; Schroff, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Northwest Boreal Landscape Conservation Cooperative (NWB LCC) is a voluntary, diverse, self-directed management-science partnership, informing and promoting integrated science, sustainable natural and cultural resource management, and conservation to address impacts of climate change and other stressors within and across ecosystems. The NWB LCC area includes parts of Alaska, Yukon, Northwest Territories, and British Columbia. Our partnership reflects both the broad geographic scope and an extensive array of active and engaged participants including resource management organizations, government representatives, policy makers, Tribes and First Nations, industry leaders, researchers, non-governmental organizations, and research/education institutions. Bringing together diverse partners will help assure the northwest boreal is a functioning, sustainable landscape. We live in an era of profound conservation challenges, including the loss and fragmentation of habitats, genetic isolation, invasive species, and unnatural wildfire. The effects of rapidly changing climate are already evident on the landscape. In these circumstances, it is imperative that natural resource management agencies, science providers, Tribes, First Nations, conservation organizations, and other stakeholders work together to understand the drivers and impacts of landscape change and to determine how best to address those challenges. Further, it is essential that the public and communities receive clear communication about the vision and activities of the NWB LCC. Open public access to NWB LCC activities and products will promote acceptance and support of the science that guides potential changes in management action and conservation strategy. This strategic plan provides a great opportunity for the NWB LCC to share our approach and intentions to the LCC members, collaborators, communities, and the public at large.

  18. Consultations on a Canadian resource recovery strategy : summary of Yellowknife/Northwest Territories and Yukon consultation held at Yellowknife, Northwest Territories on April 22, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) contracted Hatch Associates to conduct seven one-day resource recovery sessions across Canada. The focus of the consultations was to identify opportunities, barriers and demonstration projects to facilitate resource recovery in different urban, rural and northern communities in Canada for the industrial, institutional and post-consumer sectors. These sessions are a first step in helping Canada identify economically-driven resource recovery activities that are environmentally and socially sustainable. This report describes the outcome of a meeting in Yellowknife in the spring of 2002 which involved 16 participants including resource recyclers, the City of Yellowknife, Diavik Diamonds, the government of the Northwest Territories, local entrepreneurs, a landfill operator, a gold mine undergoing environmental rehabilitation, and citizens including an Inuit Elder. The participants identified the following priorities for resource recovery: metal tanks at the Giant Mine, scrap metal at Giant Mine, waste paper, waste oil from vehicles, hazardous waste, arsenic trioxide, and waste packaging. The main barriers to resource recovery in Yellowknife are transportation costs, lack of volumes, the collection/storage infrastructure, and the fact that life cycle and social environmental costs are not included in the costs of products. Several recommendations were proposed to improve resource recovery, including charging a small fee for access to the salvage section of the Yellowknife landfill, charging a fee for garbage over a certain weight, or providing recycling bins everywhere and imposing a fine for disposal of recyclables. tabs.

  19. Big interest for climate actions in Northwest Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchsenius, Hans

    2006-01-01

    There is a large potential for projects in Northwest Russia aiming at reducing CO 2 and other greenhouse gas emissions. Many countries are currently showing interest in buying carbon credits from Russia in order to meet their Kyoto agreement commitments. Even though the body of rules is not yet in place there are a number of efforts at identifying possible projects that may give Norway and other countries much needed carbon credits, and simultaneously provide Russian industry and municipalities with investment aid that can make industry processes and district heating systems more effective. The Nordic countries have established an experimental scheme for joint implementation in the Baltic region (ml)

  20. Government of the Northwest Territories annual report, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, R M [ed.

    1988-01-01

    The Government of the Northwest Territories issues a combined annual report for all departments and agencies. Information contained in this report covers native rights, energy policy, women's issues, education, public works, cultural affairs, government services and finance, health and social services, economic development and tourism, justice, renewable resources, housing, highways, public utilities and workers' compensation. In addition, there is a report from the courts, the Legislative Assembly and the Office of the Commissioner, and a report from each of the regional governments describing the accomplishments for the year 1987. 55 Figs., 2 tabs.

  1. H-Isotopic Composition of Apatite in Northwest Africa 7034

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Barnes, J. J.; Santos, A. R.; Boyce, J. W.; Anand, M.; Franchi, I. A.; Agee, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 and its pairings comprise a regolith breccia with a basaltic bulk composition [1] that yields a better match than any other martian meteorite to estimates of Mars' bulk crust composition [1]. Given the similarities between NWA 7034 and the martian crust, NWA 7034 may represent an important sample for constraining the crustal composition of components that cannot be measured directly by remote sensing. In the present study, we seek to constrain the H isotopic composition of the martian crust using Cl-rich apatite in NWA 7034.

  2. Comparative analysis of hospital energy use: pacific northwest and scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burpee, Heather; McDade, Erin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the potential for significant energy reduction in hospitals in the United States by providing evidence of Scandinavian operational precedents with high Interior Environmental Quality (IEQ) and substantially lower energy profiles than comparable U.S. facilities. These facilities set important precedents for design teams seeking operational examples for achieving aggressive energy and interior environmental quality goals. This examination of operational hospitals is intended to offer hospital owners, designers, and building managers a strong case and concrete framework for strategies to achieve exceptionally high performing buildings. Energy efficient hospitals have the potential to significantly impact the U.S.'s overall energy profile, and key stakeholders in the hospital industry need specific, operationally grounded precedents in order to successfully implement informed energy reduction strategies. This study is an outgrowth of previous research evaluating high quality, low energy hospitals that serve as examples for new high performance hospital design, construction, and operation. Through extensive interviews, numerous site visits, the development of case studies, and data collection, this team has established thorough qualitative and quantitative analyses of several contemporary hospitals in Scandinavia and the Pacific Northwest. Many Scandinavian hospitals demonstrate a low energy profile, and when analyzed in comparison with U.S. hospitals, such Scandinavian precedents help define the framework required to make significant changes in the U.S. hospital building industry. Eight hospitals, four Scandinavian and four Pacific Northwest, were quantitatively compared using the Environmental Protection Agency's Portfolio Manager, allowing researchers to answer specific questions about the impact of energy source and architectural and mechanical strategies on energy efficiency in operational hospitals. Specific architectural, mechanical

  3. Hydro models and salmon recovery in the northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoon, K.

    1993-01-01

    Hydro regulation models provide extensive support for analyzing the efficacy of salmon recovery plans in the Northwest. Power planners developed these computer programs to help plan and efficiently operate a large multiple use river system. The models represent physical relationships and operational requirements on the system. They also simulate coordinated system operations for efficient power generation. These models are being pressed into service to provide data for fish recovery plans. They provide important information about hydro system capabilities and responses to recovery programs. However, the models cannot meet all of the analytical needs of fish biologists working toward salmon recovery

  4. Learning from urban growth management in the Pacific Northwest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The development of contemporary urban growth management in the Northwest United States began in the 1970s. The major tool is the implementation of urban containment boundaries, fostering growth within and limiting it outside the boundary. Additionally a set of policies reaching from densification...... Washington and Oregon as e.g. the municipalities in Denmark have strong control options in planning. However, especially the metropolitan co-operation and co-ordination instruments can certainly contribute to the discussion on urban growth management in Denmark and elsewhere....

  5. Logging and Agricultural Residue Supply Curves for the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerstetter, James D.; Lyons, John Kim

    2001-01-01

    This report quantified the volume of logging residues at the county level for current timber harvests. The cost of recovering logging residues was determined for skidding, yearding, loading, chipping and transporting the residues. Supply curves were developed for ten candidate conversion sites in the Pacific Northwest Region. Agricultural field residues were also quantified at the county level using five-year average crop yields. Agronomic constraints were applied to arrive at the volumes available for energy use. Collection costs and transportation costs were determined and supply curves generated for thirteen candidate conversion sites.

  6. Mixed waste management in Washington and the Northwest Compact Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The state of Washington's concerns about the management of mixed waste have evolved over the past year. One concern that receives increasing attention is the Northwest Compact Region's need to plan for disposal of its own mixed waste. An informal survey of the region's potential mixed waste generators has indicated that mixed waste volumes are low. However, the opening of a disposal facility may result in increased waste volumes. A preliminary proposal for such a facility has been reviewed by the federal and state agencies that dually regulate mixed waste. Initial conclusions reached by the regulators are presented

  7. Package testing capabilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the package testing capabilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). In the past all of the package testing that was performed at PNL was done on prototype or mocked up radioactive material packaging. Presently, we are developing the capability to perform testing on non-radioactive material packaging. The testing on the non-radioactive material packaging will be done to satisfy the new performance oriented packaging requirements (DOT Docket HM-181, 1991). This paper describes the equipment used to perform the performance oriented packaging tests and also describes some testing capability for testing radioactive material packaging

  8. Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership 2017 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, Amy L.; Scully, Rebecca A.; Dethloff, Megan M.; Bayer, Jennifer M.; Olson, Sheryn J.; Cimino, Samuel A.

    2018-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership (PNAMP) continued to promote the integration of monitoring resources and development of tools to support monitoring in 2017. Improved coordination and integration of goals, objectives, and activities among Pacific Northwest monitoring programs is essential to improving the quality and consistency of monitoring in the region.PNAMP operates through inter-organizational teams to make progress on a variety of projects identified to support partner needs and PNAMP goals. These teams are largely ad hoc and formed for the specific purpose of achieving the objectives of the identified projects. For each project, the PNAMP Coordination Team identified interested Steering Committee (SC) members and subject matter experts to form the working teams that provide guidance and leadership. In addition, the teams acted as an intermediate between the larger group of interested participants and the SC, thus maintaining the concept of better SC/participant exchange. The PNAMP Coordination Team continued to facilitate dialog among experts to move forward with ongoing and new projects. In addition, the Coordination Team continued their efforts to track in-kind contributions of time from participants at meetings, workshops, and other PNAMP hosted events; in 2017 this estimate amounted to 2,039 hours by 67 organizations.

  9. Pyrethroid insecticides in urban salmon streams of the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, D.P., E-mail: dweston@berkeley.edu [Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Bldg., Berkeley, CA 94720-3140 (United States); Asbell, A.M., E-mail: aasbell@berkeley.edu [Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Bldg., Berkeley, CA 94720-3140 (United States); Hecht, S.A., E-mail: scott.hecht@noaa.gov [NOAA Fisheries, Office of Protected Resources, 510 Desmond Drive S.E., Lacey, WA 98503 (United States); Scholz, N.L., E-mail: nathaniel.scholz@noaa.gov [NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Blvd. E., Seattle, WA 98112 (United States); Lydy, M.J., E-mail: mlydy@siu.edu [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, 171 Life Sciences II, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Urban streams of the Pacific Northwest provide spawning and rearing habitat for a variety of salmon species, and food availability for developing salmon could be adversely affected by pesticide residues in these waterbodies. Sediments from Oregon and Washington streams were sampled to determine if current-use pyrethroid insecticides from residential neighborhoods were reaching aquatic habitats, and if they were at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive invertebrates. Approximately one-third of the 35 sediment samples contained measurable pyrethroids. Bifenthrin was the pyrethroid of greatest concern with regards to aquatic life toxicity, consistent with prior studies elsewhere. Toxicity to Hyalella azteca and/or Chironomus dilutus was found in two sediment samples at standard testing temperature (23 deg. C), and in one additional sample at a more environmentally realistic temperature (13 deg. C). Given the temperature dependency of pyrethroid toxicity, low temperatures typical of northwest streams can increase the potential for toxicity above that indicated by standard testing protocols. - Highlights: > Salmon-bearing creeks can be adversely impacted by insecticides from urban runoff. > Pyrethroid insecticides were found in one-third of the creeks in Washington and Oregon. > Two creeks contained concentrations acutely lethal to sensitive invertebrates. > Bifenthrin was of greatest concern, though less than in prior studies. > Standard toxicity testing underestimates the ecological risk of pyrethroids. - Pyrethroid insecticides are present in sediments of urban creeks of Oregon and Washington, though less commonly than in studies elsewhere in the U.S.

  10. Pyrethroid insecticides in urban salmon streams of the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, D.P.; Asbell, A.M.; Hecht, S.A.; Scholz, N.L.; Lydy, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Urban streams of the Pacific Northwest provide spawning and rearing habitat for a variety of salmon species, and food availability for developing salmon could be adversely affected by pesticide residues in these waterbodies. Sediments from Oregon and Washington streams were sampled to determine if current-use pyrethroid insecticides from residential neighborhoods were reaching aquatic habitats, and if they were at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive invertebrates. Approximately one-third of the 35 sediment samples contained measurable pyrethroids. Bifenthrin was the pyrethroid of greatest concern with regards to aquatic life toxicity, consistent with prior studies elsewhere. Toxicity to Hyalella azteca and/or Chironomus dilutus was found in two sediment samples at standard testing temperature (23 deg. C), and in one additional sample at a more environmentally realistic temperature (13 deg. C). Given the temperature dependency of pyrethroid toxicity, low temperatures typical of northwest streams can increase the potential for toxicity above that indicated by standard testing protocols. - Highlights: → Salmon-bearing creeks can be adversely impacted by insecticides from urban runoff. → Pyrethroid insecticides were found in one-third of the creeks in Washington and Oregon. → Two creeks contained concentrations acutely lethal to sensitive invertebrates. → Bifenthrin was of greatest concern, though less than in prior studies. → Standard toxicity testing underestimates the ecological risk of pyrethroids. - Pyrethroid insecticides are present in sediments of urban creeks of Oregon and Washington, though less commonly than in studies elsewhere in the U.S.

  11. Recent and Future Climate Change in Northwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yafeng; Shen, Yongping; Kang, Ersi; Li, Dongliang; Ding, Yongjian [Cold and Arid Regions, Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Zhang, Guowei [Xinjiang Bureau of Hydrology and Water Resources, Urumqi, 830010 (China); Hu, Ruji [Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, 830011 (China)

    2007-02-15

    As a consequence of global warming and an enhanced water cycle, the climate changed in northwest China, most notably in the Xinjiang area in the year 1987. Precipitation, glacial melt water and river runoff and air temperature increased continuously during the last decades, as did also the water level of inland lakes and the frequency of flood disasters. As a result, the vegetation cover is improved, number of days with sand-dust storms reduced. From the end of the 19th century to the 1970s, the climate was warm and dry, and then changed to warm and wet. The effects on northwest China can be classified into three classes by using the relation between precipitation and evaporation increase. If precipitation increases more than evaporation, runoff increases and lake water levels rise. We identify regions with: (1) notable change, (2) slight change and (3) no change. The future climate for doubled CO2 concentration is simulated in a nested approach with the regional climate model-RegCM2. The annual temperature will increase by 2.7C and annual precipitation by 25%. The cooling effect of aerosols and natural factors will reduce this increase to 2.0C and 19% of precipitation. As a consequence, annual runoff may increase by more than 10%.

  12. Recent and Future Climate Change in Northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yafeng; Shen, Yongping; Kang, Ersi; Li, Dongliang; Ding, Yongjian; Zhang, Guowei; Hu, Ruji

    2007-01-01

    As a consequence of global warming and an enhanced water cycle, the climate changed in northwest China, most notably in the Xinjiang area in the year 1987. Precipitation, glacial melt water and river runoff and air temperature increased continuously during the last decades, as did also the water level of inland lakes and the frequency of flood disasters. As a result, the vegetation cover is improved, number of days with sand-dust storms reduced. From the end of the 19th century to the 1970s, the climate was warm and dry, and then changed to warm and wet. The effects on northwest China can be classified into three classes by using the relation between precipitation and evaporation increase. If precipitation increases more than evaporation, runoff increases and lake water levels rise. We identify regions with: (1) notable change, (2) slight change and (3) no change. The future climate for doubled CO2 concentration is simulated in a nested approach with the regional climate model-RegCM2. The annual temperature will increase by 2.7C and annual precipitation by 25%. The cooling effect of aerosols and natural factors will reduce this increase to 2.0C and 19% of precipitation. As a consequence, annual runoff may increase by more than 10%

  13. Predicting Waves in the Pacific Northwest of the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan-Haller, H. T.; Oskamp, J. A.; Garcia, G.; Kassem, S.; McNutt, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest region of the US is characterized by an energetic deep water wave climate with large swell and sea waves that can approach from multiple directions. As these waves propagate from the open ocean over the continental shelf towards shore, they are affected by the underwater topography (or bathymetry) of the shelf. The US West Coast shelf is characterized by complicated bathymetry with numerous canyons and large banks. Such features can at places focus wave energy and at others divert waves away. As a result the wave field near the coast (in 10-50m water depth) varies significantly along the coast. Although a comprehensive prediction and validation effort for waves exists for the California shoreline, it is currently lacking for the Pacific Northwest shorelines. Herein, we present comprehensive long-term wave model simulations for several regions within the Oregon coastline, show validation of the results with existing nearshore observations, and discuss the dominant dynamics responsible for the observed wave transformation.

  14. Effects of ozone on crops in north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Nauman; Büker, Patrick; Khalid, Sofia; Van Den Berg, Leon; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Wahid, Abdul; Emberson, Lisa; Power, Sally A.; Ashmore, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Although ozone is well-documented to reduce crop yields in the densely populated Indo-Gangetic Plain, there is little knowledge of its effects in other parts of south Asia. We surveyed crops close to the city of Peshawar, in north-west Pakistan, for visible injury, linking this to passive measurements of ozone concentrations. Foliar injury was found on potato, onion and cotton when mean monthly ozone concentrations exceeded 45 ppb. The symptoms on onion were reproduced in ozone fumigation experiments, which also showed that daytime ozone concentrations of 60 ppb significantly reduce the growth of a major Pakistani onion variety. Aphid infestation on spinach was also reduced at these elevated ozone concentrations. The ozone concentrations measured in April–May in Peshawar, and used in the fumigation experiment, are comparable to those that have been modelled to occur over many parts of south Asia, where ozone may be a significant threat to sensitive crops. -- Highlights: ► Visible ozone injury to onion, cotton and potato was identified in north-west Pakistan. ► The symptoms on onion were reproduced by exposure to elevated ozone. ► Elevated ozone levels also significantly reduced onion growth. ► Levels of aphid infestation on spinach were lower under elevated ozone. ► These effects were observed at ozone levels that have been modelled to occur widely across south Asia. -- Ozone concentrations in NW Pakistan have adverse effects on sensitive crop species

  15. Late Holocene Radiocarbon Variability in Northwest Atlantic Slope Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, O; Edinger, E; Guilderson, T P; Ghaleb, B; Risk, M J; Scott, D B

    2008-08-15

    Deep-sea gorgonian corals secrete a 2-part skeleton of calcite, derived from dissolved inorganic carbon at depth, and gorgonin, derived from recently fixed and exported particulate organic matter. Radiocarbon contents of the calcite and gorgonin provide direct measures of seawater radiocarbon at depth and in the overlying surface waters, respectively. Using specimens collected from Northwest Atlantic slope waters, we generated radiocarbon records for surface and upper intermediate water layers spanning the pre- and post bomb-{sup 14}C eras. In Labrador Slope Water (LSW), convective mixing homogenizes the pre-bomb {Delta}{sup 14}C signature (-67 {+-} 4{per_thousand}) to at least 1000 m depth. Surface water bomb-{sup 14}C signals were lagged and damped (peaking at {approx} +45{per_thousand} in the early 1980s) relative to other regions of the northwest Atlantic, and intermediate water signals were damped further. Off southwest Nova Scotia, the vertical gradient in {Delta}{sup 14}C is much stronger. In surface water, pre-bomb {Delta}{sup 14}C averaged -75 {+-} 5{per_thousand}. At 250-475 m depth, prebomb {Delta}{sup 14}C oscillated quasi-decadally between -80 and -100{per_thousand}, likely reflecting interannual variability in the presence of Labrador Slope Water vs. Warm Slope Water (WSW). Finally, subfossil corals reveal no systematic changes in vertical {Delta}{sup 14}C gradients over the last 1200 years.

  16. A cross-sectional study on bovine trypanosomosis in Jawi district of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from December 2008 to March 2009 in Jawi district of Amhara Regional State northwest Ethiopia to assess the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis. Blood sample was collected randomly from a total of 300 cattle through piercing of the marginal ear vein to determine the prevalence ...

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1: Biomedical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, C.C. [ed.; Park, J.F.

    1994-03-01

    This report summarizes FY 1993 progress in biological and general life sciences research programs conducted for the Department of Energy`s Office of Health and Environmental REsearch (OHER) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This research provides knowledge of fundamental principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of exposure to energy-related radiation and chemicals. The Biological Research section contains reports of studies using laboratory animals, in vitro cell systems, and molecular biological systems. This research includes studies of the impact of radiation, radionuclides, and chemicals on biological responses at all levels of biological organization. The General Life Sciences Research section reports research conducted for the OHER human genome program.

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1979 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health, and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baalman, R.W.; Dotson, C.W. (eds.)

    1980-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1979 Annual Report to the Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for the Environment presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Technology Impacts, the Office of Environmental Compliance and Overview, and the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The report is in four sections, corresponding to the program elements: technology impacts, environmental control engineering, operational and environmental compliance, and human health studies. In each section, articles describe progress made during FY 1979 on individual projects.

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE (Department of Energy) Office of Energy Research - Part 4: Physical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L.H.; Stults, B.R.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1990-04-01

    This 1989 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, safety, and health conducted during fiscal year 1989. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. This volume contains 20 papers. Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report of 1989 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category and each Field Task proposal/agreement is introduced by an abstract that describes the projects reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1989. 74 refs., 29 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Cognitive styles of Forest Service scientists and managers in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Carey

    1997-01-01

    Preferences of executives, foresters, and biologists of the Pacific Northwest Research Station and executives, District Rangers, foresters, engineers, and biologists of the Pacific Northwest Region, National Forest System (USDA Forest Service), were compared for various thinking styles. Herrmann brain dominance profiles from 230 scientists and managers were drawn from...

  1. Evaluation of possible means to stop production of nuclear power in northwest Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaugen, Aud K.

    2007-08-01

    This note illuminates the status and some elements in the Russian efforts on use of nuclear power, with special emphasis on northwest Russia. In addition the report describes an evaluation of the possibilities of Norwegian influence on the nuclear power in northwest Russia and Kola Peninsula

  2. Benefits of donkeys in rural and urban areas in northwest Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, M.R.; Steenstra, F.A.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the benefits of donkeys for rural and urban smallholder farmers in northwest Nigeria. We visited 112 smallholder donkey farmers located in rural and urban areas from four states in northwest Nigeriathrough four focus group meetings, interviews with

  3. Highlights of science contributions to implementing the Northwest Forest Plan—1994 to 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy M. Diaz; Richard W. Haynes

    2002-01-01

    During 5 years of research (1994-98) in support of the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP), Pacific Northwest Research Station scientists and their collaborators have made significant progress in both validating some of the NWFP’s major assumptions and providing research that sets the stage for further evolution of the plan. Studies have provided new information in the areas...

  4. Non-timber forest products of the North-West District of Guyana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, T.R. van

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) by indigenous peoples of northwest Guyana. Part I contains a general analysis of NTFP harvesting in northwest Guyana Part II is an illustrated field guide of the useful plants encountered. Chapter 1: introduction Chapter

  5. 75 FR 5353 - Energy Northwest; Notice of Receipt and Availability of Application for Renewal of Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0029; Docket No. 50-397] Energy Northwest; Notice of Receipt and Availability of Application for Renewal of Columbia Generating Station Facility Operating... Commission) has received an application, dated January 19, 2010, from Energy Northwest (EN), filed pursuant...

  6. Dynamic Agroecological Zones for the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, D. R.; Rupp, R.; Gessler, P.; Pan, W.; Brown, D. J.; Machado, S.; Walden, V. P.; Eigenbrode, S.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Agroecological zones (AEZ's) have traditionally been defined by integrating multiple layers of biophysical (e.g. climate, soil, terrain) and occasionally socioeconomic data to create unique zones with specific ranges of land use constraints and potentials. Our approach to defining AEZ's assumes that current agricultural land uses have emerged as a consequence of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers. Therefore, we explore the concept that AEZ's can be derived from classifying the geographic distribution of current agricultural systems (e.g. the wheat-fallow cropping system zone) based on spatially geo-referenced annual cropland use data that is currently available through the National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS). By defining AEZ's in this way, we expect to: (1) provide baseline information that geographically delineates the boundaries of current AEZ's and subzones and therefore the capacity to evaluate shifts in AEZ boundaries over time; (2) assess the biophysical (e.g. climate, soils, terrain) and socioeconomic factors (e.g. commodity prices) that are most useful for predicting and correctly classifying current AEZ's, subzones or future shifts in AEZ boundaries; (3) identify and develop AEZ-relevant climate mitigation and adaptation strategies; and (4) integrate biophysical and socioeconomic data sources to pursue a transdisciplinary examination of climate-driven AEZ futures. Achieving these goals will aid in realizing major objectives for a USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Agriculture and Food Research Initiative, Cooperative Agricultural Project entitled "Regional Approaches to Climate Change (REACCH) for Pacific Northwest Agriculture". REACCH is a research, education and extension project under the leadership of the University of Idaho with significant collaboration from Washington State University, Oregon State University and the USDA Agricultural Research Service that is working towards increasing the capacity of Inland Pacific

  7. 2011 Annual Ecological Survey: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, James M.; Chamness, Michele A.

    2012-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE Orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory and the Physical Sciences Facility. This report describes the annual survey of biological resources found on the undeveloped upland portions of the PNNL site. The annual survey is comprised of a series of individual field surveys conducted on various days in late May and throughout June 2011. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the baseline surveys and a summary of the results of the surveys are presented. Appendix A provides a list of plant and animal species identified in the

  8. 78 FR 50088 - Notice of Availability of the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Availability of the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage- Grouse Draft Resource Management Plan Amendment and Draft... Land Management (BLM) has prepared a Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource Management.../or mailings. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments related to the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse...

  9. Watershed restoration, jobs-in-the woods, and community assistance: Redwood National Park and the Northwest Forest Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher E. DeForest

    1999-01-01

    There are many parallels between the 1978 legislation to expand Redwood National Park and the Northwest Forest Plan, which together with the Northwest Economic Adjustment Initiative formed the 1993 Pacific Northwest Initiative. In both situations, the Federal Government sought to promote retraining for displaced workers, to undertake watershed assessment and...

  10. Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy of HIV infected and non-infected women in tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekele Assegedech

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is known to be a major public health problem among women of reproductive age in South East Asia and Africa. In Ethiopia, there are no studies conducted on serum vitamin A status of HIV-infected pregnant women. Therefore, the present study was aimed at determining the level of serum vitamin A and VAD among pregnant women with and without HIV infection in tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia. Methods In this cross-sectional study, blood samples were collected from 423 pregnant women and from 55 healthy volunteers who visited the University of Gondar Hospital. Serum concentration of vitamin A was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Results After controlling for total serum protein, albumin and demographic variables, the mean ± SD serum vitamin A in HIV seropositive pregnant women (0.96 ± 0.42 μmol/L was significantly lower than that in pregnant women without HIV infection (1.10 ± 0.45 μmol/L, P Conclusion The present study shows that VAD is a major public health problem among pregnant women in the tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia. Considering the possible implications of VAD during pregnancy, we recommend multivitamin (which has a lower level of vitamin A supplementation in the care and management of pregnant women with or without HIV infection.

  11. ICP/AES radioactive sample analyses at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, C.L.; Hara, F.T.

    1986-03-01

    Inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES) analyses of radioactive materials at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) began about three years ago upon completion of the installation of a modified Applied Research Laboratory (ARL) 3560. Funding for the purchase and installation of the ICP/AES was provided by the Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center (MCC) established at PNL by the Department of Energy in 1979. MCC's objective is to ensure that qualified materials data are available on waste materials. This paper is divided into the following topics: (1) Instrument selection considerations; (2) initial installation of the simultaneous system with the source stand enclosed in a 1/2'' lead-shielded glove box; (3) retrofit installation of the sequential spectrometer; and (4) a brief discussion on several types of samples analyzed. 1 ref., 7 figs., 1 tab

  12. Formative pre-Hispanic agricultural soils in northwest Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro Vattuone, María Marta; Roldán, Jimena; Neder, Liliana; Maldonado, Mario Gabriel; Vattuone, Marta Amelia

    2011-01-01

    Our study area is from an early agricultural archaeological site named "El Tolar" (1st to 9th century AD), located in Tafí Valley (Tucumán, northwest Argentina). The objective was to identify geochemical signatures generated by the sustained agrarian use of soils. Chemical and pedological studies were made in different archaeological contexts. Physical and chemical features, such as bulk density, pH, organic and inorganic phosphorus, and available copper, manganese and iron, were taken into account. The results suggested that a buried paleosol identified was contemporary with the occupation of the site. It also showed characteristics clearly related to pre-Hispanic agrarian production. The concentrations of organic phosphorus and iron in agricultural soils probably reflect the use of fertilizers. The application of geoscience techniques allowed us to obtain important information on their behaviour and socio-economic development. This paper constitutes the first pedogeochemical approach to the study of Argentinean pre-Hispanic agricultural soils.

  13. Exiled by Definition:The Salar of Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David SG Goodman

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The reform of state socialism came relatively late to Qinghai Province in the Northwest of the People’s Republic of China. One of Qinghai’s most dynamic groups in the social leadership of reform has been the Salar. The Salar were one of the officially recognized nationalities identified in the People’s Republic of China during the 1950s. A relatively small group of some 100,000 currently live along the upper reaches of the Yellow River, on the borders of Qinghai and Gansu Provinces. The Salar are characterised by their commitment to both Islam and China, and by their belief that they live in permanent exile, though there is considerable uncertainty about their origins. The evidence of recent research in Qinghai suggests the perspective of being Chinese citizens, yet a people in exile, significantly shapes recent Salar social and economic activism.

  14. Caldwell Ranch Exploration and Confirmation Project, Northwest Geysers, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Mark A.

    2013-04-25

    The purpose of the Caldwell Ranch Exploration and Confirmation Project was to drill, test, and confirm the present economic viability of the undeveloped geothermal reservoir in the 870 acre Caldwell Ranch area of the Northwest Geysers that included the CCPA No.1 steam field. All of the drilling, logging, and sampling challenges were met. Three abandoned wells, Prati 5, Prati 14 and Prati 38 were re-opened and recompleted to nominal depths of 10,000 feet in 2010. Two of the wells required sidetracking. The flow tests indicated Prati 5 Sidetrack 1 (P-5 St1), Prati 14 (P-14) and Prati 38 Sidetrack 2 (P-38 St2) were collectively capable of initially producing an equivalent of 12 megawatts (MWe) of steam using a conversion rate of 19,000 pounds of steam/hour

  15. Northwest conservation and electric power plan 1986. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This 20 year plan is prepared in accordance with the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act - Public Law 96-501, of 1980. This Act required the Council to develop and adopt a 20-year electrical power plan for the region with a program to protect, mitigate and enhance the fish and wildlife affected by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The plan provides a 25 year history of the regions power development and comments on its unique features and changing nature. Presentations covers problems, solutions and the planning strategy for risk management. The existing electrical power system is discussed along with future electricity needs, generating resources, conservation of resources, regional needs and resources, and the 1986 action plan. Underlying details are provided in Volume II

  16. Weed management: a case study from north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwat, K.B.; Hashim, S.; Ali, H.

    2010-01-01

    Alien and exotic plant invasions are threatening the floral diversity around the globe and affect ecological processes. Weed invasion has been documented in North-West Pakistan. A total of 16 weeds were reported as invasive. These were Xanthium strumarium, Ipomoea eriocarpa, Alternanthera pungens, Trianthema portulacastrum, Tagetes minuta, Imperata cylindrica, Amaranthus hybridus subsp. hybridus, Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ailanthus altissima, Pistia stratiotes, Phragmites australis, Parthenium hysterophorus, Cannabis sativa, Galium aparine and Emex spinosus. Among these Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera and Ailanthus altissima are trees and were purposely introduced as they later became invasive. They were aggressive in nature and replaced or suppressed the local vegetation. Their distribution, history of invasion and management has been discussed here. The behaviour and association of the 36 problem weeds with different crops has also been outlined as they perspired from the farmers. (author)

  17. Weed management: a case study from north-west Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwat, K B; Hashim, S; Ali, H [KPK Agriculture University, Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Weed Science

    2010-12-15

    Alien and exotic plant invasions are threatening the floral diversity around the globe and affect ecological processes. Weed invasion has been documented in North-West Pakistan. A total of 16 weeds were reported as invasive. These were Xanthium strumarium, Ipomoea eriocarpa, Alternanthera pungens, Trianthema portulacastrum, Tagetes minuta, Imperata cylindrica, Amaranthus hybridus subsp. hybridus, Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ailanthus altissima, Pistia stratiotes, Phragmites australis, Parthenium hysterophorus, Cannabis sativa, Galium aparine and Emex spinosus. Among these Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera and Ailanthus altissima are trees and were purposely introduced as they later became invasive. They were aggressive in nature and replaced or suppressed the local vegetation. Their distribution, history of invasion and management has been discussed here. The behaviour and association of the 36 problem weeds with different crops has also been outlined as they perspired from the farmers. (author)

  18. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan FY 1998--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s core mission is to deliver environmental science and technology in the service of the nation and humanity. Through basic research the lab creates fundamental knowledge of natural, engineered, and social systems that is the basis for both effective environmental technology and sound public policy. They solve legacy environmental problems by delivering technologies that remedy existing environmental hazards, they address today`s environmental needs with technologies that prevent pollution and minimize waste, and they are laying the technical foundation for tomorrow`s inherently clean energy and industrial processes. The lab also applies their capabilities to meet selected national security, energy, and human health needs; strengthen the US economy; and support the education of future scientists and engineers. The paper summarizes individual research activities under each of these areas.

  19. High dose calibrations at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.C.; Fox, R.A.

    1988-10-01

    The need is increasing for both high radiation exposures and calibration measurements that provide traceability of such exposures to national standards. The applications of high exposures include: electronic component damage studies, sterilization of medical products and food irradiation. Accurate high exposure measurements are difficult to obtain and cannot, in general, be carried out with a single dose measurement system or technique because of the wide range of doses and the variety of materials involved. This paper describes the dosimetric measurement and calibration techniques used at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) that make use of radiochromic dye films, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), ionization chambers, and calorimetric dosimeters. The methods used to demonstrate the consistency of PNL calibrations with national standards will also be discussed. 4 refs

  20. The first record of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the Argentine northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gomez Bravo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the urban presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis was recorded for the first time in Formosa province. In 2006, the first autochthonous case of human urban visceral leishmaniasis (VL was recorded in Misiones in the presence of the vector, along with some canine VL cases. After this first case, the vector began to spread primarily in northeast Argentina. Between 2008-2011, three human VL cases were reported in Salta province, but the presence of Lu. longipalpis was not recorded. Captures of Phlebotominae were made in Tartagal, Salta, in 2013, and the presence of Lu. longipalpis was first recorded in northwest Argentina at that time. Systematic sampling is recommended to observe the distribution and dispersion patterns of Lu. longipalpis and consider the risk of VL transmission in the region.

  1. Seabird colonies in the Melville Bay, Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, David; Huffeldt, Nicholas Per

    This report describes the results of a survey for breeding and colonial seabirds in a hitherto un-surveyed area of Northwest Greenland - the Melville Bay. The results shall be included as background data for oil spill sensitivity mapping, preparation of environmental impact assessments of petroleum...... activities in Baffin Bay and for the regulation (by the Greenland government) of petroleum activities. The survey showed, that compared to other coasts of West Greenland, the Melville Bay holds only few breeding colonies and low numbers of breeding seabirds. The most widespread and numerous species...... is the black guillemot followed by the glaucous gull. However, one colony is of national significance – Sabine Øer, with high numbers of breeding Arctic terns and Sabine’s gulls. Other noteworthy observations were puffins on Thom Ø and many new Iceland gull colonies that extended the known northern breeding...

  2. PACIFIC NORTHWEST REGIONAL COLLABORATORY ANNUAL REPORT FOR SYNERGY VII (2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagestad, Jerry D.; Bolte, John; Guzy, Michael; Woodruff, Dana L.; Humes, Karen; Walden, Von; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Glenn, Nancy; Ames, Dan; Rope, Ronald; Martin, David; Sandgathe, Scott

    2008-04-01

    During this final year of the Pacific Northwest Regional Collaboratory we focused significantly on continuing the relationship between technical teams and government end-users. The main theme of the year was integration. This took the form of data integration via our web portal and integration of our technologies with the end users. The PNWRC's technical portfolio is based on EOS strategies, and focuses on 'applications of national priority: water management, invasive species, coastal management and ecological forecasting.' The products of our technical approaches have been well received by the community of focused end-users. The objective this year was to broaden that community and develop external support to continue and operationalize product development.

  3. Dendroclimatology of the Slave River Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, S.; Buhay, W. M.; Blair, D.; Tardif, J.; Bailey, D.

    2004-05-01

    It is well documented that changing hydrological conditions impact delta ecosystems. Such changes can also affect local inhabitants who have historical connections to the area and its resources. During the summer of 2003 a multifaceted paleo-environmental project was initiated to reconstruct the frequencies of floods and droughts in the Slave River Delta (SRD), Northwest Territories, Canada. The project goal is to forecast future hydrological and ecological conditions in the SRD in light of anticipated climate change and increasing demand on water resources. With the intent of expanding the climate history of the SRD, this particular aspect of the project will employ white spruce tree-ring chronologies constructed from six sites visited within the delta. Work is currently in progress to build a master chronology estimated to span over 300 years. In addition, a climate model for the SRD is also being developed and will be highlighted.

  4. Energy wood resources availability and delivery cost in Northwest Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimov, Yuri; Karjalainen, Timo [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)], E-mail: yuri.gerasimov@metla.fi

    2013-10-01

    Availability of solid by-products from wood harvesting and mechanical wood processing was estimated as sources for energy production based on recent actual harvesting, sawmill, and plywood production in Northwest Russia at 30 million m{sup 3}. Nearly 70% of the energy wood, 20 million m{sup 3}, was from harvesting, consisting of non-industrial round wood, unused branches and tops, defective wood resulting from logging, and spruce stumps removed after final felling. Over 30%, 10 million m{sup 3}, of the available volume was from sawmills and plywood mills, i.e. wood chips, sawdust, and bark. Due to current low utilization of energy wood for bioenergy in Northwest Russia, delivery cost of energy wood to the potential border-crossing points in Finland was analyzed for three means of transport: railways, roadways, and waterways. Nearly 28 million m{sup 3} of the energy wood could be transported by railways and 2 million m{sup 3} by roadways and waterways. The costs were lowest by roadways from the nearby border areas (10-15 Euro/m{sup 3} for wood processing by-products and 16-22 Euro/m{sup 3} for forest chips). The costs by railways varied from 12 to 27 Euro/m{sup 3} on shorter distances to 47-58 Euro/m{sup 3} on longer distances. Waterway transportation was the most expensive, about 28-48 Euro/m{sup 3}. It should be emphasized that we have estimated availability and delivery costs of energy wood, not prices which are defined by the market based on supply and demand.

  5. Insecurity, polio vaccination rates, and polio incidence in northwest Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Amol A; Jimenez, Marcia P; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Subramanian, S V; Razak, Fahad

    2018-02-13

    Pakistan is one of three countries in which endemic transmission of poliovirus has never been stopped. Insecurity is often cited but poorly studied as a barrier to eradicating polio. We analyzed routinely collected health data from 32 districts of northwest Pakistan and constructed an index of insecurity based on journalistic reports of the monthly number of deaths and injuries resulting from conflict-related security incidents. The primary outcomes were the monthly incidence of paralytic polio cases within each district between 2007 and 2014 and the polio vaccination percentage from 666 district-level vaccination campaigns between 2007 and 2009, targeting ∼5.7 million children. Multilevel Poisson regression controlling for time and district fixed effects was used to model the association between insecurity, vaccinator access, vaccination rates, and polio incidence. The number of children inaccessible to vaccinators was 19.7% greater (95% CI: 19.2-20.2%), and vaccination rates were 5.3% lower (95% CI: 5.2-5.3%) in "high-insecurity" campaigns compared with "secure" campaigns. The unadjusted mean vaccination rate was 96.3% (SD = 8.6) in secure campaigns and 88.3% (SD = 19.2) in high-insecurity campaigns. Polio incidence was 73.0% greater (95% CI: 30-131%) during high-insecurity months (unadjusted mean = 0.13 cases per million people, SD = 0.71) compared with secure months (unadjusted mean = 1.23 cases per million people, SD = 4.28). Thus, insecurity was associated with reduced vaccinator access, reduced polio vaccination, and increased polio incidence in northwest Pakistan. These findings demonstrate that insecurity is an important obstacle to global polio eradication.

  6. Possible pingos and a periglacial landscape in northwest Utopia Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, R.J.; Burr, D.M.; Wan, Bun Tseung J.-M.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrostatic (closed-system) pingos are small, elongate to circular, ice-cored mounds that are perennial features of some periglacial landscapes. The growth and development of hydrostatic pingos is contingent upon the presence of surface water, freezing processes and of deep, continuous, ice-cemented permafrost. Other cold-climate landforms such as small-sized, polygonal patterned ground also may occur in the areas where pingos are found. On Mars, landscapes comprising small, elongate to circular mounds and other possible periglacial features have been identified in various areas, including Utopia Planitia, where water is thought to have played an important role in landscape evolution. Despite the importance of the martian mounds as possible markers of water, most accounts of them in the planetary science literature have been brief and/or based upon Viking imagery. We use a high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera image (EO300299) and superposed Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data tracks to describe and characterise a crater-floor landscape in northwest Utopia Planitia (64.8?? N/292.7?? W). The landscape comprises an assemblage of landforms that is consistent with the past presence of water and of periglacial processes. This geomorphological assemblage may have formed as recently as the last episode of high obliquity. A similar assemblage of landforms is found in the Tuktoyaktuk peninsula of northern Canada and other terrestrial cold-climate landscapes. We point to the similarity of the two assemblages and suggest that the small, roughly circular mounds on the floor of the impact crater in northwest Utopia Planitia are hydrostatic pingos. Like the hydrostatic pingos of the Tuktoyaktuk peninsula, the origin of the crater-floor mounds could be tied to the loss of ponded, local water, permafrost aggradation and the evolution of a sub-surface ice core. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. SPIDERS (ARANEI IN HEPRETOBIONT MESOFAUNA OF THE NORTHWEST CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ponomarev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. We discussed in previous work a herpetobiont fauna of arachnids (Arachnida from the isolated yewboxwood wood, located in the Caucasian State Biosphere Reserve, 20 km near Sochi (Ponomarev, Chumachenko, 2007. The aim of the paper is to summarize available data about herpetobiont araneofauna of the Northwest Caucasus. Location. Republic of Adygea, Russia.Methods. Material was collected in 2009 on north macroslope of Main Caucasian Ridge within the territory of the Caucasian State Biosphere Reserve between 1000–1820 m. The following plant communities are studied: beech-silver fir (assotiation Abieti-Fagetion orientalis Korotkov et Belonovskaya 1987, maple forest (assotiation Petasito albae-Abietetum nordmannianae subassotiation Aceretosum trautvetteri Francuzov 2006, subalpine meadow (assotiation Poa longifolii – Calamagrostietum arundinaceae Semagina, 1992. Soil traps were used for collection of spiders.Results and main conclusions. During the period of study 100 species of spiders from 19 families are registered. Most diverse araneofauna of subalpine meadows includs 54 species belonging to 14 families. The least diverse araneofauna is in maple forest (24 species of 7 families. In beech-silver fir includes 45 species of 16 families of spiders. Only 3 species (Pireneitega ovtchinnikovi, Cybaeus abchasicus, Tenuiphantes mengei were found in all surveyed habitats. These 3 species clearly tend to forest habitats. Herpetobiont araneofauna of the Northwest Caucasus characterized by high taxonomic diversity with clear predominance of representatives of the family Linyphiidae. Specificity of araneofauna in different types of plant communities is high.

  8. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes - Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-01

    This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). In this project, the Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program worked with Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction and Bonneville Power Administration to help four factory homebuilders build prototype zero energy ready manufactured homes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This case study describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  9. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthic infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Tilili town, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Alamneh; Nibret, Endalkachew

    2014-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Tilili town, northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study involving 385 schoolchildren was conducted between November 2011 to February 2012. Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were used to identify socio-demographic and associated risk factors. Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration technique. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software. Four species of intestinal helminthes were identified with an overall prevalence of 44.2% (170 of 385 schoolchildren). The predominant parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) 153 (39.7%) and Trichuris trichiura (T. trichiura) 30 (7.8%). One hundred thirty five (35.1%) had single infections and 35 (9.2%) were infected with more than one helminthic parasites in which 32 (8.4%) were double infections and 3 (0.8%) were triple infections. Significant associations were observed between intestinal helminth infection and those of age, grade level, and school variables. Prevalence of hookworm infection was significant in children who did not wear shoes regularly (P<0.05). Intervention programs and education on personal and environmental hygiene should be implemented for the prevention and control of helminthic infections in the study area. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Knowledge about human papillomavirus and prevention of cervical cancer among women of Arkhangelsk, Northwest Russia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena E Roik

    Full Text Available Knowledge about cervical cancer (CC risk factors and benefits of CC prevention motivates women to participate in its screening. However, several studies show that there is a significant knowledge deficit worldwide about human papillomavirus (HPV. The current study explores the level of knowledge about HPV and CC prevention in the context of sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of women who visited an antenatal clinic in Arkhangelsk, Russia.This cross-sectional study was conducted in the city of Arkhangelsk, which seats the administrative center of Arkhangelsk County, Northwest Russia. It included women who consulted a gynecologist for any reason between January 1, 2015 and April 30, 2015, were residents of Arkhangelsk, 25 to 65 years of age and sexually active (N = 300. Student's t-test for continuous variables and Pearson's χ2 test for categorical variables were used in the comparisons of women grouped as having either poor or sufficient knowledge. Linear regression analysis was also employed.The level of knowledge about HPV and CC prevention was associated with education, parity, age of initiating of intercourse, and sources of information. After adjustment, women with university education were more likely to have higher knowledge about HPV and CC prevention compared to those with lower education.We observed that most participants had a sufficient level of knowledge. Educational gaps were identified that potentially could be used to tailor interventions in CC prevention.

  11. Geologic map of the northwest quarter of the Bullfrog 15-minute quadrangle, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, F.

    1990-01-01

    This study of the northwest quarter of the Bullfrog 15-minute quadrangle was undertaken to determine the stratigraphy and structural setting as part of a regional study in cooperation with the US Department of Energy. Geologic data were plotted on aerial photographs at a scale of 1:24,000. Alluvial deposits were mapped on aerial photographs, and, in some cases, field-checked. Thickness of bedded tuff as shown on the map and in the geologic sections was exaggerated in some cases in order to show distribution. Thicknesses of units are approximate due to varying degrees of internal deformation. A detachment fault is defined for this study as ''...a low-angle normal fault that formed at a low angle, has significant displacement, and is of subregional extent.'' Nomenclature for lavas and igneous dikes is based on field identifications, guided by some petrographic determinations; latite-type rocks are termed ''latitic, '' dacite-type, ''dacitic,'' and so forth. Age determinations where indicated for the rock units have been corrected for new K-Ar constants. 17 refs

  12. Estimation of wind erosion from construction of a railway in arid Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benli Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-the-art wind erosion simulation model, the Wind Erosion Prediction System and the United States Environmental Protection Agency's AP 42 emission factors formula, were combined together to evaluate wind-blown dust emissions from various construction units from a railway construction project in the dry Gobi land in Northwest China. The influence of the climatic factors: temperature, precipitation, wind speed and direction, soil condition, protective measures, and construction disturbance were taken into account. Driven by daily and sub-daily climate data and using specific detailed management files, the process-based WEPS model was able to express the beginning, active, and ending phases of construction, as well as the degree of disturbance for the entire scope of a construction project. The Lanzhou-Xinjiang High-speed Railway was selected as a representative study because of the diversities of different climates, soil, and working schedule conditions that could be analyzed. Wind erosion from different working units included the building of roadbeds, bridges, plants, temporary houses, earth spoil and barrow pit areas, and vehicle transportation were calculated. The total wind erosion emissions, 7406 t, for the first construction area of section LXS-15 with a 14.877 km length was obtained for quantitative analysis. The method used is applicable for evaluating wind erosion from other complex surface disturbance projects.

  13. Nutritional status and dietary intake of urban residents in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Bemnet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is paucity of data on the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban Ethiopians which necessitates comprehensive nutritional assessments. Therefore, the present study was aimed at evaluating the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban residents in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods This cross-sectional community based nutrition survey was conducted by involving 356 participants (71.3% female and 28.7% male with mean age of 37.3 years. Subjects were selected by random sampling. Socio demographic data was collected by questionnaire. Height, weight, hip circumference and waist circumference were measured following standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h dietary recall. The recommended dietary allowance was taken as the cut-off point for the assessment of the adequacy of individual nutrient intake. Results Undernourished, overweight and obese subjects composed 12.9%, 21.3% and 5.9% of the participants, respectively. Men were taller, heavier and had higher waist to hip ratio compared to women (P  Conclusions The overall risk of nutritional inadequacy among the study participants was high along with their poor dietary intake. Hence, more stress should be made on planning and implementing nutritional programmes in urban settings aimed at preventing or correcting micronutrient and some macronutrient deficiencies which may be useful in preventing nutrition related diseases in life.

  14. Shift work and sleep disorder among textile mill workers in Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Y; Fantahun, M

    1999-07-01

    To assess the length and quality of sleep among shift workers at Bahir Dar textile mill. A cross sectional study using structured questionnaire that contained sociodemographic variables, duration of work, work schedule, number of sleeping hours, sleep disorders, and associated reasons for such disorders. A textile mill in Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia. Three-hundred ninety four random sample of production workers of the mill. Sleep disorders, and the impact of external and home environment on sleep. The mean duration of work in the factory was 25.4 +/- 7.1 years. Ninety-seven per cent of the study population work in a rotating eight hourly shift system. The mean number of hours a worker sleeps after a worked shift was 5.1 +/- 2.3. Two hundred thirty (58.4%) claimed to experience a sleep disorder. Sleep disturbance was significantly associated with rotating shift work, external environmental noise, and working in the spinning department. The majority of the workers in Bahir Dar textile mill experienced sleep disturbances as detailed in the study methodology.

  15. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison of BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur University Students in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Jingya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To fully analyze and compare BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, to discuss the differences in their physical properties and physical health, and thus to provide some theoretical suggestions for the improvement of students’ physical health. Methods. The cross-sectional random cluster sampling was used to investigate 10103 Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, aged 20–24 in Northwest China, and their height and weight were measured to calculate BMI. The BMI classification criteria for Chinese established by Work Group on Obesity in China (WGOC were used for screening. Results. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students show low obesity rates but high overweight rates. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students present a high rate of underweight, normal weight, and overweight, respectively. Female Han students show higher underweight and normal weight rates, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Han students. Female Tibetan students show higher normal weight rate, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Tibetan students. BMI increases with age for male students but decreases with age for female students. Male Uygur students show higher obesity rate than female Uygur students. Tibetan and Uygur university students have higher BMI than other minorities in South China.

  16. [Nutritional status and food intake of populations from high altitude regions of the Northwest of Argentia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Maria Natalia; Gimenez, Maria Alejandra; Romaguera, Dora; Sammán, Norma

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the nutritional status and food intake of Andean populations of Northwest ofArgentine. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in representative samples of populations of highland from Argentine. Also anthropometric measurements, a food intake, a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire were performed and recorded. Stunting (height-for-age Z-score 85th and 95th percentile respectively, were the main nutritional problems among adolescents in the Valleys. Adult populations showed higher prevalence of overweight and obesity according to BMI determined. These are important risk factors for cardiovascular and chronic diseases.Usually the typical composition of the main food dish of regions has a base of rice, pasta, flour or corn, accompanied by tubers or eggs, or a few vegetables and beef. This dish varies little from one day to another, constituting a monotonous diet with a high intake of sugar (sugary drinks and sweets) and refined grains. Results suggest that these populations would be in early stages of nutritional transition and could be the starting point to promote them healthier food consumption and a diet less monotonous. It would be recommendable reincorporate native products of the region.

  17. The transfer of reprocessing wastes from north-west Europe to the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Peter; Baxter, Amanda

    The discharge of radioactive waste, from nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, into the coastal waters of north-west Europe has resulted in a significant increase in the inventories of a number of artificial radionuclides in the North Atlantic. Radiocaesium, 90Sr and 99Tc, which behave conservatively in seawater, have been used widely as tracers of water movement through the North Sea, Norwegian Coastal Current, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, Fram Strait, Eurasian Basin, East Greenland Current and Denmark Strait overflow. These studies are summarised in the present paper. It has been estimated that 22% of the 137Cs Sellafield discharge has passed into the Barents Sea, en route to the Nansen Basin, via the Bjomoya-Fugloya Section, with another 13% passing through the Fram Strait. This amounts to 14 PBq 137Cs. Quantifying the influx of other radionuclides has been more problematic. The inflowing Atlantic water now appears to be diluting waters in the Arctic Basin, which were contaminated in the late 1970s and early 1980s as a result of the substantial decrease in the discharge of reprocessing wastes. Sellafield (U.K.) has dominated the supply of 134Cs, 137Cs, 90Sr, 99Tc and Pu, whereas La Hague (France) has contributed a larger proportion of 129I and 125Sb.

  18. Prevalence of cattle flukes infection at Andassa Livestock Research Center in north-west of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asressa Yeneneh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was carried out from October 2010 to March 2011 at Andassa Livestock Research Center, North-West Ethiopia. The objective was to determine the prevalence of cattle flukes infection. Faecal samples were collected from a total of 384 cattle, cross breed (n= 39 and Fogera breed (n=345 of all age groups and sex. Sedimentation technique was employed for the recovery of fluke eggs from freshly collected fecal sample. The results indicated that the overall prevalence of bovine flukes infection was 60.42%. In this study, the highest prevalence was recorded from Paramphistomosis (45.83% followed by Fasciolosis (23.96%, and Schistosomosis (9.89%. The prevalence of flukes infection was higher in age group 1- 2 years old. There was significant difference in case of Paramphistomosis among age groups. No significant association was found between crossed breeds and sex groups for fluke’s infection. The prevalence of Paramphistomosis was high in cross breed (58.97% than Fogera breed (44.35%. However, in both cases, there was no significant difference. The result of the present study revealed that the prevalence of major bovine fluke infection in the study area was relatively low and is the definite proof of active infection.

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. F.; Kreml, S. A.; Wildung, R. E.; Hefty, M. G.; Perez, D. A.; Chase, K. K.; Elderkin, C. E.; Owczarski, E. L.; Toburen, L. H.; Parnell, K. A.; Faust, L. G.; Moraski, R. V.; Selby, J. M.; Hilliard, D. K.; Tenforde, T. S.

    1991-02-01

    This report summarizes progress in the environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Office of Health and Environment Research in FY 1990. Research is directed toward developing the knowledge needed to guide government policy and technology development for two important environmental problems: environmental restoration and global change. The report is organized by major research areas contributing to resolution of these problems. Additional sections summarize exploratory research, educational institutional interactions, technology transfer, and publications. The PNL research program continues make contributions toward defining and quantifying processes that effect the environment at the local, regional, and global levels. Each research project forms a component in an integrated laboratory, intermediate-scale, and field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. This approach is providing system-level insights into critical environmental processes. University liaisons continue to be expanded to strengthen the research and to use PNL resources to train the scientists needed to address long-term environmental problems.

  20. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison of BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur University Students in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingya, Bai; Ye, He; Jing, Wang; Xi, Huanjiu; Tao, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To fully analyze and compare BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, to discuss the differences in their physical properties and physical health, and thus to provide some theoretical suggestions for the improvement of students' physical health. Methods. The cross-sectional random cluster sampling was used to investigate 10103 Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, aged 20–24 in Northwest China, and their height and weight were measured to calculate BMI. The BMI classification criteria for Chinese established by Work Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) were used for screening. Results. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students show low obesity rates but high overweight rates. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students present a high rate of underweight, normal weight, and overweight, respectively. Female Han students show higher underweight and normal weight rates, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Han students. Female Tibetan students show higher normal weight rate, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Tibetan students. BMI increases with age for male students but decreases with age for female students. Male Uygur students show higher obesity rate than female Uygur students. Tibetan and Uygur university students have higher BMI than other minorities in South China. PMID:24453807

  1. The 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey: Phase 1 : Book 1 : Getting Started.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Applied Management & Planning Group (firm); United States. Bonneville Power Administration. End-Use Research Section.

    1993-08-01

    This Executive Summary outlines the general processes employed in and the major findings from the conduct of Phase I of the Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey (PNWRES92-I) during the last quarter of 1992. This study was Bonneville`s third comprehensive residential survey of the region, conducted to provide data on energy usage, conservation awareness and behaviors, and associated consumer characteristics for use in forecasting and planning. The summary is divided into four sections: Background sets the stage with respect to the need for the survey, relates it to previous work, outlines the implementation processes, and summarizes the data products. Profiling the respondents summarizes the survey results under these six categories: Demographics; Housing Units; Room Inventory; Appliance Inventory; Air-Conditioning/Heating; Water-Heating; and Opinion. Reports and cross-tabulations describes the various individual documents. Bonneville Power Plus provides a short description of an Excel-spreadsheet-based software program that contains all of the tabulated material in a format that encourages browsing among the tables and charts, with special feature that they can be copied directly into other Windows-based documents.

  2. INSAR AND FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF GROUND DEFORMATION AT LAKE URMIA CAUSEWAY (LUC, NORTHWEST IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Shamshiri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Precise long-term deformation monitoring of causeways and bridges is of vital task for maintenance and management work related to transportation safety. In this study, we analyse the settlement of Lake Urmia Causeway (LUC, northwest Iran, using observations from InSAR and Finite Element Model (FEM simulation. For InSAR processing, we analyse 58 SAR images of ENVISAT, ALOS and TerraSAR-X (TSX using the SBAS technique to assess the settlement of embankments in the years 2003–2013. The InSAR results show deflation on both embankments with a peak velocity of > 5 cm/year in the satellite Line Of Sight (LOS direction. The InSAR observations are then used to construct a settlement compaction model for the cross section at the distance of 4 km from the most western edge of the causeway, using a 2D Finite Element Model. Our FEM results suggest that settlement of the embankments will continue in the future due to consolidation phenomenon.

  3. The Frequency of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Endocervix of Infertile Women in Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhi Mohammad Taghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Infertility is one of the major social issues. Due to the asymptomatic cervical infection associated with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, the majority of patients remain undiagnosed. The present study intended to assess the frequency of S. aureus isolated from infertile women’s endocervix in northwest Iran. Materials and Methods In a descriptive cross sectional study, specimens were randomly collected during vagina examination using a sterile speculum and swabbing. After performance of antibiotic susceptibility testing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to identify methicillin-resistance S. aureus (MRSA and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1. Results About 26 (26% and 9 (9% women’s urogenital tracts were colonized by S. aureus and Candida spp., respectively, of which three (11.5% patients were infected with fungi and S. aureus, simultaneously. Antibiotic susceptibility results showed high activity of vancomycin and co-trimoxazole on isolates. Regarding PCR results, mecA sequences were detected in 7 (26.9% strains, whilst the tst gene encoding TSST-1 was not detected in any of clinical strains. Conclusion The prevalence of S. aureus was very high in infertile women. Therefore, it demands all patients undergoing infertility treatment to be investigated thoroughly for this type of infection.

  4. 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    This publication provides detailed documentation of the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used in preparing BPA's 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (the Study). This is one of two technical appendices to the Study; the other appendix details the utility-specific loads and resources used in the Study. The load forecasts and assumption were developed jointly by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) staff. This forecast is also used in the Council's 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan (1991 Plan).

  5. Motivation of health workers and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weldegebriel Z

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Zemichael Weldegebriel,1 Yohannes Ejigu,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal,3 Mirkuzie Woldie2 1Public Planning Department, Debark Hospital, Debark, North Gondar, Amhara Region, 2Department of Health Services Management, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Science, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Health professionals’ motivation reflects the interaction between health professionals and their work environment. It can potentially affect the provision of health services; however, this important attribute of the workplace climate in public hospitals is not usually given serious attention to the desired level. For this reason, the authors of this study have assessed the level of motivation of health professionals and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia.  Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight public hospitals of West Amhara from June 1 to July 30, 2013. A total of 304 health professionals were included in this study. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. The reliability of the instrument was assessed through Cronbach’s α. Factor scores were generated for the items found to represent the scales (eigenvalue greater than one in varimax rotation used in the measurement of the variables. The scores were further analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, t-tests, Pearson’s correlation, and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. The cut-off point for the regression analysis to determine significance was set at β (95% confidence interval, P<0.05.  Results: Mean motivation scores (as the percentage of maximum scale scores were 58.6% for the overall motivation score, 71.0% for the conscientiousness scale, 52.8% for the organizational commitment scale, 58.3% for the intrinsic motivation scale, and 64.0% for organizational

  6. Science To Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredt, Paul R; Brockman, Fred J; Grate, Jay W; Hess, Nancy J; Meyer, Philip D; Murray, Christopher J; Pfund, David M; Su, Yali; Thornton, Edward C; Weber, William J; Zachara, John M

    2001-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, nine in fiscal year 1998, seven in fiscal year 1999, and five in fiscal year 2000. All of the fiscal year 1996 award projects have published final reports. The 1997 and 1998 award projects have been completed or are nearing completion. Final reports for these awards will be published, so their annual updates will not be included in this document. This section summarizes how each of the 1999 and 2000 grants address significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. The 1999 and 2000 EMSP awards at PNNL are focused primarily in two areas: Tank Waste Remediation, and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup

  7. Diarrhoea-associated parasites in HIV-1 seropositive and sero-negative patients in a teaching hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andualem, Berhanu; Kassu, Afework; Moges, Feleke; Gedefaw, Molla; Diro, Ermias; Mengistu, Getahun; Andargie, Gashaw

    2007-04-01

    to determine the prevalence and type of intestinal parasites in HIV infected and uninfected patients with diarrhea. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Gondar University hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, between March 2003 and October 2004. A total 312 consecutive diarrheic patients were included in the study. Stool specimens were collected and examined for intestinal parasites following direct, formol-ether concentration and modified acid fast staining methods. Among the patients, 63.8% were found to be HIV seropositive. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV seropositive and seronegative diarrheic patients was 30.6% and 33.6%, respectively. The most prevalent parasites were Strongyoides stercoralis (9.0%) and Entamoeba histolytica (8.3%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (5.4%) and Cryptosporidium species (5. 1%). The prevalence of intestinal parasites in diarrheic patients was very high. Institution of appropriate intervention measures are needed to reduce morbidity in such patients.

  8. Evaluation of the tourism climate in the Hexi Corridor of northwest China's Gansu Province during 1980-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuxian; Zhang, Mingjun; Wang, Shengjie; Qiang, Fang; Che, Yanjun; Wang, Jie

    2017-08-01

    As a pivotal section of the Silk Road in northwest China, the Hexi Corridor is a popular tourist destination. In this study, the tourism climate conditions in this region were discussed using the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Climate-Tourism/Transfer-information-Scheme (CTIS) from 1980 to 2012. Overall, cold or cool stress was prevalent in the area, and the optimal travel period was from May to September. With global warming, the annual numbers of cumulative days with relatively cold conditions decreased, and the annual numbers of cumulative days with comfortable and relatively hot conditions increased. Two typical stations, Wushaoling and Dunhuang, were compared and analysed for their tourism climate information according to the frequency of PET and CTIS conditions, respectively. In addition, regional variations in the tourism climate conditions based on geographic information systems (GIS) were investigated during the optimal travel period.

  9. Relations between red beds times and uranic mineralization at the area of north-west China, Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qiaosheng; Quan Zhigao

    1989-04-01

    Rad beds played an important role in the uranic mineralization. After analyzing the geological evolution in North-West China, Saanxi and Inner Mongolia the red beds is divided into six periods. The evolution rules at each period are studied. The authors found that the time of uranic mineralication and formation of red beds (basin) is simultaneously, the uranic deposits and red beds are accompanying minerals in all places existing deposits. Uranic mineralization is bound up with the continental red beds which was formed under dry and hot climate, but has no relations with the marine red beds. The place where the deposits exist, the red beds must exist, conversely it is not true. In the section, a big uranic deposit is generated only under or above the red beds. The relations between red beds and rich deposit are also explored. The mineralization theory and the model of uranic mineralization in red beds times are presented

  10. Electrical structures in the northwest margin of the Junggar basin: Implications for its late Paleozoic geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Xu, Yixian; Jiang, Li; Yang, Bo; Liu, Ying; Griffin, W. L.; Luo, Yong; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Liangliang

    2017-10-01

    Recent geological, geochemical and geophysical data have inclined to support the presence of a remnant Paleozoic oceanic lithosphere beneath the Western Junggar, southwestern Chinese Altaids. However, regional high-resolution geophysical data have been rarely deployed to image its geometry, making it difficult to trace its evolution and final geodynamic setting. Presently, two magnetotelluric (MT) profiles are deployed across the northwest margin of the Junggar basin and the southern Darbut belt to image the electrical structure of the crust and lithospheric mantle. High-quality data at 102 sites and the quasi-2D indications of phase tensor skew angles and impedance phase ellipses for relatively short periods (up to 500 s) allow us to invert the two profile data by a 2-D scheme. The resistivity cross-section of a NW-SE striking LINE2 sheds light on a fossil intraoceanic subduction system, and reveals the Miaoergou intrusions as a bowl-like pluton, indicating that the multi-phase intrusions primarily formed in a post-collisional setting. The resistivity cross-section of striking NE-SW LINE1 reveals a possible oceanic slab with relatively lower resistivity underlying the low-resistivity sedimentary strata and high-resistivity mélange. Given that the profile of LINE1 cuts the out-rise zone of a subducted slab developed during the late Paleozoic, the 2-D resistivity model may thus represent the zone that have experienced heterogeneous deformation, reflecting subduction with barrier variation parallel to the ancient trench. Moreover, as shown in previous results, the new MT data also illustrate that the Darbut Fault is a thin-skinned structure, which has been erased at depths during the subsequent magmatism.

  11. Perceived Obstacles Faced by Diabetes Patients Attending University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDiabetes mellitus (DM is a non-communicable, chronic, and progressive disease that can lead to serious complications and even to premature death. A closer understanding of the DM patients’ specific obstacles will provide a greater clarity of the factors influencing their disease-related quality of life and coping with daily life. The study aimed to evaluate the obstacles of DM patients attending ambulatory clinic of the University of Gondar Hospital (UOGH, Northwest Ethiopia.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2017 at ambulatory clinic of the UOGH. A validated short version of the diabetic obstacle questionnaire was used. The internal reliability of the questionnaire was checked using Cronbach’s alpha and was found to be 92.5%. To determine any association between each of the nine sections of the questionnaire and age, sex, residence, educational status, and DM type, a binary logistic regression was performed.ResultsThe mean age of respondents was 38.69 ± 15.39 years. Compared with patients with type 1 DM, patients with type 2 DM reported poorer relationships with medical professionals (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 2.191, p-value = 0.027 and less support from families and friends (AOR: 1.913, p-value = 0.049. Patients coming from rural areas (AOR: 2.947, p = 0.002 and having no formal education (AOR: 2.078, p = 0.029 also received less support from families and friends.ConclusionDM patients in UOGH reported several obstacles related to patients’ relationship with health professionals, lack of support from their friends, lack of knowledge about DM, and lack of motivation to exercise. Effective efforts should be initiated to improve healthier environment to educate, care and preventive services for people with DM.

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grove, L.K.; Wildung, R.E.

    1993-03-01

    The 1992 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year 1992. This report consists of four volumes oriented to particular segments of the PNL program, describing research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. The parts of the 1992 Annual Report are: Biomedical Sciences; Environmental Sciences; Atmospheric Sciences; and Physical Sciences. This Report is Part 2: Environmental Sciences. Included in this report are developments in Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development, Interactions with Educational Institutions, Technology Transfer, Publications, and Presentations. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. The Technology Transfer section of this report describes a number of examples in which fundamental research is laying the groundwork for the technology needed to resolve important environmental problems. The Interactions with Educational Institutions section of the report illustrates the results of a long-term, proactive program to make PNL facilities available for university and preuniversity education and to involve educational institutions in research programs. The areas under investigation include the effect of geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in deep subsurface environments, ways to address subsurface heterogeneity, and ways to determine the key biochemical and physiological pathways (and DNA markers) that control nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and the response of these systems to disturbance and climatic change

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grove, L.K. (ed.)

    1993-03-01

    The 1992 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year 1992. This report consists of four volumes oriented to particular segments of the PNL program, describing research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. The parts of the 1992 Annual Report are: Biomedical Sciences; Environmental Sciences; Atmospheric Sciences; and Physical Sciences. This Report is Part II: Environmental Sciences. Included in this report are developments in Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development, Interactions with Educational Institutions, Technology Transfer, Publications, and Presentations. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. The Technology Transfer section of this report describes a number of examples in which fundamental research is laying the groundwork for the technology needed to resolve important environmental problems. The Interactions with Educational Institutions section of the report illustrates the results of a long-term, proactive program to make PNL facilities available for university and preuniversity education and to involve educational institutions in research programs. The areas under investigation include the effect of geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in deep subsurface environments, ways to address subsurface heterogeneity, and ways to determine the key biochemical and physiological pathways (and DNA markers) that control nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and the response of these systems to disturbance and climatic change.

  14. Review of fire behavior during passage of Sandy Lake Fire 13 (NWT) across a Northwest Territories Power Corporation transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, D.; Thomasson, J.

    2009-03-15

    The Sandy Lake Fire 13 of July 2008 was an intense forest fire that burned up to and across a power line right-of-way in the Northwest Territories, approximately 160 km northwest of Fort Smith. The terrain in the area is flat and vegetation is characterized by boreal pine and black spruce uplands with black spruce and tamarack in lower areas and adjacent to wetlands. This report documented post fire conditions at locations where the fire crossed the power line. The towers on this line were made from an aluminum alloy and may not have had the same resistance to heat damage as steel towers, more commonly used on major transmission lines. The transmission line was de-energized during the fire. Therefore, the effects of fire on power transmission were not documented. Although the intense wildfire crossed sections of the power line, it did not result in observable damage to the towers or lines. Fire intensity was likely greater than 40,000 kw/m along some sections of the right-of-way. Although the management of the right-of-way may have reduced heat exposure to the transmission towers, it did not stop the fire. Pine mixed with an aspen component greater than 50 per cent had a mitigating effect on fire behaviour. The fire did not result in any immediate damage to the power line infrastructure. It was concluded that the use of power lines for fire operations should consider right-of-way width in order to assess equipment maneuverability, especially around tower guy wires. 5 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  15. Evaluation of mulched drip irrigation for cotton in arid Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.; Jin, M.; Simunek, J.; van Genuchten, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in arid Southern Xinjiang, Northwest China, for 3 years to evaluate sustainable irrigation regimes for cotton. The experiments involved mulched drip irrigation during the growing season and flood irrigation afterward. The drip irrigation experiments included control

  16. 2008 Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD) Lidar: Eglin Air Force Base, Walton County, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the summer of 2008, the Northwest Florida Water Management District collected lidar data over a portion of Walton County, FL (Eglin Air force Base) to support...

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, freshwater, and anadromous fish species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons...

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, and gulls/terns in Northwest...

  19. The ecological system and the regionalization of landscape reconstruction in northwest of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peicheng LI,Guoyuan DU,Qilei LI,Jinfeng WANG,Feimin ZHENG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The northwest of China is a vast area with abundant resources and significant potential for development. However, the ecological system is extremely vulnerable to damage and must be managed carefully. Thus, the Chinese government is strengthening research on improvement and reconstruction of the ecological system and landscape in northwest of China while moving forward with large-scale development in west China. The disadvantages and vulnerabilities in the northwest area in China are presented. It is suggested that the reconstruction of landscape should be conducted by step by step regionalization across the various ecological systems in the 3.04 million km2 northwest area of China. The first level regionalization results of reconstruction of landscape are discussed.

  20. Climate Change Impact Assessment for Surface Transportation in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The states in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska region share interconnected transportation networks for people, goods, and services that support the : regional economy, mobility, and human safety. Regional weather has and will continue to affect the p...

  1. 2007 Northwest Florida Water Manangement District (NWFWMD) Lidar: Jackson County ("Jackson Blue")

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing points classified as bare-earth and canopy (first return) were produced for the 2007 Northwest Florida Water Management...

  2. 2007 Northwest Florida Water Manangement District(NWFWMD) Lidar: Gadsden County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing points classified as bare-earth and canopy (first return) were produced for the 2007 Northwest Florida Water Management...

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  4. Development and validation of a MODIS colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) algorithm in northwest Florida estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellite remote sensing provides synoptic and frequent monitoring of water quality parameters that aids in determining the health of aquatic ecosystems and the development of effective management strategies. Northwest Florida estuaries are classified as optically-complex, or wat...

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting birds in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  6. GEOMORPHOLOGY AND ANTHROPOGENIC INFLUENCES ON FISH AND AMPHIBIANS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST COASTAL STREAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical habitat degradation has been implicated as a major contributor to the historic decline of salmonids in Pacific Northwest streams. Native aquatic vertebrate assemblages in the Oregon and Washington Coast Range consist primarily of coldwater salmonids, cottids, and amphib...

  7. 2007 Northwest Florida Water Manangement District (NWFWMD) Lidar: 5 Counties (Jackson, Calhoun, Washington, Liberty, Holmes)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing points classified as bare-earth and canopy (first return) were produced for the 2007/2008 Northwest Florida Water...

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector arcs in this data set represent species...

  9. Oceanographic and marine meteorological observations in the Northwest Pacific ocean during 1998 (NODC Accession 0000070)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, plankton, and nutrients data were collected using buoy and CTD casts in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 22 January 1998 to...

  10. Executive summary: Climate change in the northwest: Implications for our landscapes, waters, and communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Meghan M.; Bethel, Jeffrey; Capalbo, Susan M.; Cuhaciyan, J.E.; Eigenbrode, Sanford D.; Glick, Patty; Houston, Laurie L.; Littell, Jeremy S.; Lynn, Kathy; Mote, Philip W.; Raymondi, Rick R.; Reeder, W. Spencer; Shafer, Sarah L.; Snover, Amy K.

    2013-01-01

    Climate Change in the Northwest: Implications for Our Landscapes, Waters, and Communities is aimed at assessing the state of knowledge about key climate impacts and consequences to various sectors and communities in the northwest United States. It draws on a wealth of peer-reviewed literature, earlier state-level assessment reports conducted for Washington (2009) and Oregon (2010), as well as a risk-framing workshop. As an assessment, it aims to be representative (though not exhaustive) of the key climate change issues as reflected in the growing body of Northwest climate change science, impacts, and adaptation literature now available. This report will serve as an updated resource for scientists, stakeholders, decision makers, students, and community members interested in understanding and preparing for climate change impacts on Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. This more detailed, foundational report is intended to support the key findings presented in the Northwest chapter of the Third National Climate Assessment.

  11. THE NATURAL MOVEMENT OF POPULATION IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUELA-DORA ORBOI

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of human development indicators during the past 15 years, Region North-West has undergone a series of negative processes, which are the most significant demographic decline due to negative natural growth and increased migration of people, especially those assets. Region North-West faces a negative demographic trend, with life expectancy of 71.38 years, the national average (72.22 years with high external migration, especially of highly qualified workforce. Analysis of employment trends of population in Region North-West shows a downward trend and projections for the development for years emphasized the decrease in employment. Estimates on the evolution of the population in Region North-West during 2005-2013 reveals a total population decreased by 4.2%.

  12. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sackschewsky, Michael R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tilden, Harold T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barnett, J. Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Su-Coker, Jennifer [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ballinger, Marcel Y. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stoetzel, Gregory A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lowry, Kami L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moon, Thomas W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Becker, James M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendez, Keith M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Raney, Elizabeth A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chamness, Michele A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Larson, Kyle B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science’s 10 national laboratories, provides innovative science and technology development in the areas of energy and the environment, fundamental and computational science, and national security. DOE’s Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) is responsible for oversight of PNNL at its Campus in Richland, Washington, as well as its facilities in Sequim, Seattle, and North Bonneville, Washington, and Corvallis and Portland, Oregon.

  13. Science to support DOE site cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1998 mid-year progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten (10) Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996 and six (6) in Fiscal Year 1997. This section summarizes how each grant addresses significant US Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects

  14. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards-Fiscal Year 1999 Mid-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peurrung, L.M.

    1999-06-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, and eight in fiscal year 1998. This section summarizes how each grant addresses significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is focused primarily in five areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, Soil and Groundwater Clean Up, and Health Effects.

  15. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards-Fiscal Year 1999 Mid-Year Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peurrung, L.M.

    1999-05-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, and eight in fiscal year 1998. This section summarizes how each grant addresses significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is focused primarily in five areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, Soil and Groundwater Clean Up, and Health Effects

  16. Science to support DOE site cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1998 mid-year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten (10) Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996 and six (6) in Fiscal Year 1997. This section summarizes how each grant addresses significant US Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects.

  17. Seismotectonics and Crustal Thickness of Northwest Mindoro, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P. F.; Olavere, E. A.; Lee, K. M.; Bautista, B.; Solidum, R., Jr.; Huang, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    Mindoro Island locates where the Palawan Continental Block (PCB) indented into the Philippine Mobile Belt (PMB) during the Early Miocene and where the Manila Trench terminates, having ceased convergence due to collision. On the transition from subduction to collision, Northwest Mindoro exhibits vigorous seismic activity and has been debated about its affiliation being PCB or PMB. Here, we use data from both the EHB and Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalogues to study the regional seismotectonics. We also deployed five broadband stations to probe the crustal thickness beneath NW Mindoro using receiver function analysis. Results show that, following the southeasterly reduction of convergence rates at the southern termination of the Manila Trench, the slab dipping angles steepen, were initiated at depth (~200 km) and propagate upwards. The horizontal distances of the trench and slab, as measured from the Wadati-Benioff zone at 200 km depth, also reduce in a southeasterly direction. Observations of intermediate-depth earthquakes that exhibit predominantly down-dip extensional stress patterns attest that the steepening of slab dipping angles is due to the negative buoyancy of the slab. Preliminary results of receiver function analysis suggest that the crustal thickness beneath NW Mindoro is about 40 km and is probably PCB affiliated.

  18. Coastal dynamics off Northwest Iberia during a stormy winter period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Pablo; Ruiz-Villarreal, Manuel; García-García, Luz; González-Nuevo, Gonzalo; Cabanas, Jose Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of a stormy winter period (2009/2010) on the shelf and coastal dynamics off Northwest Iberia are analysed by using model results in combination with the set of available observations in the frame of the Iberian Margin Ocean Observatory (RAIA), a cross-border infrastructure among North Portugal and Galicia (Spain). During the study winter, the frequent arrival of weather fronts forced river plumes to flow along the inner shelf in a fast (>1 m s-1) jet-like structure. The buoyant current strongly influenced the outer rías, the name of the estuaries in the region, where a strong decay of surface salinity (15 °C) and salty (>35.9) waters into the rías associated with the Iberian Poleward Current. Finally, some Lagrangian modelling experiments were performed to analyse the transport ability of the plume and the effect that could have had in the biological material trapped on it. The experiments reveal that an overall northward displacement of surface particles will be expected after several alternate wind events.

  19. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, M.Y.

    1995-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting a program to monitor the waste water from PNL-operated research and development facilities on the Hanford Site. The purpose of the program is to collect data to assess administrative controls and to determine whether discharges to the process sewer meet sewer criteria. Samples have been collected on a regular basis from the major PNL facilities on the Hanford Site since March 1994. A broad range of analyses has been performed to determine the primary constituents in the liquid effluent. The sampling program is briefly summarized in the paper. Continuous monitoring of pH, conductivity, and flow also provides data on the liquid effluent streams. In addition to sampling and monitoring, the program is evaluating the dynamics of the waste stream with dye studies and is evaluating the use of newer technologies for potential deployment in future sampling/monitoring efforts. Information collected to date has been valuable in determining sources of constituents that may be higher than the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). This facility treats the waste streams before discharge to the Columbia River

  20. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius infestations in Northwest Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giorda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  1. The Local Residents’ Concerns about Environmental Issues in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanus A. Aregay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes public awareness and perception about current issues of environmental and water resources in China in comparison to the socio-economic issues. The ranking, Likert scale, and ordered logit analysis were applied to data from 1773 sample residents in northwest China. The results show that the residents rank the degradation of the ecological environment and water resources as the most important issue, and education, political involvement, gender, employment, and residential location play significant roles in explaining the observed differences in concern. Of the possible environmental and water resource restoration policies, residents ranked water quantity and quality, agricultural and industrial water use, erosion control, vegetation restoration, wildlife habitat, animal brooding and migration services, biodiversity landscape, and eco-tourism from one to nine in order of importance, respectively. The results are relevant for policymaking and imply that environmental restoration is a high public demand. Welfare gains from investments in it would be higher or equal to gains from other socio-economic and livelihood activities. Thus, public policies must emphasize restoring and maintaining a sustainable ecological environment.

  2. North-West Russia in the context of European integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochegarova Tamara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Integration is one of the main consequences of globalization. Elements of microsystems are growing closer, which brings to the foreground problems of interaction and — in a longer perspective — those of close cooperation between different social systems. The article considers the case of North-West Russia, the only territory having a common border with the EU, in order to examine the issue of Russia using the geographical factor, which Otto von Bismarck called the most powerful and intrinsic factor in history. The significance of this factor increased after the Cold War. It was then when the independent Baltic States became a platform for emergence and recognition of the Baltic Sea region. The author focuses on the social and cultural integrity of the region and considers the traditional Nordic countries and the Baltic Sea states as interrelated components of a single region, different from other European regions in terms of economic interests, as well as its natural and sociocultural landscape.

  3. New chromosome reports in Lamiaceae of Kashmir (Northwest Himalaya), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Reyaz Ahmad; Gupta, Raghbir Chand; Singh, Vijay; Bala, Santosh; Kumari, Santosh

    2017-03-01

    Meiotic studies and chromosome data are imperative in order to have an overall germplasm evaluation of a taxon. In the present effort, the meiotic study is carried out in 48 populations belonging to 26 species of Lamiaceae collected from their natural habitats in Kashmir Himalaya, which forms an important part of Northwest Himalaya. Chromosome counts in the five species viz. Dracocephalum nutans (2n = 10), Lycopus europaeus (2n = 22), Marrubium vulgare (2n = 54), Nepeta nervosa (2n = 18) and Salvia sclarea (2n = 22) are first time reported from India. Besides, 17 species are cytologically evaluated for the first time from the study area-Kashmir Himalaya. In Marrubium vulgare, hexaploid cytotype (2n = 6 × =54) is reported for the first time. Also, diploid and tetraploid cytomorphovariants are observed in Calamintha vulgaris (2n = 20, 40), Elsholtzia ciliata (2n = 16, 32) and Mentha longifolia (2n = 20, 40). Various meiotic abnormalities like chromatin stickiness, cytomixis, nonsynchronous disjunction, laggards, chromatin bridges, etc. leading to pollen abnormalities have been documented for the first time in some species. The worldwide status of chromosome number data in each genus is presented.

  4. The relict forests of Northwest Peru and Southwest Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Weigend

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The forest fragments or relict forests on the Western slopes of the Andes in northwest Peru and in south-west Ecuador are fragile ecosystems, which were largely continuous at some stage in the past. The importance and uniqueness of these forests as «refuges» and stable habitats roots partly in their complex diversity and their high levels of endemicity. These in turn are the outcome of a complex topography and ecology. In this introductory chapter 12 studies are analysed, which were presented at the Taller sobre Bosques Relictos de la Vertiente Occidental Andina del Norte del Perú y Sur del Ecuador in May 2004 at the X CONABOT, Trujillo-Perú. This helps to consolidate and update our knowledge on these over 20 forests fragments in northern Peru and two previously unknown fragments are presented for the first time: Bosque La Oscurana (Cajamarca and Kañaris (Lambayeque. Some ideas are exposed on the the relationships between the relict forests, how to analyse their dynamics, how to characterize their structure and how their conservation may be achieved. It is proposed that crucial elements in a conservation of these forests are a urgently inventorizing them to demonstrate their high diversity b emphasizing their economic potential with respect to the abundance of phytogenetic ressources c evaluating their role as catchment areas for the rivers which are the primary source of water for agriculture and urban life on the coast.

  5. Disposal of hazardous wastes in Canada's Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henney, P.L.; Heinke, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the past decade, many jurisdictions have attempted to estimate quantities and types of hazardous wastes generated within their boundaries. Similar studies done in the Northwest Territories (NWT) are out-of-date, incomplete or specific to only one type of waste or geographical location. In 1990, an industry, business and community survey was conducted to determine types and quantities of hazardous wastes generated in the NWT and currently used disposal methods for these wastes. The survey revealed that 2,500 tons of hazardous wastes were generated each year, including waste oil and petroleum products, fuel tank sludges, acid batteries, spent solvents, antifreeze an waste paint. In many regions, disposal of these wastes may be routine, but waste disposal in arctic and subarctic regions presents unique difficulties. Severe climate, transportation expense, isolation and small quantities of waste generated can make standard solutions expensive, difficult or impossible to apply. Unique solutions are needed for northern waste disposal. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of low-cost, on-site or local hazardous wastes disposal options which can be applied in Canada's NWT and also in other arctic, remote or less-developed regions

  6. Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L

    1992-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.

  7. Primary sinonasal tuberculosis in north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, G.; Khan, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To record the frequency of primary involvement of nose and paranasal sinuses with tuberculosis in today's situation in the north-west region of Pakistan. Patients and Methods: A total of ten cases of primary sinonasal tuberculosis were included. The inclusion criteria were biopsy and acid-fast bacilli (AFB) examination after Ziel Neelsen (ZN) staining. Patients were put on anti-tuberculous chemotherapy. Response to the therapy and compliance of the patients were studied through follow up. Patients were admitted and offered surgical treatment wherever needed. Results: The primary sinonasal tuberculosis affected mainly young adults (18-60 years), both genders almost equally. Majority (80%) of the patients belonged to far-flung rural areas and all (100%) were poor. More frequent presenting features were granular lesion and mass in the nose (40%), epistaxis (30%), septal perforation (30%), external deformity (30%), palpable cervical lymph nodes (30%) and others. All the cases were diagnosed microscopically. Compliance to treatment was not good. Conclusion: The incidence of primary tuberculosis of nose and paranasal sinuses has risen in the recent past. The patients manifested no evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis. (author)

  8. Dynamic Bubble Surface Tension Measurements in Northwest Atlantic Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieber, D. J.; Long, M. S.; Keene, W. C.; Kinsey, J. D.; Frossard, A. A.; Beaupre, S. R.; Duplessis, P.; Maben, J. R.; Lu, X.; Chang, R.; Zhu, Y.; Bisgrove, J.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous reports suggest that most organic matter (OM) associated with newly formed primary marine aerosol (PMA) originates from the sea-surface microlayer. However, surface-active OM rapidly adsorbs onto bubble surfaces in the water column and is ejected into the atmosphere when bubbles burst at the air-water interface. Here we present dynamic surface tension measurements of bubbles produced in near surface seawater from biologically productive and oligotrophic sites and in deep seawater collected from 2500 m in the northwest Atlantic. In all cases, the surface tension of bubble surfaces decreased within seconds after the bubbles were exposed to seawater. These observations demonstrate that bubble surfaces are rapidly saturated by surfactant material scavenged from seawater. Spatial and diel variability in bubble surface evolution indicate corresponding variability in surfactant concentrations and/or composition. Our results reveal that surface-active OM is found throughout the water column, and that at least some surfactants are not of recent biological origin. Our results also support the hypothesis that the surface microlayer is a minor to negligible source of OM associated with freshly produced PMA.

  9. Risk factors for neurocysticercosis: A study from Northwest India

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    Mohit Girotra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurocysticercosis (NCC is a common cause of epilepsy in the low- and middle-income countries. The risk factors for NCC vary from region to region. Aims: To study the risk factors NCC among patients with NCC and compare with age-and gender-matched controls without NCC. Setting and Design: Hospital-based case-control study. Materials and Methods: A total of 214 subjects were studied (109 NCC patients and 105 age- and gender-matched controls without NCC. The participants were selected from neurology and medical wards of a tertiary referral hospital in Northwest India. They were interviewed by trained medical interns using a questionnaire. Results: Patients with NCC were more likely to dispose garbage close to water source (P = 0.01, eat nonvegetarian food (P < 0.001, and often eat in restaurants (P < 0.001. Pigs were seen more in and around the NCC patient′s houses than the control subjects residential areas (P = 0.001. A total of 15% of the NCC subjects lived close to slaughter houses, while only 2.7% of the control group stayed near a slaughter house (P = 0.002. Conclusions: Unhygienic practices, nonvegetarian food, and eating in restaurants were the risk factors for NCC in this study. There is an opportunity for prevention of NCC using public education.

  10. Surface concrete decontamination equipment developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halter, J.M.; Sullivan, R.G.; Bevan, J.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report documents a project that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted to identify and develop techniques for removing contaminated concrete surfaces. A major problem associated with nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning is how to economically demolish and dispose of contaminated concrete. Removing only the contaminated portion of the concrete can substantially reduce costs. Evaluation of various methods for removing concrete surfaces shows that several techniques presently used require excessive manpower, time, and energy. Many times more material is removed than necessary, increasing the quantity of waste that must be handled under controlled conditions. These evaluations generated the basic criteria for developing a suitable concrete removal technique: provide a convenient method for cleaning surfaces (such as those contaminated by a small spill); reduce the contaminated waste volume that has to be placed into controlled storage; remove surfaces quickly; and minimize personal exposure to potentially harmful radiation or toxic materials. Removal to 1/4 to 1/2 in. of contaminated surface layer is sufficient for cleanup of most facilities. Two unique decontamination methods have been developed: the concrete spaller and the water cannon. The concrete spaller is the most efficient technique: it removes the concrete surface faster than the water cannons and at a lower cost (as little as $3.00/ft 2 of concrete surface). However, the .458 magnum water cannon may be well suited for small or hard-to-reach locations

  11. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 2, Book 1, Energy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific and Northwest generating utility, (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources, and (3) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads. This analysis updates the 1992 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1992. This technical appendix provides utility-specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility (1) Electrical demand firm loads; (2) Generating resources; and (3) Contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here.

  12. Characterising weak layers that accommodate submarine landslides on the Northwest African continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlaub, M.; Krastel, S.; Geersen, J.; Schwenk, T.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous studies invoke weak layers to explain the occurrence of large submarine landslides (>100 km³), in particular those on very gentle slopes (translational, such that failure takes place along bedding-parallel surfaces at different stratigraphic depths. This suggests that failure occurs along weak layers, which are deposited repeatedly over time. Using high resolution seismic reflection data we trace several failure surfaces of the Cap Blanc Slide complex offshore Northwest Africa to ODP-Site 658. Core-seismic integration shows that the failure surfaces coincide with diatom oozes that are topped by clay. Along Northwest Africa diatom-rich sediments are typically deposited at the end of glacial periods. In the seismic data these oozes show up as distinct high amplitude reflectors due to their characteristic low densities. Similar high-amplitude reflectors embedded into low-reflective seismic units are commonly observed in shallow sediments (<100 m below seafloor) along the entire Northwest African continental slope. The failure surfaces of at least three large landslides coincide with such reflectors. As the most recent Pleistocene glacial periods likely influenced sediment deposition along the entire Northwest African margin in a similar manner we hypothesize that diatom oozes play a critical role for the generation of submarine landslides off Northwest Africa as well as globally within subtropical regions. An initiative to drill the Northwest African continental slope with IODP is ongoing, within which this hypothesis shall be tested.

  13. Protocol for Monitoring Fish Assemblages in Pacific Northwest National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkman, Samuel J.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Rivers and streams that drain from Olympic, Mount Rainier, and North Cascades National Parks are among the most protected corridors in the lower 48 States, and represent some of the largest tracts of contiguous, undisturbed habitat throughout the range of several key fish species of the Pacific Northwest. These watersheds are of high regional importance as freshwater habitat sanctuaries for native fish, where habitat conditions are characterized as having little to no disturbance from development, channelization, impervious surfaces, roads, diversions, or hydroelectric projects. Fishery resources are of high ecological and cultural importance in Pacific Northwest National Parks, and significantly contribute to economically important recreational, commercial, and tribal fisheries. This protocol describes procedures to monitor trends in fish assemblages, fish abundance, and water temperature in eight rivers and five wadeable streams in Olympic National Park during summer months, and is based on 4 years of field testing. Fish assemblages link freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. They also serve as focal resources of national parks and are excellent indicators of ecological conditions of rivers and streams. Despite the vital importance of native anadromous and resident fish populations, there is no existing monitoring program for fish assemblages in the North Coast and Cascades Network. Specific monitoring objectives of this protocol are to determine seasonal and annual trends in: (1) fish species composition, (2) timing of migration of adult fish, (3) relative abundance, (4) age and size structure, (5) extent of non-native and hatchery fish, and (6) water temperature. To detect seasonal and annual trends in fish assemblages in reference sites, we rely on repeated and consistent annual sampling at each monitoring site. The general rationale for the repeated sampling of reference sites is to ensure that we account for the high interannual variability in fish

  14. Oral Hygiene Behaviors and Caries Experience in Northwest PRECEDENT Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothen, Marilynn; Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Zhou, Lingmei; Mancl, Lloyd; Jones, Jackie S.; Berg, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between oral hygiene behaviors (toothbrushing, water rinsing after brushing, interproximal cleaning, and adjunctive use of fluoride products) and recent caries (past 24 months) in a random sample of patients in Northwest PRECEDENT practices. Methods Practitioner-members of Northwest PRECEDENT dental Practice-based Research Network (PBRN) conducted a longitudinal study on caries risk assessment. At baseline patients completed a questionnaire on oral self-care, snacking, health, and socio-demographics. A dental exam recorded readily-visible heavy plaque and DMFT; chart review captured new caries and treatments in the previous 24 months. Bivariate and multiple GEE log-linear regression models stratified by age groups were used to relate oral hygiene behaviors to the primary outcome of mean dental caries in the past 24 months on data from 1400 patients in 63 practices. The primary exposure of interest was fluoride toothbrushing frequency. Results Fluoride toothbrushing once per day or more by patients 9-17 was significantly associated with a 50% lower mean caries rate compared to fluoride toothbrushing less than once per day, after adjustment for age, gender, race, education, income, between-meal carbohydrate snacks, sugar-added beverages, alcohol consumption, smoking, BMI, exercise, stimulated salivary pH, number of teeth, and all other oral hygiene behaviors captured [Rate Ratio (RR)=0.5; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.3-0.8]. After adjustment, for patients 18-64 fluoride toothbrushing two or more times per day was significantly associated with a 40% lower recent mean caries rate (RR=0.6; 95%CI=0.4-0.9); in patients 65+, twice a day or more fluoride toothbrushing was not associated with lower caries rates (RR=1.1; 95%CI=0.7-1.8). Of the other oral hygiene variables, after adjustment, patients 18-64 who rinsed with water after brushing had a 40% lower mean caries rate compared to no rinsing (RR=0.6; 95%CI=0.4-0.9) and the

  15. Australian Northwest Shelf: a Late Neogene Reversible Tectonic Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominz, M. A.; Gurnis, M.; Gallagher, S. J.; Expedition 356 Scientists, I.

    2017-12-01

    The Northwest Shelf (NWS) of Australia is characterized by several offshore basins with active rifting in Permian and Jurassic time. Thus, by the Late Neogene this continental margin should be a very slowly subsiding passive margin. However, thick, poorly dated sediments have been noted in this region leading to speculation that this part of Australia has undergone down-warping in this time period. The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 356 was designed, in part, to better constrain this even in both time and space. Post-cruise Airy-backstripping analyses of samples from four IODP 356 well sites, located as far south as the Perth Basin and as far North as the Carnarvon Basin, suggest that, in fact, this region has undergone a latest Miocene (≈ 8 to 6 Ma) subsidence event followed by a later (≈ 2 to 1 Ma) uplift event. Age constraints are from micropaleontology with some refinement using climate cycle-stratigraphy. Water depth constraints are from benthic foraminifera and from quantitative ratios of benthic foraminifera to planktonic foraminifera. These event cannot be explained as related to either the high-magnitude glacial eustatic changes nor can the uplift event be eliminated and ascribed to sediments filling the accommodation space generated in the earlier event. The magnitude and duration of the vertical movements are remarkably similar and suggests that the subsidence is reversible. Reversibility is a key aspect of a dynamic topography signal. However, it is difficult to produce a mantle anomaly that reproduces the subsidence and subsequent uplift with the requisite amplitude and rates as observed in the NWS of Australia. Additionally, the subduction of the Australian Plate into the Java Trench is too distant to affect this region of Australia. Modeling of a flexural warping due to in-plane stress related to collision of Timor with the Java trench is

  16. Biomass energy - large potential in North-West Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchsenius, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Changing from oil or coal to bio fuel is a high priority in all European countries. The potential for such a transition is largest in North-West Russia, where several factors point to biomass energy: large bio fuel resources, large need for heating because of the cold climate, and almost 100% coverage of district heating. Here, the largest continuous coniferous forest in Europe supplies the raw material for a considerable forest industry, including some of the biggest sawmills and paper- and cellulose factories in the world. The fraction of the timber that cannot go into this production is suitable as bio fuel. About 15% of the raw material in this industry is bark and sawdust which can be used for energy production. In addition, 10% of the biomass of the trees remains on the forest floor as twigs, treetops etc. If all this sawdust and felling waste was used to replace heating oil, the corresponding reduction of CO2 emission would amount to 25 mill m3 per year. The forest industry in Russia is currently in full production, and an increasing mass of sawdust and wood waste is accumulating in depositories that cover larger and larger areas. Depositories are often set on fire to keep down the masses; at the same time, the district heating plants are fired with expensive oil or coal. This paradoxical situation is due to the economical crises in the 1990s. Neither private companies nor the local governments could invest in bio fueled boilers. Bio fuel projects are cost-effective and easy to document and perfectly suitable for joint implementations under the Kyoto Protocol

  17. Dynamics of the Pacific Northwest Lithosphere and Asthenosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, E.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic imaging resolves a complex structure beneath the Pacific Northwest (PNW) that is interpreted as: an high-velocity piece of accreted (~50 Ma) Farallon lithosphere that deepens from being exposed (at coast, where it is called Siletzia) to lower crust in SE Washington and then descending vertically to ~600 km as a 'curtain' beneath central Idaho; a stubby Juan de Fuca slab (to directed tractions on the Cascadia mega-thrust average ~4 TN per meter of along-strike fault length, or probably a shear stress of ~40 MPa over much of the locked mega-thrust (i.e., much more shear stress than the typical earthquake stress drop of 1-10 MPa). Normal to the coast, southern Cascadia is relatively tensional (where margin-normal compression is less than typical ridge push by ~4 TN/m of along-strike fault length) whereas northern Cascadia is compressional. This indicates that the southern Cascadia mega-thrust is more weakly coupled than the northern mega-thrust. Southern Cascadia slab rollback and extension of the Cascade graben and Basin-and-Range are enabled by the weak coupling, in conjunction with high gravitational potential energy of the southern Oregon arc and back-arc. Juan de Fuca-Gorda lithosphere experiences the same stress on its eastern margin as North America does on the PNW Cascadia margin (by stress continuity), although current models of the individual plates do not show this continuity. Gorda plate is strongly compressed across the Mendocino transform by the north-moving Pacific Plate. Development of the NW-trending Blanco transform has created a fault that avoids this strong compression.

  18. Railway noise annoyance on the railway track in northwest slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pultznerova, Alzbeta; Eva, Panulinova; Kucharova, Daniela; Argalasova, Lubica

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of noise caused by railway traffic in a large high-loaded railway track in Northwest Slovakia. The measurements of noise levels generated by trains passing through residential neighborhoods were taken. Noise maps were also calculated showing noise pollution generated by the train traffic. In addition, the annoyance level and sleep disturbance of residents affected by railway noise were evaluated by a validated questionnaire on a pilot sample of 107 respondents living near the important railway track. The measurements indicated that the noise levels generated by the passage of the train were extremely high especially at night, clearly exceeding the nighttime limits of equivalent sound pressure level established by the Decree of the Slovak Ministry of Health (No.549/2007) (L Aeq  = 55 dB). Measurements at one point during the night exceeded the limit values of up to 17.4 dB. The residents reported feeling affected by the noise generated by passing trains, which caused irritability, headache, poor concentration, and insomnia. In addition, 19.64% of the residents claimed that nocturnal noise pollution was the most distressing. The results of bivariate analysis showed a higher risk of annoyance especially for railway noise [OR MH  = 7.80 (4.02-15.14)] and the noise from industry [OR MH  = 3.08 (1.72-5.50)] in the exposed location. The effects of railway traffic on annoyance/sleep and psychosocial well-being were evaluated in a few studies. In accordance with our results the railway noise mostly disturbs sleep and rest of the respondents. The pilot survey showed the importance of sleep and rest disturbance by railway noise and the possibilities of getting worse health condition in the future. Noise abatement measures and strategies should, therefore, be implemented in an effective and manageable way increasing the environmental advantages of rail transport.

  19. Noble Metal Arsenides and Gold Inclusions in Northwest Africa 8186

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P.; McCubbin, F. M.; Rahman, Z.; Keller, L. P.; Agee, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    CK carbonaceous chondrites are a highly thermally altered group of carbonaceous chondrites, experiencing temperatures ranging between approximately 576-867 degrees Centigrade. Additionally, the mineralogy of the CK chondrites record the highest overall oxygen fugacity of all chondrites, above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer. Me-tallic Fe-Ni is extremely rare in CK chondrites, but magnetite and Fe,Ni sulfides are commonly observed. Noble metal-rich inclusions have previously been found in some magnetite and sulfide grains. These arsenides, tellurides, and sulfides, which contain varying amounts of Pt, Ru, Os, Te, As, Ir, and S, are thought to form either by condensation from a solar gas, or by exsolution during metamorphism on the chondritic parent body. Northwest Africa (NWA) 8186 is a highly metamorphosed CK chondrite. This meteorite is predominately composed of NiO-rich forsteritic olivine (Fo65), with lesser amounts of plagioclase (An52), augite (Fs11Wo49), magnetite (with exsolved titanomagnetite, hercynite, and titanohematite), monosulfide solid solution (with exsolved pentlandite), and the phosphate minerals Cl-apatite and merrillite. This meteorite contains coarse-grained, homogeneous silicates, and has 120-degree triple junctions between mineral phases, which indicates a high degree of thermal metamorphism. The presence of NiO-rich olivine, oxides phases all bearing Fe3 plus, and the absence of metal, are consistent with an oxygen fugacity above the FMQ buffer. We also observed noble metal-rich phases within sulfide grains in NWA 8186, which are the primary focus of the present study.

  20. Extensive genetic divergence among Diptychus maculatus populations in northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Wei; Yang, Tianyan; Hai, Sa; Ma, Yanwu; Cai, Lingang; Ma, Xufa; Gao, Tianxiang; Guo, Yan

    2015-05-01

    D. maculates is a kind of specialized Schizothoracinae fish has been locally listed as a protected animal in Xinjiang Province, China. Ili River located in north of Tianshan Mountain and Tarim River located in north of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were two main distribution areas of this fish. To investigate the genetic diversity and genetic structure of D. maculates, four populations from Tarim River system and two populations from Ili River system were collected in this study. A 570-bp sequence of the control region was obtained for 105 specimens. Twenty-four haplotypes were detected from six populations, only Kunes River population and Kashi River population shared haplotypes with each other. For all the populations examined, the haplotype diversity ( h) was 0.904 8±0.012 6, nucleotide diversity (π) was 0.027 9±0.013 9, and the average number of pairwise nucleotide differences ( k) was 15.878 3±7.139 1. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 86.31% of the total genetic variation was apportioned among populations, and the variation within sampled populations was 13.69%. Genetic differences among sampled populations were highly significant. F st statistical test indicated that all populations were significantly divergent from each other ( P<0.01). The largest F st value was between Yurungkash River population and Muzat River population, while the smallest F st value was between Kunes River population and Kashi River population. NJ phylogenetic tree of D-loop haplotypes revealed two main clades. The neutrality test and mismatch distribution analysis suggested that the fish had went through a recent population expansion. The uplift of Tianshan Mountain and movement of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau might contribute to the wide genetic divergence of D. maculates in northwest China.

  1. Gundlachia dutrae: n. sp. from northwest Brazil (Mollusca: Basommatophora: Ancylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Barbosa dos Santos

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Gundlachia, Gundlachia dutrae is described from northwest Brazil. It is distinguishable from other congenerie species by characteristics of the shell, radula and internal organs. Shell relatively high. Aperture near-circular; periostracum dark brown without periostracal hairs. Apex slightly inclined to the right, projected but not hooked, with an apical depression surrounted by a sculpture of well-marked irregular punctations. Shell surface with prominent radial sculpture. No septate specimens were observed. Ratios (n= 59: shell width/shell lenght = 0,66- 0,79 (mean 0,73; shell height/shell length = 0,32- 0,45 ( mean 0,37; shell height/shell width = 0,43- 0,63 (mean 0,51. Body of normal ancylid type; mantle pigmentation dark brown or black, concentrated along the mantle collar. The dorsal surface of the right anterior muscle is elongated and medially constricted. The left anterior and the posterior muscles are almost elliptical. Adhesive area is V-shaped. Pseudobranch unpigmented bearing a very small and thin dorsal lobe. Ovotestis with more than 25 unbranched diverticula. Ovispermiduct with seminal vesicle rather developed. Elongated nidamental gland continous with the glandular wall of the uterus. Nidamental gland appendix ending into a bulbous swelling Spermathecal body almost rounded. Well-developed prostate with five long diverticula. Ejaculatory complex with long glandular flagellum, without a penis or true ultra-penis. "Penis sheath" developed. "Ultra-penis" projected as a tube inside the lumem of prepuce, with a slit between "ultra-penis" and "penis sheath". Rachidian tooth tetracuspid, with two median cusps assymmetrical and aculeated. Lateral teeth tricuspid, with a reduced endocon and a prominent mesocon. A well marked gap occurs between meso and ectocon. Marginal teeth similar to lateral ones. Jaw T-shaped, with about 28 dorsal plates.

  2. Social network and dominance hierarchy analyses at Chimpanzee Sanctuary Northwest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake A Funkhouser

    Full Text Available Different aspects of sociality bear considerable weight on the individual- and group-level welfare of captive nonhuman primates. Social Network Analysis (SNA is a useful tool for gaining a holistic understanding of the dynamic social relationships of captive primate groups. Gaining a greater understanding of captive chimpanzees through investigations of centrality, preferred and avoided relationships, dominance hierarchy, and social network diagrams can be useful in advising current management practices in sanctuaries and other captive settings. In this study, we investigated the dyadic social relationships, group-level social networks, and dominance hierarchy of seven chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes at Chimpanzee Sanctuary Northwest. We used focal-animal and instantaneous scan sampling to collect 106.75 total hours of associative, affiliative, and agonistic data from June to September 2016. We analyzed our data using SOCPROG to derive dominance hierarchies and network statistics, and we diagrammed the group's social networks in NetDraw. Three individuals were most central in the grooming network, while two others had little connection. Through agonistic networks, we found that group members reciprocally exhibited agonism, and the group's dominance hierarchy was statistically non-linear. One chimpanzee emerged as the most dominant through agonism but was least connected to other group members across affiliative networks. Our results indicate that the conventional methods used to calculate individuals' dominance rank may be inadequate to wholly depict a group's social relationships in captive sanctuary populations. Our results have an applied component that can aid sanctuary staff in a variety of ways to best ensure the improvement of group welfare.

  3. Maturation history modeling of Sufyan Depression, northwest Muglad Basin, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Luofu; An, Fuli; Wang, Hongmei; Pang, Xiongqi

    2016-08-01

    The Sufyan Depression is located in the northwest of Muglad Basin and is considered as a favorable exploration area by both previous studies and present oil shows. In this study, 16 wells are used or referred, the burial history model was built with new seismic, logging and well data, and the thermal maturity (Ro, %) of proved AG source rocks was predicted based on heat flow calculation and EASY %Ro modeling. The results show that the present heat flow range is 36 mW/m2∼50 mW/m2 (average 39 mW/m2) in 13 wells and 15 mW/m2∼55 mW/m2 in the whole depression. Accordingly, the geothermal gradient is 20 °C/km∼26 °C/km and 12 °C/km∼30 °C/km, respectively. The paleo-heat flow has three peaks, namely AG-3 period, lower Bentiu period and Early Paleogene, with the value decreases from the first to the last, which is corresponding to the tectonic evolution history. Corresponding to the heat flow distribution feature, the AG source rocks become mature earlier and have higher present marurity in the south area. For AG-2_down and AG-3_up source rocks that are proved to be good-excellent, most of them are mature with Ro as 0.5%-1.1%. But they can only generate plentiful oil and gas to charge reservoirs in the middle and south areas where their Ro is within 0.7%-1.1%, which is consistent with the present oil shows. Besides, the oil shows from AG-2_down reservoir in the middle area of the Sufyan Depression are believed to be contributed by the underlying AG-3_up source rock or the source rocks in the south area.

  4. Pyroxene microstructure in the Northwest Africa 856 martian meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Hugues; Devouard, Bertrand; Cordier, Patrick; Guyot, François

    2004-05-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine pyroxene microstructure in the Northwest Africa (NWA) 856 martian meteorite to construct its cooling and shock histories. All pyroxenes contain strained coherent pigeonite/augite exsolution lamellae on (001). The average width and periodicity of lamellae are 80 and 400 nm, respectively, indicating a cooling rate below 0.1 °C/hr for the parent rock. Pigeonite and augite are topotactic, with strained coherent interfaces parallel to (001). The closure temperature for Ca-Fe, Mg interdiffusion, estimated from the composition at the augite pigeonite interface, is about 700 °C. Tweed texture in augite reveals that a spinodal decomposition occurred. Locally, tweed evolved toward secondary pigeonite exsolutions on (001). Due to the decreasing diffusion rate with decreasing temperature, "M-shaped" concentration profiles developed in augite lamellae. Pigeonite contains antiphase boundaries resulting from the C2/c to P21/c space group transition that occurred during cooling. The reconstructive phase transition from P21/c clinopyroxene to orthopyroxene did not occur. The deformation (shock) history of the meteorites is revealed by the presence of dislocations and mechanical twins. Dislocations are found in glide configuration, with the [001](100) glide system preferentially activated. They exhibit strong interaction with the strained augite/pigeonite interfaces and did not propagate over large distances. Twins are found to be almost all parallel to (100) and show moderate interaction with the augite/pigeonite interfaces. These twins are responsible for the plastic deformation of the pyroxene grains. Comparison with microstructure of shocked clinopyroxene (experimentally or naturally shocked) suggests that NWA 856 pyroxenes are not strongly shocked.

  5. Assessing community child passenger safety efforts in three Northwest Tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M L; Berger, L R

    2002-12-01

    To identify strengths and weaknesses in community based child passenger safety programs by developing a scoring instrument and conducting observations of child restraint use in three Native American communities. The three communities are autonomous Tribal reservations in the Pacific Northwest. Their per capita incomes and rates of unemployment are comparable. In each community, 100 children under 5 years old were observed for car seat use. A six item community assessment tool (100 points maximum) awarded points for such items as the type (primary or secondary) and enforcement of child restraint laws; availability of car seats from distribution programs; extent of educational programs; and access to data on vehicle injuries. For children from birth to 4 years, the car seat use rate ranged from 12%-21%. Rates for infants (71%-80%) far exceeded rates for 1-4 year old children (5%-14%). Community scores ranged from 0 to 31.5 points. There was no correlation between scores and observed car seat use. One reason was the total lack of enforcement of restraint laws. A community assessment tool can highlight weaknesses in child passenger efforts. Linking such a tool with an objective measure of impact can be applied to other injury problems, such as fire safety or domestic violence. The very process of creating and implementing a community assessment can enhance agency collaboration and publicize evidence based "best practices" for injury prevention. Further study is needed to address methodologic issues and to examine crash and medical data in relation to community child passenger safety scores.

  6. Social network and dominance hierarchy analyses at Chimpanzee Sanctuary Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, Jake A; Mayhew, Jessica A; Mulcahy, John B

    2018-01-01

    Different aspects of sociality bear considerable weight on the individual- and group-level welfare of captive nonhuman primates. Social Network Analysis (SNA) is a useful tool for gaining a holistic understanding of the dynamic social relationships of captive primate groups. Gaining a greater understanding of captive chimpanzees through investigations of centrality, preferred and avoided relationships, dominance hierarchy, and social network diagrams can be useful in advising current management practices in sanctuaries and other captive settings. In this study, we investigated the dyadic social relationships, group-level social networks, and dominance hierarchy of seven chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Chimpanzee Sanctuary Northwest. We used focal-animal and instantaneous scan sampling to collect 106.75 total hours of associative, affiliative, and agonistic data from June to September 2016. We analyzed our data using SOCPROG to derive dominance hierarchies and network statistics, and we diagrammed the group's social networks in NetDraw. Three individuals were most central in the grooming network, while two others had little connection. Through agonistic networks, we found that group members reciprocally exhibited agonism, and the group's dominance hierarchy was statistically non-linear. One chimpanzee emerged as the most dominant through agonism but was least connected to other group members across affiliative networks. Our results indicate that the conventional methods used to calculate individuals' dominance rank may be inadequate to wholly depict a group's social relationships in captive sanctuary populations. Our results have an applied component that can aid sanctuary staff in a variety of ways to best ensure the improvement of group welfare.

  7. Decadal variability on the Northwest European continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sam; Cottier, Finlo; Inall, Mark; Griffiths, Colin

    2018-02-01

    Decadal scale time series of the shelf seas are important for understanding both climate and process studies. Despite numerous investigations of long-term temperature variability in the shelf seas, studies of salinity variability are few. Salt is a more conservative tracer than temperature in shallow seas, and it can reveal changes in local hydrographic conditions as well as transmitted basin-scale changes. Here, new inter-annual salinity time series on the northwest European shelf are developed and a 13 year high resolution salinity record from a coastal mooring in western Scotland is presented and analysed. We find strong temporal variability in coastal salinity on timescales ranging from tidal to inter-annual, with the magnitude of variability greatest during winter months. There is little seasonality and no significant decadal trend in the coastal time series of salinity. We propose 4 hydrographic states to explain salinity variance in the shelf area west of Scotland based on the interaction between a baroclinic coastal current and wind-forced barotropic flow: while wind forcing is important, we find that changes in the buoyancy-driven flow are more likely to influence long-term salinity observations. We calculate that during prevailing westerly wind conditions, surface waters in the Sea of the Hebrides receive a mix of 62% Atlantic origin water to 38% coastal sources. This contrasts with easterly wind conditions, during which the mix is 6% Atlantic to 94% coastal sources on average. This 'switching' between hydrographic states is expected to impact nutrient transport and therefore modify the level of primary productivity on the shelf. This strong local variability in salinity is roughly an order of magnitude greater than changes in the adjacent ocean basin, and we infer from this that Scottish coastal waters are likely to be resilient to decadal changes in ocean climate.

  8. Subduction, Extension, and a Mantle Plume in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, W. B.; Allen, R. M.; Richards, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Subduction zones are some of the most important systems that control the dynamics and evolution of the earth. The Cascadia Subduction Zone offers a unique natural laboratory for understanding the subduction process, and how subduction interacts with other large-scale geodynamical phenomena. The small size of the Juan de Fuca (JdF) plate and the proximity of the system to the Yellowstone Hotspot and the extensional Basin and Range province allow for detailed study of the effects these important systems have on each other. We present both a P-wave and an S-wave tomographic model of the Pacific Northwestern United States using regional seismic arrays, including the amphibious Cascadia Initiative. These models share important features, such as the Yellowstone plume, the subducting JdF slab, a gap in the subducting slab, and a low-velocity feature beneath the shallowest portions of the slab. But subtle differences in these features between the models—the size of the gap in the subducting JdF slab and the shape of the Yellowstone plume shaft above the transition zone, for example—provide physical insight into the interpretation of these models. The physics that we infer from our seismic tomography and other studies of the region will refine our understanding of subduction zones worldwide, and will help to identify targets for future amphibious seismic array studies. The discovery of a pronounced low-velocity feature beneath the JdF slab as it subducts beneath the coastal Pacific Northwest is, thus far, the most surprising result from our imaging work, and implies a heretofore unanticipated regime of dynamical interaction between the sublithospheric oceanic asthenosphere and the subduction process. Such discoveries are made possible, and rendered interpretable, by ever-increasing resolution that the Cascadia Initiative affords seismic tomography models.

  9. Microsatellite analyses of the trout of northwest Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J.L.; Sage, G.K.

    2001-01-01

    The trout of northwest Mexico represent an undescribed group of fish considered part of the Oncorhynchus mykiss (Pacific trout) complex of species and subspecies. Recent genetic studies have shown these fish to have important genetic diversity and a unique evolutionary history when compared to coastal rainbow trout. Increased levels of allelic diversity have been found in this species at the southern extent of its range. In this study we describe the trout in the Sierra Madre Occidental from the rios Yaqui, Mayo, Casas Grandes and de Bavispe, and their relationship to the more southern distribution of Mexican golden trout (O. chrysogaster) using 11 microsatellite loci. Microsatellite allelic diversity in Mexican trout was high with a mean of 6.6 alleles/locus, average heterozygosity = 0.35, and a mean Fst = 0.43 for all loci combined. Microsatellite data were congruent with previously published mtDNA results showing unique panmictic population structure in the Rio Yaqui trout that differs from Pacific coastal trout and Mexican golden trout. These data also add support for the theory of headwaters transfer of trout across the Continental Divide from tributaries of the Rio de Bavispe into the Rio Casas Grandes. Rio Mayo trout share a close genetic relationship to trout in Rio Yaqui, but sample sizes from the Rio Mayo prevent significant comparisons in this study. Microsatellite analyses show significant allelic frequency differences between Rio Yaqui trout and O. chrysogaster in Sinaloa and Durango Mexico, adding further support for a unique evolutionary status for this group of northwestern Mexican trout.

  10. Progress and prospects of climate change impacts on hydrology in the arid region of northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaning; Li, Zhi; Fan, Yuting; Wang, Huaijun; Deng, Haijun

    2015-05-01

    The arid region of Northwest China, located in the central Asia, responds sensitively to global climate change. Based on the newest research results, this paper analyzes the impacts of climate change on hydrology and the water cycle in the arid region of Northwest China. The analysis results show that: (1) In the northwest arid region, temperature and precipitation experienced "sharply" increasing in the past 50 years. The precipitation trend changed in 1987, and since then has been in a state of high volatility, during the 21st century, the increasing rate of precipitation was diminished. Temperature experienced a "sharply" increase in 1997; however, this sharp increasing trend has turned to an apparent hiatus since the 21st century. The dramatic rise in winter temperatures in the northwest arid region is an important reason for the rise in the average annual temperature, and substantial increases in extreme winter minimum temperature play an important role in the rising average winter temperature; (2) There was a significant turning point in the change of pan evaporation in the northwest arid area in 1993, i.e., in which a significant decline reversed to a significant upward trend. In the 21st century, the negative effects of global warming and increasing levels of evaporation on the ecology of the northwest arid region have been highlighted; (3) Glacier change has a significant impact on hydrology in the northwest arid area, and glacier inflection points have appeared in some rivers. The melting water supply of the Tarim River Basin possesses a large portion of water supplies (about 50%). In the future, the amount of surface water will probably remain at a high state of fluctuation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Operational Research in Northwest Europe, the Work of No. 2 Operational Research Section with 21 Army Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-07-01

    Uwtle badg with emeO t.. ThAanaaoseet TIMSVt tea o uwer1vauk 4san CtICK. 110Met hisat a di-Ifwmof 100 a. Atar ., se~d attapt with #. voite t1114 brA PlM... psychological sign ot breakdown. 21. DOM in trt received no greater w1tI of tire tixn several areCA n this attack. It did however receive wJr more 4p3L3

  12. Infection with HIV and intestinal parasites among street dwellers in Gondar city, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moges, Feleke; Kebede, Yenew; Kassu, Afework; Degu, Getu; Tiruneh, Moges; Gedefaw, Molla

    2006-12-01

    In Ethiopia human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major health and socioeconomic problem. Sex workers, youth, and mobile populations all show increasing prevalence of HIV. However, there is currently no information about the seroprevalence of HIV and the knowledge of HIV among street dwellers in the country. To fill this gap, 404 street dwellers residing in Gondar, northwest Ethiopia, were included in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic data, factors that prompted the subjects to become street dwellers, and their knowledge about HIV were all assessed using a structured questionnaire. Stool samples for diagnosis of intestinal parasites and venous blood for HIV antibody testing were collected and processed following standard procedures. Poverty-associated movement to urban areas in search of work was reported as a major factor that forced them to live in the streets, followed by divorce, family death, and addiction and peer pressure. One or more intestinal parasites were found in 67.6% of the street dwellers. Multiple parasitic infections were detected in 27.7%. The prevalence of HIV in the street dwellers was 6.9%. Fifty-nine (16.6%) participants responded that HIV can be transmitted by eating food together. Seventy-three (18%) believed an infected needle cannot transmit HIV, while 51 (12.6%) said HIV can be transmitted by hand shaking. One hundred ninety-two (47.5%) responded that antiretroviral therapy will not prolong the life of HIV-infected individuals. In summary, the prevalence of HIV and intestinal parasitic infection was quite high among street dwellers in Gondar. Therefore, strategies to control HIV and other infectious diseases should include this group, and regular mass deworming may help to reduce the burden of infection.

  13. The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity in general dental practices in the northwest United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Wataha, John C; Heaton, Lisa J; Rothen, Marilynn; Sobieraj, Martin; Scott, JoAnna; Berg, Joel

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity is uncertain, yet appropriate diagnosis and treatment of dentin hypersensitivity require accurate knowledge regarding its prevalence. The authors conducted a study to estimate the prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity in general dental practices and to investigate associated risk factors. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey of 787 adult patients from 37 general dental practices within Northwest Practice-based Research Collaborative in Evidence-based DENTistry (PRECEDENT). Dentin hypersensitivity was diagnosed by means of participants' responses to a question regarding pain in their teeth and gingivae, and practitioner-investigators conducted a clinical examination to rule out alternative causes of pain. Participants recorded their pain level on a visual analog scale and the Seattle Scales in response to a one-second air blast. The authors used generalized estimating equation log-linear models to estimate the prevalence and the prevalence ratios. The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity was 12.3 percent; patients with hypersensitivity had, on average, 3.5 hypersensitive teeth. The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity was higher among 18- to 44-year olds than among participants 65 years or older; it also was higher in women than in men, in participants with gingival recession than in those without gingival recession and in participants who underwent at-home tooth whitening than in those who did not. Hypersensitivity was not associated with obvious occlusal trauma, noncarious cervical lesions or aggressive toothbrushing habits. One in eight participants from general practices had dentin hypersensitivity, which was a chronic condition causing intermittent, low-level pain. Patients with hypersensitivity were more likely to be younger, to be female and to have a high prevalence of gingival recession and at-home tooth whitening. Given dentin hypersensitivity's prevalence, clinicians should diagnose it only after

  14. Positive acculturation conditions and well-being in a mine in the North-West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon T.B. Jackson

    2012-05-01

    Research purpose: The authors addressed the relationship between conditions that are considered to be conducive to multiculturalism and the practices perceived to accomplish this, vis-à-vis multiculturalism and well-being, as measured by ill-health and subjective work success. Motivation for the study: Although multiculturalism has been recommended as an effective way of dealing with diversity at societal and local levels, little is known about its effects in the workplace. Research design, approach and method: Following a quantitative approach, the authors utilised a cross-sectional design with a convenience sample of 241 Black employees and White employees from a mine in North-West Province for the research. Exploratory factor analyses and Cronbach alpha coefficients were used to test scale validity and reliability. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA and effect sizes were used to determine the effect of race on the experiences of miners, and multigroup path analysis (AMOS was used to investigate whether or not identical relations between multiculturalism, work success, and ill-health could be found for Black employees and White employees. Main findings: Multiculturalism and mainstream tolerance coupled with ethnic integration demands at home and at work were associated with success at work but not with ill-health. Black employees experienced the workplace slightly more positively. Practical/managerial implications: Multiculturalism and integration are related to subjective experiences of work success and, as such, should be supported in the workplace. Contribution/value-add: Our findings suggest that multiculturalism is relatively well supported by both groups in the workplace. This positive finding should not be regarded as obvious because empirical research has suggested that the majority of members of the host culture do not always favour multiculturalism.

  15. Smoking and dietary inadequacy among Inuvialuit women of child bearing age in the Northwest Territories, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolahdooz Fariba

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal Canadians is higher than non-Aboriginal Canadians, a behavior that also tends to alter dietary patterns. Compared with the general Canadian population, maternal smoking rates are almost twice as high. The aim of this study was to compare dietary adequacy of Inuvialuit women of childbearing age comparing smokers versus non-smokers. Research methods & procedures A cross-sectional study, where participants completed a culturally specific quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Non-parametric analysis was used to compare mean nutrient intake, dietary inadequacy and differences in nutrient density among smokers and non-smokers. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed for key nutrients inadequacy and smoking status. Data was collected from three communities in the Beaufort Delta region of the Northwest Territories, Canada from randomly selected Inuvialuit women of childbearing age (19-44 years. Results Of 92 participants, 75% reported being smokers. There were no significant differences in age, BMI, marital status, education, number of people in household working and/or number of self employed, and physical activity between smokers and non-smokers. Non-parametric analysis showed no differences in nutrient intake between smokers and non-smokers. Logistic regression however revealed there was a positive association between smoking and inadequacies of vitamin C (OR = 2.91, 95% CI, 1.17-5.25, iron (OR = 3.16, 95% CI, 1.27-5.90, and zinc (OR = 2.78, 95% CI, 1.12-4.94. A high percentage of women (>60%, regardless of smoking status, did not meet the dietary recommendations for fiber, vitamin D, E and potassium. Conclusions This study provides evidence of inadequate dietary intake among Inuvialuit of childbearing age regardless of smoking behavior.

  16. Positive acculturation conditions and well-being in a mine in the North-West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon T.B. Jackson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Multiculturalism seemed to have become the dominant strategy for dealing with pluralism in the South African public sphere.Research purpose: The authors addressed the relationship between conditions that are considered to be conducive to multiculturalism and the practices perceived to accomplish this, vis-à-vis multiculturalism and well-being, as measured by ill-health and subjective work success.Motivation for the study: Although multiculturalism has been recommended as an effective way of dealing with diversity at societal and local levels, little is known about its effects in the workplace.Research design, approach and method: Following a quantitative approach, the authors utilised a cross-sectional design with a convenience sample of 241 Black employees and White employees from a mine in North-West Province for the research. Exploratory factor analyses and Cronbach alpha coefficients were used to test scale validity and reliability. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA and effect sizes were used to determine the effect of race on the experiences of miners, and multigroup path analysis (AMOS was used to investigate whether or not identical relations between multiculturalism, work success, and ill-health could be found for Black employees and White employees.Main findings: Multiculturalism and mainstream tolerance coupled with ethnic integration demands at home and at work were associated with success at work but not with ill-health. Black employees experienced the workplace slightly more positively.Practical/managerial implications: Multiculturalism and integration are related to subjective experiences of work success and, as such, should be supported in the workplace.Contribution/value-add: Our findings suggest that multiculturalism is relatively well supported by both groups in the workplace. This positive finding should not be regarded as obvious because empirical research has suggested that the majority of members of

  17. Podoconiosis patients’ willingness to pay for treatment services in Northwest Ethiopia: potential for cost recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis is non-filarial elephantiasis of the lower legs. It is more commonly found in tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northwest India. In Ethiopia, a few non-governmental organizations provide free treatment to podoconiosis patients, but sustainability of free treatment and scale-up of services to reach the huge unmet need is challenged by resource limitations. We aimed to determine podoconiosis patient’s willingness to pay (WTP) for a treatment package (composed of deep cleaning of limbs with diluted antiseptic solution, soap, and water, bandaging, application of emollient on the skin, and provision of shoes), and factors associated with WTP in northwestern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected untreated podoconiosis patients (n = 393) in Baso Liben woreda, northwestern Ethiopia. The contingent valuation method was used with a pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results The majority of podoconiosis patients (72.8%) were willing to pay for treatment services. The median WTP amount was 64 Birr (US$ 3.28) per person per year. More than one-third of patients (36.7%) were willing to pay at least half of the full treatment cost and 76.2% were willing to pay at least half of the cost of shoes. A multivariate analysis showed that having a higher monthly income, being a woman, older age, being aware of the role of shoes to prevent podoconiosis, and possession of a functional radio were significantly associated with higher odds of WTP. Conclusions The considerable WTP estimates showed that podoconiosis treatment could improve sustainability and service utilization. A subsidized cost recovery scheme could reduce treatment costs and more feasibility integrate podoconiosis treatment service with other NTDs and the government’s primary health care system. PMID:24642085

  18. Epidemiology of human fascioliasis and intestinal parasitosis among schoolchildren in Lake Tana Basin, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentie, Tsegaw; Erqou, Sebhat; Gedefaw, Molla; Desta, Almaw

    2013-08-01

    Parasitic diseases are the second most frequent cause of outpatient morbidity in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lake Tana Basin, northwest Ethiopia, from November 2007 to February 2008, to assess the magnitude and associated risk factors for parasitic diseases, including human fascioliasis. We examined 520 stool samples from randomly selected schoolchildren in six schools by microscopy. Rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz techniques were used to detect and count Fasciola and Schistosoma eggs. The formol-ether concentration method was used for the identification of other helminth eggs, larvae and cysts of protozoan parasites. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 71.3% (95% CI 67.3-75.1%). Hookworm was the predominant intestinal parasite (23.5%, 95% CI 19.8-27.1%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (18.5%, 95% CI 15.2-21.9%) and Schistosoma mansoni (16.7%, 95% CI 13.5-19.9%). One hundred and sixty-three (31.4%) children had multiple parasitic infections. The most relevant finding was a prevalence of Fasciola spp. of 3.3% in an area where only sporadic cases have been reported previously. The risk of Fasciola spp. infection was significantly associated with raw vegetable consumption, use of unsafe drinking water sources, irrigation practices and sheep and/or cattle ownership. Irrigation practices, male gender, raw vegetable consumption and use of unsafe drinking water sources were risk factors for S. mansoni infection. A high prevalence of parasitic infections among children in the region was found, including a relatively high prevalence of Fasciola spp. infection. Epidemiological studies on the magnitude of parasitic infections in different regions will enable high-risk communities to be identified and allow for planning of appropriate interventions.

  19. Prevalence of cleft lip and palate among four provinces in the West and North-West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Jalilevand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common anomalies in newborn infants is cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P. In spite of several studies about the prevalence of this, no investigation evaluated this prevalence in the West and North-West of Iran. With due attention to different ethnic groups in this area, the aim of this study is to investigate whether the distribution of CL/P live births varies regionally in this area of Iran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using hospital registry records to identify all children born with CL/P. The hospitals with a maternity unit were selected in the capital cities of four provinces in the West and North-West of Iran, East Azarbaijan, Kurdestan, Gilan, and Markazi. The population under study included all infants born alive from 2008 to 2012. Results: During the study period, 107,317 live births were registered in the hospitals with a maternity unit of four cities, and 52 infants (0.485/1000 live births were born with CL/P. The prevalence in Rasht, Arak, Sanandaj, and Tabriz cities was 0.557, 0.352, 0.503, and 0.559/1000 live births, respectively (P 0.05, whereas the prevalence of CL/P based on sex was statistically different among the four provinces (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study shows regional variations in the birth prevalence of clefts and various cleft types. The different effects of gender on the birth prevalence of CL/P from city-to-city may be explained environmentally and/or by genetic factors affecting the development of oral clefts.

  20. Monsoon rainfall over India in June and link with northwest tropical pacific - June ISMR and link with northwest tropical pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Sajani; Gadgil, Sulochana; Rajendran, Kavirajan; Varghese, Stella Jes; Kitoh, Akio

    2018-03-01

    Recent years have witnessed large interannual variation of all-India rainfall (AIR) in June, with intermittent large deficits and excesses. Variability of June AIR is found to have the strongest link with variation of rainfall over northwest tropical Pacific (NWTP), with AIR deficit (excess) associated with enhancement (suppression) of NWTP rainfall. This association is investigated using high-resolution Meteorological Research Institute model which shows high skill in simulating important features of Asian summer monsoon, its variability and the inverse relationship between NWTP rainfall and AIR. Analysis of the variation of NWTP rainfall shows that it is associated with a change in the latitudinal position of subtropical westerly jet over the region stretching from West of Tibetan Plateau (WTP) to NWTP and the phase of Rossby wave steered in it with centres over NWTP and WTP. In years with large rainfall excess/deficit, the strong link between AIR and NWTP rainfall exists through differences in Rossby wave phase steered in the jet. The positive phase of the WTP-NWTP pattern, with troughs over WTP and west of NWTP, tends to be associated with increased rainfall over NWTP and decreased AIR. This scenario is reversed in the opposite phase. Thus, the teleconnection between NWTP rainfall and AIR is a manifestation of the difference in the phase of Rossby wave between excess and deficit years, with centres over WTP and NWTP. This brings out the importance of prediction of phase of Rossby waves over WTP and NWTP in advance, for prediction of June rainfall over India.

  1. Evaluation of Concurrent Thermal IR Atmospheric Propagation and Aerosol Particle Size Distribution Measurements at Gotland, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, R.; Tong, R.; Leeuw, G. de

    1998-01-01

    Paper presented at the RTO SET Symposium on E-O Propagation, Signature and System Performance Under Adverse Meteorological Conditions Considering Out-of-Area Operations, held at the Italian Air Force Academy, Naples, Italy, 16-19 March 1998.......Paper presented at the RTO SET Symposium on E-O Propagation, Signature and System Performance Under Adverse Meteorological Conditions Considering Out-of-Area Operations, held at the Italian Air Force Academy, Naples, Italy, 16-19 March 1998....

  2. Consumers’ Attitude towards Online Shopping : Factors influencing Gotland consumers to shop online

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan, Muhammad Umar; Uddin, Md. Nasir

    2011-01-01

    In the era of globalization electronic marketing is a great revolution.  Over the last decade maximum business organizations are running with technological change.  Online shopping or marketing is the use of technology (i.e., computer) for better marketing performance. And retailers are devising strategies to meet the demand of online shoppers; they are busy in studying consumer behavior in the field of online shopping, to see the consumer attitudes towards online shopping. Therefore we have ...

  3. Nutrient Impaired 303(d) Streams for the Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — “Under section 303(d) of the 1972 Clean Water Act, states, territories, and authorized tribes are required to develop lists of impaired waters. These impaired waters...

  4. Patterns of admixture and population structure in native populations of Northwest North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Verdu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The initial contact of European populations with indigenous populations of the Americas produced diverse admixture processes across North, Central, and South America. Recent studies have examined the genetic structure of indigenous populations of Latin America and the Caribbean and their admixed descendants, reporting on the genomic impact of the history of admixture with colonizing populations of European and African ancestry. However, relatively little genomic research has been conducted on admixture in indigenous North American populations. In this study, we analyze genomic data at 475,109 single-nucleotide polymorphisms sampled in indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest in British Columbia and Southeast Alaska, populations with a well-documented history of contact with European and Asian traders, fishermen, and contract laborers. We find that the indigenous populations of the Pacific Northwest have higher gene diversity than Latin American indigenous populations. Among the Pacific Northwest populations, interior groups provide more evidence for East Asian admixture, whereas coastal groups have higher levels of European admixture. In contrast with many Latin American indigenous populations, the variance of admixture is high in each of the Pacific Northwest indigenous populations, as expected for recent and ongoing admixture processes. The results reveal some similarities but notable differences between admixture patterns in the Pacific Northwest and those in Latin America, contributing to a more detailed understanding of the genomic consequences of European colonization events throughout the Americas.

  5. Geology, tectonism and composition of the northwest Imbrium region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunzhao; Li, Lin; Luo, Xiaoxing; Lu, Yu; Chen, Yuan; Pieters, Carle M.; Basilevsky, Alexander T.; Head, James W.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the regional geology of the northwest Imbrium region in which the Chang'E-3 (CE-3) landing site is located. CE-3 successfully landed on December 14, 2013 on the unsampled Eratosthenian basalts whose study is important for understanding the evolution of the Moon. New geologic and structural maps of the research area were produced through the integrated analysis of diverse datasets. The highlands surrounding Imbrium differ from typical Farside Highlands Terrain (FHT). The Iridum highland region (as well as the surrounding Imbrium region) exhibits elevated concentrations of Fe, and abundant local exposures of low-Ca pyroxene and olivine bearing lithologies. In this study these highlands are named as mafic highlands (MH). Our dating results using crater size-frequency distributions (CSFDs) show that the Iridum basin (hosting Sinus Iridum) was formed ∼3.8 Ga, shortly following the Imbrium basin formation and before the last large multiringed basin, Orientale. The Eratosthenian period of lunar basalt eruptions, which lasted longer than other stratigraphic units, is suggested to divide into the Lower Eratosthenian mare (LEm) and Upper Eratosthenian mare (UEm) units. This subdivision is based on whether lava fronts can be clearly seen or not and the age separating the units is 2.35 Ga. The mafic mineralogy of the mare basalts in Imbrium is characterized by abundant olivine in the Eratosthenian-aged basalts and average pyroxene compositions near pigeonite to sub-calcic augite in the Imbrian and Em1 units. The thickness of individual lava for UEm units is 8-11 m, indicative of high effusion rates. The thickness of the Em3 unit ranges from ∼17 m to ∼45 m with lesser thickness to the west and greater thickness in the interior and to the east. The estimated volume and average flux of the Eratosthenian-aged basalts are greater than previously thought. The presence of these youngest basalts in the Procellarum-KREEP terrain (PKT) is

  6. Frequency of Microplastics in Mesopelagic Fishes from the Northwest Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina M. Wieczorek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Microplastics are a ubiquitous pollutant in our seas today and are known to have detrimental effects on a variety of organisms. Over the past decade numerous studies have documented microplastic ingestion by marine species with more recent investigations focussing on the secondary impacts of microplastic ingestion on ecosystem processes. However, few studies so far have examined microplastic ingestion by mesopelagic fish which are one of the most abundant pelagic groups in our oceans and through their vertical migrations are known to contribute significantly to the rapid transport of carbon and nutrients to the deep sea. Therefore, any ingestion of microplastics by mesopelagic fish may adversely affect this cycling and may aid in transport of microplastics from surface waters to the deep-sea benthos. In this study microplastics were extracted from mesopelagic fish under forensic conditions and analysed for polymer type utilising micro-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (micro-FTIR analysis. Fish specimens were collected from depth (300–600 m in a warm-core eddy located in the Northwest Atlantic, 1,200 km due east of Newfoundland during April and May 2015. In total, 233 fish gut contents from seven different species of mesopelagic fish were examined. An alkaline dissolution of organic materials from extracted stomach contents was performed and the solution filtered over a 0.7 μm borosilicate filter. Filters were examined for microplastics and a subsample originating from 35 fish was further analysed for polymer type through micro-FTIR analysis. Seventy-three percent of all fish contained plastics in their gut contents with Gonostoma denudatum having the highest ingestion rate (100% followed by Serrivomer beanii (93% and Lampanyctus macdonaldi (75%. Overall, we found a much higher occurrence of microplastic fragments, mainly polyethylene fibres, in the gut contents of mesopelagic fish than previously reported. Stomach fullness, species and

  7. Assessing Dryland Ecosystem Services in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, T. F.; Brauman, K. A.; Zuo, L.; Doll, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dryland ecosystems, including grassland, forest, and irrigated cropland, cover about 41% of earth's land area and are inhabited by over two billion people. In drylands, particularly arid and semiarid areas, the production of ecosystem services is primarily constrained by freshwater availability. Often, water allocated to production by one ecosystem or of one ecosystem service negatively impacts other ecosystems or ecosystem services (ESS). The challenge is to determine how much water should be allocated to which ecosystems (natural and manmade) such that multiple ESS are maximized, thus improving overall well-being. This strategic management decision must be supported by knowledge about spatial and temporal availability of water and its relationship to production (location and scale) of ESS that people receive. We assess the spatial and temporal relationships between water availability and ESS production in Xinjiang, Northwest China. We address four questions: (1) What services are produced by which ecosystems with water available? (2) Where are these services produced? (3) Who uses the services produced? (4) How the production of services changes with variability of water available? Using existing global, national, and regional spatial and statistical data, we assess food, fiber, livestock, and wood production as well as unique forest landscapes (as a proxy for aesthetic appreciation and habitats for unique animals and plants) and protection from dust storms. Irrigation is necessary for crop production in Xinjiang. The production of about 4.2 million tons of wheat and 500,000 tons of cotton requires more than 2 km3 of water each year. This is an important source of food and income for local residents, but the diverted water has negative and potentially costly impacts on downstream forests that potentially provide aesthetic services and protection from dust. Our analyses also show that cropland had increased by about 1.6 million ha from 1987 to 2010, while

  8. Streamnet; Northwest Aquatic Information Network, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Bruce (Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, Gladstone, OR)

    2003-02-07

    A primary focus of the StreamNet project in FY-02 was maintenance and update of ongoing data types. Significant progress was made toward updating data for the primary data categories in the StreamNet regional database. Data updates had been slowed in previous years due to the time required for conversion of georeferencing for most data types from the 1:250,000 scale River Reach Number (RRN) system to the 1:100,000 Longitude-Latitude Identifier (LLID) system. In addition, data relating to Protected Areas and Smolt Density Model results, the last data sets in the StreamNet database still in the 1:250,000 RRN format, were converted this year to the LLID system, making them available through the on-line Web Query System. The Protected Areas data were also made available through an on-line interactive mapping application. All routine project activities continued, including project administration at the full project and cooperating project levels, project management through the StreamNet Steering Committee, maintenance of databases and Internet data delivery systems, and providing data related services to the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. As part of system management, a new web server was put in operation, significantly improving speed and reliability of Internet data delivery. The web based data query system was modified to utilize ColdFusion, in preparation for a full conversion to ColdFusion from the custom programming in Delphi. This greatly increased flexibility and the ability to modify query system function, correct errors, and develop new query capabilities. All project participants responded to numerous requests for information (data, maps, technical assistance, etc.) throughout the year. A significant accomplishment this year was resolution of long standing differences in how fish distribution is defined and presented. By focusing strictly on definitions related to current distribution (ignoring potential and

  9. Excess of {sup 236}U in the northwest Mediterranean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, E., E-mail: echamizo@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía, Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); López-Lora, M., E-mail: mlopezlora@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía, Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); Bressac, M., E-mail: matthieu.bressac@utas.edu.au [IAEA-Environment Laboratories, Monte Carlo 98000 (Monaco); Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Levy, I., E-mail: I.N.Levy@iaea.org [IAEA-Environment Laboratories, Monte Carlo 98000 (Monaco); Pham, M.K., E-mail: M.Pham@iaea.org [IAEA-Environment Laboratories, Monte Carlo 98000 (Monaco)

    2016-09-15

    In this work, we present first {sup 236}U results in the northwestern Mediterranean. {sup 236}U is studied in a seawater column sampled at DYFAMED (Dynamics of Atmospheric Fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea) station (Ligurian Sea, 43°25′N, 07°52′E). The obtained {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U atom ratios in the dissolved phase, ranging from about 2 × 10{sup −9} at 100 m depth to about 1.5 × 10{sup −9} at 2350 m depth, indicate that anthropogenic {sup 236}U dominates the whole seawater column. The corresponding deep-water column inventory (12.6 ng/m{sup 2} or 32.1 × 10{sup 12} atoms/m{sup 2}) exceeds by a factor of 2.5 the expected one for global fallout at similar latitudes (5 ng/m{sup 2} or 13 × 10{sup 12} atoms/m{sup 2}), evidencing the influence of local or regional {sup 236}U sources in the western Mediterranean basin. On the other hand, the input of {sup 236}U associated to Saharan dust outbreaks is evaluated. An additional {sup 236}U annual deposition of about 0.2 pg/m{sup 2} based on the study of atmospheric particles collected in Monaco during different Saharan dust intrusions is estimated. The obtained results in the corresponding suspended solids collected at DYFAMED station indicate that about 64% of that {sup 236}U stays in solution in seawater. Overall, this source accounts for about 0.1% of the {sup 236}U inventory excess observed at DYFAMED station. The influence of the so-called Chernobyl fallout and the radioactive effluents produced by the different nuclear installations allocated to the Mediterranean basin, might explain the inventory gap, however, further studies are necessary to come to a conclusion about its origin. - Highlights: • First {sup 236}U results in the northwest Mediterranean Sea are reported. • Anthropogenic {sup 236}U dominates the whole seawater column at DYFAMED station. • {sup 236}U deep-water column inventory exceeds by a factor of 2.5 the global fallout one. • Saharan dust intrusions are responsible for an annual

  10. FEMA DFIRM Cross Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  11. Study on site selection of cold chain logistics in northwest territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yubin; Ren, Zongwei

    2017-08-01

    In this research, we mainly studied the Site selection problem of cold chain logistics in northwest of China. In the first place, we counted the demands of cold chain products in northwest territories, and then classified it into the Site selection problem in five provinces in northwest territories(Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Shanxi); Next, we used the Center of gravity Method to select initial location; Finally, we established the location of distribution by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Comparing with the traditional method, this method not only considered the cost of transportation and distance, but also deliberated the physical condition, social environment and economics condition which associated with Site selection problem.

  12. Study on the Influence of Informal institution on Rural Legal Construction in Northwest Ethnic Minority Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junlin; DU

    2015-01-01

    The Informal institution in Northwest Ethnic Minority Region has dual effects on rural legal construction. In the process of rural legal construction,it can make up for the defects of formal institution to reduce the cost of legal construction,and increase benefit. It also has negative influence on social function,and can’t be conducive to the social stability,development and harmony. Civil law is to be more valued,thus avoiding and hampering the implementation of national laws and even covering the operation of national laws,so it is impossible to achieve rule of law. The coordinated development of Informal institution and socio-economic development in Northwest Ethnic Minority Region will contribute to stable and harmonious social development in Northwest Region.

  13. FY 1999 Annual Self-Evaluation Report of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy R. LaBarge

    1999-11-05

    This is a report of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (Pacific Northwest's) FY1999 Annual Self-Evaluation Report. This report summarizes our progress toward accomplishment of the critical outcomes, objectives, and performance indicators as delineated in the FY1999 Performance Evaluation & Fee Agreement. It also summarizes our analysis of the results of Pacific Northwest's Division and Directorate annual self-assessments, and the implementation of our key operational improvement initiatives. Together, these provide an indication of how well we have used our Integrated Assessment processes to identify and plan improvements for FY2000. As you review the report you will find areas of significantly positive progress; you will also note areas where I believe the Laboratory could make improvements. Overall, however, I believe you will be quite pleased to note that we have maintained, or exceeded, the high standards of performance we have set for the Laboratory.

  14. A Comprehensive Approach to Bi-National Regional Energy Planning in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Morrison

    2007-12-31

    The Pacific NorthWest Economic Region, a statutory organization chartered by the Northwest states of Alaska, Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Oregon, and the western Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and the Yukon through its Energy Working Group launched a bi-national energy planning initiative designed to create a Pacific Northwest energy planning council of regional public/private stakeholders from both Canada and the US. There is an urgent need to deal with the comprehensive energy picture now before our hoped for economic recovery results in energy price spikes which are likely to happen because the current supply will not meet predicted demand. Also recent events of August 14th have shown that our bi-national energy grid system is intricately interdependent, and additional planning for future capacity is desperately needed.

  15. Final Scientific/Technical Report Carbon Capture and Storage Training Northwest - CCSTNW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Workman, James

    2013-09-30

    This report details the activities of the Carbon Capture and Storage Training Northwest (CCSTNW) program 2009 to 2013. The CCSTNW created, implemented, and provided Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) training over the period of the program. With the assistance of an expert advisory board, CCSTNW created curriculum and conducted three short courses, more than three lectures, two symposiums, and a final conference. The program was conducted in five phases; 1) organization, gap analysis, and form advisory board; 2) develop list serves, website, and tech alerts; 3) training needs survey; 4) conduct lectures, courses, symposiums, and a conference; 5) evaluation surveys and course evaluations. This program was conducted jointly by Environmental Outreach and Stewardship Alliance (dba. Northwest Environmental Training Center – NWETC) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL).

  16. Foraging strategy of little auks during chick rearing in northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anders; Møller, Eva Friis; Johansen, Kasper Lambert

    of the ongoing warming of the Arctic. Here we present the first results from GPS tracking of breeding little auks in northwest Greenland, involving data from four different breeding colonies. We examine time budgets, foraging trip patterns and habitat preferences at foraging areas, including comparison......Foraging strategy of little auks during chick rearing in northwest Greenland Anders Mosbech, Kasper Johansen, Eva Friis Møller & Peter Lyngs Department of Biology and Arctic Center, Aarhus University, Denmark An estimated 80 % of the global little auk population breeds in the coastal landscape...... bordering the north water polynya in high Arctic northwest Greenland, and from this main breeding area very little is known on foraging behavior. Little auks are feeding on lipid-rich copepods associated with cold artic waters, and are potentially important for monitoring and assessing the impact...

  17. Temporal Trends and Future Predictions of Mercury Concentrations in Northwest Greenland Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Rune; Born, E.W.; Riget, Frank Farsø

    2011-01-01

    -2008 concentrations ofHg in Northwest Greenland polar bear hair exceeded the general guideline values of 20-30 μg/g dry weight for terrestrial wildlife, whereas the neurochemical effect level of 5.4 μg Hg/g dry weight proposed for East Greenland polar bears was exceeded in 93.5% of the cases. These results call......Hair samples from 117 Northwest Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were taken during 1892-2008 and analyzed for total mercury (hereafterHg). The sample represented 28 independent years and the aim of the study was to analyze for temporal Hg trends. Mercury concentrations showed yearly...

  18. Pacific Northwest ampersand Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program. 1992--1993 yearbook with 1994 activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy administers five Regional Bioenergy Programs to encourage regionally specific application of biomass and municipal waste-to-energy technologies to local needs, opportunities and potentials. The Pacific Northwest and Alaska region has taken up a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided its five participating state energy programs. This report describes the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, and related projects of the state energy agencies, and summarizes the results of technical studies. It also considers future efforts of this regional program to meet its challenging assignment

  19. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 4, Comments and Responses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This volume of the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS) contains public comments addressing the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Draft EIS, August 1990 and Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) responses. The Introduction provides information about the process BPA follows in addressing these comments. Part I contains a listing of the Alternative Actions evaluated in the Final EIS; Part II is organized by Alternatives and includes summaries of the comments and BPA responses; Part III provides copies of the original comments letters, and, for ease of identification, are coded in the margins according to the alternative(s) addressed.

  20. Statistical evaluation of Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Consumption Survey weather data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawil, J.J.

    1986-02-01

    This report addresses an issue relating to energy consumption and conservation in the residential sector. BPA has obtained two meteorological data bases for use with its 1983 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey (PNWRES). One data base consists of temperature data from weather stations; these have been aggregated to form a second data base that covers the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) climatic divisions. At BPA's request, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has produced a household energy use model for both electricity and natural gas in order to determine whether the statistically estimated parameters of the model significantly differ when the two different meteorological data bases are used.

  1. Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program Year Book; 1992-1993 Yearbook with 1994 Activities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program (U.S.); United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy administers five Regional Bioenergy Programs to encourage regionally specific application of biomass and municipal waste-to-energy technologies to local needs, opportunities and potentials. The Pacific Northwest and Alaska region has taken up a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided its five participating state energy programs. This report describes the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, and related projects of the state energy agencies, and summarizes the results of technical studies. It also considers future efforts of this regional program to meet its challenging assignment.

  2. Assessment of mothers’ satisfaction with the care of maternal care in Specialized Educational-Medical Centers in obstetrics and gynecological disease in Northwest, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Taghavi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients satisfaction includes the assessment of healthcare which she/he received. This study aims at assessment of mothers’ satisfaction with the care of maternal care in Specialized Educational-Medical Centers in obstetrics and gynecological disease in Northwest, Iran. Methods: In an analytic-descriptive cross-sectional study, 1000 female patients who admitted in educational-medical centers of Northwest were studied during a 2 years period (2010-2012. They asked to fill a 34-item closed-answer questionnaire (ranking from very unsatisfied to very satisfied responses following their discharge. Validity of the questionnaire was improved by gynecologist’s experts comments, and reliability of the questionnaire were assessed by test-retest methods (α = 0.946. Results: The satisfaction score (satisfied or very satisfied responses were 61.2, 55.8, 61.8 and 59.5 percent for admitting process, primary care services, treatments and therapeutic interventions and overall, respectively. The satisfaction score for access to doctors was highest in the morning and lowest at the night shifts. The satisfaction score about the personnel’s behavior was lowest during the night shifts. The satisfaction score about the residents’ behavior was highest for the morning shifts. There was no significant difference between the three working shifts regarding psychological feelings, humanitarian respect, and issues like nutrition and private and public hygiene. There was a significant direct correlation between the mean score of satisfaction and patients’ age (Spearman’s rho = 0.117, P < 0.001. Conclusion: The satisfaction level of patients hospitalized in Northwest of Iran's Hospitals was intermediate. Planning new strategies in this regard with emphasis on the main limitations may improve the satisfaction rate in the future.

  3. Did the onset of high amplitude glacio-eustatic cycles trigger mass-transport processes on the Northwest Shelf of Australia? Insights from IODP expedition 356

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, S. J.; McCaffrey, J.; Wallace, M. W.; Keep, M.; Fulthorpe, C.; Bogus, K.; McHugh, C.

    2017-12-01

    Mass-transport processes on continental margins may have catastrophic consequences, causing tsunamis, major rock falls and avalanches and can destroy offshore hydrocarbon installations. Mass-transport deposits (MTD's) with volumes 17 to >162 km3 are common along the northwest margin of Australia. One of the largest is the Gorgon slide which is offshore from Barrow Island with a minimum volume of 250 km3. Age estimates for slides on the Northwest Shelf are variable and range from Miocene to Recent (Gorgon MTD), late Pliocene to Recent (Thebe/Bonaventure MTD's) and Pleistocene to Recent. This age uncertainty is related to a lack of cored sections through these slides and relies on pre-existing ages and correlations from poorly dated sections (usually industry well sections with minimal samples in the upper 500 m) distal from the MTD's. Therefore, the age, origin and history of these MTD's is not well known. A recent International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition (IODP Expedition 356) to the region obtained a series of continuous cores from the upper 600m to 1.1 km of the Northern Carnarvon and Roebuck Basins. Four sites were cored adjacent to hydrocarbon wells; West Tryal Rocks-2 (Site U1461), Fisher-1 (Site U1462), Picard-1 (Site U1463) and Minilya-1 (Site U1464). Site U1461 yielded 100% core recovery through the Gorgon Slide. Preliminary data from this section suggests that it is relatively young (activity from 0.5 Ma continuing to today. We suggest neotectonism combined with the onset of high amplitude glacio-eustatic cycles may have been triggering factors for this slide.

  4. Effectiveness monitoring for the aquatic and riparian component of the Northwest Forest Plan: conceptual framework and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; David B. Hohler; David P. Larsen; David E. Busch; Kim Kratz; Keith Reynolds; Karl F. Stein; Thomas Atzet; Polly Hays; Michael. Tehan

    2004-01-01

    An Aquatic and Riparian Effectiveness Monitoring Plan (AREMP) for the Northwest Forest Plan is intended to characterize the ecological condition of watersheds and aquatic ecosystems. So to determine the effectiveness of the Northwest Forest Plan to meet relevant objectives, this report presents the conceptual foundation of options for use in pilot testing and...

  5. Parent Involvement Activities in School Improvement Plans in the Northwest Region. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 064

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Timothy; Saifer, Steffen; Forehand, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    This document presents a summary of the larger report, "Parent Involvement Activities in School Improvement Plans in the Northwest Region." Although the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) spells out parent involvement requirements for schools in need of improvement, the majority of the Northwest Region school improvement plans…

  6. Northwest Territories Protected Areas Strategy: How community values are shaping the protection of wild spaces and heritage places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela Stadel; Raymond Taniton; Heidi Heder

    2002-01-01

    The Northwest Territories Protected Areas Strategy (NWT PAS), approved in 1999, presents a unique community-driven approach to establishing a network of protected areas in the North. The NWT PAS arose from increasing resource development pressures in the Northwest Territories and is being implemented in the context of the land claim and treaty processes. Aboriginal...

  7. Sea Ice and Hydrographic Variability in the Northwest North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenty, I. G.; Heimbach, P.; Wunsch, C. I.

    2010-12-01

    Sea ice anomalies in the Northwest North Atlantic's Labrador Sea are of climatic interest because of known and hypothesized feedbacks with hydrographic anomalies, deep convection/mode water formation, and Northern Hemisphere atmospheric patterns. As greenhouse gas concentrations increase, hydrographic anomalies formed in the Arctic Ocean associated with warming will propagate into the Labrador Sea via the Fram Strait/West Greenland Current and the Canadian Archipelago/Baffin Island Current. Therefore, understanding the dynamical response of sea ice in the basin to hydrographic anomalies is essential for the prediction and interpretation of future high-latitude climate change. Historically, efforts to quantify the link between the observed sea ice and hydrographic variability in the region has been limited due to in situ observation paucity and technical challenges associated with synthesizing ocean and sea ice observations with numerical models. To elaborate the relationship between sea ice and ocean variability, we create three one-year (1992-1993, 1996-1997, 2003-2004) three-dimensional time-varying reconstructions of the ocean and sea ice state in Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. The reconstructions are syntheses of a regional coupled 32 km ocean-sea ice model with a suite of contemporary in situ and satellite hydrographic and ice data using the adjoint method. The model and data are made consistent, in a least-squares sense, by iteratively adjusting several model control variables (e.g., ocean initial and lateral boundary conditions and the atmospheric state) to minimize an uncertainty-weighted model-data misfit cost function. The reconstructions reveal that the ice pack attains a state of quasi-equilibrium in mid-March (the annual sea ice maximum) in which the total ice-covered area reaches a steady state -ice production and dynamical divergence along the coasts balances dynamical convergence and melt along the pack’s seaward edge. Sea ice advected to the

  8. Drug Prescribing Pattern in Two Hospitals in Mwanza, Northwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Kongola

    A retrospective cross-sectional study to evaluate compliance with Tanzanian guidelines,. World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, and various other aspects of drug prescription at Sekou Toure Regional Hospital and Magu Hospital both in Mwanza. Region of Tanzania was carried out. In particular, the study was ...

  9. Reflections on the exploration of paramilitary management in Northwest Regional Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Herui; Wang Fuquan; Zhang Zijie

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to reflect on the exploration of paramilitary management in Northwest Regional Office of Nuclear and Radiation Safety Inspection, MEP, China under current situation, so as to the improve the working style construction of the regulatory team, strengthening consciousness on nuclear safety, and to promote the level of nuclear safety regulation. (authors)

  10. Sediment and PM10 flux from no-tillage cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion is a concern in the Inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) United States where the emission of fine particulates from winter wheat – summer fallow (WW/SF) dryland cropping systems during high winds degrade air quality. Although no-tillage cropping systems are not yet economically viable, these ...

  11. Challenges to the occupation of North-West Europe during the late Middle Pleistocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashton, Nicholas Mark

    2010-01-01

    This thesis examines the challenges and human responses to changes in climate and environment in occupying north-west Europe from MIS 11 to MIS 5e (c. 420–125 ka). The first part studies human habitats and environments in Britain during MIS 11 and concludes that humans were attracted to the more

  12. Knowledge-Based Information Management for Watershed Analysis in the Pacific Northwest U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Reynolds; Richard Olson; Michael Saunders; Donald Latham; Michael Foster; Bruce Miller; Lawrence Bednar; Daniel Schmoldt; Patrick Cunningham; John Steffenson

    1996-01-01

    We are developing a knowledge-based information management system to provide decision support for watershed analysis in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. The system includes: (1) a GIS interface that allows users to graphically navigate to specific provinces and watersheds and display a variety of themes and other area-specific information, (2) an analysis...

  13. Ties that bind: Pacific Northwest truffles, trees, and animals in symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Oliver; Randy Molina; Jane E.  Smith

    2009-01-01

    Soil organisms play essential roles in forest health, and truffle fungi are one of the more fascinating groups of these important organisms. After 40 years of specimen collection and study, scientists with Pacific Northwest Research Station have published a report documenting how truffle fungi affect tree survival and growth, perform valuable functions in nutrient...

  14. Life-history traits of the northwest European flora : The LEDA database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knevel, IC; Bekker, RM; Bakker, JP; Kleyer, M

    An international group of scientists is building a 'trait base', an open internet database of life-history traits of the Northwest European flora (LEDA) that can be used as a tool in planning, in nature conservation and restoration, and in other applied research. The species-trait matrix will

  15. Methods for integrated modeling of landscape change: Interior Northwest Landscape Analysis System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane L. Hayes; Alan. A. Ager; R. James Barbour

    2004-01-01

    The Interior Northwest Landscape Analysis System (INLAS) links a number of resource, disturbance, and landscape simulations models to examine the interactions of vegetative succession, management, and disturbance with policy goals. The effects of natural disturbance like wildfire, herbivory, forest insects and diseases, as well as specific management actions are...

  16. 76 FR 56242 - Energy Northwest; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Northwest's Columbia Generating Station,'' was received via E-Filing on August 22, 2011.\\1\\ \\1\\ On August 22... with the NRC E-Filing rule, which the NRC promulgated in August 2007 (72 FR 49,139). Issued at..., 1972, published in the Federal Register, 37 FR 28,710 (1972), and the Commission's regulations, see, e...

  17. The earliest occupation of north-west Europe: a coastal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; MacDonald, K.; Joordens, J.C.A.; Roebroeks, W.; Gibbard, P.L.

    Recent discoveries from Pakefield and Happisburgh (Britain) have provided clear evidence for an unexpectedly early hominin occupation of north-west Europe. The sites, found in the deposits of interglacial rivers and estuaries on the southern rim of the ancient North Sea coast, span the older and

  18. Faculty Perceptions of Organizational Culture and Collegiality at Protestant Christian Universities in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jamie R.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on faculty perceptions of organizational culture and collegiality at denominationally affiliated Christian colleges and universities in the Pacific Northwest. It was found that while faculty members perceive tension around their experience of organizational culture, the extent of their relationships as cultivated through formal…

  19. Fish Assemblages in Three Northwest Florida Urbanized Bayous before and after Two Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A six-year survey (1993 - 1998) is summarized for fish collected from chemically-contaminated, urbanized bayous in northwest Florida. Fifty-two monthly collections (January - November) were conducted by trawls and seines at 22 sites located in three adjacent bayous associated wi...

  20. Harvesting cost model for small trees in natural stands in the interior northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Hartsough; Xiaoshan Zhang; Roger D. Fight

    2001-01-01

    Realistic logging cost models are needed for long-term forest management planning. Data from numerous published studies were combined to estimate the costs of harvesting small trees in natural stands in the Interior Northwest of North America. Six harvesting systems were modeled. Four address gentle terrain: manual log-length, manual whole-tree, mechanized whole-tree,...

  1. Intestinal helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes in north-west Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magi M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 180 foxes (Vulpes vulpes from an area scarcely investigated of north-west Italy, were examined for intestinal helminths using sedimentation and counting technique (SCT. Faecal samples were submitted to centrifugation with 50 % zinc sulphate used as flotation solution.

  2. Anthropogenic vanadium emissions to air and ambient air concentrations in North-West Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschedijk, A.H.J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Hulskotte, J.H.J.; Quass, U.

    2013-01-01

    An inventory of Vanadium emissions for North-West Europe for the year 2005 was made based on an identification of the major sources. The inventory covers Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, United Kingdom, Luxembourg, Netherlands and the OSPAR region of the North Sea. Vanadium emission were

  3. Registration and management of community patients with tuberculosis in north-west China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Cai, J.; Wang, D.; Wang, Q.; Liang, H.; Ma, A.; Schouten, E.G.; Kok, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the registration, management and characteristics of patients with tuberculosis (TB) in north-west China, and investigate whether patients with TB were diagnosed and treated in a timely manner.STUDY DESIGN: Health-facility-based retrospective data were collected from district

  4. SALMON IN CRISIS: IN SEARCH OF A SOLUTION FOR THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  5. 75 FR 69295 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Navy Training Activities Conducted Within the Northwest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ..., Effects of Sound on Hearing of Marine Animals, and Passive Acoustic Detection, Classification, and... Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Navy Training Activities Conducted Within the Northwest Training... Administration 50 CFR Part 218 [Docket No. 0906101030-0489-03] RIN 0648-AX88 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals...

  6. Traditional and local ecological knowledge about forest biodiversity in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; A. Paige Fischer; Eric T. Jones

    2008-01-01

    This paper synthesizes the existing literature about traditional and local ecological knowledge relating to biodiversity in Pacific Northwest forests in order to assess what is needed to apply this knowledge to forest biodiversity conservation efforts. We address four topics: (1) views and values people have relating to biodiversity, (2) the resource use and management...

  7. Diversity, ecology, and conservation of truffle fungi in forests of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Trappe; Randy Molina; Daniel L. Luoma; Efren Cázares; David Pilz; Jane E. Smith; Michael A. Castellano; Steven L. Miller; Matthew J. Trappe

    2009-01-01

    Forests of the Pacific Northwest have been an epicenter for the evolution of truffle fungi with over 350 truffle species and 55 genera currently identified. Truffle fungi develop their reproductive fruit-bodies typically belowground, so they are harder to find and study than mushrooms that fruit aboveground. Nevertheless, over the last five decades, the Corvallis...

  8. Physical hydrology and the effects of forest harvesting in the Pacific Northwest: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Dan Moore; S.M. Wondzell

    2005-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest encompasses a range of hydrologic regimes that can be broadly characterized as either coastal (where rain and rain on snow are dominant) or interior (where snowmelt is dominant). Forest harvesting generally increases the fraction of precipitation that is available to become streamflow, increases rates of snowmelt, and modifies the runoff pathways...

  9. Predicting landscape sensitivity to present and future floods in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Safeeq; Gordon E. Grant; Sarah L. Lewis; Brian Staab

    2015-01-01

    Floods are the most frequent natural disaster, causing more loss of life and property than any other in the USA. Floods also strongly influence the structure and function of watersheds, stream channels, and aquatic ecosystems. The Pacific Northwest is particularly vulnerable to climatically driven changes in flood frequency and magnitude, because snowpacks that...

  10. Soil and water conservation in the Pacific Northwest through no-tillage and intensified crop rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) summer fallow rotation typically practiced in the intermediate precipitation zone [300-450 mm (12-18 in)] of the inland Pacific Northwest has proven to be economically stable for producers in this region. However multiple tillage operations are used to control...

  11. A first look at measurement error on FIA plots using blind plots in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanna Melson; David Azuma; Jeremy S. Fried

    2002-01-01

    Measurement error in the Forest Inventory and Analysis work of the Pacific Northwest Station was estimated with a recently implemented blind plot measurement protocol. A small subset of plots was revisited by a crew having limited knowledge of the first crew's measurements. This preliminary analysis of the first 18 months' blind plot data indicates that...

  12. Astragalus kongrensis Benth. Ex Baker (Fabaceae, a New Record for Central and North-West Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Babu Chaudhary

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus kongrensis Benth. Ex Baker is reported for the first time from Central (Nepal and North-West Himalayas (India. Earlier the species was known from East Himalaya (Sikkim-India, Bhutan and China. The description and illustrations of the species are provided.

  13. ARSENIC ADSORPTION AND REDUCTION IN IRON-RICH SOILS NEARBY LANDFILLS IN NORTHWEST FLORIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqin Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Florida, soils are mainly composed of Myakka, an acid soil characterized by a subsurface accumulation of humus and Al(III and Fe(III oxides. Downgradient of the landfills in Northwest Florida, elevated levels of iron and arsenic observations had been made in the groundwater from monitoring wells, which was attributed to the geomicrobial iron and arsenic reduction. There is thus an immediate research need for a better understanding of the reduction reactions that are responsible for the mobilization of iron and arsenic in the subsurface soil nearby landfills. Owing to the high Fe(III oxide content, As(V adsorption reactions with Fe(III oxide surfaces are particularly important, which may control As(V reduction. This research focused on the investigation of the biogeochemical processes of the subsurface soil nearby landfills of Northwest Florida. Arsenic and iron reduction was studied in batch reactors and quantified based on Monod-type microbial kinetic growth simulations. As(V adsorption in iron-rich Northwest Floridian soils was further investigated to explain the reduction observations. It was demonstrated in this research that solubilization of arsenic in the subsurface soil nearby landfills in Northwest Florida would likely occur under conditions favoring Fe(III dissimilatory reduction.

  14. Late-successional forests and northern spotted owls: how effective is the Northwest Forest Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles Hemstrom; Martin G. Raphael

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the late-successional and old-growth forest and the northern spotted owl effectiveness monitoring plans for the Northwest Forest Plan. The effectiveness monitoring plan for late-successional and old-growth forests will track changes in forest spatial distribution, and within-stand structure and composition, and it will predict future trends.

  15. The 2010-2011 excavation season at Al Zubarah, north-west Qatar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Tobias; al-Naimi, Faisal; Yeomans, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the results of the 2010–2011 archaeological fieldwork at the late eighteenth–twentieth-century abandoned city of al-Zubarah in north-west Qatar. The excavations in five areas inside the town, covering courtyard houses, a suq, a palatial compound, and a midden...

  16. Scarlet Fever Upsurge in England and Molecular-Genetic Analysis in North-West London, 2014

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-16

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the article, Scarlet Fever Upsurge in England and Molecular-Genetic Analysis in North-West London, 2014.  Created: 8/16/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/16/2016.

  17. Anatomy of a field trial: Wood-based biochar and compost influences a Pacific Northwest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar land application research in elevated rainfall areas (980 millimeters of annual rainfall) of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is lacking. A proof-of-concept field study examined the effects of spruce-pine-fir wood chip biochar (slow pyrolysis; 450-500 degrees Celsius; 35 megagrams per hectare), d...

  18. Anatomy, death, and preservation of a woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) calf, Yamal Peninsula, northwest Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Daniel C.; Tikhonov, Alexei N.; Kosintsev, Pavel A.; Rountrey, Adam N.; Buigues, Bernard; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    A well-preserved woolly mammoth calf found in northwest Siberia offers unique opportunities to investigate mammoth anatomy, behavior, life history and taphonomy. Analysis of the fluvial setting where the specimen was found suggests it was derived from eroding bluffs during ice-out flooding in June

  19. Evidence of a Native Northwest Atlantic COI Haplotype Clade in the Cryptogenic Colonial Ascidian Botryllus schlosseri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yund, Philip O; Collins, Catherine; Johnson, Sheri L

    2015-06-01

    The colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri should be considered cryptogenic (i.e., not definitively classified as either native or introduced) in the Northwest Atlantic. Although all the evidence is quite circumstantial, over the last 15 years most research groups have accepted the scenario of human-mediated dispersal and classified B. schlosseri as introduced; others have continued to consider it native or cryptogenic. We address the invasion status of this species by adding 174 sequences to the growing worldwide database for the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and analyzing 1077 sequences to compare genetic diversity of one clade of haplotypes in the Northwest Atlantic with two hypothesized source regions (the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean). Our results lead us to reject the prevailing view of the directionality of transport across the Atlantic. We argue that the genetic diversity patterns at COI are far more consistent with the existence of at least one haplotype clade in the Northwest Atlantic (and possibly a second) that substantially pre-dates human colonization from Europe, with this native North American clade subsequently introduced to three sites in Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean waters. However, we agree with past researchers that some sites in the Northwest Atlantic have more recently been invaded by alien haplotypes, so that some populations are currently composed of a mixture of native and invader haplotypes. © 2015 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory plan to maintain radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higby, D.P.; Denovan, J.T.

    1982-12-01

    This document describes the radiation safety program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The practices and administrative policies of this program support the principles of ALARA (to maintain radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable). This document also describes a program to establish safety goals at PNL to help ensure that operations are conducted according to ALARA principles

  1. Inter-regional spillovers of seaports: the case of North-West Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merk, O.M.; Manshanden, W.J.J.; Dröes, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the inter-regional spillover of seaports by assessing four large ports in Northwest Europe: Rotterdam, Antwerp, Hamburg and Le Havre. The authors disaggregate national input/output-tables to the level of the functional port area and calculate the relevant Leontief multipliers

  2. Using Genetic Algorithm and MODFLOW to Characterize Aquifer System of Northwest Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    By integrating Genetic Algorithm and MODFLOW2005, an optimizing tool is developed to characterize the aquifer system of Region II, Northwest Florida. The history and the newest available observation data of the aquifer system is fitted automatically by using the numerical model c...

  3. Using Genetic Algorithm and MODFLOW to Characterize Aquifer System of Northwest Florida (Published Proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    By integrating Genetic Algorithm and MODFLOW2005, an optimizing tool is developed to characterize the aquifer system of Region II, Northwest Florida. The history and the newest available observation data of the aquifer system is fitted automatically by using the numerical model c...

  4. Understanding key issues of sustainable wood production in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Seth M. White

    2005-01-01

    Researchers involved with the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station Sustainable Wood Production Initiative have outlined some of the barriers and opportunities for sustainable wood production in the region. Sustainable wood production is defined as the capacity of forests to produce wood, products, and services on a long-term basis and in the context of human...

  5. 77 FR 31640 - Notice of Public Meeting: Northwest California Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... their own transportation, food and beverages. On July 27, the council meets from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. in the... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCAN01000.L18200000.XZ0000] Notice of Public Meeting: Northwest California Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...

  6. 77 FR 59967 - Notice of Public Meeting: Northwest California Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ..., food and beverages. On November 15, the council meets from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. at the King Range Project... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCAN01000.L18200000.XZ0000] Notice of Public Meeting: Northwest California Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...

  7. 76 FR 18578 - Notice of Public Meeting: Northwest California Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... transportation, beverages and food. On April 29, the council convenes at 8 a.m. in the conference room of the BLM... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCAN01000.L10200000.XZ0000] Notice of Public Meeting: Northwest California Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...

  8. 78 FR 56731 - Notice of Public Meeting: Northwest California Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... public are welcome. They must provide their own transportation, food and beverages. On Oct. 25, the... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCAN01000.L18200000.XZ0000] Notice of Public Meeting: Northwest California Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...

  9. 78 FR 4871 - Notice of Public Meeting: Northwest California Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    .... They must provide their own transportation, food and beverages. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nancy... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCAN01000.L18200000.XZ0000] Notice of Public Meeting: Northwest California Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...

  10. Assessment and management of animal damage in Pacific Northwest forests: an annotated bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Loucks; H.C. Black; M.L. Roush; S.R. Radosevich

    1990-01-01

    This annotated bibliography of published literature provides a comprehensive source of information on animal damage assessment and management for forest land managers and others in the Pacific Northwest. Citations and abstracts from more than 900 papers are indexed by subject and author. The publication complements and supplements A Silvicultural Approach to...

  11. Animal damage to conifers on national forests in the Pacific Northwest region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn L. Crouch

    1969-01-01

    Animal damage to conifers is a timely topic in the Pacific Northwest. Foresters in this Region are increasingly concerned and perplexed by damage caused by animals to natural and planted seedlings and larger growing stock. Nearly every animal inhabiting for st land is believed to injure seedlings and small trees to some degree. Mice girdle small trees, and bears girdle...

  12. Strategic survey framework for the Northwest Forest Plan survey and manage program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy Molina; Dan McKenzie; Robin Lesher; Jan Ford; Jim Alegria; Richard Cutler

    2003-01-01

    This document outlines an iterative process for assessing the information needs for all Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) survey and manage species, designing and implementing strategic surveys (including field surveys and other information-gathering processes), and analyzing that information for use in the NWFP annual species review and adaptive-management processes. The...

  13. Foliar moisture content of Pacific Northwest vegetation and its relation to wildland fire behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Agee; Clinton S. Wright; Nathan Williamson; Mark H. Huff

    2002-01-01

    Fotiar moisture was monitored for five conifers and associated understory vegetation in Pacific Northwest forests. Decline in foliar moisture of new foliage occurred over the dry season, while less variation was evident in older foliage. Late season foliar moisture ranged from 130 to 170%. In riparian-upland comparisons, largest differences were found for understory...

  14. Groundwater quota versus tiered groundwater pricing : two cases of groundwater management in north-west China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnoudse, Eefje; Qu, Wei; Bluemling, B.; Herzfeld, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in monitoring groundwater extraction cause groundwater regulations to fail worldwide. In two counties in north-west China local water authorities have installed smart card machines to monitor and regulate farmers’ groundwater use. Data from a household survey and in-depth interviews are

  15. 77 FR 59608 - Gas Transmission Northwest LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Transmission Northwest LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on September 18, 2012... natural gas GTN transports on its system must be ``entirely free'' of compressor oil. Any person desiring... the appropriate link in the above list. They are also available for review in the Commission's Public...

  16. Urbanization Process Monitoring in Northwest China based on DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Bai, L. Y.; Feng, J. Z.

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the DMSP/OLS nighttime light data have been widely applied to various fields such as monitoring and evaluation of urbanization, estimation of social economy, economical environment and health effects, hazards analysis, and fisheries research. The general urbanized level in China has rapidly developed since the 1990s, and the cities in northwest China, which were important population centres of the ancient silk road, have also been developed in a high speed thanks to China’s national strategy of Western Development. Given the Xinjiang autonomous region as a core area of One Belt and One Road, it is very necessary to study the urbanization processes and changes of its urban system and the whole northwest region of China. In this paper, we extracted built-up areas of the cities in northwest China in 1992, 1997, 2002, 2007, and 2012, evaluated urban expansion and spatial pattern through appropriate indexes, and also quantitatively analyzed the urbanized level of each city. The results showed that the cities in northwest China generally presented high strong and rapid expansion, but there were some large differences among cities. Urban expansion forms alternate with exterior expansion and interior filling, in general, the cities externally expandedafter 2002 and internally filledbefore 2002, meanwhile, there were a high positive correlation between urban built-up areas and population growth in Xinjiang autonomous.

  17. Dwarf mistletoe and host tree interactions in managed forests of the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald M. Knutson; Robert. Tinnin

    1980-01-01

    Dwarf mistletoes in the Pacific Northwest infect true firs, larch, pine, Douglas-fir, and hemlock. Forty-one percent of all stands east of the crest of the Cascade Range and 10 percent of west-side stands are infected. General characteristics of dwarf mistletoe are discussed including mortality and growth losses rate of spread within a tree and within stands. Relation...

  18. Declining trends of water requirements of dry season Boro rice in the north-west Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acharjee, Tapos Kumar; Halsema, van Gerardo; Ludwig, Fulco; Hellegers, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The drought prone North-West Bangladesh is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, particularly because of less water availability in the dry period and high water requirement for crop production. Improved understanding of recent changes in crop water demand in the dry season is important

  19. Cleanup Verification Package for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits waste site. This waste site consisted of two earthen trenches thought to have received both radioactive and nonradioactive material related to the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm

  20. On-site gamma dose rates at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, northwest Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reistad, O.; Dowdall, M.; Standring, W. J. F.; Selnaes, O. G.; Hustveit, S.; Steinhusen, F.; Sorlie, A.

    The spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RAW) storage facility at Andreeva Bay shore technical base (STB) is one of the largest and most hazardous nuclear legacy sites in northwest Russia. Originally commissioned in the 1960s the facility now stores large amounts of SNF and RAW associated

  1. RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: FRAMING THE RISK QUESTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, it is urgent to assess accurately the various options proposed to restore wild salmon. For the past 125 years, a variety of analytic approaches have been employed to assess the ecological consequences of salmon management options. ...

  2. Spatio-temporal availability of field crop residues for biofuel production in Northwest and Southwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, L.; Wang, X.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Yang, L.; Zhou, Y.; Liu, J.; Xie, G.

    2015-01-01

    Developing bioenergy from plant feedstocks is considered an opportunity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and secure biofuel supply. This study is an assessment of the availability of field crop residues for bioenergy feedstocks in northwest China (NWC) and southwest China (SWC). The amount of

  3. Progress on the development of seismic resilient Tall CLT Buildings in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiling Pei; Jeffrey Berman; Daniel Dolan; John van de Lindt; James Ricles; Richard Sause; Hans-Erik Blomgren; Marjan Popovski; Douglas Rammer

    2014-01-01

    As urban densification occurs in U.S. regions of high seismicity, there is a natural demand for seismically resilient tall buildings that are reliable, economically viable, and can be rapidly constructed. In urban regions on the west coast of the U.S., specifically the Pacific Northwest, there is significant interest in utilizing CLT in 8-20 story residential and...

  4. A hydrogeologic framework for characterizing summer streamflow sensitivity to climate warming in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Safeeq; G.E. Grant; S.L. Lewis; M.G. Kramer; B. Staab

    2014-01-01

    Summer streamflows in the Pacific Northwest are largely derived from melting snow and groundwater discharge. As the climate warms, diminishing snowpack and earlier snowmelt will cause reductions in summer streamflow. Most regional-scale assessments of climate change impacts on streamflow use downscaled temperature and precipitation projections from general circulation...

  5. Evaluation of Northwest University, Kano Post-UTME Test Items Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichi, Ado Abdu; Hafiz, Hadiza; Bello, Samira Abdullahi

    2016-01-01

    High-stakes testing is used for the purposes of providing results that have important consequences. Validity is the cornerstone upon which all measurement systems are built. This study applied the Item Response Theory principles to analyse Northwest University Kano Post-UTME Economics test items. The developed fifty (50) economics test items was…

  6. Rock the Watt: An Energy Conservation Campaign at Pacific Northwest National Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) three-month Rock the Watt campaign to reduce energy use at its main campus in Richland, Washington. The campaign objectives were to educate PNNL employees about energy conservation opportunities in their workplace and to motivate them to help PNNL save energy and costs and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. Riparian area protection and outdoor recreation: lessons from the Northwest Forest Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Impero Wilson; Troy E. Hall; Linda E. Kruger

    2012-01-01

    The Northwest Forest Plan required the US Forest Service (USFS) to shift its management focus to ecological values rather than the utilitarian ones that had dominated forest policy in the region. This article examines the effects of this shift on the USFS's historic mission to provide recreational access to the region's forests. Focusing on six national...

  8. The effects of wildfire and environmental amenities on property values in northwest Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle M. Stetler; Tyron J. Venn; David E. Calkin

    2010-01-01

    This study employed the hedonic price framework to examine the effects of 256 wildfires and environmental amenities on home values in northwest Montana between June 1996 and January 2007. The study revealed environmental amenities, including proximity to lakes, national forests, Glacier National Park and golf courses, have large positive effects on property values in...

  9. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reistad, O.; Dowdall, M.; Selnaes, O. G.; Standring, W. J. F.; Hustveit, S.; Steenhuisen, F.; Sorlie, A.

    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site

  10. Balancing conflicting values: ecosystem solutions in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Haynes; Robert C. Szaro; Dennis P. Dykstra

    2005-01-01

    Ecosystem approaches to sustainable forest management in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Canada have arisen in response to significant changes that have occurred in these societies over the past century or so (Interagency Ecosystem Management Task Force, 1995). One such change as been rapid population growth along the Pacific Coast, where the mild...

  11. Potential Climate-Induced Runoff Changes and Associated Uncertainty in Four Pacific Northwest Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a larger investigation into potential impacts of climate change on estuarine habitats in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), we estimated changes in freshwater inputs into four estuaries. These were the Coquille River estuary, the South Slough of Coos Bay, and the Yaquina Bay...

  12. Forest research notes, Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station, No. 23, November 27, 1937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Elton Lodewick; P.A. Briegleb; F.L. Moravets; Leo A. Isaac; William G. Morris; Wade. DeVries

    1937-01-01

    Douglas fir, the most abundant and most used lumber species in the forests of the Pacific Northwest, is being pulped on a commercial scale by the sulfate and soda processes. The markets for unbleached pulps are limited, and there has been much speculation as to the possibilities of developing pulping processes whereby the enormous quantities of otherwise unutilized...

  13. DIALECT CHECKLIST - PACIFIC NORTHWEST. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL FOR ELEVENTH GRADE UNIT ON "LINGUISTIC GEOGRAPHY AND DIALECT."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portland Public Schools, OR.

    THE CHECKLIST WAS DESIGNED TO STUDY CHARACTERISTIC WORD USAGE IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST. THE STUDENT IS ASKED TO CIRCLE THE WORD IN A GROUP OF WORDS WHICH HE ORDINARILY USES TO DESIGNATE A SPECIFIC THING. FOR INSTANCE--SELF OVER FIREPLACE - MANTEL, MANTEL BOARD, MANTEL PIECE, SHELF, CHILDHOOD WORD FOR MOTHER - MA, MAMA, MOM, MOTHER, MOMMY. ONE…

  14. Hydrocarbon and Toxic Metal Contamination from Tank Installations in a Northwest Greenlandic Village

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2012-01-01

    Contamination from tank installations in the Arctic is an important issue, since tanks are a necessary feature of all communities, and may be a source of local pollution. Soil samples from below and around three tank installations and one reference site in the Northwest Greenlandic village...

  15. 75 FR 18497 - Guidance on Simultaneous Transmission Import Limit Studies for the Northwest Region; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... updated market power analyses associated with their market based rate authorizations, which are due in... Conference ``Guidance on Simultaneous Transmission Import Limit Studies.'' To view the archive of the... Northwest region transmission owners and their pending updated market power analyses. Interested persons...

  16. Functional multilingualism at the North-West University as part of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to explore the link between language management and the sociopolitical environment in which institutions of higher learning, particularly the North-West University, operate. Along the lines set by Candlin (1991: vi–vii), it is argued that language management should take due cognisance of the ...

  17. Knock on wood: Is wood production sustainable in the Pacific Northwest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan Thompson

    2006-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest is one of the world’s major timber-producing regions, and its capacity to produce wood on a sustained-yield basis is widely recognized. Nonetheless, there has been increasing public interest in assuring that forests are being sustainably managed, as well as a desire by landowners to demonstrate their commitment to responsible stewardship.

  18. Northwest disposal site for LLW and ILW in China radioactive impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Kuizi; He Chunying; Lu Baozhen; Li Tingjun

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the studies and main conclusions in site selection, design, and radioactive impact assessment of the Northwest Disposal Site of China for intermediate- and low-level radioactive wastes. At the end of the paper, further works are proposed

  19. DOCUMENTING THE INTERTIDAL COMPONENT OF EELGRASS DISTRIBUTIONS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES USING COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop and test a rapid, cost-effective method of mapping the intertidal (and surface-visible subtidal) distribution of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows and patches in the turbid coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Initial co...

  20. Forest communities and the Northwest Forest Plan: what socioeconomic monitoring can tell us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan. Thompson

    2007-01-01

    The Northwest Forest Plan (the Plan) was designed to balance protection of older forest ecosystems with mitigation of impacts on rural communities and economies. It was implemented by using an adaptive management approach that featured an interagency monitoring program. This program included socioeconomic monitoring—the systematic observation and measurement of a set...

  1. Impacts of timber harvesting on soil organic matter, nitrogen, productivity, and health of inland northwest forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. F. Jurgensen; A. E. Harvey; R. T. Graham; D. S. Page-Dumroese; J. R. Tonn; M. J. Larsen; T. B. Jain

    1997-01-01

    Soil organic components are important factors in the health and productivity of Inland Northwest forests. Timber harvesting and extensive site preparation (piling, windrowing, or scalping) reduces the amount of surface organic material (woody residues and forest floor layers) over large areas. Some wildfires and severe prescribed burns can have similar consequences....

  2. Early-season wind erosion influenced by soil-incorporated green manure in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management strategies are sought to minimize wind erosion of irrigated agricultural soils along the Columbia River of the Inland Pacific Northwest, particularly during the early season (March-April) when high winds coincide with sowing of vegetable crops. Early-season wind erosion potential from soi...

  3. New stalked and sessile cirripedes from the Eocene Mo Clay, northwest Jutland (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carriol, René-Pierre; Bonde, Niels Christensøn; Jakobsen, Sten Lennart

    2016-01-01

    New taxa of thoracican cirripedes are recorded from the Eocene Mo Clay of northwest Jutland, Denmark, namely Stipilepas molerensis Carriol n. gen., n. sp., a scalpelliform gooseneck barnacle, and Plesiobrachylepas jutlandica Carriol n. gen., n. sp., a brachylepadomorph sessile form. This material...

  4. Analysis of potential impacts of climate change on forests of the United States Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Latta; Hailemariam Temesgen; Darius Adams; Tara Barrett

    2010-01-01

    As global climate changes over the next century, forest productivity is expected to change as well. Using PRISM climate and productivity data measured on a grid of 3356 plots, we developed a simultaneous autoregressive model to estimate the impacts of climate change on potential productivity of Pacific Northwest forests of the United States. The model, coupled with...

  5. Northwest Forest Plan—the first 10 years (1994–2003): socioeconomic monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Charnley

    2006-01-01

    The socioeconomic monitoring report addresses two evaluation questions posed in the Northwest Forest Plan (the Plan) Record of Decision and assesses progress in meeting five Plan socioeconomic goals. Volume I of the report contains key findings. Volume II addresses the question, Are predictable levels of timber and nontimber resources available and being produced? It...

  6. Timber resource statistics for non-federal forest land in northwest Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1986 timber resource inventory of the non-Federal forest land in the 10 counties (Clackamas, Clatsop, Columbia, Hood River, Marion, Multnomah , Polk, Tillamook, Washington, and Yamhill) in northwest Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  7. Molecular characterization of pea enation mosaic virus and bean leafroll virus from the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemulapati, B; Druffel, K L; Eigenbrode, S D; Karasev, A; Pappu, H R

    2010-10-01

    The family Luteoviridae consists of eight viruses assigned to three different genera, Luteovirus, Polerovirus and Enamovirus. The complete genomic sequences of pea enation mosaic virus (genus Enamovirus) and bean leafroll virus (genus Luteovirus) from the Pacific Northwest, USA, were determined. Annotation, sequence comparisons, and phylogenetic analysis of selected genes together with those of known polero- and enamoviruses were conducted.

  8. 77 FR 67664 - Notice of Public Meeting Cancellation: Northwest California Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ..., BLM Northern California District manager, (530) 221-1743; or Joseph J. Fontana, public affairs officer..., 2012. Joseph J. Fontana, Public Affairs Officer. [FR Doc. 2012-27523 Filed 11-9-12; 8:45 am] BILLING... Public Meeting Cancellation: Northwest California Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land...

  9. 76 FR 44355 - Notice of Public Meeting Cancellation: Northwest California Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... Northern California District manager, (530) 221-1743; or Joseph J. Fontana, public affairs officer, (530..., 2011. Joseph J. Fontana, Public Affairs Officer. [FR Doc. 2011-18774 Filed 7-22-11; 8:45 am] BILLING... Public Meeting Cancellation: Northwest California Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land...

  10. 76 FR 30965 - Notice of Public Meeting: Northwest California Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... California District manager, (530) 221-1743; or Joseph J. Fontana, public affairs officer, (530) 252-5332.... Joseph J. Fontana, Public Affairs Officer. [FR Doc. 2011-13233 Filed 5-26-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4310... Public Meeting: Northwest California Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...

  11. Proceedings, Pacific Northwest Council on Foreign Languages, Volume 28, Part 2: Second Language Teaching 77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benseller, David P., Editor

    The twenty-eight papers that make up the second part of the proceedings of the twenty-eighth annual meeting of the Pacific Northwest Council on Foreign Languages cover a wide range of topics relating to foreign language teaching and linguistic theory: German culture and civilization; sexism in language; bilingual education; bilingualism and…

  12. Comparing algorithms for estimating foliar biomass of conifers in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal L. Raymond; Donald. McKenzie

    2013-01-01

    Accurate estimates of foliar biomass (FB) are important for quantifying carbon storage in forest ecosystems, but FB is not always reported in regional or national inventories. Foliar biomass also drives key ecological processes in ecosystem models. Published algorithms for estimating FB in conifer species of the Pacific Northwest can yield signifi cantly different...

  13. 77 FR 11434 - Safety Zone; Patapsco River, Northwest and Inner Harbors, Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Patapsco River, Northwest and Inner Harbors, Baltimore, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... intended route immediately prior to, during, and following the scheduled towing evolution, vessel traffic... made to the maritime community via marine information broadcasts so mariners may adjust their plans...

  14. Climate drivers of regionally synchronous fires in the inland northwest (1651-1900)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily K. Heyerdahl; Donald McKenzie; Lori D. Daniels; Amy E. Hessl; Jeremy S. Littell; Nathan J. Mantua

    2008-01-01

    We inferred climate drivers of regionally synchronous surface fires from 1651 to 1900 at 15 sites with existing annually accurate fire-scar chronologies from forests dominated by ponderosa pine or Douglas-fir in the inland Northwest (interior Oregon,Washington and southern British Columbia).Years with widespread fires (35 years with fire at 7 to 11 sites) had warm...

  15. Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act : Legislative History of the Act to Assist the Electrical Consumers of the Pacific Northwest through use of the Federal Columbia River Power System to Achieve Cost-Effective Energy Conservation : P.L. 96-501, 94 Stat. 2697.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1981-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act became effective when it was signed into law by President Carter on December 5, 1980. This ended a four-year debate over legislation designed to plan and coordinate the region's energy future. This legislative history is an abbreviated version taken from the larger historical file maintained by the BPA Law Library. It is intended to assist BPA personnel and others who are studying the Northwest Power Act and working on its implementation. The documents included were selected for their value in determining what Congress meant in enacting the statute and to provide the researcher with a starting point for further investigation. These documents include: a history of the Act, a chronology of the legislative action leading to passage of the law; a section-by-section analysis of the Act; the Congressional Records of Senate and House debates on the bill and its amendments, and a list of Congressional committee hearings.

  16. Evaluated cross section libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqurno, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    The dosimetry tape (ENDF/B-IV tape 412) was issued in a general CSEWG distribution, August 1974. The pointwise cross section data file was tested with specified reference spectra. A group averaged cross section data file (620 groups based on tape 412) was tested with the above spectra and the results are presented in this report

  17. Jet inclusive cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons

  18. Micronutrient levels and nutritional status of school children living in Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Bemnet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several micronutrients are essential for adequate growth of children. However, little information is available on multiple micronutrient status of school children in Ethiopia. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between multiple micronutrient levels and nutritional status among school children. Method In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood and stool samples were collected from 100 children at Meseret Elementary School in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Serum concentration of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Anthropometric indices of weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age were used to estimate the children's nutritional status. Stool samples were examined by standard microscopic methods for intestinal parasites. Results The prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting and intestinal parasitoses among school children was 23%, 21%, 11% and18%, respectively. The mean serum levels of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were 2.42±0.32 (mg/dl, 15.31±2.14 (mg/dl, 328.19±148.91 (μg/dl, 191.30±50.17 (μg/dl, 86.40±42.40 (μg/dl, 6.32±2.59 (μg/dl, and 0.23±0.15 (μg/dl, respectively. Selenium deficiency, zinc deficiency and magnesium deficiency occurred in 62%, 47%, and 2% of the school children, respectively. Height-for-age showed significant positive correlation with the levels of copper and molybdenum (p = 0.01 and with the levels of magnesium (p = 0.05. Conclusion Deficiencies of selenium and zinc were high among the school children although the deficiencies were not significantly related with their nutritional status. The prevalence of both malnutrition and intestinal parasitism was not negligible. These calls for the need to undertake multicentre studies in various parts of the country to substantiate the data obtained in the present study so that

  19. Motivation of health workers and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldegebriel, Zemichael; Ejigu, Yohannes; Weldegebreal, Fitsum; Woldie, Mirkuzie

    2016-01-01

    Health professionals' motivation reflects the interaction between health professionals and their work environment. It can potentially affect the provision of health services; however, this important attribute of the workplace climate in public hospitals is not usually given serious attention to the desired level. For this reason, the authors of this study have assessed the level of motivation of health professionals and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight public hospitals of West Amhara from June 1 to July 30, 2013. A total of 304 health professionals were included in this study. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. The reliability of the instrument was assessed through Cronbach's α. Factor scores were generated for the items found to represent the scales (eigenvalue greater than one in varimax rotation) used in the measurement of the variables. The scores were further analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, t-tests, Pearson's correlation, and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. The cut-off point for the regression analysis to determine significance was set at β (95% confidence interval, Pmotivation scores (as the percentage of maximum scale scores) were 58.6% for the overall motivation score, 71.0% for the conscientiousness scale, 52.8% for the organizational commitment scale, 58.3% for the intrinsic motivation scale, and 64.0% for organizational burnout scale. Professional category, age, type of the hospital, nonfinancial motivators like performance evaluation and management, staffing and work schedule, staff development and promotion, availability of necessary resources, and ease of communication were found to be strong predictors of health worker motivation. Across the hospitals and professional categories, health workers' overall level of motivation with absolute level of compensation was not significantly

  20. Prevalence and associated factors of presbyopia among school teachers in Gondar City, Northwest Ethiopia, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andualem HB

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hiwot Berhanu Andualem, Natnael Lakachew Assefa, Dawit Zenebe Weldemichael, Tsehay Kassa Tefera Department of Optometry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Introduction: Presbyopia is an age-related decline in accommodation that diminishes the ability of the eye to focus on near objects. This is due to reduced elasticity of the crystalline lens as age increases. It causes near-vision impairment and affects near work, so it has significant effects on quality of life, particularly in the life of teachers, whose work depends mostly on reading and writing at short distances.Objective: The overall objective of the study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of presbyopia among school teachers in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia, 2016.Methods: A cross-sectional study design with multistage simple random sampling technique was used to select 668 teachers in Gondar city. The study was conducted in 12 schools from April 15 to May 15, 2016. A pretested structured questionnaire and ophthalmic instruments for an eye examination were used as data collection tools by trained optometrists. Epi Info version 7 was used for data entry, and the data were exported to Statistical Package for Social Science version 20 for further analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was employed using enter method and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval, and p-value of ≤0.05 was considered to identify statistically significant associated factors of the outcome.Results: Prevalence of presbyopia among school teachers was 68.7%. Out of the total examined subjects, 317 (50.2% were females. On multivariate analysis, increased age, salary, work experience, cigarette smoking, pregnancy, and refractive error were positively and significantly associated with presbyopia. On the other hand, use of sunglasses and alcohol consumption were inversely and significantly associated with presbyopia.Conclusion and recommendation

  1. Urinary tract infection among obstetric fistula patients at Gondar University Hospital, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondimeneh, Yitayih; Muluye, Dagnachew; Alemu, Abebe; Atinafu, Asmamaw; Yitayew, Gashaw; Gebrecherkos, Teklay; Alemu, Agersew; Damtie, Demekech; Ferede, Getachew

    2014-01-17

    Many women die from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. In developing countries particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, where access to emergency obstetrical care is often limited, obstetric fistula usually occurs as a result of prolonged obstructed labour. Obstetric fistula patients have many social and health related problems like urinary tract infections (UTIs). Despite this reality there was limited data on prevalence UTIs on those patients in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, drug susceptibility pattern and associated risk factors of UTI among obstetric fistula patients at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from January to May, 2013 at Gondar University Hospital. From each post repair obstetric fistula patients, socio-demographic and UTIs associated risk factors were collected by using a structured questionnaire. After the removal of their catheters, the mid-stream urine was collected and cultured on CLED. After overnight incubation, significant bacteriuria was sub-cultured on Blood Agar Plate (BAP) and MacConkey (MAC). The bacterial species were identified by series of biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done by disc diffusion method. Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. A total of 53 post repair obstetric fistula patients were included for the determination of bacterial isolate and 28 (52.8%) of them had significant bacteriuria. Majority of the bacterial isolates, 26 (92.9%), were gram negative bacteria and the predominant ones were Citrobacter 13 (24.5%) and E. coli 6 (11.3%). Enterobacter, E.coli and Proteus mirabilis were 100% resistant to tetracycline. Enterobacter, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsella pneumonia, Klebsella ozenae and Staphylococcus aureus were also 100% resistant to ceftriaxone. The prevalence of bacterial isolates in obstetric fistula patients was high and majority of the isolates were gram

  2. Micronutrient levels and nutritional status of school children living in Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Bemnet; Moges, Beyene; Fantahun, Bereket; Tafess, Ketema; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Yismaw, Gizachew; Ayane, Tilahun; Yabutani, Tomoki; Mulu, Andargachew; Ota, Fusao; Kassu, Afework

    2012-12-13

    Several micronutrients are essential for adequate growth of children. However, little information is available on multiple micronutrient status of school children in Ethiopia. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between multiple micronutrient levels and nutritional status among school children. In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood and stool samples were collected from 100 children at Meseret Elementary School in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Serum concentration of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Anthropometric indices of weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age were used to estimate the children's nutritional status. Stool samples were examined by standard microscopic methods for intestinal parasites. The prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting and intestinal parasitoses among school children was 23%, 21%, 11% and 18%, respectively. The mean serum levels of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were 2.42±0.32 (mg/dl), 15.31±2.14 (mg/dl), 328.19±148.91 (μg/dl), 191.30±50.17 (μg/dl), 86.40±42.40 (μg/dl), 6.32±2.59 (μg/dl), and 0.23±0.15 (μg/dl), respectively. Selenium deficiency, zinc deficiency and magnesium deficiency occurred in 62%, 47%, and 2% of the school children, respectively. Height-for-age showed significant positive correlation with the levels of copper and molybdenum (p = 0.01) and with the levels of magnesium (p = 0.05). Deficiencies of selenium and zinc were high among the school children although the deficiencies were not significantly related with their nutritional status. The prevalence of both malnutrition and intestinal parasitism was not negligible. These calls for the need to undertake multicentre studies in various parts of the country to substantiate the data obtained in the present study so that appropriate and beneficial strategies for micronutrient

  3. Depression in diabetic patients attending University of Gondar Hospital Diabetic Clinic, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birhanu AM

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anteneh Messele Birhanu,1 Fekadu Mazengia Alemu,2 Tesfaye Demeke Ashenafie,3 Shitaye Alemu Balcha,4 Berihun Assefa Dachew5 1School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wollo University, Dessie, 2Department of Midwifery, 3Department of Nursing, 4Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, 5Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: Diabetes mellitus, frequently associated with comorbid depression, contributes to the double burden of individual patients and community. Depression remains undiagnosed in as many as 50%–75% of diabetes cases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of depression among diabetic patients attending the University of Gondar Hospital Diabetic Clinic, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to May 2014 among 422 sampled diabetic patients attending the University of Gondar Hospital Diabetic Clinic. The participants were selected using systematic random sampling. Data were collected by face-to-face interview using a standardized and pretested questionnaire linked with patient record review. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Data were entered to EPI INFO version 7 and analyzed by SPSS version 20 software. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with depression. Results: A total of 415 diabetic patients participated in the study with a response rate of 98.3%. The prevalence of depression among diabetic patients was found to be 15.4% (95% confidence interval (CI: 11.7–19.2. Only religion (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.65 and 95% CI: 1.1–6.0 and duration of diabetes (AOR =0.27 and 95% CI: 0.07–0.92 were the factors associated with depression among diabetic patients. Conclusion: The prevalence of depression was low as compared to other

  4. Environmental review of the Mary Kathleen uranium minesite, Northwest Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costelloe, M.T.; Lottermoser, B.G.; Ashley, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The Mary Kathleen uranium deposit, in northwest Queensland, was discovered in 1954 and mined in 19561963 and 1976-1982. Rehabilitation of the site was completed in 1985 and the work won an award for environmental excellence. In 1999 gamma-ray data, plus stream sediment, soil, rock chip, mineral efflorescence, vegetation and water samples were collected from selected sites to assist in the examination of the current environmental status of the rehabilitated area. This paper presents preliminary results and interpretations. In the Mark Kathleen open pit, skarn type U-Th-REE mineralisation is hosted in amphibolite grade metamorphosed calc-silicate, mafic to intermediate igneous and sedimentary rocks. Remnant ore zones are composed of medium to coarse grained garnet and clinopyroxene, with accessory allanite, plagioclase, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite and uraninite. Later retrograde alteration to chlorite, calcite, sericite, epidote and scapolite occurs. Fine grained uraninite is enclosed in allanite, and is partly replaced by metamict products nd traces of galena. Elevated gamma-ray readings in the open pit correspond to exposed ore lenses, the former haul road and abandoned ore stockpiles (up to 16 mSv/year). Surficial oxidation of ore and adjacent sulphide-bearing calc-silicate rocks has led to contemporary precipitation of yellow, orange, green and white mineral efflorescences on the pit walls. Wallrock oxidation of reactive sulphides (mainly pyrrhotite breakdown) produces acidic solutions, however, buffering reactions of these fluids with gangue calc-silicates and carbonate phases prevent low pH conditions from developing. The open pit lake is approximately 40m deep and contains saline (0.15%) surface waters which are Ca-, SO 4 -rich with elevated Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, U and Zn at a pH of 6.11. Waste rock piles are up to 30m thick and have been covered by a thin veneer of benign waste. However, there are high radiation levels on several waste rock piles (up to 20

  5. Simpson-Arbuckle contact revisited in Northwest Oklahoma County, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.D.; Allen, R.W. [Kabodi Inc., Ardmore, OK (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Joins Formation, the lowermost formation of the Simpson Group, is traditionally the least studied or understood of the Simpson formations. The Joins, not known to produce hydrocarbons in central Oklahoma, is frequently overlooked by those more interested in the productive Simpson formations above and the Arbuckle carbonates below. In a study of the lower Simpson to upper Arbuckle interval in northwestern Oklahoma County, Oklahoma, the Joins Formation was found to be present. The central Oklahoma section consists of interbedded gray, olive gray and green splintery moderately waxy shale, cream to light gray homogeneous microcrystallin dolomite, and microcrystalline to fine crystalline fossiliferous slightly glauconitic well cemented sandstones are also noted. The entire Joins Formation is moderately to very fossiliferous; primarily consisting of crinoids, ostracods, brachiopods, and trilobites. The ostracod fauna closely resembles and correlates with the Arbuckle Mountain section, which has been extensively studied over the years by such authors as Taff, Ulrich and Harris. Beneath the Joins in this area is a normal section of Arbuckle dolomites. Due to the absence of a basal sand in the Joins the separation of the Joins and Arbuckle, utilizing electric logs only, is frequently tenuous. In comparison with the Arbuckle, the Joins tends to have higher gamma ray and S.P. values. Other tools, such as resistivity, bulk density and photoelectric (PE), are frequently inconclusive. For geologists studying the Simpson-Arbuckle contact in central Oklahoma, the presence or absence of the Joins Formation is best determined through conventional lithologic and palenontologic sample identification techniques. Once this has been done, correlation of electric logs with this type log is possible for the local area.

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 1995-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This report serves as a document to describe the role PNL is positioned to take in the Department of Energy`s plans for its national centers in the period 1995-2000. It highlights the strengths of the facilities and personnel present at the laboratory, touches on the accomplishments and projects they have contributed to, and the direction being taken to prepare for the demands to be placed on DOE facilities in the near and far term. It consists of sections titled: director`s statement; laboratory mission and core competencies; laboratory strategic plan; laboratory initiatives; core business areas; critical success factors.

  7. Intestinal Parasitosis and Their Associated Factors among People Living with HIV at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest-Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshetu, Tegegne; Sibhatu, Getinet; Megiso, Mohammed; Abere, Abrham; Baynes, Habtamu Wondifraw; Biadgo, Belete; Zeleke, Ayalew Jejaw

    2017-07-01

    Most HIV clients die of AIDS related intestinal parasitic infections rather than due to the HIV infection itself. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasite and their associated factors among HIV/AIDS clients at the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Institution based cross sectional study was conducted using systematic random sampling technique from March to May 2016. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Stool samples were collected and processed using direct wet mount, formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelson staining techniques. Besides, blood samples were collected for CD4+ count estimation. Both descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used in data analysis. P-values intestinal parasitosis was found to be 29.1%. The most predominant intestinal parasite detected was cyst of Entamoeba histolytica (8.5%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (6.7%), Strongyloides sterocoralis (3.6%) and Cryptosporidium parvum (3.1%), whereas Schistosoma mansoni (0.9%) and Hymenolepis nana (0.9%) were the least detected. Absence of toilet (AOR= 19.4, CI: 6.46-58.3), improper hand washing before meal (AOR=11.23, 95% CI: 4.16-30.27 and CD4+ count intestinal parasites. The study indicated that intestinal parasites are still a problem among HIV/AIDS patients in the study area. Thus, routine examination for intestinal parasites and interventions should be carried out for better management of clients.

  8. Methylmercury risk and awareness among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland northwest reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntz, Sandra W., E-mail: skuntz@montana.edu [Montana State University, College of Nursing, 32 Campus Drive 7416, Missoula, MT 59812-7416 (United States); Hill, Wade G. [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States); Linkenbach, Jeff W.; Lande, Gary [Montana State University, Culbertson Hall, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States); Larsson, Laura [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    American Indian women and children may be the most overrepresented among the list of disparate populations exposed to methylmercury. American Indian people fish on home reservations where a state or tribal fishing license (a source of advisory messaging) is not required. The purpose of this study was to examine fish consumption, advisory awareness, and risk communication preferences among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland Northwest reservation. For this cross-sectional descriptive study, participants (N=65) attending a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic were surveyed between March and June 2006. An electronic questionnaire adapted from Anderson et al. (2004) was evaluated for cultural acceptability and appropriateness by tribal consultants. Regarding fish consumption, approximately half of the women surveyed (49%) indicated eating locally caught fish with the majority signifying they consumed medium- and large-size fish (75%) that could result in exposure to methylmercury. In addition, a serendipitous discovery indicated that an unanticipated route of exposure may be fish provided from a local food bank resulting from sportsman's donations. The majority of women (80%) were unaware of tribal or state fish advisory messages; the most favorable risk communication preference was information coming from doctors or healthcare providers (78%). Since the population consumes fish and has access to locally caught potentially contaminated fish, a biomonitoring study to determine actual exposure is warranted.

  9. Prevalence of Protozoa and Gastrointestinal Helminthes in Stray Cats in Zanjan Province, North-West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Altome

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats and other felines act as definitive hosts for many intestinal parasites, some of which are responsible for several zoonotic diseases.  The aim of this study was to determine the type and prevalence of protozoa and gastrointestinal helminthes among stray cats. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted. Digestive tracts of 100 stray cats in Zanjan Province, north-west of Iran were autopsied in order to recognize gastrointestinal helminthes and intestinal protozoan parasites. These cats were collected by baited cage trapped from October 2007 to September 2008. Gender and species of helminthes and protozoa were rec­ognized using authentic diagnostic criteria. Statistical evaluation was performed by SPSS version 14. Results: Forty-two percent of cats were infected with intestinal protozoan parasites, 33% were infected with cestodes and 39% infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Four species protozoan parasites and eight gastrointestinal helminthes were recovered from the animals, including Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium spp., Joyeuxiella pasqaulei, Toxocara cati, Phy­saloptera praeputialis, Rectalaria spp., Onicolla, Cystoisospora spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Sarcocystis spp . Conclusions: The high infection rate of Toxoplasma and some gastrointestinal helminthes in stray cats is considered to be critical from the viewpoint of public health importance.

  10. Emergency contraception: Knowledge and attitude toward its use among medical students of a medical college in North-West India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Kumar Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Emergency contraception (EC is use of drug or device to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse. Unlike other regular methods of contraception which are taken prior to the sexual act, EC is used after the unprotected sex. Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude toward use of emergency contraceptives among medical students. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted among all the medical students in the Government Medical College in North-West India. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire seeking information on knowledge and attitude of undergraduate medical students was administered over a period of 4 weeks in the month of February and March 2014. Statistical Analysis: The data were entered in MS excel and expressed using percentages. Chi-square test was used as a test of statistical significance. Results: About 61.6% (247/401 of the participants were aware about the timing of use of EC. Audio visual media (76.6%; 307/401 was the most common source of information for of these medical students. Conclusions: The lack of appropriate in-depth knowledge of EC among future health care professional should alarm the medical teaching system as EC is the only method that can be used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive accident.

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 2, Environmental Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1988. Research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of processes controlling the long-term fate and biological effects of fugitive chemicals and other stressors resulting from energy development. The PNL research program continues to make important contributions to the resolution of important national environmental problems. The research, focused principally on subsurface contaminant transport and detection and management of human-induced changes in biological systems, forms the basis for defining and quantifying processes that affect humans and the environment at the regional and global levels. Each research project forms a component in an integrated laboratory- intermediated scale field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. This approach is providing system-level insights into critical environmental processes. Strong university liaisons now in existence are being markedly expanded so that PNL resources and the specialized technical capabilities in the university community can be more efficiently integrated. Building on PNL technical strengths in geochemistry, environment microbiology, hydrodynamics, and statistical ecology, research in the environmental sciences is in an exciting phase, and new investments have been made in molecular sciences, chemistry, biotechnology, use of remote imagery, and theoretical ecology. The section on exploratory research provides unique insight into the value of these investments and into the future of PNL environmental sciences programs.

  12. Methylmercury risk and awareness among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland northwest reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntz, Sandra W.; Hill, Wade G.; Linkenbach, Jeff W.; Lande, Gary; Larsson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    American Indian women and children may be the most overrepresented among the list of disparate populations exposed to methylmercury. American Indian people fish on home reservations where a state or tribal fishing license (a source of advisory messaging) is not required. The purpose of this study was to examine fish consumption, advisory awareness, and risk communication preferences among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland Northwest reservation. For this cross-sectional descriptive study, participants (N=65) attending a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic were surveyed between March and June 2006. An electronic questionnaire adapted from Anderson et al. (2004) was evaluated for cultural acceptability and appropriateness by tribal consultants. Regarding fish consumption, approximately half of the women surveyed (49%) indicated eating locally caught fish with the majority signifying they consumed medium- and large-size fish (75%) that could result in exposure to methylmercury. In addition, a serendipitous discovery indicated that an unanticipated route of exposure may be fish provided from a local food bank resulting from sportsman's donations. The majority of women (80%) were unaware of tribal or state fish advisory messages; the most favorable risk communication preference was information coming from doctors or healthcare providers (78%). Since the population consumes fish and has access to locally caught potentially contaminated fish, a biomonitoring study to determine actual exposure is warranted.

  13. Northwest Africa 10758: A New CV3 Chondrite Bearing a Giant CAI with Hibonite-Rich Wark-Lovering Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Zolensky, M.

    2017-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 10758 is a newly identified carbonaceous chondrite that is a Bali-like oxidized CV3. The large Ca-Al rich inclusion (CAI) in this sample is approx. 2.4 x 1.4 cm. The CAI is transitional in composition between type A and type B, with interior mineralogy dominated by melilite, plus less abundant spinel and Al-Ti rich diopside, and only very minor anorthite (Fig. 1A). This CAI is largely free of secondary alteration in the exposed section we examined, with almost no nepheline, sodalite or Ca-Fe silicates. The Wark-Lovering (WL) rim on this CAI is dominated by hibonite, with lower abundances of spinel and perovskite, and with hibonite locally overlain by melilite plus perovskite (as in Fig. 1B). Note that the example shown in 1B is exceptional. Around most of the CAI, hibonite + spinel + perovskite form the WL rim, without overlying melilite. The WL rim can be unusually thick, ranging from approx.20 microns up to approx. 150 microns. A well-developed, stratified accretionary rim infills embayments of the CAI, and thins over protuberances in the convoluted CAI surface.

  14. Flow Cytometry Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The primary goal of the Flow Cytometry Section is to provide the services of state-of-the-art multi-parameter cellular analysis and cell sorting for researchers and...

  15. Floodplain Cross Section Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally any FIRM...

  16. Combustor Section Acoustic Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    .... Following successful coupon and subelement tests on laser welding of Inco 625 heat exchangers, a full-scale scramjet flowpath section was fabricated to more realistically demonstrate the viability of the design concept...

  17. Multitrajectory eikonal cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    With the use of reference and distorted transition operators, a time-correlation-function representation of the inelastic differential cross section has recently been used to obtain distorted eikonal cross sections. These cross sections involve straight-line and reference classical translational trajectories that are unaffected by any internal-state changes which have occurred during the collision. This distorted eikonal theory is now extended to include effects of internal-state changes on the translational motion. In particular, a different classical trajectory is associated with each pair of internal states. Expressions for these inelastic cross sections are obtained in terms of time-ordered cosine and sine memory functions using the Zwanzig-Feshbach projection-operator method. Explicit formulas are obtained in the time-disordered perturbation approximation

  18. Light Imaging Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Light Imaging Section is to give NIAMS scientists access to state-of-the-art light imaging equipment and to offer training and assistance at all...

  19. Level of job satisfaction amongst nurses in the North-West Province, South Africa: Post occupational specific dispensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisinyana H. Khunou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Job satisfaction and burnout have been recurring problems amongst nurses in the Republic of South Africa (RSA. As a result, nurses are still leaving the rural public sector in search of lucrative work at the urban and private sectors and in developed countries. Accordingly, Occupational Specific Dispensation (OSD was introduced as a strategy to ircumvent the problem. However, since the implementation of OSD in 2007, there have been no studies conducted regarding the level of job satisfaction amongst nurses after the implementation of OSD in the North-West Province, especially because each province has its own challenges that are unique to the area. Objectives: The study had two objectives: to describe the level of job satisfaction amongstprofessional and other category nurses (OCNs at a public hospital in the North-West Provinceand describe the perceptions of nurses about OSD and their intention to continue working inthe hospital. Method: A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Stratified random sampling was used to select a sample of 92 professional nurses (PNs, 90 enrolled nurses and enrolled nursing assistants (Nursing Act 2005, which made a total of 182 participants. For the purpose of the study, the enrolled nurses and enrolled nursing assistants were referred to as OCNs. Data were collected using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire–short form and OSD statements and analysed with Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, version 18. Results: The majority of PNs (79.3%, n = 73 and OCNs (86.7%, n = 77 were dissatisfied with the working conditions and salary: PNs (80.4%, n = 74 and OCNs (87.8%, n = 79. The nurses mostly discredited the current state of the OSD implementation. Majority of the PNs (84%, n = 77 and OCNs (91%, n = 82 disagreed with the statement that ‘level of job satisfaction has improved after the implementation of OSD’. Conclusions: The National Department of Health should consider

  20. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards - Fiscal Year 2000 Mid-Year Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CD Carlson; SQ Bennett

    2000-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, eight in fiscal year 1998, and seven in fiscal year 1999. All of the fiscal year 1996 award projects have been completed and will publish final reports, so their annual updates will not be included in this document. This section summarizes how each of the currently funded grants addresses significant US Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research performed at PNNL is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation; Decontamination and Decommissioning; Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials; and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup